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LEGACIES OF MODERNISM

ARCHITECTURE

ARC 3001

STAGE III

KENNY TAM YUN TAK

ACADEMIC PORTFOLLIO

NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY

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LEGACIES OF MODERNISM SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE PLANNING AND LANDSCAPE FINAL YEAR GRADUATION PROJECT 2018 - 2019

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Ammended work after reviews

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CONTENT PRIMER SPATIAL EXPLORATION THROUGH FOUR LANGUAGES IN ARCHITECTURE

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STAGING BRIEF BUILDING

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THINKING THROUGH MAKING TECTONIC MODEL MAKING WEEK

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REALISATION AND REFINEMENT DEVELOPMENT AND FINAL DRAWINGS

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STUDIO FEILD TRIP PRECEDENT STUDY ON LA TOURETTE

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ILLUSTRATED REFLECTIVE REPORT REFLECTIVE WRITING ON EXTERNAL MODUELS AND CHARRETTE

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ILLUSTRATED CULTURAL BIBLIOGRAPHY ALPINE HUT PROJECT AND SOL BY SOL COMPETITION

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REFERENCE BIBLIOGRAPHY AND ILLUSTRATION LIST ACKNOLEDGEMENT OF OTHER AUTHORS WORK

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REFLECTION ON STAGE III During stage II I continuously asked myself what is architecture? Every time I tried to answer this question the answer was always very complicated, it could be a response to the context or an abstraction of ideas inspired by the historical events, it could take a political agenda and challenge the current problems, it can be enhancing the quality of comfort through the use of intelligent, sustainable design. To distil down the complexity through the primer project and the studio culture, I have realised architecture is “space”, not just merely expansive space, but space which is inhabited and has purpose and meaning. The primer starts with an exploration of the four key languages in architecture, Planar, Volume, Grid and line through drawings and model making. I took these languages and started to imagine them expanding to the infinity and how would it be inhabited through these spaces. A set of composite drawing follows to explore further the novel inhabitation of space where walls, floors, ceiling, and stairs do not just respond to their name but rather a more ambiguous use. Following the primer, as a studio, we went to France and visited many Le Corbusier’s architectures, including Villa Savoye, Maison La Roche, Le Corbusier’s Studio Apartment, Firminy-Vert Stadium, Saint-Pierre, Unité d’habitation and La Tourette. Visiting his early works to his last few, it inspired me personally to take forward many of the ways he sculpts the interior space while utilising light as a material. Shortly after the trip, we started our design project, responding to the legacies of modernism in the North East. The ‘Killingworth vocational education centre: tackling loneliness through the in-between of introverted and extroverted space’ was an attempt to solve the current epidemic crisis of loneliness, which I critiqued as a result from the Modernist planning and zoning strategy for efficiency. I attempted to take on the challenge by designing the vocational education centre with spaces which are introverted, extroverted and ‘undefined’. Introverted, in the sense of intimacy and safety when small groups or a couple can come together to connect. Extroverted, in the spirit of gathering and performance where large groups can meet. Neither one should exist without the other as loneliness cannot be solved by only providing expansive space, loneliness can be solved through the beginning of a meaningful conversation in a relationship. The ‘undefined’ space, therefore, blurs the in-between spaces, these are the areas which are purposefully ambiguous to allow users to use it in their desire way, this way a dialogue is created through the body and space and each other. As I study more about the topic, architecture cannot be the solution to loneliness. However, it has the capability to provide opportunities for people to come together and generate ‘togetherness’. In the end, it is the act of self-motivation and urge from us to start a meaning conversation. I hope this project has evoked some questions and made the reader think more about how we live every day.

KENNY TAM YUN TAK

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LEGACIES OF MODERNISM STUDIO 08

STUDIO TUTORS ELIZABETH BALDWIN GRAY AND JAMES LONGFEILD 8

Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

Sophie Faith Elsie Sophie Rodrigo Anna

Sofia

As a studio, we are asked to engage with the role of theory and spatial explorations as a driving force in realising our projects. We have gained a comprehensive understanding of the emergence of early European Modernism and the history of British Brutalism through readings and the field trip. Kenny Shierly Karen Patricia Anastacia Eric Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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SPATIAL LANGUAGES PLANAR / GRID / VOLUME / LINES Shortly after the first world war, alongside many new artistic movements emerging Theo Van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian founded the art movement De Stijl. Their art originates from landscape paintings and through the continuous process of universal reduction and stripping off ornamentation from nature they arrived at De Stijl “The Style”. The imperfection of nature is tuned to the black grid and colours retrieves back to the three primary colours, including white. Doesburg reached a stage where his paintings started to represent spaces three-dimensionally in both of his axonometric drawings “Construction in Space-Time I & II.” In 1923, Doesburgh and Esteren studied how the axonometric drawings can generate conceptual architecture design. They produced an illustration of the Hotel Particuler, shown below. It indicates the first move of the systematic. It holds a close relationship with Mondrians earlier work of the transformation of a tree into a binary systems. For such reasons, all their work are not framed in purpose to evoke the idea of the spatial continuity to the “infinite”. Where lines, geometry and colour extend infinitely in the horizontal and vertical directions. A series of spatial experimentation is, therefore, modelled through the translation of Theo Van Doesburg’s “Construction in Space-Time II”. The physical models investigate the construction of space through stripping to the fundamentals of geometry: planar, grid, volume and lines. Each language is then reimagined in the expansion to the infinity, complexing the idea and reversing the system to draw back to the landscape paintings that started De Stijl. Additionally, Inhabiting these spaces ambiguously to find novel ways to use space.

Figure 1: Theo van Doesburg, Hotel Particulier, 1923 (2014) Figure 2: Theo van Doesburg, Construction in space time II (2003) 10

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PLANAR LANGUAGE

When one thinks of a planar in architecture, we start to think about the physical aspects of our surroundings. Planes come in three main directions, horizontal (floors), vertical (walls) and angeled (roof or any). Once there are two or more vertical and horizontal planes joined together, space is then therefore enclosed and when more planes joined together a void or a solid space is formed such as a cube. Moreover, punctures and columns can sit in between the planes to provide a different characteristic. Dimensions and texture have the power to govern the atmosphere of the surround or enclosed. A high and transparent plane can have a drastically alternative feeling compared to a short and solid plane. The different use of punctures and textures thereupon could lead to specific programs or imaginary spaces. From the model, I started to investigate these particular moments and concepts of the infinity. The foldable idea alike origami is translated to the system of perpendicular expansion, reacting to the vertical and horizontal axes, generating a repetition of rhythm to the infinite.

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FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT Perspective inhabitation of model Parrallel and perpendicular expansion PLanar model Moments in planar model Piet Mondrian, Composition with Large Red Plane, Yellow, Black, Gray, and Blue, (1921) Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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GRID GRID LANGUAGE

In architecture, the grid is prevalent in organisation, proportion and order. The grid has been in architecture history for centuries some of the most frequent ordering systems includes, halves, fourths, eights, thirds and sixths and among them, the nine square is the most commonly adopted. It is also widely used in all scales from urban planning to details of the design. The grid is not just limited to fixed squares, but it can adapt to many other forms such as the golden ratio. An orthogonal projection of planes is then scaled in three directions following the nine square grid in those three planes. Again the projection was to test the expansion to the infinity through scales. The inhabitation of space, therefore, becomes interesting as the ergonomics of space alters, where a chair could be a bookshelf or a table can become a step on a staircase. FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT Plan of model Expansion in scale Grid model Moments in grid model Piet Mondrian, Composition, composite (1911)

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E M U VOLUME LANGUAGE

Volume is simply space, architecture in a simple explanation is the enclosure of space. As architects, we are trained to spot the difference in styles of Victorian, Contemporary, Gothic, Modern and more. However, if we merely only see the difference of the veneer of the building, we have missed the meaning. Volume is space, the important part of the building are also the voids and solids. Large expansive space are also equally crucial to the human-scaled volumes. An abstraction of the volume is therefore explored to investigate the weight of individual masses and the emptiness of voids. Similarly, volumes are testing on how it can be expanded to the infinity through weightlessness. Inhabitation of space in the weightless mass meant the ground is not only fixed to specific axes all planes can be the ground. The explosion of volumes is then inhabited from all angles, imagining how people will use the interlocking blocks, floating masses and the empty space between.

FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT Section inhabitation Expansion in weightlessness Volume model Moments in volume model Theo Van Doesburg ,Monument leeuwarden (1917)

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LINE LANGUAGE

Lines always function in a two-dimensional surface, no matter where you view it from it does not have the three-dimensional qualities of volumes. A makeup of different lines joining together creates a shape which therefore becomes a plane. Lines are the original creation of two-dimensional shapes, and if a third line is added in the third axes, it creates a threedimensional mass. To explore these three-dimensional space of lines, I imagined lines as tubes in models and drawings. By adding a third dimension these models can, therefore, be inhabited and again to be imagined it growing towards the infinity. The twisting of lines added curves into the model, unlike previous explorations, which all have sharp edges the model is soft and fluid. It naturally governs itself to be inhabited in a novel way, through thinking it as if it was a playground. How would one jump, duck, climb, walk, sit, hang through these spaces?

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FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT Perspectve inhabitation Expansion in lines Line model Moments in line model

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HERBERT BAYER STUDY ON THE HUMAN VISION Herbert Bayer an architect, painter and graphic designer was initially enrolled into the Bauhaus in 1921, studying mural paintings. After graduation his passion with nature took him to Italy for a hiking trip, then soon he returned to Bauhaus in 1923 to become the director of printing and advertising, chosen from Walter Gropius. In the early 20th century he was one of the pioneers of the visual communications, but it was when he was nominated to curate MoMA’s exhibition for the Bauhaus architecture legacy from 1919 - 1928 in America, which inspired me. The exhibition took on a new approach on displaying the graphics. The diagram below shows his thinking of what will happen if the graphics were displayed not just parallel to the wall but staggered in all directions. As a result, he found out the expansion of the peripheral view of the human vision being expanded. Likewise, in nature, our vision is also expanded with the sublime if the vastness of life. Not only our vision is expanded but our other senses too, in cases such as walking becomes an activity that engages multiple senses because of the uneven ground, compared to the flat surfaces in a modern building. The expansion of senses also let the viewer appreciate and understand the spacial qualities of a space, thus the concepts behind the architect decision. From the inspiration, I am going to respond with model making to investigate the idea of expansion of senses through fusing the four spatial languages grid, volume, planar and line. I hope to find moments in the model where it can be explored further on the primer stage. Sketch book study on the expansion of senses and vision Figure 3: Herbert bayer, “Fundamentals of Exhibition Design.” PETER RIESETT (2005)

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MOMENTS EXTRACTED FROM ITERATION MODELS Through the models, particular moments are extracted to explore further with the expansion of vision and the other senses. Irregularity is particularly key to finding these moments, because it is through the abnormal spaces we create the inhabiter then can start to understand why the space are composed to be what it is. Figure 4: Theo Van Doesburg ,Monument leeuwarden (1917)

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FINAL EXPLORATION A final 200 by 200mm model is made to test all the languages in a composition. An invisible grid is represented in the copper pipe, which guides the composition in a nine square grid.

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MOMENTS Moments in the model is inhabited in a novel way to find new ways on how people can inhabit space, relating to their body ergonomics.

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STREET

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PLAN SECTION ELEVATION

OUTSIDE

A series of architectural conventional drawings are drawn from the physical model, transferring from the three-dimensional models to a two-dimensional drawing. These drawings are then overlayed and merged to find novel ways of using space through volume, planes, grid and lines

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COMPOSITION OF SHADOWS The composition of shadows investigates the intangible elements of the models, areas where only the masses can create and never projected directly in the same angels.

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COMPOSITION OF VOIDS The composition of voids also investigates the intangible areas of the models the negative space that is created by the models, the voids.

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CITY OF EXPANSION Two axonometric drawings are traced over to generated moments that are fictional, to explore the imaginary spaces where specific lines that connect the threedimensional geometry are gone, but still, there trough our assumption of how we view masses. The absence of lines and planar takes away the volumetric mass, but our brain still processes them in ways where we can still see them, through our imagination and the preconception of how space works. The city of expansion explores the final scale of the primer, combining all the languages and influences the drawing evokes a sense of curiosity on how space can be manipulated and habited. Axonometric drawings Proccess of tracing axonometric drawings City of expansion drawing 30

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EXHIBITION As a studio we created our own interpritation of a Proun room influenced by El lissutzy’s to house our individual 10 by 10 models, 20 by 20 models and each person composite drawing. We took inspiration of moments from each of our models and started to look at the Pod space as a 8 by 8 cube to attempt to recreate the composition of the space similarly to out final models. The studio went further and also created a customised t-shirt of our own designs as a product, reflecting on the mentality of the Bauhaus of unity and crafting. FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT Exploded diagram of proun room Composite drawings on mondrian frames Display of models Exhibition and studio pamphlets Presentation to the stage III tutors and students 32

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1. Manifesto wall 2. Exhibition t-shirt (product design) 3. Exhibition 4. Projection 5. Mondrian Frames 6. Pod (Cube) 7. Base grid

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KILLINGWORTH VOCTIONAL EDUCATION CENTRE TACKLING LONELINESS THROUGH THE IN-BETWEEN OF EXTROVERTED AND INTROVERTED SPACE APOLOGIA Ville Radieuse also known as the Radiant City, was an unrealized urban masterplan by Le Corbusier, at its core, is the notion of zoning, strict segregation of commercial, residence, business and entertainment. This means of planning has affected many of the cities and town we live in today, instead of a better lifestyle which Corbusier has imagined, due to the efficiency of the machine and strict rules. People have been separated apart further than ever before. This problem had generated the epidemic crisis of loneliness. The slum has gone - Behold the slum edging into the spirit.” Aldo van eyck

Loneliness is especially evident in the North East and in Killingworth which was once a modernist town built by Ryder and Yates. The project, therefore, is a response to loneliness through the vocational education centre with the sculpting of space to create introverted, extroverted and ‘undefined spaces’. Together it allows learners and the neighbourhood to use these spaces from intimate interactions to large expansive gatherings. Thus, providing connection spaces in different scales, uplifting the spirt again through learning, sharing, conversations and interactions. Final reiview pin up

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THE LEGACY OF MODERNISM “Instead of the inconvenience of filth and confusion, we have now got the boredom of hygiene. The material slum has gone, but what has replaced it.? Just mile upon mile of organished nowhere, and nobody feeling ‘he is somebody living somewhere’. No microbes left - yet each citizen a disinfected pawn on a chessboard, but no chessmen - hence no challenge, no duel and no dialogue. The slum has gone Behold the slum edging into the spirit.”

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ALDO VAN EYCK

Modernism’s Urban Planning scheme worked alongside principles for the mechanization of the city, the functionality, the order, the zoning. These bases are clear in Le Corbusier “La Ville Redieuse” where he conceived the city as a machine where it functions to a specific set of rules. This was one of the visions of the Masters in the Modern movement in planning. This perception has, therefore, been influencing Urban Planning for the rest of the century. A Modernist city is where everything can be easily distinguished like a machine with its components through zoning. This particular rational logic took off extensively to many cities and towns in the world. However, it was evident many years later cities which followed the planning of these rules realised the segregation has caused people to be separated and thus causing disconnection. Aldo Van Eyck boldly pointed out the slum has gone, but the return of the slum is in the human relationship with each other. Does the Legacy of Modernism hold the responsibility for the creation of loneliness in people? Collage of the legacy of Modernism Colin Porteous, The New Eco-architecture: Alternatives from the Modern Movement (2002) 36

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Lonely millennials found to be more likely to have mental health problems and be out of work Nicolas Davis, 24 April 2018

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Oscar Quine , 01 October 2018

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AIL EXCLU SO C SI

MADLEN DAVIES, 12 March 2015

Michelle Lloyd, 01 October 2018

LONELINESS TODAY Loneliness is the emotional state that we have when we feel disconnected, but the need for connection is ingrained in our biology. Multitudes of papers, news and conversations even films have been speculating the cause and effects of loneliness in this century. It has been calculated that one-fifth of the population in the UK suffer from loneliness above fifteen years old teenagers. Social exclusion, economic isolation and the lack of community have a significant effect not just on loneliness but the person’s emotionally and health. Loneliness is a public health crisis. It can lead to depression and even to premature death. More than ever, we are living in a world that has been ever more connected by technology, but we live alone, spend more time online and less time creating social connections.

STRESSED

Loneliness leads to an early grave: Feeling alone ‘shortens lifespan as much as obesity’

“It’s like a void, a feeling of emptiness.

Miranda Larbi, 26 November 2018

FEELING ALONE

Joe Smith, 30 April 2018

‘I’m surrounded by people - but I feel so lonely’

Half of lonely people think no one will notice if something bad happens to them, experts say.

LEV ATI ON

Esther Rantzen, 10 October 2018

Ben Griffiths, 09 December 2017

LONELINESS EPIDEMIC

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Alexandra Thompson, 30 October 2018

Fay Bound Alberti, 05 December 2018

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There is a shame to admitting you are lonely - but overcoming does not have to be a hopeless battle

Healthcare that is preventive rather than reactive is key if this epidemic is to be tackled effectively

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onely the risk mentia: isolation rigger mation in ain’

Loneliness as bad for you as 15 cigarettes a day as 1million people are expected to spend Christmas alone

Sean Coughlan, 05 December 2018

Tanzil Shafique, 02 December 2018

LONELINESS ON ITS WAY TO BECOMING BRITAIN’S MOST LETHAL CONDITION

Young women are more likely than young men to have feelings of loneliness, according to a study from the Office for National Statistics (ONS).

LONELY IN PERIL

LONELINESS IS A MODERN ILLNESS OF THE BODY, NOT JUST THE MIND

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Girls 'more likely to face loneliness'

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PRESS ASSOCIATION, 24 December 2018

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Loneliness is felt most intensely by young people, study finds (and turning to Facebook doesn't help)

Robert Booth, 2018 22 December

LONELINESS LINKED TO MAJOR LIFE SETBACKS FOR MILLENNIALS, STUDY SAYS

projects will More than 120 to help those receive funding ce stigma du re d affected an

Loneliness and isolation as bad for health as chronic diseases, doctor warns

4 year-olds the age group, it’s s to put down es and make real life

LE UK TO TACK S LONELINES CRISIS WITH £11.5M CASH INJECTION

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SOCIAL EXCLUSION ECONOMIC ISSOLATION FEELING ALONE STRESS DEMOTIVATION MINIMAL ALLEVATION SENSE OF INCLUSION ACTIVE INVOLVEMENT SENSE OF BELONGING

News paper articles of Loneliness Diagram of the affect of loneliness in our mental health and bodies Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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GENERAL HEALTH STATISTICS

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ENGLAND TACKLE S LONELINES CRISIS WITH ÂŁ11.5M CASH INJECTION

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Jobseeker Incapacity Benefits Any Benefit

No Qualifications Level 1

EDUCATION STATISTICS

, Robert Booth 2018 22 December

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FUTURE OF KILLINGWORTH

Level 4 Kilingworth

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Killingworth situate on the north of Newcastle, is known to be an area with many residences who commute to Newcastle or larger cities. Looking from a social economics point of view the town is generally lower in many areas when compared with the rest of the United Kingdom. Firstly it can be seen that people in Killingworth generally do not have good health. Secondly, employability is also another issue in the area as many people are in benefits or seeking for jobs. Thirdly education level in the city seemed to be higher on the lower levels of qualifications, which could correlate to the number of unemployed residents.

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2032 KILLINGWORTH MOOR MASTERPLAN

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These issues can, therefore, be areas where the programs of the building can provide, whereby adapting from the blue zone countries. To support the needs of the residence in Killingworth, but more importantly, raising the level of happiness and lowering the cases of loneliness. A new master plan is currently being established, and in construction, around 5,000 new homes will be built in Killingworth Moor by 2032. Therefore an influx of people will enter the town. Currently, the main body of the population is based around children to sixty years old adults. Could the next architectural intervention have an impact on these statistics or bring awareness to loneliness? Map of England and Killningworth Social economic statistics Main popuplation in Killingworth Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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THE BLUE ZONES OF HAPPINESS Dan Buettner a researcher claims there are five places in the world where people are living much longer, and happier lives, from his book “The blue zones of happiness”. From reading his findings, longevity and happiness do not necessarily come from developed countries or solely from the genes of the people, it is how the people live out their lifestyle together. Three places out of the five are extracted and investigated on how this is, to combat loneliness. Nicoya in Costa Rica, centenarians agrees they have a strong sense of purpose in life, where they feel they can contribute. One of the ways, in Nicoya, calls “ubudehe”, which means community works for the community. Sardinia an island in Italy, till today the Sardinian still catch, hunt and harvest their food they eat. Walking daily is also priorities in their routines with friends. Through these activities, meaningful quality time was spend with their neighbours. Okinawa in Japan, almost all of the people who live in Okinawa relies on their plant based-diet, where it is high in nutrients and low in calories. A “moai” close life extended circle of friends was also found to be essential to happiness. The ways on how these three places develop happiness are different, but they can be distilled to an overall topic, connection. Between people through activities they do daily. Where a sense of a wider community, belonging and embodiment is formed from their lifestyles. Meaningful connection is the key to solve loneliness. Nicoya togetherness collage Sardinia togetherness collage Okinawa togetherness collage

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SARDINIA

OKINAWA

BUILD TOGETHER (UBUDEHE)

EAT DRINK AND WALK TOGETHER

GARDERN TOGETHER MAP OF THREE OUT OF FIVE HAPPIEST PLACE ON THE PLANET

Dan Buettner, The Blue Zones of Happiness: Lessons from the World’s Happiest People (2017) 42

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© Landmark Information Group Ltd and Crown copyright 2019. FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY.

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PRESENT The expansion of housing and green

Demolition of Killingworth towers and expansion of housings to the west moor.

space in the Killingworth town continues.

IS KILLINGWORTH WORTH KILLING?

TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT: Historical study of Killingworth Is Killingworth worth killing paper collage Ryder and Yates building study

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Killingworth Township, built in the 1960s, a planned town to accommodate the many coal mining and colliery workers around the north of Newcastle. Architects Gordon Ryder and Peter Yates then took the task and built housing, research labs and markets in the area in considerations of the rising level of the gas industry. Ryder and Yates sought to create a sense of place, an architecture response to the brand new blank landscape of many derelict mineshaft. They achieved this by metaphoric forms such as horns, towers and the ceremonial entrances, which enhances the dramatic scene. However, many of their buildings were demolished due to the privatisation of the gas industry and the unpopular residential towers. Nevertheless, a few of Ryder and Yates building still stands today. A paper collage inspired by Peter Yates Britain painting is then model to revisit the many forms that were once in Killingworth.

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Chimney of derelick colliery from 18th century Stephenson’s Billy Killingworth locomotive Traditional colliery windows Collery mechanism Connection bridge from colliery Local swings in the social housing neighbourhood Pilotis underneath Norgas House - Ryder and Yates 1965 Skybridge in Killingworth Towers social housing - Ryder and Yates Horns of menos from Norgas House - Ryder and Yates 1965 Gable roofs in the neighbourhood Calder House for key workers - Ryder and Yates Pillars from Amberley Citadel - Ryder and Yates 1967 Propylaea Entrance from Engineering Research Station - Ryder and Yates 1967 Roof towers from Engineering Research Station - Ryder and Yates 1967 Radio tower

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KILLINGWORTH TOWERS

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REFUSED CAR FINANCE - WAS RYDER AND YATES OFFICE CUMULATION OF DECIDUOUS TREES

IMMEDIATE SITE ANALYSIS Many buildings surrounding the existing and demolished buildings of Ryder and Yates similarly adopted the typology of the heterogeneous shape. Majority of the primary volume of the buildings also has an attachment to the on the side either for the extended classroom, services or more housing units. It is clear the legacy of Ryder and Yates architecture still remains in the site even after many of their buildings were demolished. This finding, therefore, should inform my design further on the project to respect the legacy of Killingworth.

NORGAS HOUSE FACTORY

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100

500m

TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT: Primary circulation to the site Investigation in existing and demolished building on the site Long section of Killingworth

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Staging Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Staging

CONNECTING THROUGH LEARNING

MAIN OBJECTIVES -

TO PROVIDE A PLACE THAT RESPECTS THE PAST OF KILLINGWORTH AND THUS RETAINING THE LEGACY OF THE TOWN

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TO TACKLE LONELINESS BY PROVIDING A PLACE FOR THE NEIGHBOURHOOD TO FEEL AS SENSE A WIDER OF COMMUNITY

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TO PROVIDE VOCATIONAL HANDS-ON EDUCATION IN BUILDING TOGETHER, GARDENING TOGETHER AND EATING TOGETHER

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TO IMPROVE THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC STATISTICS OF THE AREA IN EMPLOYMENT RATE, HEALTH SPASTICS AND EDUCATIONAL STATISTICS

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TO BECOME CLOSER TO ONE OF THE CITIES OF THE BLUE ZONES

BUILDING TOGETHER EDUCATION ON HANDS ON FURNITURE CRAFT AND CONSTRUCTION

GARDENING TOGETHER EDUCATIONAL ON GARDENING ON SITE TRADITIONAL AND MODERN GARDENING

Knowledge and skills : Construction/ Gardening/ Cooking/ Eating

VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

COMMUNITY

EATING/ COOKING TOGETHER EDUCATION ON DIET AND NUTRITION ON SITE COOKING AND EATING

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Daily Needs : Restaurants, Park, Shop, Gallery

Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Staging Academic portfolio

RAMMED EARTH

Low embodied carbon dioxide

Low durability

Effective in regulating internal humidity

Requires wall thickness of 700mm or with insulation to achieve required thermal resistance

Architectural quality and flexibility

Dimention refers to the human scale Endless design possibilities

BRICK

Temperature control, Energy efficient

Eco-friendly renewable and resuable quick building time

WOOD WORK

durable, strength, available

Very little thermal bridging High tolerance achieved from pre-fabrication

CLT (PRE FAB) CONSTRUCTION

VOCATIONAL EDUCTION THROUGH BUILDING The United Kingdom is currently in need of many different fields of construction workers, especially in the field of sustainability. Therefore the vocational education is aimed to teach basic construction techniques as well as workshop skills. In order for the building to be sustainable, the first step is to source materials locally. The North East region as shown mainly contain neutral to acidic soils and the particularly in limestone and sandstone. These materials, therefore, shape the opportunities of education. By allowing the building to become the foundation of education, the building itself becomes the educator. The building will take shape in different phases with the master builder being involved in phase one and students from phases two onwards. Studio space area also included for learning other than construction, aimed at different age ranged people who are not intended to seek employments. Material and construction methods study North east soil scape map North east geology map

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DRY STONE

LIMATATION

Renewable Requires limited site skills

NORTH EAST SOIL-SCAPE

Academic portfolio Staging

ADVANTAGE

NORTH SEA

Remodelling is difficult Shifting foundation

KILLINGWORTH

Expensive material NEWCASTLE

Requires maintenance GATESHEAD

Temperature can change the characteristic of timber

SUNDERLAND

Require external cladding and insulation Require cranes on site Inflexible, services needs considered carefully

Acidic and Dry

Poor insulation

Natural and blends in with the enviroment

Stone decor

Affordable

Marble and Granite has can stain the wall

outlast

0

10km

SITE

NORTH EAST GEOLOGY

Extremely durable

will

Nutural and Wet

the

NORTH SEA

CONCRETE

STEEL STRUCTURE

Extremely durable

Big contributor to pollution

Can be poured into many unique forms

Can give the sense of heaviness

Effective thermal mass

Particularly turned down from the Uk people due to it’s aesthetics

Easily made and can be made from recycled materials

High cost construction

Flexible to design styles

Difficult to adjust on site

Frames are durable

All design needs to be done before hand

Pre-fabricated parts

Construct entirely on site High Thermal mass High demand in construction

BLOCK WORK

Fire resistance

for

KILLINGWORTH

NEWCASTLE

the

GATESHEAD

SUNDERLAND

Needs proper treatment Limited insulation can be installed Cannot winter

take

place

in

Could have a risk of dampness

Argillaceous rocks and subordinate sandstone

Siltstone, Sandstone, Mudstone

Dolomite

Sandstone

Basalt

Mudstone Siltstone, sandstone, Coal, Iron stone and Ferricrete

limestone

Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Staging Academic portfolio

Extremely cost effect Can grow any plant

IN GROUND GARDENING

Methods of growing can be changed from seasons Easy to start

Easy access, great for kitchen growing Great for small spaces

VERTICAL GARDEN

It keeps the interior cool and breezy

prepare

digest

Aesthetically appealing

Fast to set up and are great for small homes Minimum Regular maintanance

CONTAINER OR SQUARE FOOT GARDENING

Less weeding in plants due to the small surfaace area of the square

LIMITATION A lot of weed will be produce, therefore maintenance need to be kept high

AUTUMN

WINTER

broccoli and cauliflower squash

turnip carrot

Can be wasteful on water

pears pomegranate

kiwi guava

Water drainage

caradmom lemongrass

Slow to start in spring due to muddy soil

Academic portfolio Staging

ADVANTAGE

Risk of mosquito in the interior Limited space for plants Could be very messy

Planting beds are cramped Insufficient depth for large plants Require lots of watering High initial cost

TRADITIONAL MODERN

VOCATIONAL EDUCTION THROUGH GARDENING AND COOKING Gardening and cooking have consistently been high in demand for the need for skilled people. However, the combination of both skills is in even more in need as more people are eating more healthier and the ability to understand how food grows will undoubtedly provide the basis for healthy living, as proven by the people in Okinawa in Japan. The opportunity of this two education can also be opened to the more senior population, especially sixty years old and above. To combat the crisis of loneliness while educating them on a healthy lifestyle. Modern gardening technology will also be taught and providing neighbourhood offseason fruits and vegetables. Taditional gardening and modern gardening methods study Season crops

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Clean, less chance of getting diseases

AREOPONICS

HYDROPONICS

Dependants on the system

Mobility

Require disinfection

regular

Great educational value, for all age

Require constant attention to the PH content

Higher yeilds

SUMMER eggplant green beans apples mace

Save space, high and direct feed of nutrients

Initial start up cost is expensive

Soil base issues are eliminated

System failure threats

Less wasted crops, due to a calculation of nutrients

Water and electrical risk

Requires 1/10 of water

Requires knowledge

technical

SPRING YEAR ROUND beets celery broccoli onions spinach sprouts chard

bay leaf rosemary savoy fennel capers

bananas citrous

passion fruit

artichokes asparagus berries cumin coriander basil

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Staging Academic portfolio

Height according to colour (m)

4

Appropriate item dimensions

3.5

Shelves

Storage 30-25m2

General public circulation 10%

4.5 +

Electric and water 25-25m2 Outdoor growing area site

Disabled toilet 22-15m2

Gallery 80-100m2

Academic portfolio Staging

SCHEDULE OF ACCOMMODATION

Green house 85-45m2

Large sink

Sink basin

Wheel Chair

Toilet

Buggy

Immediate correlation

3

Total Volume 2358.625m3

Outdoor areas

Shelf for hand-held tools

2.5

Chair x45 Table x15

0 0

Storage 40-30m2

Wheelbarrow x3

5m

Average truck parking space

Class room for 10 30-40m2

Counters, sinks and hobs (school) x6

Class room or meeting room

Cabinates Duel sink x2 Duel oven x2 Fryers Fridge x2

Class room for 20 60 -80m2

Stool x30

Hobs x2 Freezer x2

Kiln Average car parking space

Table x10 Laser cutter

Circular saw Large cupboard for hand-held tools

Staff room for 20 70-80m2

Disabled toilet 22-15m2

Planar

Material delivery and storage 80-80m2

Cleaning cupboard

Office desk and chair x11

Bench grinder

20-15m2 Medical Centre 25-25m2

Pillar drill x 2

Cookery school and kitchen 60-100m2

Ladder Cloth hanging

Ceramics workshop 50-70m2 Woodworking workshop 70-85m2

Vacuum cleaner and broom

Self serving area 45-15m2

Shelf

Reception and foyer 40-25m2

Band-saw x 3 Office 30-35m2

Toilet

Belt sander

Rubbish Restaurant and cafe 120-100m2

Metal sheet brakes

1512m2

Outdoor working area site

Bicycle

Bicycle parking 36-19m2

Metal workshop 50-65m2

Hydraulic tube bender Welding station

Plant room 40-30m2 Rack for hand-held tools

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Cleaning cupboard 20-15m2

Playground and sitting area site Out door dinning area 15-87m2

Table and chairs for six x15

Disabled toilet 22-15m2 Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Staging Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Staging

INITIAL MASSING Initial massing was set based on the schedule of accommodation informed. However, when I revisited the site, it was apparent to start with the heterogenous box first, then begin to mass the programs in the interior spaces I began defining the two main primary routes across the site and allow them both to penetrate through the building from west to east. Breaking up the rectangular box to three sections according to the dimensions and the immediate context they fit into the Gardening, Workshops and Cookery school accommodations. I then introduced the south to the north path to allow a direct route towards the lake, and this created a junction in the middle for large gathering spaces. Sketch ideas on clip board Diagramatical sketch of section in the building Massing approach

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Thinking through making week Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Thinking through making week

THINKING THROUGH MAKING SCULPTING THE HETEROGENEOUS BOX TO FIND INTROVERTED AND EXTROVERTED SPACE Following from the site analysis, many heterogeneous building typologies where found, as a response the typology of the box will be mimicked to respect the surrounding typologies. However, the interior space will be sculpted with angles with the material of rammed earth and rammed concrete. A 1:1 plant pot model was created to express this sculpting language and also to showcase what this primitive construction technology could achieve. Through sketching initial concepts that link back to Loneliness, the tapering angles can create a strong feeling of suppressed and release of space, which can be in parallel to the intimate and gathering spaces. Through iteration of sketches and model making, the final form is formed and rammed. A formwork was created from foam and separated in two, one for the base and the other for the top section. The process of ramming earth was very intense and required a large amount of soil, cement, clay, aggregate and water. Every layer was packed as compact as possible to achieve structural integrity and a smooth aesthetic finish. Sketching plant pot forms and dimentions for the mold Sketch ideas of angular space

PROCESS OF MAKING TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT: Tapering form work Top and bottom half of mold Ramming earth Mixing aggregate Mold setting Drying plant pot

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Thinking through making week Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Thinking through making week

Introverted

Extroverted

ANGLES The design of the rammed earth planter was to investigate the angular geometries of space. Through the sculpting of space, there must be rules set, and through the making process of the planter, the angles immediately made sense when imagined standing next to the sculpture. The walls tapering outwards are open to the air, light and allowing acoustic to resonate, this can be used for extroverted spaces. The walls tapering inwards creates shadows and traps acoustics and therefore, are introverted. The sculpting of space inside the heterogenous box, therefore, can follow these rules to create intimate and gathering spaces. Areas which follows the human scale and others not. TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT: Rammed earth planter from different angles Thinking thruogh making week exhibition Rammed earth planter 60

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

PRECEDENT STUDY APOLLO SCHOOL AMSTERDAM HERMAN HERTZBERGER

partitions for seperating visually and acoustics

nest and islands

spatial continuum and bring people together

lateral reflection in light

“As an architect I can’t and won’t determine how people will use the building” Herman Hertzberger

Apollo School in Amsterdam designed by the architect Herman Hertzberger became an important precedent to the project. Moments in the building are expressed as “undefined space” where Hertzberger created to be spaces where the children can use it in any way they would like to. In the building, the floor, walls, windows, pillars, roof, counter, staircases and the playground does not just function by there name. The elements also work in parallel with other functions. While Hertzberger saw it as a way for the children to become more creative, the opportunity can also generate the experience of togetherness and hence, where architecture can encourage the chance of connection. A building that helps people to meet in different scales and to create dialogue, through views, light and acoustics.

change in floor to ceiling height

shifting the workplace

Hermans Hertzberger’s Apollo School Sketches of the ‘undefined space’ Figure 5: Hermans Hertzbergers, Hermans Hertzbergers space and learning : lessons in architecture 3 (2008) 62

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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INTIMATE SPACE

scale

COMPOSITION OF VOIDS

COMPOSITION OF SHADOWS

GATHERING SPACE Academic portfolio

Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

INTIMATE SPACE

INTROVERTED AND EXTROVERTED SPACES Loneliness cannot be tackled by primarily providing open, expansive space for large groups of people to meet. It is true that in a crowd, individuals can still feel the sense of loneliness, therefore spaces which create smaller scale interaction should be valued equally to expansive meeting quarters.

Taking the primer compositions of shadows and voids the two-dimensional spaces is traced, overlayed and sketched upon to be developed into threedimensional forms. These forms are then categorised into three different relationships Intimate, gathering and like the in-between. These studies will, therefore, guide the next stage of the process in sculpting the plan section and thresholds in the building.

GATHERING SPACE

Thereupon the building can provide introverted and extroverted spaces. In this case, extroverted areas correlated with the senses of light and, whereas introverted correlates with shadows and concealment. The theory tie in with Frank Loyd Wrights design in ‘sculpting spaces’, suppressive and release of space.

Composition of voids and shadow from primer Moments found from the overlay of composition Intimate to gathering matrix explorations 64

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

SCULPTING OF SPACE To design the three-dimensional sculpted space, the process took many iterations of sketching plans, econometrics and model making. Through transitioning from two-dimensional drawing to three-dimensional modellings constantly, it made it easier to understand how to rationalise the space in the best possible way.

1:200 model 1:200 iterations of plans (right) 66

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

THE ATRIUM In the central atrium is sculpted through the consideration of visual links from different levels, a constant view towards the central space. 1:200 model (left) Axonometric sketch 68

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

WEAVING OF POLARITIES Circulation space almost functions like a city in a building, streets weaving in and out of volumes. Spaces are sculpted through the programs and the circulation space, to create a dynamic connection between levels visually and acoustically. 1:200 model (left) Axonometric sketch 70

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

LEARNING QUARTERS

The Ryder and Yates Office with the south factory typologies follows the geometry of the heterogeneous box. The intervention, therefore, respects the site and mimics the typology.

Dividing the building into three of the main programs (Gardening, Building and Cooking). Drawing lines from the neighbourhood and the Ryder and Yates Office.

ROUTES INTO THE BUILING

SCULPTING

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

SURROUNDING TYPOLOGY

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CONTEXT

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Sculpting the interior space to find introverted and extroverted space, throughout, maintaining the typology of the heterogeneous box on the exterior.

POLARITIES

FRAGMENTATION

The conglomerated programs are blurred in the in-between space blended by the ‘undefined spaces’. Hence, connecting the different users in the building. Weaving the Public and learning polarities from separate (south) to blurred (north).

Towards the lake, the building starts to fragment and break apart from the heterogeneous box populated with pavilions, rammed earth construction and outdoor performance space

12

0. Hallington Mills Neighbourhood 1. Lake Side Park 2 Killingworth Lake 3 Pavillion 4 Rammed Earth construction 5 Cafe and Pavillion 6 Restaurant 7 Architecture Intervention 8 Carpark 9 Ryder and Yates Office 10 East Killingworth Neighbourhood 11 Faulkner Browns Architects 12 DS Smith Factory 13 Auto Motion Motor 0

Acknowledging the building surrounding routes and the neighbourhood on the east. The building carves two direct paths from the east to the west to connect different user groups.

13

N

50m

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1

8

3 2

7 12

14

4

6

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11

N

10 5

LARGE GROUND FLOOR PLAN WITH CONTEXT KEY 1. Outdoor rammed earth workshop area 2. Outdoor performance space 3. Exit of the gallery with mini food store 4. Cookery school 5 Herb garden. 6. Kitchen 7. Lecture theatre 8. Backstage 9. Cafe 10. Vegetable market. 11. Aeroponic gardening ad packaging area 12. Wood workshop 13. Car park 14. Gallery

13

0

2.5

5

10

20

40m


KILLINGWORTH VOCATIONAL EDUCATION CENTRE The nature of the construction method of ramming earth and concrete evokes the sense of a primitive structure. Hinting back towards the primitive and away from the“machine.” It gives a sense of imperfection ‘a human touch’ to the human-made object instead of the perfect crisp lines from the machine. 0

2.5

5

10

Building long section with neighbourhing context Plan with section cut line

20


Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

EXTROVERTED SPACE ISLANDS AND VISUAL CONNECTION The extroverted space in the building allows daylight to flow into the deep parts of the building. Levels are set back in higher levels to maintain visual connections across and below floors where everyone can see what is happening in the centre, it almost gives the sense of a courtyard feeling. Similarly to the Apollo school levels and circulation spaces criss-cross each other. Islands are also used to enhance performances or speeches. It raises the person or group from others and automatically gains attention by the difference in floor levels. This was also utilised in the Apollo school to allow children to dance on top and sketch as tables. Through the extroverted space, it creates moments in the building that connects different users. It is the area where all diverse programs join together, the learning quarters, the shops and galleries. It is the place for gathering and noise.

Extroverted section (left) Figure 6 and 7, Open atiums and islands in the Apollo school: Hermans Hertzbergers, space and learning : lessons in architecture 3 (2008)

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

INTROVERTED SPACE NEST AND NOOKS The introverted space in the building are set back from the thick rammed earth walls and windows, ‘nooks’. Providing a certain amount of intamacy for a couple or sa mall group of users to connect in a quiet and private space. From the Apollo school these nooks are used for smaller class rooms or individuals to study, away from the main hall. By creating spaces which responds very closly to the human scale the introverted space in terns hints towards how the users can use the space. In the vocational education centre, spaces which are created for people to ,pause, will have a warmer tone of texture such as timber, whereas a cold metalic texture hints towards movement. Spaces which are sinked in, ‘nest’ also provides a certain amount of privacy but it is intended for medium sized groups to interact together. These spaces are where small groups gather and interact together, they can be intended for small classes or breakout spaces. Again the Apollo school uses a nest to achieve very similar ideas for a small group to interact. Through The Introverted spaces, it creates moments where the architecture allows a small scale of people to come together for meaningful converstation.

Introverted section (left) Figure 8, 9 and 10, Nest and nooks in the Apollo school: Hermans Hertzbergers, space and learning : lessons in architecture 3 (2008)

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

A

X CIRCULATION IN THE BUILDING

A

B CIRCULATION OF EFFICENTCY

THE UNWINDING CIRCULATION The circulation of the building are purposefully designed for the user to wander around the building, no hierarchy is informed, all floors are public. The design proposes that there is no one route from ‘A” to ‘B’ unlike what Le Corbusier thought of La Ville Redieuse for efficiency, the circulation area are spaces where unpredicted coincidence happens and where two or more can pause and sit, lean or stand in the inbetween space. Circulation diagram in the vocational education centre Serial visions 82

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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INHABITION AND FUNCTION LINES VOID STRUCTURE

Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

CUT LINES BUILDING

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

LINE WEIGHTS

1

2

1

2

3

3

4

6

5

PLAN

4

Due to the angular structure of the building, many spaces resulted in being irrational and unresolved during the initial phase of the sketched plans. When I was introduced to the architects O’Donnell + Tuomey’s building the Irish culture language centre, the structure in the building was very cleverly designed to only utilise four specific angles which join together in 90 or 45 degrees to each other. Similarly, through using the initial craving angles for the main circulation routes from east to west, which also aligns to 90 and 45 degrees, the entire building, therefore, only uses this four angles to rationalise the spaces.

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Figure 13, Irish culture language centre ground floor plan: Sheila O’Donnell, John Tuomey, O’Donnell Tuomey : selected works, (2007)

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1:400 GROUND FLOOR PLAN

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5

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1.Food Storage 2. Plant Room 3. Toilet 4. Gift shop 5. Performance space 6. Long gallery 7. Toilet 8. Exhibition Storage and preperation room 9. Small gallery 10. Plant room for workshop 11. Plant room for gardening 12.Reception

Figure 11 and 12, Irish culture language centre perspective photographs : John Tuomey, Architecture, craft, and culture : re ections on the work of O’Donnell Tuomey, (2008)

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1:400 UNDERGROUND LEVEL PLAN

O’Donnell + Tuomey’s Irish culture language centre similarly sculpts their building into streets with a rationallised grid.

8

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20m

1. Cookery school 2. Kitchen 3. Lecture theatre 4. Back stage 5. Cafe 6. Toilet 7. Breakout and auction space 8. Breakout space 9. Nest 10. Office 11. Vegatable mini mart 12. Toilet 13. Workshop 14. Packaging area 15. Aeroponic gardening 16. Gallery

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

1

3

2

1

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5

7 6 8

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1

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1: 400 FIRST FLOOR PLAN

1:400 ROOF PLAN

1. Large classroom 2. Small classroom 3. Individual study space 4. Toilet 5. Outdoor Terrace towards roof 6. Main Office 7. Office 8. Pottery workshop 9. Fire escape 10. collaborative working space

10

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3

2

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5

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20m

1. Roof top gardening 2. Roof plant room for building and lecture theatre 3. Outdoor gardening and learning space

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20m

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Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

a

d b c

COOKING The cookery school links directly to the cafe and main kitchen, both share the same food storage area in the basement. The cookery school has visual links towards the outside to maximise sunlight and also for the neighbourhood to understand the activity in the building. Seating areas are directly connected around to allow a direct visual connection. The atrium in the cafe opens to the bridge on the first floor to also benefit the visual links from different levels, enhancing the porosity of the building through sight through using the matrix created. Cooking quarter inhabitation drawing Interior perspective - visual links a. Cafe b. Kitchen c. Cookery school d. Herb gardening Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

a

c b

e

d

GARDENING The Gardening learning quarter is separated into the modern aeroponic gardening and outdoor gardening areas which include, box gardening, vertical gardening and in-ground gardening. Each has their technique. Some crops are then harvested and sent to the packaging area to be processed to products which can be sold in the mini vegetable market. Exterior windows are set back for adequate seating, a nook. Allowing the public to be part of the learning process, to stimulate togetherness. Gardening quarter inhabitation drawing Exterior perspective - visual links a. Mini vegatable market b. Aeroponic gardening c. Packaging area d. Outdoor vertical gardening e. Outdoor box gardening Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

a b c

d

BUILDING The workshop is positioned directly next to the service circulation for loading and unloading of materials. The open space is fixed with pigmented rammed concrete columns for support. A small triangular opening on the roof allows controlled daylighting into the workshop. Surrounding the workshops are galleries, studios and a ‘nest’ for people to gather. Building quarter inhabitation drawing interior perspective - natural light a. Breakout space ‘nest’ b. Workshop c. Circulation to studios and gallery d. Loading area Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio

THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE YEAR 2020 AND YEAR 2050 Through weathering and the use by the Killingworth neighbourhood, the materiality of rammed earth and rammed concrete will start to reveals it’s texture rough. Vegetation would also take place across the roof and along the walls. Pulling away from the perfection of the machine and closer to the primitive man. Aerial view of building 94

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

WEST ENTRANCE The entrance from the west, directly links to the east entrance, towards the neighbourhood. The route became one of the primary angles which informs the sculpting of the space inside the building. Exterior landscaping is also designed to hint towards the craving of the interior of the building. The lamppost is coated with the same colour as the interior bridges, guards, handrails and bolted metal fixings, to enhance the connection of the interior and the exterior. West facade perspective view 96

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

98

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

1:100 sectional model - introverted street

1:100 sectional model - Extroverted courtyard

FINAL MODEL 1:100 SECTIONAL MODEL 100

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

1:100 sectional model - Visual links 1:100 sectional model - Entrance to gallery 1:100 sectional model - Bridge

102

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1:100 sectional model - Lecture space

Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

1:100 sectional model 104

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1:100 sectional model Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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KEY

Pigmented concrete

Mechanical Velux window Window frame White tile Mechanical blinds Gravel Stone pavement Damp prove membrance and damp prove course Exposed rafter Tappering rammed earth wall Horizontal reinforcement Vertical reinforcement Under floor heating Loam cork trass lime mixture 60mm Timber beam structure Concrete hand rail Pigmented concrete seat Services - electric Oak batterns Light fixings Brushed textured stone flooring Insulation layer Soft sand Sub grade Large pad with welded connection Pile foundation Exposed timber battern Reinforced tappered concrete slab Pigmented concrete seating

Varnish oak

Rammed earth

Construction strategy

During thinking through making week I created a plant plot to explore the introverted and extroverted space through angles and also to test the structural characteristics of rammed earth. From the plant pot I realised this to part of the building with reinforcements to strengthen the overall structural properties of the material. Nooks and the play with views was also incorporated to this section of the building.

INHABITED DETAIL

Realisation and Refinement Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Realisation and Refinement

106 107


Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio

THANK YOU

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Case study Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Case study

SAINTE MARIE DE LA TOURETTE PRECEDENT STUDY Le Corbusier was commissioned by Father Marie- Alain Courier a Dominican friar and priest to design a Monastery at Eveux-surArbresle: “A silent dwelling place for one hundred bodies and one hundred hearts”. The proposed monastery at La Tourette was to facilitate the training up of young Friars within the Dominican order to which Father Courier belonged. The Dominican order, a Catholic order, has a strong intellectual association with the teaching of theology and philosophy as well as a significant commitment to charity. Differing somewhat from the more traditional Dominican monasteries which were usually situated within communities to spread the religious word, La Tourette’s location instead, is hidden on top of a hill at Eveux above the valley L’Arbresle. The journey the young friars would have to make from the train station in the valley up to La Tourette reinforced the idea of a very different, private and spiritual retreat. In May 1953, Le Corbusier travelled to the site to begin his sketches. The construction started in September 1956, and the monastery took four years to complete with its opening ceremony in October 1960. The investigation of LaTourette was explicitly focused on the comparison of precedents and the atmosphere in particular in the building. ON SITE SKETCHES IN LA TOURETTE Exterior and texture Main church, light entry Shotgun and cannon light wells Circulation space , the cross The cript study Section of the main church Exterior perspective and shadow studies Study sketch on prayer space Bed room studies and the incorporatation of the modular man

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Case study Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Case study

THE FIVE POINTS IN ARCHITECTURE

RONCHAMP

Villa Savoye is where the five points of architecture become the most evident in Le Corbusier’s work, which initially was tested and designed in the Domino House.

The different ways of light entering the chapel create a sense of mystery, from the contrast of light of modulating forms and space. The south wall creates a multicoloured light ref, whereas the chapels allow the light to land gently from the roof to the church. The north facade provides a constant light similarly to the crypt and the sacristy in La Tourette from the cannons. In Ron champ and La Tourette, it is clear that Le Corbusier uses natural light in ways to create an atmosphere in sacred spaces.

A comparison of La Tourette and Villa Savoye is, therefore examined if the five points are still evident in the monastery. Shown above the highlighted areas (colour) are areas where the monastery adopts the five points. Free facade, however, was not seen around the entire building, other than the ondulating panels. Part of the south and east facade is supporting by the post and lintel system held up by the “sugar lumps” between the slit of windows.

Exterior view of La Tourrette Exterior view of Villa Savoye 112

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FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT South facade coloured light wells Summer and winter sun angles towards south facade Plan of Ron Champ Entry of light towards towers South facade perspective Tower perspective Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Academic portfolio Case study

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LIGHT AS A MATERIAL

ENTRY OF LIGHT

“When I entered the oratory I stopped, immediately. Looking up to the pyramidal roof, a slit of light directs the sun gently towards the cross and the altar. Something felt very peaceful ”

The church is predominantly very dark to allow the fryers to focus on the words that are being preached and individual to reflect. There are two main entry points for natural light to enter the church. One from the horizontal slit on the east side to catch the rising sun and the other a vertical slit on the west side to catch the setting sun.

Light in the oratory space became a tool for a boundary between the friars, and the alter, it pauses the person who enters in the suppressed space for a few seconds, before entering the prayer space. Light also was used to spotlight the subject, the cross and the altar, from the top and sides. The floor tiles changed from filled groves to empty ones, also hints towards space which is more sacred and stripped back.

Six rectangular coloured light wells are positioned directly on top of the pews on the north and south wings of the church. The reason for this is during Sunday services, at twelve noon the sun will enter these light wells and flow over the friar’s shoulders and glow on the Bible or the hymn book.

Axonometric exploded diagram of the oratory

Conceptual drawing of light entering the church

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Academic portfolio Case study

CHURCH Six individual alters placed in the crypt, for the intended 100 friars to enter the space to reflect and contemplate anytime of the day and before the service. It is connected by the sacristy, a place to prepare for the service and a long and narrow passage underneath the main church to the crypt. The narrow dark passage can be seen as a play on the idea of suppressing of space with the quality of darkness.

Figure 14, Perspective photo of the Crypt: Futagawa,Y. and Isozaki,A. Couvent Sainte Marie De La Tourette (1977) .

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The crypt is positioned intentionally to the north to maximise the constant natural light throughout the morning and the afternoon, to suit the number of fryers that will come and pray. Six elevations then follow each alter, and a small rectangle step raises the level of the altar. Each rise in level can be seen as a progression to prepare the fryers emotionally for their contemplation.

Axonometric drawing of the crypt

Atmospheric section of main church and the crypt

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Case study Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Case study

windows

Master (on tour)

Elizabeth Baldwin gray Master James Longfield

LA TOURETTE During the visit to La Tourette, we prepared axonometric tracings to bring with us to sketch over, colour and texture onto. It is allowing us to visualise the building in a three-dimensional form in areas where we focused on. These tracings are then gathered and layered on top of each other to create an overlapping drawing of the entire building, which enhanced our understanding of our friend’s themed focus of the building, especially how the interior connection of programs shapes the exterior facade. 118

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FROM TOP LEFT TO BOTTOM RIGHT Circulation Roof scape Masses Main Church Public spaces Openings Private spaces Facades Overlay of Tracings

Apprentice (on tour) Elsie Patricia Sopie Karen Rodrigo Sopie Do shireley Eric Anna Annastacia Kenny Apprentice Faith Ollie Abbie Sopie Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Illustrative Reflective Report Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Illustrative Reflective Report

ILLUSTRATIVE REFLECTIVE REPORT REFLECTIVE WRITING Along with side the final year design project three other modules were integrally linked to the design concept, realisation and approach. These are the ARC3013 Integrated Technology Report, ARC3014 Professional Practice and ARC3015 Theory Into Practice. Each element has fed into the project and me as an architecture student in a different way. In particular, through understanding the reality of the process it takes from an initial sketch to final completion of a building, it gave me a new appreciation towards how many architectural firms manage to build an architecture which are rich in spatial composition yet oblige to regulation and keeping the cost low. Especially the precedent study I took on in my integrated construction report, O’donelly and Tuomey architects have successfully created many great architectures which are rich in theory and compelling in its spatial sequence. They are among one of my favourite architecture firms alongside Herzog de Meuron and Mole architects, which specialise in one off the housing designs.

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ARC3015 Theory into practice ARC3014 Professional practice ARC3013 Intergrated technology

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Academic portfolio Illustrative Reflective Report

Rammed Earth

RAMMED EARTH CONSTRUCTION

INTERGRATED CONSTRUCTION

1. Technical detail 2. Figure 15 Precedent study: Sheila O’Donnell, John Tuomey, O’Donnell Tuomey : selected works, (2007) 3.Rammed earth construction sequence 122

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Brushed Concrete

Cherry Timber

The integrated construction module aids the technical framework and demonstrates the rationale and approach to the design proposal. The study allowed me to understand and learn from precedents, unique structure approach, construction sequence, regulatory requirements and more. One of the main aspects which inspired and rationalised my design was the precedent Irish Cultural Centre by Odonnell and Tuomey’s architect (3). They cleverly angled the walls to four main angles which join together at 45 or 90 degrees, by using a triangular grid shown on the dotted line. Therefore all rooms, toilets and storage rooms do not just become the awkward corners but rather generous volumes. The primary building material is rammed earth, and at the beginning, it raised many concerns, but I found a contemporary rammed earth technology called the SIREWALL structural insulated rammed earth walls, as shown in the detail drawing and construction sequence (1 and 2) it is insulated and reinforced, to a 700mm thick wall. Hence, it is capable of being applied to the context of Killingworth. Different to traditional buildings rammed earth mus sit on a concrete base to avoid water penetrating in from the base. Therefore I decided to pigment the concrete structural cores and lower ground floor to suit the overall scheme of the design. The outcome of the report gave me confidence in approaching a complex design and to not be afraid to use unique materials in the future.

THEORY INTO PRACTICE

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a. Velux Modular Skylights - breathable b.Exposed Rafters c.Concrete d.Rammed Earth - Reinforced e.Pigmented Concrete f.Red Matt Alluminium Guard g.Baffels h.Large Pad and Pile foundation

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The Theory into practice module allowed me to critique Modernist theories and to learn how ideas are mediated and explored through representation. My critique started with Le Corbusier’s La Ville Radieuse (1) on how the conceptual design of the city was only focused on the efficiency of the ‘machine’ and not to the user itsself. The zoning and efficient planning of the design has pulled people apart through segregation and have left a legacy which has inspired many of the planning for cities of today. This has caused people to be apart, and meaningful community has been challenging to create. Thus, the legacy of Modernism was loneliness. The response to this was to look at the human scale of design to investigate how people interact with space ergonomically. The precedent which spoke the most to me was the Apollo School designed by Hermans Hertzberger, he created many of these in-between space where a balcony, staircase, wall, ceiling does not just function by the name but instead is purposefully ambiguous, he called these space “the undefined space” (2). Learning from the investigation I explored these spaces from the intimate scale to the gathering scale, because loneliness can only be solved through the intimate relationship of two or a small group, therefore intimate areas must be treated to with equal importance as expansive space. The outcome of the investigation has provided me with a strong foundation of the theory, which informs the concept and representation of my design project. Additionally, it emphasised the importance of theory during the initial phase of a design project. 1. Figure 15 sketch of La Ville Radieuse: Gili Merin, Ville Radieuse / Le Corbusier (2013) 2. Figure 16 and 17 Precedent study: Sheila O’Donnell, John Tuomey, O’Donnell Tuomey : selected works, (2007) 3.In-between matrix Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Academic portfolio Illustrative Reflective Report

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PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE AND MANAGEMENT The professional practice and management module was relatively new to my part one education. It has provided me with many new perspectives and broader consideration for the context and as a holistic designer. Through understanding the tangible means of the context such as sun and wind, it became more aware that it was as essential to understanding the intangible qualities such as the social economics of the surrounding areas (1) and the planning priorities the government has been imposing on the site (3). These are factors that previously I have overlooked, but it became clear understanding and working with these means are as essential to benefit the neighbourhood and the wider society. In this case, was to provide a vocational education centre which helps the education need and employability for the future workforce, but also to oblige to the planning priority of DM2. Understanding the process of the procurement strategy also allows me to realise how the project is accomplished through the team of people in the two-stage tender contract (2). This especially made me appreciate how buildings are transitioned from stage one to seven in the RIBA plan of work and how communication is an essential skill as a project manager. The outcome of the report gave me a broader perspective on architecture in design and practice. Additionally, how difficult it is to realise a building through the many layers of teams and what skills I need to train to become a good architect in a firm. 1. Figure 18: North Tyneside council, Social economic statistic of Killingworth North TyneSide ( 2019) 2. Figure 19: Chappell and Willis, Two-stage tendeer contract relationship (Chappell and Willis (2005) 3 Figure 20: Newcastle City Council. Killingworth planning (2018) 124

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CHARRETTE Throughout history, mankind has created tools that take advantage of its form and texture to help manipulate the environment, from examples such as the Inuit goggles used in the frozen north, to the sound mirror dotted around the English coast.

2 Enhancing green infrastructure (DM30) Enhancing wildlife (DM30) Northhumbria golf club (DM30)

The outcome of the charrette week gave me more of an understanding of how our sense functions and how easy it can be to alter the user’s perception of space.

Site Retaining Employment

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The project focuses on a single sense “Sound” and eliminating the other four senses. This creates a new perspective of feeling for the surrounding context. It is all about the choice of listening, to the leaves, the gossip, the harsh noise of cars, the soft mellow of waves. The tool of the amplifier and the dampener is chosen by the user to wherever they want to point to, giving control to where the user wants to hear in the environment.

(DM2)

1. Hearing mechanism in the park 2. Hearing mechanism in the traffic Studio 08 Legacies of Modernism

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Illustrative Cultural Bibliography Academic portfolio

Academic portfolio Illustrative Cultural Bibliography

ILLUSTRATED CULTURAL BIBLIOGRAPHY EXTRA CURRICULAR Throughout the year there were many lectures, presentation, shows, museums, travel experiences, research opportunities and architecture competitions which have influenced and shaped the way I approach architecture in a day to day basis in the studio and interms of thinking what route to take after my Part I education in Newcastle. In this bibliography, I have selected two main influences, which have taught me the most. Throughout the summer I had the opportunity to be part of a research team in Newcastle with Neil Burford and Christos Kakalis, where we investigated the Self-sufficient Alpine huts in Switzerland main on the Velan hut and the Monte Rosa Hut. We were interested particularly on the balance between comfort and sustainability in the shelters and how the design came to shape from the isolated location of the Alps. The Pilot research is now completed and currently has moved onto a Linked Research where the Master students in Newcastle will take on the study further.

This is to certify that Kenny Tam Â

Successfully completed the RIBA North East Student Mentoring Programme 2017/2018 At: Medical Architecture

Tim Bailey RIBA North East Regional Chairman

Certificate of Achievement

One of the more successful competitions completed was with Natalia Priorecka. The brief was to imagine five researchers who will live in Mars for their lives and how, as architects, we can provide a safe and comfortable home for the researcher. We both focused on sourcing the main elements for survival, such as water, heat, protection from radiation and food. These elements then informed our design and have granted us with great results, in the Marsception competition.

This certificate is awarded to Yun Tak Tam

for completing the

ncl+ Advanced Award in Research December 2018

Marc Lintern Director, Careers Service

Sophie McDermott Activities Officer, Newcastle University Students’ Union

CAREERS SERVICE www.ncl.ac.uk/careers

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SELF-SUFFICIENCY AND NEW SUSTAINABLE PARADIGMS: AUTONOMOUS ALPINE HUTS OF THE EUROPEAN ALPS For over a century alpine walking and climbing have been supported by an extensive range of huts from simple bivouacs to multi storey buildings. The majority of huts are comparatively accessible, while others are located in remote or difficult to access high altitude sites and provide safe refuge in places where ordinarily it would be difficult to sustain life without shelter. With the growing popularity in alpine tourism there is pressure to design huts, particularly those at high altitude with minimal environmental footprints. In recent years a number of new huts have been commissioned that forge new sustainable approaches to material resource use, energy conservation, energy generation, water use and waste recycling. This project investigates how this new generation of alpine huts contribute to the experience of climbers and walkers, how their materiality (structural, material and energy strategies) affects the notion of “shelter� and how this interacts and responds to the atmosphere and sustainability of place. The two huts we focused on was the Monte Rosa Hut and the Velan hut. The project has completed with an inital research, a pilot, and has past on to future master students in Newcastle Univeristy for Linked research. In estimation of two years time an exhibition will be held on the atmosphere and place of the huts and around five years time both Neil and Christos will take on the research and develope a book. Strategy Analysis Diagram of Monte Rosa Hut Exploted Isometric drawing of the Monte Rosa Hut

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SWITZERLAND FEILD TRIP

MONTE ROSA HUT AND VELAN HUT NEIL BURFORD - CHRISTOS KAKALIS - KENNY TAM 128

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1. Sky roof with escape window 2.Bed rooms and toilets 3. Timber structure 4.Solar Panels (photovoltalic ray) 5. Wall makeup (cladding, structure, insulation, aluminiu seam 6. Ground floor core 7. Basement (services) 8. Solar Panels (heat)

Feild trip documentory

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Launch pad

Research lab

Academic portfolio Illustrative Cultural Bibliography

Outer layer membrane radiation proof

SOL BY SOL SOL = A DAY ON MARS

central pool

The design carefully pays attention to secure the human life providing a comfortable and safe living experience on the Red Planet. As a reply to speci c Mars condition, the site is positioned above the equator, below 25 degrees to make use of the at land and the frozen water resource underneath the surface. We introduced several systems that will provide the self-su ciency of the proposal. The group of researchers will be secured from the radiation and sand storms common on Mars by various layers of protection. A layer of water (H20) covers the rst level as a barrier of the radiation from the living spaces underneath, but also acts as a system for aquaponics and aeroponics farming, continuing into a recreation space of a great swimming pool in the centre.

Farming quarters site

The proposal also introduces the gas recycling systems using electrolysis to deal with the vast amount of (CO2), manufacturing and subdividing the (H2O) to the breathable oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) to prevent the harmful radiation entering the dome. Then the gases could be forwarded to other further chemical reactions as producing for fuel and materials. In terms of the energy, solar panels are placed on the structural dome, adjusting themselves to gain maximum sunlight. Our proposal solves the biggest problem of lack of water on the planet. Digging deep down into the surface of the Mars where a thick layer of frozen oceans can be found. The drill crushes the ice and pushes it up using the spiral form of the drill. The ice melts as it rises closer to the surface with help of heating and ltering systems supportin a water tank of fully usable water, pumped furtherly to all the systems of the proposal.

SOL BY SOL VOLUME ZERO - MARSCEPTION COMPETITION

Farming and recreation level

Transport and incubators level

Water drill

Protection from vacumed membrate layed from radiation

Research lives directer under their farming quarters

Drill reaches the frozen ice and through the drill the ice is broken up to liquid

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ILLUSTRATION

Buettner, D., 2017. The Blue Zones of Happiness: Lessons from the World's Happiest People. National Geographic Books. Boesiger, Willy and Le Corbusier, Le Corbusier (Barcelona: Gustavo Gilim, 1990).

Figure 1: Hotel Particulier, 1923, & Counter-construction, 1924 (2014) <https://thecharnelhouse.org/2014/02/05/the-city-as-a-regulated-industry-cornelis-van-eesteren-and-urban-planning/hotel-particulier-1923-counter-construction-1924-theo-van-doesburg-and-cornelis-van-eesteren/> [accessed 21st December 2018].

Campaign to end loneliness, Connection in older age (2019) <https://www.campaigntoendloneliness.org/the- facts-on-loneliness/> [Accessed 20th Janurary 2019].

Figure 2: Theo van Doesburg, construction in space time II (2003) <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Theo_van_Doesburg_191.jpg> [accessed 21st December 2018].

Carroll, Rutter, Ryder (London: RIBA, 2012).

Figure 3: Herbert bayer, “Fundamentals of Exhibition Design.” PETER RIESETT (2005) < https://msufilmandarchitecture.wordpress.com/2015/10/18/expanding-human-fields-of-vision/> [Accessed from 21st November 2018].

Carroll, Rutter and Harper, Claire and Perry, James, Something Concrete and Modern (2019) <https://www. somethingconcreteandmodern.co.uk/> [Accessed 25th Janurary 2019]. Colin Porteous, The New Eco-architecture: Alternatives from the Modern Movement (London and New York : Routledge, 2002). Eyck, Aldo, Van, ‘Steps towards a con gurative discipline’ Right Size 1 (1962), 327-343 (p.327). Eyck, Aldo, Van and Ligtelijn, Vincent, Aldo van Eyck, works (Boston: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1999). Eyck, Aldo, Van and Ligtelijn, Vincent, Collected articles and other writings 1947-1998, (Amsterdam: SUN, 2008). Eyck, Aldo, Van, Ligtelijn, Vincent The child, the city and the artist : an essay on architecture : the in-between realm (Amsterdam: SUN, 2008). Hertzberger, Herman Space and learning : lessons in architecture 3 (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2008).

Figure 4: Theo Van Doesburg, Monument leeuwarden (1917) <https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Theo_van_Doesburg_088.jpg> [Accessed from 9th October 2018]. Figure 5: Hermans Hertzbergers, Hermans Hertzbergers space and learning : lessons in architecture 3 (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2008), pg 83-84. Figure 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10: Hermans Hertzbergers, space and learning : lessons in architecture 3 (2008). Figure 11 and 12: John Tuomey, Architecture, craft, and culture : re ections on the work of O’Donnell Tuomey (Ireland: Gandon Editions 2008), pg103. Figure 13, 16 and 17: Shella O’Donnell, O’Donnell Tuomey : selected works (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008). Figure 14: Futagawa and Isozaki Couvent Sainte Marie De La Tourette Eveus - Sur - L’arbresle. France 2957-60 (4th ed.) ( Tokyo:A.D.A.EDITA, 1977).

Hertzberger, Herman and Swaan, Abram, The schools of Herman Hertzberger : alle scholen (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 2009).

Figure 15 : Gili Merin, Ville Radieuse/ Le Corbusier (2013) < https://www.archdaily.com/411878/ad-classics-ville-radieuse-le-corbusier> [accessed 3rd March, 2019].

Le Corbusier, Towards a new architecture (London: Architectural Press, 1987).

Figure 18: ILIVEHERE, Killingworth Education Statistics (2011) [online] <https://www.ilivehere.co.uk/statistics-killingworth-north-tyne- side-20347.html> [Accessed 20th March 2019].

Nakamura, Toshio, Herman Hertzberger, 1959-1990 (Tokyo: A U Publishing, 1991). Piet Mondrian, Composition with Large Red Plane, Yellow, Black, Gray, and Blue, (1921) <https://www.piet-mondrian.org/composition-with-large-redplane-yellow-black-gray-and-blue.jsp> [Accessed from 10th October 2018]. Piet Mondrian, Composition, composite (1911) < https://www.guggenheim.org/artwork/3011> [Accessed from 15th October 2018].

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Figure 19: Chappell Dan and Willis Atkinson, The architect in practice (9th ed.) (United Kingdom: Blackwell 2005). Figure 20: Newcastle city council, Development and Allocations Plan 2015-2030 Policies Map (2019) <https://community.newcas- tle.gov.uk/mapping/ newdap-map?fbclid=IwAR3TYFiHwXcuSdAJNKdhX5NATj6XBDP4sxHSB2goMvqLv1hxeY7ICZRPg> [Accessed 22nd March 2019].

Theo Van Doesburg ,Monument leeuwarden (1917) < https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Theo_van_Doesburg_088.jpg> [Accessed from 9th October].

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KENNY TAM KENNYTAM1@GMAIL.COM 07397128130


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