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Creating Woodland

FORESTARIUM Thesis program by Katarzyna Krawczuk Architectural Lighting Design

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KATARZYNA KRAWCZUK Architectural Lighting Designer Engineer Architect Constructing Architect kmkrawczuk@gmail.com Supervisor: Karina Mose The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and Architecture Institute of Architecture and Design Architectural Lighting Design programe Spring 2017 [1]

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CONTENT Gate to the forest Abstract Problem statement Communication models

p. 6 p. 7 p. 8 p. 10

2. BACKGROUND RESEARCH

Danish forest history Danish forest now Deforestation in the World Afforestation in Denmark

p. 13 p. 14 p. 17 p. 18

3. THE SITE

Sydhavnstippen

p. 22

Idea Location Fuction Space program Structure Materials Inspiration

p. 27 p. 27 p. 28 p. 30 p. 31 p. 32 p. 34

5. DAYLIGHTING

The Daylight Daylight vision

p. 38 p. 40

6. METHOD

Presentation plan Timeplan Sources

p. 45 p. 47 p. 50

1. INRTODUCTION

4. VISION

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PARENTHOOD “Tree babies that grow under their big parent don’t get too much light. But mother tree never worries, because limiting sunlight at the beginning of growth of their children increase durability and strength in their older stages.” - Peter Wohlleben(1) 3


1. INTRODUCTION

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GATE TO THE FOREST “ Life as a forester became exciting once again. Every day in the forest was a day of discovery. This led me to unusual ways of managing the forest. When you know that trees experience pain and have memories and that tree parents live together with their children, then you can no longer just chop them down and disrupt their lives with large machines” -Peter Wohlleben (1)

After reading the book of a German forester Peter Wohlleben ”The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate-Discoveries from a Secret World” I was left with no delusion, that the world of forest is way more human than I ever would expect. The strong relation between trees, their communication skills and social life made me realize how much we can learn from nature and how much there is yet to discover in their secret life. For some people forests are an integrated part of our world. They always been, they are and they will be growing on our planet. We use their generous yields to support our life in terms of construction, living, water, food and the most important onefor breathing. We can easily say that we are dependent on forests, therefore the knowledge and protection of things that are supporting our life is crucial for our existence. Nowadays, when city borders are expanding, human population is growing and the need for trees timber is increasing. This causes a lot of forest felling* which just literally takes what is the closest for our nature. It is our responsibility to protect, take care and manage properly what we are depended on. If it is too far for us to get the forest we should bring the forest to us. The Forest in a city.

* Felling is the process of downing iwndividual trees, an element of the task of logging. The person cutting the trees is a feller

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ABSTRACT The main idea behind the Forestarium is to create a focus on a global deforestation problem and creation forest plantations located close by city suburbs. City lifestyle separates us from the natural forest habitat. Organized city parks can’t recreate the forest ecosystem and its atmosphere. Therefore to experience its healing capabilities we need to travel outside our towns.

PLANTING

What is more, living in a city makes us forget what is happening outside its borders. The massive tree felling and disturbance of forest ecosystems leads our world to damage our environment, that we are not even aware of. The project aims to create a building structure that will be a state of art to communicate people with forestry through architecture. The building acts as a tool to help grow a forest in a city where there is a potential to create a new habitat. The Forestarium in Copenhagen will be located in Sydhavnstippen to provide improvement of the natural habitat of the island. The structure will be built together with a new plantation of tree species. After certain period of time the building will be moved to another place to allow the newborn forest to grow, expand and develop it’s ecosystem. The beautiful architecture of the Forestarium will unite external environment with the structure by daylight. The building will be designed in order to endorse the experience of natural environment by daylighting qualities and architectural manipulation of natural light. The building will enhance all natural aspects inside it. From the flexible, modular structure, types of natural and sustainable materials to form of a building designed for better light perception giving unforgettable experiences.

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MOVING

EXPLORING


PROBLEM STATEMENT TOPIC Creating Woodland - FORESTARIUM - an artistic concept to communicate the importance of forests through architecture, nature and daylight. QUESTION

How to connect people with forests by architecture and daylighting?

VISION Forestarium: • Will be a building where you can step in and take a walk and discovering the beautiful forest world. You can learn about types of trees, their strong relationships, their connections that sustain the forest ecosystem and the ways a forest supports our natural World. • Will also be a place for environmental research groups, forestry departments and forestry laboratories. It will hold an international conferences regarding deforestation problems worldwide. • Will provide you a space for relaxation and meditation. The place will be open to anyone who would like to escape from busy lifestyle and spend refreshing time unified with trees and natural daylight. 8


The Nordic Pavilion, Sverre Fehn, Viale Trento, Italy, 1962

Sonsbeek Pavilion in Arnhem, Aldo Van Eyck, Hoenderloo, Netherlands, 2006

Tree museum, Enzo Enea, Rapperswil-Jona, Switzerland, 2010

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COMMUNICATION MODELS

Following the existing structures that communicate between the interior of the building with the exterior I could distinguish different forms of communication through architecture. Those 3 ways of communication will give the project a base to investigate the possibilities of how the architecture can function with the surroundings forming special perception.

The Nordic Pavilion presents the exhibition area opened through the roof. Slender concrete lamellae reflect the light from the top and open to the sky. It is the communication of spatial ideas and atmospheric intentions between wall, ground, step, ‘roof’, landscape, light, and ‘interstitiality’ – all framed by its relationship to the landscape.

The Aldo van Eyck sculpture pavilion is a reconstructed building from 1965. Opened on the sides wall it unifies people, sculptures and nature on the sight level. Circular walls creates intimacy, not revealing what happens inside until one gets quite close. The communication is open but hidden in a maze.

Enea Tree Museum demonstrate the exhibition area not supported either by closed walls or roof. The trees are presented as an exhibits through single standing walls. This is a unique way that integrates aesthetics, art, nature and lifetime.

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FRIENDSHIP “Fungi are like the internet in the forest. They connect tree’s roots and help to transport substances. They link different kind of species between each other. They are forest friends.” - Peter Wohlleben(1)

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2. BACKGROUND RESEARCH

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DANISH FOREST HISTORY Back in time most parts of the Danish land were covered in forests. Human beings quickly settled their lifestyle using the forest ecosystem for hunting, collecting of mushrooms, berries and nuts. One of the biggest harm came for the forests when man was introduced to agriculture and clearance of the land for farms around 6000 years ago. Starting from year 1600 forest cover was reduced to 20-25% and it gradually dropped down to 2-4% around 1800. After that dramatic drop, came 200 years of forest recovery when Danish forest legislation created The Forest Act of 1805 that established for proper management of forests and long-term timber production. Later on in 1989 new key principle of afforestation created 3 categories of areas describing the intensity of increasing forest areas. Up to nowadays where in 2002 the Government developed the program of afforestation aiming for 20-25% of landscape covered by forests in 80-100 years. (2)

Aage Bertelsen (1873-1945), Autum forest scene

Vilhelm Hammershøi (1864-1916) Summer Landscape. From Ryet near Lake Farum

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DANISH FOREST NOW Danish forests comprise state-owned forests, managed by the Nature Agency’s local units as well as many privately owned forests and woodlands. There is officially 608.078 ha of forests in Denmark corresponding to 14.1% of land area. Conifers are the most common trees with a Norway Spruce that grows on 19% of the forest area. As for most Nordic countries, those trees are hardy and quickly grow on dune areas. The distribution of forestland in Denmark varies from region to region. More than 17% of the Capital Region, which includes northern Zealand and Bornholm, is forest. In comparison with the EU as a whole, Denmark is very poor in forestland and uses far more wood than it produces. Each year around 4.3 million m3 are felled, but despite this the amount of timber in Danish forests is growing by an annual net 2.4 million m3. (3)

0% - 5% 5% - 10% 10% - 15% 15% - 20% > 20%

Denmark forest cover 2015 (6)

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Types of deciduous trees in Denmark (percentage of total forest cover)

Beech (27%)

Oak (10%)

Ash (4%)

Birch (4%)

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Types of coniferous trees in Denmark (percentage of total forest cover)

Norway Spruce (18%)

Sitka Spruce (6%)

Pine (6%)

Nordic Spruce height to age diagram*

* diagram based on line drawings from “A coprehensive selection of trees suitable for general clutivation in Brtain� by Lund Humphries London

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DEFORESTATION IN THE WOLRD Forests cover 30 per cent of the Earth’s surface. They provide food, security, shelter and are key to combating climate change, protecting biodiversity making homes of the indigenous population. Thirteen million hectares of forests are being lost every year.(4) Deforestation is a Global problem based on removal and clearance of forest areas. Usually it is done in order to convert forestland into farms or other urban uses. Also the natural causes like fires, tree infections makes forest disappear form the Earth surface.

According to Global Forest Resources Assessment from 2015 from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations , we have seen a net loss of forests of 129 million hectares since 1990. An area about the size of South Africa with forest disappeared just in 25 years from our planet. But the report, released every five years, also found that the rate of deforestation had slowed recently: forests experienced 56 % less net loss annually in the past five years than during the 1990s. This means that the world is going through a good direction, but it still need a lot of improvement, as we are losing our natural environment. (5) Net Loss (ha) > 500 000 100 000 - 500 000 10 000 - 100 000 <10 000 Net Gain (ha) 10 000 - 100 000 100 000 - 500 000 > 500 000 Diagram of annual forest gain/loss by country in 1990-2015

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AFFORESTATION IN DENMARK Currently Denmarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s statistics reveal that the forest cover has been increased since 1990 by almost 40%. Despite that fact, each year around 4.3 million m3 of forest are felled (the total growing stock -132 million m3) and Denmark still uses far more wood than it produces. (6) There is approx. 0.1 ha of forest for every inhabitant in Denmark, corresponding to the area of a large suburban garden. In Europe overall each inhabitant has about 1.97 ha. of forest.(3) Therefore to increase the poor forest cover in Denmark, in 2013 the Danish government launched a new joint strategy for smart public procurement in which points out the guidelines and rules for sustainable timber, maintenance of forest resources, avoidance of conversion of forests to other types of land use ect (7). One of the reasons for such improvement in the afforestation plan for Denmark is the usage of forest for filtering polluted ground water. Trees working as filter absorbing harmful nitrogen from the soil and release ground water pure and ready to use. In fact, there have been The Nitrate Action Program 2008-2015 promising of afforestation in the range of 20,000-25,000 hectares will contribute to reducing nitrogen leaching by approx. 900 tonnes N, likely to be achived. (8) We can definitely say that Denmark is on track for implementation afforestation strategies and can serve as an example to other countries for good forestation planning and sustainable development.

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PAIN â&#x20AC;&#x153;When a caterpillar takes a hearty bite out of a leaf, the tissue around the site of the damage changes. In addition, the leaf tissue sends out electrical signals, just as human tissue does when it is hurt.â&#x20AC;? - Peter Wohlleben(1)

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3. THE SITE

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N

0m

300m

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SYDHAVNSTIPPEN Sydhavnstippen is a biologically rich, natural and cultural area and a very special place in relation to the whole of Copenhagen. 37 ha of green, empty area is place just about 20min bike ride from Copenhagen center. Surrounded by Valbyparken on west, the Kongens Enhave on North side and waters from east and south. There is both intimate places, large open green meadows and a little rough coastline. The local animal - sheep can be seen in the southern part of Tippen between April and September. The green area was used by wasteland from 40-70 that created a landscape covered with grass, shrubs and trees . The unloading of construction wastes, storage of chemicals, burial of bog iron turned the soil into serious contamination and concentration of nitrogen in the water. The self-grown vegetation cleans slowly pollution forecasts and acts as a restraining layer of the contaminated soil dust. (C) The area is owned by By&Havn, but Copenhagen is care authority on the protected portion. The Local Committee desires to protect natural side of Tippen and forms â&#x20AC;&#x153;Care plan for Sydhavnstippenâ&#x20AC;? for plan period 2012-2022.(9) In order to decrease the pollution plan involves plantation of trees on the site. This makes Sydhavnstippen an ideal place for Forestarium.

Sydhavnstippen in 1954

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[2]

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“Care plan for Sydhavnstippen” aims to: • control of invasive species by grazing sheeps and cows • increase biodiversity • control ground pollution • improving recreational values • secure coas with tree planting to filter pollution • close sewer Enhgave chanel no to contaminate water form that side • improve knowledge about nature that purifies contaminated land • clean up, maintain and develop an important local natural area [3]

[4]

[4]

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COMMUNITY â&#x20AC;&#x153;Every tree, therefore, is valuable to the community and worth keeping around for as long as possible. And that is why even sick individuals are supported and nourished until they recover.â&#x20AC;? - Peter Wohlleben(1)

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4. VISION

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IDEA The Forestarium is a conceptual project for a building that serves a tool to create forest plantations. The building will be placed on the site for future forest, that slowly grows in between the structure. After a certain period of time (8-10 years) structure will be moved giving the space for more trees to grow and expand the forest area. The whole procedure is repeated in another location in another country, which is in a need of new forests close by the cities.

LOCATION

The Forestarium is a building aimed to start a plantation of a forest, placed nearby city centers. Location for the building must fit into the idea, to make sure that in 10-20 years the forest still will be present and have possibility to expand. The place must provide a lot of daylight, space to grow trees and it must not disturb the nearby surroundings. In order to allow people to visit Forestarium, the site must be also easily accessible from the city center

Diagam of the idea

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FUNCTION I will study 3 main functions inside the Forestarium building. 1. Forest exhibition area 2. Forestry research institution 3. Meditation area An EXHIBITION area will serve as educational function, where visitors/school groups can be guided through different kinds of trees and be thought about the importance of a forest, role of the forest ecosystem in the world and have some practical lessons about how to take care of the nature. A RESEARCH institution will provide the space for foresters, conferences about climate change and forestry laboratories to investigate the secret life of trees in the forest. A MEDITATION area will be located in a space which provides silence and relaxation. It will be a place where anyone can get some relaxation and release from stress while being surrounded by trees during yoga and meditation classes.

Meditation area

Exhibition area

Research area Diagram of the function areas

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Issues that must be taken under consideration during the design process:

Even water distribution for trees

Tree rooting systems must not be damaged by buliding

Possibility for leaves to nourish soil under the tree

Machinery access road for construction and deconstruction

Distances between trees and building

Preserving biodiversity under the building

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SPACE PROGRAM The total space of the building will cover 2500 m2, where 1200 m2 will be for room space and the rest will serve as passage hallways between trees.The space program includes 3 types of areas with following spaces: 1. Forest exhibition

330m2

• Permanent exhibition 120m2 • Temporary exhibition 120m2 • Administration 20m2 • Reception 15m2 • Storage room 30m2 • Toilet x2 25m2

Each functional areas will have seperate rooms

2. Research area 485m2 3. Meditation spa

375m2

• Conference hall 250m2 (80 people) 70m2 • Office x3 • Meeting room + 60m2 kitchenette • Research room 40m2 • Laboratories x2 40m2 25m2 • Toilet x2

40m2

The rooms will cover approximately 50% of building area

• Yoga area (11 people) • Meditation areax2 (3 people each) • Meditation area outside (11 people) • Relaxation area • Changing room + showers + toilet x2 • Equipment room • Staff room • Lobby • Toilet x2

The other 50% of building area will be for passage hallways

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35m2 60m2 80m2 90m2 15m2 15m2 15m2 25m2

This will give enough space for trees ‘inside’ and outside the building


STRUCTURE The structure of the Forestarium will be based on modularity, where each module can be connected to the next one and form the passage from one space to another. Modularity can provide mobility of structure, flexible design of building as well as easy construction methods. Modules are prefabricated as an off-site method and delivered to the site and set up together. This methods are efficient and low-costs. The structure should be light and interfere into the soil as less as possible to provide good growth of trees above and under the ground. What is more, following the sustainable development idea, the structure will be dismantled after certain period of time and build up again in another place.

Modular units combined together

Amsterdam Orphanage, Aldo van Eyck 1960

Bejing Horticutural EXPO, Penda 2017 31


MATERIALS I want to study the material used for structure that are easy to connect, dismantle and be used again in another location. The major construction and finishing material I would like to be made of different types wood in. To provide strength the cross-laminated wood is an alternative for concrete and steel. Some of the construction may be supported by untreated wooden logs and the cladding might appear in light colored wooden panels. I would like the interiors to be filled with smooth and light finishing to expose to the outside environment. Lots of glazing can create the feeling of the trees coming inside the building. I would like to study and implement in my project the transparent wood composite. The newest invention, that replaces brownish colored lignin from the wood structure and replace it by transparent polymer.

Cross-laminated wood

Untreared wooden beam

Untreated birch log

Transparent wood

Slatted wood 32

Wooden cladding


Interior

Nordic Pavilion in Venice, Sverre Fehn

Bejing Horticutural EXPO, Penda

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INSPIRATION Exterior

7th room tree hotel, Snohetta

The Mask House, WOJR

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AGE “Trees are getting old like humans. In the latest stages they don’t use energy to grow high but rather are getting thicker. Their ‘skin’ is becoming weaker and a tree becomes a grandparent” - Peter Wohlleben(1)

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5. DAYLIGHTING

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Morning Sunrise 100 lux

Noon Direct light 10.000 lux

Evening Overcast 1000 lux

Night Moonlight 1 lux

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THE DAYLIGHT “We eat light, drink it in through our skins. With a little more exposure to light, you feel part of things physically. I like feeling the power of light and space physically because then you can order it materially. Seeing is a very sensuous act-there’s a sweet deliciousness to feeling yourself see something.”- James Turell Daylight is as important as air to most living things. For plants it supports photosynthesis and for humans it provides understanding of the form, material and gives psychological comfort. Trees in a forest usually compete for light. The greater tree crown have the better photosynthesis tree can perform. Direct sunlight reaches the forest floor only in a gap surrounded by tall trees, therefore diffused skylight is an important factor in lighting within a forest. Obviously, there is not enough space for every tree to reach the same amount of light. In order to keep light distribution in a forest evenly, some tree species developed shade-tolerance and do not require so much light to perform enough photosynthesis.(10) Humans perceive forests as darker spaces , because light is usually screened by tree branches and leaves. Our eyes have magnificent capability to adjust to the lighting conditions. After a couple of minutes being in a forest, when eyes retina adjust to lower light intensity, we can perceive the surrounding as well as on an open field.

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Types of daylight

DIRECT SUNLIGHT gives most intensive light and provides sharp shadows.

SKYLIGHT is stretching from all over the sky with diffused light and softened shadows

REFECTED LIGHT is coming from surfaces around us. It can be more intense than skylight.

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DAYLIGHT VISION The atmosphere in the forest reminds of calmness and natural comfort. It can be recreated by light and material performance inside the building. Verticality, frequency and intimacy are the key elements reminding of the woodlands. Many Architects such as Alvar Aalto play with the repetition of screens, modulate brightness and dimness, exposure and protection like it occurs in a natural forest. The Forestarium as a place itself unites architecture with nature. The structure of the building blends into the landscape inviting surrounding forest to its interior. The vision for daylight qualities introduce the same idea of formation forest daylight conditions into interior special atmosphere. The light aesthetics are various and dynamic in its natural phenomenon. Light intensity, position of sun, weather conditions and time of the day determine atmosphere in the forest. The recreation of such performance is the key of emerging outside with inside of the building. In Forestarium daylight vision will be presented in different forms in different light zones to emphasize specific atmosphere found in the forest. Stepping inside the Forestarium, the visitor will be taken into path of light experiences. Working with a form of corridors, wall angles the space will be filled up with purity, softness to give a feeling of a holly place of nature. The light path will be described by light spaces giving different experience and perception on the forest outside.

Villa Mairea, Alvar Aalto, Noormarkku Finland 1941 40


LIGHT IN NATURE

LIGHT IN ARCHITECTURE

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LIGHT, NATURE AND ARCHITECTURE

LIGHT SPACE

DIRECT LIGHT space opens up the interior to the outside surrounding giving the felling of being outside.

DIFFUSED LIGHT space creates uniform soft atmosphere by layering the surfaces, giving the feeling of fog in the forest.

REFLECTED LIGHT space scatters the light through pattern creating shadow spots on the surfaces. It forms the feeling of the shadow motif from tree canopy.

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DEATH â&#x20AC;&#x153;Some tree partners are often so tightly connected at the roots that sometimes they even die together.â&#x20AC;? - Peter Wohlleben(1)

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6. METHOD

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PRESENTATION PLAN

Main Visual

Sitatuion plan 1:1000

M

Building plan 1:100

Project Idea

Light research

Building form developement

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Structure concept

D


Masterplan 1:500

Detail 1:10

My methodical approach for the project will include sketching and documentation in the process book ( analysis,, ideas, researches). I will make several types of test model. Some will be for daylight visualizations both in the light laboratory and Velux daylight simulation. Other models will present the idea of modularity of building. For final presentation I will make building model (1:100 and 1:500).

Section 1 1:100

3d view

Section 2 1:100

Elevation 1 1:100

Elevation 2 1:100

Visual 1

Elevation 3 1:100

Visual 2

Visual 3

Elevation 4 1:100

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TIME PLAN

WEEK

7

8

9

10

TASK Site analysis Model of site 1:500 Building shape formulation Mocup models Daylight investigation Structure concept Daylight test (Velux)

critique 1

Plans, sections, 3d, details Manual model making 1:100 Renderings Final Drawings Printing Submission

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critique 2

critique 3

48

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[5]

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SOURCES Bibliography: ” The Hidden Life of Trees: What They Feel, How They Communicate-Discoveries from a Secret World” by Peter Wohlleben, Tim Flannery (2) “Forests and forestry in Denmark – Thousands of years of interaction between man and nature” Christian Lundmark Jensen, Coordinator on International Forest Policy, Nature Planning and Biodiversity, Danish Ministry of the Environment Nature Agency (3) Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark, Environmental Protection Agency, Forestry (A) (4) “Goal 15: Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss”-Sustainable Development Goal from United Nations (5) “Global Forest Resources Assessment 2015 How are the world’s forests changing?” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2015 (6) “Skove og plantager 2015, Forest statistics 2015” by Nord-Larsen, T., Johannsen, V. K., Riis-Nielsen, University of Copenhagen 2016 (7) ” Annex1 for public procurement of sustainable timber” Danish Ministry of the Environment, Nature Agency 27 June 2014 (8) “Danish Nitrate Action Programme 2008-2015” Regarding the Nitrates Directive; 91/676/EEC 7 th September 2012 (9) “BYDELSPLAN FOR KONGENS ENGHAVE 2013” Bydelsplanen er udarbejdet af Kongens Enghave Lokaludvalg i samarbejde med Center for Sikker By og Center for Byudvikling, Økonomiforvaltningen,Københavns Kommune på baggrund af input fra Kongens Enghaves borgere. (10) ”Ecology and Silviculture of eucalypt forests” R.G.Florence, The Austaralian National University Department of Forestry (1)

Websites: http://eng.svana.dk/nature/forestry/ http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/biodiversity/ (C) http://www.sydhavnstippen.dk/ (D) http://naturstyrelsen.dk/ (A) (B)

Photos Self- made graphics or Pinterest source if not mentioned below: [1] “Lost Lake” by Owen Perry [2] Simon Hjermind Jensen [3] Ole Malling, By & Havn [4] “Sydhavnstippen” by Birgitte Brøndsted [5] “De Mis Vivos y Mis Muertos” by Jorge Mayet

Interview: Program concept consulted with prof. Karsten Raulund-Rasmussen, Forest, nature and biomass, Copenhagen University.

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Creating Woodland - FORESTARIUM  

The master thesis program for The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and Architecture at Architectural Lighting Design program

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