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S E PT E M B E R 2 0 1 9 ¡ Vo l u m e 1 2 4 : I s s u e 1

THE LEADER

Science and Technology

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Alumni develop tiny homes made out of shipping containers

Apollo 11 turns 50 years old and splashed down in Hawaii

Page 32 Students share how they manage their healthy lifestyles


SEPTEMBER 2019 • VOLUME 124 • ISSUE 1

ADVISOR

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

LeeAnn Lambert

Brooklyn Redd

MULTIMEDIA JOURNALISTS

COPY EDITORS

Anel Canto Taffie Kwok Alyssa Odom Mackenzie Beaver Will Krueger Elijah Hadley

Dani Castro Noah Shoaf Bruno Maynez

PHOTOGRAPHERS

Ho Yin Li Chad Hsieh

VIDEOGRAPHERS

Esther Insigne ART & GRAPHICS

Brad Carbine Milani Ho Ip ART DIRECTOR

Lynne Hardy MANAGING EDITOR

Kevin Brown

NEWS CENTER

BOX 1920 BYUH LAIE, HI 96762 PRINTER

Pr int Ser vices Editorial, photo submissions & Distribution inquiries: k e a l a k a i @ by u h . e d u . To s u b s c r i b e t o t h e R S S F E E D or to view additional ar ticles,go to k e a l a k a i . by u h . e d u

CONTACT

Email: kealakai@byuh.edu Phone: (808) 675-3694 Fax: (808) 675-3491 Office: BYU–Hawaii Aloha Center 134 ON THE COVER: Yen Jou Chang and Sariah Villalon observe chemical reactions in the laboratory in McKay 122. Photo by Chad Hsieh

ABO UT US The Ke Alaka‘i began publishing the same year the university, then called Church College of Hawaii, opened. It has continued printing for more than 60 years. The name means “the leader” in Hawaiian. It began as a monthly newsletter, evolved into a weekly newspaper, then a weekly magazine, and is now a monthly news magazine with a website and a social media presence. Today a staff of about 25 students works to provide information for BYU–Hawaii’s campus ohana and Laie’s community.

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PHOTO SUBMISSIO N “There are very few things in life as mesmerizing as a campfire.” Taken in Stanley, Idaho. Photo and quote by Alumnae Kinsey Brown

Share your photo with us and we may feature it in our next issue. E-mail us your high-resolution photo with a caption at kealakai@byuh.edu

F O L LO W US AR O U ND THE WE B

KEA LA KA I.BYUH.EDU

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Contents September 08

Ask the Professional with Dr. Michael Weber

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Alumni address housing crisis by building tiny homes

12 14 16

Historian Clint Christensen shares people’s personal histories of the temple

Voyages of Light Choir Tour

BYUH student shares how she grew stronger as an individual through her health issues

The Concert Choir stuns audiences during their performances at various venues in New Zealand and Tahiti

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Concert Choir performs live in New Zealand and Tahiti

Yen Jou Chang and Sariah Villalon Students involved in chemistry are required to directly and safely investigate chemical properties and reactions using lab instruments

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Mimi Lukov’s journey

Mimi Lukov shares her story of enduring hardship

On the cover

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Highlights

Powering electric vehicles

Yoshito Miura can fix it

Hawaii ranks second behind California in the number of electric vehicles on the road

Japanese student uses his technological talent to fix devices in the community


Campus Comment:

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Electric vehicles and their impact on the environment

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50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission and its Hawaii connection

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Deciphering between modern and traditional medicine

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Leave it to the women for jobs in STEM fields

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Cadavers make certain research opportunities possible

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Yoshito Miura becomes new local gadget guru

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Learn how being healthy is a smart investment

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Gaining a testimony of science and religion

Why is it important to keep researching and discovering? By Elijah Hadley

Michael Kraft, a sophomore

from Washington, D.C., majoring in communications, said, “If we don’t keep discovering, we cannot advance as humans. Without researching and discovering, then it defeats the entire purpose of curiosity. Thanks to discoveries, we’ve advanced so much as humans.”

Henna Qiu, a freshman from Taiwan with an undecided major, said, “It’s important to make improvements everywhere, so our lives can improve. These improvements come from advances and discoveries in scientific fields.”

Spencer Hauata, a sophomore from Tahiti majoring in marketing, said, “As members of the Church, we believe in God. Thanks to Him, the Earth is full of so many things, and as humans, we don’t know everything about it. We discover the fullness of things on Earth by making the choice to research and seek answers.”

Catherine Salvador, a junior from the Philippines majoring in operation and supply chain, said, “We as humans benefit from discovery. We owe most of the things we have now, including technology, to research and discovery.”

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Letter from the Managing Editor As a graduate of biology and an aspiring dentist, I am glad to see around us many advances in science and technology. Of these new findings, I am sure we can put them to good use so we can benefit society and enrich our personal and spiritual health. Growing up, my father had always pushed me to remain curious of the world around me as we backpacked through the mountains or watched documentaries on TV together. It seemed as if the world had so many mysteries waiting to be discovered. My sense of wonder only increased as I studied at BYU-Hawaii and started to gain knowledge of human anatomy as I worked with human cadavers on campus. I was priviledged to have many wonderful professors in the sciences, including Dr. Michael Weber (page 8) as he taught me about quantum mechanics and the physics of life around us. He taught me valuable perceptual skills I use every day as a dental assistant, and I will continue to use in my dentistry career. It is through professors like him we can learn the seemingly impossible and learn about how things operate. I was lucky enough to have studied human anatomy with Dr. Phillip Bruner and learned about all of the advances in healthcare and engineering because people have graciously donated their bodies to scientfic research (page 28). I am beyond inspired how modern medicine can help those in need find happiness, more so by the will power of people like Mimi Lukov (page 12) who never give up in their struggles for a better life. You will also find in this issue stories of how people come together and find innovative ways of solving modern problems, such as alumni who found a solution to our island’s housing crisis (page 10) and revolutionized the way people think of home. People like Yoshito Miura (page 30) are also using innovation and technological skills to fix devices and power our tomorrow. This year also marked the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission where mankind set foot on the moon for the first time (page 22). This was not only a victory for the space program of the United States, but it was a huge milestone for the entire world. It is innovative thinking coupled with curiousity that sparks scientific leaps in society. The desire to learn and keep trying despite failure has led to the world we see around us now. I hope we never lose our ability to make our dreams possible as we work in unison to leave the world a better place than we found it.

-Managing Editor

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Community SEPTEMB ER 2019

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DR. MICHAEL WEBER

ASK THE PROFESSIONAL

CA MP U S LIF E

Dr. Michael Weber said math is the language of physics. KE ALAK APhoto ’I by Chad Hsieh

BY TAFFIE KWOK Dr. Michael Weber has been teaching physics at BYU-Hawaii since 1999. He is the father of three children and has five grandchildren. He earned a bachelor’s in physics at BYU in Provo and a master’s and doctorate in physics from the University of Michigan. He enjoys cycling and cycled across the U.S. mainland in 2010. He said he has twice. completed each of the three introductory Greek courses at BYUH.


WHAT IS PHYSICS? “Physics explains how the universe works. It explains how the climate works, or how an MRI works. All the high-tech stuff in medicine is all physics. Physics is an experimental science. That means if you have some theoretical physicist who comes up with this brilliant idea, people won’t take it seriously until the findings are verified experimentally. If the idea is not verified, the theory is either discarded or revised. Typically, ideas are written in terms of mathematics. Math is the language of physics.

WHEN DID THE STUDY OF PHYSICS START? “Modern physics really starts in the late 1800s to early 1900s. Before that, we had classical physics. Everything agreed with common sense like common experience. For example, if you had a ball on the ground and you kick it, you’re exerting a force on it and the ball will accelerate: Newton’s law of motion.”

HOW IS QUANTUM MECHANICS IMPORTANT TO PEOPLE? “Quantum mechanics led to electronics. If we didn’t understand quantum mechanics, we wouldn’t have modern electronics, no computers, cell phones, etc. Can you imagine that? In order to make discoveries, you have to know the basic science. If people didn’t know this, do you think there would be medical discoveries? No. Once this is understood, then some other genius can figure out how to use it to bless mankind. That’s why many governments spend so much money on basic research.”

WHAT MADE YOU WANT TO STUDY SCIENCE? “In high school, we did these labs. I thought it was very interesting to predict how something was going to act. I think that’s what grabbed me, initially.”

ANY ADVICE FOR STUDENTS WHO STUDY SCIENCE? “Sometimes we have students who want to go to medical school. They don’t realize physics is incredibly important to medical school. In second semester physics, we look at a circuit with wires and different electric components. I hear students say, ‘Why are we learning this? I don’t want to be an electric engineer.’ Then, I get letters from the same students who go onto medical school. They write to me, ‘The same theories and methods we used to analyzed circuits, we use to analyze blood flows through the body.’ Physics is not easy.”

HOW CAN STUDENTS BEGIN PHYSICS? “We have a class, Physics 100. It’s conceptual with almost no math. All we do in the first half of the class is classical physics - like Newton’s laws on gravity - basic stuff. The next half of the class is quantum physics. Cool stuff. No math. I love teaching this class.”

ANY OTHER EXAMPLES OF USING PHYSICS IN OTHER AREAS OF LIFE? “Astronomy is applied physics. I teach astronomy sometimes. When I do, on the first day, I write on the board, ‘Welcome to Applied Physics 104’ and I come about five minutes late. The students would be confused. Finally, someone would be brave and say, “Brother Weber, I thought this was astronomy.” I would say, ‘Well yeah. Astronomy is applied physics.’ I wanted them to understand. Some students come to class wanting to memorize constellations. Astronomy is about how stars, planets, and galaxies are formed. That’s physics. Light: Is it made of particles or waves? People proved light was a wave.Yet, you need to have a medium to disturb the wave. Like with a water wave, water is the medium. With sound, air is the medium. But for light? Scientists couldn’t figure it out. Einstein has a great ability to look outside the box. He studied light, electricity and magnetism. He came up with the theory of relativity. He said, ‘Nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Let’s say we have a rocket and it’s going 99 percent the speed of light. Let’s also say the rocket has a headlight. What is the speed of the light coming from the head light? The speed of light or 186,000 miles per second. Time is relative.”

WHAT CAN STUDENTS DO FOR A CAREER IN SCIENCE? “If students want a career in science, most of the time they need to learn math. I wish I could go to all the high schools in the world and tell the students to learn math. This is the first semester of having an algebra-based physics class. We have always had calculusbased physics. If you know calculus, physics is much easier.”

WHAT IS RELATIVITY? “There was a theory that explained electricity and magnetism. It was a mathematical theory because you could explain and make predictions. There are some problems with theory.Think of an electron. It’s a particle. Now think of a wave, like a wave on water. A wave is a disturbance of something, like dropping a pebble in a fish tank. The water isn’t moving from one spot to another. Interference: Waves move up and down. Half way up or down is called a wave interfering. Waves go through each other. Sound waves go through each other. Particles also act like waves. It’s true and there is data behind it. This is an example of how modern physics disagrees with common sense. Particles and waves are completely different things yet they act the same.

CAN YOU EXPLAIN ANY INTERESTING EXPERIMENTS? “The twin paradox: This is imaginary, but let’s say there are twins. One of them wants to go on a spaceship that goes almost the speed of light. Let’s say this twin wants to go for a year. Let’s also say they’re 35 when they leave. One will stay on Earth and the other leaves. After she returns, how old will she be? Common sense: 36. According to the girl who went to space, she will come back one year later. She will be 36 years old but her twin might be 70 or 80 years old. When you go nearly at the speed of light, your time slows down.We have done this experiment with clocks, atomic clocks, the most precise kind there is.Years ago they did this experiment where they got two identical clocks. One was left on Earth and the other was put on a jet. They flew around for a while. When the plane came back, common sense would say the clocks would have the same time, but they didn’t. Just like what the theory of relativity, time is not absolute. It’s relative. If they didn’t use relativity, it wouldn’t work. It would completely fail after a few minutes. Everything uses GPS.” • SEPTEMB ER 2019

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Home Delivery Alumni share they are providing solutions to affordable housing in Laie and beyond BY WILL KRUEGER Graphics by Lynne Hardy

BYU-Hawaii alumni Richie Norton [2004], who resides at Sunset Beach, and Thiefaine Magre [2012] from France, along with former community member Jase Bennett, have partnered to create affordable housing through creating fully functional homes made of shipping containers. The homes can be shipped anywhere in the world. Norton said, “Our goal is to follow David O. McKay’s vision to influence the world for good. For us and this project, that starts with the home.” According to their website tinyandproudhomes. com, they “make custom tiny homes to order. [They] are focusing on real tiny homes with insulation, fixtures, electric, plumbing, etc. These homes can last through cold winters, hot summers and storms on the island. These types of affordable housing are meant to be like real homes, but hundreds of thousands of dollars less. The price is totally up to you and what you want.” The story behind the tiny homes Norton said the idea for creating tiny homes and affordable housing came from Laie. “My business partners and I saw the housing shortage in Laie. Jase and I worked for years in real estate and helped many faculty members buy homes in the community and also others throughout Hauula, Kahuku and Laie. “We saw an inventory problem, where there weren’t enough houses for people. Because there weren’t enough houses, the high demand meant housing prices went up. We recognized this isn’t just a problem in Laie and the islands, but a problem everywhere all over the world.”

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The mission of creating tiny homes, Norton explained, is to create affordable housing. “We create these so they have structural integrity. We are making homes that are made out of containers, on wheels, [and] you can expand and unfold. [They are] kits where people can build their own houses.” Magre, a co-founder of the business, shared how he got involved with this project. “About three years ago I started to do research on tiny houses, fabricated homes for the South Pacific. My wife is from Tahiti and many of the homes in Tahiti are either built out of cement or prefabricated homes from South East Asia. [The homes are] subsidized by the state and given to the residents of which they are allocated one per person, per lifetime. “However, things happen, needs grow, families need more than one home because these are often very small. I decided to go to China and explore opportunities and options to make homes and have them shipped to Tahiti with discounted rates and affordable even without the government subsidy.” Magre said his search took him around the world to different factories and facilities looking at different technologies. “We ran into concerns about whether homes would be hurricane and cyclone proof, earthquake resistant, tropical storms and all sorts of various conditions they have on the islands. Also, would they meet local codes, comply with building standards, are the materials sustainable and etc.?” Magre continued, “We ran into lots of different challenges, but we found it was actually possible conceptually and technically to create these houses. Now, we are bringing these housing options online

by creating a high-grade product with these tiny homes at an affordable price for people everywhere.” Creating and making a home Norton explained, “The process of building these homes are similar to other homes, with some slight differences. We have blueprints, engineering plans, insulation, plumbing plans and everything that any other home would have.” Magre shared how the homes are made. “The homes are built in facilities that are tooled to make at a mass-scale projects like this. Our container homes go through a process after being reviewed by engineers and architects and gets manufactured where the steel is cut, shaped, welded and put together with every hole that might be needed whether it be windows or pipes. “Once done, the containers are taken to a separate facility where the production of the interior of the home is done. Everything from electrical, plumbing to installing windows and even the finish work; things that go around the windows, the tiles, the floors and everything part of a home.” Norton added, “We’re taking existing technology and applying it in a new way and taking it to the next level. We’re doing something nobody has ever done before - nobody has been able to solve the problem of affordable housing in the way we are. Deploying it and getting it into the right cities and countries is the next step.” A global outreach Norton explained how interests in these homes are coming from a wide range of people. “We aren’t


Left to right: Richie Norton, Jase Bennett and Thiefaine Magre pause for a photo with one of their tiny container homes. Norton says he is tapping into the ever-gowing demand for tiny homes. Photo courtesy of Richie Norton

“We’re taking existing technology and applying it in a new way and taking it to the next level. We’re doing something nobody has ever done before...” just talking about people who want to put this in their backyard for AirBnB or people who want to use this as their personal home, but developers and current contractors who are asking us to supply them.” Naska Sukhbaatar, a recent BYUH graduate from Mongolia, said he is interested in these homes. “I think this is a great solution for affordable housing, to use a shipping container for those who need good homes at a good price. I think this will be beneficial and helpful for people also because this home uses

less construction materials. I would definitely love to live in one.” As the homes are specially built and catered towards the buyer’s interest, Norton said, “There’s a lot of tech that goes into building one of these. So we’re having people actually reach out to us, brands wanting to help us have these homes with the latest tech and in particular solar - to make it even more sustainable.” Business prospects are promising, Norton said. “This business is doing

great. Even if you tap into Netflix, you’ll see shows about people living as a minimalist in tiny homes. So there’s a whole movement that these things are cool. We’re kind of tapping into that. But then we’re taking it the next step further to mainstream it even internationally. We’re trying to make it a way that anyone can access affordable housing when they want. “We’ve recently put out a website that is more like an application page, and we got so flooded with applications that we actually decided to kind of pause this because we had so many people who are ready to go. We can actually make as many as needed, so we’re trying to scale now the process of being able to handle the demand.” • Website: http://www.tinyandproudhomes.com Instagram: tinyhousemovement

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Mimi Lukov said her experience with going through a rare kidney disorder had strengthened her testimony of the Church. Photo by Chad Hsieh


Prisoner to her body Student shares dialysis and transplant are giving her renewed life after two years of trials

BY TAFFIE KWOK Friends and family of Mimi Lukov, a junior from Laie majoring in business management and finance, said two years ago you would not be able to recognize Mimi. From December 2017 to January 2019, the Lukov family said it was a challenging time for their family because their daughter, Mimi, was suffering from a rare kidney disorder, Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS.) Mimi gained 170 pounds with 60 of those pounds being water weight. According to kidney.org, FSGS can affect the kidney’s function by attacking and damaging the glomeruli, the tiny filtering units inside your kidney where blood is cleaned, causing swelling in the body and low levels of protein in the blood. Mimi recalled, “I felt like I was a prisoner in my whole body. My kidney wouldn’t filter bad stuff out of the body. My face and entire body was swollen. I couldn’t walk, or hardly move. I needed to drop out of school.” Mimi’s mother and a BYU–Hawaii EIL teacher, Tatyana Lukov, said the doctors could not figure out what happened to Mimi when both of her legs started swelling and a bump formed on her back. Tatyana said the doctors thought the swelling was an indication of lupus, but the medicine they gave Mimi did not stop the bumps from coming back. Due to Mimi’s condition, she said she stayed home for two years, and Tatyana noted how those two years were hard on both of them. “Two years being in that state [was] hard and depressing. Every morning I woke up to check if she is still alive and breathing, even though my husband and I were ready for her to go back to the spirit world.” The Lukov family finally saw a glimpse of hope after Mimi’s kidney was completely dead, enabling her to finally start her dialysis treatment. Mimi said she did dialysis 13 hours per day. However, this summer Tatyana was able to donate her kidney to Mimi, but the results were not what they wished. Mimi said, “I had my transplant, but so far the new kidney from my mom was shut down by my FSGS so that’s pretty horrible. “So I have been doing infusions and a procedure where they filter the antibodies from my blood three

times every week, called plasmapheresis. Either I will be doing that for the rest of my life or get back on dialysis. “Also my YSA ward and family ward fasted for me, which was amazing,” she continued. “I know that if it is Heavenly Father’s will, everything will work out in His timing for the best. Mimi added with joy, “It is the biggest blessing because I can have a life again.” Kristen Schlegel, a senior from South Carolina studying biology, said Mimi is always so bright and smiley. “She never lets her disease affect her. She is always so hopeful and optimistic. If I have what she has, I would feel depressed. Hanging out with others is tiring for her, but she never shows it.” Mimi added, “The biggest lesson I learned in this trial is no matter how bad things are, there is always hope and ways for things to get better. “There are moments I feel really sad or hopeless, but I don’t listen to those feelings anymore. I have a picture of myself before [dialysis] so that I won’t forget. I want to have an attitude of gratitude of where I am right now and [continue to] be grateful and mindful [for all the blessings].” She added how she is aware other people are going through more difficult trials than she is. “Not everyone is as lucky and blessed as I am to have answers to their prayers. I want to live for them. I am here for them not to give up hope.”

Mimi said her testimony of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has increased. She said, “Knowing Jesus Christ has gone through all our pain. If He overcame the world, I can overcome this too.” She said when she was stuck at home she started doing family history. After recovering, Mimi went to the temple to perform ordinances for the names she found. “I am surprised I did the whole process by myself. I always think family history is for old, capable people. It is so personal for me to be able to do it at my age.” Born and raised in Hawaii because of her parents jobs, her father, Georgi, is a science professor at BYUH, she said this experience has drawn her closer to her roots in Bulgaria, as she said she felt closer to her ancestors and family. Tatyana noted Mimi now is more determined and she is a happier. “My daughter always has the spirit with her. I have learned from her that we don’t have to do things great in life. We just need to do what we can.” •

“I want to have an attitude of gratitude of where I am right now and be grateful and mindful [for all the blessings].” Graphics by Lynne Hardy SEPTEMB ER 2019

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Stories of the People Clint Christensen and colleagues say new book is celebration of personal experiences with the Laie temple during the last century BY ELIJAH HADLEY With the publication of his recent book, “Stories of The Temple In La’ie, Hawaii,” Church Historian Clint Christensen said he wanted to show how a temple could impact people over the course of a century. Acting as a compiler, Christensen worked to commemorate a hundred years of faith as he searched through different stories of Saints to include in the book. Christensen and his associates said it was important to show a more personal side of history in “Stories Of The Temple In La’ie.” According to Christensen, “This is the first centennial book is filled with just stories of the Saints and their experiences of the temple. “Past centennial histories for the four Utah temples are mostly construction histories. I wanted to show how the temple impacts the Saints and share it in their own words.” Christensen, who works for the Church History Department in Salt Lake City, Utah, first spoke about the need for more commemorative temple history at a seminar in 2014, according to the book’s acknowledgments. According to Christensen, “This book came about from the desire to have stories to strengthen and support Eric Marlowe’s history of the temple.” Marlowe is a BYU-Hawaii Religion professor. After being involved with Marlowe’s project to write a history of the Laie Temple, Christensen was interested in writing a companion piece. Marlowe’s book about the exact history of the temple is scheduled to be published in November 2019. As a historian, Christensen said, “I have the opportunity to travel throughout the world to help gather the history of the Church in many nations. I’m amazed at the Lord’s kingdom as it rolls forth. My life has been changed as I’ve met and recorded the story of a Nigerian widow, countless pioneers, and Church leaders. “When compiling this book, I tried to follow the law of witnesses. The more people who can testify of a specific historical event, the more perspective we can have to understand what happened.”

Also working on the project was BYUH Professor Phillip McArthur, who also serves as the editor-in-chief of the Jonathan Napela Center publications. The Napela Center is responsible for publishing the books “Gathering To Laie” and a revised edition of “Moramona.” McArthur said, “This being the centennial year of the temple, we, [the Napela Center,] determined it would be wise to do the book by Clint Christensen. This book is more of a personal account and a collection of oral histories of people’s

“Milestone moments are good occasions to stop and look back upon the path we have been traveling. They are also good times for people to get together and celebrate their achievements, challenges, successes, and so forth.”

Graphics by Lynne Hardy

accounts of coming to the temple and being involved in the temple. This is an oral history, so [Christensen] went in and interviewed hundreds of people and from those interviews, he selected some who fit into certain themes he wanted in the foreground. “This is a history, which is the voices of the people rather than the academic history. While the book doesn’t have the [look] and sophistication of an academic piece of work, there’s a certain kind of viewpoint that is more bottom-up. Clint is not making a whole lot of commentary. Instead, he’s letting the accounts speak for themselves.

“It’s going to reach different kinds of audiences,” McArthur said. “It’s going to be a different kind of read. The readers will probably be a similar audience as those who read Professor Marlowe’s book. There will be certain individuals who will want a more academic history, which consults a variety of resources, and then there will be audiences who prefer voices of real people. “I think there’s a lot to be said for letting the voices of the local people speak in this book. There’s no academic manipulating those voices. But both books are equally valuable. They just serve different purposes. There will be a range of people who buy this and want a more rigorous history told by Saints who lived through the temple in its first century.” McArthur stressed the importance of how the book could strengthen the network the temple has created throughout the Pacific Islands. “Most people who have a connection with the temple know each other. Most people who are close to this place will know several of the people listed in the book.” In regards to Christensen’s book, recently retired BYUH English as an International Language professor, Dr. Mark James, said, “Milestone moments are good occasions to stop and look back upon the path we have been traveling. They are also good times for people to get together and celebrate their achievements, challenges, successes, and so forth. Such occasions include birthdays, which is exactly what we are celebrating now, the birth of the temple 100 years ago.” The book, “Stories of The Temple In La’ie, Hawaii” includes a foreword by the late T. David Hannemann. Known to the community as “Uncle David,” Hannemann served as Laie Hawaii Temple president from 1995 to 1998. In the foreword, he wrote, “This is the first book of its kind to tell stories of the people as part of a centennial temple history. I compare this to the Book of Mormon, which is full of stories, likewise with this temple.” “Stories of The Temple In La’ie, Hawaii” is available for purchase in the BYUH Bookstore. •

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Voyages of Light Concert Choir students share their spiritual experience in performing for the people of New Zealand and Tahiti. Photo by Monique Saenz

BYU–Hawaii Concert Choir travels to New Zealand and Tahiti to sing and spread messages of the gospel BY BRUNO MAYNEZ AND ANEL CANTO

Performing in both New Zealand and Tahiti on what was called the Voyages of Light Tour, the BYU–Hawaii Concert Choir, comprised of 45 students and with a tour staff of 10, said their lives were changed by sharing music, culture and the light of Christ. The choir performed at theaters, senior-care homes, museums, stake centers, a cathedral, a beach, and other historical venues while in New Zealand and Tahiti between May 29 and June 14. According to Anna Sheffield, a junior from Iowa majoring in vocal performance, the purpose of the trip was to share the light of Christ through testimony and song. She said, “The theme was Voyages of Light. We can carry our light to members and nonmembers – to let people know they can receive light through Christ.” “We sang every day, and it was fun meeting new audiences every night,” she said. “It was great to share testimonies again, like serving a mission and returning with honor again.” Will Strong, a sophomore choir member majoring in business and finance from Wisconsin, said, “I’ll never forget it. It’s one of Graphics by Brad Carbine 16

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the coolest things I’ve done in my life. Meeting so many faithful saints, working so hard to perfect the songs, and really singing praises to God with all my heart. It was such a testimony builder and I will never forget the experience.” Strong added, “My favorite part of the tour was when we went to the audience after every performance, and you got to talk to everyone and see the light in their eyes. Everyone left with such a big smile and looked happy. No one left sad or mad.You could just tell everyone enjoyed the concert and felt the spirit.” In a story written about the tour on mormonnewsroom.org.nz, the choir’s director, Michael Belnap, who is a professor of music and voice at BYUH, said of the tour, “I think it’s been a great tour. I think we’ve accomplished the best of everything we could do.” He said the choir members were willing to work hard and have the spirit with them. Belnap commented in the article how singing the hymn “How Great Thou Art” is always a spiritual experience for him and the choir members. He said during one concert, choir members were overcome with emotions


while singing the hymn. “It’s always such a spiritual song, and the way the kids sing it is very dynamic. From the very first concert we did in Kerikeri, I just felt the spirit so strong. It was one of my favorite concerts. “It was spiritually charging for us. It was exactly what we needed to get us on to the tour,” said Belnap. President Tanner John S. Tanner, president of BYUH, accompanied the choir delivering gospel messages at presentations and devotionals. According to Sheffield, “President Tanner supported the choir. He encouraged the choir to stay positive. He was our opener at events. He set the mood for us. Everyone loved what he had to say and he was a good example.” Strong said, “It was great to have his spirit leading us along. [President Tanner] legitimized our tour with his authority. I love seeing him coming on tours with us and carrying his calling.”

horizons and motivated me to keep pursuing my major. This is an opportunity to be an example. People were always watching.” Presidential Palace of French Polynesia The choir’s last two concerts took place at the Presidential Palace of French Polynesia. Government officials welcomed the choir and thanked the Church and the university for

bringing light to the country through their voices. They also acknowledged the visit of President Russell M. Nelson to the country just weeks before. Despite the language barriers, Tahitians “where some of the most willing to talk and get to know us after the show,” shared choir Continued on page 18

The group performed at the Holy Trinity Cathedral in Auckland. Photo by Monique Saenz

Audience’s reactions Audience members said they enjoyed the choir presentations from the Holy Trinity Cathedral in Auckland to the Presidential Palace in French Polynesia. “I think it was beautiful. On this cold night, I felt a warm and peaceful feeling,” said Phillip Hadley, member of the Papakura Stake after the concert in Parnell, Auckland. In New Zealand, local families hosted members of the choir in their homes. They shared with the choir members their favorite chocolate, home-bottled fruit, family traditions and national history. “The locals were hospitable,” Sheffield said, “The Maori people seemed very spiritual.” She said the choir members were affected by their interactions with the people in New Zealand. “I have a personal connection with the Maori people. My grandfather is Matthew Cowley and he served his mission in New Zealand and translated the Book of Mormon to Maori. “My love for the Polynesian people grew immensely. They are so friendly and in tune with the spirit. My love for music grew. I’ve always loved music and performing. Doing that in a different country has broadened my

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Continued from page 17

member Michael Potter, a senior majoring in biology from California. Kaikohe Kura educational exchange At the Maori-language immersion school of Kakiage, the choir sang “Kua Rongo Mai Koe” during the Powhiri or Maori welcome. According to Noelle Oldham, an alumna from Florida, the song is inviting and welcoming. “We sang it to Maori people at the schools and welcoming ceremonies to show our respect and love that we had for them for welcoming us to their land and county.” President Tanner congratulated the students from Kaikohe for loving their culture and invited them to keep their traditions alive. The choir thanked the crew who prepared the lunch by singing “Bogoroditse Devo,” a Russian song about Christ and the Virgin Mary. Afterward, choir members taught workshops about singing basics, hula, ukulele and Spanish to the students. “This was especially

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Choir students had the opportunity to meet locals and still keep in touch with them through social media. Photo by Monique Saenz

moving,” added Sheffield, “Both high school and BYUH choirs performed for each other [and] introduced each other’s culture. We personally became friends with the high school students and we still communicate through Instagram. We really connected with the high school kids.” Shirey Hogg, a teacher at Kaikohe from Mangamu, said, “It was an amazing opportunity for our students to learn that it is not only important to learn about their language and their culture, but also about other cultures.” Lagoon at Moorea In Moorea, the choir visited the Belvedere Lookout, swam at a crystal-clear beach, tried the local “poisson cru,” or raw fish similar to poke, with coconut milk, and then sang Hawaiian and Tahitian songs standing by the waters of the beach. Mihiani Tapea, a student from Tahiti majoring in elementary education, said, “It was nice to see people from a different country

come to Tahiti to sing our songs. A lot of my friends went to watch the concert and told me how they enjoy the blend of different voices.” Tribute to Uncle Tommy Taurima A more personal meeting took place at a chapel in Hamilton, New Zealand, when the choir meet with Uncle Tommy Taurima, a Moari composer who served at the Polynesian Cultural Center as a creative director and the Maoritanga cultural expert. On the 50th anniversary of the PCC, Taurima received the award of “Living Treasure.” While meeting with the choir while on tour, Taurima and members of his extended family, laughed and wept together as they met with the choir members. “It is beautiful. I could see the faces of many of my friends as I see your faces,” said Taurima in a voice choked with emotion after hearing a piece from the choir. •


Math and Science SEPTEMB ER 2019

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An Ala Moana Tesla sales associate shares Tesla plans to expand its resources on the Hawaiian Islands. Photo by Bill McElhaney.

Electric vehicle reality check The U.S. Department of Energy says electric vehicles in Hawaii are primarily being powered by oil and coal BY KEVIN BROWN Although electric vehicles emit little to no tailpipe emissions on the roads, reports suggest they are only environmentally friendly if the sources of energy used to power them are clean.Currently, electric vehicles in Hawaii are drawing the majority of their power from fossil fuel energy sources, according to information from the U.S. Department of Energy. Kayson Conlin, a senior from Utah studying graphic design, said, “When

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considering which car is best for the environment, we shouldn’t be so quick to assume a car that doesn't use gas is better by default. “The electricity that powers a Tesla has to come from somewhere, and in many instances, it comes from power plants that use fossil fuels.” According to reports from the U.S. Department of Energy, that is the case for the majority of electricity produced in Hawaii.

The report said the state average for the top three sources of electricity in Hawaii is 68 percent oil, 13.2 percent coal and 5.46 percent wind. The national averages for the top three electricity sources are 35.24 percent natural gas, 27.52 percent coal and 19.37 percent nuclear. In addition to using fossil fuels to power their batteries, there are also emissions arising


from production of these vehicles and their parts. According to Forbes, countries being used to manufacture the batteries for some electric vehicle companies are reporting “a much higher level of impact on emissions. A comparative study between electric vehicles and internal combustion vehicles (ICVE) in China ... indicates that infrastructure and efficient manufacturing techniques are the keys to reducing emissions during production. “Chinese electric vehicle battery manufacturers produce up to 60 percent more CO2 during fabrication than ICVE engine production, but could cut their emissions by up to 66 percent if they adopted American or European manufacturing techniques.” Until cleaner manufacturing processes are developed all around the world, pollution generated during the production of electric vehicle batteries remains at par or slightly higher than the process used to manufacture petrol or diesel-based engines, according to Forbes. Conlin said, “Gas cars have gotten very efficient in recent years, and while they might not be the ‘green future’ everyone is raving about, they shouldn’t be overlooked as an option when buying a car.” He said car buyers should do their research and look at the overall picture when deciding between an electric vehicle or a gas-powered vehicle. A report from the Ricardo Consultancy found that “an average petrol car will involve emissions amounting to the equivalent of 5.6 tons of CO2, while for an average electric vehicle, the figure is 8.8 tons. Of that, nearly half is incurred in producing the battery,” according to The Guardian. Despite this information, the same report stated electric vehicle owners will still only use approximately 80 percent of the emissions of a gas-powered vehicle over the span of the car’s lifetime. An electric vehicle’s long-term efficiency, alternative to rising gas prices and green initiative have attracted car buyers in the Aloha State. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the state of Hawaii has the second-highest electric vehicle ownership per capita in the United States, with California taking the top spot.

Graphic by Lynne Hardy

“Gas cars have gotten very efficient in recent years, and while they might not be the ‘green future’ everyone is raving about, they shouldn’t be overlooked as an option when buying a car.” However, electric vehicles only account for less than 1 percent of all vehicles on Hawaii’s roads, according to Hawaii News Now. Of those vehicles, Teslas account for about 13 percent. Incentives, such as reduced registration fees, allowing electric vehicles to drive in HOV lanes and reserved parking spaces, have also contributed to the rising number of electric vehicles in Hawaii. In order to meet the increasing demand, Tesla has plans to extend its presence beyond its two existing locations at Ala Moana Center and the International Market Place. Montavio Avery, a sales associate at Ala Moana Center’s Tesla store, said, “We are in the planning stages of installing two supercharge stations on Oahu, one in Kailua and one in Honolulu.” Avery said Tesla is also building a supercharge station on Maui. “The Tesla car knows where the supercharging stations are based on your GPS location, as well as other Tesla stores. It will also show you where other charging stations are from other companies, so you will never be left without a place to charge your car,” he said.

According to Tesla’s website, supercharge stations can charge your vehicle in less than an hour and users are charged per kilowatt-hour or per minute of charging, depending on the location of the station. Avery said, however, most people in Hawaii charge their vehicles at their homes since they aren’t driving long distances compared to electric vehicles on the mainland. Programs incentivizing the use of electric vehicles and clean energy are expected to continue as Hawaii is the only state in the nation to have set a goal of producing all of its renewable energy by 2045, according to KITV.•

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Apollo 11 turns 50 Professor says moon landing was celebrated as a global accomplishment for mankind BY ALYSSA ODOM

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Man landed on the moon on July 20, 1969, and this extraordinary event impacted the lives of millions of people around the world through the development of technology and inspiring people to reach for the stars when making their own plans and goals. The technological and social influence of the moon landing can still be seen in society today. Things such as ear thermometers, emergency blankets and memory foam came about because of technology that was developed for this mission, according to NASA. Velcro, though not developed by NASA, became popular worldwide through its use on the mission. Some other products, according to NASA, are camera phones, scratch-resistant lens, LED lights, CAT Scans, a flare that can destroy land mines, athletic shoes, water purification systems, dust busters, freeze-dried food, baby formula, artificial limbs, portable computers and computer mice, invisible braces and even Super Soakers. Though too young at the time to remember the actual occurrence of the event, Dr. Kurt Johnson, professor of education in the Department of Social Work and Education, said he has been inspired by the moon landing since he was young. He said he was inspired to explore and not give up on seemingly impossible dreams. “To me, the moon landing was all about this whole idea of exploration. It was about going somewhere that no one’s ever gone to and to someplace that no one really knew anything about. We had to have that faith, trust and drive, saying, ‘We can solve this. We can science it out.’” Johnson said this event helped him develop a “can-do” mentality. He said, “If we can do stuff like this, what can’t we do? It spurred the creation of a society where the impossible is just kind of expected. “People just assume we should be able to do this or that. I don’t know if that’s a good or a bad thing. Some of the remarkable things that happen today, both within the space industry and without, are often overlooked just because people are accustomed to incredible feats being easily done.” When teaching in an elementary school classroom, Johnson said he would teach his students

about the moon landing and help the children to understand why some event that happened in the 1960s should hold such great importance to them. “I would want my students to take away the idea that you can solve just about anything. Seemingly impossible things can become possible. I would hope they would cling to that truth throughout their lives, no matter what field they decided to go into.” Upon completing its mission, the Apollo 11 module landed in the Pacific Ocean and was picked up by the USS Hornet, an aircraft carrier based out of Pearl Harbor. The astronauts were then placed in a silver Airstream trailer onboard the ship for quarantine, according to NASA. Alan Poh, an Oahu resident, was 13 years old at the time and was present at Pearl Harbor when the astronauts were brought back. In a recent posting on the “Remember Oahu from the Past” Facebook page, Poh recorded his thoughts and feelings from that memorable day. “Astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins were put in the Mobile Quarantine Facility, which actually was a modified Airstream trailer to protect us all from ‘moon germs.’ “This is where two 13-year-old kids on bikes spied it moving slowly on the virtually unused road moving slowly to the back gate of the air base. In a much different time than now, we were able to ride along, by ourselves, and exchange waves, salutes and other nonsense with the three men in the Mobile Quarantine Facility.” Johnson said the moon landing served to be a monumental and unifying event. He said, “The Apollo 11 mission really brought us to be a global society. In the ‘60s, after World War II, the world was still becoming a global society. The moon landing was an event that was celebrated by the whole world. The focus was not on the accomplishment of the Americans, but rather on the combined efforts of everyone and the amazing fact that man had been to the moon.” •

The Apollo astronauts splashed down in the Pacific Ocean after their historic trip to the moon and back. The USS Hornet, pictured top left, picked up the astronauts and they were quarantined in an Airstream trailer, top right, until doctors cleared them from picking up any strange germs while in space or on the surface of the moon, While still quarantined in the trailer, the astronauts were part of a victory parade in Honolulu, lower photos. Photos courtesy of Remember Oahu from the Past Facebook page.

“To me, the moon landing was all about this whole idea of exploration. It was about going somewhere that no one’s ever gone to and to someplace that no one really knew anything about.”

“The moon landing was an event that was celebrated by the whole world. The focus was not on the accomplishment of the Americans, but rather on the combined efforts of everyone and the amazing fact that man had been to the moon.” Graphics by Lynne Hardy SEPTEMB ER 2019

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Mutually beneficial forms of medicine BYU-Hawaii students and a professor say students should be open to both modern and traditional forms of medicine but should also research carefully BY ELIJAH HADLEY

CO UGH SYRUP Maximum Strength Cough+Che st C onge stion Relief. 24 hour R elief Ac tive Ingredient. T herapeutic su bstance in pr oduc t; amoun t o f ac tive ingredient per uni t. S ym ptoms or dis ea ses the pr oduc t will treat or p revent. Wa rnings. W hen no t t o u se the pr oduc t; c onditions tha t m ay require advic e from a doc tor b efore t aking the pr oduc t; po ssible interactions or side ef fects; when to stop t aking the pr oduc t and when t o c ontact a doc tor; i f you ar e pr egnan t or b reastf eeding, se ek guidanc e from a h ea lth c are professiona l; keep pr oduc t out o f childr en’s reach.

Graphics by Lynne Hardy

To treat illnesses, there exists a wide variety of options. One might use home remedies to cure a headache, or get a flu shot to guard against the flu. BYU-Hawaii students and a professor of biology said traditional and modern medicines had both pros and cons, but in selecting the proper remedy, people should carefully research the benefits of each type of medicine. Colby Weeks, an assistant professor of Biology, expressed an even approach, praising aspects of both forms of medicine. “It really depends on what’s happening. There’s no home remedy for whooping cough and other diseases,” which he said was the strength of western medicine, which includes chemical vaccines for whooping cough, chicken pox, and hepatitis. According to the Children’s Hospital Of Philadelphia, more than 3 million people die 24

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per year from vaccine-preventable diseases, half of which are children under 5 years old. “It’s tough with the whole anti-vaccination campaign going on, where some people are using their culture as a reason not to vaccinate themselves or their kids,” Weeks said. “I was recently reading a talk by one of the brethren [of the Church], which talked about how culture teaches both good things, and some problematic things. When someone joins the Church, they should leave the bad behind, which wasn’t necessarily defined in the talk. “Once in a while, my students and I will find activity in plants that actually does defend against some infections. So there’s not really a clear line where one form of medicine is better than the others. Just because one plant is effective against one form of the disease,

doesn’t mean it protects against all diseases. The medicine men in tribes learned how to make medicine through observation, just like our western scientists do. Be open to new things, but always research reputable sources.” Medicines typically referred to as “modern medicine’’ include antibiotics, antiseptics, and vaccines. According to Medical News Today, these types of medicine came as part of several scientific breakthroughs, including germ theory. According to MNT, “The 19th and 20th centuries saw breakthroughs occurring in infection control. At the end of the 19th century, 30 percent of deaths were due to infection, that number dropped to 4 percent by the end of the 20th century.” According to the World Health Organization, traditional medicine refers to


“the knowledge, skills and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, used in the maintenance of health and in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. One third of the population lacks access to essential medicines and the provision of safe and effective traditional and alternative remedies could become an important way of increasing access to health care services.” Cindy Lin Castro, a sophomore and undecided major from Taiwan, said she prefers using traditional Taiwanese medicine, but she still recognizes the usefulness of western methods. “When I cramp during my period, I usually have a medicine called si wu tang. Whether or not I use traditional medicine depends on the situation. For me, the effects of traditional medicine are slower, but I feel they are a better long-term solution. “I also believe in food as a traditional form of medicine. If people would just eat healthy, a lot of the problems they face would go away.” According to a link Castro provided from the Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, “Food offers more than mere energy to get us through work and daily activities. What we take into our bodies has the power to heal and even regain yin-yang balance within. Westerners are familiar with food’s ancient role as sustenance and energy. But these other roles play an even greater part in the overall homeostasis of our bodies. “Nutrition may be directly applied to achieving overall health. Food serves to provide a source of balance and equilibrium for the flow of life energy (qi); an imbalance in yin and yang energy manifests itself into a number of forms, including pain, sleeplessness, tumors, and blood loss. The application of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs to foods can help prevent illness, thwart pain, and achieve longevity and overall health in the body.” Castro said, “I want to enjoy the food too, but I would like to eat healthy at the same time. I’m not saying things like ice cream are bad, but I prefer a healthier option. For me, taking western medicine is sometimes only able to cure just the symptoms, not the disease. “Based on general conception, traditional Chinese treatment is more focused on patients’

Be open to new things, but always research reputable sources.” holistic physical condition, which gradually works up to getting the whole body in balance.” Joanna Chibota, a freshman from Zimbabwe majoring in biomedical science, said she is a strong supporter of western practices like vaccines and pills because, “while, yes, vaccines don’t stop all the diseases, they prevent a good deal of them. By not vaccinating your children, you are increasing the risk for the entire population to get the disease and for the disease to mutate and become worse. Diseases are extremely important to control. “As for western medicine as a whole, yes there are issues, but there have been massive improvements compared to what it was before. Right now, there have been so many advancements. People are curing cancer, and that can’t be done with traditional medicine. Traditional methods can only go so far. Sometimes it doesn’t even do or cure anything. “I believe it is an excellent supplement to modern/western medicine when used together. Traditional medicine can help some things, but just like western medicine, it has a different way of helping people, which is not a bad thing. Every scientist, past, present, and future, including the medicine men of indigenous tribes, has had to work through trial and error. With science always changing and with new discoveries being made, I don’t see why traditional and modern methods can’t be used together rather than separately.” Professor Weeks, while acknowledging the benefits of modern inventions in medicine to cure age-old ailments, added, “I never want to say traditional medicine isn’t useful, but it cannot cure everything, just as modern/western medicine cannot cure everything. There is a need to respect and learn from the science of traditional medicine as today’s scientists work to find cures in the future.” •

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F EAT U RE

Women are encouraged to study science, technology, engineering and mathematics BY TAFFIE KWOK

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Graphics by Milani Ho Ip


According to a study conducted by the Department of Education, boys were more likely to find STEM programs, science, technology, engineering and mathematics, more enjoyable than girls. Female students said studyng STEM programs can lead to good career paths. Forbs.com reports, “Girls lack confidence in their ability in STEM subjects and are less likely to think they will end up working in them when they leave school, according to a new survey. “But girls do better than boys in exams in STEM subjects, suggesting it is lack of belief rather than any shortage of ability that is holding them back.” Having seen change in education, Joyce Smart, a senior missionary from Utah teaching at the Math Lab at BYUH–Hawaii, said she has been involved with academic math for three decades. According to her, the role of women in math is expected to grow. She said, “More doors are opening [for women] instead of redirecting them on a narrow path. Women have the capability to learn [like men]. If half of the population is being left off the train, there will be a huge loss.” Smart said she noticed more women in STEM programs in the past 30 years. “In the 1970s, as a freshman majoring in math, I was one of two girls in a room of men.” Marriage and family put a pause on her education. However, she said she returned to school after having five children, and noticed more women were in the math programs than when she started. Smart continued, “By the time I was done with my 27 years of teaching, there were more girls than boys in my class.” She saw more girls were becoming more interested in math. Encouraging girls to take up STEM programs, former U.S. President Barack Obama

said, “One of the things I really strongly believe in is we need to have more girls interested in math, science and engineering. We’ve got half the population that is way underrepresented in those fields and that means we’ve got a whole bunch of talent not being encouraged the way they need to.”

People who made the change Appreciating the words from TED talk speaker, Debbie Sterling, was Esther Lam, a sophomore from Hong Kong majoring in math. She shared, “[Sterling] was discriminated and was told she would never be a success in the field because of her gender. However, Sterling believed ‘there are a million girls out there who are engineers. They just might not know it yet.’ That’s why she created toys for girls aged four to nine so they can learn how to build like boys.” Smart also shared how there was a professor who changed her life by providing her support. There was a time she took her 2-year-old daughter to her math class and Dr. Corey talked

to her after class kindly. She recalled, “He is the type of person who made changes and made a difference in other people’s lives. He said, “It is amazing you are here, it is marvelous what you are doing. I want to support you in any way I can. Let me know what I can do to help.’” Using math in a career Connie Mui, a senior from Hong Kong majoring in psychology and applied math, said her majors will open up more opportunities in her future. She said, “As a psychology major, I need to go to graduate school so I decided to double major in math too.” According to Mui, having a background in these fields will make her a stronger candidate for graduate schools and pursuing a career using analysis. Mui said statistical analysis is going to be a trend in the future, as people use math in computer science or electrical devices. She said, “Many students major in business at BYUH because they think it is a guarantee to earn money and have a brighter future. However, increasing your ability to deal with numbers can ensure a good career path too.” Lam shared, “Being an engineer is not only calculating, but also you need to have good communication skills to present the math concept to others.” Influencing generations Smart explained how she came from a family with strong and independent women. She recalled her mother always encouraged her children to think, be curious and learn. “She told us to push ourselves to learn. Her example cultivates a learning environment and that inspired me to raise my girls in the same way.” •

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Serving society after death Cadavers are a means for students and researchers to further scientific advances BY KEVIN BROWN

It’s not every day someone gets to study human anatomy up close and personal with a cadaver, but at BYU-Hawaii approximately 30 students taking elementary human anatomy get that special encounter. An even smaller amount, five students, get the privilege of dissecting a cadaver each year. Liliana Marques Williams, an alumna of biomedicine from Portugal who dissected a cadaver earlier this year, said, “The human cadaver dissection laboratory was one of the highlights of my college experience. “Being a visual learner, the class was very rewarding for me because I was able to visualize a lot of the concepts I had previously learned in more theoretical classes.” The elementary human anatomy course, taught by Dr. Phillip Bruner, associate professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Physical Science, requires students to combine their visual learning skills with good memorization habits. In conjunction with exams from class lectures, students must memorize various pinned locations of the cadaver and models used in the laboratory. According to some students, memorizing the muscles is the hardest part of the class. Dr. Bruner said students are required to know the name, action, origin and insertion of each muscle pinned on the cadaver or model in order to get points. He said the course is a “points game” where if students don’t put in the time to memorize everything, especially the muscle labs, they will most likely not pass the course. Although the course is challenging, alumni have said they are lucky to have been given the human cadaver experience, especially from such a small undergraduate university like BYUH. Camron Sharp, an alumnus of biomedicine from Laie, said the course prepares people for their future studies in graduate programs and was especially helpful to prepare him for dental school in the future. “Not everyone gets to do a full dissection of a cadaver as an undergraduate student. It is pretty rare.” 28

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“The human cadaver dissection laboratory was one of the highlights of my college experience.” Sharp, who also got to dissect a cadaver earlier this year, said having an actual cadaver is a more effective tool for learning human anatomy than by just using models and looking at pictures. Williams said the cadaver gives people an edge over students when they enter graduate school as most undergraduate programs have only models. “It helped me achieve a lot of the laboratory experience required to pursue graduate studies,” she said. Tisa Makihele, an alumna from Tonga who had the opportunity of dissecting three cadavers during her experience at BYUH, said, “The course will forever be a memorable experience. I think more undergraduate colleges should give opportunities for students to dissect cadavers. Their experiences will prepare them for medical school and real world patients.” Cadavers not only benefit students, but also professionals in their careers. According to National Geographic, the use of human cadavers helps surgical teams develop new medical procedures without risking human lives, and dentists can study the anatomy of heads and torsos. In relation to physical therapy, cadavers help visualize the musculoskeletal system, and for pharmaceutical companies cadavers allow them to test the effects of drugs on the body. Cadavers also take front seat as they are employed as crash-test dummies to check safety features of new automobiles before they come out into the market, according to National Geographic.

The Cadaver Process Although the federal government does not record the exact number of whole-body donations in the United States, researchers

“estimate each year fewer than 20,000 Americans donate their bodies to medical research and training,” according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Makihele said BYUH acquires their cadavers by working together with the Willed Body Program from the John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii. Those interested in donating their bodies to science must contact accredited nonprofit organizations such as university donation programs, and, unlike organ donations, age does not matter, according to healthline.com. The donor’s information is kept on file until the donor passes away. At the time of passing, another medical assessment is performed to verify the requirements of the certain program. According to National Geographic, “Speed is critical after death. The body must be refrigerated before it starts decomposing, usually within 24 hours. In most cases, the family must make arrangements with a funeral director to transport the body and death certificate to the donation facility, where the remains are tested for infectious diseases, such as hepatitis and HIV/AIDS, before embalming.” The embalming process “preserves a cadaver for up to six years,” according to National Geographic. The body is pumped full of water, chemicals and preservatives, and then dehydrated over the course of three months. Donated bodies lose their identity momentarily, and their medical and life histories remain a secret waiting to be discovered by thousands of students and researchers across the country. After the research is completed, every part of the body is returned and the remains are cremated and returned to the respected families, said Sharp.

Whole body donations have become a cheap alternative to rising funeral costs, according to healthline.com, and families can even request a letter from the research facilities stating which projects benefitted from the whole-body donation. Makihele said, “Thank goodness for people like [those donors] who give their bodies to science and contribute to such a great cause for everyone.” •

Benefits of Cadavers

helps pharmaceutical companies to test the effects of drugs on the body

helps surgical teams develop new medical procedures

helps the automobile industry check safety features of new vehicles before they come out into the market SEPTEMB ER 2019

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.Miura said he learned his skills through observation and close association with Takuya Ogasawara. Photo by Ho Yin Li

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INSPECTOR

GADGET Yoshito Miura shares how he became the local community gadget fixer BY WILL KRUEGER

Graphics by Milani Ho Ip

Yoshito Miura, a junior marketing major from Japan, said people ask him so frequently about fixing smartphones and gadgets that he spends up to 10 hours per week on repairs. He said, “I get pretty busy with fixing gadgets for people. I set aside time to fix, sometimes about two days a week, and I can spend five hours a day fixing.” Miura said he fixes mostly iPhones, but also does work on other smartphones, iPads and other gadgets. “I fix things from the camera, to repairing cracked screens, fixing home buttons and also the speaker. Everything except the motherboard. That’s one part that, if it’s too damaged, is unfixable. There is nothing I can do, and I don’t think phone repair shops fix them either.” Rei Takahashi, a recent BYU-Hawaii graduate and fiancé of Miura, said, “I am really proud of him doing this. I pushed him to do it because I knew he had the talent and he could help people in need. It’s great that he can help others and learn so much by doing this.” Miura said he first became interested after observing his friend being able to fix everything. “My close friend, Takuya Ogasawara, who was at BYUH, used to be the gadget repair guy in Laie. “I knew he was posting about his repair shop on Facebook, and I felt like that was something I could do too. “I tried to sit by Takuya and watch him and learn but that didn’t help. So I started taking notes, but that didn’t work out because there

were too many notes that I would take. Then, I would try and fix things with Takuya watching me.”

"I was pretty upset that my screen had cracked, but thankfully Yoshito was able to help me so easily. I can’t believe how he is able to fix things so well." Miura explained it was a process of trial and error for him to be able to learn how to fix things. “I started just taking notes of things I had to be careful of, things I absolutely had to avoid so I wouldn’t damage the phone. This information couldn’t be found on YouTube.

“I learned this method from Takuya. He taught me a lot. Learning from his mistakes and his instruction helped me so much. “As I was learning, I would fix things over and over and have YouTube as a guide until I fully understood how to do it. There were a lot of things to learn, but now I can fix things without looking at anything.” According to Miura, fixing an iPhone 6 is different than fixing an iPhone 7. He said each brand of phone is unique and has different methods of fixing. Dong Yeon Hong, a junior from South Korea majoring in biochemistry, said Miura had helped her fix a damaged screen. “I was pretty upset that my screen had cracked, but thankfully Yoshito was able to help me so easily. I can’t believe how he is able to fix things so well.” Miura said part of his passion to fix gadgets is his love for technology. “Technology is really important and helpful to people everywhere. It helps us to save time and it makes things in life much more convenient. “It also helped me a lot during my longdistance relationship with my fiancé. Having technology to communicate helped us a lot during those eight months. Technology is a great gift from God if we use it properly.” Miura said he also gets several requests per week from people in the community as word spreads around about his skills, with people even messaging him while he’s been away for the summer. • SEPTEMB ER 2019

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Health is Wealth An obession towards physical health can negatively affect mental health. Consistency is key, say BYUH ohana members BY MACKENZIE BEAVER

Graphics by Lynne Hardy

Students and faculty shared improving physical health and nutrition can positively affect mental health but being obsessed with dieting or maintaining physical appearance can negatively affect mental health. Sophie Jones, a senior from Utah majoring in communications, explained getting consumed with counting calories and keeping track of the food someone is eating can damage one’s mental health. She said individuals need to balance mental and physical health because they affect each other. “I think that when you are healthy mentally, then you will find the motivation to improve your physical health. For example, you will be more motivated to get out of bed and workout, or you won’t have as big of a desire to be an emotional eater.”

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Along with balancing mental and physical health, Jones noted the importance of having positive affirmations. She said she able to accomplish her physical health goals when she avoids negative thoughts. Dr. Kate McLellan, an exercise and sport science assistant professor at BYU–Hawaii, said the key to getting in shape and making healthy body changes is consistency. Micah Taotafa, a sophomore from California studying EXS, agreed with McLellan, and said consistency is vital in whatever diet and fitness plan he tries out. “I have a lot of sleeping problems, so I have to stay consistent in my workouts and things I do throughout the day. If I don’t get a good workout in and get a lot of energy out, then I’m up all night and can’t sleep.”

With dieting, McLellan mentioned eating healthy might come at a cost. She added the cost is usually too much to continue the diet. “When I have clients or friends wanting diet recommendations, I have them ask themselves two questions. First, ‘is this a diet you can be on for the next year and enjoy?’ And second, ‘is this a diet you would put your daughter and grandmother on?’ “You might enjoy eating cabbage soup all the time, but would you put a loved one on the same diet? Is it going to be healthy, sustainable, teach them good nutrition habits and help them create a healthy relationship with food? If the answer is ‘no’ to any of those questions, then find another nutrition plan.” McLellan added her thoughts on the basic needs for getting in shape. [See graphic to the right].


1. Sleep: “At least six hours a night. Less than that will mess with your hormones and make you feel hungry and tired, which will make you eat more and move less.”

“The body burns fat most

2. Stay hydrated:

3. Find sustainable, healthy nutrition plan (not “diet”):

efficiently when it’s fully

“Diet teas, body wraps and detoxes get rid of

hydrated, so drink, water.

water, not fat. They’re unhealthy, expensive

Also, many times what you

and don’t work. Save your money and ignore

think is hunger is actually

the celebrities and ‘fitspo influencers.’ They

thirst, so drink little sips all

don’t even use that stuff. They have personal

day so you won’t overeat

chefs and trainers. Find a meal plan you

thinking your body needs

can stick to for the next year and would

more fuel.”

be healthy enough for your daughter and grandma to be on, too.”

4. Build muscle: “Muscle burns fat. Muscle creates shape. Muscle looks ‘toned.’ You want muscle. Go get some in the weight room. Ladies, leave the lightweights for alone. They’re a waste of time. Lift heavy. Lift like you mean it. You won’t look like a man just like guys doing cardio

5. Don’t overdo cardio: “Cardio burns fat, but it also burns muscle. And the fat that it does burn is much less than if you spent the same amount of time lifting weights. You’re short on free time, so don’t waste it on a treadmill or elliptical. Use the leg press machine instead.”

doesn’t make them look like ladies. That’s old-school thinking. Be smarter than that.”

6. Move more: “During workouts and

7. Track your changes: “Weight, tape measure and the

throughout the day: You can

fit of your clothes will all tell

either eat less or move more.

you if you’re moving in the right

I like food, so I’d rather move

direction. Any weight change

a lot more during the day and eat slightly less than eating way less and staying lazy.”

more than 2-3 pounds per week is water, not fat. Aim for 1-2 pounds per week. If you’re losing more than that it’s probably water and muscle, not fat.”

Graphics by Lynne Hardy

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Science and Religion Church leaders and professors say members have a responsibility to fortify scientific knowledge with gospel truths BY KEVIN BROWN For many people of all different faiths across the globe, there’s a struggle of balancing science and religion. These doubts have prompted Church leaders, and a BYU-Hawaii professor, to share their insights into how these two topics should go handin-hand. Eric Marlowe, associate professor in the Department of Religious Education, suggested members should use some of the resources the Church has put out concerning the topic of science and religion, including the “Science and Latter-day Saint Beliefs” section of the manual for Seminary and Institute teachers. Marlowe said much has been said about the mutual relationship science and religion share by prominent church leaders throughout the years. According to “Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young,” the second prophet of the Church stated, “There is no truth, but what belongs to the Gospel. … If you can find a truth in Heaven [or] earth, … it belongs to our doctrine.” Elder Dallin H. Oaks of the Quorum of the Twelve apostles stated in his book, “Life’s Lessons Learned,” that people of faith should avoid “compartmentalizing science and religion—one in one category, such as Monday through Saturday, and the other in another category, such as Sunday. “That was my initial approach, but I came to learn its inadequacy. We are supposed to learn by both reason and revelation, and that does not happen when we compartmentalize science and religion. Our searchings should be disciplined by human reason and also enlightened by divine revelation. In the end, truth has only one content and one source, and it encompasses both science and religion.” Elder Oaks also said members should have an open mind concerning our limited knowledge of science and Heavenly Father’s complete truths. “It is wise for us to admit that our understanding… is incomplete and that the resolution of most seeming conflicts is best postponed. “In the meantime, we do the best we can to act upon our scientific knowledge, where that is 34

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“We are supposed to learn by both reason and revelation, and that does not happen when we compartmentalize science and religion. Our searchings should be disciplined by human reason and also enlightened by divine revelation. In the end, truth has only one content and one source, and it encompasses both science and religion.” - President Oaks required, and always upon our religious faith, placing our ultimate reliance for the big questions and expectations of life on the eternal truths revealed by our Creator, which transcend human reason, ‘for with God nothing shall be impossible.’” In 2015 during the dedication of BYU’s Life Sciences Building, President Russell M. Nelson, then a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, said searching for scientific and religious truth through research and education were responsibilities for all members of the Church. He said, “For we know that ‘the glory of God is intelligence.’ And our perspective is enlarged by knowing that, “Whatever principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in the resurrection.’” Perhaps the most famous scientist who was a member of the Church was Henry Eyring, the father of President Henry B. Eyring, Second Counselor in the First Presidency. According to Deseret News, he was known for his work on chemical reaction rates, authored more than 600 scientific articles and became president of the American Chemical Society in 1963. In “The Mormon Scientist,” a tribute to Henry Eyring from his son, Henry J. Eyring, the chemist said understanding mankind’s purpose can’t be solved by laboratories alone, but with spiritual truths combined with scientific advancements. Henry Eyring stated, “It is important that all men of good will use their energies, their talents and their learning in their chosen fields, mutually assisting one another toward the building of a better world.” He also said the scientific method, though

effective in deciphering the mysteries of life, must be “supplemented” with religious curiosities and faith. In regards to natural phenomena and unearthly occurrences, Marcus Martins, professor in the Department of Religious Education, said, “We conceive ‘eternity’ to be a perfect and glorified realm of consistency and light, while the current mortal environment is imperfect, fallen, mutable, ambiguous and dark. Priesthood is a power emanating from that perfect, infinite, eternal realm, acting on imperfect, finite mortal matter. “Similarly, the power of the priesthood might cause other effects on mortal nature, overcoming the effects of gravity, inertia and electromagnetism.” Referencing his 2017 essay, “To Be Learned is Good: A Meditation on Priesthood and Time,” Martins said the power of the priesthood transcended scientific limitations when Nephi was transported to a high mountain in the Book of Mormon, and when Moroni stood for hours above Joseph Smith emulating a celestial light in the 1800s. FairMormon, a non-profit organization which strives to provide answers to common criticisms of the LDS Church and its doctrine, provides several resources relating science and the teachings of the Church. Such topics range from DNA evidence and The Book of Mormon, the creation of the earth, evolution regarding Adam and Eve and astronomy in regards to the Book of Abraham, to name a few. Although the organization does not constitute the official views of the Church, it does post questions to help people decipher when leaders of the Church were speaking doctrine or their own opinions on scientific matters.


Graphics by Kevin Brown

Graphics by Lynne Hardy

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Night sky at Waimea Falls. Photo by Ho Yin Li

Profile for Ke Alaka'i News

Ke Alaka'i- September 2019  

Science and Technology Issue

Ke Alaka'i- September 2019  

Science and Technology Issue

Profile for kealakai