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VOLUME 4 ISSUE 03 MARCH 2018 ` 100

CHINA’S RURAL GROWTH TRAJECTORY THE SECRET BEHIND

CHINA’S INIMITABLE

ECONOMY

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Editor-in-Chief MC Dominic Directors Shiny Dominic MG Vasan Editor Ajith Kumar V R Sr. Executive Editors Dr. KT Chandy Jayakumar Technical Editors Dr. B C Biswas Dr. Mahendra Pal (Vet. Sci.) Assistant Editors Karthika.B.P Associate Editors Dr. Sangeeta Soi Sreeja.S.Nair Monika Mondal Sr. Correspondent Imran Khan Correspondent Vibhu i Narayan Social Media Head Sameer Tiwari Sr. Correspondent (Social Media) Sameer Tiwari Ri ik Ranjan Video Editor V. P. Intl. Business Rishav DD Nair (Russia & CIS Countries) 6 Mikluho-Maklaya STR, Moscow, Russia 117198 Mob: +7903729 98 30, Tel: +7499501 99 10 Email: ddnair@krishijagran.com Gavrilova Maria V.P. Spcl. Initiative Chandra Mohan V. P. Strategic Alliance Ratnamajari Sharan Sr. Manager Special Initiatives Harsh Kapoor GM - Marketing Farha Khan Marketing Head Sanjay Kumar Sr. Marketing Managers K J Saranya Sara Khan Mohammed Owais Marketing Managers Megha Sharma Dhanya M.T. Saritha Reghu Sr. Marketing Exectives

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Chunki Bhutia Poonam Bishwakarma Rinki Pundir Laxmi Pandey Hema Sharma Circulation Head Nishant K Taak Sr. Circulation Manager Rahul Singh Asst. Circulation Manager Prashant Sharma Sr. Circulation Executives Pappu Rai Furkan Qureshi Pawan Kumar Tarun Singh Accounts Abdus Samad Head Pre-Press Yogesh Kumar Graphic Designers AnilRaj Atul Batham Nasim Ansari Sketch Satheesh Thoprath Cover photo Biju Karakkonam Ph : 9895545858 Legal Advisors James P. Thomas H. S. Asmuddin Printed and Published by: M. C. Dominic 60/9, 3rd Floor, Yusuf Sarai Market, Near Green Park Metro Station, New Delhi 110016. Tel: 011-26511845, 26517923 Mobile: +91-9313301029, +91-9654193353 Web: www.krishijagran.com Printed at : HT Media Press, House No. B 2, Sector-63, Noida-201301, Distt: Gautam Budh Nagar, U.P. All rights reserved. Copyright @ Krishi Jagran Media Group. Agriculture World is published by Krishi Jagran Media Group. Editor in Chief: MC Dominic Disclaimer: While every care has been taken to ensure accuracy of the infor-mation contained in this publications, the publishers are not responsible for any errors or omissions that might have crept into this publications. No part of this publication may be reproduced or kept in a retrieval system, without the express permission of the publishers.

C o n t e n t s Is India Union Budget Farmer Friendly?

Durgesh C Sharma

24 China’s Rural Growth

Trajectory: Why China is Ahead of India?

Dr Geetha Kochhar

30 The Secret behind China’s

Inimitable Economy

Mohammed Saqib

32 Yuan Long Ping: The

Father of Hybrid Rice

Suresh Muthukulam

36 Air Pollution &

Policies of China

Anehi Mundra &Usha Mina

40 Impact of Import Restrictions Vipin Saini

46 India- China Agriculture Cooperation Forum: An Overview

Chandra Mohan

50 Chinese Cooking Indu Narayan

52

Quality & Support are the Mantras of Tropical Agro: Interview

Monika Mondal & Vibhuti Narayan

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Agriculture Marketing: APMC Act & Related Issues Aditya Sirmour

66 Crop Diversification in

India: Need & Limitation

R L Yadav

72 Yellow Chilli or Lakhori Chilli

B Sasikumar

80 Phytochemicals in

Veterinary Practice Dr Deepak Chandran

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Editorial

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C

omparing India and China in any respect is of no value as the social structure, administration and political structure are of no comparison. But similarities and differences can be studied to shape the future course of action in agriculture and the best methods can be adopted for improving both quality and quantity of agriculture products. Though China has less area under cultivation, consumes less fertilizer and yet produces more. Many factors are there that determines agricultural productivity like soil quality, availability of water, use of fertilizers and use of high yielding variety of seeds. At present, India is the second largest producer of both paddy and wheat behind China. However, India lagged in productivity levels. Both countries have best policies to boost agriculture, but the administrative and political structure defines the result. China is not only the most populated country in the world but when it comes to production of fresh vegetables and fruit; China is the world’s number 1. Of the estimated (commercial) production of fresh vegetables in the world, China produces half. Of all the fruits, China produces 30 percent, but India is far behind mainly because our focus was on grains than horticulture and lack proper guidance to farmers. Effective marketing strategies and assurance of product purchase from farmers with a reasonable price are the essentials that need in Indian system. China’s added advantage lies in the more diversified composition of its agricultural sector, with animal husbandry and fisheries accounting for close to 45 per cent of the total compared to less than 30 per cent in India. According to Professor Huang Jikun, Director of the Centre for Chinese Agricultural Policy, the reasons for China having outperformed India in agriculture are threefold: technological improvements accruing from research and development, investment in rural infrastructure and an increasingly liberalized agricultural policy. S. Ganesan, advisor to the Consortium of Indian Farmers Association reveals, despite India having the largest number of agricultural scientists on the government payroll in the world — over 30,000 — their research track record has been so abysmal that India’s current agricultural productivity is roughly equal to what China achieved in the mid-1980s. Ganesan points out that more than 90percent of India’s R&D in agriculture budget is eaten up by staff salaries with only less than 10 per cent going to research, It’s a severe situation and Government has to ponder on it to do business in agriculture. In contrast, most agricultural research centres in China use Central government funding purely for research. Funds relating to salaries and other administrative incidentals are covered by funds generated by the centres themselves. The centres and their scientists are thus encouraged to engage in joint ventures with private sector companies to form commercial spin-offs from their research. Unlike India, China does not provide its farmers with subsidies for fertilizers or power. The government realises that on the whole subsidies are against market reforms. They distort the market as well as reduce resource efficiency. Though Indian democracy can’t do the policy changes in an aggressive way as China do, India is also progressing in a far better manner. India’s GDP is expected to grow at 7.4 per cent in 2018-19. The food grain production is targeted at 274.55 million tonnes in 2017-18.India has been the world’s largest producer of milk for the last two decades and the second largest fruit producer in the world and tops in export of instant coffee and shrimp . As Asia’s giants, China and India can have exchange the best methods in agriculture for mutual benefit and prosperity. ‘Agriculture World’ hopes Shanghai Agrochem will definitely be a pointer to that.

MC Dominic Editor-in-Chief

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International News

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VLAND - ADM Joint Venture for Animal Feed Enzyme

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ingdao Vland Biotech Group Co., Ltd. the leading biotech company in China has signed a joint development agreement with American agribusiness Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) to develop new enzymes for animal feed applications. This will aid in improving animal nutrition and health. Also, both the companies should be able to commercialize the products that will be developed under this agreement. In addition to ADM’s research center in Decatur, Illinois, ADM will open a new U.S. enzyme research and development lab in California that will directly support activities being undertaken in the joint development agreement. Vland will also conduct research and development in its Qingdao research laboratory, which will be upgraded to a new state-of-the-art facility. Under the terms of the agreement, the companies will share enzyme-producing strains

as a basis for the development of feed enzymes that will improve animal nutrition and health.

Products developed under the agreement will be commercialized by both companies. Vland produces enzymes, probiotics, vaccines and animal health-related products for end users in a range of industries from agriculture to textiles.

New Wheat Variety to fight Diabetes

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new variety of fibre-rich wheat that has the potential to help fight Type 2 diabetes and bowel cancer has been developed by a team led by an Indian scientist working for the Australian national research agency. The amount of resistant starch in the products made from high-amylose wheat was 10 times more than those made from regular wheat. Resistant starch is known to improve digestive health, protect against the genetic damage that precedes bowel cancer and help combat Type 2 diabetes. Normally, food is digested in the small intestine. This starch reaches the large intestine and disintegrates there, which reduces the speed with which glucose reaches the blood. The discovery is considerably significant for India, which is often considered as the ‘diabetic capital of the world’, with over 50 million people suffering from diabetes.

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BONSAI BOOSTS JAPAN’S FLOWER EXPORT

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apan’s flower exports reached 13.5 billion yen in 2017, according to the statistics released by Ministry of Finance of Japan. It grew 50 percent from the previous year, exceeding 10 billion yen for the first time. The growth was driven by the growing popularity of bonsai miniature potted plant in overseas markets, which lead to the large shipment of garden trees and bonsai miniature potted plants mainly in China. Exports of garden trees and bonsai plants accounted for 90 percent and saw an annual jump of 57percent over the previous year to 12.6 billion yen.

Controlling fire ants with natural compounds

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cientists have found a plant-derived natural compound that repels fire ants. These compounds, including one found in cinnamon, work by activating a type of ion channel highly expressed in the antennae and leg of one of the world’s most invasive insect species. The red imported fire ant native to South America has spread in recent decades across countries such as the United States, Australia and China. Efforts to control the species, which can disrupt agricultural production and sting people with its venom, have been largely unsuccessful.

Rare Red Hand Fish found in Tasmania

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ivers in Tasmania have discovered the second population of red handfish, which is believed to be the rarest fish in the world.

Until now, only 20 to 40 individuals of red handfish have been identified in the whole world. The new find expands the number of unique fish that has born with finger-like fins. The newly discovered population lives just a few miles away from the previous population in Frederick Henry Bay. Red handfish tend to crawl on the seafloor with their hand-like fins and grow up to five inches long. There are three species of critically endangered handfish endemic to Tasmania. The red handfish is the rarest of those can still be found in the wild.

By Asha Sadasiv

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International News

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Australian Plums could lower Blood Pressure

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ew research by the University of Wollongong has shown that consumption of a single serving of 300ml of the Australian Queen Garnet plum resulted in a significantly lowered blood pressure over 24 hours and that this effect was more marked in older adults. The researchers attribute this effect to the fruit’s anthocyanins content as it has about two times the levels found in regular plums. Anthocyanins are a class of polyphenols found in the red, blue and purple pigmentation of fruits and in some vegetables. Nutrafruit, which holds the global license to commercialize the Queen Garnet, said the research into the effects of anthocyanins contributed to a greater understanding of the role of plant foods in combating lifestyle diseases. In addition to a balanced diet, the anthocyanin in the Queen Garnet plum nectar could prove a simple way for Australians to help reduce their risk of heart disease. Previous research conducted in obese rats showed the Queen Garnet plum juice assisted in reducing high blood pressure, and improving fatty livers, poor heart function and arthritis in eight weeks.

ICRISAT developed Oleic acid-rich Peanut

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he International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) scientists have developed the first-ever oleic acid-rich peanut adapted to Indian conditions and it is ready for release in the fields. This has been made possible by using the molecular breeding technology. Farmers in southern states cultivate groundnuts, but they have not benefited from the fast-growing confectionery industry till now. Its main reason is the groundnuts grown are not rich in oleic acid content. Only certain groundnut varieties grown abroad, especially in USA and China, are rich in oleic acid. Indian grown nuts are mostly rich in linoleic acid, which is not good for human health. This breakthrough development will improve the income of smallholder groundnut farmers. Recently, ICRISAT’s works on molecular breeding had led to the development of chickpea varieties with enhanced drought tolerance and with up to 24 per cent higher yield under rain-fed conditions.

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NEPAL TEA

gets its own logo

inally, Nepal tea own identity after cultivation. Prior tea was being exported ‘Darjeeling, India’.

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has received its 154 years of tea to this, Nepal’s with the logo of

The new trademark comprises an image of mountains with ‘Nepali Tea Quality from the Himalaya’ written below it.

Nepal produces certain varieties of teas that are somewhat related to Darjeeling tea in its appearance, aroma and fruity taste. According to the National Tea and Coffee Development Board, Nepal produces tea on over 66,700 acres of land and exports mainly to India, Canada, Germany, the US and China.

ARTICLES INVITED Agriculture World invites articles on agricultural innovation, new technologies, research findings, success stories etc. Articles on livestock and food technologies are also solicited. Kindly send the articles with maximum of 2000 words with authors’ profile and passport size photograph to feedback@krishijagran.com.

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National / International News

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PLASTIC TRASH sickening corals: Study

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cientists have found that contact with plastic waste -- ubiquitous throughout the world’s oceans -- massively increases the chance of disease in corals. Scientists examined more than 120,000 corals, both plastic-free and with plastic present, on 159 reefs from Indonesia, Australia, Myanmar and Thailand. They found that the chance of disease increased from four per cent to 89 per cent when corals are in contact with plastic. The trash is another pressure on corals, already suffering from over-fishing, rising temperatures caused by climate change and other pollution. The findings, published in the journal Science, add to the burden of climaterelated disease outbreaks that have already had an impact on coral reefs globally, In the Asia-Pacific region a total of 11.1 billion plastic items - including shopping bags, fishing nets, even diapers and tea-bags - are ensnared on reefs, the study reported. They projected the numbers would rise by 40 percent by 2025 as marine pollution gets steadily worse. The plastic increases the likelihood of disease about 20 times, to 89 percent for corals in contact with plastics from four percent in comparable areas with none. By Asha Sadasiv

MPEDA towards Export Oriented Organic Aqua Farming

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national news

Modi Apples entered India

SBI plans credit cards to farmers

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he State Bank of India is planning to offer credit cards to farmers across the country through its subsidiary SBI Cards & Payments Services Pvt Ltd.

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he popular apple variety from Italy has officially entered India by appointing IG International as its authorized distributor for the country. The variety was developed by CIV (Consorzio Italiano Vivaisti), a group of specialist plant breeders set up in Italy in 2007-- by crossing the popular Liberty and Gala varieties of apples. The name of the variety has no connection with the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, it was named after the artist Amedeo Modigliani, called “Modi” by his friends, who became famous for his female portraits with shiny and bright colours.  By Asha sadasiv

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arine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with COOP Cooperative, one of Switzerland’s leading retail and wholesale companies to develop export-oriented organic aqua farming in India to cater to the growing demand for organic seafood products across the European Union. As per the pact MPEDA will identify entrepreneurs and provide them with technical advice on the production of high-quality organic shrimp that meet national and international

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Unlike the Kisan Credit Card (KCC), the new credit cards for the farmers will have a credit limit with a credit period of 45 days. Currently, under KCC, beneficiaries (farmers) maintain loan accounts with the banks and the lenders offer them debit cards against this account. The farmers can also use the new credit cards to buy non-agricultural goods. There will be some limits within that credit card that around 75-80 percent limit could be for buying agricultural inputs. The project has been initiated on a pilot basis in Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh depending on the success of the pilot run and after that it will be launched nationally.

certification protocols. COOP, which has nearly 2,200 sales outlets throughout Switzerland and wholesale production business activities across Europe, has offered to procure the processed shrimp at a premium of up to 15 percent and with an additional 5 percent through financing for development activities, including training. The pilot project will be run in Kerala to produce Organic Black Tiger Shrimp, initially on about 1000 hectares. If successful, the project will be extended to other places. Compiled by Monika Mondal

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National News

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SUPER BANANAS ARE COMING SOON

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ndian scientists have used the latest gene editing techniques to modify the banana genome, for the first time. By using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique, moves can be made to improve nutritional quality, agronomically important traits as well as pathogen resistance in bananas. Research has been made by a group of Indian researchers at the National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute in Mohali. With CRISPR/Cas9 technology scientists remove or replace specific parts of DNA with precision. CRISPR stands for “Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats” which basically finds the targeted DNA. Cas9 stands for “CRISPR Associated protein 9” which is basically an endonuclease or a sort of ‘biological scissors’ with which DNA can be edited accurately.

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he Economic Survey 2017-18 has proposed an agricultural policy aimed at integrating women as active agents in rural transformation.

Economic Survey: Emphasis is on Women Farmers

As per the survey women farmers get enhanced access to resources such as credit, technology and training at a time when migration of men from rural to urban areas is growing. A gender-specific intervention to raise productivity of small farm holdings is required, as is engagement of men and women in extension services with gender expertise. The government has already earmarked 30 percent of the budget allocation for women beneficiaries in all ongoing schemes and programmes and development activities.

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Uttarakhand the next Organic State after Sikkim

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ttarakhand is going to be the second ‘Organic State’ after Sikkim by giving thrust on cultivating indigenous organic products. The State’s proposed Organic Agriculture Act is focusing on ‘organizing’ unorganized organic sector of Uttarakhand which has very high potential for buyers of national and international markets. The Act will regulate the private agencies, NGOs, etc. engaged in export, trade and processing of organic agricultural produce. Almost 40,000 hectares of farming land in the State has already been turned into organic and about 80,000 small and medium farmers are already committed towards the go-green initiative of the state government. However, experts said that turning the chemically-treated terrain into organic will be a challenging task. In the hills, apple and vegetable belts see intensive use of chemicals. And, in the plains the transformation of land cannot be done instantly due to fear of losing food security.

60% of marginal farmers in UP purchase water for irrigation

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ccess to irrigation is the most important enabler to enhance productivity and income of farmers, but a recent study on the potential of solar powered irrigation conducted by Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) shows that more than 60 percent of the country’s net sown area remains unirrigated. A sample survey of 1,600 farmers in Uttar Pradesh where 80 percent of the net sown area is irrigated showed that about half of them either rented bore wells or purchased water from large land owning farmers. Only 40 percent marginal farmers with less than a hectare of land in the state owned borewells.

India has set a target of installing one million solar pumps by 2022 but only 1,42,000 pumps were installed till November 2017, over half of them in only four states Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. The study recommends that the government must target marginal farmers who are deprived of electric pumps with small solar pumps and a 30 percent subsidy can make these pumps attractive for small farmers.

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National News

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India- Israel 5 Year Plan for Agriculture

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iming to strengthen the alliance in farming sector, India and Israel has signed to work on a five year plan for cooperation in agriculture and water. As per the plan, 28 Centres of Excellence (COEs) will set up across the country to train farmers about Israeli farm and water technologies. The agreement also emphasized the importance of sharing the development experiences with other countries. India and Israel have agreed on ways to develop joint programmes of assistance for third countries in the areas of training, capacity building and the development of small projects in the agriculture, water, health-care and education sectors.

23 PROJECTS TO BOOST COCONUT SECTOR

T UN, India invest $168M to enhance Tribal Farming

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he UN International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and the Indian government signed a $168-million pact to raise incomes and food security for tribal farming households in northeast India. The target population is smallholder farmers who depend on rain-fed agriculture and a shifting cultivation system known as ‘jhum’ for their livelihoods. The project will systematically align traditional jhum practices to the natural regeneration cycle of forests while encourage jhum farming households to adopt alternative farming systems, such as sedentary farming, wet-terrace rice fields and improved livestock systems.

he Coconut Development Board, under the Technology Mission on Coconut, has approved 23 projects with an outlay of 22.69 crore and financial assistance of 4.75 crore with annual processing capacity of 521 lakh coconuts and 4,200 tonnes production of coconut shell charcoal. Of the 23 projects, three are research projects and 19 projects on processing of coconuts for value-addition and one project for market promotion. Under the sub component ‘Processing and Product Diversification’, four projects for desiccated coconut powder for processing 330 lakh nuts per year; four integrated processing units for desiccated coconut powder and virgin coconut oil, coconut milk and sugar, coconut vinegar and nata-de-coco and coconut water processing, are included.

The project includes a $75.5 million loan and a $1 million grant from IFAD and will be co-financed by the governments of Mizoram and Nagaland.

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Union Budget

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Durgesh C Sharma Agriculture Expert

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griculture is the backbone of the Indian Economy, not in the terms of the contribution to the GDP but due to the percentage of the population dependent on it. In India, agriculture sector contributes 17percent only to the GDP wherein approximately 60percent of the population is dependent on agriculture and allied sectors. Also, approximately 90percent farmers are small and marginal and major rural population is totally dependent on the agricultural related activities. To attain the 8percent growth in the economy, Government should focus on rural development through rejuvenating the agriculture. All these efforts would lead to sustainable and inclusive growth of the country. As per the NSSO, 75% 18

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farmers want to quit the farming. To retain the rural youth in the village Agriculture should be developed as a profit making enterprise and farmers as an Agri-preneurs. The budget 2018 – 19 presented by Arun Jaitley, Union Finance Minister on February 1 has given a lot of emphasis to the agriculture sector to move towards achieving the target of doubling the farmers’ income by 2022. Key Highlights of the Budget from the Agriculture perspective are as under •

Minimum Support Price (MSP) for Kharif crops will be 1.5 times the cost of production of the same. www.krishijagran.com


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AG R I C U LT U R E

onion and resulting to help farmers as well as the consumers.

22,000 new gramin agri centres (GRAMS) will be set up to assist 86% small and the marginal farmers in selling their produce directly and Rs.2, 000 crore will be allocated for agricultural market development fund. 470 Agricultural Produce Market Committees will be connected to the electronic platform of the National Agricultural Market (eNAM) Food processing sector currently growing at the rate of 8% annually, will be allocated Rs.1, 400 crore to catalyze the growth of the sector. Rs.500 crore has been allocated for Operation Green to resolve the concern of price fluctuations in potato, tomato and

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Rs 200 crores will be allocated for the Organic Farming.

State-of-the-art facilities will be established in 42 food parks for agricultural exports.

Farmers in the fisheries and animal husbandry segments will get the benefit from Kisan credit cards as Rs.10,000 crore will be allocated for these segments.

National Bamboo Mission has been restructured with an allocation of Rs 1290 crore to promote the Bamboo crop as a Green Gold.

Allocation for loans to Women Self Help Groups will increase to Rs.75,000 crore in 2019 from 42,500 crore during 2017-18.

100% deduction proposed to companies registered as Farmer Producer Companies with an annual turnover upto Rs 100 crore on profit derived from such activities, for five years from 2018-19.

The Krishi Sinchayi Yojana will now include a ground water irrigation scheme that will offer irrigation facilities to regions that do not receive water supply for agriculture.

With the proposed fund allocation Union Budget 2018 will act a catalyst in the rural economy growth. If the desired results are achieved, farmers will have more disposable income leading to more demand from the rural and driving the Indian economy in the upward direction. On the basis of the key highlights Arun Jaitely, Union Finance Minister made for the Agriculture sector of India; ‘Agriculture World’ presents excerpts on the budget from higher echelons

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Union Budget

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P M Modi Congratulates Jaitley

on MSP for Farmers

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rime Minister Narendra Modi hailed the Union Budget 2018-19 as farmer-friendly, common citizen-friendly and development-friendly. He said it focused on the needs of rural areas and paid attention to all sectors, from agriculture to infrastructure.“It will give pace to the development of the country. The government is focused not just on ‘ease of doing business’ but also on ‘ease of living’,” he said. “This budget strengthens the hopes of 1.25 crore Indians. Our farmers have produced record [amounts of] grains and vegetables. To strengthen farmers further, we have taken several important steps,” he said. Prime Minister Modi congratulated the Finance Minister for the decision regarding Minimum Support Price. “I am sure it will help the farmers tremendously,” he said.

“Farm sector stress will continue”

Not Possible to Double Farmers’ Income by 2022: Manmohan Singh

Former Finance Minister and senior Congress leader P Chidambaram

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ormer Prime Minister Manmohan Singh said it is not possible to double farmers’ income by 2022 until the agricultural growth is 12 percent. It is just a hollow assurance.”I don’t want to comment on it,” he said, asked whether the farm crisis is a thing of the past and if not, what the strategy to deal with it is.

Finance Minister Arun Jaitley has tried to make improvements for farmers but the problems of farmers and rural people are enormous. Measures may not be sufficient,” former Prime Minister H D Dewe Gowda

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MANAGEMENT OF MONSOON & MARKET IS IMPORTANT Dr M.S Swaminathan the government has said that it will make efforts to buy the surplus produce of the farmers. More allocation will be made for building warehouses and by upgrading 22,000 rural haats into Grameen Agricultural Markets. The budget also sets apart Rs. 2000 crores for an agricultural market and infrastructure fund. Several steps have been proposed for promoting sustainable agriculture such as organic farming. Horticulture will be promoted with greater attention to the marketing of tomato, potato and onion and similar perishable commodities through ‘Operation Greens’ with Rs 500 crore allocation.

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he budget provides for the greater use of clean and renewable energy sources but does not deal with the management of climate change in relation to farming. It is important to set up climate risk management R&D centres at least one at every block level. Such centres should be supported by trained Climate Risk Managers, one woman and one man from each Panchayat. Climate Change could become a mega catastrophe and there is need for immediate steps both in the areas of mitigation and adaptation. Here, the Budget contains provisions which can insulate farmers from distress sale and poor income. The Finance Minister announced that as per pre-determined principle, the Government has decided to keep the MSP for all the unannounced crops of kharif at least at one and half times of their production cost. It is essential that if price of the agriculture produce in the market is less than the MSP, then in that case Government should purchase either at MSP or work in a manner to provide MSP for the farmers through some other mechanism. If income is less than the support price,

Another welcome feature is to integrate attention to fisheries and animal husbandry with Kissan Credit Cards. The National Bamboo Mission will be restructured in order to enhance the cultivation and consumption of the bamboo products. The emphasis placed on Self Help Group formation, cooperatives and other organizational methods which can provide the power of scale to the small scale producers is welcome. In the promotion of organic farming, the greater encouragement will be given to Self Help Groups of women farmers under NRLM. In the case of employment and income greater emphasis will be placed on post-harvest technology and value addition to primary products. Rs. 10,000 crore corpus will be provided for the fisheries and animal husbandry sectors. Since agriculture promotes job-led economic growth, greater support will be given to both on-farm and non-farm employment. The priority given to rural infrastructure and irrigation will help impart stability of income and employment. Malnutrition is another serious problem and we need to promote symbiotic linkages among agriculture, nutrition and health. On the whole, the Budget addresses some of the “hotspots” in the field of farming, the most important being the management of the monsoon and the market.

“If Members of Parliament can link their own salaries to inflation, why not do the same for farmers?”, - Yogendra Yadav, Swaraj member

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Union Budget

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A very balanced BUDGET…

Union Budget 2018 is a very balanced one aiming at inclusive growth for boosting Indian economy. The target to take agri-exports from USD 30 billion to USD 100 billion is very encouraging as agri-exports would be instrumental in doubling farmers’ income. A stable Agri Export Policy based on digitalized current stock position, scientific forecasting of crop prospects, current demand would help in devising such a policy. The backward and forward linkages in agriculture through logistics and supply chain would be required to meet such targets. The state-of-art facility in 42 mega Food Park will unleash the potential of food processing exports” - Ganesh Kumar Gupta, President, FIEO (Federation of Indian Export Organization)

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he impact of 2018 budget is positive for Agriculture and Food Processing sector. Demand for agriculture-related products such as fertilisers, crop protection chemicals, micro irrigation equipment will go up. Since the focus will be on technology and modernisation, warehousing and logistics industry will also get benefitted. Financing for these sectors will increase. We will also witness an increase in exports of processed foods with the setting up of many testing labs. - Mamta Wadhwa, Vice President, Frost & Sullivan

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he government’s decision to double the budget allocation to Rs 1,400 crore for food processing ministry will boost farmers’ income and generate million of new jobs. This will immensely benefit farmers in availing various food processing related schemes. No more potatoes on streets and crop-selling at loss as Government decided to increase farmers income by giving 1.5 times cost incurred to farmers as MSP - Harsimrat Kaur Badal, Food Processing Minister

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ncrease in Minimum Support Price to 1.5 times that of the production cost means 50 percent margin to farmers ROI. I consider MSP as an inefficient system to support farmers. Hence, increasing productivity to increase the farmers’ income is the sustainable solution. Increasing Agri Marketing Infra with $314 Mn (INR 2000 Cr) is a positive move where integrating more markets into E- NAM network will provide farmers with more price transparency. Proposal of ‘Operation Green’ to increase productivity and reduce seasonality fluctuations of major crops like potato, onion and tomato is good move. But, $78.5 Mn (INR 500 Cr) is too small an amount if the program is to be spread pan India. - Sreeram Chellappa,CEO, Farmlink

As part of the rural push, the government has addressed the crop burning issue and made allocations to help the farmer. This will have a twin benefit on rural India as well as environmental changes” -- Abhijeet Biswas, Managing Director & Co-Founder, 7i Advisors LLP

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he continued focus on agricultural sector reform is appreciated, especially the government’s effort to integrate rural haats to the eNam and increasing the purview of MSP for comprehensive coverage of agri commodities. The farmers can look forward to better price realization now. Agritech startups that are already working on enabling better farm produce prices for farmers will get greater scope of working with the government to achieve the common goal. More so, the GRAMS electronically linked to e-NAM and exempted from regulations of APMCs, will provide farmers facility to make direct sale to consumers and bulk purchasers, thus further digitising and simplifying the selling process for farmers. - Ajay Kakra, Leader – Food and Agriculture, PwC India

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China’s Rural Growth Trajectory:

WHY CHINA IS AHEAD OF INDIA? Dr. Geeta Kochhar

Assistant Professor (Chinese) Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, India Email: geeta@mail.jnu.ac.in

The year 2018 is very significant for both India and China as both countries look towards a change from agrarian based economy to modern industrialised economy. In India, the Modi government has laid down entire focus of fiscal budget on agriculture reforms with the pronunciation of many schemes for green revolution, blue revolution, white revolution, and enhanced subsidy and insurance schemes. China, on the other hand, is celebrating the 40th anniversary of reform and opening to the outside world with the first policy document rolled out on 4th February 2018 charting out the future National Strategic plan for rural development with a three step focus in its ‘Document No. 1’: By 2020, rural rejuvenation with complete eradication of rural poverty.

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By 2035, modernisation of agriculture and rural areas. By 2050, building a strong agriculture sector and well-off standards of farmers. Both India and China began their journey post 1940s with majority of the population dependent on land for their livelihood, but the entire trajectory of growth has been different. As a result, we see China today boasts of making great strides in reducing absolutely rural poverty, abundant supply of agricultural products and advancement in rural economic system. On the other hand, India is facing daunting challenges in terms of rural poverty and rural economic system. The statistics in India show that there is huge rural poverty with 190.7 million people

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going hungry everyday; crop yields are far lower than Europe, USA, and China; and there will be increased population by 2050 with almost 1.7 billion to feed. In India, we have fragmented land holdings, lack of land leasing laws and lack of access to markets, but the real alarm bells sounded only after the increased numbers of farmers suicide (nearly 60,000 in three decades). However, if we look at both India and China that face food security, the core problem of small lands is similar to the two countries in contrast to Western Europe and North America that have large industrial farming. According to the National Sample Survey Organisation Data of India, the average size of land ownership has declined to almost one hectare of land; while China has even smaller size of land holdings around 0.6 hectares. In fact, China has 40 per cent less water available than in India; yet, China ranks in world’s top three producers of rice, maize, cotton, and wheat with higher production in per hectare compared to that

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WORLD of India. China that was a country where millions were starving pre-1978, is now self-sufficient in staples to feed its 1.4 billion people. In 2017, it achieved the highest record in producing rice crop and its production of grains has grown more than 40 per cent since 2003. China has more cereal yields per hectare than that of Canada. Therefore, the larger issue of analysis is what makes China far better than India in agriculture and rural development. How China Achieved the Success? After the Land Reform (1949-1952), China distributed 47 million hectares of farm land

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oth India and China began their journey post 1940s with majority of the population dependent on land for their livelihood, but the entire trajectory of growth has been different

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owned by landlords to 300 million peasants to all farmers who were landless or lacked sufficient land, but with the introduction of commune system in the mid 1950s, private ownership of land was completely abolished and land was collectively owned by the villagers. China’s success story to reform begins from Anhui province where the first model of contract farming began. In the early 1980s, Chinese

WORLD Although China has invested heavily in farms and rural infrastructure, but the crux lies in giving incentives to farmers and supporting rural enterprises, which also means a ‘two-pronged’ approach of balancing agriculture and industry. The focus since early 1980s has been in prioritising ‘efficiency over equity’. By 2002, with the huge influx of rural population in urban areas, Chinese government laid extra emphasis on rural

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f we look at both India and China that face food security, the core problem of small lands is similar to the two countries in contrast to Western Europe and North America that have large industrial farming

farmers under the then leadership of Deng Xiaoping experimented contractual production that was later spread nationwide as the ‘Household Contract Responsibility System. Two forms of contract system were introduced: Baochan daohu - Contracting only output to the households with fixed amount of land and a specified output target. Baogan daohu - Contracting everything to the households with other forms of capital (animal and tool) also distributed to households who could retain surplus after paying taxes. With the introduction of the contractual system, households were given the right to use a portion of land for contracted production with state procurement price raised by 25 per cent. Diversification of farming was also introduced with a push to raising pigs, poultry, and vegetables. Since 2008, households have the right to lease the land of others, but can still not use the land as collateral property. Hence, China does not have ‘scaled-up farms’, just 2 per cent of the total farms are larger collated farmlands. 26

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industrialisation, townisation, and modernisation of rural areas (Sanhua) along with tackling “Three Rural” problems (Sannong) vis-à-vis increasing the peasants’ income, accelerating the development of agriculture and maintaining the stability of rural areas. Today, we see many such model stories of individuals that has cumulative effect on China’s rural economy. Zhang Xinsheng, a farmer from Luodian village in the central province of Henan, is now an owner of four companies. In 2012, www.krishijagran.com


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within six months Zhang accumulated 53 hectares (130 acres) of land on lease by persuading the villagers. By 2017, he added another 47 hectares. He plans to triple his farm size and make the entire village shift from a poor grain producing village into a specialised producer of vegetables. The entire success story of China’s rural development is highly dependent on rural

urbanisation through the development of rural enterprises. The rise of town and village enterprises, commonly known as TVEs have contributed greatly to the economic development of China and acted as ‘sponges’ to absorb the abundant surplus rural population. TVEs refer to an industrial business unit that belongs to all residents of a rural community where it is usually located, which may be run by towns (Zhen), townships (Xiang), districts (Qu) and villages (Cun), or by rural households either as individuals (Geti huo gufen), as partners (Lianhe), or as www.krishijagran.com

WORLD collectives, i.e. in co-operation with their village. Most of these enterprises started as agricultural machine repair shops and food processing mills and many soon became subcontractors of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) in nearby urban areas. Their total output value increased from 9.25 billion yuan in 1970 to 27.2 billion yuan in 1976, with an average annual real growth rate of 25.7%. By 1978, there were about 1.5 million

such enterprises employing 28 million people with a total output value of 49.3 billion yuan (Statistical Yearbook, 1992), of which 38.5 billion yuan was for industrial output, which accounted for 9% of the national industrial output. The success model is starkly visible in the prosperous economy of Zhejiang, coastal province of China, where small and medium enterprises have created World’s largest commodities wholesale trading market called ‘Yiwu Small Commodities market’. As in early1994, TVEs showed signs of decline MARCH 2018

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with some becoming bankrupt, the state enacted the “PRC Law on TVEs” (Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Xiangzhen Qiyefa) that was passed by the 22nd session of the 8th NPC Standing Committee on 29th October 1996 and was implemented on 1st July 1997. It introduced a shareholding system and there was promotion of the mixed corporate form known as “joint-stock co-operatives” (JSCs) (Gufen hezuozhi). The supplementary forms included selling, leasing, takeovers, mergers and restructuring through Sino-foreign joint venture and corporatisation. Under this form, shares of TVEs are sold or distributed to TVE employees and managers or community residents in the form

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he entire success story of China’s rural development is highly dependent on rural urbanisation through the development of rural enterprises. The rise of town and village enterprises, commonly known as TVEs have contributed greatly to the economic development of China and acted as ‘sponges’ to absorb the abundant surplus rural population

of both “collective shares” (one-person-one-vote) (Yi hu yi gu) and “conventional individual shares” (one-share-one-vote) (Yi gu yi fen). To make them more competitive in the global market, the Chinese government is now forming TVE clusters. Clustering is looked upon as a natural way of reducing information and transaction costs for small and medium enterprises and in forming economic local systems with human capital specialised in one production. Town or village “specialised” in one product “one town one product” (Yi zhen yi pin) or “one village one product” (Yi cun yi pin) is the new operating mechanism in the same geographical area besides making industrial parks for TVE development, thereby avoiding cultivable land waste and lesser 28

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environmental damage. With such experiments, China now has a richest village Huaxi in Jiangsu province with every one of its 2000 residents having more than one million yuan (£116,000/$143,000) in their bank accounts. Wu Renbao, the main man behind the success hit the headlines in 2003 with its socialist model. In the late 1970s, he started allocating all the farming www.krishijagran.com


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Hidden diversity inside

CHINA’S CAVES

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he largest study on cave flora ever conducted revealed a surprising diversity of plant species living inside some of China’s unexplored caves. It was done by a group of researchers from the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and the Guangxi Institute of Botany in China. They have surveyed 60 caves in the Guangxi, Guizhou and Yunnan regions.

work to 30 villages and assigning the rest of the labour to the manufacturing sector. By 1994, the village established a commercial corporation producing textiles, clothes, wielded pipes and steel. Rural industrialisation, townisation and modernisation of agriculture (Sanhua: Gongyehua, chengzhenhua, Xiandaihua) are the buzzwords for rural development in China. www.krishijagran.com

Over the course of the study, 418 species of vascular plants were recorded, with 7 percent of these species being endemic to caves and 37 percent of the species endemic to China. Once all caves have been samples in the region, the real figure is likely to be between 500 and 850 species, based on modeling conducted by the team. The endemic plants were all located near the entrances of the caves, rather than in twilight zones, the areas deeper in caves that less light, which suggests that these plants once thrived outside of the caves as well. The researchers believe that cave populations were once part of a continuum of vegetation that extended into the understory of the surrounding forest or the layer of vegetation in the shaded area between the canopy and the ground. This discovery makes these caves and their flora significant and valuable for species conservation in South West China. By Asha Sadasiv MARCH 2018

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The Secret behind China’s Inimitable Economy Mohammed Saqib

Secretary General, India China Economic and Cultural Council*

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hina has witnessed a unique and different developmental trajectory in the past few decades. It is a country which has not replicated any other growth model and has tried and tested various developmental models, failed and cleared various stages to be one of the leading countries. China has extensively focused on its agri rural sector to reach where it stands today. There are various policies and plans which have contributed to the China’s growth. Since all of the land is owned by government and not following the rigid democratic forms, has somewhat helped the country to evolve. Though the individual interest suffers, the otherwise national growth has only followed the exponential trajectory on the parameters of growth. The collectives are given a fixed target which is procured by the government and the rest of it can be kept with the peasants, which ignite a sense of competition and push the production to higher levels. As the competition amongst the farmers increased, people started to look forward for modern tools and better practices to increase their 30

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production which made the local industry to move forward for development. “The Incentive concept” built a sense of competitive growth. With Culture revolution of late 60s and early 70s, the country has witnessed a trauma and lost most of its otherwise precious libraries, museums and traditions. The “One-Child Policy” of China has also somewhere hurt the population’s confidence and trust building factor amongst its population. Restoration of cultures and traditions is on the highest priority of Chinese administration, and it takes inspiration from India’s well preserved culture and traditional values. The govt.’s move to make the Benami account legal has also injected a lot of funds for the development of the rural and agricultural industry. The country has witnessed the highest growth rate of 15-20 percent for 20 years which has not attained by any country as yet and is a matter of wonder and awe. China has been looking around the world in search of modern technology and the most recent information; it invests hugely in research and development projects. International Exhibitions www.krishijagran.com


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Restoration of cultures and traditions is one of the highest priorities of Chinese administration and it takes inspiration from India’s well preserved culture and traditional values.

and Conferences funded by the government are attended by the farmers which give them new insights to work for better crop yielding practices and technology. When it comes to women, the country is better than most of the other countries but there lies a thick line which separates the involvement of women at higher positions. The women generally dominate the work force but there is a ceiling at certain points. China has developed in all the aspects. One of the most devastating problems with China has been pollution, with which many countries are grappling. China has found itself innovative ways to cope up with this situation and it has proved to be affirmative. Two years back when air quality was deteriorated to non breathable levels, China has leveled itself up with electric vehicles, solar energy and other green energy sources. Though China still has a long way to go, it soon would be meeting its nationally determined contributions of Paris Agreement if it keeps moving ahead with the same pace. www.krishijagran.com

China and India are not moving ahead on good terms and the boundary issue is just one of the many problems like NSG, OBOR, Dalai Lama, South China Sea, and global terrorists like Azar Masood etc. which stand in the way of the countries for a peaceful relation. It would be in the interest of both the countries to resolve the issues. Indian government’s pilot projects like Make in India, Digital India, Housing for All, MSME technology transfer etc cannot take shape without getting involved with China. China is also running Make in China, 2025 project which will the push the economy towards high technology. It focuses on shutting down one-third of the inefficient companies, shifting the other 1/3 of industries to bigger and higher technology and the rest one-third companies are supposed to flourish outside China. * ICEC COUNCIL is an autonomous membership based organization, with a vision to enhance economic and cultural cooperation between India and China. ICEC Council is one of the leading nonprofit organizations with established credentials for enhancing economic and cultural cooperation.

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y 2003, half of China’s rice production area was planted with hybrid rice. In 2007, China’s total rice yield was 500 million tons. At present as much as 50 percent of China’s total rice fields grow Yuang Longping’s hybrid rice species.

Suresh Muthukulam Editor, Krishi Jagaran

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saw rice plants as tall as Chinese sorghum,” said Yuan Longping of a dream he once had, “each ear of rice as big as a broom and each grain of rice as huge as a peanut. I could hide in the shadow of the rice crops with a friend” said Yuan Longping of a dream he once had. Yuan Longping, born on September 7, 1930 is a great Chinese agricultural scientist and educator known for developing the first hybrid rice varieties in the 1970s. His “hybrid rice” has been grown ever since in dozens of countries in Africa, America and Asia providing a robust food source in high famine risk area. For his contributions in this sector he is called ‘the father of Hybrid Rice’. Born in a poor farmer’s family and a graduate from the Southwest Agriculture Institute in 1953, Yuan began his teaching career at an Agriculture school in Anjiang, Hunan Province. In an era of wars, he moved with his family and attended schools in many places during his childhood and youth including Hunan, Chongqing, Hankou

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and Nanjing whose ancestral home was in Le’an county, Jiujiang city, Jiangxi province. Rice is a self pollinating plant. Due to this trait, it was long assumed that developing a hybrid variety was not possible. But Yuan’s work reversed this assumption. He came up with an idea for hybridizing rice in the 1960s, when a series of natural disasters and inappropriate policies has plunged China into an unprecedented famine that caused many deaths. Since then, Yuan has devoted himself to the research and development of better rice.

Days of Intensive Rice Research China’s severe famine and the impoverishing life of rural villagers during the early 1960s greatly affected Yuan and made him determined to develop a high – yielding rice. Male sterility in rice aroused his unflagging interest because it is so critical and hand emasculation is extremely difficult. Finally in 1964and 1965 he found six naturally male sterile plants in early season indica rice cultivars from farmers’ fields. In 1966 he published the first research paper on rice male sterility in Kexue Tongbao, which initiated China’s Hybrid Rice Researches. In this study he grouped the male sterile plants into three types (pollen – free type, pollen- abortive type and partially male sterile type) and predicted that rice heterosis could be utilized to increase yields through the development of male sterile lines. Maintain lines and male restorer lines. From 1971 onwards, Yuan shared this male sterile material with many research institutes in 1922. Yuan developed the first high yielding commercial rice hybrid ‘Nan – You No.2’ in 1974. He and his assistants also demonstrated to farmers how rice hybrids showed much higher yields than the best inbreed check cultivars. In time, many large and effective seed companies were established, forming a beneficial agricultural business for the first time in the history of China. Meanwhile, Chinese government decided to make full use of this new technology to eliminate poverty and malnutrition which had plagued China for centuries. Yuan was appointed as the general advisor and lectures and on the spot instructions during this campaign. This massive campaign was highly successful and resulted in a sizable in planting area containing hybrid rice. 0.14 million ha in 1976, 21 million ha in 1997 and then to 10 million ha by 1986. In 1980, hybrid rice technology 34

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WORLD was patented in the United States as China’s first agricultural inventions and the patent was transferred to Ring Around, a US company. By 2003, half of China’s rice production area was planted with hybrid rice. In 2007, China’s total rice yield was 500 million tons. At present as much as 50 percent of China’s total rice fields grow Yuang Longping’s hybrid rice species.

Unsatisfied Researcher Professor Yuan is never satisfied with his achievements. Even if the hybrid rice had a higher yield output over conventional in breeds, the yield of three line system hybrid rice reached a yield plateau. Thus he developed a three phase strategy. Each of these phases should mark a new breakthrough in rice breeding and result in even large and increase in yield. Increasing yields does not mean losing quality, according to Yuan. But he firmly believed, in developing countries, the output increase outweighs the urging for a better taste and that his foremost task was to increase the grain reserve in developing countries. “First we must have enough food, then comes eating well” he said. In late 1960s, rice output was just ever 300kg per

Yuang Longping develops salt water resistant rice strains Yuan Longping, the 87 year old Chinese scientist has spent his life working to feed a world hungry for rice. Now he is wading into saltier territory, LongPing is developing a new high yield strain of rice that can grow in saltwater paddies. A crop of 200 different saltwater tolerant strains of rice that his research group grew this year yielded up to 8030 pounds of rice per area, according to China’s Xinhua News Agency. Growing rice in saltwater would also free up stretches of sort that’s currently devoted to rice for other crops. This could of course have a huge impact on the overall food security and supply in China. The salt water tolerant strains in China were developed with crosses from wild rice relatives.

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mu (0.06 hectare) but Yuan had increased that to more than 500. But Yuan did not slow down, working hard on other breed with bigger grains of rice and a yield of over 800 kilograms per mu. He had set the year of 2005 as the deadline for this goal. Another dream is to introduce this breed to and benefit every nation.

Celebrity Status In his own country, Yuan enjoys a celebrity status and has received many national awards and honors. Yuan won the State Preeminent Science & Technology Award of China in 2000, the Wolf Prize in Agriculture and the World Food Prize in 2004. In 201, Confucius Peace Prize was awarded to him; he is currently the Director General of China National Hybrid Rice R&D Centre and has been appointed as Professor at Human Agricultural University, Changsha. He is a mentor of the Chinese Academy of Engineering, foreign associate of the US National Academy of Science (2006). Yuan also worked as the chief consultant for the FAO in 1991. www.krishijagran.com

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uan Long Ping is a great Chinese agricultural scientist and educator known for developing the first hybrid rice varieties in the 1970s. His “hybrid rice� has been grown ever since in dozens of countries in Africa, America and Asia providing a robust food source in high famine risk area.

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Air pollution and policies of China Anehi Mundra, Usha Mina Centre for South Asian Studies Jawaharlal Nehru University

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efore 1990, the dominant polluting sources were big and small coal burning stoves used in power plants, industry, utilities and households. Now the sources of pollution are not limited to coal burning or vehicles, but have expanded to construction site dust, industrial processes and regional transmission.

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he economic rise of Chinese Dragon has already turned heads towards China, now environment progress to reduce air pollution menace in facade of climate change have brought light on to the policies of the Chinese government. Most developing cities of the world are facing the problem of increasing air pollution. The industrial zones have been marred with the debate between development and curbing the high pollution emitting production. China has many environmental laws at different legislative levels. The Chinese governance system is decentralized, and steps are taken at the central, provincial and the local levels for effective implementation of the pollution laws. In 1978, Environment Commission was included with the Third Chinese Constitution. The Environmental Protection Law came in to formal existence in 1989, after being implemented for a trial basis in 1979. One can imagine a wide range of enforcement standards across the country. There have been variations in policies based on changes in the sources of pollution due to developmental reasons. Like, before 1990, the dominant polluting sources were big and small coal burning stoves used in power plants, industry, utilities and households. Post that period, till 2000, the growing number of vehicles in mega cities contributed to a major increase of pollutants. Now the sources of pollution are not limited to coal burning or vehicles, but have expanded to construction site dust, industrial processes and regional transmission. The Chinese government has been active on the methods to control air pollution from 1980s. Though a major visible move only came in 2006 when political incentives were introduced in the 11th Five-Year Plan, post which, one of the national goal of reducing total Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions by 10 percent was achieved.

China’s Forest City With an increase in temperature and high level of pollution, global warming has evolved as a grave global issue. China has taken a step to curb the global warming by developing the world’s first forest city in Guangxi. The Liuzhou Forest City is located in the mountainous region of Guangxi. It has an area of 175 hectares and can host 30,000 people. The area will be covered by 40,000 trees and 100 species of plants so it can absorb 10,000 of CO2 and release 900 tons of oxygen. The forest city will have all amenities including schools, hotels, residential areas and hospitals.  The project commissioned by Liuzhou Municipality Urban Planning is designed by Stefano Boeri Architetti and will begin in 20 20. - Sreeja S Nair

Before Beijing Olympics 2008, measures such www.krishijagran.com

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he Chinese government has been active on the methods to control air pollution since 1980s. Various steps are taken at the central, provincial and the local levels for effective implementation of the pollution laws. But the policy and practical implementation still have gaps which can be fulfilled for better air quality of China.

Incredible art in

CHINESE FIELDS Every year the farmers in Shenyang, the capital of China’s Lianoning province, transform their paddy fields around the city into colourful tracts of land in a bid to attract tourists to the area. By the time the crop is ready to harvest, the fields are filled with gorgeous 3D art. For farmers it is a local tradition to create masterpieces in their paddy fields as a form of prayer or blessing. Recently the art has become more attractive due to the use of technologies and innovative designs. It can only be seen from above, so walkways have been built over the fields for the visitors. Subjects of the paintings range from traditional symbols like dragon to modern like a giant image of QR code. Farmers can control the images by cutting the height of the plants to achieve attractive shades and 3D effects.

as shutting down plants, restricting vehicle use, performing onboard refueling vapour recovery in gas stations, strict control of construction site dust and banning of straw burning were implemented in surrounding territories. These were temporary measures for the event, but gave a push to the effective regional air quality management. The winter PM2.5 smog coat over episode in eastern China, led to the Action Plan for Air Pollution Prevention and Control in 2013. The episode was popularized as ‘airpocalypse’, which brought Beijing in to limelight to be one of the most polluted cities of the world. The first phase of the action plan spanned 2013 to 2017. The stricter air pollution reduction guidelines were imposed in three key industrial areas surrounding Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. It included measures as, capped coal consumption, new emission standards for coal-fired power plants, reduction in iron-making and steel-making capacity, restricts the number of vehicles on road and mandated increase in non renewable energy growth. An annual quota of 150,000 new cars was established for 2017, with 60,000 allotted only to fuel efficient cars. This quota is reduced to 100,000 annually in 2018. This limits the total cars to 6.3 million. Besides that initiatives to achieve a “Parade Blue” sky through the 70th-anniversary celebrations of

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the end of World War II, shut down industrial facilities and reduced car emissions by the Beijing government resulted in enhancement of air quality standard. The air pollution control measures were implemented very strictly, like intensified inspection for major polluters; Major reason for decline was reduction for coal consumption. There has been a positive shift towards reduction of pollution in China after implementation of these measures. At present, ‘the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control Law’ has been adopted for Air pollution abatement. This law was first enforced in 1987, and has been recently amended in 2015. The law calls for measures to be taken against the pollution “caused by the burning of coal, industrial production, motor vehicles and vessels, dust as well as agricultural activities.” It obliges local governments and people’s participation to reduce the impact of air pollution. The policy and practical implementation still have gaps which can be fulfilled for better air quality of China. Also, there are many practical challenges for specific regulatory management designs and implementation. Some recent reports mentioning the declining impact of earlier measures and need for a better and improved policy to utilize the research and improve the quality of life of People’s Republic of China. www.krishijagran.com

Rice duck farming Growing ducks and rice together in irrigated paddy fields has been practiced in China for centuries. In rice duck farming, ducks are raised on rice paddies and feed on pests and weeds. Which means the farmer doesn’t have to use earth and water-ravaging chemical pesticides and herbicides on their plants. The ducks also churn up the water with their feet helping to get more oxygen to the rice plants roots, thereby boosting growth. Duck droppings are also an excellent, natural fertilizer for rice plants. Integrating ducks into rice farming has also helped farmers cope with the impacts of climate change.

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Import

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ake in India, an initiative launched by the Government of India (GOI) to encourage national, as well as multi-national companies to manufacture their products in India. However, nowhere does a mention to impose restrictions on imports, whereas an effort needs to be made to subsequently reduce dependence on imports and become more self-reliant. It is evident that the recent directives of the Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmer Welfare (DAC&FW) to pressurize the Registration Committee (RC) to take decisions that are ultra-virus to the Insecticides Act, 1968 (IA1968) and Rules, 1971 (IR 1971). The Act by its very definition states ‘An Act to regulate the import, manufacture, sale, transport, distribution and use of insecticides with a view to prevent risk to human beings or animals, and for matters connected therewith’. The Insecticides Act, 1968 by its very definition does not distinguish amongst import or manufacture, therefore we believe parity should be there between imports and manufacture while framing

guidelines, in a manner not to compromise the quality and safety of such products. While developed countries have moved on from manufacturing hazardous chemicals in their respective countries due to environment concerns, India is trying to encourage indigenous manufacture of the same risking Indian environment and effect to public health. Wherein, it is worth to mention that the Make in India initiative should be more directed towards local manufacture of new and green chemical products. Role of Department of Agriculture Cooperation and Farmer Welfare in ‘Make in India’ Campaign DAC&FW has always placed the concern with respect to Indian Agriculture, with particular focus on the farmer to make India self-sufficient in food production, and quite successfully has addressed the issue since the on-set of the Green Resolution. Primary duty is to safeguard and provide affordable, efficacious and safe agricultural inputs to the Indian farmer. The

Vipin Saini

Executive Director ACFI (Agro- Chem Federation of India)

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Government’s main aim of revising the MoA to MoA & FW, was to focus on the well being of the Indian farmer. Since the import of technical grade pesticides as one of the major in-puts in protecting the crops against any pest infestation, have been approved for import only after assuring its safety & efficacy do not pose any health or quality concerns in comparison to those manufactured indigenously, further the fact that safety evaluation of Technical Imports is far more stringent than indigenous manufactured norms.

WORLD are the actual and majority of the suppliers of technical to the SME/MSME sector companies formulating the pesticides and making the same available across the country. The whole chain of supply is affected and Plant Protection in Indian Agriculture is expected to be impacted. The technical pesticide is not meant for direct application for crop protection and is not a finished product for actual use. It is required to be formulated as an end use product by the farmers for crop protection application in the field. Hence, it is worth mentioning

So while there will be no compromise in safety or quality parameters and a potential adverse impact on affordability, the policy would run converse to the primary objectives of DAC&FW. In fact availability of quality technical imports by multiple sources increases healthy competition within the industry. This shall benefit farmers in attaining affordable quality pesticide availability without compromising quality and safety of the product. Impact of import restrictions on the other hand will lead to scarcity of supply of vital crop protection products required depending upon the crop during the season across the country. Limiting the source of supplies of a product, potentially will give considerable rise to spurious products in the market leading to their harmful effects on the flora, fauna and abiotic factors. Competition increases when numbers of registrants are active in the market leading to inbuilt mechanism in correction of pricing of a product. Immediate restrictions on imports of technical grade pesticides will lead to abnormal profits for a select few companies which may have or pose to have a brief period of monopolistic presence and effect on Indian economy and undue increase in prices of pesticide products for the farmers and agriculture commodities for the consumers. Defeating the mandate of DAC&FW Restriction on import of pesticides impact the SME/ MSME segment of industry which are the prime supply of formulated pesticides to the Indian Farmer, not to forget the price increase that can be clearly anticipated to occur in such a scenario. Since the products are technical in nature and are not only required to be formulated either at the importers end for indigenous manufacture of its approved formulations, or formulated by other SME/MSME. Employment may be affected wherein employees of the SME/MSME sector may be rendered unemployed due to non-availability of technical to the latter. It may also be worth mentioning that the technical importers www.krishijagran.com

Fecal Sludge into

FERTILIZERS Human urine and faecal matter are a rich source of essential plant nutrients. Since ancient times, human excreta, ‘nightsoils’, has been collected from towns and villages and spread in raw or composted form on fields in the surrounding farmland. However, most of the countries have considered this as an informal treatment. But China has been used human waste to fertilize fields for more than 4,000 years. A growing portion of China’s toilet waste is converted into fertilizer and biogas. There, most of the farm operations are highly dependent on local resources, such as drawing water from seriously polluted rivers and lakes and using human sewage as fertilizers. In Beijing, 6,800 tons of human excrement is treated each day by some estimates: enough to fill almost three Olympic-size swimming pools. After thousands of years of cultivation, China’s soil is still fertile and suitable for farming, and soil erosion is not yet common. Also, Chinese farmers have been frequently used this practice in order to reduce the expenditure MARCH 2018

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that as a first step the infrastructure capacity and capability need be streamlined to produce high quality end use pesticide formulations using advanced technology to reduce environmental pollutions during their formulation process or application in the field at the farmer level. The availability of locally produced raw material at an affordable price cannot be ignored while framing/imposing restrictions on import of finished products wherein dependence exists on availability of raw materials by import. A company with limited budget, or risk taking capacity, may decide to put up domestic production capacity to

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replace an import source. However, it may not have the immediate resources to invest in manufacturing capacity that would fulfill its entire requirement. It thus would like to slowly ramp up domestic production and phase out imports. If receiving a domestic manufacturing registration necessitates surrender of import registration, only those companies that can afford to build huge capacity to totally replace import source will be able to set up manufacturing. This will set up a huge entry barrier to pesticide production in India. This is beyond the beyond law as stated under the Insecticides Act, 1968. If a product is registered for import for the 1st time, is usually followed by subsequent import approvals before assessing the manufacturing viability of the same. Depending upon the capacity of the manufacturer, if required or may not meet the actual required requirement through manufacture, may choose to import the balance quantity to overcome the deficit and meet the actual anticipated requirements. Leniency in hasting to promote Make in India, should not compromise safety aspects for want of appropriate technology and skill required to establish manufacturing facilities of such hazardous compounds and lead us to another tragic situation whilst we repeat another Bhopal to make history.

Rice Fish Co Culture For over 1,200 years farmers in Southern China have been employing rice fish farming.  Recent scientific research from Zhejiang University has shown that paddies which simultaneously raise fish require 68percent less chemical pesticide use and 24percent less chemical fertilizer use than the monoculture rice system. Like ducks, the fish feed on pests and weeds. This method has been designated a “globally important agriculture heritage system” by the FAO.

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Restricting Imports through Quota A quota is a direct restriction on the total quantity of a product that may be imported during a specified period. Quotas restrict total supply which can lead to escalation of prices of the product due to limited availability in the event of limited supplies of indigenously manufactured product. Limited supplies of the product have the potential of more availability of spurious products in the market leading to their harmful effects on the flora, fauna and abiotic factors.

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Proposed amendment will promote Red Tapism and will lead to License Raj with the potential of delays in issuance of license for import of the pesticide ultimately affecting timely supplies to farmers. A quota system has the potential to promote malpractices among some officials charged with the allocation of import licenses.

WORLD uncompetitive and can substituted through domestic production or alternate imports. The study will also establish if these imports are substituting domestic production instead of competitive and being used as intermediates for value addition. For specific product groups, it will also map out the entire value chain from import to ultimate utilization and consumption.

Competition increases number of players in the market leading to inbuilt mechanism in correction of pricing of a product. A quota system is much more restrictive as it restricts competition leading to abnormal profits for the companies leading to detrimental effects on Indian economy and undue increase in prices of pesticide products for the farmers and agriculture commodities for the consumers. Doubling Farmers Income by 2022 Pesticides are a crucial in-put component with respect to plant protection measures are concerned i.e. both pre and post- harvest measures are concerned. Immediate restrictions on imports vide restricting registration of new sources will hinder the supply of quality pesticides at a competitive and affordable price to the farmers. Increase in spurious, sub-standard and counterfeit pesticides can be anticipated that too at an exorbitant price. A restrained supply chain may be experienced as a result of imposing any such restrictions without first taking measures to strengthen manufacture locally in the country. Importance of import of Agro-chemicals needs to be recognized towards promoting and maintaining sustainability in agriculture and agricultural produce in the country. In the garb of “Make in India” only a select few large business groups shall gain more from the present campaign whereas SMEs/MSMEs will struggle due to lack of infrastructure, technical & skill capacity and financial constraints. Whilst “Make in India” tends to move the country towards being self-sufficient in its needs and be less dependent on imports, a road map need to be laid down and an informed decision to be taken to give effect to the true meaning and spirit in realizing such promotion in maintaining Food Security. Commerce Ministry to Study Impact of Chinese Imports Serious concerns have been raised about the growing trade deficit with China especially as it has hurt India’s domestic manufacturing. A large trade deficit with one particular country is of concern if the surge in imports is due to uncompetitive imports. Hence, the government will identify imported products from China, which are significant in import value for India but are globally www.krishijagran.com

Dali: Chinese village keeping a ‘thread’ of tradition Dali is a village in China where the tradition of weaving and dying tradition of Indigo is still alive. The knowledge of this process has been passed from one generation to another, making Indigo cloth weaving part of their day to day life. Every Dong family in Dali has its own rice and indigo farming and also loom. The tradition is kept alive despite extreme phases like Cultural Revolution and Shamanism, but China’s recent market economy is the worst challenge that draws the youth to the city leaving behind their traditional work, but still the indigo weaving and dyeing indigo forms the core of their lifestyle. To preserve the tradition Global Heritage Fund began to set up weaving and dyeing co-op in Dali. Dali is still mostly untouched by tourism.

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Business

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YIWU

here you can find anything you need… Asha Sadasiv Associate Editor, Krishi Jagran

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an you imagine a place where you can purchase anything under the sun at low cost? Yes, it is Yiwu, where many of the world’s cheapest goods originate. 60 percent of the world’s cheap consumable goods come from just one city Yiwu. A relatively small city of 1.2 million residents, Yiwu is the world›s largest wholesale market located in Zhejiang, China. In 1982 the municipality established Yiwu International Trade City.

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The city attracts business visitors from all over the world. Today buyers from all over the world come here to examine samples of its million-plus products before placing bulk orders and end up in hardware stores, souvenir shops, and big-box retailers on every continent. There are 400,000 different kinds of products available to order at wholesale prices. About 65-70 percent of what’s sold there is exported. By one estimate, more than 1,000 shipping containers leave Yiwu each day for foreign ports.

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Yiwu’s rise has not just transformed the international retail market. It has also radically changed the lives of many locals, turning once-poor farmers into well-paid executives and millionaire factory-owners.

According to one estimate more than 60 percent of all world›s Christmas decorations especially lights, originate in Yiwu. The Christmas market covers an area larger than a stadium. There’s also a market for toys, one specifically for zippers, and another for socks, tennis rackets, air freshener etc. Factories in Yiwu make many of the goods, but the spirit of production also extends to the suburbs and countryside, where people sew in their own homes and then sell the products to a market, where a person takes a cut to sell them to a buyer from, say, Korea, Japan, or the United States. Squirt guns, soccer balls, jewelry, stuffed animals, hair ties, phone cases. Everything is for sale for pennies. They work long hours, from eight in the morning until 10 at night. But what unites everyone seems to be pride in making things that are consumed everywhere on

the planet. From the poorest people to the richest, everyone across every social class in Yiwu seemed very proud of their production, fishing rods, mittens. Yiwu’s rise has not just transformed the international retail market. It has also radically changed the lives of many locals, turning once-poor farmers into well-paid executives and millionaire factory-owners. Like many Chinese cities, Yiwu’s economy was once based mainly on agriculture, producing things like chicken and sugar. Yiwu peasants started trading in chicken feathers, as they were used as a natural crop fertilizer. Using these feathers, they also made some other household articles that were attractive on the market and even started exportation. During these period farmers travelled across villages to sell sewing needles, threads, candies and other small articles. In 1950s, the city began to switch over to production centre for tradable goods. City officials invested in infrastructure and factories. Farm workers who might’ve moved away were put to work making things that could be sold cheaply on the international market. In 1982, the local government put cement boards over a ditch near Huqingmen Street and set up around 700 stalls. It was from that first early complex that Yiwu market was born. Over the course of time, the wholesale market in Yiwu has undergone several changes. The market is divided into five districts covering an area of four million square meters for 62,000 booths where 100,000 suppliers exhibit 400,000 kinds of products. The products come from around 40 industries and include 2,000 different categories of good. As Yiwu has built its 21st-century economy on quantity, it has in the past few decades begun to invest more in quality as well so much production and commerce results in a culture of competitiveness, where people try to outsell their neighbors. Recently, Yiwu International Trade City has been nominated as the first Grade AAAA National Tourism and Shopping Zone by China National Tourism Administration. It welcomes visitors from home and abroad.

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Technology

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INDIA-CHINA AGRICULTURE COOPERATION FORUM An Overview

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ndia and China both are major economics and food security remains the biggest challenge for policy makers, to ensure peaceful and equitable economic development at an affordable price by keeping food inflation low. If food inflation is not low, industrial development cannot take place because interest rate for industrial development depends upon cost of capital and food inflation determines the cost of capital. If we suppress the food prices without improving productivity it will create serious rural distress and social challenges. It is important to note that Chinese agriculture is also dominated by small farmers. Around 1960, both countries were at par in agriculture productivity, by the end of century China’s average agriculture productivity was about two to three times that of India in many crops. It is important to investigate the reasons behind the success of China in both industrial and agriculture performance and why India slipped in keeping the face in both fronts. India – China Agriculture Cooperation Forum held at the Hunan Province of China organized by ICEC (India-China Economic and Culture Council) New Delhi has created a platform for exchange of ideas and experiences for the benefit of society on both sides of the border.

Reason for success of China in Agriculture Technology The success of China’s agriculture is based on technological intervention. China has developed large pool of trained agriculture machines technicians and craftsmen. There is focus on 46

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innovation, support for market development and investment promotion. Agriculture machine quality is also be ensured by manufactures with all-round guarantee. The technological support comes from various agencies supported by government investment with accountability. These are: a. National Enterprises Technical Centres b. National High-tech Enterprises c. Government R&D Centres d. State level Industry-University Research Bases All industries in the world are in close coordination with technology development centres. This has resulted in massive success and today China is exporting agriculture machinery worth USD 36 billion every year.

Miniature technologies China has developed multipurpose technologies like Agriculture Tri-cycles and similar small equipment which can be used for short distance transportation. The same can be used for pumping, trashing, field operations, etc. These are very affordable and easy to maintenance machines. This can easily improve the productivity of the farm worker by 3 to 10 times. Miniature tillers are designed for hilly areas to improve the ploughing, raking, ridging, trenching, etc. in narrow fields. There were combined seed and fertilizer drill for field crops. Other interesting machines were low cost self-propelled miniature rice combine and harvester, hand-held trans-planter and seed laying machines.

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CHINESE F&V TRADERS TO FOCUS ON PLANTATIONS OVERSEAS The balance between the international supply and demand is estimated to become even tighter due to limited crude timber produced in a sustainable manner as demand for crude wood increases because of the growing population and economic growth of developing countries. It may be correct in case of the timber requirement but for the fruits and vegetables having short shelf life to produce in the home ground and then sell overseas for which the refrigerated trucks and other mode is not available.

Plant protection technologies The most notable feature was low cost drones for plant protection chemicals application. These machines can fly at about 10 feet from ground and speed can be controlled as per the need. These drones can be used for spray of agro-chemicals, sprinkle irrigation, spray of sanitizers in public places and garbage dump yards, etc. Another notable technology in Chinese agriculture is miniature blast spares for fruits farms. Similarly, self-propelled fodder cutting and chapping machines can be of great help of dairy farmers in areas where labour is either expensive or not available.

Post-harvest operation technologies In India, we have chaff-cutter but many designs are unsafe for operators, in China the miniature models are designed with all safety features. There were table mounted small rice huller, rice milling machines, corn threshers and pulverisers which can handle about 1.5 tons per hour. China use miniature machines to extract potato starch, rice flour and dough making machines and noodles making machine etc.

Success factors behind China’s agriculture productivity China took agriculture development as national priority and devoted resources with clear accountability in a time bound manner for all stakeholders and with close monitoring www.krishijagran.com

Large fruit and vegetable plantation owners seek to expand their plantations to increase supply for the market and to increase their own profit. Although the majority of plantation owners still have their sights set on high-quality production areas within the country, a small group of plantation owners has already shifted its focus to overseas plantations. In recent years, the Chinese consumer demand for agricultural products has grown stronger. There are three reasons why these small groups of plantation owners have chosen to pursue this market policy: First, the sharp increase of surface area devoted to fruit and vegetable plantations within China in recent years means that there is little room left in the production areas of high-quality agricultural products. Second, China is not suitable for all kinds of fruit. Certain kinds of fruit benefit greatly from the geographical location and weather conditions of overseas production areas. Third, some countries such as Vietnam offer lower labour costs or land rent than domestic production areas. Of course, moving plantations overseas brings along its own risks. One risk, for example, is the exchange rate. Changes in the exchange rate can harm business. Another risk comes from policy changes for the agricultural sector in the country where the production area is located. And international trade policy changes can bring further risks. Taking all these aspects into consideration, traders need to carefully weigh the pros and cons of moving a plantation overseas.

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WORLD not a political agenda in democratic India where 30 percent population lives below poverty line. India must learn from Chinese experience and take following steps: 1. Chinese agriculture policy needs to be studied in detail. Clear policy about agriculture and allocate resources while planning. Without resource allocation, planning remains a paper document with no political and economic significance. 2. China has given clear mandate to R&D centres. Review the mandate of all agriculture research institutes and agriculture universities. They should be made accountable for the productivity of the farms in their catchment area. There must be productivity targets. There must be benchmarking for all Indian

ECO- FRIENDLY CAVES Still, 35 million people in China are living in caves. Don’t take this as strange and primitive. For them, it’s an eco friendly sustainable dwelling. It provides them a natural insulation all year round, which are more energy efficient than most conventional family homes. Many of China’s caves are found in Shaanxi province because of peculiarity of soil, digging a cave is relatively easy there. These caves are cool in the summer, warm in the winter and generally utilize land that cannot be used for farming. On the down side, they are generally dark and have poor ventilation. Modern caves with improved designs have large windows, skylights and better ventilation. Some larger caves have over 40 rooms. Traditionally called “yaodong”, these caves have semicircular entrances covered with rice paper or hanging rugs which act as makeshift doors. The caves favor farmers who get more arable land to plant their crops. Most of these Chinese caves have been passed on from generation to generation. of the progress of the assigned projects to them. Chinese industry realized that it is not possible to run R&D facility without close partnership of universities. They were told to work as team and deliver results.

What is the way forward for India? India must learn from China how to develop agriculture sector. India has tried to adopt ‘Make in India’ approach but without proper planning and with half-hearted approach. Agriculture productivity is still 48

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research Institute with similar institutes from China. 3. Like in China, agriculture technology policy and promotion of technology must be given clear direction with clear targets and accountability. 4. We should study China’s agriculture extension system and Indian agriculture extension system to improve productivity and farmers income. 5. Indian should also develop standards for agriculture machines to improve safety standards and energy efficiency. It will be useful to study how China has improved the productivity in last 30 years. Practical experience of China will help in revitalization of Indian agriculture. This will help in addressing food security challenges in India and help in reducing the food prices without compromising on farmers’ income. If agriculture technology arrangement can be worked out between India and China, this will have lasting impact on friendship between two great nations. China, with large population and small farms, can act as a good role model for agriculture development in India.

Compiled by Chandra Mohan V.P.Special Initiative Krishi Jagran cmohan@krishijagran.com

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Cooking

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Chinese Cooking F

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Indu Narayan Nutritionist

or many people Chinese cooking remains mysterious and it requires exact and difficult cooking techniques with specialized cooking utensils and exotic ingredients. For others it is a style of cooking that they occasionally do at home. People love Chinese method of cooking. It is so elusive to most because it takes good. Today’s nutritional information points to Chinese food as “just what the doctor ordered”. It is low in saturated fat and cholesterol, uses small amount of meat and incorporates an abundance of fresh vegetables cooked in short amount of time to retain texture and nutrition.

Bean Curd: It is made from soybeans that are soaked, ground and mixed with water to make soy milk. The milk is heated and when the curd separate, they are pressed into soy cake. It contains a high amount of protein and calcium without fat.

In Chinese cuisine, thousands of different ingredients are used.

Chinese Broccoli: This vegetable is a part of cabbage family and resembles Chinese cabbage rather than broccoli. The flat leaves grow from stem. They are dark green with blue haze. The narrow stalks often have small yellow or white flowers at the tips. Chinese broccoli is bitter in taste. Stem is crunchy.

Bamboo Shoots: It is a grass. It grows fast. It may be stored for a week. At that time it should be covered with cold water in a lidded container and change the water daily.

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Bean Sprouts: Fresh moong sprouts can be stored in the refrigerator. That will make the sprouts fresh for a week. Chilli oil: Bright red ora nge chilli oil is known as hot oil. It is a commonly used condiment in Chinese foods.

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Chinese Chives: They are green, belongs to the species of onion, native southwestern parts of Chinese province. Chinese people are often used these for making dumplings in combination with egg and meat. Cilandro: The Chinese call cilandro as “fragrant vegetable”. It resembles flat leaf of parsley but have a strong distinctive aroma. It is used to make garnish soups and steamed seafood. Cornstarch: It is used in Chinese cooking as a thickener, binder and coating to hold in natural juices so that the food doesn’t dry out. Dried Black Mushroom: The Chinese call this as winter mushroom. They always use dried mushroom. Black mushrooms come in a wide variety of size and thickness which determine the quality and the price. The most expensive ones have thick caps with white cracks whereas the less expensive ones are thinner. Before using dried mushrooms this should be soaked in hot water for 15 minutes, squeeze out the water and cut off the stems with scissors. Dried mushrooms should be stored in a tightly lidded container in a cool, dark place. The 5,000-year-old traditional Chinese medicinal system uses black mushrooms for high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and as a tonic to benefit overall health. Spice powder: This is made with five spices including cloves, pepper, fennel, cinnamon and star anise. Ginger root: It is an irregular shaped fibrous rhizome with a strong, spicy taste and wonderful aroma. Ground ginger is not a substitute for fresh ginger root. Noodles: Many types of noodles are used in Chinese cooking. The most popular are made from wheat or rice flour. Wheat noodles are the most commonly produced and consumed in northern China and rice noodles are typical one used in southern China. Rice based noodles are typically made only with rice and water without the addition of salt. Oyster Sauce: It is called oyster flavored sauce which is made from oyster extract, salt and spices. Soy sauce: Soya sauce is very important ingredient in Chinese cooking. It is made from fermented paste of soybean, grain, brine and other additional additives. www.krishijagran.com

Chinese Chopsticks Chopsticks play an important role in Chinese food culture. The recorded history of chopsticks is as early as the Shang Dynasty (1766–1122 BC), that the emperor of the Shang Dynasty used chopsticks made from ivory. Another legend says that it was Da Yu, father of the first emperor of the Xia Dynasty invented wooden chopsticks to pick up hot food to save time over the meal while preparing for flood control work. In Chinese language it is called “Kuaizi”, which resembles the pronunciation of two other words: ‘soon’ (kuài) and ‘son(s)’ (z ǐ). It is a popular good wish in China for newly married couples to have babies quickly. Therefore, it is a tradition in some areas to give chopsticks as a gift to newlyweds. An interesting experiment shows that many joints and muscles are being exercised when we use chopsticks. Chinese people considered it as a cultural symbol next to the Dragon. It has been said that China uses 45 billion pairs of chopsticks a year and 20 million 20 year old trees are cut down in China every year to make chopsticks.

Water Chestnuts: These are available in canned form or fresh. Water chestnuts are crunchy and sweet like apples. All freshwater chestnuts tend to be muddy. Wash, peel and rinse thoroughly before eating. Water Spinach: It is not related to spinach but to the sweet potato.

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Quality and support are the mantras of

Tropical Agro Interview By

Monika Mondal & Vibhuti Narayan

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any companies are serving the farmers with best quality insecticides, fungicides and fertilizers, and when it comes to bio-substitutions of these products, Tropical Agro is a name which cannot be missed. The firm is well known for its good quality bio products since many years. Its responsibility doesn’t end with rendering the products to the farmers, but it stretches the zone of responsibility by educating the farmers about the right and proper usage of the products. The company is affirmative about the results which the farmers get using their products, which hence increases the productivity. The company promises to have good organic products for every crop without sacrificing the quality of the products.

to supply 20-25 tonnes of VAM but to meet the expanding demands they had to raise the quantity to 4000 tonnes. This is one of the highest selling products at Tropical Agro. With VAM, the per acre investments for the farmer comes down.

In its meeting with the Director, V K Jhavar, Krishi Jagran discussed the company’s working model and got to know about the relationship that the company shares with the farming community. Mr. Jhavar started with giving description of the company’s range of bio products which is quite acclaimed amongst the farmers.

Mr. Jhavar says, farmers should use more and more of bio fertilizers. 4 doses of chemical fertilizer on a piece of land, is equivalent with 2 doses of organic fertilizer which also renders better results. Apart from this another product named “Nasa” is becoming a brand for the organization.

He mentioned about one biological product which strengthens the root system of the plant. There are approximately 200 Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizals (VAMs) available in the market . VAM is a fungus that penetrates the roots of a vascular plant to help it to capture nutrients from soil. The increasing demand of Tropical Agro’s VAM in the market proves its popularity, says Jhavar. In the beginning ,Tropical Agro used 52

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Narrating an incident from Madhya Pradesh, he emphasizes on the wonder of VAM. During a meeting in MP, a distressed farmer was advised to use VAM on the falling banana crop due to frequent storms. The farmer followed the advice of the representatives from Tropical Agro. When the storm destroyed the crop of other villagers, this farmer’s banana plants stood erect. The low supply of banana shot up the prices in the area which benefited the farmer.

Discussing about the type of products and their affect, he states that the company has most of its products as Plant Growth Regulators which also works as biofertilizers. It works on almost every crop and is effective. He also added that it is difficult for a sole company to make available bio and other products to augment the crop productivity, due to the limited scope of work a www.krishijagran.com


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company can do. The company is in talks with the companies like ITC, Synthiate and A B Thomas and hope the association will boost the production. He beliefs that the future is going to be of organic farming. Claiming the authenticity of the company’s product he states that if a farmer uses any product of the company for once, he/ she will continue to use the product for lifetime. The

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company invests a lot in R&D and has an organic store in Coimbatore. He further states that instead of using chemical fertilizers using organic and bio products will positively affect the health of all of us. Chemical residue works negatively with the fruit production and the soil quality .Farmer should use more and more of organic products which would be in favour of health of humans and soil as well.

V.K.Jhavar

Director, Tropical Agro

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Regions First Free CPD Accredited Animal Health Conference will take Place at AgraME ,Dubai

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graME, one of the largest exhibitions in the Middle East highlighting products and services from different agricultural sectors, is taking place on 6-8 March at the Dubai World Trade Centre and will be hosting a three-day, free-to-attend Animal Health Conference which offers CPD accreditation to attending veterinarians. The CPD Certification Service operates across various industry sectors to complement the Continuing Professional Development policies of professional institutes and academic bodies. Government representation for the conference comes from the Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) and Dubai Municipality’s (DM) Veterinary Services Section. Taking place on day two of the conference, Dr. Faisal Salem Hamdan Barakeh, Animal Production Specialist for ADFCA is to present a lecture on improving the productivity of livestock in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, and is expected to look in-depth at the challenges facing livestock development in the Emirate and what investment opportunities exist in the livestock sector and how to capitalise on them. With Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) being a major issue in human and animal health, the presentation by Dubai Municipality Veterinary Services Section on Day two by Dr Louai Abdelrahman Ahmed, Principal Veterinary Specialist, Dubai Municipality will focus on the DM’s measures in place for combating the development of AMR in the animal sector in line with OIE and FAO protocols. Speaking ahead of the conference, Eng. Hashim Mohammed Al Awadhi, Head of Veterinary Services Section, Dubai Municipality commented: “Out Veterinary Services Section is always committed to the encouragement of continuous veterinary education and creating a learning atmosphere for our local industry, as well as for Veterinary professionals. We look forward to being part of the efforts in making Dubai further as a hub for learning for veterinary professionals.”

conference is happening at the perfect time to support it.” commented Samantha Bleasby, Exhibition Director, AgraME. Day three of the conference looks at herd treatment and management protocols, the role of natural supplements in animal health, gene editing techniques in animals and research in microbiology. Key speakers include Dr. S. Mathan Kumar, Senior Veterinary Surgeon, Directorate General of Veterinary Services, Royal Court Affairs, Oman; Dr. Soja Saghar Soman, Research Scientist, New York University Abu Dhabi; Dr. Ahmed I. Yagi, Associate Professor, Al Khawarizmi International College and Dr. Shuaib Khan, Research Scientist, Himalaya Global Research Centre. “We are proud to be able to offer the region’s first CPA accredited Animal Health conference free of charge. With the expert knowledge of ADFCA and Dubai Municipality I believe we are in a good position to highlight some of the key themes surrounding the industry while giving veterinary professionals from across the Middle East access to high-level content and training opportunities. Over the last 8 years VETME has brought together the veterinary industry in the Middle East. Now under the umbrella of AgraME, the animal health section will provide more suppliers and learning opportunities than ever before,” added Bleasby. With a more targeted focus on the Crop Farming, Animal Farming, Aquaculture and Animal Health sectors, AgraME 2018 will attract suppliers and buyers, both locally and internationally, looking to source the latest products and innovative solutions, as well as offer a content platform to discuss ways to tackle the ongoing struggle in regional food security. For more information on the conference and to register for free please visit - https://www. agramiddleeast.com/en/Programme/animal_ health_conference.html

Day one of the conference focuses on large animal health looking at equines and camels. One of the key sessions of the day comes from Dr. Nishar Ahmad Wani, Scientific Director, Reproductive Biotechnology Centre who will be looking at the latest developments in assisted reproduction in camels.

To exhibit at AgraME please contact Samantha Bleasby Samantha.bleasby@informa.com

“With such strides being made in the country around camel reproduction, it made sense to put a heavy focus on this for day one of our conference. The world’s first successful artificially inseminated birth took place only a few weeks ago, with two more due to happen soon, so we feel the

Media contact:Josse Dulka,Group Communications Manager | Global Exhibitions,PO Box 9428, Dubai, United Arab Emirates,Direct line: +971 (0) 4 407 2753 Switchboard: +971 (0) 4 336 5161,Josse.dulka@ informa.com ,www.informaexhibitions.com

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Agriculture Marketing:

APMC Act and Related Issues Aditya Sirmour

PhD scholar, IGKVV,Raipur Ph: 8770628291 email: adi1693@gmail.com

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arketing and trade, as an activity comes at latter part of the value chain for any commodity and yet it is the most important determinant for all other activities. All the input expenses for labour, materials and capital are rewarded at this stage, which shall include some incentive over and above inputs. Agricultural products, in a developing country remain in uniform demand throughout year, while production of most of them is concentrated in some part of the year. This results in fluctuation in prices which can change equations of profit for the farmer. Apart from this, in a federal and diverse country, every state or region has diverse resources, consumption patterns and rules regarding taxation, levies, sale etc., which makes numerous hurdles in interstate trade. Integration of all the regional markets into national market is desirable in interest of both farmers and consumers. Farmers will get rewarding prices even if demand is not there in their region, on other hand if there is less production in a state, consumer will still be able to get products at reasonable prices. Same is true for international markets, we have seen few years back when prices of sugar were up swinging, and then sugar imported from Brazil came to rescue Indian consumers. However, integration of national and international markets, at times can make domestic and regional farmer vulnerable because of external forces. For these, reasonable regulation is imperative. 56

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The procurement and disbursal by government involves about 33 percent of total production of food grains. Another, 33 percent is consumed by farmers and the remaining 34 percent is left for open markets. Trade of this quantity is also heavily regulated by the government through APMC act and various taxes and levies. So, less quantity left in market is in itself a strong reason for price rise, which is further supplemented by monopoly of government in open market. Further, under current system there are number of intermediaries who add little value to the product, but increase price dramatically by commissions or trading margins. This all coupled with lack of integration of market that leaves farmers and consumers vulnerable alike.

governments enacted APMC act in 1950’s or so to bring transparency and end discretion of traders. This is extension of overall government policy which is directed toward food security, remunerative prices to farmers and fair prices to consumers. However, widespread perception for this act is that it has worked contrary to almost every stated objective, atleast in recent past.

Agricultural Produce Market Committee (APMC) Act

Under the APMC acts, States are geographically divided in to markets which are headed by market committees and any production in that area shall be brought to a market committee for sale. This is applicable to ‘notified agricultural products’ which differs from state to state and generally includes most of the important cereals, vegetables and other horticulture products. Notified products are meant to be brought to the market committee and auctioned in presence of the farmer.

a. Purpose Agriculture is a state subject and almost all state

It should be noted that though current system controlled by APMC is quite inefficient, yet it is far better than the pre-APMC/50’s era. At that time there was no control at all. Money lender, traders, bankers etc. were often one person. This all in one role of middleman resulted in perpetual indebtness of farmer.

In this Market committee (popularly called Mandi) there are commission agents (called arhatiyas) who hold license and are allotted a shop in the market. Farmer and buyer have discretion to go to any agent in this market, based on personal relations. Normally farmers chose agents from their own village and are influenced by age old relations of money lending. There are huge numbers of commission agents in a particular APMC dealing in same crop, which results in constant price discovery and adjustments for that particular crop. At same time buyers, which may be rice mill, flour mills, cotton ginning mill owners, come to procure these products. They make their bids and if these bids are fair, will give best return to farmers. But unfortunately this is not so. b) Shortcomings in Current APMC system Monopoly of APMC – Monopoly of any trade (barring few exceptions) is bad, whether it is by some MNC corporation by government or by any APMC. It deprives farmers from better customers, and consumers from original suppliers. Cartelization – It is quite often seen that agents in an APMC get together to form a cartel and www.krishijagran.com

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deliberately restraint from higher bidding. Produce is procured at manipulatively discovered price and sold at higher price. Spoils are then shared by participants, leaving farmers in lurch. Entry Barriers – License fee in these markets are highly prohibitive. In many markets, farmers were not allowed to operate. Further, over and above license fee, rent/value for shops is quite high which keeps away competition. At most places only a group of village/urban elite operates in APMC. Conflict of Interest – APMC play dual role of regulator and Market. Consequently its role as regulator is undermined by vested interest in lucrative trade. They despite of inefficiency won’t let go any control. Generally, member and chairman are nominated/elected out of the agents operating in that market. High commission, taxes and levies: Farmers have to pay commission, marketing fee, APMC cess which pushes up costs. GST also affects the rates.  Other Manipulations – Agents have tendency to block a part of payment for unexplained or fictitious reasons. Farmer is sometimes refused payment slip (which acknowledges sale and payment) which is essential for him to get loan.

WORLD It shall make efforts to build facilities for Processing and other value additions Ensuring transparency in Pricing and Transactions in the market It allows Public Private Partnership in the ‘management and development’ of agricultural markets in the country for post-harvest handling,

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gricultural products, in a developing country remain in uniform demand throughout the year, while production of most of them is concentrated in some part of the year. This results in fluctuation in prices which can change equations of profit for the farmer.

c) APMC model act Taking these concerns into cognizance, Central Government appointed a working group which recommended a Model APMC act. Salient features are: a. Farmer doesn’t need to bring his produce to APMC Mandi. He can directly sell it to whomever he wants. But, if he doesn’t bring his produce to Mandi, then he can’t stand for election in that APMC marketing committee. It allows alternate markets such as direct purchase centers, private market yards/mandis. It increased responsibility of APMCs on following lines – Full payment should be made on day of sale itself. Quantity brought and prices should be displayed near arrival gate. It’s being done electronically in many APMCs Promote private partnership in management of APMCs 58

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cold storage, pre-cooling facilities, pack houses etc. It not only allows, but strongly advocates for contract farming. It also provides for dispute resolution mechanism. It mandates establish ‘State Agricultural Produce Marketing Standards Bureau’ for Grading, Standardization and Quality Certification. It provides for abolishment of commission agent system. Payments will be made for facilities such as grading, sorting and processing. APMC model act is a sort of roadmap for states for their respective APMC acts which shall be amended. States has adopted Model APMC in piecemeal manner as per vested interests of various pressure groups. Most of the states haven’t abolished system of commission agents as they constitute influential people. Bihar repealed APMC act in 2006, while Kerala never had any APMC act, but situation is no www.krishijagran.com


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WORLD d) Economic Survey on APMC act The provisions of the State Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC) Acts have prevented creation of competitive conditions in the distribution of commodities and creation of a national market for agricultural commodities. Multiple layers of intermediation in the distribution of food articles have also pushed up prices for consumers. It is therefore necessary to focus on distribution channels and on reducing food wastage in the supply chain. The liberalization of 1991 focused on the industrial sector. While industry was liberalized and allowed to buy from and sell to anyone in the world, Indian farmers in many states, are still required to buy and sell only in the gov-

better there as thrust on developing alternate markets are lacking. Demand is just to dismantle monopoly of state regulated APMCs and increase competition. APMC can continue and with competition they can get efficient overtime. Why model APMC Act is also considered inappropriate? The model legislation has actually given rise to a conflict of interest, as the APMC, which is a major player, is also the regulator/registering authority. There is reluctance on part of state governments to reform the APMC legislation, as it generates huge revenues. Some states have created entry barriers by prescribing either prohibitive license fees for setting up such markets or the minimum distance between private markets and APMC markets. www.krishijagran.com

Onions That Don’t Make You Cry

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he reason we cry when we slice an onion is because it contains a volatile compounds that waft up from the onion and react with the natural water in our eyes to form sulfuric acid, which makes eyes produce tears to reduce the irritant. Now, a company named Sunion in the United States has come out with the new variety of the onion which is tearless and sweet in taste. Unlike the conventional onions, Sunions’ volatile compounds decrease over time, so they lose that tear-triggering effect. It is a product of 30 years of crossbreeding of different onion types and these are currently grown in the US and available only there. Most important factor is it is not a genetically modified crop. MARCH 2018

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ernment-designated Agricultural Produce and Marketing Committees (APMC) to licensed entities. Farmers are not allowed to sell their produce directly to the consumers. A national market for food is yet to develop. Interventions by the government are problematic. The first is the maze of restrictions on transactions and storage. This includes state-level APMC laws, the Essential Commodities Act and the administrative measures at local and state levels that distort the decision to grow and the decision to store. State APMC laws are a major hurdle to modernization of the food economy. They have artificially created cartels of buyers who possess market power. The proposed Model APMC Act 2003 is an inadequate solution, as APMCs remain a non-level playing field. To create a national market the central government needs to use powers under the Union List and the Concurrent List of the Seventh

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PMC model act promotes direct marketing. As farmer is allowed to sell his goods outside APMC, he can directly sell to consumer. This completely eliminates middleman and narrows gap between farmer’s sale price and price paid by consumer.

Since this may take time, fruits and vegetables should be taken out of the purview of the APMC Acts immediately. A processor should be able to buy directly from farmers without having to pay any Mandi fee/tax to the APMC. Permit sale and purchase of all perishable commodities such as fruits and vegetables, milk and fish in any market. This could later be extended to all agricultural produce. Exempt market fee on fruits and vegetables and reduce the high incidence of commission charges on agricultural/horticultural produce.

Schedule of the Constitution to end the monopoly powers of the APMCs and replace other punitive and coercive state laws affecting the food market. Apart from breaking the monopoly and dissuading state governments from treating the APMCs as liberal sources of revenue, substantive efforts have to be made to create alternative trading platforms in the private sector where it is possible to reduce the layers of intermediation. 60

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Taking a cue from the success of direct marketing efforts of states, the APMC/other market infrastructure may be used to organize farmers markets. FPOs/self-help groups (SHGs) can be encouraged to organize farmers markets near urban centers, malls, etc. that have large open spaces. These could be organized every day or on weekends, depending on the concentration of footfalls. www.krishijagran.com


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Include ‘facilitating organization of farmers markets’ under the permitted list of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities under Companies Act 2013, to encourage companies engaged in agri-allied activities, food processing etc. to take up this activity under CSR and also help in setting up supply chain infrastructure. This would be similar to the e-Choupal initiative of ITC Ltd., but under CSR. All the above facilitators can also tie-up a link to the commodity exchanges’ platform to disseminate spot and futures prices of agricultural commodities

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he can now under APMC model act, directly sell to consumer. This completely eliminates middleman and narrows gap between farmer’s sale price and price paid by consumer. There are numerous successful examples all over India such as Apni Mandi in Punjab, Rythu Bazar in Andhra Pradesh, Uzhavar Sandhai in TN, Shetkari Bazaar in Maharashtra, Hadaspur Vegetable Market in Pune, Krushak Bazaar in Odisha and Kisan Mandi in Rajasthan.

Some measures that would facilitate the creation of a barrier-free national market are:

Central government sponsors ‘Agricultural marketing Infrastructure, Grading & standardization Scheme’ for development of infrastructure for direct marketing in which capital subsidy of 25% is available (33.33% in NE states).

e. Alternate Marketing Channels

b) Contract Farming

a. Direct Marketing

Under contract farming inputs material may be provided by purchasing party for a particular crop and there is a crop buyback agreement in advance Quality is specified. This is mainly

APMC model act promotes direct marketing. As farmer is allowed to sell his goods outside APMC, www.krishijagran.com

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entered into by big corporates who are in business of food processing. So far there has been mixed results. It removes uncertainty of income for the farmer and he can fetch good prices. But this all depends upon ready availability of genuine information about the market trends. It is seen that there is stark information asymmetry between corporates and farmers. This open up avenues for exploitation of farmers as these are long term contracts, once agreed by farmer at lower price, market price doesn’t matter for contract period.

WORLD price difference market and contract price in cash. These contracts between two parties are tradable like commodities on various exchanges. Note that, whenever exchange rate of a $ will vary, (below or beyond Rs 60) it will influence value of the contract itself. Hence, these contracts are instruments for risk

c) Future contracts and ‘negotiable warehouse receipts’ in agriculture A futures contract is 00d date in future. Let’s take example of an Exporter – Exporter sells goods

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ndia is among largest producers for products like wheat, rice, milk, pulses etc., but its share in agro global trade is much lower. This is partially due to heavy domestic consumption and rest due to non-coherent and unpredictable policies.

to USA at 3 month credit at $ 1 lakh. At this time exchange rate of 1$ is Rs 60. So he expects to receive Rs 60 lakh After 3 months. But in 3 months exchange rate can go down to Rs 57. This will cause him loss of Rs 3 lakhs. So, at time of sale, exporter can enter into ‘currency futures’ sale contract. He will enter into contract with banker under which banker promises to • • •

Buy dollars after 3 months, Fixed quantity i.e. $ 1 lakh, At predetermined rate – whatever rate is going in market for ‘3 months currency futures’

At end date, contract may be either settled by delivery of dollars by exporter to bank (at predetermined price/contract price) or by settling 62

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management, price discovery and trading. This trading attracts intense scrutiny of market analysts for prediction of future trends of demand and supply, which in turn yield much useful data for manufacturers and producers. This has much utility for the farmers as they can decode future trends and plan their production accordingly. Farmer can similarly sell his production in advance in futures market and buyers can buy in futures market. In 2003 futures trading in all agricultural commodities was allowed and in 2007 The Warehousing (development and Regulation) Act, 2007 was passed. This created ‘Warehousing Development and Regulating Authority’ (WDRA). WDRA introduced a concept of  ‘Negotiable Warehouse Receipt’. There are WDRA certified www.krishijagran.com


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warehouses all over India, in which farmers can deposit there produce and they will get a receipt (Negotiable Warehouse Receipt) acknowledging quantity, type, category etc. of crop. This receipt can be used by farmers to get loans, to make payments or to settle any other type of claim. This receipt will be accepted by any ‘certified warehouse’ in India and possessor of this receipt can get quantity mentioned in it.

like wheat, rice, milk, pulses etc., but its share in agro global trade is much lower. This is partially due to heavy domestic consumption and rest due to non-coherent and unpredictable policies. There are quantitative restrictions which differ from crop to crop and time to time. Few years back cotton exports were suddenly banned after domestic prices rise and soon ban was lifted. There are export quotas, beyond which export is

The Negotiable Warehouse Receipts (NWR) system aimed at not only helping the farmers to avail better credit facilities and avoid distress sale but will also to safeguard financial institutions by mitigating risks inherent in credit extension to farmers.

not allowed.

However, this to work effectively need a market based economy and free determination of prices. Various commodities are time and again banned for futures trading which keeps farmers and investors away. Further, there was scam in commodity exchange NSEL; it was found that stock of underlying assets, on basis of which contracts were entered, didn’t exist. Consequently, NSEL failed to settle its contracts.

Exports of agro product were valued at USD 32.3 billion in 2013-14, a jump of 122 per cent from 2008-09. But big part of this was offloading of surplus stocks by FCI in foreign markets.

International Trade India is among largest producers for products www.krishijagran.com

Trade of basmati rice was liberalized in 1990’s and since then its prices are almost integrated to international prices which are more remunerative to farmers.

Import of one lakh tons of rice was undertaken over a five month period from Myanmar for augmenting the TPDS supplies in the north-eastern states. Such avenues need to be explored especially as they could be more economical than transporting rice from surplus states like Punjab or AP, and would limit FCI’s Procurement and consequently, distortion in the MARCH 2018

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domestic market.

Essential Commodities Act The ECAct,1955 provides for the ‘regulation and control’ of production, distribution and pricing of commodities which are declared as essential for maintaining or increasing supplies or for securing their equitable distribution and availability at fair prices. Major commodities covered under the act are: •

Petroleum and its products, including petrol, diesel, kerosene, Naphtha, solvents etc

Foodstuff, including edible oil and seeds, vanaspati, pulses, sugarcane and its products like khandsari and sugar, rice, paddy

Jute and textiles Drugs- prices of essential drugs are still controlled by the DPCO Fertilizers- the Fertilizer Control Order prescribes restrictions on transfer and stock of fertilizers apart from prices. The Drug Price Control Order (DPCO) or Fertilizer Control Order and such other orders have also been issued under the powers of the ECA. The Act is thus pro-consumer and impacts at the level of the wholesaler and retailer. The Act empowers the Centre to order states to impose stock limits and bring hoarders to task, in order to increase supplies and cool prices. Generally the Centre specifies upper limits in the case of stock holding and states prescribe specific limits. However, in case there is a difference between states and the Centre, the act specifies that the latter will prevail. In 2002 and 2003 an order was passed removing the licensing requirements, stock limits and movement restrictions on all specified foodstuffs. These orders allowed dealers to freely buy, stock, sell, transport, distribute, dispose, acquire, use or consume any quantity in respect of rice/paddy, wheat, coarse grains, sugar, edible oils and oilseeds, pulses, jagery, wheat products etc. However, later in 2006 due to price rise in agro products, state governments requested for restoration of powers under EC act and it was done by central government. Since then 64

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WORLD there have been regular on and off policy. Different states put different limits on stock. As of now only sugar and wheat stands denotified by central government. Recently potato and onions were added to the list as inflation control measure. While it is true that at times hoarding of commodities can cause shortage in market, yet ban on stocking runs contradictory to government policy directed toward food processing and cold storage. If an entrepreneur invests in cold storage facility, he is supposed to stock something to utilize storage space and for profit. Ban on storage can demotivate investment storage capacities. Further, thrust should be on dismantling incentives to stock products for long period. From long experience it has been seen that government has limited capacity to restrict illegal stocking. In this scenario inter-regional and inter-temporal variation in prices of crops should be brought down. Most of the crops are produced seasonally, but are consumed throughout the year. Uniform supplies of these crops throughout the year can be insured by increasing competition at middle of supply chain i.e. between wholesalers and retailers. This shall be supplemented by adequate investment in supply chain infrastructure. As we have seen most of these institutions were designed in 1950’s and 60’s in response to formidable challenges of food security and farmer protection. Then , green revolution and liberalization of economy came and that gave India abundance of grains and new trading mechanism like futures and NWR. In all these changes, reformation and redefinition of role of these institutions was overlooked. Consequently, they gradually moved in opposite directions. To hold them together, government needs to make a coherent policy to redefine role of these institutions and underlying mechanisms. Recognizing that a competitive market, besides adding to the welfare of the producers and consumers also plays a contributory role in poverty alleviation, the recent budget also highlighted that farmers and consumers’ interest will be further served by increasing competition and integrating markets across the country. While these are discrete measures, a holistic policy with across-the-board reforms would enable the Indian agricultural market to cross the rubicon and progress towards achieving Pareto efficiency.

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Crop diversification

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R L Yadav, Former Director,

Directorate of Cropping systems Research

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n any locality, the prevalent cropping systems are the cumulative results of the past and present decisions by individuals, communities, government and their agencies. These decisions are usually based on experience, tradition and expected profit, personal preferences and

resources, social and political pressure. Essentially, these are answers to some of the following questions: 1. What crops with the present methods of pestand-diseases control are ecologically practicable?

Crop Diversification in India:

NEED AND LIMITATION

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Since 1960s, to meet food demand of ever increasing population in our country, cereal based cropping systems were promoted, now a day, rice-wheat and rice-rice cropping systems are most prevalent in our country. Continuous cropping of cereal based cropping has resulted in multiple nutrient deficiencies in soil, and also has resulted in loss of soil organic carbon content. Moreover, annual crops which are sown and harvested every year require lot of energy, manpower and resources, thus increases cost of cultivation and drain national resources. In view of these considerations, diversification of crops and cropping system is utmost need of the day for sustainable production.

2. What interactions occur among the ecologically practicable crops and chosen crops which must be combined in a special way (rotations) in the farming system? 3. Are any of the ecologically feasible crops ruled out by infrastructural factors? 4. Which of the crops, now remaining of the list, are most profitable (or yield most in subsistence agriculture?) In what combinations and at what level of input application would they make the best use of local land, climate and input resources in the short term and long term situations bearing in mind the degree of food and income security required by individual and community? 5. What operational factors rule out or amend the size and the method of any of the economically preferable crop combinations thereof ? 6. Finally, are the crop combinations, the farming systems and the input level suggested by the process for the individual farmer compatible with his own skills, enterprise preferences, health, age and capital? A large diversity of cropping systems exist under rain fed and dry land areas with an overriding practice of inter cropping due to greater risks involved in cultivating large area under a particular crop. While in areas with assured irrigation facilities, the major cropping systems are: rice-wheat, rice-rice, cotton-wheat, maize-wheat, pearl millet-wheat, sorghum-wheat, soybean-wheat, and sugarcane-wheat, with estimated spread of 9.77, 2.12, 1.39, 1.29, 1.03, 1.11, 0.89 and 0.54 million hectares respectively.

Need for Diversification www.krishijagran.com

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Large scale cultivation of cereal based cropping systems like rice-wheat and rice-rice have rendered the soil barren. There are reports of emergence of multi-nutrient deficiencies in soil and loss of soil organic carbon content in areas of rice-wheat dominant crop rotation. Further, since the time of the Green Revolution in the 1960s when the need was felt to sharply increase crop productivity to ensure food security, the use of pesticides have also increased, which are polluting our soils. In the world, since 1950, the population has doubled, yet the area of arable land used to feed these people has increased only by 10 percent. There are huge pressures to provide food, at low cost, on land that is becoming more year. In sowing and harvesting ,a lot of energy manpower and input resources (seed) are required every year. This is a national loss. Under such situation, annuals are required to be diversified with perennials.

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n sowing and harvesting ,a lot of energy, manpower and input resources (Seed) are required every year. This is a national loss. Under such situation, annuals are required to be diversified with perennials.

and more degraded as nutrients are stripped from the soil. Naturally, farmers rely on external inputs, i.e. fertilizers and pesticides for short-term solution for large scale commercially intensive agricultural systems. This overreliance has led to several problems: Many of these chemicals have become extremely pervasive in our environment as a result of their widespread repeated use and in some cases, their environmental persistence. What’s important to understand here is that it is not just farmers and pesticide applicators are at risk from pesticide use: when women are exposed to pesticides during pregnancy, some of these chemicals pass directly to child in the womb. The only sure-shot approach to such problem is to diversify cereal-based cropping systems. Generally for food security, we cultivate annual crops. These crops are sown and harvested every 68

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Limitations of crop diversification 1. Cereals are required to be diversified with legumes to maintain soil fertility. However, in irrigated ecosystem, legumes are not successful except forage legumes. 2. As far as diversification of annuals with perennials is concerned, choice of crops such as perennial pigeon pea, Lima bean etc., is very limited. 3. Rice-wheat cropping system should be rotated or diversified with sugarcane once in three years, but then sugar factories are required in that area for utilization of sugarcane. 4. Cereals are most important for food security of the country.

Suggestions for implementation of Diversification For crop diversification, future thrust would be focused on efficient new perennial crops and tree species for developing agro-forestry systems for sustainable production and farm profitability. There is an urgent need to identify perennial crops and their introduction in agriculture system. In India, agro-forestry system as a source of raw material for wood-based industry is woefully constraints by policies that not only prevent job creation but promote avoidable imports. India currently imports significant parts of its demand for wood and wood-based byproducts. www.krishijagran.com


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Agri News

NATIONAL BANANA FESTIVAL ends with a call for Productivity Boost

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ational Banana Festival concluded at Kalliyoor with a recommendation to facilitate the export and promote the organic cultivation of banana. Union Agriculture Minister Radha Mohan Singh inaugurated the festival. He called for the need to conserve the genetic diversity and also emphasized the importance of a strategic and adaptive research to maximize the productivity of banana crops. A wide range of banana cultivated in Kerala and other Indian states and value-added products was the major attraction. The five day festival was organized by Centre for Innovation in Science & Social Action (CISSA) and Kalliyoor Gramapanchayath in association with National and State organizations.

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Kadakampally Surendran, Minister for Tourism, Devaswoms and Cooperation, Government of Kerala presided over the function. Suresh Gopi MP, Organising Committee Chairman, National Banana Festival 2018 inaugurated the Exhibition organized as part of the Festival. O Rajagopal MLA, V K Madhu, President, District Panchayat, Thiruvananthapuram, G Chandra Mouli, Member, South Zone, KVIC, Adv S Suresh, District President, BJP, G R Anil, Dr G G Gangadharan, President CISSA, are also spoke. After the inaugural function Central Minister for Agriculture Radha Mohan Singh released the banana special issues of Krishi Jagran and Agriculture World. Krishi Jagran was the Media partner of the festival.

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Mushroom

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Krishnapriya. P. J.

(Ph.D. scholar, Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, Vellayani)

Dr. D. Geetha (Professor, Instructional Farm, College of Agriculture, Vellayani)

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ushroom is a macro-fungus which comes in a wide range of varieties and development of mushroom strains well adapted to the hot climatic plains of India with suitable simpler cultivation technology, higher yield potential and prolonged shelf life are the present day needs of commercial cultivation. Tricholoma giganteum

Heim is a new tropical edible mushroom identified from the natural location of Kerala, India. The simple production techniques, substantial and sustainable yield, increased shelf life, colour, flavour and shape are the attractive features of this new edible mushroom. During January-February of 2017, Tricholoma

Tricholoma giganteum:

A NEW MILKY MUSHROOM FROM KERALA 70

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richoloma giganteum Heim is a new tropical edible mushroom identified from the natural location of Kerala, India. The simple production techniques, substantial and sustainable yield, increased shelf life, colour, flavour and shape are the attractive features of this new edible mushroom.

giganteum (Figure 1) was collected from the field of Vijayakumar of Attingal,Kerala. The collected mushrooms were huge, brown coloured, resembling the common milky mushroom, Calocybe indica. The sporocarps were initially white surfaced, turning to gray and paler towards the margin. Pileus was glabrous, silky smooth of 20-25 cm diameter, margin slightly incurved, but cracking on drying.

ratio of 1:1:1, supplemented with 2% calcium carbonate. The spawn run was completed on paddy straw in 22-25 days and the mycelial growth was greyish white. Casing was done 30 days after bed preparation and pinheads emerged in 15-20 days. Pinheads were similar to milky mushrooms, with pure white stipe of 4 cm length and pileus

Figure 2. Tricholoma giganteum at harvest stage Figure 1. Wild isolate of Tricholoma giganteum

The mushroom was pure cultured using tissue culture method and maintained on potato dextrose agar slants. Spawn preparation of Tricholoma giganteum was done on paddy grains and spawn run was completed on in18-20 days. Cultivation trials were undertaken on paddy straw, using poly bag method of cultivation, as per the standard methodology. Each bed was prepared, using 150 gram of mushroom spawn, with 500 gram of paddy straw as bed substrate. Unlike oyster mushroom cultivation, milky mushroom prod ction involves an additional process called casing which greatly determines yield of the mushroom. After completion of spawn run, the cylindrical beds were cut horizontally into two equal halves and casing medium was applied on both halves, to a height of 1-2 cm. Casing was done using sand: soil: vermicompost in the www.krishijagran.com

of 0.7x1 cm diameter. Mature sporocarps were creamy white to light brown, with 6.5-7.5 cm length of stipe and pileus of 2.3 x 3-1 to 7.5 x 8 cm diameter (Figure 2). First harvest of sporocarps was done in 60-65 days and preliminary bed trials, resulted in the production of 3-4 sporocarps per bed. A temperature of 30Âą20C and relative humidity of 70-75% was maintained in the mushroom house. Being a tropical mushroom, Tricholoma giganteum has greater scope for commercial exploitation throughout the globe. The present study is the first report of Tricholoma giganteum from Kerala and preliminary study itself revealed its unexploited productivity. Further substrate and amendment studies can pave the way for large scale adoption by the farming community. MARCH 2018

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Chilly

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YELLOW CHILLI or LAKHORI CHILLI B.Sasikumar, Head, Div. Crop Improvement & Biotechnology ICAR-Indian Institute of Spices Research Email:Sasikumarsooranadu@gmail.com

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ried chillies, be it the less pungent Bydagi type or the more pungent non Bydagi ( Guntur type)are red in colour by and large or at least that is what we are more familiar with! However, the Lakhori chilli, indigenous to Lakhouri and adjoining regions in the Garhwal - Kumaon border in Uttarakhand is known as Yellow chilli due its distinctive yellow colour!

Lakhori yellow chilli, like the yellow lantern chilli of Kerala (Malayi Mulaku or Edayoor Mulaku),Naga chilli of Nagaland or Bhut Jalokia of Assam etc. is a unique item and is an ideal candidate for geographical indication registration owing to its distinct quality traits linked to the geographical location of cultivation. It is believed that the specific climatic conditions prevailing in 72

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the tract impart the distinct quality and flavor to this commodity. Though there are many chilli varieties grown in Uttarakhand, Lakhori chilli is the hottest. However, the pungency of Lakhori chilli is reported to vary depending on the season and locality of cultivation. The pungency value of Lakhori chilli is between 50,000-55,000 Scoville Heat Units or SHU. (The Scoville scale is a measurement of the pungency (spicy heat) of chili peppers—or other spicy foods. The chillies of everyday use such as Bydagi or Guntur have SHU below 50,000). There are basically two types of Lakhori chillies –small type(below 2-2.5cm size)and large type(above2.5cm).The former one is preferred www.krishijagran.com


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akhori chilli is rich in seeds as compared to other chilli varieties, small in size and light yellow in colour with a blunt tip. The taste of the dried chillies is similar to that of fresh chillies.

for chilli flakes/Kondattam while the later one is used as a whole spice or for chilli powder manufacturing. Lakhori chilli is rich in seeds as compared to other chilli varieties ,small in size and light yellow in colour with a blunt tip. The taste of the dried chillies is similar to that of fresh chillies. Snack manufacturers are the major buyers of Lakhori chilli. The yellow colour of the spice blends well with the colour of the snack (namkeen) and does not change the colour of the snack, unlike the red type chillies and hence high in demand by the snack manufacturers. Many farmers in Lakhore and nearby areas cultivate this chilli as a contract farming venture www.krishijagran.com

for spice companies. Planting is done by sowing the seeds in terraces during April-June. Picking starts in October and extents up to December. Harvested produce is sun dried, destalked and sorted before selling to the traders who descend to the village during the harvesting season or stock the produce in godowns. The Uttarakhand Organic Board helps farmers to cultivate and market the crop. Despite its popularity, the item has not been branded and is sold largely as a generic product. In addition to its use in snacks, Lakhori chilli is also used for tempering various dishes, pickling and imparting special flavor to some non vegetarian dishes. MARCH 2018

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Fertilizers

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Indiscriminate and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers over the years has resulted in the accumulation of toxic chemical substances in the soil, depletion of organic carbon content, micro flora and fauna and damage to soil fertility with deleterious effects on crop productivity.

SPECIALITY FERTILIZERS:

STATUS, PROSPECTS AND SIGNIFICANCE IN INDIA Gaurendra Gupta1, Amit Kumar1, Navish Kumar Kamboj2 and Vikram Kumar3 navishkamboj62@gmail.com

Research Scholar, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 Research Scholar, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004 3 Research Scholar, Banaras Hindu University, Banaras, Uttar Pradesh- 221005 1

2

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ndian agriculture is now a days, generally based upon imbalanced and exploitative use of fertilizers and other agrochemicals, excessive tillage, unscheduled irrigation, monocropping and removing or burning of crop residues which putting the sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems into stake. Indiscriminate and imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers over the years has resulted in the accumulation of toxic chemical substances in the soil, depletion of organic carbon content, micro flora and fauna and damage to soil fertility with deleterious effects on crop productivity. Current soil fertility scenario of Indian soils indicates that 85-90 %, 70-80 %, 42 %, 49 %, 33 % , 15 %, 7 %, 6 % and 4 % soils of India are deficient in N, P, S, Zn, B, Fe, Mo, Mn and Cu, respectively (Muralidharudu et al., 2011 and Tandon et al. 2012). This scenario of nutrient deficiency is not uniform over the regions but location, region, soil and crop specific. Zn deficiency is mainly associated with the states of Maharashtra (86%), Karnataka (72%) whereas, B deficiency is widespread in West Bengal (68%) and Bihar (38%). Other micronutrients such as Fe are mainly deficient in Karnataka (35%), H.P. (27%). Fertility imbalance requires management

WORLD of micronutrients deficiencies in view of decline in production of major crops is a cause of concern that requires immediate attention. Thus, there is need of specialty fertilizers for site and location specific remedy of nutrient deficiency.

Specialty fertilizers The fertilizer industry faces a continuing challenge to improve its products to increase the efficiency of their use, particularly of nitrogenous fertilizers and to minimize any possible adverse environmental impact. This is done either through improvement of fertilizers already in use or through development of new specific fertilizer types. Specialty fertilizers are innovative sources of nutrients which applied in special condition of soil and plant for special action in plant for achieving higher recovery, efficiency and economy. It restricts the amount of moisture contact and helps gradually release fertilizer nutrients, usually over a few weeks or a few months. Specialty fertilizers also contribute to advanced fertilizer management programs and to innovative farming systems such as no-tillage farming. They significantly reduce possible loss of nutrients, particularly losses of nitrate nitrogen between applications and uptake by the plant through gradual nutrient release. They also reduce loss of ammonia due to evaporation, which substantially decreases the risk of environmental pollution.

Characteristics of ideal specialty fertilizers •

• • • •

• • • • • •

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Specialty fertilizers are popular because of their higher recovery and efficiency. An ideal specialty fertilizer should have following characteristics: They must not have any unfavorable side effects on soil fertility They should not degrade to toxic substances in the soil They should not be toxic to plants, animals and man They should fit into the complex production systems of the producers to be economically viable and environmentally acceptable They should be stable during production, storage, transport and use Their cost should be acceptable to farmers In the case of urease inhibitors, they should be compatible with urea containing fertilizers Types of specialty fertilizers Slow and controlled release fertilizers Stabilized fertilizers (fertilizers associated with nitrification or urease inhibitors) delaying either the nitrification of ammonia or the ammonification. MARCH 2018

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ertility imbalance requires management of micronutrients deficiencies in view of decline in production of major crops is a cause of concern that requires immediate attention. Thus, there is need of specialty fertilizers for site and location specific remedy of nutrient deficiency.

• • • • • • •

Agro-chemicals compatible fertilizers Customized fertilizers Fortified fertilizers Liquid formulation of fertilizers Organically chelated micronutrients (OCMN) High water soluble fertilizers Slow and controlled release specialty fertilizers The utilization rate of N, P, K and micronutrients in mineral fertilizers is about 50-60%, 10-25%, 50-60%, and 2-5 % respectively in the first year (Finck, 1992). Loss of nutrient from the applied fertilizers takes place through a number of processes such as leaching, volatilization, denitrification and fixation by soil particles. Quick or uncontrolled release of nutrients intensifies these processes. Thus, slow or controlled release specialty fertilizers gained importance since they improve the nutrient recovery and nutrient use efficiency by controlling the loss of nutrients. Slow or controlled release fertilizers containing a plant nutrient in a form which delays its availability for plant uptake and use after application or which extends its availability to the plant significantly longer than a reference rapidly available nutrient fertilizer such as ammonium nitrate or urea, ammonium phosphate or potassium chloride. Such delay of initial availability could be due to controlled water solubility of the material by semi-permeable coatings, occlusion, protein materials or other chemical forms, by slow hydrolysis of water-soluble low molecular weight compounds or by other unknown means. 76

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Slow and controlled release fertilizers (SRF) increases N use efficiency (NUE) by keeping the availability of nitrogen for longer period and reduce emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), without compromise in crop productivity of crops like rice and thus found that SRF significantly improved NUE, so crop yield was also improved (Shrestha, et al. 2016). Various types of slow and controlled release fertilizers are produced in India with different materials like sulphur, polymer, neem etc. Nimin is a product derived from neem. It is reported that neem coated urea improves the efficiency of applied nitrogen by inhibiting nitrification process and slow release of nutrients. Coating urea with neem cake has helped in reducing volatization as well as leaching losses (Tiwari, K.N, 1989). Slow and controlled-release fertilizers available for application Three types of slow and controlled-release fertilizers are generally available for application:

1. Condensation products of urea and aldehydes/nitrogen reaction products: These includes urea-formaldewww.krishijagran.com


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S No.

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Grade

Recommended crop

Recommended area

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15:32:8:0.5 (Zn)

Paddy

East and West Godavari of AP

2

18:27:14:05 (Zn)

Maize

East and West Godavari of AP

3

12:24:0:0.5 (Ca)

Cotton

Krimnagar, Warangal & Nizamabad

4

8:16:24:6:0.5:0:1.5

Potato

Western and northern districts of Uttar Pradesh

5

7:20:18:6:0.5

Sugarcane,

Western and northern districts of Uttar Pradesh

6

12:26:18:0.5:5

Wheat and Paddy

Pratapgaarh, Barabanki, Faizabad, Jaunpur and Raebareilli

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pecialty fertilizers are innovative sources of nutrients which applied in special condition of soil and plant for achieving higher recovery, efficiency and economy. Slow and controlled release fertilizers (SRF) increases N use efficiency (NUE) by keeping the availability of nitrogen for longer period and reduce emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs), without compromise in crop productivity.

hyde(UF)-38%N,urea-isobutyraldehyde/ isobutylidene diurea (IBDU)-32% N and urea-alcetaldehyde/cyclo diurea (CDU) – 32.5 % N

2. Coated/encapsulated slow- and controlled-release fertilizers: The fertilizer can be as tablets or granules coated by hydrophobic polymers or as matrices in which the soluble active www.krishijagran.com

material is dispersed in a continuum that restricts the dissolution of the fertilizer. There are following types of coated/encapsulated fertilizers available: Sulphur coated fertilizers: Sulphur-coated urea (SCU)- 30-40 % N Polymer coated fertilizers: These are most advanced in terms of product longevity and efficacy Meister products: Meister products are produced by using thermoplastic resins as coating material. This coating can be applied in Urea, DAP, KCl etc. Reactive layer coating: It combines two reactive monomers layering as cover which control nutrient release by osmotic diffusion Multicoated products: These can be produced by applying multi layer of fatty acid salts followed by paraffin as top layer. This coating can be applied in Urea, DAP, KCl etc. Sulphur plus polymers: polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC)-based co-polymers and urea formaldehyde resin. MARCH 2018

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ustomized fertilization means the use of the fertilizers best management practices (BMPs) and is generally assumed to maximize crop yields while minimizing unwanted impacts on the environment and human health.

3. Supergranules Supergranules are conventional soluble fertilizers formulated in a compacted form, with a relatively small surface-to-volume ratio. This results in a slow or relatively slow release of nutrients into the soil solution. Some of these special formulations are UF and IBDU.

Stabilized fertilizers Urease inhibitors and nitrification inhibitors are commonly known as stabilized fertilizers. Urease inhibitors prevent or suppress over a certain period of time, the transformation of amide-N in urea to ammonium hydroxide and ammonium through the hydrolytic action of the enzyme urease. By slowing down the rate at which urea is hydrolyzed in the soil, volatilization losses of ammonia to the air (as well as further leaching losses of nitrate) is either reduced or avoided. Thus, the efficiency of urea and of N fertilizers containing urea (e.g. urea ammonium nitrate solution) is increased and any adverse environmental impact from their use is decreased.N-(n-Butyl)thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), phenyl phosphorodiamidate (PPD/ PPDA) and hydroquinone are probably the most thoroughly promising urease inhibitors (Kiss and Simihaian, 2002). Nitrification inhibitors delay the bacterial oxidation of the ammonium ion (NH4+) by depressing over a certain period of time (four to ten weeks) the activity of Nitrosomonas bacteria in the soil. These bacteria transform ammonium ions into nitrite (NO2-), which is further transformed into nitrate (NO3-) by Nitrobacter and Nitrosolobus bacteria. The objective of 78

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WORLD using nitrification inhibitors is to control the loss of nitrate by leaching or the production of nitrous oxide (N2O) by denitrification from the topsoil by keeping N in the ammonium form longer and thus increasing N-use efficiency. Most commonly used nitrification inhibitors are 1-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl-pyridine)- Nitrapyrin, Dicyandiamide (DCD), Thiourea, 2-amino-4chloro-6-methyl-pyramidine (AM) and Neem.

Customized fertilizers According to FCO, Customized fertilization means the use of the fertilizers best management practices (BMPs) and is generally assumed to maximize crop yields while minimizing unwanted impacts on the environment and human health. Present scenario of nutrient deficiency of our country is not uniform over the regions but location, region, soil and crop specific. Thus, it requires the soil, crop and action specific fertilizers best management practices (BMPs). Customized fertilizers are such specialty fertilizers which are being made for specific condition of soil and recommended for special crops. Scientific principles such as geo-referencing, sampling of soil, plant and water sample of the chosen area, defining management zones, yield targeting, calculating nutrient requirement, blending of nutrients based on the generated information are used as an ultimate guiding factor in deciding the grades of customized fertilizers.

Customized fertilizer formulations available in India There are about 36 formulations approved by fertilizer control order of India. The important companies in the market producing customized fertilizers are Tata Chemicals Ltd., Deepak Fertilizers, Nagarjuna Fertilizers, Coromandel Industries Ltd. etc. Some of the popular customized fertilizers are as follows:

Advantages of customized fertilizers It promotes site specific nutrient management Maximum fertilizer use efficiency can be achieved in a cost effective manner These are soil-crop-climate based fertilizer and are less influenced by soil, plant and climatic conditions that lead to more uptakes of nutrients and less loss of nutrient. It supplies the plant available nutrients in www.krishijagran.com


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adequate amount and in proper proportion, leads to the balanced application.

Fortified fertilizers Fortified fertilizers are combination of multi-nutrient carriers which satisfy the crop’s nutritional demand based on area, soil and growth stage of a plant. A fortified fertilizer strengthens the nutrient supply to the plant and provides site specific nutrient management for achieving maximum fertilizer use efficiency for the applied nutrient in a cost effective manner. 

Some of the most commonly used fortified fertilizers include: GROMOR ULTRA DAP - 18% Nitrogen and 46% phosphate along with 0.5% Zinc GROMOR ULTRA- 24% Nitrogen and 24% phosphate along with 8% sulphur. GROMOR Parry Super- 16% phosphate, 11% sulphur, 19% calcium and 0.15% - 0.2% boron. Zincated NPK (12:32:16:0.5) Boronated NPK (12:32:16:0.3)

WORLD Aqua-ammonia Vermiwash Sea weed extract Potassium thiosulphate solution Boron Plus- Nitrogen (N): 6.5% & Boron (B): 15.0% Rosasol- NPK water-soluble fertilisers

High water soluble fertilizers Foliar application is efficient but sometimes availability of suitable water soluble fertilizer is limiting. High water soluble specialty fertilizers are exclusively useful for foliar application and fertigation. These fertilizers are having varying ratio of primary, secondary and micronutrient with low salt index and are compatible with other agrochemicals. Popular high water soluble specialty fertilizers are: Potassium Nitrate (13-0-45) Mono Potassium Phosphate (0-52-34) NPK (18-18-18) Mono Ammonium Phosphate (12-61-0) Urea Phosphate (17:44:0)

Organically chelated micronutrients (OCMN) Plants need essential micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese. Micronutrients come in many different forms that affect their solubility in water and their uptake and usage by plants. Micronutrients commonly react with other chemicals and get “tied up” or precipitate in the soil and will not be used by the plant. The chelated micronutrients are becoming popular because of their high efficiency. There are several types of chelates. Some of the most common forms are Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid (EDTA) and amino acids. EDTA is a large synthetic molecule that binds very tightly to minerals and resists chemical interactions. Eg. Fe-EDTA, Zn-EDTA, Cu-EDTA etc.

Liquid fertilizers Speciality liquid fertilizers are high analysis totally water soluble fertilizers. These are available in mono, double and multi nutrient combinations. They can be applied to plants through fertigation or foliar application to maximize fertilizer use efficiency and crop productivity, minimize production cost and to improve quality of crop and its produce. Some of the commonly available liquid fertilizers are: www.krishijagran.com

Krishi Jagran Face book pages reaches more than one crore people Visit : https://www.facebook. com/krishi.jagran/ https://www.facebook.com/ kerala.krishijagran/

To advertise in our portals www.krishijagran.com www.hindi.krishijagran.com www.malayalam.krishijagran.com Contact : sanjay@krishijagran.com & info@krishijagran.com

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Veterinary Science

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PHYTOCHEMICALS IN VETERINARY PRACTICE Dr. Deepak Chandran

MVSc Scholar, Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

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ndia, being one of the six richest mega biodiversity countries of the world is native to over 8000 species of medicinal and aromatic plants. Even though human activities on the earth during last three centuries have wiped out hundreds of plant species, the ethno veterinary practitioners have not given up to anti biodiversity activities especially against the wealth of medicinal plants on earth. At this gesture the herbalists are helplessly looking upon the United Nations to enforce laws and checks so as to ensure conservation of medicinal plants for the holistic human and livestock health management practices. Vedic literatures of ancient India have already described the treatment of animal diseases by using medicinal herbs. For instance “Rigveda” and “Yajurveda” cited the importance of the medicinal plants and “Atharvaveda” mentioned the value of indigenous medicines in curing diseases. The books written by Salihotra and Charaka (2350 BC) and 80

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Palikapya (1000 BC) have documented treatment of animal diseases using medicinal plants. Exclusive information on Veterinary Practices dates back to Mahabharat and two Pandavas “Nakul” and “Sahadev” who practiced veterinary medicine with reference to horses and cattle. Our country has great traditional background in the field of Ethno-Veterinary Medicine (EVM) and practices. Animals and plants have always been an integral part of our culture, religion, magico-religion and traditional pharmacopoeia. Traditional practices are still prevalent in many villages which are a clear indication of their faith in the folk medicine. Phytochemicals (from the Greek word phyto meaning plant) are biologically active, naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants, which provide health benefits for animals further more than what is attributed to macronutrients and micronutrients. There are lots of phytochemicals www.krishijagran.com


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in different parts of plants like fruits, leaves, bark, roots etc. They protect from disease and damage, apart from contributing to the plants’ color, aroma and flavor. In general, the plant chemicals that protect plant cells from environmental hazards like pollution, stress, drought, UV exposure and pathogenic attack (like bacteria, fungi etc.) are called phytochemicals. These are not essential nutrients and are not required by the animal body for sustaining life, but at the same time they are having curative and prophylactic properties against a wide range of animal diseases. Hence, many drugs available from plants are even used today by many of the veterinarians in their daily practice. Also, effective and affordable veterinary aid is necessary

WORLD More than 4,000 phytochemicals have been cataloged till date and are classified by protective function, physical characteristics and chemical characteristics. Of these, nearly150 phytochemicals have been studied in detail till date. The phytochemicals present in plants that are responsible for preventing disease and promoting health have been studied extensively in the recent past to establish their efficacy and to understand the underlying mechanism of their action. Such studies have included identification and isolation of the chemical components, establishment of their biological potency both by in vitro and in vivo studies in experimental animals and through epidemiological and clinical-case control studies in

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hytochemicals are biologically active, naturally occurring chemical compounds found in plants, which provide health benefits for animals further more than what is attributed to macronutrients and micronutrients.

for enhancing livestock productivity which can only be achieved through wide scale application of traditional knowledge of ethno-veterinary practice. Revival of this ancient heritage by focused approach on conservation and utilization of the medicinal plant biodiversity will alleviate livestock suffering and enhance availability of nutritional animal products to weaker section also. With the development of chemical science and pharmacognosy, physicians started to extract chemical products from the medicinal plants. A few examples are - quinine was isolated from Cinchona and aspirin was obtained from the bark of the willow tree. With the active principles in medicinal plants identified and isolated, plant-based prescriptions began to be substituted more and more with pure substances, which were more powerful and easier to prescribe and administer. www.krishijagran.com

animals. These compounds are known as secondary plant metabolites and have biological properties such as antioxidant activity, antimicrobial effect, modulation of detoxification enzymes, stimulation of the immune system, decrease of platelet aggregation, modulation of hormone metabolism and anticancer property. In addition phytochemicals can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease by preventing the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, reduce the synthesis or absorption of cholesterol, normalize blood pressure and clotting, and improve arterial elasticity. These also aid in management or prevention of artherosclerosis which is a condition precipitated by cholesterol. Phytochemicals may detoxify those substances that cause cancer. They appear to neutralize free radicals, inhibit enzymes that activate carcinogens, and activate enzymes that detoxify carcinogens. For example, genistein prevents the formation of new capillaries that MARCH 2018

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are needed for tumor growth and metastasis. Phytochemicals have also been promoted in these days for the prevention and treatment of diabetes, high blood pressure, and macular degeneration. Bioactive and disease preventing phytochemicals present in plants:- NSA (Non-starch polysaccharides) include cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, mucilages, pectins, and lignins. Their biological functions include water holding capacity, delay in nutrient absorption and binding toxins and bile acids. Antibacterial & antifungal

WORLD of drug binding of carcinogens and inhibitors of tumourogenesis. Alkaloids, terpenoids, volatile flavor compounds and biogenic amines function as neuropharmacological agents, anti- oxidants and cancer chemoprevention. The pharmacological activities of plants are attributed to certain active principles in plants. They are alkaloids, glycosides, fats, oils, tannins, saponins etc. It is known that tannins are able to precipitate proteins of the wound, forming a protective layer on the wound, thus assisting in

U

se of medicinal plants ranges from treatment of ectoparasites to even surgical cases. Aloe vera, neem plant and sandal wood are those plants used with respect to their antipyretic and antiinfective properties.

agents include terpenoids, alkaloids and phenolics, which are inhibitors of micro-organisms and also reduce the risk of fungal infection. Antioxidants include polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, tocopherols and ascorbic acid. Their functions include oxygen free radical quenching and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Anticancer agents are carotenoids, polyphenols, curcumine and flavonoids. Flavonoids have gained recent attention because of their broad biological and pharmacological activities. They exert multiple biological property including antimicrobial, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory as well as antitumor activities apart from being a very powerful antioxidant. They act as inhibitors of tumor, inhibit development of lung cancer and have anti-metastatic activity. Detoxifying agents include reductive acids, tocopherols, phenols, indoles, aromatic isothiocyanates, coumarins, flavones, carotenoids, retinoids, cyanates and phytosterols. These serve as inhibitors of procarcinogen activation, inducers 82

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the arrest of bleeding and therefore promoting wound. Tannins have also been used in treatment of diarrhea as an effective astringent medicine that does not only stop the flow of the disturbing substance in the stomach; rather controls the irritation in the small intestine. Several health benefits have been recognized for the intake of tannins and some epidemiological associations with the decreased frequency of chronic diseases have been established.

WORLD cholesteraemia. They are also thought to aid in the absorption of calcium. Analgesic properties have been reported to be present in the alkaloids like morphine and codeine. However, some of the alkaloids like the morphine have addictive tendencies. It may therefore be a necessity to investigate any of the extracts for discovery of alkaloids with analgesic properties and less or non-addictive tendencies. Anthraquinones have been associated with anticancer, laxative and anti-arthritic properties.

Saponins have been linked with decreased

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ith the advances in synthetic methodology and the development of more sophisticated isolation and analytical techniques, many more phytochemicals need to be identified.

Undoubtedly ethno-veterinary approaches will offer safe, effective and sustainable solutions. When the whole world turns green today, veterinary field is never an exception. Phytochemicals ensure safe, eco-friendly and most effective drug for animal use. Veterinarians use these phytochemicals with the knowledge from traditional system and modern pharmacology. Use of medicinal plants ranges from treatment of ectoparasites to even surgical cases. Aloe vera, neem plant and sandal wood are those plants used with respect to their antipyretic and anti-infective properties. Plants like Acacia catechu, Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander and Ricinus communis are used widely for their action against external parasite infestation. Spices have good carminative action which can relieve pain, flatulence and bloat apart from promoting gastro-intestinal peristaltic function. Barley and coriander are used as diuretics which increase urine production by direct effect on kidney and urinary bladder. Laxatives and purgatives are of good significance in the field as they relieve constipation and promote bowel movement. www.krishijagran.com

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Anorexia is a common condition encountered where an animal refuses to eat totally, thereby leading to drastic weight loss. Aristolchia indica leaves can be crushed and given as a paste which increases food intake. No days may pass in the life of a veterinarian without a case of indigestion. A mixture of Allium sativum, Ferula assa-foetida, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale is considered to be an excellent remedy for indigestion. Infertility

often stands to be a great challenge for veterinarians. Citrullus colocynthis, Cocos nucifera, Solanum melongena, Areca catechu, Oryza sativa etc are all effective in treating infertility. These are only a very few examples of the many cases wherein veterinarians apply “people’s tradition of animal health care system” for curing animal diseases. High cost of allopathic medicine is one of the major contributing factors in loss of productive livestock and animal productivity. It is true that antibiotics, hormones, insecticides and pesticides have proven to be very effective ever since their introduction. However, their indiscriminative use have played vital role in higher drug and pesticide resistance cases. The presence of their residues in human food chain needs to be reduced to a safe limit. As a result, there has been a great interest in the search for alternative, plant-based medicines with antimicrobial activity. In addition, the prohibitive cost of conventional medicines and their limited availability especially to the rural communities and other developing regions (India being a developing 84

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WORLD country) have driven the necessity of relying upon the traditional practices. Phytomedicine almost went into extinction in our country during the first half of the 21st century with the arrival of the ‘more powerful and potent synthetic drugs’. But due to numerous side effects of these drugs, the value of medicinal plants is being rediscovered. Moreover, some of them have

proved to be as effective as synthetic medicines with fewer or no side effects and contraindications. Although the effects of natural remedies may seem slower, the results are sometimes better on the long run especially with respect to chronic diseases. Switching to Indian system of medicine in veterinary practice for curing ailments other than emergencies and serious infections may therefore be examined at apex level. Nature is a unique source of structures of high phytochemical diversity, many of them possessing interesting biological activities and medicinal properties. In the context of the worldwide spread of different diseases, chronic diseases and a variety of cancers, an intensive search for new lead compounds for the development of novel pharmacological therapeutics is extremely important. Given the number of phytochemicals isolated so far, nature must still have many more in store. With the advances in synthetic methodology and the development of more sophisticated www.krishijagran.com


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isolation and analytical techniques, many more phytochemicals need to be identified. Still there exists a further need to deepen the horizon of research on the phytochemical composition of the plants, their mode of action, and furthermore to assess the lethal dose as well as explain how further studies might be conducted to bridge the gap between common uses and lack of studies on the safety and effectiveness of these herbs in lactation. Hence, an optimal standardization and dosing recommendations of these phytochemicals need to be developed by an explicit clarification in pre-clinical and clinical studies through in-vitro and in-vivo experimentations is needed. Advanced research on plants of excessive medicinal values may lead to new source of drugs

WORLD which are really beneficial for health care of mankind and other important domestic animals. There is an urgent need for biochemical analysis and pharmaceutical investigations of more and more plant species to formulate and standardize the medicine for sustainable uses, progress and development of new avenues. With the advances in synthetic methodology and the development of more sophisticated isolation and analytical techniques, many more of these phytochemicals should be identified. The horizon of phytochemicals have to be explored and exploited to create a “green treatment� protocol to develop an ecofriendly and toxin free production system that is beneficial for existence of both human and animal population in the near future.

LEADING DEALERS OF BOMBAY IN TOP QUALITY FRUIT PULP, PUREE, ESSENCE, EXTRACT AND KETCH UP AT COMPETITIVE RATES AND EASY TERMS

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Pathogens

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PHYTONEMATODE

PROBLEMS

OF CROPS IN INDIA Matiyar Rahman Khan and Ajoy Kumar Ganguly

1Principal Scientist, Division of Nematology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India, email: drmrkhanbckv@gmail.com, Mobile No. 9540829296 2Former Head, Division of Nematology, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012, India, email: akganguly1950@gmail.com, Mobile No. 9968254462

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hytonematode is also known as the hidden enemy of crops, they attack various crops and infestation of crops may cause huge crop losses. Nematodes

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are microscopic in size (from 0.3 to 10 mm length), invisible to the naked eye and mostly live in subterranean habitat. The stylet bearing phytonematodes penetrate and feed on the root

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Phytonematode is also known as the hidden enemy of crops, they attack various crops and infestation of crops may cause huge crop losses. of growing plants, stealing nutrients vital for plant growth and exposing roots to the attack of other soil pathogens. Nematodes as a biotic constraint have widely been recognized for influencing crop proclivity. Nematode as a crop pest has achieved the status of most devastating pests group responsible for insidious disease symptoms in different crops. The above-ground disease symptoms are often overlooked or confused with nutritional deficiency and other disease symptoms. Among the phytonematodes, root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) produce a typical root knot or root gall symptoms on various crops like bottle gourd, pointed gourd, rice etc. In addition to root galling, the quality of the harvested produce is

also affected, for example potato tuber affected by root knot nematode shows pimples or surface eruptions which render low market price. Similarly, foliar parasite (Aphelenchoides besseyi) of tuberose cause distortion of flower stalk and the affected stalk (Figure 1e) becomes unmarketable. Estimation of crop losses due to phytonematodes is relatively difficult because nematode can cause quantitative as wells as qualitative crop losses. On a global scale, annual crop yield losses due to phytonematodes in major 40 crops has been estimated to the extent of 12.3 %, amounting USD 170 billion and the magnitude of crop loss is much higher (ca.14%) in the developing countries. In India, national losses in 30 major field and horticultural crops have also been estimated at Rs. 10204 crores annually. This could be much higher due to escalation of price of produce in the present time. The yield losses in different crops in India have been estimated; 12 to 52% in cereal crops (rice, wheat, maize), 13 to 68% in pulses (chickpea, mung, frenchbean, blackgram, clusterbean, cowpea), 13 to 15% in oilseeds (ground nut, castor), 19 to 30% in fibre crops (jute, cotton), 14 to 51% in tobacco, 17 to 50% in cucurbits (cucumber, pointed gourd, bottle gourd), 10 to 42% in solanaceous crops (tomato, brinjal, chilli, potato, capsicum), 34 to 42% in root crops (carrot, beet root), 15 to 43% in fruit crops (banana, citrus, guava, pomegranate, grape), 24 to 33% in spices (black pepper, ginger) and 29% in polyhouse crops ( tomato, cucumber). Beside direct damage, nematode serves as a predisposing factor in the development of disease complexes with soil borne-fungi, bacteria and viruses. In many situations, crop varieties resistant to fungi and bacteria become susceptible in the presence of nematodes. It is beyond doubt, infestation of nematodes either alone or in combination with other pathogens contribute to reduce crop productivity. Intensive and extensive cultivation of crops particularly in irrigated crop production system aggravate nematode problems in many crops. The hidden nature of nematode can cause crop damage out of sight of farmers, scientists and extension officers. Except few, phytonematodes induce non-specific disease symptoms in the above-ground parts of the crops. Therefore, nematode as a crop pest is given so

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little attention while dealing with field problems of crops. The most economically important nematode-pests are root-knot (Meloidogyne), cyst (Heterodera and Globodera), seed gall (Anguina tritici), citrus (Tylenchulus semipenetrans), burrowing (Radopholus similis) and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Almost all crops are affected by nematodes. The 88

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vegetable crops suffer relatively more damage due to infestation of nematode of mode of parasitism (endo/semi-endo and ectoparasites). Among the sedentary endoparasites, root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and cyst nematodes (Heterodera/Globodera spp.), lesion nematode (Pratylenchus spp.) among migratory endoparasites and reniform nematodes (Rotylenchulus reniformis) of semi-endoparasites are most damaging to vegetable crops. Several ectoparasitic nematodes viz. sting www.krishijagran.com


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WORLD The polyhouse crops (tomato, cucumber, gerbera, capsicum etc.) are seriously damaged by root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Nematode problems in protected cultivation are increasingly become a threat for profitable cultivation. Whereas farmers are not much aware of nematode problems in open-field cultivation, the dimension of nematode damage in polyhouse conditions created impact on polyhouse growers. This tiny but smart enemy of crops in polyhouse conditions can cause havoc damage to crops and the mere presence of nematode inside polyhouse can reduce the farmer’s profit. The congenial conditions like high temperature, moisture, monocropping with susceptible crops in the contained environment of

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n India, nearly a dozen of economically nematode species attack several field and horticultural crops and the crops suffer economical yield losses. The amount of loss in monetary term estimated to be about Rs. 10,204 crores every year.

(Belonolaimus), awl (Dolichodorus), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus), spiral (Helicotylenchus), stubby root (Trichodorus/Paratrichodorus), ring (Criconemoides), dagger (Xiphinema), lance (Hoplolaimus), needle (Longidorus) etc. are frequently encountered in vegetable crop rhizosphere where they live on feeding surface or subsurface of roots. Among the ectoparasitic nematodes, Tylenchorhynchus brassicae on cabbage, cauliflower, and Paratrichodorus allius on onion is potential yield reducer. www.krishijagran.com

polyhouse favour nematode to grow and multiply at alarming rate. The population level in the soil goes up many times within a very short span and the standing crop suffers heavy damage. Further the injudicious use of toxic chemicals depletes natural enemies both in soil as well as protected environment. Nematode in polyhouse cannot be completed eradicated once their presence is noticed. Therefore, before establishment of the polyhouse, soil analysis for nematodes is an essential requirement. Very recently, Haryana Government has made it mandatory for the beneficiaries of subsidy for construction of structure in the soil free from pathogenic nematode species. Some good practices like raising nematode free seedlings of polyhouse crops, destruction of previous residues, soil solarization during summer months, application of organic amendments, MARCH 2018

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farm yard manure enriched biocontrol agent like Purpureocillium lilacinum (a nematode egg parasitic fungus), crop rotation with antagonist crop (marigold) or poor host crops, popular chemical like carbofuran (@ 2kg a.i./ha as basal application) and new chemicals like fluopyram and fluensulfone (both under Government consideration for registration) are useful for reducing nematode damage. Overall hygiene in the polyhouse and around the structure is essential for unwanted entry of nematode inside polyhouse.

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lternative to chemicals, non-chemical approaches like good agricultural practices, nematode suppressive crop sequence, botanicals (neem cake, castor cake, karanj cake etc.), organic amendments with decomposed farm yard manure, biofumigation (incorporation of brassica and some non-brassica crops like marigold, sorghum etc.), and fortified biocontrol agent (Purpureocillium lilacinum, a fungal egg parasite of nematodes) are viable options for nematode management.

Management of phytonematodes is difficult with the application of nematicides. Moreover, the most effective chemicals have been withdrawn from world market due to their harmful effects on environment. In fact, nematodes are comparatively hardy animals require high doses of insecticide having nematicidal property. With the increasing concern on environment, 90

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various alternative pest control methods like cultural, physical, biological and botanical control methods are suggested to reduce the nematode damage of crops. However, judicious use of chemical nematicides could be applied for protection of many crops. Integration of various available practices is one of the current approaches for managing pest problems of crops. Cultural practices are known from time www.krishijagran.com


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immemorial as a multiple pest control strategy. Biopesticides of botanical origin have also been proved as effective alternative of nematicides. Among the effective nematode management tactics, resistant variety, cultural, biological, botanical, organic amendments and chemicals are nowadays available for integration and adoption for location specific nematode problems. Nematode management in crops includes reduction of initial population densities using low cost inputs, suppression of nematode reproduction and preventing crop damage. In India, out of the twelve most economically important nematode pests, only four nematodes

viz., Heterodera avenae, Globodera spp., Meloidogyne spp. and Rotylenchulus reniformis have been worked out for integrated nematode management where only combination of treatments have been evaluated. Therefore, current options for nematode management are cultural practices, physical methods, biointensive nematode suppression, botanicals and sensible use of chemical nematicides. Nematode attributes to field problems of crops and constitutes a potential biotic stress for low productivity of crops. The dimension of nematode damage in different field and horticultural crops is increasing due to change in agricultural practices under the climate change scenario. At present there is no nematicide www.krishijagran.com

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he dimension of nematode damage in different field and horticultural crops is increasing due to change in agricultural practices under the climate change scenario.

available in the market for the control of nematode pest of crops. Alternative to chemicals, non-chemical approaches like good agricultural practices, nematode suppressive crop sequence, botanicals (neem cake, castor cake, karanj cake etc.), organic amendments with decomposed farm yard manure, biofumigation (incorporation of brassica and some non-brassica crops like marigold, sorghum etc.), and fortified biocontrol agent (Purpureocillium lilacinum, a fungal egg parasite of nematodes) are viable options for nematode management. Further investigations on plant-nematode interaction, targeted genesilencing, evaluation of crop genotypes resistant against major phytonematode species and testing new molecule for management of nematodes are priority and contextual areas of research.

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Accolade

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THE ASPEE L. M. PATEL AWARD PRESENTED

Aspee Directors, dignitaries, awardees and runner-ups at the Aspee L.M.Patel Award function.

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he Aspee Group of companies had a very happy ending of the year 2017 with a grand style organization of their annual Aspee L. M. Patel Award presentation function. The Aspee Foundation has been awarding three prestigious Awards in memory of their Founder, mentor and inspirer since last 20 years. These are highly coveted awards in the categories of horticulture, rain fed farming and women farmer categories and as many as 56 farmers from across the country have been the recipients of these awards. The identification of top ranking farmers is done very meticulously involving a long drawn procedure over a period of one year. Outstanding agricultural scientists form panels of subject matter specialists from our country participate at various stages scrutinizing and short listing the farmers. The final selection is done by the Governing Council of the Aspee Foundation under the chairmanship of Padma Vibhushan Prof. M. S. Swaminathan, India’s internationally acknowledged agricultural scientist. The Award ceremony was held to honour the farmers of the year 2015 in the categories of Horticulture (Potato cultivation), Winter crop cultivation (Mustard) and for the year 2016 92

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Horticulture category (Protected cultivation of Capsicum). A Special L. M. Patel Award was instituted for Pigeon Pea crop for the year 2016 since the year was declared by UNO as the International year for Pulses. The awards were given on Saturday 30th December, 2017 at Aspee Auditorium, Malad, Mumbai with Padma Shri Prof. K. L. Chadha, distinguished Horticultural Scientist of India as the Chief Guest. Gopal Shetty, Member of Parliament and Yogesh Sagar, M.L.A, also graced the occasion by their presence along with a few eminent citizens from Mumbai. Dr. S. B. Kadrekar, Dr. A. G. Sawant, former Vice Chancellors, Dr. B.S.K.K.V., Dapoli Maharashtra, Narayanbhai Chawdha, Ex-Aspee Awardee and an outstanding vegetable grower from Chattisgarh were also present at the function. Sharad Patel, MD, Aspee Group of Companies welcomed the function and Kiran Patel briefed the audience about the Aspee Foundation activities through a Power Point presentation. While giving away the awards Dr. Chadha explained as to how the procedure for selecting www.krishijagran.com


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Shri. Jitesh Patel receiving the trophy by the hands of Chief Guest Dr. K. L. Chadha.

Shri. Gurulingappa receiving the award at the hands of Chief Guest Dr. K. L. Chadha.

the awardees was highly comprehensive and meticulous and remarked that these awards have already received the status of highly prestigious awards in India. He took a review of the problems confronting Indian agriculture in future and expressed the need to urgently address these problems by farmers and agricultural scientists. He gave away the awards to the Award winners each consisting of Rs. 1 Lac, a trophy and a citation. Gopal Shetty, M.P. delivered an appreciate speech mentioning that the farmers should get a right share of the price paid by the final consumers of agricultural commodities. The buyers should be prepared to pay a much higher price to farm commodities so that the farmers would not feel frustrated in agricultural profession. He gave away the appreciation certificates to the runner-ups. Yogesh Sagar, MLA in his brief address suggested that the city dwellers should realize the problems faced by the farming community and this could be done by visiting the farmers’ fields at least once a year. www.krishijagran.com

The recipient of the awards were (1) Shri. Jitesh Kumar Chandubhai Patel, Tq: Dhansura, Dist: Aravalli, Gujarat- 383310 for Potato cultivation. The Special Appreciation Award winner in this category was Shri. Jagdishkumar Mohanbhai Patel, At & Post: Nava, Tq: Talod, Dist: Sabarkantha, Gujarat- 383305.In Winter Season Crop (2015) - Mastard (Sarson) Shri. Naranbhai Kalabhai Patel, Tq: Tharad, Dist: Banaskantha, Gujarat . In Horticulture Category 2016 Protected Cultivation (Capsicum) to Shri. Prasad Vishnu Save, Tal/Dist. Palghar, Maharashtra - 401502. In Special Award Category (2016)International year for Pulses – Pigeon Pea to Shri. Gurulingappa Madeppa Meldaddi, Dist: Bidar, Karnataka. Special Appreciation Award winner :Shri. Gangadhar Prafulla Birajdar, Dist. Solapur, Maharashtra. Runner Ups- Winter season crop – Mustard (Sarson): Shri. Rohit Kumar Sahu, Dist: Durg, Chattisgadh. In Horticulture Category 2016 - Protected Cultivation (Capsicum) Shri. Ankush Rajaram Padvale, Dist. Solapur, Maharashtra. MARCH 2018

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The Indian Agro-Chem Industry from the eyes of Amber

environment which could push them towards growth and innovation. Boarding the old wheel cannot bring the worthy gains/ growth for the country or for any sector. The big players have a monopoly and it becomes difficult for MSME companies to compete with their new technology which is backed by huge investments and researches, which the small companies lack.

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esticide imports from China have been growing at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6percent since 2007. At one point, India used to import close to $925 million or about Rs 5,900 crore, worth of technical pesticides, intermediaries, and finished products every year, of which around 55percent came from China. Also, the proportion of finished products from China has been steadily rising. But, Growth in India’s agrochemicals imports from China may slow down by up to 80percent due to some regulatory changes proposed, to boost local production of pesticides under the Make in India scheme. The dearth of various resources at the Indian ground is hitting the “Make in India” scheme when agrochemicals is considered. Amidst the absence of proper R&D platforms, this will only shift the imports of agrochemicals from formulated products to raw materials. The MSME companies do not seek any exemptions but they look forward for an www.krishijagran.com

In the absence of research, technical are being formulated in India, taking the raw material from other countries. China being the cheapest available source seeks attention from the Agro –Chem industry here. India also lacks raw material, to formulate these chemicals and hence the dependency becomes crucial. If the govt. wishes to promote Make in India Scheme for Agrochemicals, proper research platforms should be provided by the govt. It needs to invest huge in R&D, so that enough focus is given to research for the new technology which needs to be changed very frequently considering the increasing immunity amongst the micro organisms. Eventually the farmers should be happy and meet the expected production levels. At the farmer’s front, education, technology and dissemination of the knowledge have to be stressed, which still suffers. Farmers relying on the loan waivers are not a solution but are a boomerang of problems. Treating chemically comes with a responsibility. At Amber, we make sure that all our products are either green or blue labeled. Adopting new technology and sailing in the wave of Bio-products is of prominent importance to Amber. MARCH 2018

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CERTIFIED ORGANIC ZERO RESIDUE PRODUCT

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For Organic Use

Total Eradication of All Vegetable - Sucking And Caterpillar Insects

TAG NOK - Complete Protection of Alfalfa plants

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Manufactured by: Tropical Nano Science Pvt. Ltd. Distributor: Al Wadi Agricultural,Material Est. Al Dhaid-Al Wishah St.UAE - +971 9884454013 98 UAE MARCH 2018501806421, +971 507964345 INDIA - +91 9387813775 / +91www.krishijagran.com Email:kerala@tropicalagro.com


Published on 25th and Posted on 27th-28th at NDPSO in advance Month RNI NO. DELENG.2015/65174 Postal Reg. No. DL-SW-1/4191/16-18

Kri,M Jasra1t

Dclc5ati0tt to A5ritccl1 lsracl, Tel- Aviv

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The 20th International Agricultural Exhibition and Conference MAY 8-10, 2018 TLV Convention Center, Tel Aviv, Israel In association with

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Learn about solutions for agricultural challenges Find partners for projects and business ventures Discover the technologies that will address your most pressing problems Raise your public profile and build your brand image Meet colleagues, solution providers, potential customers, and other decision­ makers - on a global level Advance your career through networking and education Leverage your time in a single, cost effective forum for professionals in the industry

tlie puCse of rural i,u{ia

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Stay at finest hotel

Fly the best of airlines : Ex Delhi & Ex Mumbai

Daily buffet breakfast

• All transfers in luxury coaches •

Daily dinner at Indian restaurant

Must see sightseeing

Israel visa assistance

Service of Yatra professional tour manager

North & West India Chander Mohan, 9891334429, cmohan@krishijagran.com Raina Manjari Sharan, 9891956956, ratna@krishijagran.com Dr. Sangeeta Soi, 9891123722, sangeeta@krishijagran.com South India Ajith Kumar V.R (Kerala), 9891899064, ajith@krishijagran.com R. Jayakumar (Karnataka), 9632836949, jayakumar@krishijagran.com East India Paritosh Bhattacharyya, 9051915839, paritosh@krishijagran.com

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Agriculture World Magazine March 2018  

Krishi Jagran, India's No.1 How to grow more agri-production with latest scientific methods events, news, information, product- launch, spor...

Agriculture World Magazine March 2018  

Krishi Jagran, India's No.1 How to grow more agri-production with latest scientific methods events, news, information, product- launch, spor...

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