Open Hearts, Open Gatesâ€Ś
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Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Education: Preparing for School and Life ahead
Association for Rural and Urban Needy Rainbow Foundation India H. No. 1-1-711/C/1, Opposite Vishnu Residency, Gandhi Nagar, Hyderabad-80 Ph.: 040 65144656 Website: rainbowhome.in
Association for Rural and Urban Needy Rainbow Foundation India
la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---gj jkr dh ckgksa esa] lqcg dk ut+kjk gks
In this life full of strife In this life, full of strife, We long for a friend and guide... In the darkness of night We long for a dawn, warm and bright
la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks---geus rks t+ekus dh] jaft'k dks gh ih Mkyk pqHkrs gq, gj iy dks] gl [ksy ds th Mkyk
In this life full of strife, We long for a friend and guide… We swallow hatred and the vile Stinging moments, with a smile
D;ksa iwN jgs gks rqe] D;k geus xok;k gS thou dh rks cl NksM+ks] gj [okc ijk;k gS
Why do you ask, what have we lost, Not just life, even our dreams went past...
la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] dksbZ rks gekjk gks----
In this life, full of strife We long for a friend and guide…
oks iy Hkh Fkk viuk] ;s iy Hkh gekjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] vc dksbZ gekjk gS---oks jkrsa feV gh xbZ] ,d lqcg vkbZ u;h py jgs veu dh jkgksa ij] gj [okc gekjk gS ,d vk'kk veu dh] gS vc bl fny esa dksbZ jkg u vc jksds] dqN dj ds fn[kkuk gS c<+k,axs ge dne dks] feVk;saxs gj xae dks pysaxs mu jkgksa ij] tgk¡ ls fn[krk fdukjk gS la?k"kZ dh jkgksa esa] gj dksbZ gekjk gS----
In this life, full of strife, We have someone as a guide and friend… That past was ours, this present is ours In this life, full of strife, Now we have someone as a guide and friend… Those nights have passed, there dawns a new sun Walking on the paths of peace, every dream is ours There is a ray of hope in this heart There is no stopping us; we have to achieve something now We will take a step forward, remove all the pain We will walk on paths in life, from where the shore is near In this life, full of strife, We have everyone as a guide and friend…
Written by one of the children from a Sneh Ghar in Delhi
Open Hearts, Open Gates…”
Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Education: Preparing for School and Life ahead Revised edition, 2015
Association for Rural and Urban Needy Rainbow Foundation India
Rainbow Foundation India undertakes constructive activities to empower children from the most disadvantaged backgrounds and in difficult circumstances to access their rights through influencing policy and establishment of voluntary, non-custodial, secure home offering comprehensive, residential care to enable them to become responsible and contributing citizens. Association for Rural and Urban Needy (ARUN) works with marginalised communities in urban and rural areas particularly with Dalits, Safai Karamcharis, Children Without Adult Care and Distressed Communities that are victims of homelessness; by establishing supportive, caring systems that will ensure freedom from hunger, violence and deprivation and enable a life of peace, social integration, harmony and dignity. ARUN acts as the coordinating agency between the Rainbow Foundation India (RFI) and our 21 partners spread across 7 cities who implement the Rainbow Homes for Girls and Sneh Ghars for Boys; It is also an implementing agency ensuring that the day-to-day management of the homes, its rules and policies adhere to the larger principles and specifications of the Rainbow Home model across the country. Association for Rural and Urban Needy (ARUN) provides statutory and legal support for Rainbow Foundation India.
Acknowledgements This Manual has been developed with inputs from Shashi Mendiratta, Sveta Dave Chakravarty, Hridayakant Dewan, Preeti Mathew and Satya Pillai. It is based on close observation of the Rainbow Homes and Sneh Ghars, the experiences shared by the caregivers and their suggestions. We gratefully acknowledge the diligence and rigor of Arti Chandra who reviewed and edited the manual and provided valuable comments.
Education translates a dream into a road map A Diamond in the Rough A diamond in the rough Is a diamond sure enough And though it may not look so It's made of diamond stuff But someone must find it Or it will not be found And someone must grind it Or it will not be ground But when it is found and when it is ground And when it is burning bright It is a diamond sure enough Giving off its light Oh teacher, disappointed, don't say, "I've had enough" 'Cos the worst pupil in your class Could be ... A diamondin the rough
Tomorrow’s Children “Your children are not your children. They are the sons and daughters of life’s longing for itself. They come through you but not from you, and though they are with you yet they belong not to you. You may give them your love but not your thoughts for they have their own thoughts. You may house their bodies but not their souls, for their souls dwell in the house of tomorrow which you cannot visit even in your dreams. You may strive to be like them but seek not to make them like you for life goes not backward nor tarries with yesterday.” - Kahlil Gibran
Education for Former Street Children: Learning for Life In an India that’s desperate to shine, tens of thousands of children sleep on the streets, go hungry with little to call their own. In a country dying to be called world class, there is very little time for the most marginalised. It looks like a dead end, a hopeless finishing line, but… A tiny voice says, “Change - It’s possible”! It is the voice of our inner hope – After all we are not the first to believe that – Hope is a natural, possible and necessary impetus in the context of our unfinishedness… - Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of Freedom
They may be runaway children, abandoned and lost children who live with homeless parents, children of â€˜unfitâ€™, abusive or criminally neglectful parents, orphans or children deemed to be in conflict with the law - but when they enter the Rainbow Homes, Sneh Ghars they are all the Rainbow Children of Tomorrow. This Manual sets down guidelines, systems and processes for developing, implementing and monitoring an education programme for all the children of tomorrow residing in Homes of Peace and Love. It combines educational learning derived from experiences on the ground, relevant practices gleaned from other organisations and institutions of learning, and processes being used in Rainbow Homes and SnehGhars. It is one out of a set of other protocols that together ensure a comprehensive programme of caring for all children in need of love and nurturing.
Contents Chapter 1 The Concept Of Comprehensive Education........................................................ 11 Chapter 2 Teachers, Equipment And Facilities...................................................................... 13 Chapter 3 The Education Process............................................................................................ 16 Chapter 4 Children With Special Needs............................................................................... 23 Chapter 5 The Individual Education Plan............................................................................... 25 Chapter 6 School Support, Learning Enhancement & Life Skills........................................ 27 Chapter 7 Creative Learning Approaches............................................................................ 32 Chapter 8 Enrichment Programmes: Extra Curricular Activities......................................... 39 Chapter 9 Continuing Education: Options Available........................................................... 42 Chapter 10 Management Of Comprehensive Education Program..................................... 45 Annexures 1........................................................................................................................... 48 Annexures 2........................................................................................................................... 49 Annexures 3(a)...................................................................................................................... 51 Annexures 3(b)...................................................................................................................... 55 Annexures 4........................................................................................................................... 56
Setting the context The Right to Education Act, 2009 is a landmark legislation that came into force with effect from April 1, 2010. It is a legally enforceable framework that entitles free and compulsory education to all children in the 6-14 age groups. The law states that every child has the right to receive quality education in an environment that is equity-based, non-discriminatory and free from fear, anxiety and stress. The Right to Education Act made it mandatory for state governments to address the existing inequities and ensure quality education for every child. The Act was transformative. It clearly established the responsibility of the state to recognise and uphold the constitutional right to provide universal education. And within this group of â€œlastâ€? children are the street children in urban areas. However, for the child living on the streets, in reality this is nothing but a dream. No child is able to benefit from the Right to Education extended to him/her while continuing to remain alone and unsafe on the streets in a state of deprivation and neglect. Even if the entry into school is facilitated, the child will still need school support, adequate food, a safe and secure place to stay, proper health care and opportunities for social and emotional development. It is impossible and illogical to focus on any one right of the child in isolation as childrens rights are indivisible. Thus the state recognised that providing education to street children first entails providing shelter, food and healthcare. The new policy, therefore, calls for setting up of residential facilities for street children in urban areas: in un/under-utilised government buildings or existing government schools. Children are to be enrolled in regular schools and provided bridge education within the schools to bring them up to age-appropriate competency levels, at which point they enter the regular school programme. The KGBV (Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya) are residential schools which were introduced in 2004 to promote education among girls from SC/ST/OBC sections of society. These residential schools have become life-transforming centres not only for girls but also for children from the streets. When the street child consents to enter and live in a home, s/he has given up a lot â€“ the thrill of living life on the edge, total independence, freedom to experiment with anything and everything, ready cash to spend, reckless and able to find joy anywhere, accountable to no one and responsibile for no one. Yet the child has made a conscious decision and willingly chosen to come into the home as a better option to life on the streets. What was it that motivated the child to decide to come and stay in the home? Educationists have proclaimed that education has the power to transform life. We have heard so many children say that their dream was to wear a uniform and go to school even if for one day! It is this search for education and another chance in life that has brought them to the homes. Education in the context of street children living in homes has to be understood in a different 8
light. It goes beyond mere schooling. The dimensions of education need to be pushed and stretched to include all those aspects that other children acquire in the process of living at home with parents, extended families, friends and neighbours. Every child needs to feel safe and secure, to recover from the trauma of emotional neglect, abuse, humiliation and rejection, to get love, care and comfort, basic and specific health care, to understand the need for personal hygiene and cleanliness, to be free from drugs, alcohol and substance dependence, to get healthy nutrition and exercise for their physical well-being. They need to re-build trust in people and institutions, learn to cherish, protect and respect, be able to clarify and understand values, to become confident, hold themselves in high esteem and dignity. They should be comfortable to receive guidance, facilitation and support in social re-integration, have opportunities to enjoy, laugh and be happy, to become financially independent and eventually, to rediscover themselves and find a new direction in life. The education programme should be able to address all of these needs and ensure that children acquire stable, intrinsically strong personalities and develop into responsible citizens and balanced, mature, sensitive human beings. It is a huge responsibility. This requires deep reflection, clarity and understanding of what we have to do and how to translate these thoughts into action. Therefore, it is important to examine the beliefs that form the basis for providing such an education. When these beliefs are understood, articulated and upheld, they indicate the goal/s and direction of education.
Beliefs about Education •• •• •• •• •• ••
It is each child’s right to be educated. It must be meaningful for each child. It enables children to avail opportunities. It helps children realise their full potential. It makes children productive. It ensures the all round development of their personalities.
Beliefs about Children’s Learning •• All children are capable of being educated and can learn. •• Each child has a different way of learning and articulating. “If I cannot learn in the way you teach, can you teach me in a way that I can learn?” •• All children have a rich body of natural knowledge acquired before the school process which helps them make sense of new learning. •• Children learn best when they work together in groups and interact with each other and with life around them.
•• Children need to be deeply attached to one or two individuals for their own sense of
emotional well-being and security and this feeling of being emotionally nurtured is critical for learning to take place. •• Learning takes place in an environment free from fear.
All the people who come together to provide education to the children need to develop a deep and integral understanding of the beliefs that have been articulated above. Each concept will mean different things to different people. It is not important that everyone has to accept the same meaning but it is essential to trust the fundamental truth in the beliefs which is what holds together the group of people working in the homes. Beliefs do not have a definitive meaning. They lend themselves to layers of understanding every time they are reflected upon. Home groups must come together at least once in a year to re-visit their shared beliefs and participate in a discourse on the challenges and conflicts that they faced in implementing the education program.
Non-negotiable Principles Each home has to come together to think and formulate all those aspects of providing education on which they believe they will not compromise. These could be: •• That all children will be in school. •• That each child will be supported to pursue education to the best of his/her potential and desire. •• That each child will be cared for till s/he becomes financially and socially independent.
The beliefs and principles need to be aligned and support each other. They form the core of all decisions and hold the organisation together.
Shared Vision of Education in the Home All home personnel need to be aware of the salient features in the Right to Education Act. It furnishes the reasons why we provide a comprehensive education and struggle to ensure continuous improvement in the quality of life of the children. It forms the basis of why it is important to cater to all kinds of children in the homes. It also helps to sort our priorities and decide where to focus our time, attention and resources.
The Concept of Comprehensive Education
When children are growing in a home with a caring family, there are innumerable influences and learnings that the child effortlessly absorbs and understands without even realising that his/her personality is being shaped in such a deep-rooted manner. In the case of children living in the Sneh Ghar/Rainbow Home, they need to be provided with and exposed to all the opportunities that other children enjoy. The meaning of education therefore, goes much beyond just going to school.
The term ‘Comprehensive’ here has a specific meaning. Educational experiences should address the ‘whole’ child and all domains of learning – the emotional, social, physical, cognition, language & communication and creative expression. Therefore, support for lessons taught in school, classes for enhancing communication skills in English, extra help in particular subjects, developing skills in computers, dance, music, art, craft, sports and theatre, opportunities to develop and display talents in acting, sports, writing, painting, karate, taekwondo, judo; participating in general knowledge competitions, seminars, lectures – all 11
contribute to the multi-dimensional development of the child. For children in the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghars Life skills is an essential component of their education. It is an internal discovery process that will help children to understand their personal relationships with friends, colleagues and community, help to clarify their sense of values and contribute to their social and personal well-being. This is the education for life. This education comes from different sources in the lives of children living in homes with parents and extended family and friends. For children living in Sneh Ghar or Rainbow Homes, this is provided by caregivers, teachers, counselors, mentors, experts, developing linkages with resources around the homes who can contribute to the needs of providing such an education - e.g. partnering with a school in the neighbourhood for using their library or the computer centre or their play ground, the use of facilities in a stadium, linking with an academy for dance and music or a relevant life skill programme. The education framework must be comprehensive enough to incorporate all these aspects so that children grow up to be mature, sensible, sensitive and responsible human beings.
Setting the Routine: Time for Everything The normal routine of a childâ€™s day is fairly packed. Academic engagements take up the major portion of a childâ€™s day. Time spent in the school and then the time spent in the home on prior learning work and school support occupies almost two thirds of the day. Barring some exceptions, most children arrive back from school between 2 p.m. and 3 p.m. They have an hour to change, have lunch and relax. Therefore, effectively there is about a 3-4 hour period from mid afternoon to late evening which is very valuable and needs to be judiciously and creatively utilised. The task of setting a time table for the children has to be undertaken by the entire group of Sneh Sathis in the home. The older children, could be included in the process as they would be able to influence the younger ones to respect and follow the routine that has been finalised. After school ,the four hour time period has to be distributed across sports, homework and prior learning, cultural activities, English language classes, library, computer classes , life skills and time with the Sneh Sathis. About 90 minutes to 2 hours should be set aside for homework and prior learning. Some activities like T.V. time and computers can be slotted after dinner for the older children. Routine of a Sunday needs to be discussed and negotiated with the children. Children usually donâ€™t want Sundays to be loaded. So it is possible to think of some weekly sport engagement like kabbadi, Ko-ko, football, cricket or volleyball in the early morning for those who are interested and about 2-3 hours in the evenings for those activities that require a longer engagement like theatre, a discussion with an expert on a topic of social interest or a movie followed by discussion.
Teachers, Equipments and Facilities
The teacher, the teaching/learning aids and the learning environment are the three critical requirements to initiate the education of children in the home.
(A) Teachers The teachers need to take up four kinds of responsibilites, namely; •• To teach Primary Level Bridge Course to children who need to become academically ready •• •• ••
to engage with their age-appropriate classes in school and subsequently continue to support the children in their school work and prior learning. To help children cope with English in their school and also take classes to build proficiency in the English language. To help children in higher levels in school- class V and upwards, with subject specific expertise, especially in Math, Science and Social Studies. The fourth responsibility is related to children with special needs in the home. Children who are diagnosed with learning disabilites, or autistic, hearing impaired, visually impaired or any other state which impacts learning abilities, will need special educators who are trained to address the needs of such children. Services of special educators can be availed from government institutions or private schools in the neighbourhood. If all the homes have children with special needs, then it may be better to have a regular special need educator whose time then can be distributed across all the homes. While working with very young children, when the children in the home are very young, teachers should not only take care of academic needs but should be a part of all the activities of the children such as helping them at snack time/meal times and ensuring that they learn proper eating habits, learn how to use the toilet, wash their hands, etc. English teachers should be specifically engaged to teach the language. They have to help children cope with English as a subject in school and focus on how to increase ease in the language. This role could be taken up by someone qualified and experienced Sneh Sathis or a teacher can be specifically engaged to perform the task. As children come into the upper primary classes such as classes 5 – 8 and into high school (classes 9 upwards), they need people who can help them with the content of Math, Science and Social Sciences specifically. Since some children return late, these classes can be taken in the afternoon or evening for two to three hours. Teachers for this need can be part-time.
For the children in the bridge course, their living space is also their classroom. They sleep in the room and store some of their belongings there. During the day, it is their learning space. Very often, children are unable to separate these two activities in their minds. They often continue to behave in a relaxed and informal manner even during class time for they tend to treat the classroom casually as their personal space. Children who have started going to school have gradually started to understand the importance of routine, space and time for different activities. Therefore it is easier to work with them for prior learning or homework tasks but extra thought and planning will be required to ensure that children are focused and working in the homework time. It can be done by: 13
•• Establishing a calm and peaceful atmosphere. •• Consciously bringing a sense of formality, decorum and purpose into the classroom dynamics
to transform the living space into a learning space. For example, putting up charts on the classroom walls each morning, laying out the chairs, taking out teaching aids such as a globe, paper, scissors, chart paper, etc. helps to create a particular atmosphere and space. •• Setting a schedule and put in place a routine of teaching/learning that the child begins to recognise as a time to focus on learning. For example, starting classes with a prayer and meditation, greeting each other, enquiring about the day’s activities, establishing simple procedures like talking one by one, manner of standing while talking, how to hold books while reading, asking permission to go to the washroom, etc.
Children can be grouped together for common needs in learning irrespective of which class they are in – which means if the teacher is taking up fractions, then all children who need help in understanding this concept can be brought together to understand this concept. Similarly, if making plural words is being taught, then all children who need to learn this can be brought into the group. This approach means that children are always forming groups for specific tasks. It also means that all educators would need to know each child’s needs very minutely in order to make sure the right child is present for learning a particular concept.
Schedule for Teachers The home coordinator along with the teachers is responsible for planning the teaching schedule of teachers – both those in the home as well as those who are part time and come in the evenings. The time table has to agree with a complex set of conditions, e.g. number of children, their class levels, their learning needs, the timings of the part-time teachers, etc. and hence it needs to be worked out in participation and be mutually acceptable so that work can go on smoothly. Common time for planning, review and reflection also has to be incorporated in the schedule. Equipment / Facilities There is no limit to the range of learning aids that can be prepared/acquired, but a few basic and essential needs have been identified that would facilitate the learning process. Some basic and essential facilities that a Home should Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar to assist learning are: •• A T.V. and a DVD player would help to show relevant documentaries to the children or to use •• •• •• ••
CAL (Computer Aided Learning) material to reinforce learning and make it enjoyable. A portable music system that can run on batteries and electricity both is absolutely essential. It will be useful in many activities. An LCD projector and screen is useful for screening clips, documentaries, etc. which can then form the basis of discussions, quiz sessions, etc. Reading Material: Acquire a collection of books, news papers, magazines, newsletters, reference books that will meet the needs of different age groups. Computer Room: Even if the school in which the home is functioning already has a computer room, the home itself could have the facility of some computers both for management use and
for children to engage in their free time. •• Cupboard: This is required to keep learning material (maps, globe, compass, charts, experiment material, etc.), children’s records, registers, stationery, books and reading material. •• A Blackboard: This could be on the wall or on a stand. •• Teaching/Learning Material: Teachers can generate their own requirements based on the learning needs of children. However, it would be useful to have different kinds of maps (India/World both physical and political), magnets, measuring tapes, geometry boxes, compass, weighing scale, globe, flash cards, clock, educational DVDs, educational computer games software, etc.
Preparing the Child for Mainstreaming or Formal School
There will be a heterogeneous mix of children in the homes, in terms of both age and knowledge levels. Their education background will range from those who have never been to school to those who went for brief periods but who have lost touch with regular schooling systems and learning and have mostly forgotten whatever they may have learnt. Others may be in their teens, who have lost links with education for quite a long time, but who are now keen to complete the process. Even if the child has never been to school, there are skills that children pick up through daily interactions and through efforts to negotiate the needs of life – barring those who are very small, the older children are able to feed numbers into mobiles, travel through the city to reach a particular place, buy and sell and manage money correctly, etc. Since the child has to start attending school, it is important for the teachers to find out how much the child already knows. The schools will have to, by law, admit the child into the class in which s/he should be according to his/her age. Knowing the present level of knowledge will help the teachers to understand the gaps in the child’s knowledge that will need to be filled so that the child can cope with the demands of the class into which s/he will be admitted. This level of knowledge is understood through a Baseline Assessment. Once this is established then studying the Bridge Course will ensure that the child reaches the required level of learning that is appropriate to his/her age and therefore is able to cope in school.
A. Understanding the Level of Learning in Children: Baseline Assessment The baseline is established in relation to the core concepts taught in Classes 1-5 in formal schools. In the process of establishing the baseline, the teachers will come to know of several valuable indicators. The Baseline Assessment: •• Indicates the right point to start the child within the bridge course sequence. •• Ascertains the child’s current capacity for and style of learning. •• Sets an approximate time-frame after which the child would be ready to attend regular school. •• Creates a reference point to which the child’s progress thereafter is compared and tracked.
The Baseline Assessment is a critical tool to determine in which learning group a child belongs. However, it is important to note here that it sometimes becomes clear that the child has only a rudimentary knowledge of simple numbers and alphabet especially with reference to money, telephone numbers or the bus routes, but little to no literacy or formal education of any kind. In this situation, it would be advisable to simply begin the child at the basic level without putting the child through the stress of taking an assessment. 16
How to Assess for Baseline of Learning If the child is very small: •• The child will obviously start at Class 1; there is no need to conduct a baseline assessment. If
there is time before s/he begins to go to school (e.g. it is vacation period), then keep them engaged for about two hours every day doing some paper cutting, drawing, tracing, writing in a pattern book, oral picture reading, learning poems with actions, trying to piece together a puzzle, working with blocks and shapes, learning colours, days of the week, names of the month, and story listening.
A suggested list of possible topics is given in Annexure 1 If the child is older and appears to be about 8 years: •• Begin with a dialogue about how the child used to spend his/her time, with whom, whether s/
he went to school, and if so, how for long and what did s/he do in school, etc. If s/he indicates that s/he never went to school, then the child needs to start from the first level of the bridge course. •• If the child indicates that s/he did go to school for some time, then ask the child to orally demonstrate one or two things that s/he remembers having learnt. •• Give the child a piece of paper and ask him/her to write anything that s/he wishes to. Then ask him/her to write his/her name, a few numbers that s/he knows. If s/he does write his/her name, ask the child to read out the letters in his/her name. If s/he is unable to identify the letters, then it is clear that s/he only has a memory picture of the characters of his/her name. •• In this case it would be best to let the child take the bridge course from the beginning.
If the child is about 9 years or older: •• Approach the child in a similar manner as above. •• If the child indicates higher levels of learning, s/he needs to be then given a paper and pen assessment in Math and Language. •• Depending on the nature of the oral interaction and responses of the child and what the paper-pen answers reveal, the teacher will decide which level of the Bridge Course s/he should start. The child could be in different levels in both the subjects.
Tools for Baseline Assessment All state governments have special training programmes conducted by the SCERT for their NGO partners to initiate them into conducting Baseline Assessments and the Bridge Course which the SSA department has developed. Baseline testing tools can also be developed in-house. Also, there are usually three testing tools for each class with increased levels of difficulties. A set of twelve tools (three levels each for Classes 2-5) are developed and used to see where to start the children on the Bridge Course. Refer to Annexure 2 for Sample of Baseline testing tool
B. Ensuring Readiness for School: Bridge Education A Bridge Course is a compilation of all the concepts taught within a particular school level for a given subject area. The concepts chosen are those that are fundamental to further knowledge building in the subject. The Bridge Course, as its name suggests, focuses on helping the child to bridge the gap to age-appropriate competencies, to understand and master these basic concepts in a time-bound learning programme. The aim is to help the children work their way through the primary school course in 18-24 months, depending on how many levels the child is supposed to pass through to reach his/her age-appropriate grade level. However, the courseâ€™s duration and speed does largely depend on the baseline status and learning ability of each child. For example, a child who has a learning disability related to reading skills or who has ongoing concentration issues would be expected to move at a slower pace than a child of the same age and education level without these challenges. Effectively, this means a child who is ten years old and has never been to school and at his/her age belongs in Class 5, should be ready for mainstreaming in Class 5 or 6 in about one and a half years. In the execution of the bridge courses, setting the right pace is a critical factor. The child has to negotiate the concept ladder in an accelerated learning mode in order to get him/ her ready for the mainstream system. If the teacher goes too slowly, the child will be insufficiently challenged and will feel bored and lose interest. If the teacher goes too fast, learning will be deficient and incomplete. It is important to continuously exert a gentle pressure on the child to respond, understand and perform. The course, therefore, needs to be well-supported with attractive and interesting learning material and a wide range of activities to keep the child willingly engaged in the learning process. Material needs to be developed for different needs in students; so as to provide ample opportunities to apply the learnt concepts in various situations in order to reinforce learning. A Primary Level Bridge Course for Hindi, Math, EVS and Science has developed by RFI. It is in the Hindi language and is available for any home that desires to use the course.
C. Helping Children settle into Mainstream Schools When children are class/level ready, they have to be helped to integrate into school. This is a step-by step process and following these guidelines will ensure that the childâ€™s transition into school life is smooth. Monitoring for School Readiness The Baseline Assessment determines the entry level of the child and the level to which s/ he needs to be prepared according to his or her age. Depending on how well and how soon the child goes through his/her learning programme, the bridge course teacher should decide when the child is ready to be sent into a formal school. Tests that assess learning should be built into the teaching curriculum/process and the teacher should not continue to the next concept or level unless the one below has been understood properly. Thus the
teacher helping the child with the bridge course should able to determine when a child is ready to go to a regular school. Going to school is not as easy as it sounds. It is therefore important to prepare both the child and the school to accept each other. Proper preparation is essential for the child to go through another phase of adjustment with different adults and other settings. Preparing the Child for School We have found that the adjustment process is made easier if the child is taken to the school before formally joining as a student. This way the child becomes familiar with the surroundings and gets a feel of the place. It is recommended that the children visit their class room and even meet the class teacher prior to their first “official” day of school. However, it is also important to try wherever possible to synchronise entry into school with the beginning of the school year so that there are other new children joining at the same time. Child-School Preparation Tips: •• Always inform the child, the names of the class teacher, the principal of the school and other teachers with whom s/he will be working with.
•• Request the teacher or principal to name a few children in the same class who would be good to know and introduce the child to them. A “buddy” system, in which a student takes responsibility for a new child, might be possible in some schools. •• Explain to the child what s/he must do in case of emergencies such as feeling unwell, if left behind by the transport person in school, etc. •• In order to help the child deal effectively with the demands and challenges of school, the Sneh Sathis and teachers should work towards developing the child’s basic skills before s/ he is sent to school. These generic skills crossing the road safely, skills related to health and hygiene, interpersonal communication, negotiation skills, sexuality, etc. •• Try and assess the child’s comfort level with the idea of going to school and address fears that may persist in the mind.
Preparing the School for the Child Meetings should be held with the school authorities to share information regarding the profile of the children, their strengths and weaknesses and other relevant aspects of their personalities. Coordinators should also request the school team to visit the Rainbow Home/ Sneh Ghar to build sensitivity, empathy and understanding. The individual education plan for each child as well as the school support programme can be shared with the school team. The First Week in School Starting the new school year is a time that is both exciting and scary. Children have to adjust to a range of new adults in their lives, to sit and focus for long periods of time and have less free time to play. Most children enjoy meeting different adults but feel more comfortable with some than with others. The new school year is a time of first impressions and we can help children adjust into the new and environment with some basic precautions and by taking care of a few details. 19
These are: •• •• •• ••
Ensure that the children wake up in time. Ensure that the children go to school neat and clean. Ensure that they are properly dressed and the condition of the uniform is good. A good breakfast is important. It gives a happy start to the day if children get a full and tasty breakfast. •• Ensure that the children carry freshly made, sufficient and appetising lunch in their tiffins. •• Ensure that the children are regular and punctual in attending school.
Keeping track of what is happening to the child in school is very important. The designated person from the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar should closely observe and monitor the children in school and have informal conversations with them on a regular basis to find out their responses and reactions to school environment. Some areas of concern are likely to be: •• Discipline and Self Control - A child, who is used to an easy-going or chaotic atmosphere on •• •• •• ••
the street, may well find a more structured class-room environment difficult. Problems with authority - Some children have ongoing challenges, conflicts and deeply rooted problems with authority. Academic - Children may find it difficult to understand what is being said in the classroom. This could be a result of a combination of reasons. Hygiene - Occasionally the children may not appear presentable, due to shabby uniforms, uncombed hair and long nails. Health - There are health related issues like lice, conjunctivitis, viral fever, boils and scabies and other skin diseases which are contagious in nature.
It is important to keep in close touch with the school and the class teacher in the initial weeks of school in order to be aware of any problems that the children may be facing. At this juncture if the child develops an aversion to or fear of school, it sometimes becomes a very entrenched feeling that is difficult to root out. Before such a situation arises, the Sneh Sathis must remain alert and in touch so that many later problems could be avoided. Dealing with Children Reluctant to go to School As children go through schooling, they are likely to face many hurdles in adjusting to school, teachers, heads, class mates, friends and office staff. They may be subjected to overt or subtle humiliations, derogatory remarks, unnecessary harsh tones or simply being ignored. Class mates may not want to sit next to them or include them in their play. It is painful to have to deal with rejection of this kind. If something is lost in class, inevitably the accusatory finger points to this child without any investigation. Teachers can openly criticise their learning abilities. We also know of children from the home eating their tiffin secretly for they are ashamed of the poor fare and the manner in which it is packed and know that no one is likely to share the meal. This disrespect and isolation troubles a child and unless the home teachers and Sneh Sathis 20
are alert and take timely action, it will most probably lead to disengagement with school, disinterest in studies and finding reasons for not going to school. It erodes their self confidence and makes them either inexplicably aggressive or sadly withdrawn. In such circumstances, no child can learn. How does one understand that a child is facing problems? Teachers and house mothers who spend a lot of time with children are usually quite sharp at noticing changes in children’s moods or behaviours. So if a child is – •• •• •• •• ••
Persistently refusing to go school, Showing a sudden drop in enthusiasm; Quiet and withdrawn; Silent when asked about friends or teachers; Tries to get rid of books and uniforms by destroying or hiding them then it is most likely that
she/he is facing some trouble in school. What should be done is such situations? •• Sit with the child in a quiet space and talk to her gently about what is apparently bothering •• •• •• •• •• ••
her. Wait patiently for her to begin telling you about her issues. Nudge her by letting her know that problems in school is quite common. Listen without interrupting or passing comments. Make the child believe that you are on her side and that you trust her. Discuss the matter with relevant people in the Rainbow Home/ Sneh Ghar and decide on the best way to deal with the issue. Ensure that there will be no repercussions on the child.
What should home teachers and house mothers do to ensure emotional well-being? •• Praise the children lavishly in the presence of others on whatever it is that they do well. •• Provide a lot of encouragement and appreciation of efforts in their academic or non academic exercises.
•• Give them opportunities to show you what they know. •• Give honest feedback but balance the negative with a lot of positives. •• Give clear indications of how important they are for you and how much you enjoy their achievements.
Developing high self worth, confidence and self respect in children is fundamental to ensure children are emotionally strong and this can be achieved by making children feel accepted, appreciated and wanted. Remaining in Regular Touch with Schools The Sneh Sathis are to keep in touch with the schools where the children are admitted. There are recurring needs which must be resolved such as uniform or text book issues, payment of fees, behavioural problems, etc. One person from each home, preferably the teacher, 21
should be designated as the contact person responsible for this task. This identified teacher and the home coordinator should attend the parent teacher meetings (PTMs) organised by the schools. If the schools do not organise PTMs, then the two should make the effort to go to school once in a month to keep in touch and address any problems that may arise. Improving School-Home Interaction The home must make conscious efforts to involve the school and the teachers in the lives of children in the homes. Inviting teachers and the principals to participate in events held in the home, to facilitate a debate or quiz, to give away prizes, to view an exhibition, to come and speak to the children, are ways to improve school-home relationship, sensitise the teachers and shape the perspectives of the school towards the children.
Children with Special Needs
In the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar where fifty to a hundred children are living together, it is likely that a few children will have some disabilities. Some problems are visible and easy to detect but others may be more subtle and underlying. Apart from the specific mental and physical disabilities that some children may have, it would not be wrong to say that all children in the homes are children with special needs. The level of care and understanding that is needed to support them is very high.
Identification Whether the numbers are less or more, the important thing is they should not go undetected. Identifying children who need special attention can be done with the help of counsellors, teachers and taking in the observations, anecdotes or comments of other children.
Consultation with Experts It is not advisable to work with such children at the home in the same manner as the other children. They need to be immediately taken to a centre or organisation where they will be put through certain tests to assess the kind and degree of disability. The experts would then be able to guide the Sneh Sathis on the future course of action.
Selection and Admission into Schools Based on the recommendations by the experts/consultants, the childâ€™s education plan should be mapped and executed. As far as possible, the philosophy of inclusive schooling should be adhered to and all children should study together. However, in all cases, it must be ascertained that the school believes in the philosophy of inclusive education and has provided for special educators to take care of the needs of these children. A teacher or manager from the home needs to be in regular touch with the special educator and understand how to provide support in the home for the children and their academic work.
Support for Children in Mainstream Schools As far as possible, children should be sent to regular schools and special support should be extended to help the child manage classroom activities and negotiate the premises. In recent times, technology has provided multiple options to suit all kinds of needs for children to participate in regular life around them. All such aids and options should be searched for and availed.
Sensitising other Children in the Home Other children living in the home must know what challenges the differently-abled children face so that they know how best to help or support them. Most importantly, children must
not pity them or ignore them, least of all make fun. Sneh Sathis should make an effort to encourage these children to participate in all those activities that they can undertake.
Availing Government Support Government schemes and scholarships are also available. Each state has formulated policies and schemes to take care of the special needs of these children. The government websites put forth information for all such allocations which should be gathered and used. The Technical Support Group (TSG) in the Ed.Cil - Educational Consultants of India Ltd. located in Delhi and the expert in charge of CWSN(Children with Special needs) in the SSA office of all state governments have information on all kinds of grants, aids and support available.
Building Self-Confidence through Participation The children with disabilities or any other problems need to be thoughtfully given some duties and responsibilities around the home which they can understand and execute easily. In performing these tasks, they will feel useful, experience a sense of belonging and will gain in confidence and self esteem. There are many such responsibilities that the children can perform and these tasks should be consciously allocated to them. Children could be paired to execute their responsibilities. The buddy assigned to the special needs children should be oriented to understand his/her partner and work together without humiliating or disrespecting the child or making him/her feel inadequate. This section should be viewed along with the guidelines and protocols given in the manual on Mental Health.
Individual Education Plan and Progress Record
The entire interaction described in Chapter 3 will yield a rich body of valuable initial information about the child, the educational background, the personality, nature and many other observations which will help the teacher to understand the personality of the child. The education format filled for each child should document this vital information on the child’s education background, the results of the Baseline Assessment about the current knowledge level for all subjects, the starting level in the Bridge Course, which class the child will be mainstreamed into and the approximate timeline for achieving this goal. The Individual Education Plan for each child begins with a description of the current status of learning even without an ‘education’ in a regular school in accordance with the age of the child. It tells us where the child started his/her journey of education and documents the academic progress, the nature and personality as well as areas of interest in extracurricular activities and the desire, if any, to learn a particular skill. The education format also captures the child’s hopes and interests, and what they “want to be when they grow up”. This format is a crucial record which enables the education and home teams to understand how much a child has progressed or regressed, and then monitor the learning pace, teaching quality, and other emerging needs. Teachers have to help each child prepare his/her own education plan and jointly monitor the progress. Very often, there is a total mismatch between their aspirations and their current aptitudes but this never bothers them, nor do they ever consider their limitations. They dare to dream without worrying about how their dreams will be realised. There are strengths in these children that are remarkable and can be utilised to their advantage. These strengths would add great value to the class if the teacher is helped to recognise them and channel them constructively. These children have high levels of self confidence and finally, a deep-seated desire for another chance at life. We have to respect and accept their desires and thoughts. There are three basic steps involved in developing an Education Plan: •• It begins with the child’s own vision of self and education - of engaging with the child in
helping him/her think about whom s/he is, what s/he wants to be in life. •• The second step is to communicate how education is integral to realising that dream. Share his/her needs as indicated in the Baseline Assessment and specify the prior learning steps that will be taken to fill the gaps. Jointly develop the Education Plan containing academic goals, desired skills and extra-curricular interests. •• The third step is to maintain a sustained dialogue with the child at regular intervals – to talk about his/her school, his/her friends, problems that are worrying him/her, keeping him/her informed of possible emotional reactions like frustration, disinterest, distractions, irritation, etc. during the education process and helping him/her recognise, understand, anticipate and overcome them.
The success of the Education Programme as a whole and the Individual Education Plan in particular depends a great deal on this mutual conversation between the child and his/ 25
her mentor. Without the active cooperation of the learner, even a well-conceptualised programme and concerted efforts are likely to remain one-sided, slow, irregular and chaotic.
Frequency of Recording Progress The teachers should track the progress of the child at least two times in a year. The progress record should state learning status in the five core subjects, English, computer skills, participation or interest in extra-curricular activities, the personality of the child and any other special comments. Even if grades are used, there should be a descriptive report. Progress tracking should be kept simple, informative and useful. A sample of Progress Tracking Formats has been given in Annexure 3 (a) and (b)
Follow-up of Progress Information The progress of the child has to be recorded and then acted upon. The record has to be shared with the child and with his/her parents if they are available. The children must know their own strengths and areas of extra effort required. They may be able to decide how they want to take care of their needs and the mentor can help to refine these plans. Self decisions put the onus of adhering to the plan on the child and the home can support him/ her. In the overall scheme of child care, participatory decisions contribute to making children take charge of their lives and their future. It gives them a sense of purpose and control and takes away the resentment of having decisions thrust on them. All such positive approaches directly or indirectly impact the overall educational environment in the home. Each child will have two kinds of records one which is maintained by the home and another which the school prepares once or twice in a year. The home record is more comprehensive and specific to each child but the school records show what is happening in a social space such as the class room. Both records are valuable. Sometimes the records complement each other. Sometimes they reveal opposite pictures. Then steps can be taken to address the issues that are causing the dysfunction.
School Support, Learning Enhancement and Life Skills
School Support Once the child has been admitted in the age-appropriate class in the school, the next important need is to ensure that the child gets proper and regular support to cope well in school. At this stage, if the support to school learning in the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar is delayed for any reason, the child will experience great difficulty in understanding and managing classroom transactions and eventually will begin to lose interest in going to school. School support has to focus on three aspects: firstly, to help the child to understand what is being taught in the class; second is to continue to explain to the child knowledge gaps on basic, fundamental concepts of primary school education and the third aspect has to do with the behaviours, academic mindsets, learning strategies and social skills that children need, to be part of a school. Therefore, there is a current learning component and a prior learning component which have to be taken care of together. The third aspect should flow as a constant undercurrent in all teaching/learning processes. The teacher in-charge of the child should adopt an approach such as: •• Establishing a routine of talking with the child everyday when they come back from school
about all the things that may have happened in school. A good way of starting a conversation may be – ‘Tell me one thing interesting that happened in school today’ and then ‘Tell me one thing that happened which you did not like’. •• Checking the diary every day. •• Flipping over the notebooks to see what new things may have been taught that day. •• Based on what the child talks about and what the diary says or what is found in the notebooks, the home teacher has to plan the revision. The teacher will be able to decide which concept would have to be explained first in order to help the child understand the current topic. S/he may need to re-teach the topic and then give some practice work based on the topic.
Many times children say that there is no homework for the day. However, this does not mean that there will be no prior learning and homework class. Classes need to be held every day and such days when there is no homework should be utilised for getting some extra revision or practice done. The challenges that the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar teacher will face Children in the homes are usually divided into groups for the home teacher based on their class. So a teacher may e.g. have about 15 to 20 children all in class three but – •• •• •• ••
They may be in different sections in the school; They may be in different schools in some cases; Their prior learning needs will be different; Sometimes a teacher needs to club children of two classes together; 27
In such situations the planning of a teacher and her awareness of each child’s needs and nature will help to deal with the diversity in the group. She has to be prepared with worksheets and tasks for all the children and decide how to distribute her time so that she can spend a little time with each child to explain something while others are working on their assigned tasks. A teacher must have or acquire good class management skills.
The Homework Class The homework class should have four components. These are: •• Help the child to understand what is happening in the class by re-teaching, revising and practicing what has been taught in school. •• Teach any such fundamental concept of which the child has learning gaps. •• A small passage from any source should be read aloud and questions answered orally. •• A small piece of creative writing.
Monitoring of Learning Informal, stress-free methods can be used to check how much the children have understood by undertaking simple activities about once in a week ideally on a Saturday: •• Ask the children to summarise a lesson – one child starts and then others keep adding one •• •• •• ••
more point or step till the summary is complete. Even if the children are in different sections they should listen to the exercise. Conduct a simple quiz competition in the class on the topics done in class. Put the children into three or four teams and ask each team to present what was done in three or four topics during the week. This way the entire recap can be done faster. They can write letters to the teacher in small groups telling her what they are learning, what they liked and what they did not. If they have learnt a new skill in math, write as many sums on the board as there are rows in the class. Ask one child from each row to come up and solve the sums and allow the children in the row to help if needed.
These methods of re-cap are open-ended, invite contributions from multiple children and generate great interest in learning because they are always looking out for something exciting to happen. The teacher must keep this excitement alive by doing something unexpected and impulsive. The child’s performance should also be monitored by visiting the school and talking to the teacher. The objective of this re-cap of the week in school is for the home teacher to understand what the children have been doing and how much they have retained. Based on this recap, the next week’s work can be decided.
Learning Enhancement There are some aspects of education and learning which may not be fully taken care of by the school. Yet they should not be ignored, for they are invaluable and critical components of a holistic education especially English and Computers. The home therefore should take care to ensure that children are not denied the benefits of these inputs. 28
Proficiency in English Schools have English as a subject which starts at different class levels in different states. Children need help in acquiring this skill. At the same time, they continuously need regular help in keeping up with the English taught in schools. Therefore, the English teaching programme has two objectives: •• Children are able to understand and communicate in English with reasonable comfort, fluency, clarity and correctness.
•• Children receive support to manage English as a subject taught in classrooms. (a) Communicate In English An English curriculum that aims to bring children’s usage and understanding up to the level between Class 3 and 4 of the NCERT syllabus being followed in regular schools has been developed by RFI. However, it is not a self-learning system and educators need training to use the curriculum. It is also possible to enter into strategic partnership with language teaching academies such as English Edge, British Council or Inlingua that can develop language skills in children. A third option would be to identify organisations or NGOs which have developed successful systems of teaching English and partner with them to follow a similar approach for the children in the home. (b) English as a School Subject The regular/part-time school support teacher should be able to help children revise daily lessons learnt at school, do their homework, clarify any doubts or questions, keep them a little ahead of the class and ensure extra practice. English classes should stress on: •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
Speaking and narration by children Increasing vocabulary through narratives Pronunciation Grammatically correct sentence construction Reading with understanding and in accordance with the text Comprehension through verbal and written articulation Creative writing using a variety of techniques
Gaining proficiency in language depends a lot on regular classes and constant exposure to listening to the language which could be through TV, English movies, songs, etc. Learning to speak in English is every child’s dream in the Rainbow Homes/Sneh Ghar. They would willingly participate in any process that is likely to result in their ability to converse in English.
Proficiency in Computers Knowledge of computers is essential in today’s times as technology is so much a part of everyday life that if children are unable to use this tool, they would struggle to gain a foothold in higher learning as well as in work places. Children need to be skilled in managing and using computer technology to aid learning, explore opportunities and understand different applications and software not only for school use but also in the world of business, commerce and employment. Computer Education should focus on helping children acquire five basic skills – familiarisation with the functions on the computer and key board, Microsoft office, which means using word, excel and power point, saving, deleting, storing and retrieving etc., internet surfing, e-mail usage and understanding the ethical aspects of technology. All Rainbow Homes/Sneh Ghar should aim to set up an efficient and updated computer centre to provide children the opportunities to learn this essential skill. This should be under the care of a trained centre manager who would: •• Keep the Centre open from early in the morning till late in the evening for optimum usage by •• •• •• •• ••
Sneh Sathis as well as children. Develop and deliver learning modules. Help children to learn how to use the computer and discover its potential. Check that the machines are functional. Make sure that the computers are regularly serviced and maintained. Ensure that they are not misused.
Ideally, the Centre should be able to accommodate about ten computers to enable at least a minimum of twenty children to work on them at any time. But children can learn even with five functional computers. All equipment should be on annual maintenance contracts. A stock of computer-based learning programmes, CDs, etc. should be stocked in the library. Useful software can also be downloaded. If the Rainbow Homes/Sneh Ghar does not have the resources to set up a computer base and the school in which the children are studying has computers, check with them if it is possible for the children to use the computer lab outside regular school hours. Rainbow Homes/Sneh Ghar can contact well known industrial and business units in the city to donate computers to the home when they upgrade their models. Negotiate with the companies to also take care of the maintenance of the computers for at least two years as keeping the computers functional is a technical task and may be expensive. After two years, it is a better idea to exchange these computers for a set of comparatively newer models from any company that is going in for upgrading their computers/laptops. Youth organisations/students in colleges/students in professional institutions/ will be able to provide volunteers to come and teach computer skills to children. There could be a pool
of volunteers who can take different groups of children at times convenient to them and to the homes.
Life Skills Life Skills has a very wide scope and lends itself to a variety of interpretations. However, as a part of the learning programme, it is also the teachersâ€™ responsibility to carefully nurture the behaviours, positive mindsets, self confidence and social skills children will need to be part of school and after that to be an active, responsible citizen. This is the most important responsibility of the teachers and carers for the learning achievements of children rest a lot on this inner capacity to deal with school. The values and attitudes at the core of life skills should be woven into the manner in which daily life is conducted in the homes. It is modelled in the manner in which adults behave and talk with children, the way the children see the home being managed, the dignity and respect that is shown to all, the caring nature of people, how much rigor and effort is put into doing a task, how much care and concern people show in conserving energy and other resources, the kindness one shows to people who are in pain and suffering, the attitude towards wastage and damage â€“ children are absorbing all of this and they impact their attitudes. Please refer to Manual on Comprehensive Programme for Life Skills Education.
Creative Learning Approaches
1. Project-based Learning Project-based learning is a teaching/learning methodology which breaks the monotony of classroom teaching and creates a space for school-society interaction. It is student-centric and inter-disciplinary (i.e. a project will involve concepts from math, science, social studies and will require language skills). It connects the school learning with the real world and allows children to engage holistically. They learn to seek information, apply it and demonstrate their learning. It accommodates a wide variety of learning styles.
The Role of the Teacher •• She starts with the end in mind – she knows what should be the result of the activity. •• She provides opportunities for in-depth investigation by helping students to frame critical
questions. •• She designs the process – makes logistic arrangements, provides resources, decides on a time frame, plans the assessment – along with the students. •• Monitors the progress of all the groups and of each child. •• Ensures that the effort ends with a sense of pride, achievement and celebration.
The Role of the Children •• The children plan together and execute their plans using a combination of suitable resources •• •• •• •• ••
– camera, video camera, internet, web sites, visits to sites, interviews. They work with responsibility and commitment. (The teacher is not responsible for finishing the ‘Project’.) The children set their own standards of high quality work. They enquire, research, think, discuss and derive learnings. They demonstrate their learnings in a variety of ways – e.g. power point presentations, photography, videos, graphic organisers, creating a story, staging a drama, puppets, panel presentation, etc. The children engage in public interaction and are able to defend their learnings.
The children also decide on how they will be assessed. They watch a number of T.V. shows in which they see performances being assessed – by judges, by public votes or a combination of both. Together with the teacher, the children can decide what should be the manner of assessment. It is a very non-competitive approach and children learn to cooperate, collaborate with each other and engage with adults in an academic setting. It is a great method to inculcate team spirit and interdependence. Children understand that achievement and success can be a collective celebration. Project based learning is a powerful self-learning methodology that allows students a
considerable degree of autonomy on what they want to learn and how they want to present their learnings.
2. Peer Teaching Children learn best when they interact with each other in groups and work together on any task. Therefore, a teacher’s task is made easier if she makes an effort to identify the skills and strengths of each child. Then she can balance the groups and put those strengths to use. Children can help each other to understand concepts in math and social sciences. Those who draw well or colour well can help others. Some children may know how to fold paper into various shapes. All children can be given time to address and conduct a class in teaching others what s/he knows. This will enhance their self confidence and makes them responsible for each other. While children engage with each other on tasks that the teacher has set for them, the teacher cannot take for granted that the expected outcomes will emerge effortlessly. All through the exercise, the teacher has to move around the groups ensuring that the reasons for using the peer teaching approach are being met.
3. The Library The library is a child’s window to the world. It is an exciting intellectual space for learning, reflection, exploring and discovering. A library can be set up in a separate room if it is possible. If space is limited, then a quiet area of a larger room can be set aside to serve as library space. It is possible to set up a library with very little investment. There should be 2-4 book shelves preferably open or with glass doors to place the books. Some cane stools, a few small plastic chairs that can be stacked, a durrie or mat/carpet that can seat about 15-20 children at a time, some large cushions and about 3-4 small tables can be sufficient to start a library. The book shelves can be placed in such a manner that they form a separation from the rest of the room. The walls can have sayings or quotations about books, reading, etc. There could be pictures of people engaged in different intellectual activities. The atmosphere or ambience of a library is very important. When children enter this space, they should feel different and have a sense of purpose. The library must stock books, newspapers, educational games and magazines that will be of interest to all age groups in the home. At least 5-8 titles of popular stories should be available. There should be atleast 10 copies of each of these titles. These should have large pictures with just a line or two written below and should have about 10-12 pages. The use of this set of story books will be explained a little later in this section. The librarian must orient the children and set some norms for using the library, such as: •• The importance of and reason for being quiet and speaking softly. •• Placing footwear outside. 33
•• How to handle the books. •• How to turn the pages. •• To place heavy books on the table and not on the knees, etc.
Reading Activities in the Library The children should have some personal time to browse through the books on their own and simply go around looking at different books or magazines. The librarian/teacher must not interfere, unless asked to, in this bonding time between children and books. Another chunk of time should be utilised by the teacher. Some examples: (a) Teacher-led Reading Required: All the children will have the same story book and two children can share one book (use the set of 10-15 books with the same title). The teacher holds up the book and familiarises the children with the story by first doing a picture reading using a lot of questions. She also brings in the vocabulary that will be used in the book. The children use the book and participate in the process. The teacher then reads the sentences on each page slowly, clearly stressing on pronunciation, accent, tone and style. She must use a lot of expressions, her hands, eyes, voice and gestures to make the story come alive. (b) Reading in Pairs •• Divide the children into groups of two and give each pair a small piece of reading preferably from a magazine or newspaper.
•• Walk around to help the pairs in their reading and understanding. •• Each group then shares what they have read. •• At the end hold a general discussion on which news was interesting, disturbing, funny, etc. (c) Story Telling The teacher must have story telling sessions in the library. This should be done without any book. The teacher must use a lot of facial expressions, gestures, voice intonations and body movements to tell the story. It is also important to make the children participate in the story. This can be done by asking questions at strategic points, such as “What do you think she did?”, “Where did he go?” and making them repeat some parts or sounds in the story. Stories are important means of introducing feelings and values. All stories have a strong emotional content (such as fear, anger, sadness, happiness, jealousy, hurt, etc.) which the teacher must be able to identify and lead the children into recognising the feelings and understanding them. Allow the children to talk about the feelings and express their views. It helps them to explore the emotion and become familiar with it. Stories also provide several opportunities for discussions on values. At the end of the story,
always open up the discussion on some of the ethical or value-based situations that is inherent in the story. Do not make a moral statement. Children must analyse the situation and talk about the values â€“ both negative and positive - that the story brings out. In this way they will gradually learn to clarify values by thinking, reflecting and talking about them. At the end of the session, the teacher should lead the children into the story and ask them to imagine themselves as one of the characters. Then she should ask them what they would have done or said in the same situation. Several children must get a chance to say what they would have done. You might be surprised by some of the thoughts! (d) General Knowledge The library time should also be used to involve children in knowing more about the world in which we live. General knowledge should not be an overload. Plan each session for about 20 minutes around a particular topic and provide children with small bits of interesting information. Sometimes a small game can be organised like countries and their capitals on flash cards which they can match. Interesting facts (about 10 of them) can be written on cards e.g. fastest animal, deepest ocean, etc. and children can read it out to the rest. The library is a means of triggering the curiosity and interest of the children and motivating them to seek answers and continue to learn on their own.
4. Wall Magazine/Newsletter A wall magazine or a news letter is a means of creative expression. A wall magazine is comparatively informal, spontaneous and more for internal display, whereas the newsletter is printed or photocopied and is more formal and organised for public distribution. Both carry views, anecdotes, articles and creations of children that are presented in an eminently readable manner. Collecting material for the magazine/newsletter and producing it is also a learning process. An Editorial Team from among the children should be put in place comprising of an editor, sub-editors and lay-out artists. The sub-editors would be in charge of one thematic area. All the children and Sneh Sathis can collectively decide how many times in the year the magazine will be produced, in which months and what would be the components in the magazine. The team decides the date on which the magazine/newsletter will be put up/published. It will provide a timeline for writing, collection, compilation, selection and production and the team knows how much time they have for the various tasks. It is also a good idea to get in touch with a nearby college and ask the editorial team members of the college magazine to help in the initial phase of producing the wall magazine. The college teams will have a lot more experience and under their guidance the home team can function more effectively. 35
The Editorial Team can put up a notice asking children to contribute poems, photographs, jokes, articles, reports, news around the home or school, etc. Frequently, the team members would need to write themselves. When the material is collected the team will go through all the articles to check for correctness and quality. Then they would lay out the material on chart papers in an artistic manner to make it look interesting and appealing. The names of the Editorial Team must be mentioned in one corner of the magazine. Seeing their work and their name in print raises self esteem and inspires others who have been shy and inhibited to come out and contribute. The editorial team should change with each edition of the magazine so that many children get the opportunity to take on these tasks.
5. Quiz All children enjoy participating in a quiz activity. It is a fun way to enhance general knowledge and increase awareness. The quiz should be publicised so that much curiosity and interest is generated and everybody looks forward to it. 36
The teacher or moderator who conducts the quiz should be aware of the level of awareness of the children and have a judicious mix of questions – many that they can answer and some that they may not be able to. There are many ways of conducting a quiz competition. The questions could be asked directly or a question with four options could be given. Both methods seem equally interesting to children. Sometimes, the quiz could be on a particular topic such as sports, movies, literature, etc.
6. Debates This is a very powerful and effective method of creating opportunities for children to gather information, form opinions, to put forward their thoughts with clarity and argue in a logical manner. It teaches children that there are two sides to every issue and each side needs to be heard and their arguments need to be examined. Debates not only benefit the participants but also those who form the audience. Topics to be debated upon should be selected with care. The topic must be relevant for the children and also have social significance. The moderator of the debate must be able to bring out the critical threads in the arguments and enhance the knowledge level of all who are present. It is not necessary to bring a logical conclusion of rightness or wrongness. Debates should present diverse views on situations and leave space for more thoughts and further reasoning. The moderator must be careful not to appear as the final authority on the subject and whose views cannot be disputed.
Discussions based on Films/Books Discussions around topics that are relevant and interesting is an effective method of getting children to express their thoughts freely. It enhances articulation and gradually builds skills in logical presentation of arguments. Discussions trigger thoughts and lead to creative and critical thinking as the children grow. The educator should select topics that are age appropriate and something with which the children are familiar. •• •• •• ••
Introduce the topic in a large group Separate the children into small groups and let them talk amongst themselves After a while, the groups can present their thoughts to all the others. If the children are older and can read and understand, then they can be given an article/ story or news item to read. Then a discussion can be generated based on the reading. •• Discussions can also be initiated on issues or events happening at the national level on which there is much curiosity but little clarity. Talking with the educator or an informed person will bring awareness and increased understanding. •• If possible, a group of older children who express genuine, intellectual interest and not for the sake of going out and having fun) could be taken to listen to discussions being held at prestigious forums where informed experts are speaking. "
Interactive Conversations with Experts Talking with eminent people and hearing about how they successfully overcame the trials and troubles of their lives, or what they think of education, what do they value in life, what their views are on social issues, what are the attitudes and behaviours which they feel are important – make a huge impact on children. Invite people with whom the children can establish some connection, e.g. cricketers, leaders, film stars, personalities whom they see on TV, writers, etc. Let them talk about what they think would be best to share with the children. Always ensure that there is time to have an interactive discussion with the person.
Community service: Shram daan ‘Shram daan’ is a Hindi word that means ‘donating your labour’. Children have to grow up with the understanding that they need to give something back to society. This takes the form of performing acts of service wherein the children physically engage and undertake some tasks. The Sneh Sathis and the children can discuss and decide how best to take up this. If the organisation is engaged in other interventions such as working with homeless adult population, or street medicine and healthcare, mobile health care, then children could offer shram daan in this work.
Enrichment Programmes: Extra Curricular Activities
Children need opportunities to engage in various extra-curricular activities such as art, craft, dance, vocal/instrumental music, theatre, pottery, puppetry, sports, indoor games, vacations, outstation visits, going to the movies or just going out for a picnic. Martial arts, yoga, training in self-defence should also be provided if education is to be comprehensive and holistic. Therefore these activities have to be included in the childrenâ€™s routine.
Discovering and Developing Talent in Children A possible way to start planning for what kind of resources should be provided to the children would be to prepare an inventory of interests. The teacher could ask each child to name three activities that appeal to him/her. Such an inventory also makes it easier to separate children into groups. Working with children when they are in groups that are based on their interests and not on a random selection made by others, ensures a much higher chance of success and personal fulfilment for both children and facilitators. 39
Providing Facilities and Equipment Basic sports equipment should be available in all homes. Equipment can be either purchased or donated, e.g. footballs, basketballs, badminton racquets and shuttlecocks, a cricket set, skipping ropes, carrom boards, board games such as Ludo, Snakes-Ladders, Monopoly, Scrabble, Pictionary, Chess and Checkers. Basic musical instruments such as the tabla, guitar, harmonium and dholak should also be made available. Each home could list out and stock what they need or want based on the space available and interest expressed by the children. Children must be taught to respect and care for all the equipment, to ensure that it is valued and that it lasts many years.
Partnering with Resource Organisations/Experts Creating a pool of resource persons or partner organisations that are able to and willing to support the various activities planned by the home is an essential aspect of managing the non-academic programme. It is important to garner resources from various community sources, such as colleges, theatre groups, art/craft academies, music academies/groups, NGOs, youth groups, universities, small businesses, Resident Welfare Associations, community centres, museums and those resources and facilities that are provided by government institutions specifically for children. While individuals who are willing to give their time to the children to take sessions with them are welcome, developing strategic partnerships with several consistent, well-established organisations that share similar goals and principles is a more long-term, sustainable arrangement. In addition to the activities listed in the diagram, some more that can be planned are: Celebrations All important national and international days should be observed and celebrated in different ways. Children must be given a brief orientation and history of the importance of the day or occasion which is being celebrated. The homes should make a list of the important celebrations that will take place during the year. Summer /Winter Camps Outstation residential camps can be organised during the summer and winter vacations, where children leave the campus for 3-7 days in different groups. The Sneh Ghar/Rainbow Homes should partner with recognised youth organisations, other prominent and reputed NGOs active in the area, the social science department of the local university, sport stadiums or clubs, and any other established links and collaboratively plan these trips. The local organisations will be able to extend valuable guidance and support. Annual Day This is a gala function and can be organised on a large scale with a chief guest, guests of honour and other invitees. All the homes can get together and present a variety of programmes to celebrate the Annual Day. It is also a day on which academic excellence or 40
achievements can be honoured. The principal or head master and teachers of the schools to which the children go should be invited along with education department personnel. Sports Day The Sports Day could also be a combined event. This is less formal but also presents opportunities to invite several people who have remained linked with the homes in many different ways. The schools, their teachers and principals along with the education department officials should also be a part of these celebrations. The homes must make an effort to ensure that all children participate in the sports day programme. It is well known that only a few children actually compete and the rest feel left out and unhappy. This need not be so. The sporting events could begin with the organisationâ€™s theme song, and must be interspersed with mass drill display, yoga formations, gymnastic displays in which all those children who are not competing should be involved. Other children who are unable to participate in any activity for some reason, can be given the responsibility of packing, labelling and handing out the prizes to the person giving away the prizes or ushering in the guests, etc. In this way all the children will feel an ownership and a sense of responsibility.
How to schedule & manage the plan Arrange for about 4-5 activities at a time and as far as possible, all children should sign up for at least one activity. Ensure that resource persons are available, punctual and regular in coming to take classes. After 8-10 weeks, take a review meeting with the groups of children. Some children may wish to continue, some may wish to drop one activity and take up another which s/he finds more appealing. Drop the activity which does not seem to attract enough children and introduce a new activity. Make all the adjustments required in forming the groups. In this way the children will have opportunities to assess what interests them, what does not and also experiment with a variety of activities. Prepare a Calendar of Activities Given the diversity of activities that comprise this programme, it is highly recommended that an annual calendar be prepared in the beginning of the year marking specific dates for some of the planned activities including outstation trips/camps or visits. This makes it easier to plan for other activities like health checkups, eye camps, etc. It also helps the Volunteer Coordinator to provide for adequate volunteers and prepare them. Teaching and home staff could begin preparing children well in time for events such as Sports Day or Annual Day.
Continuing Education: Options Available
The RTE Act primarily secures the rights of children in the age bracket of 6-14 years. However, in the case of children who have spent several years on the street and have been disconnected from formal education for a long time, it is very often not possible that they would have been able to complete elementary education by that stipulated age. State governments would need to stretch the time limit to facilitate the completion of school education for all such children. In the absence of any clear policy and guidelines in this regard, the needs of these children have to be managed through private funding. The gap between educational qualification and independence through employment is the most critical need for children who are in this particular age group. The focus therefore is on acquiring a basic, recognised educational qualification to improve their chances of employment and to ensure financial independence. It is also possible to continue education through the formal systems for under-graduate studies or through the Indira Gandhi Open University (IGNOU). The state education departments also offer the opportunity to pursue education through the distance-learning mode. In the Directorate of Education, Delhi it is called the Patrachaar Vidyalaya. The nomenclature may be different in other states but the option ensures that children remain within the education system of the state. Other states that provide opportunity for completing schooling through distance education are Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Jammu& Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal. Some options are available such as:
The National Institute of Open Schooling The National Institute of Open Schooling [NIOS] is the largest open school system in the world with 493534 students registered in 2011-12 and presents a way of helping children learn and acquire basic certification for Classes 5-12, so that they can cross one bridge and come one step closer to economic and social independence and self confidence. There are no age criteria and the programme provides easy options for taking the exams. The NIOS certification is recognised by the Government of India and all educational institutions. Please refer to (www.nios.org). (a) Who should go through the NIOS system? The Bridge Course for Primary Education takes an average of 12â€“18 months for a child to cover depending upon the age of the child. The Bridge Course for Upper Primary Education would require another 6-10 months, minimum. If a child were about 12-13 years old when s/he comes to the home, s/he would require minimum two years for completing the two bridge courses to be able to go into Class 9 in any school. By this time the child would 42
be older than his/her peers by two to three years, which poses challenges socially and psychologically in terms of matching the childâ€™s cognitive development and learning needs with those of the rest of the class. If the child comes to the home close to the age of 14, these problems are even more acute. In such cases, if the child agrees, s/he is advised to appear for exams through the NIOS system, and thus be able to graduate at an accelerated pace. In addition, the child will have the opportunity to learn at his/her own pace without adverse peer pressure and the embarrassment of learning with much younger students. (b) Providing support to children studying through the system There could be a system of providing coaching or arranging private tutors who come to the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar and help children understand the course material. However, it is difficult to maintain rigour and regularity through this method. Also, the basic desire of street children to â€˜go to schoolâ€™ remains unfulfilled. Therefore, it is a better option to register the children at the NIOS Study Centre nearest to the home. Many regular schools also have NIOS study centres within the school premises for children enrolled in the course and residing in the neighbourhood. The study here is conducted in a formal manner with regular classes. This is probably the best option for studying through the NIOS. In spite of this regular schooling system, the children still need support in the Rainbow Home/ Sneh Ghar for revising the material/lessons, for which it might be necessary to engage a teacher to come either everyday or on alternate days to work with the children. (c) Course books, supplementary books and learning material All course books and material followed by the NIOS are available at the NIOS Study Centre. However, very often the books are out of print or stock and a long wait seems inevitable. In such cases, it would be advisable to buy the books in the open market or photocopy by borrowing from other students.
Earning and Learning Most children who opt to complete their schooling through the NIOS or the distance learning programme of State Education Departments are in the higher age bracket and they feel a lingering need to begin earning in some way. This need is healthy, and they should be encouraged and supported to engage in any employment or vocational training that they are willing to take on during the study period. However, it needs to be clearly conveyed that this is not what they would be doing for the rest of their lives and that these are merely interim arrangements. Once they acquire certifications for Class 10 or 12, their future needs would be reviewed and the next steps would be planned with them. Note: Education is a state subject and most states have fairly clear notifications regarding the care of street children who are below 14 years and those who are above 18 years. 43
However, the same clarity is not visible when it comes to the care of street children who fall between 15 and 18. The cause of such anomalies lies in the National Goals (linked to the Millennium Development Goals - MDG) that have set the target for Universal Education at upper primary level. This level of education leaves the learner in a â€˜nowhereâ€™ land, as it does not lead to meaningful engagement in life unless education is continued or the children are provided some commercially useful skills. Some states have linked the extension of the care programmes under SSA to the completion of upper primary education (Class 8) at whatever age and not just until they are 14 years of age, which has provided some relief to those children who have had a late start in life.
Management of Comprehensive Educational Programme
A. Structure for Education Support At the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar level, teachers and Sneh Sathis are in constant engagement with children and there is very little time to step back and check on what they are doing. Sometimes there is a situation that requires a fresh view. In order to support the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar to take good, relevant educational decisions, it is suggested that they should have a group of 3-5 concerned individuals who are aware of the vision, beliefs and principles. They should be experienced educationists, easy to access and willing to give some time when required to sort out any pressing problems. At the city level, an Advisory Committee can be established consisting of 5-7 educationists from government institutions, school heads, NGOs and research institutions, or child rights activists and lawyers, which can be a consultative group for all the homes in the city. At the state level, a State Consultative Group could be established to oversee the progress of childrenâ€™s education and their overall development. Members of the home, city and state level advisory committees and consultants could be part of the external review of education processes.
Teachers Recruitment, Training and Support As per government norms, all teachers in the home have to be trained. It is difficult to get trained teachers within the pay scale that is offered but as far as possible, one should try to get trained teachers or employ graduates and offer to support them to acquire a teacher training certificate. Even trained teachers need orientation and support for teaching children in the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar. Twice in a year, 3-5 days of needbased training workshops for teachers should be organised and at least one set of trainings for 5 days should be residential. These trainings or workshops could be in partnership with experienced organisations or schools. The teachers have to be supported in various situations - to choose the best approach and techniques of teaching particular concepts, to deal with a resistant child, to design an appropriate assessment, etc. It would be desirable for the panel of part time teachers to also attend the training workshops. Reflection, Review and Planning Every fortnight, all teachers reflect and review their work and plan for the next two weeks. This common time has to be made at the Rainbow Home/Sneh Ghar level and it should be for about four hours. Teachers should share their joys and sorrows â€“ about who learnt really well and who is still struggling. They could their problems and talk with each other. The 45
dialogue will yield suggestions and comments and very often teachers will evolve solutions with each other’s help. In planning for the next two weeks, they should decide the topic, discuss the teaching approach and create or acquire the TLMs they will need. A suggested list of TLMs is given in Annexure 4. Assessment tools or formats can also be designed. Documentation and record keeping Documentation at the home level and those mandated as per SSA guidelines has to be maintained and regularly updated. These include: •• Children’s individual education plan and progress record. •• Records of lesson plans. •• Assessment records. •• All papers with reference to maintenance of equipment, furniture and facilities. •• Inventory of all books in the library, the TLMs, CDs, DVDs and other material. •• Records of all training workshops organised for the teachers. •• Half-yearly and annual reports that have sent to donors and foundations. •• Database of experts, consultants in education, resource persons, institutions, partner organisations with whom there is collaboration.
Assessment of Progress and Learning in Children Since the home is not a school, the informal atmosphere of the home provides the space to adopt creative ways to let children show how much and what they know in a nonthreatening, relaxed manner. A written test with marks at the end is not the only or even the best way of assessing how much children have learnt. The goal of an assessment is to inform the teacher whether all children are ready to go on to the next level or she should spend a little more time consolidating the present concepts. This can be discovered in a variety of ways. Organising a group quiz where two, three or four groups ask each other questions based on the lesson, giving one word answers, creating riddles and the children guess the answers are some interesting and easy ways of assessing. Giving groups of children a topic to research and present their information usually excites children and they are happy working in a free space. Volunteers There is always a need for good, reliable, regular and committed volunteers in education. Volunteers are of three kinds – long term volunteers who have taken ‘time off’ for a year or those who are biding time for a year while they take exams for entry to professional courses; there are those who come for short terms like the summer vacations or the long period between school leaving exams and beginning of the college session; then there are
those who come to manage for a day like during sports day or a few days when teachers are in a workshop. All volunteers have to be oriented to the task for which they have been called in so that they know what they have to do. Long term volunteers may be given an assignment that would logically take about a year to accomplish. Those who come for a few months can help in bringing out the wall magazine or preparing TLMs. An orientation programme and regular meetings of volunteers must be organised to ensure positive interactions with children in the home.
Annexures Annexure 1 Topics to engage children awaiting admission into class 1 or class 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.
English and Hindi rhymes with actions. Identify the English and Hindi alphabets, understand their sounds and be able to join the sounds together to form words Numbers from 1 â€“ 50. Identify basic shapes Identify colours Know the names of the days of the week and months of the year Identify body parts/clothing Identify different fruits, vegetables, flowers and trees Identify and learn about animals, their young, their habitat, sounds, Actively participate in learning games and activities Increase their English and Hindi vocabulary Learn to read the clock and parts of the day Observe and talk about the natural condition of the day (sunny, dark, cloudy, cold etc) and clothing/gear associated with them Picture reading Watch cartoons/film clips and be able to answer questions based on the visual Teaching to say simple salutations and greetings. Be able to understand and respond to simple instructions Teach to express physical and mental discomfort Ask questions Understand and follow rules, norms and systems set in the class Teach some English and Hindi songs. Listen to stories Participate in the reading process Play games according to simple rules Learn to draw using crayons and colour pencils/sketch pens and fill colours in picture. Draw and trace patterns Perform simple dance steps Imbibe good values such as sharing, being good friends, waiting for turns, stand quietly in queues, take care of personal belongings, respect public property, develop clean habits, eat meals properly, learn to say please, sorry, excuse me, may I? etc.
Annexure 2 Baseline Tool
Annexure 3(a) Progress Tracking Of Small Children Awaiting Mainstreaming Name of the Home: Address: Full Name and Alias (Capital Letters): Date of birth/Age (as on…………): Name of the teacher: Grading Indicators: A- Always B- Most of the time C- Sometimes/occasionally D- Rarely E-
No First Term
Height Weight Has been immunized Has been de-wormed Is free from skin and hair infections Is free from frequently-occurring diseases – diarrhea, malaria, stomach ache, etc. 51
Has well developed gross motor skills according to age Has well developed fine motor skills according to age Has correct eye sight Has correct hearing Demonstrates age-appropriate self help (e.g. using toilet, washing, wearing clothes,) Is able to communicate clearly and correctly Is able to engage in a conversation Can recall and narrate an experience/ incident Takes care of personal belongings Takes care of school property Comes to school neat and clean Has a good appetite and eating habits Interacts well with other children Is happy, cheerful and friendly Is willing to share Is imaginative and creative Is relaxed and confident Sustains interest and energy and remains involved Works well in group activities
Works well individually Understands simple rules of games and plays accordingly Takes assigned tasks and responsibilities seriously (e.g. switching off lights and fans, collecting toys etc. ) Participates enthusiastically in class e.g. singing, recitation, drawing, art/craft, story telling etc. Demonstrates good numeracy skills Is able to read with understanding Demonstrates writing skills Plays alone Is nervous and under confident Loses interest easily Is confused and unsure Remains withdrawn and aloof Is shy and quiet Is overwhelmed by authority and loudness Is aggressive and dominating Uses physical force (hitting, pushing, etc Is destructive when upset
Teachers’ comments First Term _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Teachers Signature ………………….
Second Term _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Teachers Signature ………………….
Third Term _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Teachers Signature …………………. Name ……………………..…………
Annexure 3(b) Sample Format for Progress tracking in higher classes* Name of Student
Comments of in-charge
Date Signature *Home teams may add more areas to track the progress of children but it is recommended that the report should be descriptive rather than graded. Grades may be additional. 55
Annexure 4 Suggested List of Teaching/Learning Material •• Days of the week Chart •• Months of the year Chart •• 4 Seasons and corresponding weather/clothing/activities/food chart (Chart is divided into ••
•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••
quarters and each quarter can be filled with the images/scenes of one season) Charts: Animals/Fruit/Birds/Vegetables/Food Pyramid/Emotions/Family Tree etc. But it is recommended that charts are additional to a physical engagement e.g. visit zoo for animals, make facial expressions to indicate emotions, visit vegetable vendor to identify vegetables and fruit. Labels with the name of different classroom objects (door, blackboard, windows, corner, walls, charts, cupboards, mats, lockers, etc.) to be used for group or individual activities Educational games – scrabble, ludo, Pictionary, Costume box – with chunnis, caps, goggles, tie, scarves, etc for role plays Box of objects/bowls/pots/plates/spoons/forks etc Containers of rice/beans/lentils wire, string for alphabet/Varnamala formation practice glossy newspaper to make cut-outs of Varnmala and Alphabet Big, colourful counting beads, wooden blocks for counting and shapes Rubber/ plastic pie pieces in increments of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 (fractions) Story-related activity material [to be created by teachers according to the different storybooks they choose to use in the classroom Illustrated Big book of 1000 Action words Illustrated Big book of 1000 Naming words Illustrated Big book of 1000 Describing words Maps – World (physical & political) India (physical & political) A globe A clock Measuring tape Weighing scale Slates and chalk Magnets Compass
[This list of TLMs is not exhaustive. TLM-making is an ongoing responsibility that the teacher must take up at intervals as she/he moves along the curriculum.
Open Hearts, Open Gatesâ€Ś
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Comprehensive Care for Street Children: Handbook for Planners and Practitioners Education: Preparing for School and Life ahead
Association for Rural and Urban Needy Rainbow Foundation India H. No. 1-1-711/C/1, Opposite Vishnu Residency, Gandhi Nagar, Hyderabad-80 Ph.: 040 65144656 Website: rainbowhome.in
Association for Rural and Urban Needy Rainbow Foundation India
Education Manual The greatest challenge for education planners for children from the streets is to support them to bridge the educational...
Published on Apr 18, 2016
Education Manual The greatest challenge for education planners for children from the streets is to support them to bridge the educational...