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End of an era Invincible and Ark Royal leave Portsmouth £3.95 June 2011


P&OBigCRUISES year ahead


The hunt for Bismarck Epic pursuit in the North Atlantic 70 years ago

Safety regulations

JUNE 2011

Disney Dream New cruise ship

Stena Caledonia

SOLAS ends the careers of famous ships

Port pictorial Felixstowe boxboats

Tankers Eagle Oil’s fine fleet

Earthquake and tsunami US Navy assists in aftermath JUNE OFC.indd 1

19/04/2011 20:46

Mainmast Books Warsash Nautical Bookshop 6 Dibles Road, Warsash Southampton SO31 9HZ


Orders over £100 post free in UK Two New Ships One New Era: P&O Ferries Spirit of Britain and Spirit of France John Hendy In 2011 the entry into service of P&O Ferries Spirit of Britain and Spirit of France pioneers a new generation of cross-channel ferries. Their gross tonnage of 47592 tons represents a step change in the size of ferries on this route. In this topical book John Hendy details their design and building, and compares them with previous P&O vessels on this route. 128pp HBK 285x230mm fully illus. £18.50 [30131] Significant Ships of 2010 Royal Institution of Naval Architects The 21st issue of this annual RINA publication, Significant Ships of 2010 features, in one volume, a total of approximately 50 of the most innovative and important commercial designs delivered during the year. This year's volume includes: Methane Julia Louise: First tri-fuelled diesel-electric LNG carrier, Seven Atlantic: Largest support vessel for Subsea 7, Norwegian Epic: Takes a step up in cruising for NCL, Yamatai: 20,000dwt heavy-lift vessel with air lubrication from Japan, Rolldock Sun: First 7000dwt multi purpose vessel for Dutch owner, Queen Elizabeth: The next in line for Cunard's fleet, Nord Delphinus: 114,000dwt bulk carrier. PB A4 format 120pp Full colour throughout. £46.00 [29880] Ships' Cats: in war and peace Val Lewis Of all the domesticated animals, cats seem to cause the strongest feelings of admiration or aversion. However, anyone who likes, or even tolerates them, will enjoy this book. 91 Seagoing felines, some of named breeds and others just "moggies" or alley cats, demonstrate their self-reliance and adaptability to life afloat, along with the valuable work of rodent control in ships. In smaller craft, the affectionate companionship of a pet has been important to singlehanded sailors. Perhaps the most celebrated ship's cat was Able Seaman Simon of HMS Amethyst - he was awarded the Dickin Medal (the animals' VC) for killing vermin in the ship's stores. PB 235x165mm b/w photos £12.99 [30139] France/Norway John Maxtone GrahamSuberb full history with colour photography throughout of this iconic liner and cruise ship 224pp. HBK. 28.6 x 26.2cm. Full Glossary, Bibliography & Index. £55.00 [29441] (H)

Tel: 01489 572384 Fax: 01489 885756

Queen Mary 2: The Atlantic Cruise Liner of the 21st Century Philip Dawson Completing the Ferry Publications series of books on the current fleet of Cunard ships, Philip Dawson covers the development, construction and the history of this famous cruise liner built in France. Illustrated in full colour with outstanding photography. Due early May 2011. HB 96pp.250x230mm. 100+ colour photos. £18.50 [30165]

RMS Titanic 1909-12 Olympic class Owners Workshop Manual David Hutchings & Richard de Kerbrech It may seem a bit of a gimmick for one of the Haynes series of workshop manuals to include the Titanic! It has to be said though, that the authors have managed to produce a fascinating book for anyone interested in her design, construction and operation. Fully illustrating photos, line drawings plans. 160pp inc index 215pp £19.95 [30144] Below the Waterline David Carpenter The Author’s experiences from the end of his apprenticeship in 1961 with The London Graving Dock Co to his time in the Merchant Navy as an engineer. 248pp b/w photos £16.99 [30030] Signalman Jones Tim Parker From his early years growing up in Liverpool during the great depression to his extraordinary adventures at sea during the Second World War. Illuminates the achievement of beating the U-boat blockade of the American coast in little more than armed trawlers and whalers. 154pp 134 x 160 mm. B/w photos. £9.95 [30092] Red Funnel 150 - Celebrating 150 Years of the Original Isle Wight Ferries Keith Adams Red Funnel 150 charts the history through 150 years of war and peace, good times and bad - right up to today's services which are so much part of Island life. HB 176 pp, 250 colour and b/w images many published for the first time. £24.95 [30109]

Cruise Ships of Dover John Mavin In the last 10 years Dover has expanded its shipping operations to be one of the busiest cruise-ports in the UK. A wide variety of vessels visit the port. This book features many interesting pictures in colour and blackand-white of the cruise ships at Dover. PB A4 format. 96pp full colour £16.00 [29678] Ferries of Belgium This new book compiled by Mike Louagie with his outstanding library of photographs around the Belgium ports offers an insight to the many ferries that have served from Ostend and Zeebrugge to the UK over the last 30 years. Featuring both black & white and colour photography with background text and captions. Publication due early April 2011. HB. A4 format. 96 pp. £18.50 [30166] Last Atlantic Liners William H Miller The decade from 1950 to 1960 was the Golden Age of ocean liner travel. Airliners had yet to make an impact on the transatlantic run, the ships were as glamorous as they had ever been, they were faster than they had ever been - but it was all to end rather abruptly with the advent of the Boeing 707 and the eight hour transatlantic crossing by air. From 1960 onwards, ocean liner travel was in serious decline, a downward spiral that would only have one outcome - the death of sea travel on the Atlantic. Bill Miller tells the story in words and pictures of this decline and how it affected the liner companies. Not only Cunard and the French Line ships of Holland America, United States Lines, Norwegian American Line, Swedish Amerika Line, as well as the Italian Line and Hamburg Amerika. PB 248x226mm. Colour photos throughout. £19.99 [29286]


R. Bruce Grice & David Hutchings Was £32.00 Now only £16.00 Magnificent photographs of over ½ century of shipping in and around Southampton, Portsmouth & Weymouth by well-known maritime photographer R Bruce Bob Grice 212 pages. 171 photos (25 colour). Maps. HBK. 300x240mm HB [26835]

For other Carmania Press titles see:

Postage UK - add £1.50 for single CDs, DVDs or Videos, £3.50 for a single book (heavy books marked H are charged at £4.50. Add £1.00 for each additional item up to a maximum of £6.50. Orders of over £100 sent post free in the UK. Overseas delivery: add 15% of the book value to your order for postage (minimum £4.00 for DVDs, £7.50 for books). For large orders, please contact us for a quotation. Visitors are always welcome at our shop in Warsash. Opening hours are 9.00-5.30 Mon-Fri, 9.30-5.00 Sat closed Sunday & Bank Holidays. We accept Visa, Mastercard, Maestro, Visa Debit, Electron, American Express, Diners. Pay by Paypal on our website or to

3. Mainmast full page for Ships Monthly June 2011.indd 2

15/04/2011 15:57


welcome Kelsey Publishing Cudham Tithe Barn, Berrys Hill Cudham, Kent, TN16 3AG 01959 541444

Cruise ships old and new TM

Editor Nicholas Leach Art Editor Mark Hyde Advertisement Sales Alex Oliver 01959 543571 Advertisement Production Jackie Aubrey 01733 353387 Reader services Back issues, binders, subscriptions 01959 541444 Fax: 01959 541400 Editorial Director Gordon Wright 01959 541444 Commercial Director Matt Carson 01733 353362 Managing Director Steve Wright 01959 541444 Subscriptions Manager Karla Simpkin Website Jason Ward


he International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) regulations have hit the historic passenger ship fleet hard, and an article in this issue (see page 24) looks at the impact that SOLAS has had on classic liners and old favourites, many of which have now been broken up. The first version of the Convention was passed in 1914 in response to the sinking of the Titanic, and prescribed numbers of lifeboats and other safety procedures that had to be provided on board. As newer versions of the Regulations subsequently came into force, the rules have become stricter. And as a result, an increasing number of ships have needed expensive alterations and modernisation in order to carry on in service. More often than not, the expense has been too great, leading to the vessel’s demise. However, those who yearn for the older ships no doubt realise that for modern cruise ship operators it is a question of pragmatism rather than romance. Building a new cruise ship to comply with the regulations is a far more pragmatic proposition than maintaining an old one, despite this running counter to tradition and heritage. Modern ships have all the facilities and amenities to hand, function properly and efficiently and offer a comfortable and enjoyable cruise for those on board.

Newstrade Circulation Manager Arthur Heap

Maybe, in a few years, those lamenting the loss of ships regarded as classics will view early 21st century cruise ships in a similar light. And even the correspondents in Ships Mail (see page 60) writing about Oasis and Allure of the Seas being ugly might one day see modern cruise ships as elegant and sophisticated. As well as old cruise ships being scrapped, many of the Royal Navy’s warships are being phased out as the Strategic Defence Review continues to bite. Invincible and Ark Royal have now left the service, with several frigates currently on their last tour of duty. Many have pointed out the short-sightedness of the policy of cutting the navy so drastically, particularly in light of recent events in Libya. It raises the question whether, in future, the UK will be able to participate in international actions such as that against the Gadaffi regime.

Retail Promotions Eleanor Brown Distribution: Can’t find Ships Monthly? Call Marketforce on 020 3148 3333 for details of your nearest stockist. Or you can guarantee your copy each month by subscribing – call 01959 541444 or visit Printing: William Gibbons, Willenhall, West Midlands Kelsey Publishing Group 2011 © all rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is forbidden except with permission in writing from the publishers. Note to contributors: articles submitted for consideration by the editor must be the original work of the author and not previously published. Where photographs are included, which are not the property of the contributor, permission to reproduce them must have been obtained from the owner of the copyright. The editor cannot guarantee a personal response to all letters and emails received.

Nicholas Leach Editor

Modern cruise ships. Elegant or functional?

Subscribe to Ships Monthly • Find out how on page 32

Contributors this month

Byron Clayton

Scott Mackay

Lynn Houghton

Nick Hall

Byron Clayton has been

A transportation graduate

Lynn grew up in Canada and

Nick Hall has had a

travelling on ships regularly

with a PhD in Transport

California, but her English

lifelong interest in ships

since 1984 and is currently

Research from the

roots drew her back to the

and remains fascinated

living in Singapore. His

University of Ulster, Scott

UK and she relocated to

by ‘anything man-made

website claytonshipping.

Mackay is based in Northern

London 17 years ago. She

which floats, especially

com focusses on ship

Ireland and has written

writes about cruises and

warships, coastal forces,

appreciation in Asia.

various transport papers.

cruise destinations.

and historic vessels’. • June 2011 •

Page 3_June NL.indd 3


14/04/2011 14:29

The container ship Maersk Kampala (2001/80,654gt) alongside Trinity Terminal at Felixstowe container port. (Nicholas Leah)

End of an era Invincible and Ark Royal leave Portsmouth £3.95 June 2011

P&OBigCRUISES year ahead


The hunt for Bismarck Epic pursuit in the North Atlantic 70 years ago


Safety regulations

MAY 2011

Disney Dream New cruise ship

Stena Caledonia

SOLAS ends the careers of famous ships

Port pictorial Felixstowe boxboats

Tankers Eagle Oil’s fine fleet

COVER IMAGE: P&O Cruises’ 1995-built cruise ship Oriana (69,153gt) arriving in Cork harbour. (Nicholas Leach).

Subscribe to Ships Monthly See page 32 for more info

Earthquake and tsunami US Navy assists in aftermath JUNE OFC.indd 1

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contents Regulars

Ship of the month


6 Waterfront News of a the shooting on HMS Astute, ships caught in the tsunami and P&O Cruises getting ready to celebrate with a new addition to the fleet.

12 Ferry LD cancel Norman Leader order, change of terminal in Spain and changes at Ramsgate. Russell Plummer

14 Cruise New Royal Princess unveiled, changes to Norwegian Dawn and AIDAsol makes her debut. Tony Davis

16 Naval End of an era for aircraft carriers, Bulwark becomes the new flagship and the RN leases an icebreaker as a stop-gap. Gary Davies

Stena Caledonia Profile of the ferry Stena Caledonia, which was launched 30 years ago at Harland and Wolff. Scott Mackey

Features 24 The aftermath of SOLAS What exactly is SOLAS? How did it come into being? And what has been its impact on passenger ships? Byron Clayton

28 Disney’s Dream A look at the new cruise ship Disney Dream, which entered service at the start of the year and cruises the Caribbean. Lynn Houghton

18 Cargo Changes at Beluga, two new feeder ships for Samskip, and the new Goliath crane arrives at Rosyth.

20 Preservation News of an Olympic plan for Ark Royal, the restoration of Cervia and the relaunch of Cambria. Nick Hall

30 Maritime Mosaic

22 Newbuild

Photographs of shipping on the five Great Lakes of North America. Charles H. Bogart

Reports on the latest product tankers, platform supply vessels, research vessels and a futuristic-looking inspection vessel. Jim Shaw

53 Ships pictorial A selection of ships pictured around the world.

Chartroom 59 Ships mail

38 How Eagle dared Remembering Eagle Oil, which had one of the finest British tanker fleets. Roy Fenton

42 Boxboat boomtime Felixstowe continues to expand and remains Britain’s premier boxboat port. Nicholas Leach

46 Epic hunt

A selection of letters from readers.

The story of the epic pursuit of the German battleship Bismarck in the North Atlantic 70 years ago. Nick Hall

61 Mystery ship

56 Laid up at Perama

Can you cast any light on this month’s mystery ship?

A visit to Greece’s Perama Bay in 1978, when the sheltered lay-up area near Athens was a virtual maritime museum of old ships. Jim Shaw

62 Ships library Reviews and details of new maritime books.

63 Ports of call Cruise ship calls around the UK in June. Edwin Wilmshurst

66 A View from the Bridge Captain John Grace talks about working on the Fastnet Line ferry Julia, which enjoyed a good debut season on the Swansea-Cork route.

June 2011 • Volume 46 • No.6

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WATERFRONT uS Navy assists japan after quake and tsunami

dISASTER REScuE US Navy ships helped search for survivors in the Pacific Ocean after Japan’s massive earthquake in March while several commercial vessels were swept aground and others told to steam far out to sea to escape floating debris, including complete houses. The Nimitz class aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76) was one of the first on the scene to provided search and rescue operations as well as helicopters to land emergency supplies. Other US Navy ships dispatched to the area included the US 7th Fleet command ship USS Blue Ridge (LCC 19), the Military Sealift Command fleet replenishment oiler USNS Rappahannock (T-AO 204), the guided-missile destroyer USS Preble

(DDG 88) and the Military Sealift Command dry cargo and ammunition ship USNS Matthew Perry (T-AKE 9). Five bulk carriers operated by Tokyo’s ‘K’ Line were pushed aground, including the 175,775dwt China Steel Integrity, which was anchored at Kashima’s port with a full load of ore when the tsunami hit. The 32,385dwt bulker CS Victory, operated by compatriot owner Mitsui OSK Lines, was also pushed ashore at Ishinomaki after it had arrived to take on a load of Kaolin. NYK Line reported that three of its ships, the 91,439dwt Shiramizu, 77,739dwt Shirouma and 75,395dwt Coral Ring, had been damaged, with the Shirouma left aground at Haramati and Coral Ring damaged after being pushed against a pier at Onaham. One of the more widely photographed

Offshore marriage OFFShORE Supply Japan’s Sanko Steamship and the Hellespont Group of Greece have formed Sanko-Hellespont Offshore Management Pte Ltd in Singapore to provide manning and shipmanagement services to their offshore fleets. This includes four 12,250bhp Anchor Handling Tug Supply vessels (AHTS)

and four 3,250dwt Platform Supply Vessels (PSV) already in service, plus an additional four 16,320bhp AHTS and four 4,700dwt PSVs being delivered. Several more vessels are expected to enter the joint venture over the next 12 months. Sanko operates a fleet of 36 owned and 156 chartered vessels while Hellespont operates a chemical tanker pool and manages 26 vessels. JS

ABOVE AND BELOW: Extraordinary images from the aftermath of the Japanese tsunami and earthquake showing cargo and fishing vessels stranded high and dry on land surrounded by debris.

ships was the blue-hulled 6,175dwt general cargo vessel Asia Symphony, pushed onto a pier at Kamaishi. This

ship, built in 1998, was erroneously reported by the Daily Mail as being of 175,0000 tonnes. JS

crewman lifted off INjuREd cREWmAN On 19 March a crew member from RMS St Helena was airlifted to hospital by the Portland Coastguard helicopter Rescue 106 after he fell nine feet between two metal containers. The 23-year-old man suffered a broken arm after the accident, which occurred while the ship was in Portland Harbour.

The helicopter, which was out exercising, was on the scene within eight minutes. The winchman was lowered onto the ship, assessed the situation and the injured man was then transferred onto a stretcher, winched into the helicopter and airlifted to Dorset County Hospital. The cargopassenger ship only recently arrived at Portland for a period of maintenance.


St Helena in Portland.

Paul Dalloway

The 2,503dwt offshore supply vessel Sanko Bride is one of 16 units in the new Sanko-Hellespont Offshore venture.

6 • June 2011 •

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Maritime Photographic

ROYAL NAVY Another unwelcome chapter has been added to the short and checkered history of HMS Astute after a serious firearms incident. The nuclearpowered submarine was alongside Southampton during a port visit when two naval officers were shot without warning by an apparently disgruntled naval rating. The crewman, armed with an SA80 rifle as part of his sentry

equipment, was overpowered by a visiting city councillor who was on board for a courtesy visit at the time. At least six shots were fired during the incident, during which the Weapons Engineering Officer was killed and another officer left with life-threatening injuries. The suspect was charged with murder and three counts of attempted murder. With the Control Room being treated as a crime scene by Hampshire Constabulary, the

ABOVE: Southampton is set to become the affiliated city of HMS Artful’s, the third Astute class vessel. submarine departed for sea a day later than planned. At the time of writing it was unclear what material damage had been caused by the discharge of the weapon. HMS Astute has become a regular in newspaper headlines for the wrong reasons, the most infamous being her grounding near the Isle of Skye. GD

Hamburg Süd orders boxboats Cruising with


Mark Mulligan


CONTAINER SHIPS German liner operator Hamburg Süd has gone to China’s Shanghai Shipyard for a series of eight new container ships, the first time the company has ordered ships in China. The medium-sized newbuildings have been contracted for at a price of $50 million each and will be delivered in 2012-13. The German owner also has ten larger box carriers on order with South Korea’s Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering for delivery running through to July 2012, and has recently

ABOVE; Germany’s Hamburg Süd has placed a series of new ship orders in Asia after taking delivery of the 5,900TEU Rio Madeira as the final of six ships built by Daewoo Mangalia Heavy Industries last year. placed an order with Hyundai Heavy Industries, its first with that company, for six 9,600TEU ships plus four on option. The Hyundai-built ships, to have a high reefer box capacity, are expected to be placed on the carrier’s run to South America following their delivery in 2013-14. JS

French container carrier CMA CGM of Marseilles are offering a 76-day voyage around the world on six of their medium-sized container ships for those who do not like cruise ships. The vessels involved, CMA CGM Blue Whale, Dolphin, Florida, Kingfish, Swordfish and Tarpon, are all of about 5,100TEU capacity, sail under the British flag and are only about two to three years old. Each ship has three double cabins, complete with private lounge, refrigerator, desk and chair, and en suite facilities, while there is also a shipboard library, table tennis, deck chairs and small swimming pool. The ships load in New York, then head east for Tangier, Morocco, before transiting the Suez Canal for Jebel Ali, after which they proceed to Singapore, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Pusan. JS

BRIEF NEWS MALTESE FLAG • French liner company CMA CGM has placed one of its recently-delivered container ships, CMA CGM Pegasus, under the Maltese flag, with the 11,400TEU vessel thus becoming the largest container ship to fly that flag. CMA CGM owns and operates the Malta Freeport Terminal and currently has seven vessels registered in Malta. IOW FERRY • Now into its 150th year, Red Funnel has been awarded the environmental accreditation ISO 14001:2004 by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. The culmination of a three-year effort to achieve standards focussed on minimising impact on the environment, compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and environmental standards, the award was presented to the Isle of Wight ferry and highspeed service operator’s chief executive James Fulford by MCA chairman Sir Alan Massey aboard Red Eagle. RP DREDGING • The latest period of dredging and surveying in Portsmouth harbour and its approaches commenced on 18 March. Dredging was expected to last for about three weeks, but was weather dependent. The trailing suction hopper dredger Shoalway and F48, a small plough dredger, were involved. The 4,088gt Shoalway was built in 2010 by Intervak BV and is operated by Boskalis Westminster Shipping. AC WOODCHIP CARRIERS • China’s Nantong Mingde Heavy Industries and Jiangsu New Yangzijiang Shipbuilding have been contracted to build four 70,000dwt woodchip carriers each for Singapore-based NOVA Shipping & Logistics, with each yard holding options for two further vessels. As the first-ever woodchip carriers to be built in China, the newbuildings are to be delivered starting in late 2012 and will join NOVA’s existing fleet of five woodchip carriers, all in the 43,000dwt to 49,000dwt range and all purchased on the second-hand market from Japanese owners. • June 2011 •

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Astute submarine shooting


14/04/2011 16:49

WATERFRONT Model tested

Do we need bigger box ships?


ABOVE: A model of FutureShip’s optimised 9,000TEU container ship is tested in Germany’s Hamburg Ship Model Basin at Hamburg.

The world’s leading ocean carriers are not letting Maersk leave them behind in the mega-container ship field. While Maersk has recently ordered ten 18,000TEU ships from Daewoo Shipbuilding with 20 more on option, Germany’s Hapag-Lloyd has gone to South Korea’s Hyundai Heavy Industries for four 13,200TEU vessels and upgraded an earlier order at the

Condor in collision

Korean builder for six 8,750TEU ships that will now be built to the larger 13,200TEU size. All ten vessels are to be delivered to the line between 2012 and the end of 2013. In Asia, Taiwan’s Evergreen Marine has 20 8,000TEU vessels on order with South Korea’s Samsung Heavy Industries and is considering more, while Orient Overseas Container Lines (OOCL) has just ordered six 13,000TEU vessels from the same builder for

Paul Dalloway

MARINE ACCIDENT On the morning of 28 March Condor Ferries’ 86m Incat catamaran Condor Vitesse collided with the French fishing vessel Les Marquises, in foggy conditions north-west of Chausey, in French waters. The ferry was on a crossing between St Malo and Jersey, and the collision took place around 45 minutes into the ferry’s journey.

On board the fishing vessel were three French nationals, one of whom later died from his injuries despite being taken to hospital in Jersey by the St Helier RNLI lifeboat. The other two fishermen were taken on board the ferry, with another fishing boat, Joker, assisting. The fishing vessel had effectively been cut in two when the collision occurred, with visibility down to around 30m due to fog. AC

delivery in 2013 and also holds an option for four more of the giant ships. Even with the Panama Canal building new larger locks, at least 58 of the mega-container ships will be too large to make use of them. JS

Calshot moves house PRESERVED TUG

Condor Vitesse laid up in Jersey following the collision with a fishing vessel.

ABOVE: The size of container ships is continuing to grow, and nearly 60 now sailing or on order are too large for the new navigation locks that the Panama Canal is constructing.

The tug tender Calshot (pictured at 42 Berth) has moved to a permanent new home in Southampton. After 12 years alongside a busy ro-ro jetty, the 1929-built vessel has been moved to a new position near Town Quay. It is hoped the former Red Funnel Towage vessel will become a key attraction at the city’s planned

Aeronautica museum, opening in 2015. The £8 million project plans to celebrate Southampton’s maritime and aviation history with a museum sited in the docks that would house historic aircraft and ships linked to the city. Calshot was the largest tug tender built for Red Funnel. She has worked the world’s greatest ocean liners, including Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, United States and France. GD

Maritime Photographic

Germanischer Lloyd



Germany’s Hamburg Ship Model Basin (HSVA) has been utilised to test an optimised model of a 9,000TEU container ship being developed by FutureShip, a subsidiary of Germanischer Lloyd and the Marine Design & Research Institute of China. Shipowners Schulte of Germany and Costamare of Greece had requested the design review in order to optimise the ship’s efficiency. As a result, it has been determined that a smaller main engine can be installed in the vessel, thus reducing fuel consumption by more than 10 per cent. JS

8 • June 2011 •

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news Ian Shiffman

Since publication of the article Soviet Workhorses (see SM, Nov 2009), the scrapping of the one-time class of 22 Leningrad-built ro-ro vessels has accelerated sharply, with only two of 11 vessels then remaining not having been scrapped in the last 18 months. Constructed between 1975 and 1985 at the Zhdanov Shipyard, the ro-ro and general cargo vessels were built for a dual-purpose military and commercial role, and will be best remembered for their unusual design. Unusually for ro-ros, they have conventional cruiser-type sterns, with vehicle access through a very large lifting bow visor, behind which a strengthened 23m ramp unfolds forward, or slews sideways. In late 2009 the Ukrainian operator Commercial Fleet of Donbass (CFD) sold their remaining four vessels Kapitan Pastushenko (1981, ex-Andino Glory, ex-Med Navigator, ex-Conti Success, ex-Vera Khoruzhaya), Viktor

RIGHT: Throughout her career, Katya Zelenko, along with four sister vessels, has been owned by the Ukrainian Azov Sea Shipping Company, which became Commercial Fleet of Donbass. Other than brief charter periods as Conti Glory and Conti Will, she has carried the name throughout her working life. She is pictured at Cape Town in September 2009.

Talalikhin (1981, ex-Conti Progress, ex-Viktor Talalikhin), Donetsk (1984, exHigh Arabella, ex-Donetsk), and Katya Zelenko (1980, ex-Conti Glory, ex-Conti Will, ex-Katya Zelenko) to India for scrapping in Chittagong. Meanwhile, the Russian-owned Valga (1979, ex-Waalhaven, exAleksandr Osipov) went to Alang, where she arrived in December 2009. Owned by Baltic Mecur Ltd of St Petersburg, she and a sister operated on the Atlantic ro-ro weekly service between St Petersburg and Baltimore for many years. Also scrapped the same month were another two vessels: Van Uden Ro-Ro’s last remaining vessel of the class, Maximahaven which arrived at Aliaga, Turkey, and Grimaldi’s

ABOVE: Owned by the Commercial Fleet of Donbass (CFD) is the 1981-built Victor Talalikhin. In recent years, she had served with CFD sister vessel Katya Zelenko on charter to the Danish Clipper Group for Atlantic service between Santos, Brazil and Luanda, Angola. She was scrapped in November 2009 in Bhavnaga, India and is pictured in April 2009 arriving at Cape Town. single vessel Salerno Express (1982, ex-Livorno Bridge, ex-Aleksa Dundik), which was latterly sailing under the Maltese flag and used on short-sea Mediterranean ro-ro services. In April 2010 it was the turn of Ducky Science (ex-North Moon, exBurhan Dai, ex-Yellow K, ex-Aleksandr Starosten), recently trading for Ro Ro Line between Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Mainland China and the Middle East. Next, in October 2010, Baltic Mecur’s remaining vessel of the class, Viljandi

(ex-Merwehaven, ex-Uniroller, ex-Boris Buvin), arrived at Alang. The most recent to go is Ducky Shiny, which arrived at Alang in February. She had also been trading for Ro Ro Line. The scrappings mean that just two of the once-strong 22 class now remain. They are a single 139m vessel, FESCO Gavriil (8,467gt), and a single vessel of the 151m series, FESCO Nikolay (9,489gt), both of which are operated by FESCO between Vladivostok and ports in the Far East. MD

Ian Shiffman

ROll-ON ROll-OFF • June 2011 •

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Scrapping of Russian ro-ros accelerates


14/04/2011 13:55

WATERFRONT NEW FERRY DESIGN Australian shipbuilder Incat Tasmania Pty Ltd has announced that the customer for their world-first highspeed passenger ro-ro ship powered by LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is the South American company Buquebus. The 99m LNG ship was contracted in November 2010 and will operate on the River Plate service between Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Incat Chairman Robert Clifford said: ‘This project represents a significant step in the global move for natural gas-powered ships to replace those operated with less environmentally friendly fuels.’ Hull 069 will be the eighth built by Incat for Buquebus and their associated companies. The yet-to-be-named vessel is under construction at the Incat shipyard at Hobart, and delivery is expected in 2012. With capacity for over 1,000 passengers and 153 cars, it has a projected lightship speed of 53 knots.

Irish Sea ferry changes Support for Gordon Hislip

World-first LNG ferry

ISLE OF MAN Isle of Man Steam Packet, the world’s oldest continuously operating passenger shipping company, has a new owner. An announcement on 8 April confirmed completion of a refinancing operation by a group of banks headed by Portugal’s Banco Espirito Santo. Share capital of the company and a number of its pension finds have passed from Macquarie to Sealion (Isle of Man) Ltd, a company owned by the Steam Packet’s banks. A new corporate structure is to be put in place to simplify the present multi-level company structure, but 2011 service schedules are unaffected. A company statement added: ‘The Steam Packet can now move forward on a stable footing, enabling the Island-based management team to

Stena Leader and Stena Pioneer laid up in Belfast.

focus on delivering frequent, reliable, value-for-money services for both freight customers and passengers.’ RP

STENA LINE The Irish Competition Authority has found that Stena Line’s purchase from DFDS of Irish Sea ferry routes linking Birkenhead and Heysham with Belfast, announced by the two operators at the beginning of December last year, will not substantially lessen competition in markets for goods and services in the Irish Republic. Stena now await completion of the UK Competition Commission’s own investigation after the matter was referred by the Office of Fair Trading on 8 February. A report is due to be published by 25 July. RP • Full coverage and assessment in next month’s Ships Monthly.

Walton’s first for 58 years NEW LIFEBOAT The new 16m Tamar class lifeboat Irene Muriel Rees arrived at her home of Walton and Frinton on 10 April, escorted by her predecessor Kenneth Thelwall II, the Harwich lifeboat Albert Brown and Clacton’s Atlantic 75, as well as the restored 1900-built lifeboat James Stevens No.14. The impressive line-up of lifeboats old and new was

watched by over 1,000 people from the end of Walton pier, who applauded as the new lifeboat came alongside. The Tamar is the first new lifeboat at Walton since 1953, as the station has operated a series of second-hand lifeboats. She has been largely funded by a £1 million donation from local benefactor the late Mrs Rees. The 47ft Tyne lifeboat being replaced will be sold out of RNLI service.


The ro-pax ferry Barfleur (1992/20,133gt) returned to Cherbourg-Poole duties on 27 February, with a large crowd turning out at The Haven to welcome the ship, under the command of Captain Roignant, back into Poole Harbour that evening for the first time in over a year. Although now limited to 450 passengers instead of the full capacity of 1,200 to reduce crewing costs, the ship’s first sailing back to Cherbourg the following morning at 0830 was fully booked. Such is the local support for the service that the first sailing carried the Mayor of Poole and a civic party as well as representatives of the Dorset-La Manche Twinning Association, with a television news film crew recording the event. Brittany Ferries will review the commercial viability of the relaunched service, which is due to operate until October, later in the year, although it is hoped that Barfleur will once again operate a year-round service. Having been laid up in Caen since withdrawal at the end of January 2010, Barfleur moved to the ARNO shipyard in Dunkirk for dry-docking in February, before returning to Cherbourg for crew familiarisation. KM

Sail with us from Newcastle to stunning St Petersburg for a twoday stay during a 12-night cruise with Fred Olsen’s popular ship

Cruise Club


4 to 16 October 2011 Nicholas Leach

Ports of call Oslo, Norway Halmstad, Sweden Helsinki, Finland St Petersburg, Russia Copenhagen, Denmark

Cruise Club onboard programme with special shore excursions £50 per cabin credit Tour organiser/guide Russell Plummer

Prices start from £948 per person ABOVE: The new Walton and Frinton lifeboat Irene Muriel Rees (on right) with her predecessor Kenneth Thelwall II off Walton pier on 10 April.

For brochure e-mail or send SAE to CMT, 30 South Street, Stanground, Peterborough, Cambridgeshire PE2 8ET

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Russell Plummer previews a massive year for P&O Cruises with new tonnage and a change of role for a popular existing major vessel, all on the way to a major anniversary in 2012.

Looking to ‘Grand Event’ FLEET GATHERING All seven ships in the P&O Cruises fleet will come together in a ‘Grand Event’ at Southampton on 3 July 2012 to celebrate the 175th anniversary of the company gaining its first contract from the British Admiralty to carry mail to the Iberian Peninsular and beyond. P&O managing director Carol Marlow said: ’It will be a celebration for P&O Cruises, our passengers and for the whole maritime world. As cruising has become the fastest growing sector of the UK holiday market, the P&O Cruises fleet has grown to seven ships dedicated to the British market.’ The fleet will sail in procession down Southampton Water before Azura undertakes an 11-night Atlantic Islands cruise; Ventura starts a 17-night Mediterranean itinerary; Oceana heads for the Norwegian Fjords; Arcadia has a 14-night itinerary to Norway; Aurora visits the Baltic (17 nights); Oriana offers a four-night cruise; and Adonia will start a 21-night Med itinerary.

ADONIA P&O, one of the first long-established shipping lines to offer cruises, welcomes a further fleet addition with the late May debut of the 710-bed Adonia, a vessel with lower capacity than the remaining half dozen fleet members and one that will carry only adult passengers. The last of an eight-strong series ordered by Renaissance Cruises when delivered by Chantiers de l’Atlantique at Saint Nazaire as R Eight, the vessel was part of the Renaissance operation which folded within a few months of her completion in 2001. After a spell on charter to Swan Hellenic as Minerva II, the 30,277gt ship was bought by Carnival Group stable-mate Princess Cruises in July 2004 and now switches to P&O from this year. Adonia will be named at Southampton by entertainment legend Dame Shirley Bassey on 21 May before leaving the following day on a 16-night Western Mediterranean inaugural itinerary with ports of call including Alghero, Portofino, Sete, Mahon and Barcelona. Adonia indirectly replaces Artemis

(1984/44,348gt), another former Royal Princess, which has been in the P&O line-up since 2005 and was chartered back for 18 months after sale in 2009 to Bermuda-registered Artania Shipping. Artemis was due to complete a final P&O itinerary at Southampton on 26 April. As Adonia begins a new career phase with P&O, all of her seven former Renaissance sister ships will be in service through the coming summer, with three of them, the former R One, R Two and R Five, in the Oceania Cruises fleet as Regatta, Insignia and Nautica. Princess Cruises operate ex-R Three and R Four as Pacific Princess and Ocean Princess respectively, while the former R Six and R Seven are currently Azamara Journey and Azamara Quest for Azamara Club Cruises fleet.

ABOVE: P&O Cruises’ acquisition Adonia is set for a debut in May.








Ch Atlantique, France



181.0m x 25.5m


18 knots




Fincantieri, Italy


285.3m x 32.3m


22 knots




Meyer Werft, Germany


270.0m x 32.2m


24 knots




Fincantieri, Italy

115,055 289.6m x 36.0m


21.7 knots




Fincantieri, Italy


261.0m x 32.3m


21 knots




Meyer Werft, Germany


260.0m x 32.2m


24 knots




Fincantieri, Italy

116,017 289.6m x 36.0m


21.7 knots


Arcadia departing Southampton.

A change of role ORIANA Oriana, one of P&O’s most distinctive vessels, is to be transformed to cater exclusively for adult passengers during a major refurbishment in November this year. Built at Meyer Werft in Papenburg, Germany, Oriana was named by HM The Queen at Southampton before entering service in May 1995 and has cruised worldwide from Southampton for the past 16 years, being registered in Hamilton, Bermuda, since December 2006. During the refit, 27 new cabins, including balcony rooms and single cabins, will be created in place of the current children’s areas, together with Sorrento, a new Italian-style restaurant. The Oasis Spa will be updated, and the Deck 8 children’s pool replaced with a seating area. Ocean Grill by high profile chef Marco Pierre White, a feature which is due to debut aboard Adonia, will also be incorporated on Oriana ready for the winter season.

ABOVE: Oriana approaching Cobh terminal, Cork, in June 2009. • June 2011 •

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Russell Plummer

Ramsgate-Ostend co-operation ends New role for veteran TRANSEUROPA for tourist passengers. TEF general manager Dominique Penel said: ‘We have been very satisfied with the co-operation, but market conditions and tonnage requirements have contributed towards this decision. Both companies will continue to study opportunities to renew commercial agreements and work together again in the future.’

Larkspur and Eurovoyager at Ramsgate.

CANARY ISLANDS A former Irish Sea freight workhorse, once P&O’s Ibex, has opened a new Boluda Lines service from mainland Spain to the Canary Islands. Reyes B (1979/6,310gt), built in Japan to serve P&O’s Fleetwood-Larne route, later had North Sea spells as Norsea and Norsky before returning to the Irish Sea as Ibex with an extra freight deck. Renamed European Envoy in 1998, the vessel was on the short-lived MostynDublin route from 2001 before sale in 2004. Now, as Reyes B (pictured), her weekly round trip leaves Seville to call at Arrecife, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and Las Palmas, Gran Canaria.

Boluda Lines

Nicholas Leach

TransEuropa Ferries ended its Ramsgate-Ostend route commercial agreement with LD Lines during March, ‘to better adapt to market demand and tonnage requirements of both operators.’ The announcement came several days after the LD-owned Ostend Spirit, formerly Norman Spirit, left the route The Ramsgate-Ostend freight and

passenger service continues with Gardenia (1978/8,097gt) and Larkspur (1976/14,558gt), while TransEuropa, who have Oleander (1980/13,191gt) and Eurovoyager (1976/12,110gt) on charter in the Mediterranean, look for a third Ramsgate vessel. Collaboration on commercial aspects of the Ostend service began in March 2010, with TransEuropa Ferries responsible for freight traffic and ship operations and LD Lines

Ferries in Libyan evacuations MEDITERRANEAN

PORT NEWS Residents of Dover have given a massive thumbs-down to Dover Harbour Board’s privatisation plans. In a referendum organised by the Dover People’s Port Trust, 5,244 voted for a port owned by the people of Dover, with just 113 against the idea. Organised by Dover District Council, with a 25 per cent turn-out among the 21,000 people eligible to vote, the result, although non-binding on the government, was a negative reaction to DHB’s privatisation plans. Local Member of Parliament Charlie

Elphicke commented: ‘I hope this will give strength to the campaign to ensure the port of Dover is owned by the people of Dover.’ He said there is a strong case to the Secretary of State for Transport that residents’ voices should be listened to. A decision is still awaited following last year’s request from Dover Harbour Board, which has run the port as a trust since 1606, for permission to privatise. A port spokesperson said: ‘We will reflect on the result of this Dover town poll, but remain absolutely convinced that our voluntary scheme represents the best and only option.’

Russell Plummer

Russell Plummer

With strife in Libya continuing, two ferries were used as hospital ships early in April. Ankara, the Turkish vessel which with sister Samsun evacuated foreign nationals from Bizerta when crisis started in February, returned to evacuate wounded civilians from the besieged city of Miserta, taking them first to Benghazi and on to Istanbul. Medecins Sans Frontier chartered 34.5m Virtu Ferries catamaran San Pawl, usually linking Italy and Croatia, to carry more than 70 wounded men, women and children on a 280 mile journey from Miserta to Sfax in Tunisia. Although earlier evacuation of British citizens from Benghazi by HMS Cumberland hit the headlines,

significant numbers had already left aboard ferries, Turkey also using IDO’s Austal catamarans Orhan Gazi I and Osman Gazi, from Benghazi. Other Austal catamarans on the scene were Virtu Ferries’ pair San Gwann and Maria Dolores, running to Malta, while Greece acted with ANEK twins Hellenic Spirit and Olympic Champion arriving in Tripoli before same operator’s El Venizelos, Hellenic Seaways’ Express Santorini and Minoan Lines pair Europa Palace and Knossos Palace made special sailings together with Italian ships, including SNAV Toscana and Grimaldi-owned Cruise Roma and Tunisian ferry Habib. The most unusual charter saw ANEK’s Lissos leave Libya to take around 1,000 Vietnamese workers all the way home.

Dover plan unpopular

ABOVE: After taking Vietnamese workers home from Libya, Greek ferry Lissos is expected to be sold for scrap in the Far East.

ABOVE: Dover Castle above Pride of Burgundy and SeaFrance Moliere at Eastern Docks Berths 7 and 8 in March after a local referendum rejected proposals for privatisation of the port.

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news LD LINES A legal wrangle looks likely after LD Lines parent Louis Dreyfus Armateurs cancelled the order for Norman Leader, the 12,000gt vessel reported to be costing the equivalent of £78 million and specifically designed for the English Channel service linking Portsmouth and Le Havre. Contracted with Singapore Technologies Marine as far back as

July 2007, Norman Leader undertook trials during 2010 and was advertised to enter service on 28 April this year. Apart from delivery delays, LDA are also citing deadweight issues with the vessel, which is designed to carry up to 1,250 passengers, with vehicle decks offering various freight combinations. After a lengthy refit at the Remontowa Yard in Gdansk, Poland, Norman Spirit (1991/28,883gt) has

returned to the Portsmouth-Le Havre route it opened for LD Lines in autumn 2005, having spent the previous year as Ostend Spirit running between Ramsgate and Ostend. Norman Spirit replaces Cote d’Albatre (2006/18,425gt). LD Lines have also changed vessel on the ‘Motorways of the Sea’ service from St Nazaire to Gijon with Baltic Amber replacing Norman Bridge.

Andrew Cooke

Côte d’Albatre leaving Portsmouth.

Single ship Change of terminal for Minch? PORTSMOUTH-BILBAO Despite demands for a pair of shuttle ferries to link Stornoway with the Scottish mainland port of Ullapool, Caledonian Marine Assets look set to push ahead, with construction of a single vessel costing £49 million to replace the present Caledonian Macbrayne route combination of passenger/vehicle ferry Isle of Lewis (1995/6,753gt) and freight ro-ro Muirneag (1979/5,801gt) during 2013. Although a string of speakers at a packed public meeting in Stornoway said the expanding economy of Lewis and Harris needed two vessels, CMAL managing director Guy Platten insisted that a single ferry, 25 per cent larger than Isle of Lewis, was the most practical and affordable solution. The new 19-knot ship, carrying 600 passengers, 143 cars or up to 20 lorries, will trim around 15 minutes off present sailings across the Minch, with freight handled overnight during a seven-days-a-week schedule that has scope for extra summer crossings.

Cap Finistere launched Brittany Ferries’ new service between Portsmouth and Bilbao on 27 March, but almost at the 11th hour there was a change of terminal at the Spanish end. The 32,728gt vessel, built as Superfast V in 2000, sails twice weekly, but not to the Santurzi terminal used for 17 years until P&O’s service closed last September. It has a new base at Zierbena, which is around four kilometres closer to the sea and offers Darren Holdaway


drivers better access to the newly-built link with Spain’s A8 motorway. Modifications to Cap Finistere during a visit to Remontowa, Gdansk included the creation of a large children’s playground, a cinema, an additional café and, for passengers with dogs, ten new pet-friendly cabins (giving a total of 14) and a dedicated dog-walking area. Barfleur (1992/20,133gt) reopened the Brittany Ferries service between Poole and Cherbourg on 27 February after emerging from lay-up in Caen.

ABOVE: Cap Finistere arriving at Portsmouth following refit at Gdansk prior to commencing the new Brittany Ferries service to northern Spain.

BRIEF NEWS NAMING • Olympic gold medal winner Dame Kelly Holmes named P&O’s Spirit of Britain in a ceremony at Dover Eastern Docks on 24 March before 300 guests were taken on a short cruise along the Kent coast, with the 47,600gt vessel turning in St Margaret’s Bay. Sistership Spirit of France is due to follow from STX at Rauma, Finland in September, with a naming expected to take place in Calais. FREIGHT ro-ro specialist Cobelfret achieved a 27 per cent increase in business from Belgium and Holland to ports in England, Ireland, Denmark and Sweden last year with carryings of 890,454 freight units and 524,500 export/import cars. The Rotterdam-Killingholme service has proved successful, with a 32 per cent growth to 120,000 freight units, while car totals doubled to 112,000. THERE are now three 74m Incats lying in English ports and on the market. Condor Ferries are reportedly asking £.4.6m for the 1993-built Condor 10. Also being advertised for sale are the Isle of Man Steam Packet’s Snaefell (1991), currently on the Mersey, as well as the long idle Emeraude France (1990), which is still lying at Tilbury. CELTIC Link Ferries increased traffic between Rosslare and Cherbourg to 56,000 passengers, 16,200 cars and 20,000 trucks in 2010 and are reported to be looking for a vessel with larger capacity than the 428-berth/2,255-lane metre Norman Voyager, built in 2008 and chartered from LD Lines. CORK failed in a bid to see the start of a ro-ro ferry service to Gijon in Northern Spain during March. Cork Port spokesperson Sara Dymond said that while dialogue with operators and investors continues, in the current climate it is proving more challenging to establish this service. She added: ‘The Port of Cork, along with our colleagues in the Port of Gijon are committed to the project and will continue to work in establishing this ferry service.’ • June 2011 •

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Tony Davis

New Royal Princess unveiled Rendering of the new Royal Princess.

Serenity facelift CRYSTAL CRUISES

Princess Cruises unveiled details of the new 141,000gt, 3,600-passenger Royal Princess, due to enter service in spring 2013. She is the first of a new series and not an evolution of the successful Grand class ships, although certain signature elements will be retained. All of the outside staterooms will have balconies, which means that 80 per cent of her accommodation will provide this feature. There will be 260,000ft2 of inside public

space, with multiple dining and entertainment venues as well as other amenities, which will be revealed in due course. A sistership, Regal Princess, will be introduced in spring 2014. New on Royal Princess is a SeaWalk, a glass-bottomed enclosed walkway on the starboard side of the ship’s top deck which overhangs more than 8.5m beyond the side of the vessel. From here, passengers will have dramatic views and be able to look down at the sea nearly 40m below. On the port side,

Olé Happy Dolphin

passengers will find a similarly unique cantilevered SeaView Bar. This is the third Royal Princess in the company’s history. The first sailed as Artemis (1984/44,588gt) for P&O Cruises until April, when she was sold to Artania Shipping and chartered to Phoenix Seereisen as Artania. The second is currently sailing for Princess Cruises as Royal Princess (2001/30,277gt) and is the former R Eight, which later became Swan Hellenic’s Minerva II. She was transferred to P&O Cruises last month as a replacement for Artemis.

Costa returns to Red Sea COSTA CRUISES

ABOVE: Gemini is operating in the Baltic this summer

HAPPY CRUISES Spanish operator Happy Cruises has chartered the former Delphin Voyager (1990/21,884gt) for weekly Mediterranean and Adriatic cruises until October, using Venice, Piraeus and Istanbul as base ports. She takes over the published itineraries of one of Happy’s other two chartered ships, Gemini (1992/19,083), which is now operating in the Baltic for the first time between Copenhagen and Tallinn.

Happy Dolphin previously sailed for German-based Delphin Kreuzfahrten until the company went bankrupt last summer and she was returned to her Greek owners. In December 2010 she was renamed Hainan Express during a short charter to Far East interests for the Chinese New Year. Happy’s third ship, Ocean Pearl (1970/22,945gt), formerly Royal Caribbean’s Song of Norway and later Sundream of Airtours, sails virtually year-round from Valencia and Barcelona.

Despite recent political unrest in Egypt, Costa Cruises will maintain a year-round presence in the Red Sea in 2012. Costa Allegra (1969/28,430gt) will be deployed in the region between December 2011 and March 2012, as will Grand Voyager (2000/24,391gt), operated by Costa Spanish subsidiary brand Iberocruceros, but which will be repainted in Costa colours. Costa Marina (1969/25,558gt) will replace both ships between March and November 2012, on the same sevenday itinerary round-trip from Sharm El

Costa Mediterranea arriving at Castries, St Lucia on 29 January 2010.

Sheikh, with calls at the Israeli resort of Eilat, Aqaba in Jordan and the Egyptian ports of Safaga and Sokhna. Costa is also increasing its presence in the United Arab Emirates by sending its new 114,500gt flagship Costa Favolosa, which enters service at the end of June. She will be based in Dubai throughout the winter on seven-day cruises to Muscat, Fujairah, Abu Dhabi and Bahrain, with two nights in Dubai. Also for the first time, Costa Mediterranea (2003/85,619gt) is operating in the region from Abu Dhabi, sailing weekly to the same ports but in a different rotation. All photos by Tony Davis unless stated otherwise


Crystal Cruises’ Crystal Serenity (2003/68,870) underwent a major refurbishment between 8 and 22 May at Hamburg’s Blohm+Voss shipyard. US$25 million was spent to keep the 2003-built Crystal Serenity ‘on the cutting edge of luxury style’ and brings the total sum invested in the line’s two ships to more than US$50 million in the past two years. The 531 staterooms and suites were given virtually a complete makeover with new floor-to-ceiling headboards, bedside cabinets, wallpaper, sofas and soft furnishings. The ship’s corridors all received new carpeting and artwork and new lighting was installed in the Crystal Dining Room. Following similar work undertaken on fleetmate Crystal Symphony (1995/51,044) last year, the Seahorse Pool teak deck and shops were completely redesigned. On completion of the refit, Crystal Serenity sailed on a series of Baltic, North Cape and British Isles cruises before she headed to the Mediterranean. On 18 January 2012 she embarks on a 94-day world cruise.

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news sAGA CRuisEs

Company photo

Saga Cruises’ new acquisition is to be named Saga Sapphire when she enters service on 23 March 2012 after a major refit. The 37,301gt ship is currently sailing as Bleu de France for CDF Croisieres de France, a subsidiary of Spain’s Pullmantur, itself owned by Royal Caribbean. The new name topped a poll carried out by the Britannia Club, whose many members are Saga’s repeat passengers. She replaces Saga Pearl II (1981/18,591gt), which leaves the fleet on 6 May 2012 and it is believed will switch to another Saga brand, Spirit of Adventure, replacing the smaller ship

Spirit of Adventure (1980/9,570gt). Built in 1981 as Europa for Hapag Lloyd, Bleu de France was rated as the number one cruise ship in the world by Douglas Ward’s Berlitz Guide for a number of years. She was sold to Star Cruises in 1999 and renamed Superstar Europe briefly and then Superstar Aries. In 2004 she was sold to Pullmantur and, after a lengthy refit, emerged as Holiday Dream, assuming her present name four years later. Itineraries for Saga Sapphire have not yet been announced, but it is expected she will undertake a similar programme to Saga Ruby (1973/24,492gt) on global itineraries out of Southampton.

ABOVE: Bleu de France is soon to become Saga Sapphire.

AiDAsol debuts AiDA CRuisEs Germany’s Meyer Werft delivered its latest newbuilding, the 253.33m by 32.2m AIDAsol, to compatriot owner AIDA cruises as the fifth in a total of six ships it is building for the Carnivalowned company. Like her sisterships, AIDAdiva, AIDAbella, AIDAluna and

AIDAblu, AIDAsol is a Sphinx class ship of 71,304gt with accommodation for 2,174 passengers. However, like AIDAblu, a half-deck of extra space has been added to the vessel to accommodate a large spa area. The last of the Sphinx class series is scheduled to be handed over to AIDA Cruises by Meyer Werft next year. JS

CAsiNO ship The 18,455gt casino ship Long Jie (1972/18,455), which first entered service 39 years ago as Royal Caribbean’s Sun Viking, has been sold to Chinese interests, renamed Oriental Dragon and will operate cruises from Shanghai to Korea and Hong Kong. She is the third of a trio operated by Royal Caribbean, together with sisters Song of Norway and Nordic Prince. These are now sailing for different operators but

have similar names, Ocean Pearl (1970/22,945) and Ocean Star Pacific ((1971/23,149) respectively. Sun Viking was also the only one of the three ships not contractually obliged on her sale to remove the distinctive Viking Crown Lounge, which partially encircled her funnel. She left the RCI fleet in 1998 and was briefly renamed Superstar Sagittarius for Star Cruises before changing hands again, this time going to Hyundai Merchant Marine for whom she sailed as Hyundai Pongnae.

ABOVE: Long Jie departing Singapore on another day cruise to nowhere.

More cabins for Dawn NORWEGiAN CL NCL’s Norwegian Dawn (2002/92,250gt) has undergone a major refit, which included the installation of 58 new accommodation units, including four deluxe owner’s suites, ten family suites with balconies and 30 inside staterooms. Her double occupancy capacity is now 2,332 passengers. The suites have been located on Deck 12 above the bridge in the areas previously occupied by the Spinnaker Lounge, which has been relocated

aft on Deck 7, while the cinema has been eliminated altogether. The work was carried out at the Grand Bahama Shipyard in Freeport between 1 and 27 May. Norwegian Dawn’s older sister, Norwegian Star (2001/91,740), had similar work undertaken last year. Norwegian Dawn has resumed her schedule of weekly cruises from Boston to Bermuda, which comes to an end at the end of October, after which she repositions to Miami for ten- and 11-day sailings to ports in the Southern Caribbean.

AIDA Cruises

Norwegian Dawn docked in Miami on 11 March.

ABOVE: Crowds gathered along the Ems river in Germany during early March to see the latest product of the Meyer Werft yard, AIDA Cruises’ new AIDAsol, make her appearance. • June 2011 •

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Gary Davies

Steadfast, resolute, and wrong

HMS Bulwark will assume the role of Fleet Flagship from HMS Albion in October 2011.

Maritime Photographic

StRAtegIc ReVIew

Bulwark back to front RoyAL NAVy HMS Bulwark has emerged from an 11-month upgrade and maintenance period carried out at HM Naval Base Devonport, Plymouth. The £30 million refit took place during the ship’s first major docking period since being commissioned in April 2005. The amphibious assault ship returns to the

fleet with improved aviation facilities, with a flight deck capable of operating two heavy-lift Chinook helicopters simultaneously, and upgrades to her floodable dock, providing full tactical night-vision capability for her landing craft and aircraft. There were also extensive upgrades to communications equipment, high pressure salt water, drainage and

UN military action LIByA During March and April US and British warships and submarines launched a barrage of cruise missiles against a number of air defence systems in Libya. With a mandate authorised by UN Security Council Resolution 1973 more than 100 Tomahawk land-attack missiles (TLAM) were fired as the international community decided to intervene against the Gaddafi regime. The initial attacks came from the US

Barracuda jigsaw FReNch NAVy Progress on the French Navy’s next generation of nuclear-powered attack submarines has achieved another production milestone with completion of the first section of the second vessel, Duguay-Trouin, at DCNS’s Cherbourg facility. The steel alloy hull section weighing 40 tonnes will form part of the aft half of the hull, behind the nuclear reactor compartment and will accommodate the suspended block containing the electrical distribution plant. It will be

followed by 20 other hull sections and four interface pieces. Work on Suffren, the lead Barracuda type vessel, has reached an advanced stage, with the first equipment integration phases, when the hull sections are joined together, set to begin later this year. The 5,300tonne submarines will be equipped with a mix of up to 20 Scalp-Naval land-attack cruise missiles, Exocet anti-ship missiles and the so-called future heavyweight torpedo. High levels of automation will allow them to operate with a crew of only 60.


US Navy

The US Navy destroyer USS Barry launches a Tomahawk missile in support of Operation Odyssey Dawn.

Navy destroyers Barry and Stout, and the submarines Florida, Providence and Scranton. Six Tomahawks were also launched from the Royal Navy’s HMS Triumph. At the time of writing a total of 228 TLAM attacks had been carried out since international military action began on 19 March. A sea blockade was subsequently put into place involving some of the warships that had been used to evacuate foreign nationals from the country as security there worsened.

sewage systems and improvements made to her main propulsion system. There were further enhancements to machinery and magazine spaces and IT network capability, as well as defensive weapons upgrades. The ship’s outer hull was also treated with 8,000 litres of Intersleek anti-fouling coating to improve fuel efficiency and her speed through the water.

The sequence of unrest and uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East has already undermined the foundations on which last year’s Strategic Defence and Security Review was conducted. The assumption that there were ‘few circumstances where the ability to deploy air power from the sea will be essential’ has been cruelly exposed in less than six months. Barely a week after the premature decommissioning of Ark Royal, the UK was spearheading military action in Libya. The loss of the Harrier capability necessitated a hugely expensive 3,000-mile round trip for RAF Tornado bombers to deliver a single missile payload. Other assets heavily involved in the Libya situation have included aircraft and warships also axed in the defence review. Notable among these was HMS Cumberland, which was diverted when on her way home for decommissioning. Despite the rapidly changing political environment, the government has thus far refused to reverse any defence cuts.

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Maritime Photographic

The decommissioned aircraft carriers Invincible and Ark Royal together for the last time.

ROYAL NAVY As budgetary demands take their toll on fleet numbers which still have plenty to offer, time is running out for many for long-serving naval stalwarts that have come to the end of their lives, without ready replacements. On 24 March the aircraft carrier Invincible left under tow for a Turkish scrapyard. No sooner had she passed

a sizeable crowd lamenting her demise than Ark Royal appeared up for sale on the same defence auction website. Despite optimistic proposals to use her as a commercial heliport or as a security platform for next year’s London Olympics, the same fate as that of her sistership is the most realistic prospect for her future. A day later HMS Gloucester returned from her final deployment. The Type

42 destroyer will be decommissioned at the end of June after nearly 26 years’ service. And on 26 March the on-station Arabian Gulf tanker of the past 12 years, RFA Bayleaf, sailed in to Devonport for the last time. During 29 years’ service the fleet tanker conducted more than 5,000 refuelling operations and served in conflicts that included the Falklands and Gulf wars. She was decommissioned on 20 April.

Navy leases icebreaker as a stop-gap ICE PATROL

G. C. Rieber

The immediate future of the Royal Navy’s ice patrol capability has been determined with the leasing of a commercial icebreaker from Norwegian offshore specialists, GC Rieber Shipping. MV Polarbjørn (2001/4,985gt) has been acquired for an interim three-year period,

during which she will become the eighth HMS Protector, a name with historic links to the RN’s Antarctic commitment. Officially, the contract is a stop-gap measure, as the MoD considers the long-term future of HMS Endurance, herself an acquisition from Rieber as MV Polar Circle in 1991.

The MoD has leased Polarbjørn for £26 million and will commission her as HMS Protector on 23 June.

Although the navy has options to extend the lease for a further two years, or buy the vessel outright, Polarbjørn (Polar Bear) is not ideally suited for naval helicopter operations in her present configuration. Unless the helicopter deck above the bridge is removed and replaced with a flight deck and hangar facilities, or a more suitable vessel is found, the repair of HMS Endurance remains a distinct possibility.

UK • The UK’s largest crane has arrived at Rosyth Dockyard after a 22,500km delivery voyage from Shanghai, China. The 68m high Goliath will be used to assemble sections of the Royal Navy’s Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers at the Babcock facility. The £12.2 million structure, which took two years to build, has a span of 120m and a single lift capacity of 1,000 tonnes. The gantry will take three months to erect. RUSSIA • The Russian Defence Ministry is to buy 100 warships, over 600 aircraft and 1,000 helicopters under a 2011-2020 arms procurement programme. The 19 trillion rouble (US$651 billion) spending plan includes provision for eight strategic nuclear submarines equipped with Bulava ballistic missiles. The missile system is expected to be accepted into service later this year. It also includes plans for four French Mistral class assault ships, although negotiations have again stalled over price and contract terms. CHINA • As a number of Western countries continue to slash defence budgets, China is to increase its military spending by 12.6 percent (US$88 billion) in 2011. The rise resumes a trend of double-digit growth that has taken place every year since 1989, but for last year, when it was only 7.5 per cent due to the global economic crisis. Many analysts believe that China’s actual military spending is considerably greater than the reported sums. USA • The US Navy has revealed the names of four Littoral Combat Ships announced in a dual block buy in December 2010 after approving two competing designs. Lockheed Martin’s semi-planing monohull Freedom class ships will be called USS Milwaukee (LCS-5) and USS Detroit (LCS-7). The names were previously used by navy supply ships. The Austal-built aluminium trimarans will be named USS Jackson (LCS-6) and USS Montgomery (LCS-8), after the state capitals of Mississippi and Alabama. • June 2011 •

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The end of an era



14/04/2011 13:56


Turning the clock back

Roy Cressey

Bulk cargo vessel Free Neptune swings in the River Mersey with the help of 3 tugs to enter the port of Birkenhead

The port of Birkenhead witnessed a sight that was more in keeping with the glory days of Blue Funnel and Clan Line on 12 March, when a bulk cargo vessel turned in the river Mersey with the

help of three tugs to enter the lock. The vessel was the 30,838dwt Free Neptune owned by Free Bulkers SA. The bulker, which measures 185m by 23m, arrived from Mandvi in India via Antwerp with a cargo of bentonite, which is a kind of clay associated with

COAsTeRs The amount of shipping visiting upriver quays and ports has increased in the early months of 2011. The river Trent has seen an increase in trade, and more coasters have been seen as a result within the confines of the river. Many have visited the furthest point that coasters can now trade up the river, Top Gunness Wharf, following the closure of Gainsborough. On 1 February two typical size coasters were working cargo at the wharf (pictured below). They were the 1,795dwt Wiebke D, operated by Drabert Schiffahrts of Oldenburg in Holstein, Germany and the 2,302dwt Gibraltar-flagged Mermaid operated by Burst Reederei also of Germany. RC

volcanic fallout, and can be used as drilling mud as well as for various medical uses. Assisted by the tugs Svitzer Maltby, Svitzer Bidston and Ashgarth, she swung to enter the port, where she stayed for over a week before sailing for Riga on 20 March. RC

Rick Ward


Top Gunness on the Trent

More scrap metal cargoes Rosyth Dockyard’s GeneRAl CARGO

Goliath crane arrives PORT news On 3 March the UK’s largest crane passed under the Forth bridges in Scotland after a 14,000-nautical-mile sea voyage, bound for Babcock’s Rosyth Dockyard in Fife. The Goliath crane will play a vital role in the assembly of the Royal Navy’s Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers. The crane left its construction site at Shanghai, China on 17 December on board the heavy lift vessel. The St

Vincent-flagged 44,770dwt vessel had to be ballasted down considerably so that there was a two-metre clearance under the Forth bridges. The crane was delivered partially erected, with the girder and upper sections of the legs already assembled, and it was erected to its full height on the ship deck over a six-week period, before being winched from directly onto the crane rails. It will take over four months to erect, test and commission the crane, which should be available in September. RC

Roy Cressey

Iain McGeachy

The price of scrap metal has risen in the early months of 2011. This has resulted in many ports within the UK seeing increased amounts of scrap cargo, and that cargo going to a wider range of destinations than before. One large cargo of scrap was exported from Liverpool in the bulker Consolidator destined for Thailand. When a vessel moves berths while loading large scrap metal cargoes, it is because the flatter bulkier pieces of scrap, such as blocks and larger

items, are loaded first and then the rougher scrap is loaded on top to avoid damaging the vessel. Consolidator was in Liverpool at the end of February and sailed to Antwerp to bring a cargo back to Liverpool, as she is engaged in the tramping market. She then fixed to load the scrap cargo for Thailand. The 58,811dwt, 2007-built vessel, operated by Evalend Shipping Co of Athens, is ideal for such cargo, having five Macgregor type folding hatches, which give unlimited access to her holds, and she commenced loading her cargo on 12 March. RC

ABOVE: The cargo vessel Consolidator prepares to commence loading a scrap cargo for Thailand in Liverpool on 12 March.

ABOVE: Zhen Hua 13 (1983/37,743gt) off Rosyth with the Goliath crane after being ballasted down to pass under the Forth bridges.

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Andrew McAlpine

HEAvyliFT The blue-hulled ships of Germany’s heavylift specialist Beluga Shipping are continuing in employment, but the company is undergoing a substantial financial restructuring after its founder, Niels Stolberg, took a leave of absence in March and a new management team took

over in an attempt to hold off bankruptcy. However, on 22 March the management boards of the respective companies announced that they were opening insolvency proceedings at the local court in Bremen. The firm has taken on a large number of specialised newbuildings over the past several years, including its new P1 and P2 series ships with a lifting

ABOVE: The 2007-built Beluga Formation berthed at Southampton on 3 February. capacity of 1,400 tons, but utilisation rates for the specialised vessels have been low because of the recession. Last year Beluga agreed to an infusion of $280 million from the US-based investment firm Oaktree Capital. JS

samskip gets two feeders What’s in Samskip, which operates services from Grangemouth, Teesport, Hull and Tilbury, has taken ownership control of two newly-built Damen 800 container vessels. The 804TEU ships, Samskip Innovator and Samskip Endeavour (both 7,987gt), were completed in January and have entered service on the Samskip vessel network. The

vessels measure 140.64m by 21.8m and are powered by a single MAK 9M43 engine of 8,400kW giving a service speed of 18 knots. Samskip Endeavour made her first voyage from Rotterdam to Dublin and her next from Zeebrugge to Waterford. Innovator’s first voyage was from Rotterdam to Immingham/ Hull and the next two voyages from Rotterdam to Tilbury.

a name? David Ruff


ABOVE: The Great Lakes bulk carrier Charles M. Beeghly will soon sport a new name.

Company photo


ABOVE: The new Damen-built container ship Samskip Endeavour.

The Great Lakes self-unloading bulk carrier Charles M. Beeghly is to be renamed Oberstar this year to honour US Rep James Oberstar, who lost his bid for a 19th consecutive term in the US House of Representatives last year, but made a long-time commitment to shipping while serving as chairman of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee. Built in 1959, the 710ft by 75ft Beeghly was originally named Shenango II, after the Shenango Furnace Co of Cleveland, Ohio, but was renamed Charles M. Beeghly by Interlake in 1967. At that time Charles M. Beeghly was president of the Jones & Laughlin Steel Corp. JS

BRiEF NEWs cAr cArriEr • In February the British-registered 2006-built car carrier Tombarra operated by Wilhelmsen Lines arrived at Portbury, bringing cars from China and Japan, having called at Thailand, Singapore, Piraeus and Koper in Slovenia. While in port, some of the crew carried out a life-saving drill in a safety boat, but as the boat was being hoisted back, a safety strap broke and the men fell into the water. One man suffered cardiac arrest and later died and the incident was investigated by the Maritime Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB). GEnErAl cArGO • A recent arrival at Newport from Setubal was the Panamanian-registered, Greek-owned, Ukrainian-crewed general cargo ship Lugela. Last September the same vessel, en route to Mauritius, was hijacked by Somali pirates. The crew, however, locked themselves into the engine room and the rebels were unable to take control of the vessel, which they abandoned, enabling the crew to continue their voyage. Shortly after her visit to Newport she was sold to Canada and in early March was renamed Lady Remington III. cOASTEr • The 5,000dwt coaster Paula C sailed in ballast from Liverpool on 18 March for Cowes, Isle of Wight. However, she ran aground on a shingle bank near the Needles. Yarmouth’s Severn class lifeboat stood by along with the tug Wyeforce. A number of less significant groundings in the area were said to be the result of a particularly low tide, which was caused by the moon being closer to the earth. cOASTErS • Arklow shipping have recently added two vessels to their fleet, both products of Bodewes Scheepswerven, Hoogezand, Holland. Arklow Brook (4,723gt) was originally ordered for the German operator Strahlmann as Ensara, while Arklow Bridge (4.726gt) was launched from the yard on 28 January. She was originally to be named Fangha and operate for Strahlmann. • June 2011 •

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Restructuring for Beluga


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Nick Hall

Cervia restoration and back in steam Britannia Cervia is powered by a 1,000hp triple expansion engine and was the last seagoing steam tug to work commercially in UK waters.

to refit ROYAL YACHT

The Royal Yacht Britannia is to be closed to the public for the whole of January 2012 while planned maintenance work is carried out. She will be moved to the neighbouring Imperial Dry Dock within the Port of Leith for underwater inspection and repainting, the first time this has been carried out since 1998, and her three masts and funnel will also be treated and repainted. The refit will be entirely funded by The Royal Yacht Britannia Trust from revenue raised through admissions, events and the gift shop.

Steam Museum Trust

Napier’s flagship STEAMER

STEAM TUG Hopes have been voiced that the steam tug Cervia, which has been a static exhibit in Ramsgate since 1985, will be back in steam by 2013. The Steam Museum Trust (SMT) has applied for a £1 million grant from the

Heritage Lottery Fund, and restoration work during the winter has centred on renovating her boiler room and forward accommodation areas. Work will continue this spring and summer on her exterior. Cervia was built by Alexander Hall at Aberdeen in 1946 for the Ministry of

War Transport and was originally named Empire Raymond. She was sold to William Watkins in 1946 and spent the next 25 years working on the Thames. In October 1954 she capsized and sank with the loss of her skipper and four crewmen, but was raised, repaired and returned to service.

Floods in Pakistan have unearthed the hull of a steamer used as a command post by General Charles Napier during the conquest of Sindh in 1843. Fathe-Mubarak is 100ft long and was built to carry indigo, textiles and saltpetre between Karachi and Thatta. The Pakistan Navy has agreed to help with the salvage of the vessel, which will eventually be placed on display.

Brisbane escapes lightly Sicamous in Canada The River class frigate Diamantina was completed in 1944 .

PADDLE STEAMER Plans have been put forward for a lakeside development which will help to fund the upkeep of the preserved Canadian sternwheel paddle steamer Sicamous. Developer John Vassilaki, together with the SS Sicamous Society, proposes building a marine park, marina and museum centre alongside the paddler at Penticton on Okanagan

Lake and sharing the operating profits between the Society and the city. Sicamous was built for Canadian Pacific Railway in 1914 by Western Dry Dock at Port Arthur, Ontario, and was shipped in parts to Okanagan Landing for assembly. She operated passenger and cargo services around the 84-milelong lake, transporting trappers, miners and forestry workers from lake community to lake community.

MARITIME MUSEUM Queensland Maritime Museum faces a repair bill of more than AU$250,000 (£155,000) as a result of the floods which hit Brisbane in January. Water reached a 30cm level in the museum building’s ground level and mud covered the whole site. Things would have been much worse, however, but for the efforts of more than 100

volunteers, many of whom worked through the night to try to prevent damage to the museum’s vessels. The 85-year-old tug Forceful held to her moorings but water poured over the retaining gate and flooded the dry dock containing the 93-year-old light vessel Carpentaria and the World War II frigate Diamantina. Diamantina floated clear of her blocks, but Carpentaria rolled over on to her side.

Darren Kirby

Danny Lovell

Sicamous was withdrawn from service in 1936.

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helicopters, the vessel’s flight deck could also be made available as a commercial heliport. Ark Royal, which measures 693ft by 114.7ft, would be moored in the Pool of London and would afterwards be preserved as a conference centre and tourist facility.

Ark Royal was awarded the battle honour ‘Al Faw 2003’ for her service in leading the UK’s naval forces during Operation Telic.

SUBMARINE Assegaai, the last survivor of South Africa’s First Submarine Flotilla, was officially opened for display at the South African Navy Museum in Simonstown on 1 March. The Daphne class boat was built by DubigeonNormandy in Nantes in 1970 as SAS Johanna van der Merwe, and carried out several successful cloak and dagger operations in 1975-76 during the South African Border War. In the late 1990s she received a Project Nickles fully integrated combat suite and two rebuilt periscopes and in 1999 was renamed Assegaai (pictured). She paid off for disposal in November 2003 and is the first complete naval vessel to be preserved at the Naval Museum.

US Navy

Plans have been put forward to move the aircraft carrier Ark Royal, which was decommissioned on 11 March, to London to act as a security centre for the Olympic Games. Up to 20 sponsors have expressed an interest in acquiring the former Royal Navy flagship for the project, which

is supported by the Chief of the Defence Staff and the First Sea Lord. SAS personnel employed on counter-terrorism duties would be based aboard, while the vessel’s hangars would provide ample space to support police, fire, ambulance and river rescue services. In addition to providing landing spots for military and Metropolitan Police

Assegaai open for display

Cambria relaunched Cambria, the last British-registered vessel to carry a commercial cargo under sail alone, was due to be relaunched at Faversham on 21 March after undergoing restoration since September 2007. The wooden Thames sailing barge was built by William and Frederick Everard at Greenhithe in 1906 and regularly sailed from London to the

Medway and across the channel to Rotterdam, Antwerp, Dunkirk, Calais and Treport carrying pitch, coke, wheat and oil cake. One of her most frequent routes was carrying coal from Keadby on the Trent to Harwich, Colchester and Margate, but she traded to many harbours from the Humber to Cornwall. Today she is owned by the Cambria Trust, and her £1.4 million restoration will fit her for sail training and educational purposes.

US Navy


Destroyer for Indian River

ABOVE: In 1959 Forrest Sherman acted as escort to the Royal Yacht Britannia when the latter was carrying HM the Queen and President Eisenhower to attend a naval review on Lake St Louis.

PNR Burden


Cambria undergoing restoration at Faversham.

Forrest Sherman (DD-931), name- and lead-ship of a class of conventional destroyers built for the US Navy between 1955 and 1959, is to be preserved as a floating museum in Indian River Inlet, Delaware. Several locations have previously been explored by the USS Forrest Sherman Foundation, but a new Indian River Bridge could facilitate moving the

vessel to a dockside location in the marina there. The destroyer’s masts and funnels will have to be lowered or removed to allow her to pass under the bridge, but they can be reinstalled once the vessel is safely moored. No firm timetable has yet been set for the move but, with the bridge scheduled for completion in 2011, it is hoped that Forrest Sherman will arrive at Indian River in the early spring of 2012. • June 2011 •

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Ark Royal Olympic plan


19/04/2011 20:52


BaBy poSt-panamax • NileDutch African Line of the Netherlands has ordered four baby post-Panamax container ships from China’s Shanghai Shipyard. The 3,500TEU capacity vessels will cost $51 million, each to a design completed by Shanghai Design & Research Institute that features a relatively shallow draught of 11.5m (37.7ft). The geared ships are destined for operation between Asia and West Africa. ‘Super’ Semi-SuBmerSiBle • Heavy lift operator Dockwise has contracted South Korea’s Hyundai Heavy Industries to build a 270m by 70m ‘super’ semi-submersible vessel at a cost of $240 million that will feature a revolutionary bowless design and be capable of carrying 110,000 tonnes. Box ShipS • Greenland’s Royal Arctic Line has ordered five small container ships from Germany’s Shipyard P+S Werften, all for 2012 delivery. There will be one 113m by 22.7m 606TEU vessel, two 71m by 15.2m 108TEU ships and two 45m by 12.8m 36TEU ships. All the vessels will be ice classed and will receive modifications to hulls, engines and other equipment to enable operations in temperatures as low as –36º C.

INSpEctION VESSEL The design of ships for the sea is beginning to look like the design of ships for outer space, and Ulstein’s new SX148 Inspection, Maintenance and Repair (IMR) vessel looks very much as though it could be a ‘star cruiser’ in a Hollywood epic. To be delivered to Eidesvik Offshore towards the end of next year for operation by Norway’s Statoil, the 106.5m by 24.5m newbuilding will be used to

carry out highly advanced subsea work for the petroleum industry in the North Sea. This will include the inspection, maintenance and repair of oil installations on the sea bottom, as well as well stimulation work and the clearing of oil and gas wells. For this type of specialised employment, the vessel will be equipped with three remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), one for observation and

two for operation, as well as a centrally located moon pool and storage hangar. The X-bow ship will also be fitted with an MHS (Module Handling System) as well as a 100-tonne AHC (Active Heave Compensated) crane, the latter to be used for the lifting and lowering of heavy equipment to and from the sea bottom. Accommodation on the 17-knot vessel will be provided for a crew of 90.

aBove: The new SX148 IMR/construction vessel to be built by Norway’s Ulstein for Eidesvik Offshore looks as though it could be featured in a Star Wars movie.

High technology OSVs OffSHOrE SErVIcE Readers of this column may have noticed that new offshore service vessels (OSVs) seem to feature rather frequently. The reason for this is the continuing demand for oil. Currently, 2,500 OSVs are operating worldwide, with steady growth projected through the next decade. Because of the highly complicated nature of deepwater drilling, particularly in ice conditions, these vessels are becoming larger, more sophisticated and more expensive to build. Those designed for work in the Arctic can now cost as much as a Very Large Crude Carrier. Germany’s

Germanischer Lloyd, which classes many OSVs, notes that the expanding requirements of offshore work has led to an expanded definition of the term OSV, which can now refer not only to traditional platform supply boats but also anchor-handling tug/ supply vessels, well stimulation vessels, standby vessels and service vessels designed specifically for ice work. In the latter field, Arctech Helsinki Shipyard Oy, a new shipbuilder formed in Finland by STX Finland and Russia’s United Shipbuilding Corporation, will build two Multifunctional Icebreaking Supply Vessels (MIBSV) for Russia’s Sovcomflot. The twin 99.2m by 21.7m ships are to be delivered in 2013.

New design for North Sea StaNDBy VESSEL Finland’s Wärtsilä and Norway’s Sartor Offshore have joined forces to design a new multi-purpose standby vessel which will service Statoil’s offshore installations in the North Sea for a period of ten years. The new design, which carries the designation type VS 465 MK II, will have a length of 74.3m and a bollard pull of 120 tons. In addition, the new ship will be equipped for fire-fighting (Fi-Fi I and II) and will also be able to carry 370 passengers in the event of a platform evacuation. Norwegian shipbuilder Bergen will construct the $56 million vessel, as well as two larger $57 million VS480-class anchor-handling tug/ supply (AHTS) ships for Sartor, all to be completed before the end of 2012.

STX Finland


FiSherieS veSSel • The Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources of the Republic of Namibia in southern Africa has ordered a 62m-long fisheries research vessel (below) from STX Finland’s Rauma shipyard for delivery in early 2012.

Star Wars

STX Finland

FaSt Ferry • Australia’s Austal group has won a $8.1 million contract to build a single-hull passenger ferry for operation between Noumea and Amadee Island in the South Pacific. The 35m vessel will be powered by three MTU 12V2000 engines coupled to Hamilton waterjets.



Jim Shaw

aBove: New OSVs for Russia’s Sovcomflot will cost over $100 million to build and will be equipped for fire-fighting, pollution control and rescue operations.

aBove: The new VS 465 MK II multipurpose standby vessel drawn up by Wärtsilä and Sartor Offshore will have a bollard pull of 120 tons

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news PlATFORm SUPPly


The 28,645gt product tanker Unique Explorer, built by Onomichi Dockyard, has joined the fleet of Hong Kong’s Unique Shipping for charter to A. P. Møller-Maersk.

PROdUcT TANkER Hong Kong remains the base for a large number of smaller shipping companies, many of which charter their tonnage out to bigger and better-known firms on an interim basis. One such is Unique Shipping, which was established in 1966 as a private shipowning and management company specialising in the Far East and Pacific regions. Since

then, it has owned over 100 vessels, including pipe carriers, woodchip carriers, pure car carriers, refrigerator ships, product tankers and Very Large Gas Carriers (VLGC). Most of these vessels have been operated under charter to such firms as A. P. Møller-Maersk, Nippon Yusen Kaisha. Mitsui OSK Lines, Star Reefers and Nissan Motor Car Carrier Co. The company’s current fleet, recently

State-of-the-art RESEARch VESSEl Finland’s Wärtsilä Corporation has been contracted to supply the propulsion equipment for a new, state-of-theart research vessel to be built by Spain’s CNP Freire SA shipyard for the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). Wärtsilä will provide four of the ship’s eight-cylinder in-line Wärtsilä

20 main diesel-electric generating sets, two main propulsion steerable thrusters, one bow retractable thruster, and a complete Low Loss Concept diesel electric system, with the majority of the equipment to be delivered to the yard this year. The ship, which will follow the 2006-built RRS James Cook into NERC service, is scheduled to be launched in 2012 and delivered in mid-2013.

augmented by the newbuilding Unique Explorer, a 50,090dwt product tanker chartered to A. P. Møller-Maersk, stands at 13 vessels, including two Capesize bulk carriers, six product tankers, and five LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) carriers. Another Capesize bulk carrier is owned on a joint venture basis with outside partners, while two additional MR product tankers are under construction.

Norway’s Ulstein Group has ordered two medium-sized platform supply vessels of its PX121 design from its own shipyard, Ulstein Verft, for a new company it has established to own the ships. The contract, which calls for the 83.4m by 18m vessels to be delivered in the first and third quarters of 2012, will keep Ulstein Verft´s order book filled until nearly the end of that year. The new ships will have a cargo deck of 875m2 and a load capacity of 4,200 tonnes (dwt) for both dry and liquid cargoes. Ulstein is looking at North Sea and North Atlantic employment for the new ships and has adapted their design to the requirements of longer and deeper bore holes.

ABOVE: New PSVs being built by Ulstein for its own account will incorporate the firm’s X-Bow as well as azimuthing propulsion.

German-built WTIV WINd TURbINE The first large Wind Turbine Installation Vessel (WTIV) to be built in Europe has been ordered by Dutch operator Van Oord from Germany’s J. J. Sietas shipyard at Hamburg. The 6,500dwt

ship, due for delivery in the third quarter of 2012, will be a jack-up type vessel measuring 139m by 38m and will be equipped with a crane capable of lifting 900 tons. It is understood that Van Oord has taken an option for a second WTIV of the same size.

Van Oord

Skipsteknisk AS

The new research vessel for the NERC.

ABOVE: The New WTIV to be built by Germany’s J. J. Sietas for Van Oord will incorporate its construction crane in one of the jack-up leg supports and will be capable of operating in water depths of up to 45m. • June 2011 •

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Ulstein builds for Ulstein

Explorer joins Unique fleet


14/04/2011 13:57

The aftermath of SOLAS If you have travelled by ship, you will probably have heard of SOLAS at some point, but what exactly is SOLAS? Who manages SOLAS? How did it come into being? And what has been its impact on passenger ships? Byron Clayton explains.


OLAS stands for Safety Of Life At Sea. Since 1958 SOLAS has been managed by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), which is a division of the United Nations. The origins of SOLAS and how it became part of the IMO can be traced back to the most famous of all accidents at sea – Titanic. At 0220 on 15 April 1912 the famous liner slipped beneath the cold, black waters of the North Atlantic, taking 1,517 people to their graves. The ensuing publicity brought to light the fact that Titanic did not have enough lifeboats to accommodate all her passengers. The safety regulations that had applied to her were those enacted by the British Board of Trade in 1894. These regulations were designed for ships of 13,000 tons, approximately 30 per cent

of Titanic’s 46,328 tons. Even though her safety equipment surpassed the requirements of that time, she was still unfortunately ill-equipped to ensure the safety of the number of passengers on board. The sensation caused by Titanic’s disaster was the catalyst for the first Safety Of Life At Sea convention organised by the United Kingdom. As ship designs advanced rapidly over the next decade, a second London conference was held in 1929 and subsequently, after World War II, advances in ship technology necessitated a third London conference in 1948. All the resulting safety regulations built upon the original framework created in 1914. In 1948 the United Nations set out a framework to create the IMCO (InterGovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization),

The Topaz, built as Empress of Britain in 1956, is no longer in service.

which in 1982 became the IMO. Officially established in 1958, the IMO took over the management and direction of SOLAS regulations. The IMO today consists of 169 countries and three associate members. A full assembly meeting is called every two years, and a council made up of 30 member countries meets in between the biannual assembly meetings. The IMO has its headquarters in London and it has a permanent staff of around 300. The scope of

the IMO covers all aspects of shipping, from ship design, construction, navigation and port safety to the end of a ship’s life cycle with salvage and ship breaking practices. The IMO’s policies and rules apply to all vessels over 300 tons. The 1974 Treaty The 1974 treaty is the convention currently in force, with amendments added each decade. A key change established in the 1974 agreement was that all future

The 1965-built Saga Rose was recently retired by Saga Cruises and sent to Chinese breakers in 2010.

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amendments would be tacitly accepted. This meant that from 1974 all new safety guidelines and regulations would automatically be implemented, unless a majority of the membership objected through a formal process. To allow time for compliance with the new standards, the 1974 treaty came into full force in 1980. The 1974 treaty is broken into 12 distinct chapters. Chapter 2 contains two critical parts that have had a major impact on passenger ships: (i) construction, with a focus on combustible materials, and (ii) fire protection, specifically sprinkler systems. Almost all passenger ships constructed after 1974 were

built to meet the standards that would come into force in 1980. An amendment introduced in 1992 required all ships built before 1980 to meet active SOLAS requirements by October 2010. And this key amendment has resulted in the removal from service or scrapping of dozens of pre1980 passenger ships. As part of the new regulations, all combustible materials must be removed or replaced, in addition to a ship having a dedicated fire protection system. If, during construction, the combustible materials were installed as part of the vessel’s internal structure, they can be very difficult and costly to remove. Estimates from a leading European shipyard conservatively puts

ABOVE: The 1967 built Amusement World, originally Patricia and later Stena Saga and Lion Queen, survives under the management of New Century Group of Hong Kong.

THE DEPARTED (BROKEN UP) Sadly, many cruise ships have met their end as a result of SOLAS; some of the better known ships that have departed are listed below BUILT









2010 Alang


Regal Empress



2009 Alang



Empress of Britain


2008 Alang


Winner 5



2010 Alang



Jean Mermoz


2008 Alang


Blue Lady



2008 Alang



Anna Nery


2009 Alang


Lucky Star

Princess Isabel


2008 Alang



Svea Jarl


2010 Alang





2010 Alang


Ocean Odyssey



2009 Alang


Saga Rose



2010 Jiangyin





2011 Alang





2010 Alang


Kaptain Boris



2010 Gadani





2008 Alang


F. Diamond

Tor Hollandia


2010 Aliaga


Golden Princess



2009 China


Maxim Gorkiy



2009 Alang



Spirit of London


2010 Alang





2011 Alang • June 2011 •

SOLAS_NL.indd 25


14/04/2011 14:01

Dating from 1969, Costa Allegra, built as the container ship Annie Johnson, continues to serve Costa Cruises.

Lucky Star was built as Princess Isabel and has now been broken up.

conversion costs at between €4 and €30 million. Coupled with typically less efficient power plants, the expensive conversion costs make older vessels economically inviable, particularly when compared with buying or chartering ships of a newer tonnage.

Numerous cruise ships have been retired as a result of the new regulations. After sailing for over 95 years, Doulos (ex-Medina) was retired recently and is currently being converted into a floating lifestyle venue in Singapore, which is due to open in mid-

2011. Kristina Regina has reverted to her original name, Bore, and been converted into a hotel and restaurant in Turku. And after years of skirting SOLAS regulations, the stern

Athena, originally built in 1948 as Stockholm, is the oldest survivor.

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SAFETY AT SEA THE SURVIVORS: ACTIVE PASSENGER SHIPS Surprisingly, many passenger ships have managed to survive. The table below lists passenger ships built prior to1970 that are still active in 2011. BUILT









Ab Götaverken, Sweden

Classic International


Princess Daphne

Port Sydney


Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson, England

Classic International France


Princess Danae

Port Melbourne


Harland & Wolff, Ireland

Classic International





Blohm & Voss AG, Germany



Ocean Mist

San Giorgio


Cantieri Riuniti dell Adriatico, Italy

PV Ocean Mist





Helsingør Skibsværft og Maskinbyggeri, Denmark

Classic International





Aker Mekaniske Verksted, Norway



Hebridean Princess



Hall, Russel & Co, Ltd, Scotland

Hebridean International


The Oceanic



Cantieri Riuniti dell Adriatico, Italy

Peace Boat


Marco Polo

Aleksandr Pushkin


Mathias-Thesen-Werft, Germany

Cruise & Maritime Voyages


National Geographic Endeavour Marburg


Weser Seebeck of Bremerhaven, Germany

Lindblad Expeditions


Ji Mei

Princesse Ragnhild


Kieler Howaldtswerke AG, Germany

Jimei Group





Brodogradiliste Uljanik, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

Cruises Croatia


Amusement World



A/B Lindholmens Var, Sweden

New Century Cruises



Canguro Verde


Italcantieri SpA, Italy

Louis Cruise Line





Svendborg Skibsværft a/s, Denmark

Murmansk Shipping Co





Wärtsilä Turku Shipyard, Finland

Church of Scientology


Discovery Sun



Orenstein-Koppel und Lübecker Machinenbau, Germany

Discovery Cruise Line


Orient Queen



AG Weser, Werk Johann Seebeck, Germany

Louis Cruise Line


Costa Marina

Axel Johnson


Wärtsilä Turku Shipyard, Finland

Costa Cruises


Costa Allegra

Annie Johnson


Wärtsilä Turku Shipyard, Finland

Costa Cruises


Leisure World



AG Weser, Werk Johann Seebeck, Germany

New Century Cruises

paddle-wheeler Delta Queen was removed from service and berthed in Chattanooga as a floating hotel. Awaiting fate Securing a temporary reprieve from the breakers’ torch is Mona Lisa (ex-Kungsholm), dating from 1966 (see SM, Jan-Feb). She is currently serving as an accommodation ship in Oman under a five-year contract. Her final destination is uncertain, but businessman


Lars Hallgren would like to have her converted to her original livery, complete with two funnels, and bring her to Stockholm as a floating hotel similar to Rotterdam. A stay of execution has also been granted to Black Prince, which is being used as an accommodation ship in Haiti as Ola Emeralda. She is scheduled to operate Venezuelan cruises this year. Another ship removed from service but with an unknown future is Queen Elizabeth 2,

which is laid up in Dubai. Louis Sapphire (ex-Italia) and The Emerald (ex-Santa Rosa, see SM, April) are tied together and laid up in Eleusis awaiting sale. Laid up in Split, Croatia are Andrea (ex-Harald Jald) and the tiny Monet. The departed SOLAS regulations are making the seas a safer place for everyone, but accidents still happen. In recent years several cruise ships have made

the news regarding safety concerns. In 2007 both Sea Diamond (ex-Birka Princess) and Explorer (ex-Lindblad Explorer) sank. Fires have been another significant occurrence on a number of ships, such as Carnival Ecstasy, Carnival Splendor, The Calypso of Louis, Star Princess and Wind Song. As technology continues to advance, the reality is that it will be increasingly difficult for older ships to keep up to date with the requirements. And, without a doubt, some of the most beautifully designed passenger ships still remaining are nearer to the end of their lives than the beginning. It has never been a better time to appreciate the legacy of older ships and learn their stories before they too disappear. • June 2011 •

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Disney’s Dream The new cruise ship Disney Dream entered service at the start of the year, cruising in the Caribbean. She is the first new Disney cruise ship for more than a decade, as Lynn Houghton explains.







Keel laid 26.8.2009 Float-out 30.10.2010 In service 20.1.2011 Meyer Weft, Papenburg, Germany 129,690gt, 104,345 net 1,115ft (339.8m) x moulded breadth 121ft (37m) x 26ft (7.9m), 16 decks (14 for passengers) 3 x 12-cylinder and 2 x 14-cylinder MAN V48/60CR diesels, each of 22,841bhp or 14,400bhp Tunnel thrusters fore and aft 22 knots maximum, twin screw 4,000 passengers, 1,250 cabins, 1,458 crew Bahamas-based, with a variety of lengths

BELOW: The bow of Disney Dream is lowered into place to complete the structure of the ship. Disney Dream was built using modular construction in 80 different parts.


isney Cruise Line’s new cruise ship, Disney Dream, was inaugurated on 19 January and departed Port Canaveral, Florida a week later to undertake her maiden voyage to the Bahamas. The inauguration featured a helicopter hoisting a huge 16ft champagne bottle over her bow, which was smashed to the cheers of the assembled well wishers and guests. The new ship was constructed by the Meyer Weft shipyard in Papenburg, Germany. The keel was laid on 26 August 2009 and on 1 June 2010 the final piece of the ship, the bow, was put in place, completing the exterior, while work continued on fitting out the interior of the ship. Floatout took place on 30 October 2010 and then the ship sailed across the Atlantic from Germany ready to enter service. Unlike Disney Magic and Disney Wonder, which were built in two separate parts with hull and bow from different shipyards and brought together, Disney Dream was built using modular construction consisting of 80 parts in the same shipyard.

One of the more notable features of the ship are the red and black aluminium funnels, which weigh 200 tons and are 98ft long, 41ft wide and 65ft high. The aft funnel has 765ft of clear tubing wrapped around it, which also runs around the entire upper deck accommodating Disney’s Aqua Duck water coaster, which propels inflatable rafts, each

holding two people, down the tubes in a high-speed stream of water. The winding waterslide has a four-deck drop and a course that winds 13ft over the edge of the ship and through the forward funnel. Many new innovative features have been included inside, including the Magical Portholes. These are found on the inside staterooms and

Disney Dream was completed by Meyer Werft at Papenburg in January.

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NEW CRUISE SHIP provide ‘virtual’ windows offering a view of the outside via a real-time feed from highdefinition cameras placed on the exterior of the ship. With the exception of animated starfish and other characters floating past, what these portholes show is meant to be completely realistic. Disney Dream’s itinerary for 2011 sees her cruising around the Bahamas, with a mix of three-, four- and five-night cruises all leaving from Port Canaveral. They are taking in Nassau and Castaway City. The other Disney ships, Disney Wonder and Disney Magic, have a more varied itinerary, with the latter undertaking Mediterranean cruises as well as a 14-night transatlantic cruise in September from Barcelona.

ABOVE: A standard inside stateroom with a magic porthole, one of the innovative new features.

ABOVE: A deluxe ocean view stateroom with verandah. Many of this class of stateroom can be found on deck 7. • June 2011 •

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e m i t i r a M Mosaic A collection of readsers’ own photograph

Charles H. Bogart looks at shipping on the five Great Lakes of North America. Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie and Ontario, along with the St Lawrence River, form what is often called by Canada and the United States their fourth coast.

Despite her modern lines, Edward L. Ryerson was built in 1960 for Central Marine Logistics by Manitowoc Shipbuilding and is powered by steam turbines. She was the last non-selfunloader built on the Great Lakes and is pictured in July 2009 undergoing repairs at Superior, Wisconsin. She is one of only two remaining straight-deck bulk carriers, which are still part of the American fleet on the Great Lakes.

nCorporation’s Canadia The Algoma Central ,157gt), a (16 il ora Alg d ere pow flagged dieselrier, tied up at Thunder self-unloading bulk car orders to sail during for g itin wa Bay, Canada s built in 1968 wa il the 2009 season. Algora t. 72f by ft 640 and measures

30 • June 2011 •

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READERS’ READERS’ ARCHIVE ARCHIVE Heading up the St Mary River is the Lake Shipping Company’s diesel-powered Lee A. Tregurtha, an American-flagged self-unloader which was built in 1942 as the US Navy tanker USS Chiwawa. Sold in 1946, she continued in commercial tanker service as Chiwawa until 1961, when she was converted to the bulk carrier Walter A. Sterling. She was lengthened in 1976 and converted to a self-unloader in 1978. Renamed Lee A. Tregurtha in 1989, she measures 826ft by 75ft.

RIGHT: Kaye E. Baker is a steam turbinepowered self-unloader built in 1952 by American Shipbuilding as Edward B. Green. She was lengthened 120ft by Frazer Shipyard in 1976 and converted to a self-unloader in 1981. Renamed Kaye E. Baker in 1989, she was in winter layup in July 2009 at Superior, Wisconsin, due to a downturn in shipment of iron ore. She measures 767ft by 75ft. BELOW: Heading up the St Mary River is the Lake Shipping Company’s diesel-powered Lee A. Tregurtha, an American-flagged self-unloader which was built in 1942 as the US Navy tanker USS Chiwawa. Sold in 1946, she continued in commercial tanker service as Chiwawa until 1961, when she was converted to the bulk carrier Walter A. Sterling. She was lengthened in 1976 and converted to a self-unloader in 1978. Renamed Lee A. Tregurtha in 1989, she measures 826ft by 75ft. • June 2011 •

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Stena Caledonia Scott Mackey marks the 30th anniversary of the launch of Stena Caledonia at Harland and Wolff and charts the career of this remarkable ferry, which, after a distinguished career, is to be replaced by new tonnage operating out of a new terminal at Cairnryan later this year.


Ship of the Month

All images by Scott Mackey unless stated

ABOVE: Stena Caledonia in her revised 2010 livery in Loch Ryan, April 2010. Newall Dunn Collection

hile much of the focus within Swedish ferry giant Stena Line in recent years has been on building ever larger ferries, such as the massive sisters Stena Hollandica and Stena Britannica, a much smaller yet no less significant vessel has been toiling away on one of the company’s key UK routes. Stena Caledonia was built as St David, the final vessel in a series of four car ferries ordered by the British Railways Board for Sealink from Harland and Wolff in the late 1970s. The first ship, Galloway Princess, was destined for service on the Larne to Stranraer route and revolutionised the route when she entered service in May 1980. She linked Stranraer with Northern Ireland for 22 years before being sold for further service in the Straits of Gibraltar as IMTC’s Le Rif. The second and third vessels in the series were destined for the Dover-Calais route. St Anselm and St Christopher were to be part of a three-ship line-up, which was completed by Cote d’Azur, a vessel of similar size constructed in France, and which made up SNCF’s contribution. The somewhat functional appearance of the sisters was, to many, in stark contrast to the unusual yet modern appearance of Townsend Thoresen’s ‘Spirit’ class. They featured twin funnels on either side of the hull, allowing two unobstructed vehicle decks where traffic could drive on and off through bow and stern doors. Sealink’s Naval Architects at the time, Don Ripley and Tony Rogan, were given a brief to provide ships which would be suitable for the majority of the company’s ports. The design of the Saints was in many ways ahead of its time and the requirements of the operator were met with an innovative feature, which allowed for double- or single-deck loading and discharging, where vehicles could be driven directly into position on both cargo decks. The ships were the first in the Sealink fleet to feature hydraulic deck equipment. The layout of St David’s passenger accommodation areas was different that of to her sisters, as she was designed for Irish Sea crossings.


ABOVE: St David is launched at Harland and Wolff, 25 September 1980.

Three decades of service While her three sisters have since left UK waters for warmer climes, the fourth ship in the series remains in service on the Northern Ireland to Scotland link between Belfast and Stranraer as Stena Caledonia. Launched in Belfast on 25 September 1980 as St David, she was the last ship in the series and entered service on 10 August 1981 between Holyhead and Dun Laoghaire. In 1982 she visited Stranraer for

ABOVE: Stena Caledonia arriving off Larne in 1994. • June 2011 •

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Nicholas Leach

Gordon Hislip


On the bridge.

Stena Caledonia_NL.indd 34

Onboard cafeteria.

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Car and freight decks.

Stena Caledonia_NL.indd 35

Main engines and H&W builder’s plaque.

Main photo: Gordon Hislip

Stena Caledonia

14/04/2011 14:43

Newall Dunn Collection

St David in Sealink colours.


Keel laid 14.12.1979 Launched 25.9.1980 In service 10.8.1981 BUILDER Harland & Wolff, Belfast, yard no.1717 TONNAgE 12,619gt, 3,785 net, displacement 7,934 tons DImENSIONS 131.80m x 21.63m x 6.4m ENgINES 2 x Pielstick 16PC Mk.5, each 7,675kW @ 520rpm; 2 x St David in four-blade KaMeWa controllable pitch Sealink British propellers, 2 x semi Ferries colours. spade rudders SpEED 19.5 knots CApACITY 780 lane metres, 280 cars, 1,000 passengers

the first time and in 1983 and 1984 she was used to cover refits on the North Channel before she finally found a permanent home at the Scottish port in 1986. The next few years saw St David and Galloway Princess maintain the Larne-Stranraer service, with Darnia acting as the third ship. When Stena Line purchased Sealink British Ferries in 1990, St David was given a local name and became Stena Caledonia, with her port of registry changed to Stranraer. In 1991 Darnia was replaced

by St Christopher, now renamed Stena Antrim, and the route was in the hands of three of the four sisters. The service was moved to a Belfast terminus in 1995, and all four of the Harland & Wolff sisters saw periods of service from the city in which they were built. Stena Caledonia spent six weeks at refit on the Mersey in 1999, when she emerged with an altered and slightly elongated profile, consisting of ‘duck tail’ type sponsons at her stern and a new bulbous bow. While these modifications

LARNE/BELFASTSTRANRAER FLEET DATES SERvED Ships 1967-1985 Antrim Princess 1971-1982/1987 Ailsa Princess/Earl Harold 1982 Villandry (r) 1982 Brech Izel (r) 1989 Saint Eloi (r) 1978-1991 Darnia 1990 and 1992 Cambridge Ferry (r) 1991 Stena Hengist (r) 1991 St Cybi (r) 1980-2002 Galloway Princess/ Stena Galloway 1983/1984 and St David/Stena 1986Caledonia 1991-1996 Stena Antrim 1995/1996/1997 Stena Cambria (r) 1996Stena Voyager HSS various years Stena Explorer HSS (r) 1997 Stena Discovery HSS (r) 2005-2011 Stena Seafarer (r) 2009Stena Navigator (r) = refit cover

did little for her aesthetically, they gave the ship an increased lifespan while also conforming to SOLAS regulations. The introduction of HSS Stena Voyager at Stranraer in 1996 was set to revolutionise the ferry industry, with passengers persuaded to use the fast ferry and Stena Caledonia was retained for freight and back-up. While her sister, Stena Galloway, left in 2002, the high operating costs of the HSS Stena Voyager proved to be her eventual downfall. A move to a purpose-built facility at




NAmES 1980-90 Galloway Princess; 1990-2002 Stena Galloway; 2002-present Le Rif 1980-90 St Anselm; 1990-97 Stena Cambria; 1998-2010 Isla de Botafoc (Umafisa 19982004; Balearia 2004-10); Winner 9 (sold for scrap 2010); Bari 2010-present 1980-90 St Christopher; 1990-98 Stena Antrim; 1998- Ibn Battuta (Limadet 1998-2007; Comanav 2007-present) 1980-90 St David; 1990- Stena Caledonia

Newall Dunn Collection


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STENA CALEDONIA TIMELINE 1977 British Railways Board place order for four vehicle/passenger ferries from the Harland & Wolff

1979 14 Dec: keel of St David (yard no.1717) laid 1980 25 Sept: St David launched at Belfast by Mrs Derrick Fowler

Nicholas Leach

1981 10 August: St David enters service between Holyhead and Dun Laoghaire

Stena Caledonia leaving Belfast in her previous Stena livery.

1982 March: St David prevented from entering Dun Laoghaire due to a blockade by B&I crews 1983 St David covers refits at Stranraer for the first time 1984 St David covers for St Nicholas on Harwich-Hook route 1985 St David transfers to Dover– Ostend service, for a short-lived association when agreement with RTM was terminated 1986 St David finds a permanent home at Stranraer 1990 St David renamed Stena Caledonia, registry changed to Stranraer 1991 Stena Caledonia and Stena Galloway (ex-Galloway Princess) joined on Larne-Stranraer by sister Stena Antrim (ex St Christopher) 1995 12 November: Larne service moved to new terminal at Belfast 1996 Sealink name dropped and fleet adopted Stena Line livery 1998 Stena Caledonia chartered to sail from Ireland to France to convey teams from Tour de France

Stena Caledonia in drydock.

Victoria Terminal 4 at the edge of Belfast port in 2008 reduced journey distances for both the HSS and the conventional operation. Stena Caledonia’s crossings were reduced by 15 minutes and this coincided with a reduction in Stena Voyager’s daily round trips. Stena Caledonia benefited from a major overhaul and refurbishment in 2009. The accommodation areas had not been changed since the early 1990s and the redesign of the main passenger areas on deck 7 by Figura Artkietur and refurbishment work carried out by County Down-based MJM Marine brought the ship into line with facilities on her more modern fleetmates. The

Senior Master Murray Paterson.

company’s shift away from the HSS was further demonstrated by the introduction of the 1994-built Stena Navigator, formerly Seafrance Manet and Champs Elysees, a ship of similar size and vintage for the route. She entered service after a major internal overhaul in November 2009. Stena Caledonia benefited from accommodation enhancements in 2010.

Anniversary Saturday 25 September 2010 marked the 30th Anniversary of Stena Caledonia’s launch at Harland & Wolff, and 10 August this year will see the 30th anniversary of the entry into service at Holyhead of this remarkable ship. Remarkable

because, three decades later, she continues to operate in the waters for which she was built, and her flexible and innovative design means that she is still highly suitable for the route. Stena Caledonia is the last Sealink ship still in operation in the UK, the last of the Saint class vessels still serving routes for which she was originally intended, and the last and only remaining truly local ferry – built in Belfast and sailing in and out of Belfast every day. Stena Caledonia has served Stranraer for 25 years and has been operating in and out of Belfast since late 1995, under the leadership of Senior Master Captain Murray Paterson since 2001.

2000 Stena Caledonia receives major SOLAS modifications at Cammell Laird, Birkenhead 2002 Stena Galloway sold to Morocco; Stena Caledonia maintained on Belfast-Stranraer 2005 19 May: Stena Caledonia sent to Fishguard-Rosslare to cover Stena Europe’s refit 2007-08 May: Stena Caledonia chartered by Isle of Man Steam Packet Company for TT services 2009 February: major internal refurbishment completed; Nov: Stena Caledonia joined by Stena Navigator on Belfast-Stranraer, following a reduction in HSS sailings 2010 1 March: Stena Caledonia emerges from refit at H&W in revised Stena Line livery 25 September: 30th Anniversary of the launch of St David/Stena Caledonia at Harland and Wolff 2011 7 March: Stena announce replacement of Stena Caledonia in the autumn, soon after the 30th Anniversary of entry into service of St David/Stena Caledonia at Holyhead on 10 August • June 2011 •

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14/04/2011 14:44

J. and M. Clarkson

The 15,000-ton deadweight Eagle Oil tanker San Lorenzo of 1914 was sold to Norway in 1928 and converted into the whale factory ship Ole Wegger. She was fitted with a stern slipway, necessitating the replacement of her original stack with twin funnels.

How Eagle dared

All images from author’s collection unless stated

Although it lost its own identity 50 years ago, Eagle Oil is remembered as having one of the finest British tanker fleets. Roy Fenton tells the story of a bold company which was not afraid to take risks.

ABOVE: At that time the biggest tanker yet built, San Fraterno dwarfs the launch party at Swan Hunter’s yard on 22 February 1913.


ppropriate to its chosen name, Eagle Oil soared above other companies in its determination to build and run what were the super-tankers of their day. The company was the brainchild of a fearless entrepreneur who was prepared to change direction when necessary, and the company’s officers and men braved some extreme hazards in both war and in peace.

A bold entrepreneur Weetman Pearson was an extraordinary man. He successfully grasped challenging opportunities, planned operations in meticulous detail, and ventured his own money in courageous schemes. An engineer by training, he became an oil magnate almost by accident. While on holiday in Mexico in 1889 he drew up plans for a canal to drain marshes near Mexico City, and this led to other engineering projects, including a railway. Waiting for a train in Texas during the oil equivalent of a gold rush in 1901, he was infected by the excitement and made up his mind to prospect in Mexico, with the initially modest aim of finding enough oil to fuel the locomotives on his railway. But his plans mushroomed, and he ended up investing over £4,500,000 in

refineries, millions of acres of land and three tank steamers. Despite unrest in Mexico and opposition from a subsidiary of the mighty and ruthless Standard Oil Company, his Mexican-based ‘El Aguila’ company succeeded so spectacularly that Pearson needed a new outlet for its petroleum. His answer was typically bold: in 1912 he formed the Eagle Oil Transport Co Ltd in London to build no fewer than 19 tankers to carry oil across the Atlantic, mainly to the United Kingdom. Eagle’s first tankers were not just numerous but also large and innovative. Ten of the 19 were between 15,000 and 16,000 deadweight, and the first of these, San Fraterno, was the world’s largest when launched by Swan Hunter in February 1913. Her boilers could burn Mexican oil when eastbound and British coal when westbound across the Atlantic. Crew accommodation was exceptionally good for the period, with refrigerators to keep food in good condition. The unusual shelter deck construction provided a large open space for crew recreation, said to even include cricket matches. Navigational and communications equipment was state-of-the-art, including radio, which was an innovation in a cargo ship. Such a large order was a major fillip for

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COMPANY HISTORY British shipbuilding, at its zenith just before World War I, and Swan Hunter completed no fewer than seven Eagle tankers, including the smaller San Silvestre of 1913. War and disorder Of Eagle’s first 19 tankers, 16 had been delivered by the time war broke out in August 1914, and they represented a remarkable 20 per cent of the British tanker fleet. War came early to the fleet, however, with San Wifrido mined off Cuxhaven on 3 August 1914. Although there was no loss of life, her crew spent over four years in a German prison camp. The ships of the Eagle fleet had a number of close calls over the next three years, but only one was sunk in this period: San Zeferino, torpedoed off Deal during September 1915, and she was salvaged and returned to service. In the spring of 1917 unrestricted submarine warfare began to take its toll, with three sinkings in quick succession. In April both San Hilario and San Urbano were sunk by U-boats in the Atlantic south west of Ireland. On 12 May San Onofre, having been missed by one submarine torpedo the

day before, was despatched by U 48, again just off Ireland. The worst was to come, however, as on 28 December 1917 the dry cargo ship Santa Amalia was torpedoed north of Malin Head with the loss of her entire complement of 41 British and Chinese crew members. In total, 53 lives had been lost on ships of the Eagle fleet during hostilities, a comparatively small toll given that five ships had been totally lost and several others severely damaged. Excellent seamanship and the construction of the tankers with watertight compartments both played their part in minimising the crew losses. Well before the Armistice, Eagle Oil began planning to rebuild its fleet with even larger tankers. As soon as practical, orders were placed in British and US yards, again for a remarkable total of 25 vessels, ranging from 18,000-tonners such as San Gerardo to oil barges. The big tankers were driven by turbines, had crew accommodation which improved even on that of the San Fraterno class, and could also carry 12 passengers, who usually comprised oil company personnel.

ABOVE: A number of tankers built around the time of World War 1 had their engines amidships. Santa Aurora had been completed in Germany in 1919, and surrendered to the British Government, who sold it to Eagle Oil Transport Co Ltd in 1921. She returned to Germany for demolition in 1936.

Weetman Pearson announced his retirement in 1919, having negotiated an agreement with Shell to manage his oil interests, including the Eagle Oil tanker fleet. One result was a joint marketing company, the once-familiar Shell-Mex. It was a good time for Pearson to lay down the reins, as problems began to multiply. Mexico was in a state of almost permanent revolution, with things in such ferment that masters could not always be sure whether the oil terminal they were approaching was

in the hands of Government troops, rebels or trigger-happy criminals taking advantage of the prevailing disorder. In parallel with these events, Mexican oil production declined spectacularly in the 1920s. One particularly rich oilfield was inundated by salt water, halting production. It was not an enviable situation for a fleet which had been virtually doubled in size by post-war deliveries, but fortunately increased production by fields in California helped employ the Eagle tankers.

Outward bound in the Manchester Ship Canal, San Silvestre was one of the first Eagle Oil tankers, completed by Swan Hunter in 1913. When broken up in 1936, she was one of the last of the pioneers still in Eagle service.

ABOVE: A formal portrait of Eagle Oil’s founder, Weetman Pearson, who became Lord Cowdray in 1910. • June 2011 •

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One of Eagle’s second batch of super-tankers, the 18,000 ton deadweight San Gerardo was delivered by Palmers’ Shipbuilding and Iron Co Ltd of Newcastle in February 1922. She was torpedoed off the USA in March 1942.

Eagle Oil time line 1908 Compania Mexicana del Petróleo ‘El Aguila’ SA formed and acquired first tanker, San Cristobal 1912 To carry Mexican oil across North Atlantic, Eagle Oil Transport Co Ltd formed and orders 19 tankers 1914-18 Eagle Oil loses four tankers and one dry cargo ship 1919 Delivery begins of postwar orders from British and US yards, comprising six of 18,000 deadweight, 14 of 9,000 to 9,000 tons and five smaller vessels; Royal Dutch Shell Group takes over management of the Eagle Oil fleet 1926-29 Five of original 15,000 ton tankers sold for conversion to whale factory ships 1930 Company name changed to Eagle Oil and Shipping Co Ltd; fleet now comprises 30 ships 1935 First Eagle Oil motor tanker delivered, San Amado 1939-45 16 ships lost and seven seriously damaged. Tankers managed for British Government 1952 Name changed to Eagle Tanker Co Ltd 1959 1960

Company acquired by Shell

San Conrado becomes last vessel delivered with an Eagle name. Fleet integrated with that of Shell whose funnel colours and flag replaced those of Eagle Tanker Co Ltd

1965 Last former Eagle tankers given Shell names

A new pattern of trade partly replaced that involving Atlantic crossings. Crude was taken from San Pedro, California to Mexican refineries, where refined products were loaded for South America. The tankers then returned via the Magellan Straits and the west coast to California. Eagle’s super-tankers were unsuitable for this new trade, and five of the original group were sold, all converted to whale factory ships. Undaunted by the inter-war depression, which saw tankers laid up and others steaming slowly for the sake of economy, the company continued to plan ahead. From 1935 to 1939 no fewer than 16 motor tankers were delivered by British yards, beginning with San Amado from Blythswood. They were smaller than their steam predecessors to suit new trading patterns. This reflected a decline in Mexican production, which culminated in the oil company’s assets being appropriated by the Mexican Government. The motor tankers were slightly faster than the steamers they began to replace and continued Eagle’s policy of providing officers and crew with accommodation of a high standard. The newbuilding programme was completed

just in time for Eagle to face its greatest challenge yet. In hazard again World War II was even more savage for the Eagle fleet than the first war. With warfare now mechanised and dependent on oil, U-boat commanders concentrated their attacks on tankers whenever possible. Two thirds of Eagle’s pre-war fleet, a total of 16 ships, were lost and another seven seriously damaged, with a death toll that reached 314. At the risk of ignoring much incredible bravery, two acts of heroism by company personnel stand out. The reboarding and subsequent continuing voyage of an Eagle motor tanker, seriously damaged by 11-inch shells from Admiral Scheer during November 1940, is the stuff of legend, not least because of her starring role in the feature film ‘San Demetrio,

ABOVE: One of the first motor tankers delivered to Eagle was San Ambrosio, completed by the Hawthorn Leslie and Co Ltd in 1935. She was broken up at Preston in 1957.

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Flags by J. L. Loughran

Flags and funnels

ABOVE: One of the last tankers delivered to the Eagle Tanker Co Ltd was San Calisto, completed by the Furness Shipbuilding Co Ltd in June 1959. Transferred to Shell within a year, she was later renamed Vermetus.

London’. Less well known is that Eagle personnel crewed the US-owned tanker Ohio, which fought its way through to Malta in August 1942 as part of Operation Pedestal and helped the island survive its long siege by the Axis. The severe war losses, together with the age and state of some survivors, meant that, with the return of peace, the need for new tonnage was urgent, notwithstanding the delivery of six new motor tankers between 1942 and 1944. Two British and two T2-type US war-built tankers were acquired, but such was the pressure on UK shipyards that it was not until 1949 and 1950 that the first post-war newbuildings arrived, San Silvestre and San Salvador.

They were turbo-electric ships, powered, as were the T2s, by steam turbines and alternators supplying electric motors, which turned their screws. Beginning of the end However, the next new ships to arrive were harbingers of the end for the Eagle Tankers, as the company had become in 1952. San Florentino and her sisters were to a standard design of 18,000 deadweight steam turbine-driven tankers built in large numbers for Shell’s subsidiaries. This class became very familiar as the British-flagged H class and the Dutch-flagged Ks. Although San Gregorio of 1957 initiated a new 32,000ton deadweight class, the biggest tankers Eagle had

owned, the end was not far away. Shell, who already had a minority shareholding in the Aguila oil company and in the associated tanker company, acquired the majority of the shares in July 1959. From the beginning of 1960 the Eagle Tankers fleet was integrated with that of Shell, and the company’s individual colour scheme with its yellow upper works began to disappear. The last act was the renaming of the ships into Shell’s scheme. Thus, with something of a whimper, was snuffed out a company which had twice built the super-tankers of their day, had not been afraid to invest in the best ships and men, and had a war record second to none. Eagle Oil is gone but not, one hopes, forgotten. In Shell colours as Valvata, this was the last ship launched with a traditional Eagle name of a Mexican saint, San Conrado, which she carried until 1965.

TOP: The upper funnel was that adopted when Eagle Oil Transport Co Ltd was formed in 1912, the funnel and flag incorporating the Mexican eagle. MIDDLE: In 1930 the company became Eagle Oil and Shipping Co Ltd and adopted this funnel. BOTTOM: The final variant signified the 1952 change of title to Eagle Tanker Co Ltd. • June 2011 •

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An aerial view of the main container terminal at Felixstowe. The Port operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and is closed only on Christmas Day, Boxing Day and New Year’s Day.

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Boxboat boomtime

With a new crane recently installed, Felixstowe continues to expand as it remains Britain’s premier boxboat port and the only one in the country able to take the new Maersk E class ships now in build.


he Port of Felixstowe is the UK’s largest container port and has recently benefited from further investment, which has seen a new container crane installed. The new crane at the South Rail Terminal was formally inaugurated on 12 January by the Minister of State for Transport, Theresa Villiers MP, and represents the latest investment in Felixstowe by owners Hutchison Ports. The rail-mounted gantry crane (RMG), the most modern of its type, was built by the Zhen Hua Port Machinery Co in Shanghai. Delivered in 2010, it was the second of two new cranes for the terminal, and underwent testing and commissioning prior to commencing operations on the South Rail terminal.

The new container crane at the South Rail Terminal before they were in service.

The Port of Felixstowe’s latest expansion, the new Berths 8 and 9, will provide an additional 730m of deepwater quay capable of accommodating the largest container ships. As part of the next phase, the

port will construct a third rail terminal, the New North Rail Terminal, which will eventually double the volume of container traffic handled by rail, while the port is one of only three in Europe which will be capable

The 292m container ship MSC Sonia (2007/50,963gt) heads a lineup of boxboats at Felixstowe’s Trinity Terminal. She arrived from Antwerp and was to go on to Bremerhaven. The German-flagged vessel is powered by a single 54,343bhp MAN-B&W diesel. • June 2011 •

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ABOVE: The 366m container ship MSC Sonia (2010/153,092gt) arrived at Felixstowe from Valencia and departed for Rotterdam. The Panamaflagged vessel was built by Daewoo Shipbuilding and can accommodate up to 14,000TEU. right: The 1992-built 292m Jervis Bay, operated by Maersk Line, arrived at Felixstowe from Rotterdam and was loading prior to departure for Bremerhaven.

of handling the new Maersk E class ships featured in the last issue of Ships Monthly. The statistics for ship and cargo handling at Felixstowe are staggering. Over 4,000 ships pass through its terminals each year, including the very largest container ships. Approximately 40 shipping lines operate from the port, offering over 70 services and covering 365 ports around the world. The container terminal

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The 2007-built Cafer Dede, operated by Turkon Line, arrived from Valencia and at 182m in length is a mediumsized vessel for Felixstowe.

handles over 3,000,000TEU annually, and over 40 per cent of the UK’s import and export trade passes through Felixstowe. In a single 18-hour visit to the port by a boxboat, about 4,000 containers can be loaded or unloaded. All major shipping companies

operate out of Felixstowe. Every continent is served by deep-sea services, with short-sea operators linking countries from Portugal to Finland, Russia and the Baltic, and Africa through the Mediterranean to the Middle East and the Black Sea.

Felixstowe has a continuous quay of over 2.3km in length, equipped with 27 ship-toshore gantry cranes, with a further 730m of quay and five ship-to-shore gantry cranes coming on stream this year. The scale of container operations at Felixstowe is truly incredible. • June 2011 •

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Epic hunt Determination, courage and skill were displayed by both sides during the epic pursuit of the German battleship Bismarck in the North Atlantic 70 years ago. But catching and destroying the largest and most powerful warship afloat took more than a little luck too, as Nick Hall recalls.

Bismarck, photographed from Prinz Eugen as the two ships sailed through the North Sea, shows off the camouflage pattern designed to break up her outline after dark.


ne torpedo. Without it the Battle of the Atlantic might have taken a different course, and, conceivably, the outcome of the war might have been altered too. For, in the end, that one torpedo was all that allowed the Royal Navy to catch and sink the pride of the German Navy, Bismarck. Bismarck posed a constant headache for the Admiralty from the day war was declared. The giant German battleship had been launched seven months earlier and, when she was completed, was more than a match for any single British warship. She moved under her

own power for the first time on 15 September 1940, sailing under the command of Kapitän zur See Ernst Lindemann from Hamburg via the Kiel Canal to carry out sea trials in the Baltic before returning to her builders three months later. Following further trials in the Baltic, she arrived at Gotenhafen (Gdynia) to embark Admiral Günther Lütjens and his staff in preparation for Operation Rheinübung, a sortie intended to intercept and attack transatlantic convoys. Bismarck sailed from Gotenhafen on 19 May 1941 and, in company with the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen and an escort of three destroyers, arrived in Korsfjord near

Bergen two days later. British intelligence had already received reports from the naval attaché in Stockholm and from Norwegian resistance that the ships had been sighted in the Kattegat and off the south coast of Norway. Two reconnaissance Spitfires were sent from Wick to carry out a search, and one found and photographed the ships just two hours after they had anchored. It was long before the days of data links, however, and by the time the developed photographs had arrived at Coastal Command headquarters, Bismarck and Prinz Eugen had sailed. A further reconnaissance mission revealed this to Admiral Sir John Tovey, Commanderin-Chief (C-in-C) Home Fleet, and he deployed ships to cover the choke points through which the German vessels would have to pass if they were to head for the Atlantic.

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WORLD WAR II BATTLE The heavy cruisers Suffolk and Norfolk, under the command of Rear-Admiral William Frederick WakeWalker, patrolled the Denmark Strait, while the battlecruiser Hood flying the flag of ViceAdmiral Lancelot Holland, the battleship Prince of Wales, and six destroyers covered the access points south and east of Iceland. Tovey’s flagship, the battleship King George V, accompanied by the battlecruiser Repulse, aircraft carrier Victorious, light cruisers Kenya, Galatea, Aurora,

ABOVE: Hood photographed in Crow Sound, Isles of Scilly, in August 1920, while en route from Rosyth, via Lamlash, to Devonport.

Imperial War Museum

Maritime Photo Library

RIGHT: Tugs move Bismarck, which was built by Blohm & Voss, away from her berth in Hamburg preparatory to sailing for trials. • June 2011 •

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HMS HOOD If any ship epitomised the Royal Navy it was ‘The Mighty Hood’. To the public, her graceful lines, speed and power epitomised everything that was the best of British, and her reputation spread as a result of her world cruise in 192324 in company with HMS Repulse, taking in the Far East, Pacific and United States. She was ordered in 1916 as a fast battlecruiser, and by the time she entered service in 1920 had similar armour protection and armament to the Queen Elizabeth class battleships, but was seven knots faster. Technology moved on, however. By the late 1930s it was evident that Hood was in need of major improvements, and plans were drawn up for a refit which would include the removal of her 600-

ton conning tower and improvements to her deck armour. Such was the shortage of capital ships that the plans were deferred and, as a result, Hood was fatally flawed when she set out to engage Bismarck. Her weak deck armour provided little protection against heavy shells plunging down from a height, and Bismarck’s fifth salvo hit her amidships and penetrated her secondary armament magazine. The detonation spread to the main magazine, resulting in a catastrophic explosion which tore the ship in half. The loss of Hood in such circumstances and the appalling loss of life were greeted with profound shock in Britain. Prime Minister Winston Churchill famously signalled to the fleet ‘The Bismarck must be sunk at all costs’.

Author’s collection

An impressive view of ‘The Mighty Hood’ as she prepares to launch one of her boats while approaching Melbourne on 17 March 1924 during her world cruise.

Neptune, Hermione, and six destroyers, headed west to help the more northerly screens. Suffolk sighted the German ships in the Denmark Strait at 1922 on 23 May and promptly sent a signal announcing the fact, while she and Norfolk turned to shadow them using radar. They had themselves been detected, however, and

Bismarck fired five well-aimed salvoes at Norfolk, forcing her to retire behind a smoke screen. Hood and Prince of Wales responded to the shadowing reports and made contact with the German force early the following morning, with fire being opened at a range of about 14 miles. Bismarck’s gunnery, aided by her state-of-

the-art optical range-finding equipment, was both efficient and accurate, and within six minutes of the action beginning Hood blew up, broke in two, and sank. From her crew of 1,418 men there were just three survivors. Prince of Wales hit Bismarck three times, but then came under fire herself and, after

suffering several hits, was forced to withdraw. The battle of the Denmark Strait lasted less than 20 minutes. Bismarck had not escaped unscathed, however, because her speed had been reduced to 28 knots, she had 1,000 tons of water in her fo’c’sle, and she was losing oil. Lütjens decided to abandon Operation Rheinübung and head for St Nazaire to carry out repairs. Norfolk and Suffolk, now joined by Prince of Wales, continued to shadow the German ships as they headed south, while news of Hood’s loss caused the Admiralty to throw additional forces into the fray. The battleships Rodney, Ramillies and Revenge, and cruisers London and Edinburgh were detached from convoy or patrol duty in the North Atlantic, and Force H, commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir James Somerville and comprising the battlecruiser Renown, aircraft carrier Ark Royal and cruiser Sheffield, sailed from Gibraltar. Although Bismarck required repairs, Lütjens was anxious for Prinz Eugen to continue with the raiding mission and made several attempts to lose his shadowers to allow the cruiser to break away. He finally succeeded on the evening of 24 May when, hidden by fog, Bismarck turned back before emerging into the clear to open fire on the startled British vessels, which scattered to escape. Bismarck then turned

Maritime Photo Library

Admiral Tovey’s flagship King George V went on to win further battle honours for her Arctic service in 1942, Sicily in 1943, Okinawa in 1945 and Japan in 1945.

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WORLD WAR II BATTLE Imperial War Museum

While Bismarck’s fire was concentrated on the battlecruiser Hood, the cruiser Norfolk (pictured) was targeted by Prinz Eugen and suffered splinter damage to ‘X’ turret.

Maritime Photo Library

aBoVe: Bismarck, photographed from Prinz Eugen, lights up the Arctic gloom as she fires her main armament at Hood in the Denmark Strait on 24 May 1941.

SpecificationS (1941) Hood

King george V


diSplacement (full load)

46,680 tons

42,075 tons

50,900 tons


860ft 7in


813ft 8in


104ft 2in


118t 1in



32ft 7in

34ft 9in


4 x geared turbines

4 x geared turbines

3 x geared turbines

SHp / Speed

144,000 / 28 kts 110,000 / 28 kts

138,000 / 29 kts


8 x 15in; 14 x 4in; 24 x 2pdr; 20 x 0.5in

10 x 14in; 16 x 5.25in; 32 x 2pdr

8 x 380mm (15in); 12 x 150mm (5.9in); 16 x 105mm (4.1in); 16 x 37mm; 12 x 20mm


2 x Walrus

4 x Arado Ar196





back south but, by the time the shadowers had regrouped, Prinz Eugen had disappeared into the North Atlantic. Into striking distance Admiral Tovey’s force meanwhile had come within extreme striking range of

Maritime Photo Library

During the action with Bismarck, Prince of Wales, commanded by Captain John Leach, had several Vickers Armstrong contractors aboard who were attempting to fix problems with her main armament.

the German battleship, and an air strike was launched from Victorious by 825 Naval Air Squadron (NAS). Eight Swordfish, led by Lt Cdr (A) Eugene Esmonde, attacked Bismarck at midnight, but the one hit they scored caused only minor damage. Worse was to follow for Tovey when, just three hours later, Bismarck finally managed to give her pursuers the slip

while they were zig-zagging to deter possible U-boat attack, and disappeared. The British ships tried in vain to reestablish contact but, at 0401, Suffolk admitted defeat and reported ‘Enemy contact lost’. Once Bismarck was alone, she headed south-east on a direct course towards St Nazaire while the Royal Navy and RAF Coastal Command launched an intensive search for the battleship. Tovey’s problem, apart from that of finding Bismarck in an area which increased in diameter by the hour, was his own force’s fuel state, which was so low that he feared he might have to break off pursuit and return to refuel.

For 31 hours ships and aircraft scoured the seas in vain. It was as if Bismarck had ceased to exist. But at 1030 on 26 May Tovey finally got the break he had been looking for. A Catalina maritime patrol flying boat amphibian from 209 Sqn based at Lough Erne sighted Bismarck some 690 miles westnorth-west of Brest. Although the aircraft immediately came under intense fire, its pilot, Pilot Officer Dennis Briggs, managed to send a sighting report before losing sight of the battleship in the weather. Vice-Admiral Somerville’s Force H, including the aircraft carrier Ark Royal, was closing rapidly from the south, and Bismarck was sighted again three quarters of an hour later by a Swordfish aircraft carrying out a reconnaissance patrol. Tovey realised he had less than 24 hours to force the battleship to action – after that she would come within range of protection by Luftwaffe aircraft based in France – but in order to do so she would first need to be slowed down. The cruiser Sheffield was detached and steamed at high speed towards Bismarck’s reported position • June 2011 •

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Maritime Photo Library

ABOVE: Dorsetshire, which is credited with firing the torpedoes which finally sank Bismarck, was herself sunk by Japanese dive bombers 200 miles south west of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in April 1942. (Maritime Photo Library)

while preparations were made to launch an air strike against the German battleship. At 1450 15 torpedo-carrying Swordfish were launched, and an hour later made radar contact and dived to attack. The ship they attacked, however, was Sheffield, not Bismarck, and not only did the cruiser survive unscathed, but the mistake also revealed that the torpedoes were armed with faulty magnetic pistols, which

hit her right aft. The explosion was minor, but for Bismarck it was to prove terminal. It left her rudders jammed 12 degrees to port and at 2115 she reported to Group West, ‘Ship no longer manoeuvrable’.

Maritime Photo Library

Five of Ark Royal’s 15 attacking Swordfish were hit by Bismarck’s AA fire and, although all returned safely, one was damaged beyond repair and three crashed on landing.

caused several to explode on hitting the water. As a result, contact pistols were fitted to the torpedoes used for a second air strike launched at 1915, again comprising 15 aircraft from 818 NAS and 810 NAS, led by Lt Cdr (A) Trevenen Coode. By this time Sheffield had located and was showing Bismarck, and the strike force obtained an accurate fix before launching its attack at 2047. Despite intense flak, the slow biplanes launched their torpedoes and scored one or two hits on Bismarck’s starboard side, as a result of which she began a turn to port. As she turned, another torpedo, launched from a Swordfish piloted by Sub Lt John Moffat,

She sent a supplementary signal 25 minutes later: ‘Ship unable to manoeuvre. We will fight to the last shell. Long live the Führer.’ Bismarck slowly circled back towards the north while vain attempts were made to free her rudders, and throughout the night she found herself under torpedo attack from the 4th Destroyer Flotilla, comprising Cossack, Sikh, Maori, Zulu and the Polish Piorun, commanded by Captain (D) Philip Vian. Bismarck’s weapons remained fully intact, however, and the running battle in deteriorating conditions resulted in casualties on both sides. Winds had increased to between gale force eight and severe gale force nine by the time dawn broke on 27 May, but time had run out for the pride of the German fleet. At 0844 she was sighted by Tovey’s flagship King

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ABOVE: Victorious’s extensive wartime career included Arctic and Mediterranean convoys and fleet operations in the Pacific, following which she was rebuilt, remaining in Royal Navy service until 1969.

George V in company with Rodney, and both opened fire. It was an uneven contest because Bismarck, unable to manoeuvre, could only bring her forward turrets to bear, while Rodney and King George V could respectively use all and most of their main armament – four guns against 15 – and the heavy cruisers Norfolk and Dorsetshire soon added their eight-inch shells to the action. During the next hour and a half the British ships fired more than 2,800

Author’s collection

Maritime Photo Library

Prinz Eugen, commanded during Operation Rheinübung by Captain Helmuth Brinkmann, was one of very few large German surface warships to survive the war.

PRINZ EUGEN Prinz Eugen was the third ship of a projected class of five Admiral Hipper heavy cruisers and was completed in August 1940. She measured 679ft by 70ft 6in, and was powered by three-shaft geared steam turbines, which gave her a top speed of 32.5 knots. Her armament comprised 8 x 203mm (eight-inch), 12 x 105mm (four-inch), 12 x 37mm and 8 x 20mm guns, 12 x 503mm (21-inch) torpedo tubes, and three Arado 196 reconnaissance aircraft. After detaching from Bismarck on 24 May 1941, Prinz Eugen refuelled at sea from the tanker Spichern before arriving at Brest on 1 June. While in harbour the following month, she was struck by a bomb which killed 60 of her crew, then in February 1942, together with the battlecruisers Scharnhorst and Gniesenau, she sailed via

shells at Bismarck, of which between 300 and 400 were hits, leaving the German ship a blazing wreck. The fuel state of the British capital ships was so low, however, that Tovey broke off the action at 1015 to return to harbour, leaving Dorsetshire to finish off their opponent

the English Channel back to Germany (Operation Cerberus). Two weeks later, while en route for Trondheim, she was torpedoed by the submarine Trident and the damage was so severe that she spent the next nine months undergoing repairs. During 1943 Prinz Eugen was used for training in the Baltic, but in 1944-45 she took part in several shore bombardment operations against advancing Soviet forces before surrendering to the Allies in Copenhagen in May 1945. She was handed over to the Americans and in July 1946 was used as a target ship for two nuclear bomb tests at Bikini Atoll. Prinz Eugen survived both tests and was later towed to Kwajalein Atoll, where she capsized five months later during a storm. Her upturned stern remains visible there today.

with torpedoes. Soon afterwards Dorsetshire signalled the C-in-C, ‘I torpedoed Bismarck both sides before she sank. She had ceased fire but her colours were still flying’. From Bismarck’s crew of more than 2,200, there were just 116 survivors. Tovey

clearly recognised the bravery they displayed, later writing, ‘Bismarck put up a most gallant fight against impossible odds, worthy of the old days of the Imperial German Navy’. But without that one vital torpedo hit, history might have taken a different turn. • June 2011 •

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RMS LUSITANIA COMPETITION The Sinking and The Propeganda The Cunard liner RMA Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine on May 7th 1915, on a return voyage from the USA. 1,198 passengers were lost, many of them Americans. Germany, fearing that the action might help to bring America into the War, put its propaganda into action: it issued a special medal to commemorate the event. It showed death (implying Cunard) selling tickets to a queue of passengers, because Germany had given warning that any British ship encountered would be sunk. The obverse illustrates the Lusitania sinking, showing, as the Germans claimed, guns and aircraft on board – something the British strongly denied. British propaganda retaliated by issuing an exact copy of the same medal in its own box with a printed summary inside the lid, plus a separate leaflet that ends with the argument that, just because a murderer warns of his intention in advance, it doesn’t stop it being murder. The action did have some effect in swinging a neutral American public against German and was at least one of the factors in America entering the War two years later. Whatever the argument, it was a serious misjudgement by Germany. What is shown here is the British retaliation. Although we have often seen these medals around, it is very rare to come across one still in its original box, complete with the original propaganda leaflet. This one even has the flimsy plastic outer the box came in. Also accompanying, as part of the prize An old postcard featuring a facsimile, printed photo of RMS Lusitania (not in mint condition, but an interesting example).

SHIPS MONTHLY LUSITANIA COMPETITION ENTRY FORM Just find the page numbers of the photo extracts taken from the ships illustrated in this issue, fill in the coupon, or use a postcard, and post to:

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HOW TO ENTER: Complete the entry form by identifying the page number each extract appears on. Use the entry coupon, or post card (one per person). The winner will be the first entry drawn. Do not enclose with any subscription or other correspondence. RULES: Employees of Kelsey Publishing (or contracted freelance contributors) and their families are not eligible. The winner will be the first all-correct entry drawn. Closing date for entries is June 10, results will be published in the August issue, due out June 30.

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Ships Pictorial Have you an outstanding photo that would grace our gallery? Send your image to Ships Monthly for inclusion in these pages, which showcase the best in ship photography around the world.

The 87.9m general cargo ship Linnau (2006/2,461gt), operated by Strahlmann E. Reederei, passing Thelwall Ferry on a glassy calm Manchester Ship Canal in March, outward from Irwell Park, with scrap destined for Santander. (Alan Faulkner)

Fred. Olsen Cruise Lines’ 206.96m cruise ship Boudicca (1973/28,372gt) can carry 856 passengers. Built as Royal Viking Sky by Wärtsilä Hietalahti shipyard in Helsinki, Finland for Kloster Cruise, she later became Sunward, Golden Princess, Superstar Capricorn and Grand Latino. She is powered by four MAN-B&W diesels, each of 4,759bhp, powering twin screws and giving a service speed of 18.5 knots. (Dr Behn) • June 2011 •

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The 48,853gt container ship Boston (2006) outbound from Melbourne off Sorrento in Port Phillip Bay, on 9 February. Able to take a maximum of 4,504TEU, she was one of the ships that Maersk laid up in Scotland in 2009. (Andrew MacKinnon)

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Ships Pictorial

4,504TEU, she

Named in honour of US Navy Captain Washington Irving Chambers, a pioneer in early naval aviation, the US Military Sealift Command’s 210m by 32.3m T-AKE vessel USNS Washington Chambers departs San Diego Bay following her completion by the NASSCO shipyard. (NASSCO/Jim Shaw)

The tug Svitzer Kathleen (1991/364gt) leading the bulk carrier Daphne (2000/ 86,192gt) towards her berth at the port of Immingham. (Talbot Clark)

The new platform supply vessel Vos Venturer (2011/ 1,734gt) manoeuvres out of St Peter Port, Guernsey bound for Aberdeen on 17 February. She is powered by four Caterpillar C18 marine diesels, each of 817bhp, fitted to Azimuth electric drives. (Tony Rive) • June 2011 •

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Laid up at Perama T Jim Shaw recounts a visit to Greece’s Perama Bay in 1978, when a world recession in shipping turned the sheltered lay-up area near Athens into a virtual maritime museum of old ships.

Greece Elefsina Bay Perama Spithari

Piraeus Ferry Kynosoura


he summer of 1978 was not a particularly good one for the world’s shipping industry, as a recession had taken place that would carry on into the early 1980s. This economic stagnation served to fill the waters of Greece’s Perama Bay with many idle ships, some having arrived there well before the financial downturn because of their advanced age or troubled ownership. Among the latter were the deteriorating ships of the old Typaldos fleet, which had met its end in the late 1960s after its ship Heraklion (exLeicestershire) had gone down with the loss of over 200 lives in the Aegean. Older units of

the Chandris and Kavounide fleets were also laid up, many never to sail again. The majority of these vessels were moored off the Kynosoura peninsula, located directly opposite the Perama shipyards and an easy hike from the little village of Spithari. From a hilly viewpoint one could take in a long line of rusting ships that included not only pre-war veterans such as Hellas (ex-Taroona) and Athinai (ex-Santa Rosa), but also newer vessels, including City of Mykonos (exSan Marco) and City of Andros (ex-San Giorgio). In the bay beyond the peninsula were several groups of ships that floated in batches, one consisting of Efthymiadis’ Patra (ex-Pierre Loti), Delos

RIGHT Completed in 1953 by Alexander Stephen & Sons, the Greek liner Olympia had been laid up at Kynosoura in 1974 as her operator, Greek Line, began to suffer financial difficulties, finally collapsing in the following year. By 1978 the 17,400gt ship was beginning to show signs of deterioration, but still looked much better than several ships around her, including two Greek oil tankers and a war-built salvage tug. In 1981 Sally Shipping purchased the 28-year-old passenger liner and had her refitted with new engines in Germany. Two years later Olympia re-entered service as Commodore Cruise Line’s Caribe I and survived another 27 years before being broken up in India last year at age 57.

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LEFT: Perama Bay’s notorious ‘Rotten Row’ off the Kynosoura peninsula held a vast collection of shipping in the summer of 1978, including Typaldos Lines’ 1934-built Hellas, once operated by Tasmanian Steamers as Taroona. This ship, like Olympia, whose funnel can be seen in the distance, was a product of Alexander Stephen & Sons’ yard. Beside her can be seen a funnel that has been tentatively identified as coming from the sunken wreck of the Typaldos tug Eforia, built for the Royal Navy as HMS Prosperous in 1942 by Cochrane & Sons. Hellas remained afloat until 1989, when she was towed away to Aliaga, Turkey for breaking, while Eforia eventually disappeared under landfill.

ABOVE: One of the few long-term residents of ‘Rotten Row’ to make an escape, the 1953-built Olympic, was towed to Germany in 1983 to be re-engined and converted for full-time cruising under the Commodore Cruise Line banner as Caribe 1, before meeting her end at Alang last year. • June 2011 •

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MEMOrIEs Of thE 1970s A small bunkering tanker rests besides Kavounides’ City of Athens, while beyond can be seen the funnel of Greek Line’s 1953-built Olympia. City of Athens, built in 1952 as Compagnie Generale Transatlantique’s Ville de Tunis, was scrapped two years after this photo was taken, while Olympia spent another five years on ‘Rotten Row’ before being towed to Germany for conversion to cruising.

ABOVE: A Matsas tug and a Tsavliris tug work together to turn Chandris Lines’ Panamanian-registered Fiorita off the shipyards at Perama, where the vessel was being refurbished for static hotel work in the North Sea. Built in 1950 as British Railways’ Harwich-Hook of Holland night boat Amsterdam, Fiorita was acquired by Chandris in 1970 and operated seasonal cruises in the Eastern Mediterranean until 1977, after which she was employed on occasional charters and for static accommodation until capsizing in stormy weather at the Turkish port of Fethaye in 1987.

(ex-Azzemour), Melina (exAzrou), Arcadi (ex-President de Cazalet) and Phaistos (exMaria Gorthon), while another included Chandris’ Bon Vivant (ex-Patricia), Romantica (ex-Fort Townshend), Fiesta (ex-Mona’s Queen), Radiosa (ex-Winchester) and Holyhead (ex-St David). Only a few of these would move again. In the yards of Perama could be seen Mimika L (ex-Kronprinsesse Ingrid) being renamed Alkyon, while the former Brazilian coaster Anna Nery was becoming Danaos. Off towards Elefsina stood Ellerman’s City of Port Elizabeth as Mediterranean Sun, and beyond her the

ancient Queen Frederica, once Matson’s Malolo. At the Latsis oil wharf sat Windsor Castle, gleaming in a new while hull and yellow funnel as Margarita L before heading off to the Middle East. It was a vast collection of shipping well worth viewing before the old vessels became just memories.

ABOVE: The modern age of mega-ship cruising was many years off during the summer of 1978, and Hotel Mykonos, on the Piraeus waterfront, offered inexpensive rooms with an excellent view of older liners. On this particular summer day Chandris’ Regina (ex-President Hoover) and Romanza (ex-Huascaran) were at the passenger terminal, while in the background stood Navarino (ex-Gripsholm). Just over the stern of Romanza could be seen the funnel of Atalante (ex-Tahitien). Of the four ships, Regina was scrapped in 1985, while Romanza suffered fire damage in 1997 and was scrapped in 1999. Navarino, which later sailed for a decade as Regent Sea, was lost off the coast of South Africa in 2001 while under tow to India for breaking. Atalante, substantially rebuilt several times, survived until 2005, her last 13 years being spent under the ownership of Paradise Cruises.

RIGHT: Battered and bruised, the once elegant Rodos made a pitiful sight in 1978 while anchored off Perama. Built during World War II as the US Navy seaplane tender USS Timbalier, the ship was converted for cruising in the early 1960s, but spent most of her life in lay-up.

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chartroom ships mail

Enjoying a cruise Referring to Charles Brown’s letter (see SM, April), his description of certain cruise ships is 100 per cent correct and I would go further and state that any cruise ship with passenger capacity of more than 1000 would in all probability be in the same league. Being a ship enthusiast, my enjoyment on a cruise is the ship itself and what goes on around it while at sea or in port. My wife and I are not that interested in the coach tours because, when all the passengers have gone off for the day, we have the run of the ship. One interesting area on board is the bridge visit while at sea. Apparently this is no longer possible due to health and safety issues, and now the bridge can only be visited while the ship is in port – a waste of time. Interestingly, a national newspaper survey conducted with passengers indicated approximately 34 per cent could happily live on board a cruise ship. Bernard Allen Doncaster

Grotesque cruise ships Charles Brown (see SM, April) is spot-on with his observations about the latest cruise ships. They are grotesque, to say the least. The misnamed Allure of the Seas is anything but alluring, with an open-to-the-sky atrium flanked by two seven-storey blocks facing each other. As far as the ‘of the Seas’ part of her name is concerned, I wonder how many of those aboard her will be aware of being at sea. The safety of these enormous floating resorts is another thing. While they have been designed and built to the highest SOLAS regulations, I cannot help wondering if the designers are close to the boundaries of what is safely feasible from passengercarrying ships in terms of safety. With their high slab sides and hundreds of large windows, one can well imagine the outcome were one of these behemoths to meet heavy weather. With regard to passenger ships, it seems to me that naval architecture today is on a par with architecture of the 1960s, much of which is now being torn down and replaced. It is my belief that in the next few years we will see newbuilds emerging with the elegant proportions of those of yesteryear. P. Cary Ipswich

Not the ugliest Charles Brown’s letter regarding Oasis of the Seas has prompted me

Write to Ships Mail, Ships Monthly, Kelsey Publishing, Cudham Tithe Barn, Berrys Hill, Cudham, Kent TN16 3AG, or email Please note that letters via email must enclose sender’s full postal address. Contributions to Ships Monthly must be exclusive and not sent to other publications. The editor reserves the right to edit material. Kelsey Publishing reserves the right to reuse any submission sent in any format.

Old tender remembered I read the article Cunarder’s first visit to Cobh (see SM, Oct 2010) which very briefly mentioned the tender Cill Airne, built in the Liffey dockyard in Dublin. This brought back many memories from over 30 years ago and a recent one from December 2009. I was an Irish Shipping engineer cadet at the Cork Regional Technical College between 1977 and 1980, and our Marine Engineering Practice class used to take place on board Cill Airne. It was always looked forward to as an escape from the classroom, but it also gave us practical hands-on experience. The college was ahead of its time in having a vessel for training purposes and many a cadet from Irish Shipping, BP Tankers, P&O and Mobil will have memories of days spent on board doing overhauls and taking the vessel down the river to Cobh. As each year finished in college, the vessel was used to take friends and parents downriver to stop at Cobh, have a meal and return to the upper harbour. I remember in the engine room the two five-cylinder,

to add some thoughts of my own. Firstly, Oasis of the Seas and her sister Allure of the Seas, are to my eye, not the ugliest ships ever. I can think of several other contenders, including Norwegian Epic and Azura. For me, it would be a nightmare to travel on these ships. However, for 21st century cruisers they are ideal, and the fact that they are on a ship at sea is purely incidental. Once on board, they are in their swimwear, having drinks around the pool, and the majority do not even observe the ship departing a port. For them, these ships are resorts and their main focus is having fun. I think the comment regarding ‘undiscerning Americans’ is a bit unfair,

two-stroke two stroke Crossley diesels, which had a wonderful manoeuvring station. If you were very adept, a single person could control both engines. We had one cadet on each engine when we took the vessel downriver from the upper harbour in Cork to Cobh. On one occasion, while we were manoeuvring in the river, the telegraph for the starboard engine rang from slow ahead to slow astern. The cadet on that engine, in his haste, managed to get the engine to run astern after he had lifted the relief valves because of the way he had quickly stopped it and given it astern air. Our lecturer came down to the engine room very quickly and proceeded to tear strips off the unfortunate cadet. Thankfully I

was on the port engine! The generators were threecylinder Ruston engines and had to be ‘barred’ over into a starting position before giving them the air to start. Our duties involved keeping the engine room in tip top condition, which included keeping brasses and copper sparkling clean. Irish Shipping went into liquidation in November 1984, and I came ashore at that point and left marine engineering behind me. I was walking down the quays in December 2009 when I saw an advert for a floating restaurant – Cill Airne. I thought it couldn’t be, but there she was – a wonderful sight. Derek Bolster Naas, Co Kildare, Ireland

as people from many other countries, including the UK, thoroughly enjoy this type of cruising. Luckily there are many cruise lines that offer a much more traditional sea-going experience for ship lovers. I have been lucky enough to experience some of them including Oceania Cruises, HollandAmerica and Cunard. Neville Tyler Richmond, BC, Canada

Canadian Navigator, a self-unloader which operates on the Great Lakes. The stern of this ship was on St Lawrence Navigator. She was built as Demeterton in 1967. The vessel was so efficient in operation that she had the lowest fuel consumption in the ULS. So the company, when building Canadian Pioneer in 1981, looked for two engines from Doxford. There was only one available, so this was purchased with a Sulzer for her sistership. Pioneer, as she is now called, is still operating in the Marbulk fleet of the CSL and Algoma fleets. James Lowe Ontario Canada

Doxford Engines Regarding the letters on preserving Doxford engines (see SM, Jan-Feb), there are two such engines still operating for Canadian-owned companies. The oldest is on • June 2011 •

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chartroom ships mail Bollard pull Ships Monthly has published many articles about tugs, and these vessels are usually described in terms of their bollard pull. I would be very interested to know how this figure is calculated. I am a member of the St Portwey Trust. I am given to understand that this historic tug, which measures 80ft by 18ft and is 94gt, has a bollard pull of nine tons. She was built in 1927 with a multi-tubular Scotch-type boiler holding 12

Pompey memories The focus on Portsmouth harbour (SM, April) was excellent. I spent five years from 1968 to 1973 observing the shipping scene at Portsmouth, when it was essentially a naval port with a

tons of water supplying steam to two twin-cylinder compound reciprocating engines. Denis Longley Folkestone, Kent Jack Gaston explains: For commercial purposes, the bollard pull of a tug is normally certified by a classification society and the figure has to be the result of a physical trial. Bollard pull trials are an interesting event and, with very large tugs, difficult to arrange.

little commercial shipping activity. Warship classes that frequented the base during that period were the Blackwood, Rothesay, Whitby, Salisbury, Leander and Leopard class frigates, the County Class destroyers,

the occasional post-war aircraft carrier, and the carriers Albion and Bulwark. Fareham creek had ships awaiting for disposal, which included the Weapon class destroyer Crossbow, the Daring class destroyer Diamond, which was used as a static training vessel, and the Colony cruiser Gambia, as well as ageing radar picket destroyers. Further east in the scrap lane was the aircraft carrier Leviathan, which was never commissioned. The equivalent of today’s HMS Bristol was the cruiser HMS Belfast, followed by HMS Kent, which was moored adjacent to HMS Excellent, the gunnery school. Ton minesweepers frequented HMS Vernon, and ‘A’ class and Oberon class submarines berthed at HMS Dolphin on the Gosport side. The only historic vessels were HMS Victory, in dry dock, and the galleon HMS Foudroyant, which was anchored in the harbour. With regard to the commercial shipping activities, the Camber saw colliers discharging coal at the local power station, which regularly saw the Everard coaster Stability and Comben Longstaff’s Dorsetbrook and Durhambrook. Channel Island produce was discharged predominantly by Wharton’s coasters Brendonia and Trentonia, and at peak times, especially when Jersey Royal new potatoes were in season, two of their sisterships. Flathouse Quay saw the discharge of timber, and the newly-opened Albert Johnson Quay saw the discharge of Channel Island vegetables by the Commodore Shipping-leased

coasters Carsten, Eilenburg and Athene, and, early on, the offloading of fruit from Morocco by ships of the Royal Moroccan Navigation Company. There were no cross-Channel ferry operations, and the reclaimed area that is used today for the ferries was frequented by dredgers discharging sand and ballast, and the colliers Petworth and Seaford discharging coal at the local Corrall’s wharf at Tipner. I remember during those years the concern that the Naval Base was in a period of decline, with impending job losses, so well done to the Portsmouth City Council for changing the emphasis to a predominantly commercial operation. During this period no cross-Channel ferries, large reefers or small cruise liners were ever seen, so it shows how far Portsmouth port has progressed in 40 years. Michael Pacey Broadstairs, Kent

Steamship loss explained With reference to the recent article A Bruised Cruise by Jim Shaw (see SM, April), I would like to elaborate on the circumstances of the total loss of the steamship Santa Leonor, as told to me by several Chilean Coastal Pilots, who spend up to eight days aboard Holland America cruise ships each voyage between Cape Horn and Valparaiso. Apparently Santa Leonor was northbound in the Paso Gray on a fine and clear night in 1967, running at full speed. The captain and Chilean pilot were engaged in conversation in

Happy memories of a long-distance tow in the 1980s I was most interested to read in the Tug news (see SM, April) about the new ETV for the German coast. Of particular interest to me was the reference to the tug Oceanic and her owners, Bugsier Reederei. I have very

good memories, going back to 1986, of dealings with these owners and their tugs Oceanic and her sistership Arctic, as I was then marine manager with CANMAR (Canadian Marine Drilling). We had contracted these two tugs

for a significant towage of a large submersible structure (MAT) from Osaka, Japan to Harrison Bay, Alaska and to assist with the mating of this structure with our large drilling unit, SSDC, to form the then largest bottom-founded mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) in the world. This voyage required rounding Point Barrow Alaska and entering the Beaufort Sea, where ice operations were standard practice. Bugsier was the only company with the heavy ice class tugs (GL+100 A4(E3) capable of such a task and willing to run the risks involved. The towage distance was 3,600 nautical miies and the tow speed was 3.4 knots. The MAT was a large rectangular barge-like structure measuring 172m by 110m and with a tow draft of 4m. The tow speed was

slow, due to the base of the unit, which incorporated a ‘skirt’ system that created significant resistance. The ‘mating’ operation was undertaken in heavy ice conditions, and both tugs assisted our icebreakers in breaking and clearing ice around the operation and then afterwards on the tow of the combined units at a draft of 8m to the drilling location. As the Marine OC on site, I can say that the crews of both these vessels got fully into the spirit of the task, well exceeding their ‘contracted’ duties, thanks to their Marine Superintendent. Our own Icebreaker crews were surprised at their capabilities and showed superb seamanship. It’s a memory I will always have of a great moment in the Arctic. Captain Mal Walsh Comox BC, Canada

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Captain Patrick Toomey

ABOVE: One of many wrecks seen by Captain Tomey over the past 12 years while he was serving as Antarctic Ice Pilot for Holland America Line on trips to and from Cape Horn, by the inside channels of the Chilean Fjords. the wheelhouse, with the helmsman listening for the frequent helm orders as the ship followed the channel. Just before the dangerous dog-leg turn at Simpson Island, where the channel narrows and makes a sharp turn, either the captain or pilot used the word ‘right’ as part of their conversation. Since it was an American ship, where port and starboard were not used for left and right helm orders, the helmsman applied right-rudder, erroneously thinking that a helm order had been given, so the ship ran up on the rocks of Simpson Island at full speed, and has been there ever since. Had the voyage of Veendam reported on by Jim Shaw been operating according to schedule, he might have had a chance to see the wreck of the missionary ship Logos, sitting perfectly upright though down by the head, on a shoal off Picton Island in the Beagle Channel, where she was lost in 1986 just after disembarking her pilot. Captain Patrick R. M.Toomey, Canadian Coast Guard (retired). Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Booth Liners Your article on Booth Line (see SM, Aug 2010) reminded me of the voyage of a small steamer named Spero in the

19th century. The ship was owned by Arendals Dampskibsselskap (Arendal Steamship Company). Spero was built in 1891 for the North Sea trade. However, in 1894 she was chartered by a firm in Liverpool for a round trip to the Amazon River. I have not been able to ascertain which firm was involved, but the ship left Liverpool and arrived in Para, at the mouth of the Amazon, on 20 February 1894, leaving there on 23 February for Iquitos, Peru. According to locals in Para, Spero is supposed to have been the first oceangoing vessel to have undertaken the trip up the river. The ship arrived in Iquitos on 13 March – 2,500 miles from Para and only 450 miles from the Pacific – apparently having been lifted 350ft en route. The ‘downhill’ trip took only 12 days, and on 17 April she was back in Para. She stayed there for three days and by 12 May she had returned to Liverpool. According to local Arendal lore, Spero is still considered to have undertaken a first – but did she? The sources at my disposal do not identify the charterer or any other company involved in the Spero affair. Was it Booth Line or the Red Cross Line? Can any reader help? Jan P. Larsen Arendal, Norway

Can anyone name this small naval vessel? When and where was she built? To which navy does she belong? Where has she operated? And where was she when this photo was taken? Authors of correct published answers will receive a copy of

the magazine in which their correct answer appears. Send your answers to: Mystery Ship, Ships Monthly, Kelsey Publishing, Cudham Tithe Barn, Berrys Hill, Cudham, Kent TN16 3AG, or via email to

April’s mystery ship The mystery ship in April was the Turkish cargo vessel Halis Kalkavan, built as Baron Graham of H. Hogarth & Sons. The ship was completed in November 1925 by Napier & Miller in Glasgow for Hogarth, and was one of a series of similar ships built by Scottish shipbuilders in 1925-28. The four ships completed in 1925 had identical dimensions, but only

Baron Graham came from Napier & Miller. Baron Graham survived the war and was sold to Schulte & Bruns, Emden in 1950. In 1954 the ship was disposed of and renamed Huseyin. In 1959 the ship was sold to an Istanbul company and renamed Halis Kalkavan. After service in the Mediterranean she was scrapped at Aliaga in 1982. Peter Cundall


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June ports of call Date Arr/dep



Compiled by Edwin Wilmshurst Flag Operator


SOUTHAMPTON 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 6 7 7 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 15 17 18 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 23 24 24 25 25 25 27 28 28 29

0630/1630 0500/1700 0630/1630 0700/1600 0730/1630 0700/1645 0900/1600 0630/1630 0630/1630 0200/1800 0630/1630 0630/1630 0530/1645 0900/1600 0630/1630 0700/1600 0500/1700 0700/1630 0630/1630 0700/1645 0900/1600 0630/1630 0630/1630 0630/1630 0630/1630 0630/1630 0630/1630 0530/1645 0700/1800 0500/1700 0630/1630 0900/1600 0700/1600 0800/1700 0800/1900 0800/1800 0700/1700 0800/1600 0500/1200 0800/1900 1000/2100 0800/1700 0700/1630 0800/1700 0800/2000 0700/1600 0800/1700 x /1600 0800/1900 0700/1630 0700/1630 0800/1700 0800/1600 0430/0725 0700/1700 0800/1900 0800/1700

Oriana Crown Princess Queen Mary 2 Grand Princess Oceana Azura Celebrity Eclipse MSC Opera Queen Victoria Oriana Aurora Adonia Seven Seas Voyager Balmoral Oceana Independence of Seas MSC Opera Ventura Queen Elizabeth Grand Princess Crown Princess Queen Mary 2 Oceana Azura Celebrity Eclipse Queen Victoria Aurora MSC Opera Adonia Oriana Arcadia Balmoral Queen Mary 2 Ventura Independence of Seas Silver Cloud Crown Princess Adonia MSC Opera Grand Princess

Baltic /Zeebrugge Round UK/Lerwick-Iceland Oslo-Hamburg/New York (lv) Norwegian Fjords/Atlantic Isles Atlantic Isles & Coast/La Rochelle Norwegian Fjords/Baltic Baltic /Western Mediterranean Norwegian F/Norwegian Fjords Norwegian F/W Mediterranean Zeebrugge /Adriatic Adriatic/Norwegian Fjords W Mediterranean/Norwegian Fj Marseille-Cadiz/Baltic Norwegian F/Norwegian Fjords Bilbao-La Coruna/Norwegian Fj W Mediterranean/W Medit’ean Norwegian Fjords/Norwegian Fj Adriatic/Atlantic Isles Baltic /Adriatic Atlantic Isles/Spitzbergen Iceland-Dublin/round UK New York (lv)/Norwegian Fjords Norwegian Fj/W Mediterranean Baltic/Iceland-Norwegian Fjords Western Mediterranean/Baltic Western Mediterranean/Baltic Norwegian Fjords/Adriatic Norwegian Fjords/Norwegian Fj Norwegian Fjords/Norwegian Fj Adriatic/Norwegian Fjords Newport RI/West Mediterranean Norwegian Fjords/Baltic via Kiel C Norwegian Fjords/New York (lv) Atlantic Isles/Norwegian Fjords W Mediterranean/W Medit’ean Barcelona-Lisbon/round UK Round UK/Norwegian Fjords Norwegian F/Baltic via Kiel Canal Norwegian Fjords/Norwegian Fj Spitzbergen/Adriatic

Grand Voyager Costa Atlantica Seabourn Pride Eurodam Saga Pearl II Ocean Princess Costa Magica Grand Mistral Grand Voyager Black Watch Braemar AidaBlu Saga Ruby Eurodam Spirit of Adventure Costa Magica Black Watch Braemar Saga Pearl II Spirit of Adventure Ocean Princess Eurodam Costa Magica Saga Pearl II Discovery Jewel of the Seas Discovery Jewel of the Seas


P&O Princess C Cunard Princess C P&O P&O Celebrity MSC Cunard P&O P&O P&O Regent C Fred Olsen P&O RCI MSC P&O Cunard Princess C Princess C Cunard P&O P&O Celebrity Cunard P&O MSC P&O P&O P&O Fred Olsen Cunard P&O RCI Silverseas Princess C P&O MSC Princess C

69,153 113,651 148,528 108,806 77,499 115,055 121,878 58,600 90,049 69,153 76,152 30,277 42,363 43,537 77,499 154,407 58,600 116,071 90,901 108,806 113,651 148,528 77,499 115,055 121,878 90,049 76,152 58,600 30,277 69,153 83,781 43,537 148,528 116,071 154,407 16,927 113,651 30,277 58,600 108,806

Le Havre/Vigo PL New York-Boston/Copenhagen IT Lisbon-Rouen/Baltic via Kiel C BE Baltic/Oslo-Bergen-Newcastle NL Norwegian F/Baltic via Kiel Canal BE Livorno/North Cape-Murmansk BA Le Havre/Amsterdam-Oslo IT Barcelona/Copenhagen PL Vigo/Le Havre PL Volos-Istanbul/round UK BE Baltic via Arhus/Norwegian Fjords BE Hamburg/Le Havre IT Baltic via Oslo/Adriatic M Bergen-Newcastle/Baltic NL Finland-Leith/Norwegian Fjords M Le Havre/Hamburg-Copenhagen IT Round UK/Baltic via Kiel Canal BE Norwegian Fjords/W Medit’ean BE Baltic via Kiel C/Norwegian Fjords BE Norwegian Fjords/Baltic via Kiel C M Murmansk/Norwegian Fjords BA Baltic/Baltic via Northsea NL Le Havre-Oslo/Hamburg IT Norwegian Fjords/Iceland BE

Ibero Cru’os Costa C Seabourn C Holland/Am SAGA Princess C Costa C Ibero Cru’os Ibero Cru’os Fred Olsen Fred Olsen Aida SAGA Holland/Am SAGA Costa C Fred Olsen Fred Olsen SAGA SAGA Princess C Holland Am Costa C SAGA

24,391 85,619 9,975 28,890 18,627 30,277 102,587 47,276 24,391 28,613 24,344 71,304 24,492 86,273 9,570 102, 587 28,613 24, 344 18,627 9,570 30,277 86,273 102,587 18,627

0930/1530 0400/1700 1000/1730 0400/1700

Portsmouth/Iceland Baltic via Northsea/Baltic Iceland/North Cape-Archangel Baltic via North Sea/Baltic


Discovery C RCI Discovery C RCI

20,216 90,090 20,216 90,090

Norwegian Fjords/Baltic Baltic via Kiel Canal/N Fjords North Cape/Lerwick-Iceland


Cruise & M Cruise & M Cruise & M

22,080 22,080 22,080

Falmouth/Newcastle BE Livorno/Leith-Norwegian Fjords Mi

Residen Sea Oceania C

43,188 30,277

Barcelona-St Peter Pt/Hamburg BE

Hapag-Ll’yd 28,890

Norwegian Fjords/Baltic via Oslo PL Baltic via Kiel Canal/Newcastle PL

Cruise & M Cruise & M

TILBURY 1 13 25

0800/1530 Marco Polo 0830/1600 Marco Polo 0730/1700 Marco Polo

GREENWICH 4/8 x /x The World 11 0800/2100 Insignia


0700/1700 Europa

HULL 3 15


Flag Operator


14 15 20

0700/1800 Boudicca 1200/2200 Vision of the Seas 0345/1800 Azura

Liverpool/Greenock Oslo-Le Havre/Liverpool Southampton/Iceland-N Fjords


Fred Olsen RCI P&O

28,388 78,340 115,055

Dublin/Atlantic Isles & Coast Liverpool/Oslo Atlantic Isles & C/W Mediterr’an


Fred Olsen RCI Fred Olsen

28,388 78,340 28,388

Harwich/Dover Iceland-N Fjords/Hamburg


Costa C Aida

102,587 69,203

Bremerhaven/Iceland-N Fjords Norwegian Fjords/Liverpool Hamburg/Iceland-Spitzbergen Hamburg/Iceland-Spitzbergen Dover/round Iceland


Transocean Fred Olsen Phoenix Phoenix SAGA

20,606 28,388 44,588 44,588 18,627

Greenwich/Norwegian Fjords Aland Island-Kiel Canal/Dover

Mi M

Oceania C SAGA

30,277 9,570

Hafnarfjordur/Kiel Faroe Islands/Bergen-Lübeck Liverpool/Norwegian Fjords Kiel/Iceland-Spitzbergen Greenwich/Norwegian Fjords Norwegian Fjords/Newcastle Norwegian Fjords/Newcastle Tilbury/round Iceland Brem’haven/Iceland-Spitzbergen


MSC 92,627 Silverseas C 6,072 Fred Olsen 28,388 Costa Cruises 114,500 Oceania C 30,277 Cruise & M 17,593 Cruise & M 17,593 Cruise & M 20,080 Phoenix 28,518

Adriatic/Norwegian Fjords Norwegian Fj/Dublin-Greenock Oslo-Cherbourg/Queensferry


Fred Olsen Fred Olsen RCI

28,388 28,388 78,340

Hull/Norwegian Fjords PL Norwegian Fj/Norwegian Fjords PL Norwegian Fj/Norwegian Fjords PL

Cruise & M Cruise & M Cruise & M

17,593 17,593 17,593

Hamburg/Iceland & Spitzbergen BE Oslo-Liverpool/Oslo BE Hamburg/Iceland & Spitzbergen BE

Phoenix RCI Phoenix

44,588 78,340 44,588

Hamburg-Murmansk/Amsterdam NL

Holland Am


Southampton/La Rochelle-Bilbao BA Barcelona-Brest/Cowes BE

P&O 77,499 Hapag-Lloyd 28, 890

GREENOCK 15 17 28

0730/1630 Boudicca 0900/2000 Vision of the Seas 0730/1630 Boudicca


0800/1900 Costa Magica 0900/1800 AidAluna

KIRKWALL 10 11 13 30 30

0700/1300 1130/1800 0700/1200 0700/1600 0700/1700

Astor Boudicca Artania Artania Saga Pearl II

LEITH 13 14

0800/1800 Insignia 0730/x Spirit of Adventure

LERWICK 1 3 5 11 14 21 27 27 30

1300/1900 0630/1230 1130/1800 0800/1300 1100/2200 0800/1300 0800/1300 0800/1700 0600/1200

MSC Poesia Prince Albert II Boudicca Costa Pacifica Insignia Ocean Countess Ocean Countess Marco Polo Albatros


x /x Boudicca x /x Boudicca 0800/1700 Vision of the Seas

NEWCASTLE 16 22 28

x /1700 Ocean Countess 1000/1700 Ocean Countess 1000/1800 Ocean Countess


HARWICH 4 11 15 23



DOVER 2 2 3 3 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 12 14 15 16 18 19 19 21 23 25 27 28 28

Date Arr/dep

0830/1900 Ocean Countess 0700/x Ocean Countess

17,593 17,593

12 18 29

0700/1600 Artania 0900/1800 Vision of the Seas 0700/1600 Artania


0800/2300 Prinsendam


0800/1800 Oceana 0800/1800 Europa

VESSELS WITH MORE THAN ONE CALL ROUND UK & IRELAND ASTOR flag BE, Transocean 20,606grt: from Bremerhaven, Falmouth 26 0600-1800, Cobh 27, 0730-1800, Dublin 28, 0800-1800, Liverpool 29 0800-1830, Belfast 30 0730-1900, to Oban. BLACK WATCH flag BE, Fred Olsen 28,613grt: from Dover, St Peter Port 11 0730-1630, Dublin 13 0630-1800, Greenock 14 0800-2300, Bangor 15, Tobermory 16, Kirkwall 17 1130-1800, to Dover. CLIPPER ODYSSEY flag BE, Nobel Caledonia, 5,128grt: Leith 24, Stromness Pier 25 1200-1900, Lerwick 26 0700-1300, Inverewe 27, Donegal 30, to Glengariff. CROWN PRINCESS flag BA, Princess Cruises, 113,651grt: from Southampton, South Queensferry 5 05001900, Invergordon 6 0800-1900, Lerwick 7 0800-1700, to/from Iceland, Dublin 13 0700-1800, to/from Southampton, South Queensferry 18 0700-1900, Invergordon 19 0800-1900, Kirkwall 20 0700-1700, Greenock 22 0800-1900, Belfast 23 0700-1800, Dublin 24 0700-1800, Holyhead 25 0700-1700, St Peter Port 26 1200-1900, to Southampton. EURODAM flag NL, Holland/America, 86,273grt: from Bergen, Invergordon 11 0800-1700, Newcastle 12 0800-1700, South Queensferry 13 0800-2000, to Dover. HEBRIDEAN PRINCESS flag GB, Hebridean Island Cruises, 2,112grt: from Oban, Ulva 1, Eigg 2, 27, Pabbay 3, Barra 4, 19, 22, Eriskay 5, 23, Rum 6, Oban 7, 14, 21, 28, Iona 8, 20, Port Ellen 0900, Ballycastle 0900, Bangor 10, Peel 11, Glenarm 12, Jura 13, Gairloch 15, 30am, Ullapool 16, 30pm, Stornoway 17, 24pm-25am, St Kilda 18, Tarbert 24am, Lewes 26am, Portree 26am, Kyle of Lochalsh 26pm, Shieldaig 29, to Gairloch. ISLAND SKY flag BE, Noble Caledonia, 4,280grt: from Tory Is, Iona 1, Canna & Rum 2, St Kilda 3, Inverewe 4, Lerwick 5 0800-1700, Stromness Pier 6, Leith 7, Lerwick 8 1300-1700, to Bergen. LA DIAMANT flag F, Compagnie du Ponant, 8,282grt: from St Malo, Dartmouth 3 0700-2300, Penzance 21 0800-1800, Cobh 22 0830-1700, Dublin 23 0800-1500, Belfast 24 0800-1500, Portree 1200-1800, Kirkwall 26 0730-1500, Leith 27 0800-2200, to Ostend. MINERVA flag BE, Swan Hellenic Cruises 12,449grt: from Lisbon, St Peter Port 18 0700-1500, Portsmouth 22 0600-1700, Leith 24, Kirkwall 25 1300-2300, Scrabster 26 0700-x, Dunvegan 27, Tobermory 28, Portrush 29, to Cobh. SILVER CLOUD flag BE, Silverseas Cruises, 16,927grt: from Southampton, Falmouth 26 0800-1800, Cobh 27 0800-1900, Dublin 28 0800-2000, Oban 29 1000-1900, to Invergordon. THE WORLD flag BE, Residen Sea 43,188grt: from Falmouth, Greenwich 4/8, Newcastle 10/11, Leith 12/15, Lerwick 16/17 to Norwegian Fjords. FLAG CODES BA Bermunda, BE Bahamian, GB British, IT Italy, M Malta, Mi Marshall Is, NL Netherlands, PA Panama, PL Portugal. NOTES x time not known. Iv Liner voyage. • June 2011 •

Chartroom June_NL.indd 63


14/04/2011 14:28

Ships_Bck_NumbersA4_Back Numbers 07/04/2011 11:46 Page 1

BACK NUMBERS Back numbers for reference, for information, for instruction and for entertainment. Order now while stocks last!



MARCH 2010

APRIL 2010

MAY 2010

JUNE 2010

JULY 2010







MARCH 2011

APRIL 2011

Megaship: world’s biggest cruiseship • Datafile: Stephenson Clark • Latin liners • Minesweepers • Convoy disasters off Africa

Bringing home stranded air passengers • Blue Lady farewell • Datafile: Prince Line • Livestock at sea • Dunkirk ships • Casinos

Five-star plus Europa • Loch Ryan ferries • Royal Line of Avon mouth • Narvik • Bristol City tramp • Condor Rapide • Hurtigruten’s Fram

Boxboat giant • RN’s S-class subs • Post-war Australis • Singapore container port • Ben boats • Kristina Regina • Ellerman’s Oxford cargo liners

North Sea Super ferry • Glenearn • USN wooden wonder minesweepers • De Grasse liner • River Humber • Sailing ship Elissa

Blade Runner windfarm ships • Lancastria remembered • U-boat hunters • Russian river cruises • Brit-built Swedish liners • Steam coaster Volana

Ready steady cruise • Farewell Doulos • Astute sub • Mersey memories • US Coast Guard cutter Taney • Forgotten fleet downunder

Cruise ships go green • Datafile: Booth Line • Through the Panama Canal • Port of Southampton • WW2 British subs • Port Hedland

Voyage on a classic liner • New cruise ships for 2011 • Bristol past and present • Lamport and Holt datafile • County class cruisers

Evergreen trading giants • Type 41 and Type 61 frigates • Thames shipping then and now • WW2 Ocean class • Laurence Dunn

Marine technology future • Conte Biancamano • 100 years of biggest cruise ships • Giant wave in Med • USCH buoy tenders • River Plate

170 years of Cunard • Fleet Air Arm’s finest hour • SS Great Britain • Milford Haven • Aran Island ferries • Tall ships and Navy days

Giants in The Solent • Goole port profile • Spanish cruisers • Clan class • US battleship Nevada • Blue Riband fast ferries • Celtic Explorer

Bulkers • Essex class aircraft carriers • Royal Navy in Korea • Swiss paddler • Irish sea ferries • Allure • Beverley coasters • Spirit of Britain

Portsmouth Port • Stena-DFS ferry swap • US landing craft • Cape Horn storms • Veteran cruiser Calypso• farewell to HMS Chatham • Hapag-Lloyd

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Filling a gap in the market and proving a success in her first year, the ferry Julia enjoyed a good debut season on the SwanseaCork route. Captain John Grace talked to Nicholas Leach about working on the ‘people’s ferry’, as his ship is known. How did you come to work for Fastnet Line?

How involved were you in getting the service started?

The operational director of Fastnet Line, Owen Barry, used to be superintendent with Irish Ferries, and I sailed with him on Normandy. I had just left Irish Ferries, having worked with them since 1987 and as captain since 1999, when he approached me. I took redundancy in 2006 and was reemployed by DFM/IF. Owen asked me to join the new operation in March 2010 having provided Fastnet Line with the technical know-how to get the ship to Cork, and the service started.

I started in March 2010 as master, having had experience with ships such as Oscar Wilde, and gained Cork and Swansea pilot exemptions. I was on the first crossing, but not as captain. Three captains were trained: Michael Poole and Ivan Walsh, as well as myself.

Is the ship well-suited to the route? When Fastnet Line was looking for a ship, Julia was seen as a possible candidate for the route – but did she have the capacity? The speed? And could she fit into Swansea? She is 154m, the maximum length of ship that could use the port. The draft, which is 5.8m, is also a factor because of the big tidal range in Swansea. Fastnet Line have signed a five-year contract with the port of Swansea, which is going to make some improvements to the berth and passenger facilities.

How has it worked out during the first season on the route? It has been a very good first season, with the projected carryings figures exceeded. We initially restricted the maximum number we could carry because we were still finding out about the capacity and capability of the ship. The capacity officially is 1,433, but we have not carried over 1,000 as we need more Pullman lounges where people can sleep. The four-berth cabins are often occupied by just two people, which reduces capacity. The route is ideal for overnight crossings, unlike any other on the Irish Sea.

How has the ship been altered? She has hardly been altered internally at all, apart from some cosmetic alterations, and is well-suited to the route as she is. She had Stockholm doors fitted to minimise free surface in the unlikely event of the car decks being flooded.

What are the crewing arrangements? Where are the crew from? We carry 71 crew and they come from all over Europe, as well as Ireland. Many are from eastern Europe, as we used manning agencies in Latvia, Estonia, Poland and Bulgaria to get the crew. Some crew worked with Irish Ferries including the officers, while manning agencies provided the

other officers. The Second Officer, Sinead Nic Giollarpharaic, is from the Aran Islands, and the Chief Engineer, Bob Ives, is English.

What shifts do you and the crew work? We have ten-and-a-half-hour shifts to comply with international legislation, and these can be split. My typical shift would see me called half an hour before we enter port and take the ship in, and then work on management matters until lunchtime. I am off duty in the afternoon. In the early evening we prepare for the sailing. I work two weeks on and two weeks off, while non-UK based crew work two months on and one month off.

How do you see the future for Fastnet Line? I think we have a niche market on this route, and despite the tourism downturn caused by the economic issues a year or so ago, we seem to be picking up sufficient numbers. There is definitely a market for this route as it reduces driving for holiday-makers going to SW Ireland compared to other ferry routes.

66 • June 2011 •

From The Bridge_June_NL.indd 66

14/04/2011 14:30

SHIPS IN FOCUS John and Marion Clarkson 18 Franklands, Longton, Preston PR4 5PD Phone 01772 612855

A selected range of maritime books from quality publishers economical postal charges secure packing prompt service. Payment must accompany all orders and from overseas must be in Sterling with cheques payable to Ships in Focus. Remittances can be made by Maestro, Switch, Mastercard, Visa/Delta. We require card number, valid from and expiry dates, last 3 figures of security code, issue number on Maestro cards and customer’s name as on card. Orders accepted by phone if payment by credit card. Postage: UK orders up to £20 add £2.00, £20-£50 add £3.50, over £50.00 free. Overseas orders by seamail: Europe/North America 10% of total cost of books, elsewhere 15%, both with a minimum of £4.50. Airmail at cost. LIBERTY SUCCESSORS Georgios M Foustanos well illustrated 240pp h/b £91.00 DRY CARGO SHIPS BUILT FOR GREEKS 19491967 Georgios M Foustanos very well illus 336pp h/b £95.00 FAMAGUSTA The Rise and Fall of a Ship’s Registry 1964-1974 Georgios M Foustanos well illus mainly three per page h/b 384pp £99.00 DEUTSCHE REEDEREIEN 38 Gert Uwe Detlefsen English language special edition whilst stock last, Peter Dohle, founded 1956 and have owned 350 ships+ over 1000 pictures h/b 352pp £65.00 SIETAS-TYPSCHIFF De Chronik der Trock-enfrachter – the chronicle of the dry cargo ships built by J J Sietas 750 ships 1500 photos h/b 650pp £87.50 MAKING WAVES A Mariner’s Tale 1939-1948, Paddle steamer to liner, Portuguese coasters to tankers illus s/b 256pp £9.99 RMS CARONIA Cunard’s Green Goddess William H Miller and Brian Hawley photos artwork etc colur and black and white s/b 96pp £19.99 DOCKER’S STORIES From the Second World War, Henry T Bradford. Collection of true stories, illus s/b 128pp £12.99

THE TRADE MAKERS: ELDER DEMPSTER IN WEST AFRICA 18521972, 1973-1989 Peter N Davies 2nd edition published 2000 – new copies illustrated s/b 556pp £27.50 THE BLUE FUNNEL LEGEND A History of the Ocean Steam Ship Company, 1865-1973 by Malcolm Falkus published 1990, illustrated, new copies h/b 412pp £30.00 MERCHANT SHIPPING: 50 YEARS IN PHOTOGRAPHS David Huchnall photos mainly black and white from 1960’s onward s/b 160pp £16.99 THE BRITISH EXCURSION SHIP Nick Robbins published 1998 illustrated A4 h/b 124pp £28.00 TWO NEW SHIPS, ONE NEW ERA P&O Ferries Spirit of Britain and Spirit of France John Hendy well illustrated in colour h/b 128pp £18.50 SIGNIFICANT SMALL SHIPS OF 2010 30 ships reviewed, illustrated and with plans A4 s/b 76pp £27.00 SIGNIFCANT SHIPS OF 2010 49 ships reviewed, illustrated and with plans A4 s/b 120pp £42.00 (1 copy each of the above two titles £65.00) Ships in Focus will be at: North West Mini-Ship Show, Hutton Village Hall, Hutton, Preston, PR4 5SE 15th May 2011 and the Postcard Fair, Northgate Arena, Chester, 21st May 2011. We look forward to meeting you at these events. CRUISE SHIPS DOVER John Mavin colour photos with captions A4 s/b 96pp £16.00 DANSKE REDERIER NO 10 Hojlund family (Stevns and Nordane Shipping) Bent Mikkelsen illustrated 256pp h/b £34.50 LOST OFF TREVOSE The Shipwrecks of Cornwall’s Trevose Head Brian French, illustrated s/b 128pp £12.99 DIE SOWJETISCHE HANDELSFLOTTE VON 1945 BIS 1991 Peter Tschursch in 10 volumes listings of Soviet merchant ships, well illustrated, reviewed in Marine News in 2007. s/b in slide binders 10 volumes £70.00 (very limited stock) AROUND THE CORNISH COAST Peter Q Treloar includes many photos of shipping interest – harbours, ships and wrecks s/b 128pp £12.99 FLOATING PALACES – THE GREAT ATLANTIC LINERS William H Miller illus in colour and b&w 120pp £19.99 SAILING IN STYLE DFDS Seaways Bruce Peter Photographs and advertising images 128pp £18.50 Ships h/b Monthly april PORTS AND HARBOURS OF THE NORTH-WEST COAST Catherine Rothwell illus s/b 160pp £14.99

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29/09/2008 09:39:37

ARK ROYAL Farewell to a famous Royal Navy aircraft carrier £3.95

January/February 2011 TM

Stena Britannica


VOYAGE ON A CLASSIC LINER Remembering Kungsholm to the end



Severn tragedy 50 years on New cruise ships for 2011


Allure of the Seas makes her debut

Bristol past and present JAN-FEB 3 OFC.indd 1

County class cruisers

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by K.S. Garrett includes London & Rochester, Bowker & King, Offshore Marine and more. Coasters, sailing and motor barges, tugs, tankers, ORSVs and ferries –all part of the story of Crescent Shipping. with 60 pages of history followed by a listing of 650 vessels is an important contribution to the history of both British shipping and shipping in the south east 248pages A4 hardback illustrated in colour and black and white at £35.00. SPUTNIKS AND SPINNINGDALES A History of Pocket Trawlers Sam Henderson and Peter Drummond lists well illus s/b 160pp £16.99 THE BATTLE FOR NORWAY April – June 1940 Geirr H Haarr Events at sea during invasion of Norway in1940 illus H/B 458pp £30.00 PORTS OF SCOTLAND 2011 30th edition many good colour photos s/b £19.00 GERMAN BATTLESHIPS 1914-1918 (1) Deutschland, Nassau and Helgoland classes, and GERMAN BATTLESHIPS 1914-1918 (2) Kaiser, Konig and Bayern classes, Gary Staff, illustrated listing s/b 48pp £9.99 each RUSSO-JAPANESE NAVAL WAR 1904-1905, Vol 2, Piotr Olender Battle of Tsushima, Illus with photos, diagrams and maps etc. s/b 152pp £19.99 ARCTIC APPRENTICE Rob Ellis 38 years at sea in fishing industry and in Merchant Navy s/b 216pp £14.95 LIFE ABOARD A WARTIME LIBERTY SHIP Ian M Malcolm voyages onboard Samite, Samforth and Samnesse s/b 256pp £16.99 ALL AT SEA Robert Lloyd many outstanding views painted by Robert, liners, coasters ferries, tankers etc h/b 128pp £22.00 SHIPS IN FOCUS RECORD 48 Elder Dempster Pt 2, Everards Capable, Hobart photographers, Clipper Reefers Pt 2, Prince Line mystery, Scottish steam coasters, Railway steamers serving France plus our usual features and index Page 1 for2/2/11 records 45 15:40 to 48. s/b 72pp (20 in colour) £7.50

BRITISH CRUISERS For most of the twentieth century Britain possessed both the world’s largest merchant fleet and its most extensive overseas territories. It is not surprising, therefore, that the Royal Navy always showed a particular interest in the cruiser. With detailed appendices of ship data, and illustrated in depth with photos and A D Baker’s specially commissioned plans, British Cruisers truly matches the lofty standards set by Friedman’s previous books on British destroyers. ISBN: 9781848320789 • Price: £45.00 Size: 289 x 245mm

THE SECRET CAPTURE For fifteen years after the end of the war all official Admiralty records showed the German submarine U-110 as sunk on 9 May 1941 by the surface escorts of convoy OB.318. As this book was the first to reveal, this was a deliberate deception – the U-boat was actually captured and its contents fully investigated before being allowed to sink a day later, a fact skilfully kept from even the survivors of the submarine’s crew. ISBN: 9781848320680 • Price: £16.99 Size: 198 x 129mm

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Maritime book proposals are always welcome: • June 2011 •

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Ships June outside bc.indd 1

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The 182.14m chemical/products tanker Castillo de Trujillo (2004/21,589gt) manoeuvring at Gibraltar. Owned and operated by Empresa Naviera Elcano SA, she is powered by a single MAN-B&W 6S50MC-C engine of 13,542bhp, giving a service speed of 14.5 knots. Outside the harbour can be seen the Acciona ferry Zurbaran (22,152gt), which was built in 2000 as Northern Merchant and now operates on the Palma de Mallorca-Mah贸n-Valencia route. (Daniel Ferro)

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Ships Monthly June 2011  

Ships Monthly June 2011

Ships Monthly June 2011  

Ships Monthly June 2011