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Annual Report 2011


Karolinska Institutet is one of the world’s leading medical universities. Its mission is to contribute to the improvement of human health through research and education. Karolinska Institutet accounts for over 40 per cent of the medical academic research conducted in Sweden and offers the country’s broadest range of education in medicine and health sciences. Since 1901 the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has selected the Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine.

COVER

Doctoral students studying cancer cells Iryna Kolosenko and Per Johnsson are doctoral students at Karolinska Institutet and members of professor Dan Grandér’s research group at the Department of OncologyPathology. Grandér’s research area is experimental oncology and the research group aims to reach a better understanding of how canti-cancer drugs work at a molecular level, and why some cancer tumours do not respond to treatment. Increased knowledge could lead to better targeted treatments for patients and fewer side effects. Photo: Camilla Svensk


Annual Report 2011 Karolinska Institutet


Contents A medical university ..................................................................................... inside front cover Karolinska Institutet in brief, 2011 .....................................................................................................................................4 Key ratios.....................................................................................................................................................................................5 Karolinska Institutet’s structure 2011.................................................................................................................................6 Karolinska Institutet’s education and research 2011.....................................................................................................7 President’s comments on the year 2011...........................................................................................................................8

Bachelor’s (first-cycle) and Master’s (second-cycle) education.....................................10 The students ........................................................................................................................................................................... 12 Internationalisation: Bachelor’s and Master’s education ......................................................................................... 16 Sushmita chooses KI, despite new fees ............................................................................................................................. 17 Quality: Bachelor’s and Master’s education.................................................................................................................. 18 Equality: Bachelor’s and Master’s education ................................................................................................................ 19 Special undertakings ............................................................................................................................................................ 20 Julius Kamwesiga teaches Swedish occupational therapy students to improvise................................................. 21

Research and doctoral (third-cycle) education...................................................................22 Research ................................................................................................................................................................................... 23 Quality: research ................................................................................................................................................................... 25 KI’s roadmap for research .................................................................................................................................................. 26 Doctoral education .............................................................................................................................................................. 29 The pioneer behind the world’s first tracheal transplant using the patient’s own stem cells............................. 31 Quality: doctoral education .............................................................................................................................................. 33 Internationalisation: research and doctoral education............................................................................................. 34 Vera completed her doctorate, but plans to stay in contact with KI......................................................................... 35

Collaboration.................................................................................................................................36 Collaboration with the SLL................................................................................................................................................. 37 Brothers receive doctoral degrees for their efforts for KI.............................................................................................. 39 Juleen Zierath: New concept helps us to disseminate research findings.................................................................. 41

Internationalisation......................................................................................................................43

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Internal control .............................................................................................................................45 Quality assurance procedures .................................................................................................. 45 Equal opportunities ..................................................................................................................... 46 Sustainable development .......................................................................................................... 47 Human resources and competence supply ......................................................................... 48 Report on Human Resources ............................................................................................................................................ 49

Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................. 52 Infrastructure – strategy....................................................................................................................................................... 53

Financial report ............................................................................................................................ 56 Revenue ................................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Costs .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Change in capital .................................................................................................................................................................. 58 Outcome compared with forecast .................................................................................................................................. 59 Asset management................................................................................................................................................................ 60 Funds ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 60 Foundations ............................................................................................................................................................................ 61 Revenue statement ............................................................................................................................................................... 62 Balance sheet ......................................................................................................................................................................... 63 Accounting against funding and revenue headings .................................................................................................. 65 Accounting principles........................................................................................................................................................... 66 Notes ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 68

The University Board...................................................................................................................80 Appendix: Costs for performance ................................................................................................................................... 84 Appendix: Revenue .............................................................................................................................................................. 86

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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A medical university

Karolinska Institutet in brief, 2011 Bachelor’s and Master’s education

Asset management (market capitalisation)

Programmes with number of degrees awarded

n

Professional Qualifications n Occupational therapy n Audiology n Midwifery n Biomedical laboratory science n Speech and language pathology n Medicine n Optometry n Psychotherapy n Radiography nursing n Physiotherapy n Nursing n Specialist nursing n Dental hygiene n Dentistry n Dental technology General Qualifications n University diplomas n Bachelor’s n Master’s (one year) n Master’s (two year) n Broad Master’s (one year) Total (No. of individual students: 1,888)

n

59 14 55 41 32 260 42 15 38 91 298 403 37 67 14

0 547 150 73 3 2,239

KI also arranges single-subject courses for supplementary qualifications and further education. 5,815 full-time equivalent (FTE) students and 5,351 annual performance equivalents (APEs).

SEK 272 million in fund management SEK 1,166 million in foundation management

Staff 4,109 employees (FTE), comprising: n 347 professors (26%) n 172 senior lecturers (58%) n 165 postdoctoral fellows (52%) n 166 lecturers (75%) n 741 senior research fellows (54%) n 544 doctoral students (64%) n 1,003 lab and technical staff (71%) n 972 administrative staff (83%) Note: The figures in brackets give the percentage of women. Total number of women: 2,662 (65%)

Funding Total: SEK 5,371 million, of which: n 2,436 direct Government funding n 654 research councils n 342 other Government agencies n 711 Swedish foundations and organisations n 201 Swedish companies n 518 county councils and municipalities n 444 foreign financiers, including - 226 EU - 135 foundations and other organisations - 83 companies n 66 financial revenue

Premises Total area: 200,859 m2 Cost: SEK 586 million

304 incoming students and 169 outgoing students on exchange programmes.

Research and education – doctoral level n

5,040 articles published (2010) 2,133 active doctoral students (≥10% active) n 349 doctoral degrees and 14 licentiate degrees awarded n

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


A medical university

Key ratios 2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

5,815 146 5,351 159 10 409 61% 39% 2,133 62% 38% 544 340 2,56 4,21 349 14

5,524 144 5,050 157

5,595 143 5,012 159

5,336 143 5,052 151

5,516 130 5,203 138

450 62% 38% 2,076 62% 38% 519 347 2,05 4,21 367 21 3,855 1,075

420 61% 39% 2,028 61% 39% 515 342 2,38 3,94 392 17 3,766 1,032

420 60% 40% 2,080 61% 39% 491 362 2,19 3,83 352 15 3,773 929

398 62% 38% 2,073 61% 39% 553 329 2,72 3,65 345 31 3,522 938

4,109 4,699 845 47% 53% 707 41% 59% 347 26% 74%

3,944 4,545 801 46% 54% 665 40% 60% 331 24% 76%

3,875 4,382 812 47% 53% 634 38% 62% 328 21% 79%

3,453 3,988 753 48% 52% 573 38% 62% 316 20% 80%

3,529 3,996 739 47% 53% 543 34% 66% 307 18% 82%

5,371 926 87% 13% 4,445 37% 63%

5,253 851 89% 11% 4,402 36% 64%

4,880 853 89% 11% 4,027 33% 67%

4,476 850 89% 11% 3,626 36% 64%

4,166 843 87% 13% 3,324 37% 63%

5,218 53% 11% 2,916 4,899 2,277 145 1,196 97

4,994 52% 11% 2,761 4,658 2,224 255 1,079 129

4,734 53% 12% 2,791 4,105 2,030 149 812 122

4,325 51% 12% 2,696 3,626 1,652 164 665 119

4,100 51% 12% 2,653 3,193 1,503 72 532 137

Education and research

FTE students 1 Cost per FTE student (SEK thousand)* APE students 1 Cost per APE student (SEK thousand)* Number of fee-paying students New doctoral admissions - women - men Doctoral students, total _> 10% activity - women - men Doctoral students with studentship (FTEs) Doctoral students with grant (FTEs) Average stydy time, licentiate students (net) Average study time, doctoral students (net) Doctoral degrees awarded Licentiate degrees awarded Peer-reviewed scientific publications*** Cost per peer-reviewed scientific publication**

Staff FTEs Average staff Teaching staff: (FTEs)1 - women - men Teaching staff with doctoral degrees (FTEs) - women - men Professors (FTEs) - women - men

Finance Revenue, total (SEK million), of which Bachelor’s and Master’s education (SEK million) - direct Government funding - external revenue Doctoral education and research (SEK million) - direct Government funding - external revenue Costs, total (SEK million) - Staff - Premises Premises costs2 per m2 (SEK) Balance sheet total (SEK million), of which - unexpended grants - change in capital for the year - administrative capital (inc. change in cap. for the year) - of which subsidiaries (KI Holding AB) 1

Excluding contract and commissioned education As stated in the Revenue statement * Including costs incurred within funding for medical training and research and the dental care centre ** Including costs incurred within funding for medical training and research *** Figure not given owing to delay in registration, which would otherwise distort the statistics. 2

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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A medical university

Karolinska Institutet’s structure 2011 Internal audit

UNIVERSITY BOARD PRESIDENT Management Group Board of HIGHER EDUCATION Board of DOCTORAL EDUCATION

University Administration University Library

Board of RESEARCH Councils and Committees

KI Holding AB

22 DEPARTMENTS KI Solna Campus Department of Cell and Molecular Biology (CMB) Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics (LIME) Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics (MBB) Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB) Department of Microbiology, Tumour and Cell Biology (MTC) Department of Neuroscience Department of Physiology and Pharmacology Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM) KI at Karolinska University Hospital (Solna) and Danderyd Hospital Department of Clinical Neuroscience Department of Clinical Science, Danderyd Hospital Department of Medicine, Solna Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery Department of Oncology-Pathology Department of Public Health Sciences Department of Woman and Child Health KI Huddinge Campus with Karolinska University Hospital (Huddinge) and Söder Hospital Department of Biosciences and Nutrition Department of Clinical Science and Education, Söder Hospital Department of Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC) Department of Laboratory Medicine Department of Medicine, Huddinge Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society (NVS) Department of Dental Medicine

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


A medical university

The University Board

Back row: Elias Arnér (faculty representative); Torbjörn Rosdahl (government appointee); Eskil Franck (government appointee); Anna Aleman (staff representative*); Gunnar Stenberg (staff representative*); Bengt Norrving (University Director, primary rapporteur); Dan Andersson, (government appointee); Marie Wahren Herlenius (faculty representative); Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren (faculty representative); Front row: Patriq Fagerstedt, (staff representative*); Annika Andersson (government appointee); Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson (President, ex-officio member); Susanne Eberstein (Chair-person, government appointee); Jan Andersson (Vice-President, additional member); Eva Fernvall (government appointee); Felicia Fixell (student representative); Tobias Brosjö (student representative). Absent: Anders Blanck (government appointee); Åsa Samuelsson (student representative) * Staff representatives have no voting right.

Karolinska Institutet’s education and research 2011 Danderyd Hospital 189 FTE students Research SEK 33 million 31 FTE employees

Karolinska University Hospital, Solna

KI Solna Campus 1,130 FTE students Research SEK 1,423 million 1,817 FTE employees

1,330 FTE students Research SEK 1,218 million 1,143 FTE employees

Söder Hospital 226 FTE students Research SEK 39 million 31 FTE employees

KI Huddinge Campus with Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge 2,940 FTE students Research SEK 850 million 1,074 FTE employees

“Research” indicates total assets, excluding premises and funding for medical training and research.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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A medical university

President’s comments on the year 2011 The future In 2011, Karolinska Institutet (KI) consolidated its national and international status as a leading centre of medical research, and it is thanks to hard-won research grants from the European Research Council that the university’s researchers have made such important scientific discoveries, many of which have been published in renowned scientific journals. However, KI’s ability to stand up to international competition and to retain its position as one of the world’s foremost medical universities requires the stringent quality assurance of both the research and education it conducts. By continuing to establish itself worldwide, KI has an unwavering potential to remain at the forefront of several disciplines and to fulfil its mission to improve human health. Health care in our region is changing rapidly and is set to be dominated by a wide range of providers and characterised by greater choice for the public. If we are to guarantee the competitiveness of our research and education, we must find ways of cooperating with the Stockholm County Council (Stockholm läns landsting, SLL). Moreover, the combination of an ageing population and increasing globalisation present us with a new disease panorama, but also with new opportunities – and challenges – in research, education and innovation.

A year of quality audits Given that quality audits are essential to the evaluation of our work, we initiated an external evaluation of our quality activities. The ensuing recommendations concerned overarching matters, such as the relationship between research and education, our collaboration with the SLL and the educational components of our doctoral programmes. The evaluation has made a very welcome contribution to our continuing quality work. We also arranged the first ever external evaluation of our research, which rated more than one in three research groups as exceptional or excellent. The ERA (External Research Assessment) was conducted by panels of internationally renowned researchers and will provide a platform for the strategic planning and development of our university for the coming years. The Swedish National Agency for Higher Education is currently evaluating most of KI’s medium length health science programmes, the results of which are expected at some time this year. KI’s largest programmes (medicine and nursing) will not be evaluated until next year.

Research and education infrastructure investments New buildings inspire a sense of optimism, and the new developments at KI, which are part of the vision to make the greater Stockholm region a world-leader in crossover education, research and collaboration, have been designed to meet the future needs of these fields. KI and the SLL drew up plans for

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the gradually emerging new university hospital during the year. The new auditorium complex is also starting to take shape and is due for completion in 2013, which is also when construction work will begin on what will be one of the world’s largest laboratories: Biomedicum.

The global university KI was involved in a wide range of international collaborations during the year, as reflected in KI’s publications, 60 per cent of which are co-authored with researchers in other countries. We entered a closer agreement during the year with the USA’s Mayo Clinic on research, education and innovation, and on extending our partnership to such areas as regenerative medicine, neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatry, and even administration. We also developed our collaboration with Makerere University in Uganda, with which we arrange research exchanges in various medical fields, such as malaria, tuberculosis and microbiology. Some 30 PhDs have been awarded to date, the largest number of any similar KI partnership. A delegation from KI paid a high-profile visit to Beijing and Shanghai in September, during which the KI management met the Chinese ministers for health, research and education. When the Chinese minister of science and technology visited KI later in the year, a Letter of Intent was signed with Jiatong University Medical School in order to establish a Centre for Translation Research in Shanghai.

The collaborative university The partnership between KI and the SLL has centred on the new university hospital and on discussing how research and education can continue to be integrated into healthcare. Burgeoning privatisation and the diversity and choice of providers place special demands on the tendering and monitoring of care provision. Karolinska Development (KD) was floated on the Stockholm Stock Exchange during the year, and the tremendous interest shown by investors is testimony to the quality of KI’s innovation system, which is unique in Sweden. KI took part for the third time in the Research and Health fair in order to stimulate public interest in research and to impress on people the importance of being a blood and organ donor and of participating in scientific studies. SciLifeLab continued to grow with the aim of becoming one of the world’s foremost research centres in molecular bioscience specialising in health and environment. The four participating universities are calling for joint funding to establish their activities permanently.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


A medical university

LifeGene

Major donations

At the end of 2011, the Swedish Data Inspection Board ruled that the collection of research data by the LifeGene project was in contravention of the Personal Data Act. KI appealed the decision and will be lobbying for an amendment to the law allowing biobanks like this to continue operating.

The end of our Breakthrough for Life campaign in 2010 heralded a new phase of fundraising in which we have broadened our interface with potential donors and partners. Donations have become a permanent source of research funding at KI and several major donations were made during the year.

Students are our link to the future The students are the hub of our operations, and it is they who will be passing the baton on to future generations and propelling the development of medical research, care and education. Karolinska Institutet currently has 5,815 full-time equivalent Bachelor’s and Master’s students on 38 programmes, and 1,716 doctoral students. Study programmes of the highest quality and an innovative and creative study environment are the best guarantee of KI’s future ability to deliver top-class groundbreaking research and knowledge-based healthcare. Finally, I would like to thank all students, administrators, teachers and researchers; all of you have helped to make Karolinska Institutet what it is today – one of the world’s most preeminent medical universities.

Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson, President Karolinska Institutet

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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Bachelor’s (first-cycle) and Master’s (second-cycle) education

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


bachelor’s and master’s education

occupational nursing, ergonomics and behavioural science. A decision was also taken to start two new study programmes in specialist nursing, to reorganise one of our existing two-year Master’s programmes as a joint degree with Stockholm University, and to close admissions to two beginners’ programmes as the first step of their eventual phase out. The breakdown into different types of programme and course remained the same as in 2010, with approximately 70 per cent beginners’ programmes, 18 per cent continuation programmes and 12 per cent single-subject courses. The proportion of second-cycle education increased from 37 per cent to 39 per cent in 2011, partly on account of the ongoing development of the longer vocational programmes in medicine, dentistry and speech and language pathology, and expansion of one- and two-year Master’s programmes.

Karolinska Institutet is unique in Sweden with respect to its broad, virtually comprehensive prospectus centred upon professional qualifications in medicine and healthcare. KI offered 39 study programmes during the year and advertised almost 150 separate single-subject courses. The education strategy adopted for 2009–2012 states that the KI prospectus is to comprise 70-75 per cent beginners’ study programmes, 20 per cent continuation study programmes and 5–10 per cent single-subject courses. KI is currently developing its prospectus with a long-view to increase the proportion of Master’s level education, and to strengthen the link between education and research. This includes producing new subject areas for the one- and two-year Master’s programmes and reducing or changing the existing prospectus where necessary. A new one-year Master’s programme in the field of work and health was launched in 2011 with three areas of specialisation:

General and professional qualification study programmes and single-subject courses.* (including courses settled against supplementary funding) 2008

2009

2010

2011

FTEs

%

FTEs

%

FTEs

%

FTEs

%

General qualification – beginner

277

5

328

6

264

5

248

4

General qualification – continuation

236

4

344

6

393

7

443

8

4,052

76

3,939

70

3,726

67

3,832

66

Professional qualification – continuation

513

10

585

10

566

10

582

10

Single-subject courses

258

5

399

7

575

11

709

12

5,336

100

5,595

100

5,524

100

5,815

100

Professional qualification – beginner

Total

*The stated number of FTE students relates to actual numbers recorded in Ladok (Swedish national student registry database).

Bachelor’s and Master’s courses* (including courses settled against supplementary funding) 2008

2009

2010

2011

FTEs

%

FTEs

%

FTEs

%

FTEs

%

Bachelor’s

3,786

71

3,603

64

3,423

62

3,480

60

Master’s

1,317

25

1,848

33

2,035

37

2,289

39

232

4

144

3

66

1

46

1

5,335

100

5,595

100

5,524

100

5,815

100

Unclassified Total

*The stated number of FTE students relates to actual numbers recorded in Ladok (Swedish national student registry database).

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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bachelor’s and master’s education

The students Applicants

Widening participation

Generally speaking, the acceptance ratio for KI’s programmes is high, although it was slightly lower in 2011 than it was in 2010. The reduction in the number of qualified first-choice applicants to beginners’ programmes was just under eight per cent (discounting the nursing programme, which was not fully open for applications in 2010), which is just over the national decline of three per cent. The three study programmes with the highest acceptance ratio were those with the highest ratio nationally: medicine, psychology and physiotherapy. The number of qualified first-choice applicants to continuation programmes increased from 1,787 to 1,901. These included programmes with a very high acceptance ratio, such as midwifery and some of the study programmes in specialist nursing. The greatest difference between 2011 and 2010 is the lower acceptance ratio for the one- and two-year Master’s programmes caused by the introduction of student fees. Although there was a sharp decrease in the number of qualified first-choice applicants in the international round, there was a slight rise in national applications, which prevented the total reduction from falling as low as had been feared.

Despite KI’s efforts to reduce social bias as regards the educational background of the students’ parents, students with academic background were still over-represented in 2011. According to statistics from the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education (HSV), 23 per cent of the students are to come from academic families in order to reflect the national distribution (amongst 19 to 34-year olds). At KI, the proportion of students from such backgrounds was 44 per cent (data unavailable for 2011). Efforts to rectify the bias have focused on promoting KI’s study programmes to under-represented groups. To this end, KI takes part in an annual recruitment fair in Stockholm that brings together employers and job-seekers as well as education institutions and potential students. KI also collaborates with three upper-secondary schools in an effort to widen its recruitment base. One new initiative for the year involved inviting year one and two students from these schools to a half-day introduction fair at KI that included lectures and information on higher education. The aim of all this work is also to make it possible for all KI students to complete their studies. The university has therefore set up a special language workshop that offers seminars on scientific writing and individual support. KI also arranges courses for students who have problems giving oral presentations in front of large audiences and provides support for students with disabilities.

Acceptance ratio by programme type (qualified first-choice applicants) 2008

2009

2010

2011

Places

Ratio

Places

Ratio

Places

Ratio

Places

Ratio

1,293

4.5

986

4.8

1,142

5.1

1,297

4.6

Continuation - excl. Master’s (1/2 year)

549

3.2

678

2.1

511

2.9

618

3.1

Master’s (1/2 year)

255

1.9

225

2.8

334

2.9

362

1.9

2,097

3.9

1,893

3.6

2,087

4.1

2,277

3.8

Beginner

Total

Breakdown by age The tables on the next page give the age distribution of beginners on beginners’ and continuation programmes. After having been relatively stable during the 2008–2009 period, the proportion of beginners under 24 increased between 2009 and 2010 to then drop back to the same levels again in 2011. The proportion of

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students over 35 declined to a corresponding extent between 2009 and 2010. In light of the new admission and selection principles that were introduced in 2010, the return to the agedistribution of previous years is somewhat unexpected.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


bachelor’s and master’s education

Age distribution of beginners on beginner’s programmes

Age distribution of beginners on continuation programmes

100%

100% 100% 90% 90% 80% 80% 70% 70% 60% 60% 50% 50% 40% 40% 30% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0%0%

90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2008 -24 years

2009

2010

2011

25-34 years

KI places great importance on student influence, and students at all levels have a say in all of KI’s drafting and decision-making bodies, including the management group. A strong student presence is particularly important in bodies that have a direct responsibility for matters of education. KI therefore requires that at least one student representative be present

FTE students, 2011 (total 5,815*)

-24 years

35-years

Student influence

2008

2009

2010

2011

25-34 years

35-years

at meetings for such bodies to be quorate, provided that one or more has been appointed. KI promotes student influence in a variety of ways, such as by offering student representatives courses on relevant laws and ordinances, and on KI’s organisation and decision-making structure.

Single-subject courses 12%

Medicine 26% Master's programmes 7%

Other continuation programmes 2%

Specialist nursing (cont.) 8%

Physiotherapy 6% Biomedical lab science 3%

Nursing incl. radiography 10%

Other beginners' programmes 11% Occupational therapy 4%

Psychology 4% Dentistry 7%

*Including supplementary appropriation (2:55 ap. 11)

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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bachelor’s and master’s education

Degrees The total number of degrees awarded was slightly higher than in 2010, having risen from 2,144 to 2,239. The temporary increase

in the number of places made available on the specialist nursing programmes in 2009 is now showing in the number of degrees awarded, which increased from 362 to 403.

Number of degrees awarded 2008–2011 Degree

2008

2009

2010

2011

Professional Qualifications

1,481

1,488

1,416

1,466

574

697

728

773

General Qualifications Total number of degrees

2,055

2,185

2,144

2,239

Total number of individuals

1,744

1,792

1,786

1,888

Contract education The Continuing Professional Development Office, which operates under the university administration, has responsibility for coordinating and arranging contract education at KI. The role

of the office is to serve as a bridge between KI and the wider community. Revenue from contract education amounted to SEK 68.6 million in 2011, and from contracted courses to SEK 6.3 million.

Contract activities by funding source Total SEK 74.9 million, 2011 Foreign companies 10%

Other government agencies 14%

Swedish companies 21%

Organisations and foundations 3%

Higher education institutions 10%

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District and regional authorities 42%

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


bachelor’s and master’s education

Revenue from contract activities SEK Million 75

50

25

0

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Contract education saw growth during the year in terms of both revenue and number of FTE (full-time equivalent) students. An increase could be noted in several subject fields, although the rise in student numbers was also attributable to the fact that a number of courses that began in 2010 did not end until 2011. The National Board of Health and Welfare continued to be a major customer in 2011, particularly in psychiatry, as was the Centre for Primary Health Care Research for courses in psychiatry and psychotherapy.

2010

2011

Student fees for students from a third country Sweden introduced application and student fees during the year for students coming from non-EU/EES countries and Switzerland. The fees apply for courses commencing after July 2011. Twenty-four fee-paying students enrolled at KI for the 2011 autumn semester, 22 of whom were on KI’s five international two-year Master’s programmes. Half of these students were on a scholarship, half were paying. Twenty seven per cent of the international students (a total of 81 places) and 14 per cent of all students on KI’s Master’s programmes were fee-paying students from a third-country.

Outgoing teachers by exchange programme 2008

2009

2010

2011

Erasmus

42

32

24

30

Nordplus

12

-

4

1

Linnaeus-Palme

21

20

10

11

5

29

52

43

71

2008

2009

2010

2011

Erasmus

13

30

14

7

Nordplus

4

-

1

1

Mobility for teachers and students in higher education Total

75

Incoming teachers by exchange programme

Bilateral agreements

3

Linnaeus-Palme

20

21

12

11

Total

37

51

27

22

66 and 73 per cent, respectively, of outgoing and incoming teachers in 2011 were women.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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bachelor’s and master’s education

Internationalisation: Bachelor’s and Master’s education

under which their particular professional/academic fields operate. Information meetings on teacher and student exchanges were held during the year, and the number of courses in English was increased. Several contact trips were also made, in particular under the Erasmus and Linnaeus-Palme programmes. Furthermore, courses on teaching in English were arranged at KI and a course in educational leadership was held in association with Makerere University as part of KI’s Uganda strategy. In an effort to increase the number of teacher exchanges, KI intensified its distribution of digital and printed information. The number of outgoing teachers increased during the year, very much on account of the popular “Mobility for Teachers and Students within higher education, 2010–2011” programme.

The internationalisation of KI’s study programmes was effected in accordance with the “Action plan for the internationalisation of first-cycle and second-cycle education, 2010–2012”. The main goals for this plan are for KI’s study programmes to provide students with international experience and the skills needed to work both in multicultural environments and in an international labour market, as well as for KI to be an attractive study destination for international students. The education provided by KI is also to provide students with knowledge of and insight into social diversity in Sweden and the international conditions

Number of outgoing and incoming students and teachers per continent, 2011

ASIA NORTH AMERICA EUROPE 24

46

0

8

14

7

6

17

215

82

8

33 25

13

7

6

AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA STUDENTS

TEACHERS

6

7

0

8

20

14

1

3

OCEANIA

OUTGOING FROM KI

INCOMING TO KI

The number of incoming students also increased during the year, largely through the Erasmus programme and the LinnaeusPalme programme in Africa. Since the discontinuation of Linnaeus-Palme funding, internal and alumni funds were rediverted in order to continue student exchanges with Uganda. The previous years’ imbalance between incoming and outgoing students remained.

16 

The number of outgoing students declined after the peak of 2010, partly owing to the three-semester moratorium on admissions to the nursing programme. The number of outgoing students declined or remained constant to all continents with the exception of North America. Some fifteen students made trips abroad to collect data for their degree project and are not represented in the tables on page 18.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


bachelor’s and master’s education

Sushmita chooses KI, despite new fees Sushmita Sathiyamoorthy from southern India wanted to study at a Western university after graduating from high school and spending a few years carrying out laboratory work in Singapore. She knew about Karolinska Institutet through her work, but universities in the US and London were also attractive options. She eventually chose KI for several reasons, and doesn’t regret her decision. Sushmita started the Master’s Programme in Biomedicine at KI in August 2011. “I knew that Sweden had introduced fees of SEK 200,000 a year for students from outside the EU,” she explains, “but studying in the US is even more expensive and that option was still on my short list. The biomedicine programme at the British university I considered was only a year long, and I thought they had squeezed far too much into too little time.” Sushmita had heard about KI from the large number of scientific journals at the research laboratory where she worked for three years after completing her school education. “Studies from KI appeared regularly. This sparked my interest, so I found out more about the Swedish university.” She was successful in her application for a scholarship from KI for the first of the two years on the Study Programme in Bio-

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

medicine. That settled it. At the end of August, Sushmita came to Sweden and her new “home” at KI. “I received a warm welcome and an excellent introduction to both the university as a whole and the Study Programme in Biomedicine. I also got help with all manner of practical matters, from finding accommodation to opening a bank account.” She is extremely pleased with her fellow students – she gets on well with them, and they are keen to help each other. “We come from different countries and different backgrounds, but we’re all highly ambitious and motivated in our studies. Most of my fellow students are focusing on an academic career.” Sushmita is one of the few in her class who isn’t planning to take a doctoral degree – instead, she intends to return to working life. “Or at least, that’s my current plan…” It’s the pharmaceutical industry that interests her. Ideally, she would like to work developing new pharmaceuticals for neurological conditions. She would also like to return to Asia. “Not necessary to India, but certainly to Asia.” When asked what the best thing about KI is, she replies: “In this environment, I find myself motivated to do more – to achieve more than I originally thought I could.”

17 


bachelor’s and master’s education

Number of students on exchange programmes, 2003–2011 Number Incoming 304

300 250 200

Outgoing 169

150 100 50 0 2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Outgoing exchange students, 2011 (total: 169) Other 10%

Nursing 4% Medicine 48% Occupational therapy 7%

Biomedicine 13%

Physiotherapy 6%

Dentistry 8%

Nursing radiography 4%

The first fee-paying students were welcomed in the autumn, and the reception programme was expanded accordingly so that all international students were offered an introduction week of intensive Swedish lessons and information. Other activities during the year included KI inviting representatives from our partner universities to inform them about Stockholm as study destination. The meeting was co-arranged with the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm University and Södertörn University.

18 

Quality: Bachelor’s and Master’s education New course evaluation form KI decided to introduce a new, objectives-related course evaluation form in 2011 for use on all courses. The data gathered will provide valuable information for the continuing quality upgrade and improvement of KI’s programmes and courses.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


bachelor’s and master’s education

HSV evaluations The HSV requested evaluations of a number of Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees during the year. The outcome of the evaluation, the results of which are expected in the spring of 2012, will be used for future quality development.

Teaching and learning skills development A number of activities were arranged in 2011 to strengthen the teachers’ pedagogical competence and support the students’ learning outcomes. These included: • Courses in education for university teachers (11 courses in 2011) • Workshops (mainly for teachers on the medicine and nursing study programmes) • A conference on leadership in higher education • KI’s education congress, this year on the theme of “Future learning environments” • Teacher forums, seminars, residential conferences and workshops • Project funds for educational development • Awards for educational renewal • Charting teacher competence • Collaboration with the SLL on future learning environments

Equality: Bachelor’s and Master’s education Gender distribution of students in Bachelor’s and Master’s education Most of KI’s study programmes at Bachelor’s and Master’s level show a gender bias towards female students, some almost total. The most evenly balanced programmes are biomedicine, medicine and dentistry. There was little change in 2011 compared with previous years. It is difficult to influence gender-bound educational choices – similar male-to-female ratios are found at other higher education institutions offering programmes in medicine and health sciences programme, as well as in the labour market that the students encounter on graduating. Nevertheless, KI is trying to change the situation, for example by always having both sexes equally represented in its marketing material. Furthermore, KI ran a special initiative with AIK youth football club in 2011 to sound out young men about their views on masculinity and educational choices. It was found that while they could imagine studying for a healthcare profession, they were worried about appearing unmanly in front of their peers and about not fitting into a future labour market. See the main Equal opportunities section.

Gender distribution of first-year students on beginners’ programmes, 2011 Occupational therapy Audiology Biomedicine Biomedical lab science Public health sciences Speech pathology & therapy Medicine Optometry Psychology Radiology nursing Physiotherapy Nursing Dental hygiene Dentistry Dental Technology Total 0%

20%

40% Male

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

60%

80%

100%

Female

19 


bachelor’s and master’s education

Gender distribution of first-year students on continuation programmes, 2011 Midwifery Psychotherapy Specialist nursing Odontological prophylactics Master's 1 year Master's 2 year Continuation total 0%

20%

40% Male

60%

80%

100%

Female

The equality perspective in teaching

Complementary training for doctors

The three-year Sustainable Organisation for Equality at KI (Holk) project was concluded during the year. The project was set to raise the competence of the teaching staff as regards issues of equality and equal treatment. The project examined the teachers’ knowledge and application of the equality perspective, and found shortcomings in this respect. It also emerged from the “student barometer” survey that students feel that insufficient attention is paid to the equality perspective during their education. A major competence development drive was therefore launched in 2011 for KI teachers in order to ensure that the equality perspective is present in all aspects of teaching. Work on implementing the equality perspective in the study programmes must therefore continue to be developed. As part of KI’s continuing work on equality and antidiscrimination, seminars and lectures on the equality perspective in education and on discrimination and harassment were arranged. The aim was to create better study environments and provide a platform for discussions on the students’ demeanour with their future patients as caregivers. Some 275 students and teachers took part in such activities during the year.

The complementary training for doctors comprises one year of full-time study (60 credits), half of which is devoted to clinicbased education. The programme is based on the students’ previous knowledge and experience and places considerable emphasis on the ability of the students to integrate their skills into a Swedish caregiving context. Some 20 students are enrolled on the programme every year, and of the 20 that were admitted in 2010, 18 are ready for their Foundation Doctor programme (internship) after having either completed and passed their complementary training or passed the National Board of Health and Welfare’s proficiency test.

Special undertakings Complementary training for doctors, nurses and dentists from a third country KI is one of four universities tasked with arranging 120 credits of complementary training for people from a third country holding a degree in medicine, dentistry or nursing in order to speed up their registration process.

20 

Complementary training for nurses The complementary training for nurses comprises one year of full-time study (60 credits), 24 credits of which are devoted to clinic-based education. Some 20–25 students are enrolled on the programme every year, and of the 24 that were admitted in the autumn semester of 2010, 16 have completed and passed the programme and may now apply for registration.

Complementary training for dentists The complementary training for dentists comprises one year of full-time study (60 credits), and covers theory and clinical proficiency training. Some 15 students are enrolled on the programme every year, and of the 16 that were admitted in the autumn semester of 2010, 12 have completed and passed the programme and two have passed the National Board of Health and Welfare’s proficiency test.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


bachelor’s and master’s education

Julius Kamwesiga teaches Swedish occupational therapy students to improvise Julius Kamwesiga is a teacher and research student in occupational therapy at the Occupational Therapy Training School in Uganda, and has been a regular guest at Karolinska Institutet over the last ten years. In 2011, he visited KI as both a guest member of teaching staff in occupational therapy and a PhD student. His doctoral thesis is entitled “Developing client centered and mobile phone supported ADL-intervention enabling participation in everyday life after stroke in Uganda”. “Ugandan healthcare features an excellent occupational therapy policy,” he explains. “Admittedly, implementation can be difficult due to a lack of resources, but on the other hand this means that we have to be highly creative.” Julius believes that he can help Nordic and other Western students on the Study Programme in Occupational Therapy at KI to use this creative thinking. “Of course, you have more resources and more tools at your disposal when treating patients, but finding individual solutions for each patient is still the most important thing, even for occupational therapists in wealthy nations.” He explains that occupational therapists in Uganda do not have national guidelines to follow in the same way that physicians within certain clinical specialisms do.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

“The patient is reliant on the occupational therapist’s own problem-solving ability.” Julius was involved in setting up the international interdisciplinary course at the Division of Occupational Therapy at KI’s Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, entitled Community and Home Based Rehabilitation. This five-week course is worth 7.5 credit points, and has been run since 2007. “I’m delighted that KI has given me the opportunity to come here and share my experiences from Uganda and Africa. The students at KI are often fascinated when they hear about just how much it’s possible to achieve with next to nothing. For example, in Uganda we often make tools ourselves from bark or papier-mâché.” Julius first came into contact with Karolinska Institutet in 2002. Through a collaboration between KI and Makerere University in the Ugandan capital of Kampala, he took part in an occupational therapy conference in Sweden as part of a sponsor programme. Since 2005, he has been coordinator for the Linnaeus-Palme exchange programme for teaching staff and students on the Study Programme in Occupational Therapy at KI and Mulago Paramedical School in Kampala.

21 


Research and Doctoral (third-cycle) education

22 

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

There are currently approximately 3,500 researchers at KI divided into a total of 500 groups, while at year end there were approximately 2,100 active doctoral students. Activities are pursued in association with the Stockholm County Council (Stockholms läns landsting, SLL), which is a key factor in the ability to dovetail research and doctoral education with clinical practice, where the research results achieved are even-tually to come to the benefit of individual patients.

Research New research findings – some examples As a medical university, KI conducts research in a broad spectrum of subjects covering all types of disease and at all levels, from experimental laboratory research, via the analysis of the major common diseases, to more patient-end treatment-orientated research. The following is a selection of the new scientific findings published in 2011.

Successful operation For the first time, an artificial trachea seeded with the patient’s own stem cells was transplanted into a patient with advanced cancer (The Lancet, November). The successful operation, which was made possible after a lengthy period of study and knowledge-gathering in the fields of transplantation medicine, stem cell research and medical technology, raises hopes for the further development of non-donor, and therefore syngeneic, transplantation.

led by mammography, and breast cancer was linked to a specific gene variant (Nature Genetics, February). It was also shown that many women diagnosed with breast cancer die from completely different diseases (Journal of Clinical Oncology, September), particularly women who were older at the time of diagnosis and who died before the cancer had spread to the lymph nodes.

Malignant melanoma A trial comparing the surgical excision of malignant melanoma showed that a two-centimetre margin around the tumour area is just as safe as the conventional four-centimetre margin (The Lancet, October). KI researchers also took part in larger studies which identified new gene variants linked to malignant melanoma (Nature Genetics, November).

Leukaemia Several cancer forms can appear in cells in the blood-forming organs, and research at both experimental and clinical levels is currently being conducted in this field. Last year, for example, researchers showed that while close relatives of patients with acute leukaemia or its prodrome do not have a higher risk of developing the disease (The Journal of Clinical Oncology, December), an increased risk might be associated with the prolonged stimulation of the immune defence by a former infection or autoimmune disease (The Journal of Clinical Oncology, June). Improved treatment methods were presented involving drugs for chronic myeloid leukaemia and the refined transplantation of cells for multiple myeloma (The Journal of Clinical Oncology, May and June).

Cancer signals Prostate cancer Two major studies comparing treatment strategies for prostate cancer (The New England Journal of Medicine, May; The Lancet Oncology, Sept) showed that while survival is more likely in men who opt for surgery rather than a wait-and-see approach, the surgery left them having to cope with incontinence and impotence. Additional gene variants associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer were identified, a finding that is essential to improving the accuracy of biopsies and diagnosis (Nature Genetics, July).

Breast cancer Researchers at KI have participated in several multinational projects for improving the treatment of breast cancer, through charting the effects of and adverse-reactions to drugs given either alone or in combination to various sub-groups of patients (The Journal of Clinical Oncology, January and July; The Lancet Oncology, June; The Lancet, July and December). The direct correlation between breast tissue density, as revea-

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

Much cancer research takes place at the cellular and molecular level, and several studies presented new knowledge about the signals and regulation mechanisms that drive cancer growth and that therefore could possibly be manipulated to curb tumour development (Science, August; Nature Chemical Biology, October; Nature Medicine, November).

Genes A detailed study on one of the most fundamental processes of life, chromosome replication, gave new knowledge of this process (Nature, March). A new method was also developed that makes it possible to count individual molecules of DNA and RNA, which is useful, for example, in precise studies of cancer cell regulation (Nature Methods, November). The nature and underlying cause of a new congenital disease that leads to severe developmental retardation and hepatopathy were discovered (The American Journal of Human Genetics, September). The latter two studies are examples of research made possible by the Science for Life Laboratory initiative in Stockholm.

23 


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Obesity

Dyslexia

New findings that obesity, diabetes and blood lipid disorders can be associated with disorders of adipose cell function can pave the way for new treatments (Nature, September).

A possible neurobiological explanation was presented for dyslexia, after it was found that one of the underlying genes regulates the function of the antenna-projections (cilia) on cerebral neurons that are important for their communication and migration (PLoS One, June).

Multiple sclerosis An international team of researchers identified new gene variants linked to multiple sclerosis (MS), which has improved scientists’ understanding of the biology underlying this extremely disabling neurological disease (Nature, August). A strong correlation between shift work at an early age and the later development of MS was demonstrated and traced to a possible cause, namely disorders of melatonin secretion and inflammatory responses to changes in circadian rhythm (Annals of Neurology, October).

Gynaecology A Nordic research collaboration showed that surgery for prolapse, which is a common post-childbirth condition, involving synthetic mesh is more effective than conventional surgery (The New England Journal of Medicine, May). A study of women with polycystic ovary syndrome showed that this group of patients run a high risk of developing complications during pregnancy and concluded they should therefore be kept under particularly close observation (The British Medical Journal, October).

Epilepsy Women on medication for epilepsy run a higher risk of fetal deformities when pregnant, and a study showed how choice and dose of medicine can lower this risk (Lancet Neurology, June). The idea that epilepsy induces a tendency towards violence was proved wrong by another study, although it did note a relationship between previous brain injury caused by trauma to the head and a later risk of violent crime (PLoS Medicine, December).

Nerve cells KI’s strong stem cell research produced new findings on how the development of brain cells is controlled by dopamine and transcription factors (Cell Stem Cell, April and June). New knowledge was also presented on the scarring that builds around a spinal injury, which provides new opportunities for repairing damaged nerve tissue (Science, July). The activation of the nerve system’s immune cells (microglia) possibly has a significant role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. One study identified the signal substances that are involved in this activation and that are therefore a conceivable target for a protective inhibitors (Nature, March).

24 

Cognition and psychiatry A number of high-profile studies involving the manipulation of visual impressions examined how we perceive our bodies as coherent entities, as belonging to ourselves and as existing in three-dimensional space (PLoS One, February and May). The point in the brain that controls these impressions was revealed with MR imaging (Current Biology, June). KI took part in major international studies of the genetic determinants of schizophrenia and bipolar disease (Nature Genetics, September) and an experimental rat model for future trials of antidepressants was presented (Molecular Psychiatry, January).

Diabetes Diabetes research showed that the release of insulin is not subject to the direct control of nerves as was previously thought. This has caused the entire pancreatic anatomy to be rewritten (Cell Metabolism, July). A new component of the mitochondrion (the cell’s power plant), that can improve our understanding of age-related diseases was discovered (Cell Metabolism, May). New findings that mitochondrial function is positively affected by nitrate explain some of the benefits of vegetables like lettuce, spinach and beetroot (Cell Metabolism, February).

Heart failure A study comparing two heart failure drugs showed that there was a difference in survival rates, a finding that can be translated into improved therapeutic procedures (Journal of American Medical Association, January). Cardiac valves, which are currently removed in patients with advanced atherosclerosis, were shown to be sensitive to anti-inflammatory drugs, which could therefore become a future non-invasive treatment method (Circulation, March).

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Quality: research Measuring scientific production – bibliometrics KI uses bibliometrics to measure the spread and impact of its research findings. Bibliometrics involves the application of mathematical and statistical procedures to articles, books and other media. Reported data are analysed over a long period of time. The number of articles is a rough measure of scientific production and depends on a variety of factors, such as the publication patterns of different disciplines. The bars of the histogram below represent publications with some kind of organisational link to KI. Figures for the number of publications are based on year of publication, but since the database is updated with a slight time lag, there are no complete statistics for the past year at the time of publishing this annual report. Figures for 2011 will therefore not be given in the chart to avoid any distortion of the facts. A more accurate assessment of scientific production is possible by making comparisons over a longer period of time. KI has therefore decided to draw comparisons for the 2001–2010 period, during which the total production of publications increased by 39 per cent. Scientific and review articles alone accounted for an increase of 29 per cent. The “Field normalised citation score” compares the citation rate of a particular article with publications of the same class

(i.e. the same kind of document from the same year and on the same subject). An individual article’s indicator is 1 if it is cited as many times as the mean citation rate for similar articles. The diagram above gives the mean field normalised citation score for all articles from KI per year. Between 2005 and 2010, KI’s score climbed from 1.38 to 1.61. KI thus has a relatively stable citation rate and is clearly maintaining its global position. At the time of writing this annual report, publications from 2011 have not yet been registered or cited to the extent required to provide stable and reliable data, and have therefore been omitted from the below diagram.

Field normalised citation scores Score 1,75 KI 1,50

1,25

Global average

1,00

0,75

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Publications Number

5,000 4500 Other

4000 3500

Letter

3000

Editorial Material

2500 Meeting Abstact

2000

Review

1500 1000

Article

500 0

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

2008

2009

2010

25 


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

KI’s roadmap for research KI’s joint roadmap for research with the SLL has continued to guide KI’s research. Ring-fenced investments totalling SEK 200 million in five areas make it possible to strengthen both clinical and more basic research.

Thematic research centres Eight multidisciplinary, translational thematic centres have been established to bring together successful groups active in the biomedical field. The scheme will be evaluated in the 2012 financial year once it has been operational for three years.

Identification and recruitment of new researchers The objective is to actively enrich the diversity and competitiveness of KI’s research by identifying and recruiting researchers in important fields who are also leading representatives of their subjects. This is done by establishing strategic professorships in receipt of central grants, normally for a five-year period.

Resource support for distinguished professors Forty-five recipients of the Distinguished Professors Award are each receiving SEK 3.5 million over a five-year period.

Strengthened core facilities and infrastructure Strengthening core facilities and infrastructure makes advanced technical platforms accessible to all researchers.

Support for junior researchers KI runs a programme for the regular advertisement of funds for 15 two-year senior research fellowships at the level directly above postdoctoral fellow. Funds were also announced for two-year postdoc posts, and for five wholly financed four-year postdoctoral fellowships.

were held during the four-day long site-visit, which took place in March and April. Individual reports and the panels’ own general conclusions were also written up. The conclusions drawn by the experts will form part of KI’s strategy work. Some of the views expressed by the reports were that many research teams work in isolation, which hampers quality development; that there are cases of vague academic leadership, especially in the weaker research environments; and that career opportunities for junior researchers need strengthening. The dean of research met with all departmental heads to go through the responses in order to follow up the assessments at a constellation level, and the local academic management has been asked to describe the measures that will be taken in the wake of the ERA. This work will be checked and evaluated in the autumn of 2012. One third of the assessed constellations were classed as “excellent” or ”outstanding”. Since these groups were all amongst the largest, the inevitable conclusion is that at least half of all researchers at KI work in world class environments. Slightly less that one in five constellations was rated either “insufficient” or “poor”. To facilitate analysis, discussion and further development, the 33 recommendations in the expert report were divided into eight categories: KI’s steerability; cleaning up internal terminology; junior researchers; doctoral education; clinical research; education; international contacts; and listening to the wider community.

Organisation of laboratory animal activities

An electronic laboratory notebook system at KI (KI-ELN) is being installed to offer all researchers a general service for documenting their work safely and efficiently. Around 700 researchers divided into some 90 teams will be using the system. KI-ELN is a considerable improvement on the former paperbased system, as it provides users with much more efficient search and overview functionality as well as standardised procedures and security.

A functional, clear and centrally established organisation for animal experimentation is a critical quality issue as regards providing safe and secure conditions for research. All strategic issues for KI and the SLL in this area are now dealt with under a new academic management structure: The Laboratory Animals Board. Operational activities in KI are collected under an internal organisational unit for comparative medicine, which is in charge of all aspects of animal experimentation and provides researchers, doctoral students and other staff with services and guidance. Comparative medicine includes a veterinary unit, an education unit offering courses in vivisection and other service facilities with animal-based activities.

External research assessment (ERA)

Equality

The external assessment of the research conducted at KI that was completed during 2011 aimed to identify and present proposals for improving and developing research conditions at the university. The assessment was carried by 78 international experts divided into panels representing broad scientific fields. The ERA was conducted on the research group level (or the equivalent), and the panels also met the heads of departments. A total of 561 interviews (501 constellations/research groups)

The following measures were taken in 2011 to achieve a more even gender balance amongst teachers and researchers and to promote equality. When recruiting professors and senior lecturers, the selection committees are instructed to put forward both sexes for advertised posts and to actively seek out suitable candidates, putting particular effort into those of the under-represented sex.

Electronic laboratory notebooks

26 

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

The members of the Recruitment Committee attended a course during the year on competence-based recruitment, so that the candidates’ competencies are matched against those sought for the posts. Such a process-orientated method reduces the likelihood that irrelevant factors such as sex, gender identity, age, ethnicity, religion or other creed, sexual orientation or disability will impinge upon the recruitment process. Since 2006, vacancies have been advertised in areas where there are scientifically qualified women. Two additional people were employed under this initiative in 2011. To date 17 lectureships have been advertised, and 19 people have been recruited. Twelve women and four men have been recruited onto professorships while two women and one man have been employed as senior lecturers. This means that 74 per cent of these positions have gone to women. In 2010, KI received funding from the Delegation for Gender Equality in Higher Education for “Mentor4Equality”, a project designed to explore the mechanisms and structures that impede equality at KI. The knowledge generated will provide a platform

upon which to devise measures to improve equality at KI. The project is aimed at doctoral students and postdocs up to five years after graduation, who are invited to participate in mentorship programmes. The planning and recruitment of beginners and mentors took place in 2011, and the project will run until 2013.

Research funding KI’s total assets as regards research remained unchanged since the 2010 financial year, but were 24.1 per cent higher than in 2008. The rate of increase is slightly higher for the government appropriation (25.8 per cent) than it is for the external funds (23.2 per cent). The unchanged level of total external appropriations is partly attributable to a new accounting principle for 2011 (see the Financial Review section). Appropriates from Swedish companies and overseas financiers decreased by some 13 per cent, while funds from research councils continued to increase, by a total of 50 per cent since 2008. This reflects KI’s ever-growing share of appropriations awarded to competing medical faculties.

Total revenue for research, 2008–2011, SEK million (current prices) 2008

2009

2010

2011

Change 2010–2011

Foundations and organisations

576

645

654

688

5.2%

Foreign funding (see below)

436

467

496

431

-13.0%

Research councils

437

484

597

654

9.6%

County and municipal councils

335

559

551

457

-17.0%

Other Government funding

186

304

260

298

14.6%

Swedish business sector

177

196

196

171

-12.8%

KI funds

63

57

53

67

24.4%

Financial revenue

78

18

17

56

229.2%

Total external funding

2,290

2,731

2,824

2,822

-0.1%

Direct Government funding

1,296

1,326

1,581

1,630

3.1%

Total

3,586

4,057

4,405

4,452

1,1%

64%

67%

64%

63%

EU

213

234

231

224

-3.1%

Foundations and organisations

127

134

195

128

-34.3%

Source

Proportion of external funding

Breakdown of foreign funding, SEK million

Business sector Total

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

96

100

69

79

13.7%

436

467

496

431

-13.0%

27 


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Research funding, 2002–2011 (current prices) SEK million

3000

External

2500 2000 Government

1500 1000 500 0

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

The European Union

The European Research Council (ERC)

KI retained its position as the largest recipient of EU funds of all Swedish universities, and as one of the largest in Europe in the health category. Research grants from the EU to KI decreased slightly in 2011 owing to a narrowing of the subject areas in which funding announcements have been made in recent years, and the total absence of funding for areas of importance to KI, such as cancer, during the 2009–2010 application period. The new principle for managing scholarships, which reduced funding by SEK 10.5 million, must also be taken into account. Revenue from research grants from the EU amounted to SEK 224.1 million in 2011.

The European Research Council (ERC) is one of the four components of FP7. The appropriations are awarded to individual researchers/research groups against the single selection criterion of “excellence”. KI has nine current ERC Advanced Grants and 11 current Starting Grants. Revenue from ERC research grants in 2011 amounted to SEK 40.6 million.

The Framework Programmes (FP6 & FP7) KI’s participation in FP6 in 2011 involved 15 projects, including two as coordinator. All of KI’s remaining FP6 projects are due to be concluded in early 2012. KI took part in 222 FP7 projects (including 29 Marie Cure Fellowships and 20 ERC Grants) during the year, including 31 as coordinator.

The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) The IMI, which is a joint EU-pharmaceutical industry initiative for the production of drugs, was launched in 2008. KI is engaged as a partner in eleven ongoing IMI projects, including one as coordinator.

The Public Health Programme The EU Public Health Programme is run under the DG SANCO in Luxembourg. In 2011, KI participated in two projects, both times as coordinator.

Revenue from the EU, 2004–2011 SEK million 250

214.2

200 150

172.5

235.2

232.9

224.1

2009

2010

2011

185.7

138.8 113.4

100 50 0

28 

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

EU-funded projects, 2007–2011* Total number of projects - of which KI is coordinator**

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

244

260

230

204

215

39

41

38

29

31

* The number of projects underway within FP6, FP7 and the Public Health Programme. Figures do not include FP7 projects that have been approved but have not yet commenced. ** European Research Council, ERC, projects not included.

American research grants KI is one of the main recipients of American research grants in Europe. Research revenue from American financing sources amounted to SEK 44 million in 2011, of which SEK 22 million was from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), KI’s most important partner outside Europe. The NIH grant dropped sharply (by 44 per cent) during the year owing to the conclusion of a number of larger projects. KI also received federal funds from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Employee Benefits Security Administration, the US Army and the National Science Foundation for a total of 60 research projects, 13 of which with KI as coordinator. Apart from government, American not-for-profit, voluntary and private foundations are important potential sources of research funding. Revenue from this group amounted in 2011 to SEK 22 million.

Funds for strategic research fields (SFOs) KI has established six national research initiatives in the fields of diabetes, neuroscience, healthcare science, cancer, epidemiology and stem cells/regenerative medicine. Each SFO seeks to develop effective research environments by running recruitment programmes for junior and senior researchers, organising competitive infrastructures and easing mobility between preclinical and clinical research and industry. Over and above SEK 78 million in direct government funding for KI’s SFOs, there are other funding packages for research that are closely related to these fields, namely funds that KI allocated to strategic resources (SEK 66 million) and funds from external financiers, including the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish Cancer Society. This research, which reinforces KI’s SFOs, is worth an estimated SEK 520 million.

Funds for strategic infrastructure In 2010, KI was tasked by the Swedish Research Council (VR) to establish two national infrastructures, both financed by the VR and with strategic resources from KI. The Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden (CBCS) offers researchers large-scale

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

bonding studies of chemical molecules to a range of target proteins. Initially, the infrastructure is based on a collaboration between existing research environments in Stockholm, Uppsala and Umeå. Biovitrum (now Swedish Orphan Biovitrum) has donated an extensive library of chemical molecules, which now form part of the CBCS’s resource bank. The other infrastructure, Biobanking and Molecular Resource Infrastructure of Sweden (BBMRI.se), has been established to create a national standard for the collection of biobank samples and to provide cost-effective facilities for their long-term storage and analysis. BBMRI.se is supported by all medical universities in Sweden and infrastructural resources are set to be established around the country. Both infrastructures are administratively based at KI and each is led by a board.

Doctoral education There are approximately 2,100 active doctoral students at KI in 2010, which is about one third of the university’s entire student body, and over 40 per cent of the national doctoral population in the fields of medicine, odontology and pharmacy. The proportion of degrees is roughly equivalent. KI accounts from some 14 per cent of all higher education degrees in Sweden.

Volume and degrees The number of doctoral admissions fell by about nine per cent and is now back at 2007 levels after having peaked in 2010. The total number of active students increased by 2.7 per cent. Since the 2002 financial year, the number of doctoral students has increased by about seven per cent, while the total assets for the same period have increased by 61 per cent. This stability of student numbers can be compared with the increase in postdoctoral fellows (102 per cent) and senior research fellows (44 per cent). The number of degrees awarded since 2002 has risen by 17 per cent, but in 2011 it dropped, like the number of new admissions, back to 2007 levels.

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RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Doctoral education: admissions, registered students and degrees Doctoral admissions - of which licentiates Registered doctoral students (active >_ 10%) Licentiate degrees PhD degrees - of which with previous licentiate

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

398

420

420

450

409

17

12

19

18

12

2,073

2,080

2,028

2,076

2,133

31

15

17

21

14

345

352

392

367

349

38

18

20

12

12

Active doctoral students at KI Number 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Men

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2010

2011

Total

Women

Theses defended at KI Number 400

300

200

100

0 2002

2003

2004

2005 Men

30 

2006

2007 Women

2008

2009 Total

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

The pioneer behind the world’s first tracheal transplant using the patient’s own stem cells In June 2011, Professor Paolo Macchiarini and his colleagues at Karolinska Institutet carried out the world’s first transplant of a windpipe made from synthetic material, which had been pretreated with the patient’s own stem cells. The synthetic windpipe consisted of nanocomposite material, and had been pre-treated in a specially made bioreactor using the patient’s stem cells. The advantage of using synthetic organs is that the patient avoids having to wait for an organ donor. The procedure was carried out at Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge. “The day of the transplant began sadly, when I heard that one of my mentors had died,” recalls Professor Macchiarini. “Since the procedure was about to begin, I had to switch off all my personal emotions and concentrate fully on the task at hand. When we had finished, I was extremely pleased that we had succeeded in carrying out the entire procedure according to plan. It was only when the patient came to that I realised the significance of what we had achieved.” He explains that the year featured many successful advances, both on the operating table and in the research laboratory. “But the biggest thing to happen in 2011 was that we succeed-

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

ed in building a team of world-famous, leading-edge researchers and clinicians who made it possible to save the life of a patient by transplanting a new windpipe. This was possible thanks to the team and the wealth of expertise at Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge. By carrying out this procedure, we demonstrated what regenerative surgery can achieve.” His research aims to help patients with diseases of the airways, such as cancer or other conditions that can damage or obstruct the airways. Eventually, it may be possible to use the same technique to repair damaged lungs, the heart or even joints. “I don’t want to give patients false hope. There’s still a long way to go before we can replace organs such as lungs and hearts using tissue engineering technology. However, the possibility of repairing these organs using cell therapy is closer than we might imagine.” Professor Macchiarini will be spending 60 percent of his time working as a visiting professor at Karolinska Institutet’s Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology until 1 December 2013.

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RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Actual period of study Year Doctor of Philosophy

4

3 Licentiate 2

1

0 2006

2007

2008

2009

2011

2010

Actual period of study

Costs per performance in doctoral education, SEK thousand

Since 2006, the actual period of study has increased by 20 per cent, and is now just over the expected four years. The main reasons for this are an improvement in follow-up procedures for individual study plans and tighter registration praxis. The actual period of study for licentiate students has remained unchanged since 2006.

Supervison costs Salaries

Student finance

151

Operating costs

46

Premises

25

Depreciation

The ratio of external financing to appropriation funds changed in 2010, a trend that continued in 2011. The share of external funds has dropped from 75 per cent to 64 per cent since 2008, offset by a corresponding increase in appropriation funds. The proportion of doctoral grants relative to studentships remained stable at 78 per cent.

8

Subtotal

230

Doctoral student costs

Costs of doctoral education

Salary/utbildningsbidrag

341

Operating costs

237

Premises

130

Depreciation

The average cost of a doctoral student with a studentship/study grant works out at an estimated SEK 1,161 thousand for 2011 (see below). A more detailed calculation can be found in the appendix: Cost for performance Since the figures are based partly on assumptions, the cost must be seen as approximate. However, it does tally relatively well with the calculations made by some higher education institutions at the behest of the government if subsequent increases in price index are taken into account.

42

Subtotal

750

Indirects costs from salaries and operating costs

181

Total kostnad

1,161

Student finance by discipline, SEK thousand Source Doctoral studentship Doctoral grant Total of which direct Government funding of which external funding

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2008

2009

2010

2011

208,897

77%

219,711

78%

227,127

78%

235,539

78%

62,885

23%

63,203

22%

63,639

22%

66,218

22%

271,782

282,914

290,766

301,757

68,819

25%

79,568

28%

93,715

32%

108,300

36%

202,963

75%

203,346

72%

197,051

68%

193,457

64%

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Gender distribution: doctoral education The gender distribution of newly admitted, active and graduated doctoral students is close to the “equality interval” of 40–60 per cent, as it has been for the past ten years. Women comprised 62 per cent of active doctoral students in 2011, and men 38 per cent. Women comprised 61 per cent of new doctoral admissions (409 individuals) and 63 per cent of all graduates (363 individuals). Women formed the majority of students admitted with a licentiate degree as their aim. However, the proportion of doctoral students admitted in this category has declined in recent years, and accounted for only three per cent of all doctoral

level admissions in 2011, compared with four per cent in 2010. Women made up 93 per cent of students awarded a licentiate degree (14 individuals). Since the recruitment base for doctoral education mostly constitutes students from female-dominated Bachelor’s and Master’s study programmes, it is not surprising that women are in the majority of newly admitted, active and graduating doctoral students too. The gender distribution also matches that of doctoral students in similar research fields at other Swedish higher education institutions.

Women in doctoral education (%) 2008

2009

2010

2011

60

61

62

61

75

89

83

92

Doctoral students (active >_ 10%)

61

61

62

62

Licentiate degrees

80

71

67

93

PhD degrees

57

63

58

62

Doctoral admissions - of which licentiates

Quality: doctoral education Recruitment of doctoral students KI is seeking to increase the ratio of students recruited in competition. A transparent recruitment process makes it easier to identify any flaws there might be regarding the equal treatment of applicants. In 2011, it was made compulsory for supervisors in receipt of KID funds (which are subject to competition for the part-financing of new doctoral students) to recruit doctoral students via public announcement. Three seminars were also arranged on doctoral recruitment to improve the recruiting personnel’s knowledge and understanding of the process; issues discussed included selection procedure, interview techniques and discrimination. Some 60 doctoral places were advertised via the KI job portal during the year.

Supervisor training KI’s supervisors have a pivotal part to play in doctoral education. KI thus arranges courses and other activities designed to develop the supervisors’ competence and strengthen their ability to handle different situations they might encounter. There are four courses offered, one of which is web-based. A new course was introduced during the year on leadership and group dynamics. Lunch seminars on different supervisory themes were also arranged.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

Student survey Since 2007, KI has surveyed all doctoral students ahead of their examinations at both PhD and licentiate level in order to sound out their views on their education, information that can be of use in the improvement of programmes. The survey is compiled annually. The response rate in 2010 was 71 per cent, and the results showed that approximately 90 per cent of doctoral students were wholly or partly satisfied with their studies at KI, and that around 75 per cent would recommend their supervisor to prospective students. In the autumn of 2011, KI decided to introduce another survey, Mid Poll, for distribution to doctoral students who are half way through their education. The aim of the survey is to examine teaching at this level and make visible the pedagogical elements of the programmes and potential areas of improvement.

New admissions process for compulsory doctoral courses KI decided to implement a central admissions process in the autumn semester of 2011 for the compulsory basic general science courses included in doctoral programmes. In that applicants were asked to rank their choices, the number of late drop-outs at course start in 2012 is expected to drop, which is hoped will improve the resource use of course places and encourage students to attend these courses earlier in their education.

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RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Alumni survey of doctoral graduates 2003/2004 and 2007/2008 In the autumn of 2011, Statistics Sweden carried out a survey of graduates from 2003/2004 and 2007/2008 on their education and entrance onto the labour market on behalf of KI and the medical faculties at Gothenburg, Linköping, Lund and Umeå universities. The results, which cover all participating universities, show that 86 per cent of their alumni were in employment in the week of the survey, approximately 40 per cent of whom within academia, 33 per cent in public healthcare, and 15 per cent in the private sector. A small percentage was working in another public or local government sector. Two thirds of recipients answered that a PhD was formally required for the position they currently occupied. Just over 40 per cent of all alumni with doctoral degrees had been awarded a research grant as the principal applicant after graduation, and slightly less than half had been employed as a postdoc or been in receipt of a postdoc scholarship. Eightyeight per cent of those working in academia said that their work included research. Over 90 per cent were satisfied with their education and three-quarters said that they had received adequate supervision during their studies.

Equality: doctoral education Since 2010, the compulsory induction course for all newly admitted doctoral students has included an equality and equal treatment module. In 2011, 474 doctoral students attended the course. There is also an equality and equal treatment component to the obligatory supervisor training, which was attended by 180 supervisors in 2011. The course is held in Swedish and English. A workshop was also arranged in May for the departmental directors of studies on handling harassment and discrimination. The doctoral course prospectus for 2011 included five courses on gender and other equality perspectives.

Internationalisation: research and doctoral education International collaborations and agreements on research and doctoral education A large proportion of KI’s research and co-authored articles is collaborative with partners around the world. Most such interactions take place between individual researchers and research groups without formal arrangements, although such agreements are occasionally needed to strengthen strategically important research fields and educational collaborations by creating strong, stable bonds between the partners. In 2011, KI signed general declarations of intent or entered specific agreements on research and/or doctoral education with numerous partners, including RIKEN (Japan), the Center for

34 

Drug Research and Development (Canada), the University of Toronto (Canada), the National Office of Science and Technology Award (NOSTA, China), Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China), Makerere University (Uganda), the Mayo Clinic (USA) and the Baylor College of medicine (USA).

Internationalisation of doctoral education Over 30 per cent of KI’s doctoral students had a first or second degree from an overseas university. Although most of this group are so-called freemovers, many doctoral students complete their education within the framework of the formal agreements on doctoral education that has been entered into with higher education institutions in other countries. In 2011, KI entered into formal collaborative agreements on doctoral education with a large number of academies and research institutions in a wide range of countries, including Finland, Japan, China, Laos, Russia, Singapore, Uganda, Ukraine, the USA and Vietnam. Some of these collaborations concerned a double degree, whereby doctoral students are admitted to two universities and awarded a degree by both. In 2011, KI had double-degree agreements in place in Finland, and with Makerere University in Uganda, Nanyang Technological University and the National University of Singapore. Agreements under the Lifelong Learning/Erasmus programme for doctoral students were also signed in 2011 with several universities, including Edinburgh University, Scotland, and the University of Warmia and Mazuri, Poland.

Erasmus Mundus Erasmus Mundus is an EU-financed collaboration and mobility programme in higher education. It operates in consortia of at least three European universities and, often, non-European partners. In 2011, KI participated in three programmes in partnership arranged for South Africa, India and a consortium of Latin American countries.

Karolinska International Research and Training Committee (KIRT) Karolinska International Research and Training Committee (KIRT) has initiated and driven collaborations with institutions in low- and middle-income countries. In 2011, KIRT had projects underway with universities in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Vietnam, Laos, Latin America and Uganda, all financed by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) and the Swedish Institute.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


RESEARCH AND DOCTORAL education

Vera completed her doctorate, but plans to stay in contact with Karolinska Institutet Tumour biologist Vera Grinkevich completed her doctorate in October 2011 at the Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology. Her supervisor was Professor Galina Selivanova, a pioneer in research into the protein p53, which plays a central role in protection against cancer. This protein has undergone mutation and lost its protective effect in more than half of all cancer tumours. The research group of which Vera Grinkevich is a member has previously identified two molecules that can restore the protective function of p53, PRIMA 1 and RITA. PRIMA 1 can repair mutated p53, while RITA acts against tumour cells in which p53 is not mutated. Vera Grinkevich has investigated the function and significance of RITA in more depth. “The major finding of my thesis is that p53 reactivated by RITA becomes very potent cancer cell killer; it simultaneously inhibits multiple factors which are important for survival of cancer cells (oncogenes), and activates factors which mediate apoptosis of cancer cells. Also we found that RITA can kill cancer cells with mutant p53, so there is less probability for tumor resistance and mapped binding site of RITA on p53. All these makes RITA promising anticancer compound, but further investigations are needed,” explains Vera Grinkevich. Vera Grinkevich was born in Novosibirsk in Russia. She

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

studied molecular biology in St. Petersburg, and then decided to continue her studies abroad. “I found a suitable project investigating p53 at Karolinska Institutet, and applied,” she says. She arrived here in 2005 and stayed until she completed her doctorate. She is now in Italy, working on one project involving stem cells and another centred on cancer. She is employed as a post-doc in the Salvatore Oliviero Laboratory at Siena University, but is still involved in her research into RITA at KI. “I enjoyed every day of the six years I spent at KI – the international environment, all the interesting seminars, the opportunity to attend conferences abroad and, not least, the friendly atmosphere among the students and staff. I hope to remain in contact with KI in the future, and to have a fruitful collaboration with Galina Selivanova and others, even if it is uncertain that I will ever come back to Sweden,” says Vera Grinkevich. Vera Grinkevich met the man who was to become her husband at KI, who worked in microbiology at the same department. They now have a two-year-old daughter. Her immediate plans include holding a lecture series at her old university in St. Petersburg, and working on a second post-doc in the US and Great Britain.

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Collaboration

36 

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


collaboration

KI collaborates extensively with other higher education institutions, companies and organisations around the world, collaboration that is critical to its success as a university. KI also publicises information about the latest research to a wider public. KI is the largest academic partner in Sweden for researchers in other countries. Its single largest partner is the Stockholm County Council (Stockholms läns landsting, SLL), collaboration with which provides extensiveextensive clinical research and education opportunities. KI also works closely with several important national and international authorities, some of which, such as the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), share facilities with KI. In 2011, researchers at KI took part in 215 EU projects, 31 of which were led from KI. Two significant infrastructure initiatives that were established during the year were BBMRI, a national biobank and molecular resource that provides the effective and systematic archiving of patient material, and the Chemical Biology Consortium Sweden (CBCS).

Collaboration with the SLL The SLL is KI’s most important partner. The shared objectives of their collaboration on education and research is to conduct research of future benefit to patients, to educate healthcare staff, and to grow the healthcare sector by implementing new research results and teaming up with private enterprise to develop and test new drugs and medical technical equipment in order to strengthen the Stockholm region’s international competitiveness in healthcare and research and enhance business growth. In June 2011, the SLL adopted a policy plan for the future of healthcare in the county. The plan involves a radical overhaul of healthcare in the region that impacts profoundly on KI’s research and education. The implementation of the plan requires more intensive collaboration between KI and the SLL on all relevant organisational levels.

Collaboration on the distribution of RE&D resources The distribution of the RE&D resources administrated by the SLL is decided within the KI/SLL collaboration organisation. In 2008, a general long-term roadmap was drawn up to lift the quality of medical research and healthcare. It includes investments in translational thematic research centres, the headhunting of new researchers, grants for particularly prominent professors, the reinforcement of core facilities, and support for junior researchers. In 2010, the Research Strategy Committee (Forskningsstrategiska Kommittén, FSK) introduced a new initiative concerning the funding of doctors during their residencies for use in clinical medical research of value to the development of healthcare.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

In December 2011, KI and the SLL signed a cooperation agreement on a quality register centre, which represents a significant investment in the development and use of quality registers in healthcare and research. The main objectives of the Stockholm Quality Register Centre are to help register administrators develop quality registers to support the careworker-patient relationship and to provide a node for the generation of new research-based knowledge. The following table shows changes in RE&D funds administrated by the SLL.

The Public Health Academy KI and the SLL decided in the autumn to sign a new agreement transferring the Public Health Academy back to the SLL.

Information dissemination KI integrates with the wider community by spreading the knowledge it generates to the public and private sectors and to the general public (e.g. by issuing press releases to the general media on the research that KI’s researchers publish in scientific journals). KI is given wide coverage in the national and international news, featuring in an average of 800 separate articles or items a year in all national media, including the national and local papers, magazines, online news, radio and TV. Scientists and others at KI contribute to the dissemination of science-based knowledge by writing books, giving lectures, and making themselves available for specialist comment on their own research and that of others in the same field. KI took part in numerous fairs, conferences and public marketing activities during the year, such as the annual meeting of the Swedish Society of Medicine and the Health, Wellbeing and Fitness Fair (the Nordic region’s largest health fair), at which 29 researchers from KI held lectures. During the ForskarFredag (Researcher Friday) event, which is organised in Sweden by the membership body Public & Science, researchers from KI helped to inspire an interest in science amongst young people by allowing them to try out some science for themselves, holding lectures and so forth. Almost 5,500 young people visited the event in Stockholm. KI was also co-arranger, along with the SLL and Karolinska University Hospital, of Research & Health, a day’s public science fair in Stockholm at which visitors could check their health and listen to talks and debates. KI awarded the Junior Medicine Prize for the second time in 2011. KI established the project in association with Kamratposten (a magazine for children and young teenagers) in order to teach young people more about science and to give them a chance to try out some research with the assistance of doctoral students and researchers at KI. Some 700 children and young adults from around the country took part in the contest.

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COLLABORATION

The EU-financed CommHERE communication project was launched during the year. The project, which is coordinated by KI, was set up to increase and systematise the dissemination of results from the EU’s research projects in medicine and health to a wider European public. To increase the activity of its students in the media, KI offers a course in popular science communication to train students at all levels in interview techniques, writing and critique. The course also includes work experience in the media. Other shorter courses on popular science communication are also arranged by the Information and Public Relations Office for doctoral students and senior research fellows.

Innovation and the private sector Much of the research done at KI is conducted in collaboration with Swedish and overseas companies, which provides considerable knowledge-exchange opportunities and sources of financing. In 2011, the private sector invested SEK 250 million in research at KI, of which SEK 79 million came from companies based abroad. In October 2011, KI had 57 adjunct professors, 42 of whom were part-financed by the SLL. KI also offers contract education, which in 2011 amounted to SEK 69 million, just over a quarter of which was for customers in the private sector. KI has also developed an innovation system to gather up ideas at an early stage and to offer collaboration possibilities or assist with company formation for the commercial market. This system comprises five entities based both inside and outside the university (table see below).

Education and research in innovation and entrepreneurship The Unit for Bioentrepreneurship (UBE) is an academic unit at KI focusing on education, development and research in the field of innovation and entrepreneurship. In 2011, 184 students attended UBE courses (including 22 doctoral students). Six courses were connected to the Master’s programme in bioentrepreneurship and four stand-alone. In several of these courses,

the students address practical concerns of 20 different companies and other organisations. In 2011, the unit was awarded funding by the Swedish Agency for Economic and regional Growth to support the development of a model for the implementation of training in entrepreneurship and enterprise in all programmes and courses at KI.

Service for ideas advice and enterprise KI offers support for researchers and students with innovative ideas and/or a desire to collaborate with the private sector, and guidance for companies seeking academic partners. The initiative is organised under the Innovation Office, which opened on 1 November 2010 and which is financed in equal measure by KI and earmarked government funds. The Innovation Office handled 105 cases in 2011, 82 of which concerned advice on early-stage ideas, and 23 industry collaborations on established research at KI. Information activities at fairs, open days, events and institutional visits, reached over 1,850 people. The Innovation Office built a new website during the year and used social media (Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn) to disseminate information.

KI’s support for commercial projects KI has an actor offering project management and business development. Karolinska Institutet Innovations AB (KI Innovations) evaluates research-based ideas from KI researchers and other Nordic research institutes. During the year, KI Innovations evaluated 80 ideas, and had 15 active projects at year end. A new company was formed in 2011, and a licence deal and an IP sale were completed. KI Innovations participates in Innovationsbron AB’s Business Incubation for Growth programme. Over 1,200 ideas have been evaluated since KI Innovations was formed in 1996, some ten per cent of which have been taken on to the project stage. Approximately 40 start-ups have been formed from the accepted projects, and 30 licence deals have been closed. Over 100 patent applications have been submitted by KI Innovations under these projects.

Unit for Bioentrepreneurship (UBE)

Innovation Office

Karolinska Institutet Innovations AB (KIAB)

Karolinska Institutet Science Park, (KISP)

Karolinska Development (KD)

Primary concern

Research and education in entrepreneurship

Supporting collaboration with the private sector, information and guidance for researchers on matters related to innovation

Incubator. Support with commercialisation and company formation. Licensing. Mature companies are sold to market players, e.g. KD

Supply of premises, installations and Facility Management for life science companies

Investment firm with company portfolio, many of which originated in KIAB.

Organisational base/ownership

LIME, Karolinska Institutet

University Admin., Karolinska Institutet

Karolinska Institutet Holding AB (KIHAB)

Karolinska Institutet Holding AB (KIHAB)

Independent limited company. KIHAB is majority shareholder

Note that Life Science refers to the entire sector, covering drugs, biotechnology and health-related services.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


COLLABORATION

Brothers receive doctoral degrees for their efforts for KI Jonas and Robert af Jochnick, successful Swedish entrepreneurs within the field of health, have supported Karolinska Institutet since 2004, when the two brothers founded the Jochnick Foundation. During 2011, they donated a total of SEK 65 million for research into the aging of the brain and diabetes. In recognition of their contributions, Jonas and Robert af Jochnick were named honorary doctors of medicine at KI during the year. The brothers first had the idea of trying to intensify research into the aging of the brain a couple of years ago. Jonas explains: “Robert was on the committee for KI’s 200th anniversary, which was celebrated in 2010. At the same time, he broached the subject with President Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson of making a donation to create a professorship in cognitive neuroscience. He explained our interest in stepping up research into the brain and what happens as it ages – a subject that we thought was overshadowed slightly by intensive research into cardiovascular diseases. We thought that such a professorship was well warranted – not least in view of the demographic trend.” These discussions led to a new professorship in diseases of the aging brain, which was created in April and awarded to Lars Bäckman. Professor Bäckman’s work is based at the Aging Research Center, which is run jointly by KI and Stockholm University.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

“He is continuing his work there, and now has an additional SEK 50 million from us over the course of ten years to focus on research into dementia and how it affects the memory,” explains Jonas. The next donation was made a few months later, in June. This was a donation of SEK 15 million to strengthen the existing diabetes research led by Per-Olof Berggren, a professor at the Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery. “It feels like a real privilege being able to donate money to such prominent and dedicated researchers as Lars Bäckman and Per-Olof Berggren, while also being able to support a medical university of Karolinska Institutet’s calibre,” he continues. Jonas points out that the university is distinguished not only by its expertise, but also by the whole atmosphere of commitment and openness, including holding many seminars each year. “We are extremely proud of our doctoral degrees from KI, even if we didn’t receive them for our medical knowledge,” he adds with a laugh. Jonas is a lawyer and works as an entrepreneur within the health sector, at Medicover. His brother, Robert, is an economist and chairman of Oriflame Cosmetics.

39 


COLLABORATION

KI Science Park In December 2011 there were 65 companies in the KI Science Park employing a total of 580 people. Networking activities are underway for the companies and grants have been received from the EU to develop value added by developing and implementing a mentorship programme, building a platform for the companies to present themselves to prospective investors and buyers, and producing a manual on the efficient production of pharmaceutical products. Construction work began during the year on the third of the KISP blocks on the university campus in Solna. In 2009, the tenancy capacity was 3,800 sq.m.; by 2011 it had grown to 13,300 sq.m. and is estimated to reach 15,700 sq.m. in 2012. KI Science Park arranged seminars for a total of 649 participants in 2011 as well as an ideas competition in tandem with the constituent companies of the innovation system and SLL Innovation, which attracted over 260 entries.

Karolinska Development AB – a listed investment company Karolinska Development creates value for investors, patients and researchers by developing innovations from world-leading researchers into products that can be sold or licensed out at a high return. The portfolio, which at year end comprised 34 projects, 12 of which in clinical development, is particularly strong in the fields of cancer, dermatology, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, women’s health and diseases of the central nervous system. Since April 2011, the Karolinska Development share has been quoted on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm. A new share issue was performed in connection with the float, which raised net proceeds of over SEK 600, after issue costs. Karolinska Development’s business model is to select the commercially most interesting medical innovations, develop innovations to the stage where the largest returns on investments can be obtained and to commercialise innovations through the sale of companies or the licensing of products. This will result in cash payments, milestone payments and royalties. Karolinska Development’s flexible exit strategy makes it possible for projects to be sold in the phase of development that gives the company the greatest returns on invested capital, which is usually when phase II studies have shown that the drug in question has the intended effect on patients, a particularly important value-raising stage. Through an agreement with Karolinska Institutet Innovations AB, Karolinska Development has a priority right to invest in a large flow of medical innovations. Since inception in 2003, Karolinska Development has, through KI Innovations AB, evaluated over 1,200 early-phase development projects within Karolinska Institutet and other leading Nordic universities.

Karolinska Institutet Holding AB Karolinska Institutet Holding AB (KIHAB) owns, sells and manages shares and participations in project and service companies, the purpose of which is to put knowledge and research

40 

results to good use by commercially exploiting the projects or knowledge produced from Karolinska Institutet. KIHAB has five wholly owned subsidiaries: Karolinska Institutet Innovations AB, Karolinska Science Park AB, Karolinska Institutet Health Management AB, Karolinska Institutet University Press AB, and University Accommodation Centre AB. The consolidated turnover was SEK 46 in 2011, which was SEK 3 million higher than in 2010. The group’s operating result was a loss of SEK 8 million (-6).

Selected key ratios: Collaborations, 2011*

No./ SEK m/%

Adjunct professors

57

Adjunct professions financed by the SLL

42

Externally financed research, total (SEK million) - from companies, total (SEK million) - from overseas companies (SEK million)

2,822 250 79

Contract research (SEK million)

422

- from companies, total (SEK million)

129

Doctoral students employed in the private and public sectors (annual full-time equivalent)

442

New companies in KI Innovations AB Ideas advice cases handled (KI Innovations AB and the Innovation Office) Industry-university collaborations handled (Innovations Office)

1 157 23

News articles/items on KI in Sweden per month (2010)

800

Proportion of scientific articles co-published with non-KI party (2010)

82%

Proportion of scientific articles co-published with non-Swedish party (2010)

60%

KI Science Park: companies

65

KI Science Park: employees

580

Contract education (FTE students)

235

Contract education, total revenue (SEK million)

69

- from companies (SEK million)

17

EU projects (FP7) - as coordinator

222 31

*Three items refer to data from 2010 (see table).

The above table is intended to give an indication of KI’s collaborations in different fields with the wider academic/research community and with the private sector. In most cases, more details are provided on the different data in the relevant sections of this annual report.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


COLLABORATION

Juleen Zierath: New concept helps us to disseminate research findings Juleen Zierath, Professor of Integrative Physiology at the Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, led the annual international diabetes conference at Karolinska Institutet’s Nobel Forum in November. However, this year’s conference used a brand new concept. The concept – KI Conferences – means that certain conferences of a guaranteed scientific level receive communicative support to attract more participants and to disseminate the content of the conference to more people. “We researchers aren’t specialists when it comes to the best way of running an event, so this has helped us to get more participants than normal – including more journalists – and to explain to a wider audience what the latest age-related diabetes research involves,” explains Professor Zierath. “Press releases were sent out, posters were printed, the conference was recorded, and some of it was broadcast on YouTube.” Findings presented at the conference included future opportunities for transplanting insulin-producing cells or creating these cells, either from stem cells or using the patient’s own developed cells. Other topics discussed were the link between metabolism and lifespan, and how the central nervous system controls the body’s energy balance. “The most important thing about these annual conferences,

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

which we have been holding for about fifteen years, is that they showcase the activity and commitment that characterise the diabetes researchers at KI and within the region. Being able to meet up in this way on a slightly smaller scale, with around 150 participants, is incredibly inspiring for those of us working to find solutions to one of the world’s most common diseases.” Professor Zierath originally hails from the US, and it was sport that inspired her interest in diabetes physiology. She had actually considered a career in field hockey or cross-country running, but during her training sessions she grew increasingly interested in the relationship between sport and health. She wanted to find out why the muscles of diabetics do not work the way they should, and how the muscles are affected by training. She came to Sweden in 1989 due to the prominence of diabetes research here, and because she had found a suitable doctoral project at KI. After defending her doctoral thesis in 1995, she returned to the US to complete a postdoctoral degree at Harvard University. She never expected to return to Sweden. “What drew me back was both the level of research at Karolinska Institutet and the fact that there’s a greater degree of freedom, with hierarchies that are far less rigid than is often the case in the US. Here, everyone is listened to – not just the research leaders. This makes for an excellent research climate.”

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INTERNATIONALISATION INTERNAL CONTROL Quality assurance procedures EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


INTERNATIONALISATION

Internationalisation activities KI’s close international ties are reflected in the fact that over 60 per cent of KI’s publications are co-authored with researchers from other countries. KI’s study programmes have a distinct international profile and attract students from around the world; many of KI’s Swedish students also participate in exchange programmes abroad. KI’s contract education activities also provide opportunities for new forms of collaboration and fresh perspectives. Alumni and fundraising activities at KI are closely linked to KI’s strategic international work, and in some cases donations have contributed to research and student exchanges with prioritised partners. Contacts with business in KI’s prioritised collaboration regions are sought systematically and KI’s innovation system participates regularly in its international operations. Substantial worldwide investments are being made in education and research, and while competition is increasing, so too are the opportunities. KI regards these developments as enriching and challenging in terms of its ability to live up the expectations placed on an international partner. A consistent, all-pervading theme in KI’s internationalisation activities is therefore a higher degree of professionalisation. The challenges that KI is facing in these contexts span a wide range of areas, from issues of intellectual property rights to the safety of staff and students travelling overseas. Internationalisation activities are coordinated by the International Strategy Committee, which comprises representatives of all three faculty boards and other departments with a high degree of international cooperation and contacts. To meet new challenges, a strategy for KI’s international activities was adopted during the year. The strategy focuses on three areas that are intended to help safeguard the organisation’s ability to raise the quality of its operations and consolidate its position as one of the world’s leading medical universities by attracting the world’s foremost teachers, researchers, students and partners. Internationalisation activities are therefore designed to focus on integrating an international perspective into all of the university’s activities, developing new and strengthening existing strategic alliances, and reinforcing the KI brand around the world. KI arranged several activities at a general university level during the year.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

Collaboration with the Mayo Clinic, USA For many years, KI and the Mayo Clinic have had a highly productive research partnership in the field of diabetes and metabolism. Work started on intensifying this relationship during the year, and in December 2011 a joint three-day conference was arranged at which lectures and discussions addressed future collaborations on research, education and innovation, and a Memorandum of Understanding was signed. KI and the Mayo Clinic’s research collaboration will henceforth include regenerative medicine, psychiatry, rheumatology and neurodegenerative diseases.

Delegation to Uganda A delegation from KI visited Uganda’s Makerere University during the year to discuss continuing and strengthening their research and education collaboration. Activities there included a joint graduate seminar and an alumni reception. A general Memorandum of Understanding was also signed. Four students from Makerere University were awarded a grant from KI’s alumni fund for global health in order to take part in an exchange with KI.

Collaboration with China In September 2011, the KI president and a delegation of researchers and other staff in charge of innovation and education matters visited China, where they discussed future partnerships with representatives of a number of bodies, including the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) and the National Office for Science and Technology (NOSTA). A visit was also arranged to Shanghai’s Jiao Tong University, where KI researchers took part in a scientific symposium and discussed collaborations on research, education and innovation. The visit was followed up in December, when a delegation from MOST and Shanghai Jiao Tong University paid a return visit to KI. Minister Wan Gang (MOST) delivered a lecture to the Nobel Forum, and the visit concluded with a Letter of Intent between KI and Shanghai Jiao Tong University. Other examples of international collaboration are detailed under the relevant area of activity.

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INTERNATIONALISATION

Co-publication countries for Karolinska Institutet researchers 2009–2011 (Number of publications)

MACEDONIA

LEBANON

1–10 11–50

GUADELOUPE BARBADOS

51–100

BRUNEI

101–200 201–500 501–800 801–1600 1601–

BOTSWANA

Co-publications within the US for Karolinska Institutet researchers 2009–2011 (Number of publications)

1–10 11–20 21–50 51–100 101–400 401–

Certain data included herein are derived from th Web of Science prepared by THOMSON REUTERS, Inc (Thomson), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: THOMSON REUTERS 2011. All rights reserved.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


INTERNAL CONTROl Quality Assurance procedures

Internal control

Quality assurance procedures

KI is subject to the Ordinance on Internal Control (SFS 2007: 603), which requires its operations to be conducted in a riskaware manner. Ten areas were identified in the 2011 risk analysis as needing specific control measures: • The KI/SLL collaboration • Threats and sabotage against animal facilities • The priority of study programmes • The integration of research and education • The elucidation of the pedagogical elements of doctoral education • Technical educational platforms

General quality assurance

Work on the development of KI’s multidisciplinary field of information security and IT continued during the year, with the recruitment of an information security officer amongst the changes. The coordination of strategic issues in the management group was developed in the organisational plan, and formerly decided control measures were evaluated and the results reported to the University Board. The Swedish National Audit Office has previously returned audit reports on information security and tendering procedures at KI. Guidelines for information security were established on 2 May 2011, and a project commenced on the introduction of a framework for information security. Work also continued during the year to ensure compliance with the Public Procurement Act. Further development work is needed on this, particularly as regards changes in how procurements and calls for tender are organised, as the current decentralised organisation makes it difficult to monitor and maintain sufficient competence on this matter. In addition to this, the Data Inspection Board ruled on 16 December 2011 that the gathering of personal data by the LifeGene project contravenes the Personal Data Act. KI appealed this decision and maintained that the legal circumstances should be investigated in order to enable future medical research. Work began in the autumn on streamlining, quality-assuring and integrating the internal control, operational planning and monitoring processes. In light of the risk analysis and of the work either planned or completed, the University Board deems KI’s internal control to be satisfactory.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

Quality assurance management at KI is coordinated by a Quality Committee led by the vice president, who has special responsibility for quality assurance. An external audit was carried out in 2011, and a process for presenting a new overall plan for quality assurance. An account of the quality improvement and assurance during the year is given under the relevant area of activity.

Auditing quality assurance at KI The external audit of KI’s quality assurance began in the spring of 2010 and ended in the spring of 2011. The audit focused on the university’s educational activities. The auditors concluded that in many respects some ambitious quality assurance already exists at KI. One example they gave was the Centre for Clinical Education and its efforts to promote and safeguard quality of clinic-based education. A more general issue the auditors addressed was how KI can lift the status of the study programmes within the university. One example of a possible action to take in this respect is to set up a pedagogical academy. In order to strengthen clinical research and education and respond to the reorganisation of the healthcare sector in Sweden, the president appointed a special presidential advisory committee. Doctoral education was also commented upon, and in the autumn of 2011 it was decided to introduce a new survey to make visible the pedagogical elements of the study programmes and highlight any areas of improvement that might exist. Measures in education were also proposed that will be decided upon and implemented in 2012.

Audit of research The external audit of KI’s research, which was done to identify and present proposals for improvement and to develop research conditions at the university, was completed in 2011. The conclusions of the experts will be included in KI’s strategy work ahead of 2013.

Management model KI’s management model incorporates the operational plan, budget and annual report as well as resource allocation, internal control, quality assurance management and monitoring. Risk analyses are conducted within the framework of internal control and on the basis of KI’s strategic goals. Work on the development of operational planning began in 2009 in order to highlight the university’s systematic quality activities and quality-reinforcing measures. Work continued during the year on the further development of the management model with the ultimate aim of introducing an improved model for the 2013 budget year.

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EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES

Research-based education Faculty members with primarily a teaching role must also have the opportunity – in terms of both money and time – to conduct their own research and in so doing tie their teaching more closely to their current research. The ability of these teachers to compete for research resources is limited as regards external funding as well as government research appropriations, the more so as these appropriations become more subject to competition. A new strategy for research-based education was investigated during the year, and a decision was taken on a new model for fund allocation based on three principles: funds for pedagogically highly active teachers; the setting up of Future Faculty Programmes; and the installation of professors responsible for the research. Other examples of quality improvements are detailed under the relevant area of activity.

Equal opportunities KI’s equal opportunities activities are based on the Discrimination Act, the Higher Education Act and KI’s strategy plan Strategy 2012. The regulations prohibit discrimination and harassment and contain measures to promote and achieve equal rights and opportunities for employees and students. KI is therefore obliged to take specific action to promote equal treatment and opportunities for all employees and students. The above legislation and control document form the basis of KI’s equality strategy, which covers each and every ground for discrimination.

Organisation The president has ultimate responsibility for ensuring that equal treatment action is carried out at KI. The Equal Treatment Committee, which is directly answerable to the president, is tasked with developing general strategic equal treatment activities. To reinforce the departmental perspective in the committee, two additional members were appointed in 2011. Each department has one or more equal treatment ombudspersons, who share responsibility for its departmental activities with the head of department.

Gender distribution at management level The president of KI is a woman, and the vice president a man. The management group costs of president, vice president, three deans, university director, deputy university director, director of infrastructure and innovation, and the director of communication. Women made up 56 per cent of the management group in 2011. Each of KI’s three internal boards is led by a dean and assistant dean, and in 2011 the gender distribution of these offices was even. The gender distribution of the members of these boards was in the 40–60 per cent interval. Following the decanal elections in 2011, five out of six deans and assistant

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deans will be men for the coming three-year term (2012–2014). These results subsequently prompted the University Board to lay down supplementary regulations ahead of the election of faculty representatives for its internal boards. However, as the board elections returned a gender distribution of members, including deans and assistant deans, within the 40–60 per cent interval, these supplementary regulations were not used. KI has a total of 22 heads of department, 27 per cent of whom are female. In accordance with the prevailing regulations for the post of departmental head and with the recruitment procedures for this position, the selection committee is to forward at least two candidates, of whom one should be a woman and one a man.

Promoting equality To meet the requirements of the Higher Education Ordinance and anti-discrimination legislation, KI took measures to promote equality in 2011. Initiatives taken on a general university level are presented below. To these can be added the more specific equality activities presented in the sections on Bachelor’s and Master’s education, Research and doctoral education, and Human resources and competence supply. In 2009 and 2010, the Delegation for Gender Equality in higher education invited applications for funding to finance the equality projects of higher education institutions. KI competed for and received funding for two projects totalling SEK 3.2 million. One of the projects, “Spelar Roll – Football and education in partnership”, is designed to ascertain why young men tend to shun education in medicine and healthcare. Young players from the AIK youth club were interviewed about their views on vocational choices and their relationship with masculinity. The results were presented in a book entitled Passa och passa in – om manlighet, fotboll och utbildningsval (Playing the game: on masculinity, football and educational choices – unofficial translation).Two short films were also produced for use in KI’s future recruitment work. The purpose of the other project, Mentor4Equality, is for participants to identify, describe and analyse the mechanisms and structures that give rise to inequality at KI (see under Equality: Research). Two general educational initiatives were carried out during the year for KI employees and students. A seminar on cooperation, interpersonal relations, power games and master suppression techniques attracted almost 300 employees. Three special courses were arranged during the autumn semester on LGBT issues, two of which were for staff and one for students. A total of 80 or so people attended, and returned evaluations indicating that they found the courses very good, informative and instructive. All courses on LGBT issues were led by the Swedish Federation for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Rights. Other examples of equality-related issues are detailed under the relevant area of activity and in the section on Human resources and competence supply.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Sustainable development KI’s activities in the field of environment and sustainable development aim to draw attention to and strengthen the research and education at KI that make a particular contribution to sustainable development and its commitment to its environmental and social responsibilities.

Research and education for sustainable development Research and education that highlight the links between health and social development is particularly critical to achieving sustainable development. Such research and education is conducted at KI through, for example, disciplines and fields such as epidemiology, public health science, global health, infection diseases, climate and health, and environmental medicine. During the year, KI’s study programmes embarked on a project to analyse the sustainability issues of relevance to them and any links there might be between these issues and the programmes’ various learning objectives. Using these analyses, the programmes are required to formulate complementary learning objectives where necessary. To engage KI’s students in this process and in all other sustainability activities at KI, the Board of Higher Education invited students to participate in a think tank during the autumn semester. To date, a handful of interested students have taken part.

its lecture halls have been fitted with equipment for recording, video-conferencing and streaming.

Internal environmental audit In the autumn of 2011, KI conducted its first environmental audit against the criteria set by the international environmental management standard ISO 14001. The audit revealed a number of deficiencies in KI’s environmental management system that ought to be rectified before a certification audit is begun. For instance, KI will have to improve its procedures for handling shortcomings in its environmental and sustainability activities and increase the number of risk assessments it performs for its laboratory activities.

Sustainable campus In an effort to create a more sustainable campus, KI has set a target of a 25 per cent reduction in energy consumption during the 2010–2025 period. Energy efficiency is therefore an important factor in the ongoing planning of the Solna campus development. The aim is that new buildings should meet the Miljöklassad byggnad silver criteria that also address parameters such as chemicals, sound environment, air quality, thermal climate and daylight. KI appointed an officer during the year with responsibility for coordinating the environmental activities for the premises leased by KI. Procurements and purchases are another priority area for KI’s environment and sustainability activities. The instructions on procurement and purchasing procedures at KI were revised at the start of the year to make sure that the university chooses eco, fair-trade and energy-labelled products as far as is technically reasonable and financially justified. KI appointed an officer during the year with responsibility for coordinating the environmental and social requirements governing procurements and purchases. The carbon footprint of KI’s official travel is considerable and chiefly linked to air travel. International flights are essential to KI, but the goal is to avoid them if modern communication technology can be used instead. KI connected during the year to the web conferencing tool Adobe Connect, and a number of

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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Human resources and competence supply

48 

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Human resources and competence supply

Report on human resources

In addition to its employees, KI has a large number of people working for it who are not formally employed, mainly visiting research fellows, holders of scholarships and unsalaried docents. Staff employed by the SLL, such as nurses, physiotherapists, doctors etc, are also involved in education and research. In October 2011, KI had 544 doctoral students employed on studentships, an increase of 25 annual FTEs on 2010, and 340 doctoral students funded through study grants, an increase of seven annual FTEs. A total of 246 of these (70 per cent) combined their grants with an assistantship. In addition, there are doctoral students with alternative sources of funding, such as scholarships, other employment at KI or another HEI or through clinical placement.

In October 2011, KI had 4,703 employees, an increase of 145 year-on-year. This corresponds to 4,109 annual FTE employees, an increase of 165 (four percentage points) on 2010. The largest percentage increases are attributable to the postdoctoral fellow and senior lecture (pre-clinical) categories. The turnover for permanent staff was approximately 13 per cent, three percentage points higher than in 2010. The total rate of staff turnover, which includes staff on fixed-term contracts (and employed doctoral students), was 22 per cent, which is an increase of three percentage points. A total of 374 people were employed on permanent contracts during the year and 307 left or retired.

FTE staff by category 2008

Wmn (%)

2009

Wmn (%)

2010

Wmn (%)

2011

Wmn (%)

Change 2010–11

Professor, pre-clinical

181

23

188

23

190

28

203

27

7%

Professor, clinical

135

18

140

18

142

20

144

23

2%

95

58

110

60

112

57

134

62

17%

Senior lecturer, pre-clinical Senior lecturer, clinical

39

32

38

40

41

49

38

44

-7%

Postdoctoral fellow

89

58

117

51

138

52

165

52

16%

Junior lecturer

214

83

219

80

180

75

166

75

-8%

Senior research fellow

653

47

685

50

708

51

741

54

4%

Doctoral student

491

65

515

67

519

65

544

64

5%

84

Admin staff

696

86

858

84

896

971

83

8%

Technical staff

860

73 1,005

71

1,020

73 1,003

71

-2%

3,453

64 3,875

65 3,944

65 4,109

65

4%

Total

Note: The figures above include all employees, regardless of work hours or length of tenure, but exclude people with assistantships linked to postgraduate grants, adjunct or acting teachers, and employees on leave of absence, parental leave, sick leave, early retirement, etc. With regard to the number of other employees, only those on full leave of absence (rather than parental and sick leave) have been omitted. The figures for all employees (FTE and other) refer to October 2010. Figures for technical and administrative staff are reported from 2009 in accordance with Statistics Sweden’s classification system. The calculation of FTEs and the exclusion of staff on sick or parental leave, again in accordance with Statistics Sweden’s instruction, are also new for 2009. The figures for 2007–2008 have been adjusted accordingly.

Breakdown by gender As in previous years, about two thirds of employees were women. The ratio of female professors was 26 per cent, an increase of two percentage points on 2010. In the senior lecturer, postdoctoral fellow and senior research fellow categories, the gender distribution lay within KI’s target 40–60 interval. The junior lecturer, doctoral student (on studentships), technical and administrative staff categories remained female dominated, although there was a slight narrowing of the gender balance compared with 2010.

New teachers As can be seen from the table on the next page, the proportion of women appointed professor through both advertised professorships and promotions was lower than in 2010. The proportion of women amongst newly employed professors was approximately 37 per cent during the 2009–2011 period. The government has not set a recruitment target for newly

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

appointed professors for the 2009–2012 period, as it did for the 2005–2008 period. As can be seen from the table on the next page, the number of newly employed senior lecturers was much higher than in 2010, which is primarily the result of an increase in the number of promotions to that post. A total of 72 per cent of these new senior lecturers were female in 2011. KI thus failed to hit its recruitment target for newly recruited senior lecturers of a 40–60 per cent gender distribution. In addition, 18 (2010: eight) adjunct professors (13 men, five women) and 13 acting senior lecturers (seven men, six women) were appointed in 2011. Further, 16 adjunct professors and two acting senior lecturers had their appointments extended. The extended adjunct professor appointments were made possible by changes in the Higher Education Ordinance, which as of 2011 allows terms of office of up to 12 years, as opposed to the previous six.

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Human resources and competence supply

Staff categories: breakdown by gender (total: 3,944) Professor

F 89

M 258 = 347

Senior lecturer

F 100

M 72

= 172

Postdoctoral fellow

F 85

M 80

= 165

F 124

M 42

= 166

F 397

M 343 = 741

F 346

M 197 = 544

F 709

M 294 = 1,003

F 811

M 160 = 971

Junior lecturer Senior research fellow Doctoral student Technical staff Administrative staff 800

600

400

200

0

200

400

Female (total 2,662)

600

800

Male (total 1,447)

Newly appointed professors and senior lecturers, including promoted 2008 of which Total women (%) Advertised professorships

2009 of which Total women (%)

2010 of which Total women (%)

2011 of which Total women (%)

9

33

7

0

10

20

6

17

Competence-based professorships*

15

33

12

42

20

55

26**

42

Advertised lectureships

10

50

7

43

11

55

11

55

Competence-based lectureships lektorer

12

92

7

71

12

75

39

77

Guest professorships not included in table above. *Including persons who applied for lectorships but were promoted to professors. ** Including one person who was recruited from a professorship funded by the Swedish Research Council.

Staff with PhDs The absolute and relative number of professors, senior lecturers, postdoctoral research fellows and lecturers holding PhDs etc. continues to increase (in terms of annual FTEs). Teachers without PhDs are found only in the lecturer category.

Number and proportion of teachers holding a PhD degree 2008–2011 (FTE’s) Year

Number PhD’s

Proportion of total (%)

2008

573

76

2009

634

78

2010

665

83

2011

707

84

Salary spreads In all employee categories, with the exception of clinical professor, clinical senior lecturer and doctoral student, men still have a higher mean salary than women. The discrepancies were also

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greater for these groups (apart from lecturers) than in 2010. In the clinical professor, clinical senior lecturer and doctoral student categories, where women have a higher mean salary than men, the discrepancy was slightly narrower than in 2010. Male employees in the technical and administrative staff categories still have a higher mean salary, but this discrepancy was also slightly narrower than in 2010. It should be noted, however, that a much deeper analysis would be needed before any direct conclusions on gender differences in pay can be drawn from mean salaries. Such an analysis will be conducted in 2012 in connection with the salary survey.

Support for the production of personnel supply plans The “Support for the production of personnel supply plans” project was concluded in 2011. The aim of the initiative was to construct joint approaches and structures for personnel supply at KI. Guidelines were put in place for personnel planning in connection with the operational planning activities. All 22 departments submitted personnel plans in the autumn of 2011 using a specially produced template, which gave KI an overview

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Human resources and competence supply

of the need for competence renewal or development as well as of forthcoming changes and operational developments. The collection of data on the employees’ educational background continued during the year, and all employees are expected to have registered their formal academic history by 31 May 2012. There has been a certain amount of system development to this end.

Safeguarding the quality of the recruitment process If KI is to operate on the frontline of international research and achieve its goals, it is imperative that the university is able to announce vacancies and recruit the very best managers and employees in all categories, administrative as well as academic. As a medical university of great international renown, KI has considerable competitive advantages when it comes to recruiting new research scientists or groups. In 2010, a general recruitment guide was produced to establish a university-wide recruitment process. The guide describes activity flows – with all the steps and activities needed to ensure a professional recruitment process – as well as responsibilities, roles and competence requirements. As part of the implementation of the common recruitment procedure, workshops in competence-based recruitment and interview techniques were held in 2011 and will continue to be offered in 2012 to managers and HR personnel. A recruitment system based on the recruitment guide was also procured in 2011 and will be put into operation during the spring semester of 2012. The new common recruitment process requires the advertisement of all vacancies, which it is anticipated will, amongst other effects, guarantee the quality of recruitment and give shorter lead times.

New employment system for teachers and researchers A new employment system for all new teachers and researchers at the university came into effect on 1 January 2011. The new system establishes a critical principle: all posts with a term of employment longer than six months are to be advertised both externally and internally, thus opening all vacancies to competition while providing more opportunities for junior researchers to apply and promoting mobility. The new employment rules also place extensive demands on expert assessment. There are also distinct requirements as regards eligibility and assessment criteria for the different personnel categories, partly in order to lift the scientific and pedagogical competence of the teaching staff. Candidates for the post of senior lecturer, for example, must normally have competence equivalent to a docentship at KI, while those for the post of lecturer must normally hold a PhD.

Leadership and employeeship Heavy responsibilities are placed on managers and leaders in academic environments by the changeable and complex nature of their work. To handle these responsibilities and to attract,

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

retain and motivate the employees needed for achieving the university’s operational goals, leadership development and support initiatives were taken during the year for managers and teams. The proportion of managers undergoing some kind of development programme (on personal and formal/operative management skills and leadership and team development and leadership) during the year was approximately 24 per cent (144 managers out of 600), which is an increase of some six per cent on 2010. Many managers also attended working environment courses and took part in leadership seminars at KI during the year. Educational initiatives on leadership were also taken with other universities. Guidelines for employeeship were drawn up during the year for implementation in 2012.

Working environment, health and equal treatment In the autumn of 2011, KI carried out its third employee survey. The response rate was 69 per cent. A steady positive trend is that KI’s employees rate the university’s leadership, organisational climate and engagement slightly higher than in previous surveys. However, there are matters that still need addressing. These include the incidence of bullying and harassment – which, despite action taken, show no sign of decreasing – and (new for the 2011 survey) a high frequency of sleep, stress and exhaustionrelated problems. Both these areas need new as well as continued or strengthened remedial measures. As a result of the previous employee survey, improvement measures were taken during the year and seminars and workshops were arranged to support the change process. In addition to this, the fitness and preventative health services at KI (Friskvården) offered health promotive activities to groups showing a high rate of sickness absenteeism, and groups who had identified problems with stress, motivation, job satisfaction, etc. The Physical Activity on Prescription (FaR) model was also improved. The aim of the model is to prevent early signs of lifestyle-related symptoms and to promote health through individual physical activity programmes. New criteria for assessing degree of motivation were introduced for optimising selection and measures, to minimise set-up times and to better define the important role played by the occupational careworker/prescriber. The main reasons for FaR prescriptions were back, arm and shoulder pain, complaints that have shown a distinct increase in frequency. The reasons for this will be investigated in 2012. The tendering process for the university’s occupational healthcare closed at the end of the year, resulting in a three-year agreement with occupational health provider Previa. An equality project commenced in the autumn of 2011 in order to create a more even gender distribution amongst higher academic offices. The project focuses on possible action that could be taken to make it easier for doctoral students to combine their studies with parenthood.

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INFRASTRUCTURE

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Infrastructure

Infrastructure – strategy For the past two years, KI has followed a deliberate and ambitious strategy to modernise and develop its infrastructure as a means to maximising its international impact in priority areas, including research laboratories, learning environments, laboratory animal facilities, biobanks, genomic/proteomic platforms and informatics. Planning has taken place in close association with the SLL, which is also making significant infrastructure investments over the coming years. The most recent major extension of premises at KI was in 2001 with the Retzius laboratory . KI’s total assets were then some SEK 3 billion. When the first phase of the current premises extension programme ends in 2013, KI’s total assets are estimated to be double that amount. It is natural for such growth to need accommodating. The development work is mainly concentrated to the KI campus in Solna, which will receive an additional 35,000 sq.m. or so of main useable area (MUA), including a new auditorium and office complex, laboratories for genomic and proteomic research, offices and teaching rooms for public health (amongst other disciplines), and new animal house facilities. The second phase, which is scheduled for completion in 2018 to coincide roughly with the opening of the new neighbouring university hospital, comprises a large research laboratory (Biomedicum) that as well as adding capacity will considerably modernise the university’s premises portfolio. Many of KI’s laboratories were built in the 1940s and 50s, and now need

replacement by new premises that better meet today’s demands on quality of research and working environment. The new laboratory was also planned on the concept of bringing together disparate research groups in experimental research to create new constellations in step with the rapid growth of medical research. Other important ideas in its conception was to link Biomedicum to the new research laboratory and hospital being built on the opposite side of the main Solnavägen thoroughfare in order to enhance the integration of experimental and clinical research, and to create a facility that provide opportunities for the more efficient utilisation of costly research equipment. These ambitions are in harmony with the new demands of research financiers such as the Swedish Research Council and the Wallenberg foundations. In the field of genomics and proteomics, the SciLife laboratory will, when completed, offer an advanced infrastructure for large-scale analyses. With financial support from the Swedish Research Council, KI is also the host of a national biobank structure. Through its own investments, KI will be almost doubling its laboratory animal capacity between 2011 and 2013. On 1 January, the Fagraeus laboratory, a primate facility, was transferred from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI) to KI. A broad-based investment in learning environments was launched during the year to meet the demands of students and teachers. All in all, these infrastructure investments, which amount to over SEK 6 billion, will create fresh new environments for research and education and enhance KI’s attractiveness to researchers, teachers, students, partners and financiers.

Premises KI’s portfolio of premises and costs, 2008–2011 Year

Area sq.m. (MUA)

Cost (SEK m.)

Percentage of total costs

2008

186 489

503

12

2009

198 009

553

12

2010

204 494

565

11

2011

200 859

586

11

Costs of premises include rent, electricity, media, cleaning, etc.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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Infrastructure

The vacancy ratio was two per cent, including buildings under construction. Karolinska Institutet’s premises portfolio comprises buildings on the Solna and Huddinge campuses, rented premises for the study programme in optometry, and office space for collaboration projects with the SLL in central Stockholm. KI’s premises portfolio decreased slightly during the year owing to the planned demolition of buildings or the reassigned functionality of renovated ones; new leasing contracts have been signed but these premises will not be ready for occupation until 2012 and 2013. When completed, the following projects will make a profound impact on KI’s architectonic profile along the main Solnavägen thoroughfare:

Office blocks for public health, the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control (SMI) and others The building was originally planned for the new, larger Department of Public Health Sciences, with a smaller section reserved for the SMI. However, the development of KI’s public health activities failed to fulfil the hopes of the concerned parties, and so a decision was taken to revert to the previous organisation and to develop other forms of collaboration with the SLL. KI’s share of the building covers 9,000 sq.m. MUA and a reorganisation of premises allocation will take place in the spring of 2012. The proportion of teaching rooms and student common rooms has been increased in relation to the former plans and there are possibilities for locating other office-based activities in the block. The building will be ready for occupancy by early 2013.

The lecture hall block To mark its 200th jubilee, KI received a donation from the Erling-Persson Family Foundation for the construction of a new 1,000 seat auditorium and office and conference rooms. The building is scheduled for completion in the summer of 2013 but already in 2012 the building’s interesting design will start to emerge. The complex will also contain a restaurant and café and a new Faculty Club. A walkway (Akademiska Stråket) will bridge the main thoroughfare to link the new hospital buildings with KI at street level along Nobels väg.

Gamma – the third Science Park “egg” Work began on the Gamma building on the Solna campus just over a year ago. The building is the third part of the Karolinska Institutet Science Park (KISP), which currently houses Swedish Orphan Biovitrum (SOBI), the SciLifeLab and KISP AB. The part of the building that KI intends to lease covers approximately 7,000 sq.m. MUA distributed over several levels for both laboratory and non-laboratory activities. The largest tenant will be the SciLifeLab, which is also accommodated in the adjacent Alpha block. Office space for KISP AB and Karolinska Institutet Holding AB is also planned. The block is scheduled for occupancy in the summer of 2013.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Infrastructure

Wberg animal house The aims of the Wberg project are to relieve emergency accommodation needs for laboratory animals between 2013 and 2017 and to provide a central resource for animal experimentation in parallel with the new animal facility to be built in Biomedicum. After renovation work on the old Wallenberg laboratory, the premises will cover some 3,000 sq.m.

Biomedicum – KI’s new high-tech laboratory for experimental research Biomedicum comprises two blocks, a large laboratory building covering 45,000 sq.m MUA and a laboratory animal facility of approximately 8,500 sq.m. MUA. Its location by Solnavägen and the physical connection with the hospital create excellent opportunities for integrating the clinical research being carried out there and at Biomedicum. A construction programme for the project has been produced and a decision will be taken on its implementation in the spring of 2012.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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financial report

Financial report Karolinska Institutet’s turnover for 2011 was SEK 5,371 million (SEK 5,253 million). A positive change in capital of SEK 144.5 million was reported for the financial year. SEK –8.5 million of KI’s earnings is attributable to KI’s subsidiary Karolinska Institutet Holding AB.

The increased allocation of funding for research and education at third-cycle level is, as in recent years, mostly attributable to investments in the latest Research Bill. Cooperation within the framework of the medical training and research agreement is reported on in a separate section.

External funding, fees and grants

Revenue Karolinska Institutet’s operating revenue rose by 2.2 per cent compared with 2010. During the period 2008-2011, the total increase in operating revenue was SEK 895 million or 20 per cent. The table below shows the operational change in revenue over the last four years.

During 2011, external funding, revenue from fees and grants fell by SEK 18 million compared with 2010, in accordance with the table. Ahead of 2011, KI introduced a new principle for reporting scholarships, which involved a reduction in revenue from external grants of SEK 59.3 million in 2011 compared with 2010. From 2011 onwards, scholarships will be reported in the transfers section.

Government funding

Financial revenue

The increase in funding (excluding funding for medical training and research) for the year was SEK 96 million, or 5.4 per cent compared with 2010. Available Government funding for education at first- and second-cycle levels, in accordance with the 2011 public service agreement, was reduced through a funding saving for 2011 of SEK 28.5 million – see also Note 1. In all, KI had SEK 89.8 million in funding savings included in the 2011 amount. Of this, SEK 28.8 million will be repaid to the Swedish National Debt Office, since the authority must only have a total funding saving of 10 per cent of the year’s allocated funding cap. The shortfall is due primarily to the effects of KI having lost the right to issue the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing for three terms in December 2008.

Financial revenue stood at SEK 66 million for 2011. The biggest individual items under revenue are SEK 55.3 million (SEK 14.0 million) in interest revenue on the interest account with the Swedish National Debt Office and SEK 6.5 million (SEK 10.6 million) in capital gain on the disposal of financial assets. The annual average interest rate on the interest account for 2011 was 1.78 per cent (0.5 per cent).

Financing diagram Revenue is divided up by financing category in the following pie chart. The largest individual external sources of funding are listed in the appendix Revenue 2011.

Revenue, SEK millions 2008

2009

2010

2011

1,509

1,535

1,765

1,861

541

550

570

575

Total funding

2,050

2,085

2,335

2,436

External funding, fees and grants

2,311

2,770

2,888

2,870

115

25

29

66

Total external funding

2,426

2,795

2,918

2,935

Total revenue

4,476

4,880

5,253

5,371

Funding/Total revenue

46%

43%

44%

45%

External funding/Total revenue

54%

57%

56%

55%

Education and research funding Clinical education and research funding

Financial

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Financial report

Karolinska Institutet’s revenue for 2011, SEK 5,371 million in total (2010, SEK 5,253 million) Research councils 12% (11%)

Other government agencies 6% (6%) Government funding 45% (45%)

Swedish foundations & organisations 13% (13%)

Foreign foundations & organisations 7% (8%) Swedish companies 4% (4%) Financial revenue 1% (1%)

Foreign companies 2% (1%) Municipalities & county councils 10% (11%)

Costs The increase in costs in 2011 was 4.5 per cent compared with the previous year. During the period 2008–2011, KI’s costs have risen by 20.6 per cent. The table below shows the operational change in costs over the last four years.

Staff Staff costs increased by SEK 178 million or 6.8 per cent compared with the previous year. In October 2011, KI employed 4,703 people, an increase of 145 people compared with the same period in 2010. For the last three months of the year, a salary review has been entered into the books with an estimated average increase of 2.8 per cent.

Premises At the end of the year, KI’s premises portfolio totalled 200,859 m². Premises costs rose in total by approximately SEK 21 million compared with 2010. In addition to index increases for rent, the increase in costs is due to factors such as changed principles for dealing with operational adaptations. These were previously

reported under Improvement expenditure on property owned by others, but with effect from 2011 they will be dealt with as rent surcharges. Many changes are also being made to the premises portfolio, as detailed in the Infrastructure section.

Other operations Other operating costs fell by SEK 14 million compared with 2010. The change in reporting scholarships entails a reduction in operating costs of SEK 59.3 million for 2011 compared with 2010. From 2011 onwards, scholarships will be reported in the transfers section.

Financial The financial costs for 2011 of SEK 29 million consist primarily of SEK 3.1 million (SEK 3.7 million) in currency exchange losses, SEK 15.6 million (SEK 3.8 million) in exchange losses on the sale of securities, SEK 1.5 million (SEK –3.9 million) in depreciation of the book value of financial securities, and SEK 7.1 million (SEK 1.8 million) in interest on Swedish National Debt Office loans.

Cost trend, SEK millions Staff Premises Other operations Depreciation Financial Total costs

2008

%

2009

%

2010

%

2011

%

2,190

51

2,495

53

2,606

52

2,784

53

503

12

553

12

565

11

586

11

1,424

33

1,555

33

1,659

33

1,645

32

141

3

144

3

158

3

175

3

67

2

-13

0

8

0

29

1

4,325

100

4,734

100

4,994

100

5,218

100

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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financial report

Change in capital using the invested funds also explains the positive change in capital for the year, but it can now be noted that operations are growing at a faster rate than previously. External grant-financed and contract-financed projects that are not ongoing are taken up as revenue during the year. In 2011, this had a positive impact on the change in capital of SEK 16.9 million.

The revenue statement for the year is broken down by operational area in accordance with the following table. The positive change in capital relates mostly to research and education at third-cycle level, SEK 150.2 million (SEK 260.2 million). KI’s asset management is also reported within this. The change in capital has arisen primarily within Funding-financed research. The major investment made in the latest Research Bill involved higher levels of research funding for KI. The delay in

Revenue statement by business area 2011 (SEK millions) Total

Education at first- and second-cycle levels

Research and education at third-cycle level

2,435.6

805.5

1,630.1

771.3

100.0

671.3

2,098.3

20.6

2,077.6

REVENUE Funding Fees and other remuneration Grants Financial revenue Total sales

65.7

0.1

65.6

5,370.8

926.2

4,444.6

2,783.7

488.2

2,295.5

585.7

99.0

486.7

1,644.8

318.1

1,326.7

COSTS Staff Premises Other operating costs Financial costs

28.7

0.3

28.3

Depreciation

175.1

17.9

157.2

5,218.0

923.5

4,294.4

Change in capital for the year (excluding subsidiaries and revenue collection)

152.8

2.6

150.2

Results from participations in subsidiaries and associated companies

-8.5

Results from revenue collection operations

0.2

Total costs

Change in capital for the year (including subsidiaries and revenue collection)

58 

144.5

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


financial report

Outcome compared with forecast Revenue statement 2011 (SEK millions) Outcome

Forecast

Direct Goverment funding

2,436

2,432

External funding, fees and grants

2,870

2,900

66

60

5,371

5,392

2,784

2,810

586

574

1,645

1,660

29

11

Difference

REVENUE

Financial Total

-21

COSTS Staff Premises Operation Financial Depreciation Total

175

180

5,218

5,235

Change in capital for the year

153

Comments on the differences between outcome and forecast The change in capital for the year for KI’s ordinary operations is closely in line with the forecast contained in the interim report. The biggest deviation in terms of revenue is the item External funding, fees and grants, at SEK -30 million. Revenue from both fees and grants has fallen compared with 2010. In terms of costs, the deviation is due mainly to lower staff costs than anticipated and financial costs, in which the increase in costs is primarily due to exchange losses on the sale of securities of SEK 15.6 million.

Advances from external sources of funding and liquid assets Advances relate to non-accrued costs for grant-financed and contract-financed activities where remuneration is paid in advance. During 2011, KI’s revenue from external sources of funding fell by SEK 142.7 million compared with 2010. New

-17

157

-4

accounting principles for scholarships have reduced revenue by SEK 59.3 million for 2011. It can be noted that the increase in advances has not been at the same rate as previously. Accrued grants/contracts relates to accrued costs for grantfinanced and contract-financed activities, where remuneration is received afterwards and where agreements/contracts exist to confirm this. The table shows the trend for advances from grants/contracts, reduced by ongoing work which is invoiced/ordered afterwards and liquid assets.

Administrative capital The accumulated administrative capital including change in capital for the year is SEK 1,196.0 million, divided up as follows: subsidiaries SEK 93.4 million, asset management SEK 6.8 million, and ordinary operations SEK 1,095.8 million. See also Notes 11 and 25.

Advances, ongoing work and liquid assets, SEK millions 2008

2009

2010

2011

Advances grants/contracts

1,991

2,363

2,586

2,635

Accrued grants/contracts

-163

-174

-220

-214

Net advances

1,828

2,189

2,366

2,421

Liquid assets, bank and Swedish National Debt Office

2,193

2,550

3,064

3,384

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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financial report

Asset management Karolinska Institutet administers individual donations intended for medical science at KI. Donations are divided up into: 1. Funds reported within KI as an authority. 2. Independent foundations that are their own legal entities, with administration linked to KI. For funds, which are administered within KI, both the return and the capital may be used, and the funds are formally included in KI’s reporting. The foundations are separate legal entities, and issue their own separate annual reports. Only the foundations’ distributed return to KI is included as external grants in KI’s reporting. The foundations are reported in summary below to give a full picture of KI’s donation capital, regardless of the legal form.

Funds Growth of invested funds during 2011 At the end of the year, the market value of share funds and interest-bearing funds invested by KI’s fund advisers stood at SEK 272.6 million (SEK 268.2 million) including cash in hand. 45.5 per cent of the administered funds portfolio is invested in share funds in Sweden and the rest of the world, and 39.7 per cent in Swedish interest-bearing securities. One new feature last year was investing in alternative investments, which accounted for 5.4 per cent of the portfolio.

Return in per cent compared with the reference index 2008

2009

2010

2011

KI’s funds

-13.8

14.9

1.9

-3.8

Reference index

-13.5

13.3

4.1

0.9

Return is stated net, i.e. including dividends and deductions for administrative costs. Share indices are stated inclusive of reinvested dividends.

Reference index for total administration 2011 January–September Interest index

Share index

40% OMRX Bond

60% MSCI World Net

During October, the share index contained 2 per cent OMRX Tbill + 3 percentage points per year, and from November until the end of the year the index contained 5 per cent OMRX T-bill + 3 percentage points per year as a result of alternative investments gradually being included in the portfolio. The proportion in the MSCI World Net share index was reduced to a corresponding extent. In addition to the administered funds portfolio, KI holds shares with a market value of SEK 3.1 million, destined for specific research projects.

Distributions from KI’s funds During 2011, SEK 66.5 million was distributed internally at KI. This is divided up by purpose in accordance with the table below.

Allocation of funds portfolio 31/12/2011 Alternative investments 5,2%

Allocations from KI’s funds, SEK million

Cash 9,5% Interest-bearing securities 39,7%

Research grants

2008

2009

2010

2011

38.4

35.6

32.0

44.8

Travel allowances

0.0

0.6

0.6

0.6

First-level education

4.7

0.8

0.9

1.1

Miscellaneous

20.0

20.0

20.0

20.0

Total

63.1

57.0

53.5

66.5

Global share index funds 37,0%

Swedish share funds 8,6%

Return The total return on the investment fund portfolio was -3.8 per cent in 2011, which is 4.7 percentage points worse than the reference index. The reason for this negative return is poorer results within both shares and interest. During 2011, the book value of shares was written down by SEK 1.5 million.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


financial report

Allocations from KI’s funds Internal allocations amounted to SEK 53.5 million in 2010. The funds were distributed as follows:

Research purpose Jubilee donation professorship Life Gene – national study of health Professorship in clinical treatment research Research within haematology Research within cancer Research within diabetes Research within cancer immunotherapy Medical research and education Mission: Overcome Strokes Clinical studies into Alzheimer’s disease

Donor Amount Ragnar Söderberg Foundation 50.0 AFA Försäkring 10.0 Meda AB 7.0 Dr Åke Olsson Foundation 2.5 The estate of Erik Pettersson 2.5 The estate of Erik Pettersson 2.5 Suzanne Merz 2.0 R & R Juhlin Foundation 1.7 The Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation 1.2 Eastbay AB 1.0

Foundations Outside the authority’s reporting, there are 235 associated foundations which issue separate annual accounts and annual reports. No new foundations were established during 2011. New donations placed with existing foundations totalling SEK 9.1 million have been received. In comparison with 2010, net wealth has dropped by SEK 78 million, or 6.3 per cent, after dividends but including new donations. At the end of the year, foundation funds consisted of Swedish shares 31 per cent (19), foreign shares 38 per cent (55), hedge funds 4 per cent (0), interest-bearing securities 24 per cent (19) and liquid assets etc. 3 per cent (7). During the year, SEK 66.4 million was distributed to KI from the foundations. It is the individual aim of each foundation that governs the aim and emphasis of the grant. For foundations with administration linked to KI, KI has received remuneration of SEK 1,068,000 for administrative costs.

The foundations (SEK millions) 2008

2009

2010

2011

Net wealth

1,098

1,231

1,244

1,166

Funding granted

77.7*

79.9

68.0

66.4

*Eight per cent was deducted from this amount in university VAT, which KI has paid to the Swedish Tax Agency. With effect from 2009, university VAT has been abolished.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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Financial Report

Revenue statement (SEK thousands) Outcome

Outcome

01/01/2011

01/01/2010

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

2,435,581

2,335,458

Revenue from operations Revenue from funding (Note 1) Revenue from fees and other remuneration (Note 2) Revenue from grants (Note 3) Financial revenue (Note 4) Total sales

771,283

780,648

2,098,274

2,107,775

65,662

29,175

5,370,799

5,253,056

-2,783,693

-2,605,695

Operating costs Staff costs (Note 5) Premises costs (Note 6)

-585,653

-564,529

-1,644,846

-1,658,896

-28,665

-7,617

-175,106

-157,502

-5,217,964

-4,994,240

152,835

258,816

-8,525

-4,304

Revenue from fees etc. and other revenue not at the disposal of the authority

2,067

1,882

Funding credited to the Government budget from revenue collection operations

-1,871

-1,881

196

1

Funding received from the Government budget for financing grants

20,565

10,449

Funding received from the authorities for financing grants

29,577

20,851

Other funding received for financing grants

82,928

35,480

-133,071

-66,781

0

0

144,506

254,513

Other operating costs (Note 7) Financial costs (Note 8) Depreciation/amortisation and impairments (Notes 12-14) Total costs Operational outcome Results from shares and participations in wholly-owned and part-owned companies Revenue collection operations (Note 9)

Balance Transfers (Note 10)

Contributions paid Balance CHANGE IN CAPITAL FOR THE YEAR (Note 11)

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


FINANCIAL REPORT

Balance sheet (SEK thousands) ASSETS

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Capitalised expenditure for development

4,457

5,167

Rights and other intangible fixed assets

4,085

3,898

8,543

9,065

61,073

71,438

605,589

593,315

31,438

19,557

698,101

684,310

Shares and participations in wholly-owned and part-owned companies (Note 16)

102,443

129,300

Other investments held as fixed assets (Note 17)

244,959

258,808

347,403

388,109

121,845

136,862

80,074

82,945

772

25,646

202,691

245,454

Prepaid expenses (Note 20)

128,600

115,672

Accrued revenue from grants (Note 21)

204,561

215,211

14,787

7,927

347,948

338,810

-90,435

-72,121

-90,435

-72,121

3,191,142

2,941,510

193,232

122,780

Total cash and bank

3,384,374

3,064,291

TOTAL ASSETS

4,898,625

4,657,917

Intangible fixed assets (Note 12)

Total intangible fixed assets Tangible fixed assets Improvement expenditure on property owned by others (Note 13) Machinery, equipment, fixtures and fittings, etc. (Note 14) Fixed assets under construction (Note 15) Total tangible fixed assets Financial fixed assets

Total financial fixed assets Receivables Accounts receivable Receivables from other authorities (Note 18) Other receivables (Note 19) Total receivables Cut-off items

Other accrued revenue (Note 22) Total cut-off items Settlement with the Government Settlement with the Government (Note 23) Total settlement with the Government Cash and bank Balance of Swedish National Debt Office interest account (Note 24) Cash, postgiro and bank

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

63 


Financial Report

Balance sheet (SEK thousands) CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

5,238

5,238

96,969

128,604

Balanced change in capital

949,303

690,486

Change in capital according to the revenue statement

144,506

254,513

1,196,016

1,078,841

Provisions for pensions and similar obligations (Note 26)

11,548

14,694

Other provisions (Note 27)

38,013

35,544

49,561

49,238

400,245

376,343

95,777

104,699

Accounts payable

192,978

192,867

Other liabilities

177,032

119,852

Total liabilities, etc.

866 032

793,761

Accrued costs (Note 29)

139,522

140,971

Unused grants (Note 30)

2,276,622

2,224,390

370,871

370,716

Total cut-off items

2,787,016

2,736,077

TOTAL CAPITAL AND LIABILITIES

4,898,625

4,657,917

None

None

Administrative capital (Notes 11+25) Government capital Profit participation in wholly-owned and part-owned companies

Total administrative capital Provisions

Total provisions Liabilities etc. Swedish National Debt Office loans (Note 28) Liabilities to other authorities

Cut-off items

Other prepaid revenue (Note 31)

Contingent liabilities

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


FINANCIAL REPORT

Accounting against funding and revenue headings (SEK thousands) Accounting against funding Opening transfer amount

Allocation for the year in acc. with public service agreement

Reallocated amount

Withdrawal

Total avaliable amount

Expenditure

Closing transfer amount

71,160

609,933

0

-9,835

671,258

581,453

89,805

16.2:15

Education at first- and second-cycle levels (framework)

16.2:15 1

Funding cap*

16.2:15 3

Dental care centre

0

89,658

89,658

89,658

0

16.2:15 4

Tests after physicians’ internships

0

4,428

4,428

4,428

0

71,160

704,019

765,344

675,539

89,805

0

1,201,613

1,201,613 1,201,613

0

Total

0

-9,835

16.2:16

Research and doctoral education (framework)

16.2:16 2

Basic resource

16.2:55

Remuneration for clinical education and research

16.2:55 6

Karolinska Institutet

0

566,553

566,553

566,553

0

16.2:55 9

Task of developing clinical education and research

0

5,917

5,917

5,917

0

16.2:56 10 The Government’s allocation

636

16.2:56 10 Further education of nursing staff*

0

0

0

6,215

636

-16

6,835

6,524

311

636

578,685

0

-16

579,305

578,994

311

71,796

2,484,317

0

-9,851 2,546,262 2,456,146

90,116

Total Total

-636

*There is a discrepancy with the Government report in Hermes regarding the withdrawal amount. For 16.2:15 1 and 16.2:55 11, the withdrawal amount should be SEK 9,835,000 and SEK 16,000 respectively in accordance with Note 1 to revenue under funding in KI’s annual report for 2010.

Accounting against revenue headings Revenue heading

Revenue

2,542,001

Patient fees for dentistry education

239,401

Interest revenue

1,870 1

Total

1,871

Chargeable activities where revenue is not at KI’s disposal

Activity

Surplus/ Surplus/ deficit until deficit until 2009 2010

Revenue 2011

Surplus/ deficit Outcome 2011

Costs 2011

Budget

Outcome

Budget

2,200

2,066

2,200

Closing surplus/ deficit 2011

Dental care centre Patient fees

-310

-309

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

1,870

196

-113

65 


Financial Report

Accounting principles This annual report has been prepared in accordance with the Swedish Annual Reports and Budget Documentation Ordinance (2000:605). Karolinska Institutet follows generally accepted accounting principles in accordance with the Swedish National Financial Management Authority’s general advice on § 6 of the Swedish Bookkeeping Ordinance (2000:606). Revenue and costs are periodised in accordance with the accruals concept. The cut-off amount has been raised from SEK 10,000 to SEK 20,000. The limitation amount for write-off against equity is set at SEK 20,000.

Valuation of receivables and liabilities Receivables have been entered at the amount which, after individual examination, is expected to be paid. In those cases where invoices or equivalent have been received after the set cut-off date (05/01/2012) or where the amount of the receivable or liability was not known exactly when the accounts were produced, these amounts are reported as cut-off items. Foreign currency receivables and liabilities have been valued at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date.

assets. These assets are reported at their acquisition value less accumulated depreciation according to plan. Fixed assets are depreciated linearly over the assessed financial lifetime. Depreciation times for machinery, equipment, fixtures and fittings, etc. are applied according to estimated lifetimes of three years, five years or ten years.

Financial fixed assets

Bonds: On purchase, the purchase sum is entered in the balance sheet as a financial asset. On selling, the financial assets are reduced by the book value and any difference is entered in the balance sheets as a capital gain or a capital loss. Shares/participations: On purchase, the purchase sum is entered in the balance sheet as a financial asset. On selling, the financial assets are reduced by the book value and the difference is entered in the balance sheets as a capital gain or a capital loss.

Foreign currency bank account balances have been valued at the exchange rate on the balance sheet date.

Depreciation and appreciation: If the total market value of the portfolio is considerably less than the book value and it is not certain whether this decrease is permanent, depreciation is applied. Depreciation is entered by reducing financial assets in the balance sheet against an increase in financial costs in the revenue statement. Depreciation is reversed by decreasing or increasing financial costs when the market value rises.

Donations

Externally financed operations

The acquisition value of a donation is valued at the market value at the time of acquisition. In the case of bequeathed gifts, the time of acquisition is deemed to be the distribution of the estate.

Intangible fixed assets are assets developed by KI which are intended to increase KI’s administrative service potential. The financial lifetime shall be at least three years, and the acquisition value shall be at least SEK 20,000. The acquisition value includes both external purchases and KI’s own direct costs. Installations are depreciated linearly at a maximum of five years from the month of acquisition.

When periodising grants or fees, the revenue for the period is determined by the costs for the period. Surplus grant revenue or fee revenue is periodised as unused grants/fees or other prepaid revenue. Unused revenue that is not grants or fees is taken up as revenue against the change in capital for the year. For projects where payment is received afterwards and where this is confirmed by an agreement/contract, the costs are periodised against other accrued revenue (in the case of fee financing) or as accrued grant revenue (in the case of grant financing). If there is no agreement/contract, the costs are taken up as revenue and affect the change in capital for the year.

Valuation of tangible fixed assets

KI Holding AB

Assets, excluding computers, which are intended for permanent use with an acquisition value of at least SEK 20,000 and an estimated financial lifetime of three years or longer are defined as fixed assets. Computers with an acquisition value of up to SEK 30,000 are reported as costs immediately when the estimated financial lifetime is less than three years. Objects which constitute a functioning unit with a combined acquisition value of SEK 20,000 or more are classified as fixed

On 1 January 1998, Karolinska Institutet took over the administration of Karolinska Institutet Holding AB from the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. In the annual report, details of participations in subsidiaries are reported as share in earnings in accordance with the equity method. The holding is reported in the balance sheet under the items Participations in subsidiaries, Government capital and Profit participation in subsidiaries.

Valuation of bank balances in foreign currencies

Valuation of intangible fixed assets

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


FINANCIAL REPORT

Transfers

Information

KI has previously had dispensation from the Swedish National Financial Management Authority to report costs for scholarships in the operations section instead of in the transfers section. From 1 January 2011 onwards, KI will report these in the transfers section, in accordance with the applicable provisions from the Swedish National Financial Management Authority.

In accordance with the Swedish National Financial Management Authority’s guidance on multi-financed operations (ESV 2006:28), all sources of financing should be used in parallel. One of the reasons for this is to give an accurate picture of how the resources are used. KI has significant sources of external financing, particularly for grant-financed research, where funding has been applied for and granted for research within a specific subject. Granted funding is subject to conditions in accordance with agreements, and must be used in accordance with the plan decided on in the agreement. Grant funding received is not directly linked to performance, but is linked to the costs researchers applied for in order to carry out research within a specific subject. Against this background, KI does not fully apply parallel consumption since grants are usually granted for specific costs and not for performance.

Improvement expenditure on property owned by others The principle relating to improvement expenditure on property owned by others has changed. The direct write-off amount has been raised from SEK 100,000 to SEK 500,000. Investments totalling a higher amount will be dealt with via rent surcharges.

Exemption from certain provisions for universities and university colleges in accordance with the public service agreement Universities and university colleges are granted exemption from the provision on settlement of funding in accordance with §§ 5 and 16 of the Swedish Appropriation Ordinance (1996:1189). Settlement against funding and funding items for funds paid out to the educational institution’s Swedish National Debt Office interest account shall take place in connection with the monthly payments to the relevant educational institution’s Swedish National Debt Office interest account. Universities and university colleges are granted exemption from § 11 of the Swedish Appropriation Ordinance (1996:1189) in such a way that the educational institution may transfer both surplus production and unused funding caps (funding saving) to a maximum value of ten per cent of the funding cap to the subsequent budget year, without specifically requesting the Government’s consent. Universities and university colleges are granted exemption from the provisions of chapter 2, § 4, paragraph three of the Swedish Annual Reports and Budget Documentation Ordinance (2000:605) that the annual report must include an account of significant information. Universities and university colleges must instead provide information in accordance with Appendix 43. Universities and university colleges are granted exemption from the provisions of chapter 2, § 4 of the Swedish Annual Reports and Budget Documentation Ordinance (2000:605) to produce and submit to the Government a funds statement in the annual report.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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NOTES

Notes (SEK thousands) Note 1. Revenue from funding 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

675,539

639,817

1,185,376

1,125,630

First-/Bachelor’s and Master’s/second-cycle education Research and third-cycle/doctoral education Remuneration for clinical education and research

574,666

570,011

2,435,581

2,335,458

Table 1a Report of the number of full-time students (FTSs) and annual performance equivalents (APEs) Outcome in relation to the period 01/01/2011 to 31/12/2011 EDUCATION AREA

Outcome FTS

Outcome APE

Humanities Social sciences Natural sciences Technology Care Odontology Medicine

34 576 460 139 1,577 434 2,522

33 523 429 132 1,467 456 2,267

Total

5,743

5,308

FTS remuneration (SEK thousands)  

APE remuneration (SEK thousands)

Outcome total remuneration

743 12,448 22,845 6,909 83,219 18,964 148,731

628 9,926 17,940 5,529 67,074 23,200 162,653

1,371 22,374 40,785 12,437 150,293 42,163 311,383

293,859

286,948

580,807 609,933 0 29,126

Funding cap (SEK thousands) The report shows that the educational institution exceeds the funding cap by (SEK thousands) The report shows that the educational institution is below the funding cap by (SEK thousands)

Table 1b Report of the number of full-time students (FTSs) and annual performance equivalents (APEs), “additional grant” Outcome in relation to the period 01/01/2011 to 31/12/2011 EDUCATION AREA

Outcome FTS

Outcome APE

FTS remuneration (SEK thousands) 

APE remuneration (SEK thousands)

Outcome total remuneration

0

0

0

5

5

37

24

1,934

1,110

3,045

Humanities Social sciences Natural sciences Technology Care Odontology Medicine

36

19

2,108

1,366

3,474

Total

72

44

4,043

2,481

6,524

Funding cap (SEK thousands) The report shows that the educational institution exceeds the funding cap by (SEK thousands) The report shows that the educational institution is below the funding cap by (SEK thousands)

68 

6,215 309 0

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


NOTES

Table 2a Calculation of funding savings and surplus production (SEK thousands) A. Available funds (including agreed additional budget)   Funding cap for the year   + any included funding saving   Total (A)  

  609,933 61,325 671,258

B. Total outcome for first- and second-cycle education   Remuneration for APEs from December in the previous budget year   Outcome total remuneration in accordance with table 1   + any use of previous surplus production   Total (B)   Total (A-B) 1

646 580,807 0 581,453 89,805

1

Positive total transferred to table of funding saving below. Negative total transferred to table of surplus production below.

Table. Funding saving  

Total closing funding saving (A-B)

89,805

- any funding saving above 10% of the funding cap 3

28,812

Closing funding saving

60,993

Table. Surplus production Total closing surplus production - any surplus production above 10% of the funding cap

0 3

Closing surplus production 3

0

The portion of the funding saving and surplus production that the educational institution may not retain without the Government’s approval.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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NOTES

Table 2b Calculation of funding savings and surplus production (SEK thousands), additional government funds A. Available funds (including agreed additional budget)   Funding cap for the year   + any included funding saving   Total (A)  

  6,215 620 6,835

B. Total outcome for first- and second-cycle education   Remuneration for APEs from December in the previous budget year   Outcome total remuneration in accordance with table 1   + any use of previous surplus production   Total (B)   Total (A-B) 1

0 6,524 0 6,524 311

1

Positive total transferred to table of funding saving below. Negative total transferred to table of surplus production below.

Table. Funding saving Total closing funding saving (A-B)  

- any funding saving above 10% of the funding cap

311 3

Closing funding saving

311

Table. Surplus production Total closing surplus production

0

- any surplus production above 10% of the funding cap 3 Closing surplus production 3

0

The portion of the funding saving and surplus production that the educational institution may not retain without the Government’s approval.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


NOTES

Note 2. Revenue from fees and other remuneration 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

63,024

55,848

708,259

724,800

771,283

780,648

Revenue from fees and remuneration in accordance with § 4 of the Swedish Fees Ordinance Other revenue from fees and remuneration Other revenue from fees and remuneration consists primarily of contract revenue.

Chargeable activities where revenue is at KI’s disposal, SEK thousands. Surplus/ deficit 2010

Revenue 2011

Costs 2011

Surplus/ deficit 2011

Accumulated closing surplus/deficit 2011

-1,342

5,759

6,304

6,079

225

4,642

9,738

-625

68,706

68,664

43

9,156

-1,479

1,708

3,645

-1,937

-3,416

3,655

76,718

78,388

-1,669

10,382

Surplus/ deficit until 2009

Activity

Education at first- or second-cycle level Commissioned education Vocational college, KY, etc. Contract education Education for students who are obliged to pay tuition fees Sum

8,396

Research or education at third-cycle level Contract research

55,802

-2,098

421,803

421,473

330

54,034

Sum

55,802

-2,098

421,803

421,473

330

54,034

0

216

216

0

0

76

502

597

-95

-19

76

38,567

814

-95

-19

Activities where full cost coverage requirements do not apply Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Tests Letting apartments 1 - exchange programmes and visiting researchers

0

Letting apartments - Government Decision (U2010/4277/UH) Optician centre 1

Other activities in accordance with Appendix 41 2 Sum

37,849

1

Karolinska Institutet does not deal with the actual letting of accommodation for international students and visiting researchers, but procures this as a service from University Accommodation Center AB (UAC), a wholly-owned company within KI Holding AB. KI paid a fee of SEK 3,000,000 for this during 2011. This amount is unchanged compared with 2010. In addition, KI has had miscellaneous costs of SEK 257,000. These costs are paid for by funding. Since letting takes place in this way, it is not classified in KI’s accounts as fee-financed activities. UAC makes 271 apartments available to KI, of which 58 are researcher apartments and 213 are student rooms. In total, UAC rented out apartments/rooms to 816 international students and visiting researchers during 2011. The occupancy rate was around 88 per cent. In addition, KI rented out accommodation during 2011 for visiting researchers for a total of SEK 216,000. The cost is assessed to be the same. In a few years’ time, the need for apartments/rooms is expected to increase in line with increased international exchanges and cooperation.

2 During 2011, KI rented out premises to external tenants for a total of SEK 37,849,000 (SEK 36,258,000). There is no separate cost accounting for this activity, but full cost coverage is taken as the starting point. KI’s policy is to rent out entire buildings if possible in order to have full right of disposition over its premises portfolio. Vacancies which may then arise are used as a premises provision for future needs through renting.

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NOTES

Note 3. Revenue from grants Revenue from grants from other authorities Revenue from grants, non-Government

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

818,684 1,279,589

795,694 Notes NOTES 1,312,081

2,098,274

2,107,775

From 2011 onwards, scholarships will be reported in the transfers section, in accordance with the applicable provisions from the Swedish National Financial Management Authority, thereby reducing revenue from grants for the year by SEK 59.3 million compared with the previous year.

Note 4. Financial revenue 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Interest on Swedish National Debt Office interest account

55,329

13,987

Other financial revenue

10,333

15,188

65,662

29,175

The increase in interest revenue from the Swedish National Debt Office is due to a higher interest rate on the interest account. The annual average interest rate on the interest account for 2011 was 1.78 per cent (0.50 per cent). The capital gain on the disposal of financial assets for the year was SEK 6.5 million (SEK 10.6 million).

Note 5. Staff costs 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

1,752,782

1,642,611

890,988

827,867

Educational grants

66,218

63,639

Other staff costs

73,705

71,578

2,783,693

2,605,695

Salary costs excluding employer contributions, pension premiums and other statutory and contractual fees Employer contributions, pension premiums and other statutory and contractual fees

Salary costs increased by SEK 111 million or 6.7 per cent in 2011 compared with the previous year. In October 2011, KI employed 4,703 people, an increase of 145 people compared with the same period in 2010. For the last three months of the year, a salary review has been entered into the books with an estimated average increase of 2.8 per cent. The item Other staff costs is reported divided up as employer contributions, pension premiums and other statutory and contractual fees, and Other staff costs. The previous year’s figures have been adjusted in the same way.

Note 6. Premises costs At the end of the year, KI’s premises portfolio totalled 200,859 m². Premises costs rose in total by approximately SEK 21 million compared with 2010. In addition to index increases for rent, the increase in costs is due to changed principles for dealing with operational adaptations. These were previously reported under Improvement expenditure on property owned by others, but with effect from 2011 operational adaptations will be dealt with as rent surcharges.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


NOTES

Note 7. Other operating costs Remuneration for clinical education and research (medical training and research agreement funding) Scholarships Other operating costs

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

566,553

562,748

0

45,777

1,078,293

1,050,372

1,644,846

1,658,896

From 2011 onwards, KI will report scholarships in the transfers section, in accordance with the applicable provisions from the National Financial Management Authority.

Note 8. Financial costs Interest on Swedish National Debt Office loans Other financial costs

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

7,138

1,814

21,528

5,802

28,665

7,617

Financial costs rose in 2011 by approximately SEK 21 million compared with 2010. Increased loans from the Swedish National Debt Office for investments, with a higher average interest rate than 2010, also resulted in increased interest costs. Other financial costs are primarily due to exchange losses on the sale of securities of SEK 15.6 million.

Note 9. Revenue collection operations The balance relates to the net change in potential bad debt losses for non-payment of patient fees at the Institute of Odontology.

Note 10. Transfers Until 31 December 2010, KI had dispensation from the National Financial Management Authority to report scholarships as costs in the operations section instead of in the transfers section. From 2011 onwards, KI will report scholarships in the transfers section, in accordance with the applicable provisions from the National Financial Management Authority.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

73 


NOTES

Note 11. Change in capital by business area Balanced change in capital (A)

Change in capital for the year (B)

Total (A+B)

122,998

2,361

125,359

Education at first- and second-cycle levels Education in accordance with public service agreement Contract operations Total

13,530

268

13,798

136,528

2,629

139,157

759,380

149,877

909,256

53,704

330

54,034

813,084

150,206

963,291

31/12/2011 34,355 4,145 38,500 -25,290 -4,667 -29,957 8,543

31/12/2010 33,087 1,268 NOTES 34,355 -19,972 -5,318 -25,290 9,065

31/12/2011 102,570 -292 0 0 102,278 -31,132 0 -10,073 -41,205 61,073

31/12/2010 107,275 12,163 0 -16,868 102,570 -38,436 16,553 -9,249 -31,132 71,438

Research/third-cycle education Doctoral education and research Contract research Total

Note 12. Intangible fixed assets Applied depreciation periods: 5 years Opening acquisition value Acquisitions for the year Closing acquisition value Opening accumulated depreciation Depreciation for the year Closing accumulated depreciation Book value Acquisitions for the year consist mainly of licence costs for the systems Opus and QlikView.

Note 13. Improvement expenditure on property owned by others Applied depreciation periods: 10 years Opening acquisition value Acquisitions for the year Transfer from installations in progress Minus acquisition value of scrapped/sold equipment Closing acquisition value Opening accumulated depreciation Minus opening accumulated depreciation for scrapped/sold equipment Depreciation for the year Closing accumulated depreciation Book value

The negative value of acquisitions for the year is a conversion from improvement expenditure on property owned by others to the cost account. From 2011 onwards, Improvement expenditure on property owned by others will be dealt with as rent surcharges.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


NOTES

Note 14. Machinery, equipment, fixtures and fittings, etc. Applied depreciation periods: 3 years, 5 years, 10 years Opening acquisition value Acquisitions for the year Transfer from installations in progress Minus acquisitions value of scrapped/sold equipment Closing acquisition value Opening accumulated depreciation Minus accumulated depreciation of scrapped/sold equipment Depreciation for the year Closing accumulated depreciation Book value Sold/scrapped installations Capital gain Capital loss

Note 15. Fixed assets under construction Opening acquisition value Acquisitions for the year Transfer to assets account Accumulated acquisition value

31/12/2011 1,909,570 157,831 15,486 -72,211 2,010,676 -1,316,255 71,534 -160,366 -1,405,087 605,589 2011 74 603

31/12/2010 1,770,730 226,291 5,159 -92,610 1,909,570 -1,263,729 90,409 -142,935 -1,316,255 593,315 2010 27 2,277

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

19,557 27,367 -15,486 31,438

18,727 5,989 -5,159 19,557

Fixed assets under construction include improvements to KI’s campus areas. These projects run for several years, which is why the transfer to the assets account may be lower than the opening balance.

Note 16. Participations in subsidiaries and associated companies Karolinska Institutet Holding AB (100%) Nominal value

3,000 a` SEK 100 each

Book value

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

300

300

102,443

129,300

According to the preliminary as yet unreported revenue statement and balance sheet for 2011, Karolinska Institutet Holding AB shows a result of SEK -7.7 million (SEK -5.5 million). Net sales for the year preliminarily total SEK 46.4 million (SEK 42.8 million). The preliminary balance sheet total for 2011 is SEK 122 million (SEK 131 million), with preliminary equity of SEK 102.4 million (SEK 113.7 million). The comparison figures in brackets relate to 2010’s confirmed balance sheet figures. For a more detailed description of Karolinska Institutet Holding AB, see the section entitled Cooperation.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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NOTES

Note 17. Other investments held as fixed assets (relates to asset management) Shares and participations

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Book value

141,525

163,338

Market value

141,525

166,560

Bonds, etc. Book value

103,434

95,470

Market value

108,194

101,642

The value of the share portfolio fell during 2011, and the book value was written down by SEK 1.5 million. Securities have been sold for payment during 2012 to operations, resulting in cash in hand within asset management of SEK 26.2 million at the year-end (SEK 6.6 million).

Note 18. Receivables from other authorities VAT receivables Other Government receivables

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

69,374

66,893

10,700

16,052

80,074

82,945

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

772

25,646

Note 19. Other receivables Other receivables

Share funds with a value of SEK 24.8 million were sold in December 2010, and the settlement was received in January 2011.

Note 20. Prepaid costs Prepaid premises costs Other prepaid costs

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

120,419

107,848

8,181

7,824

128,600

115,672

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Note 21. Accrued revenue from grants Accrued revenue from grants, other Government authority Accrued revenue from grants, non-Government

32,913

35,827

171,648

179,384

204,561

215,211

Here, accrued costs are reported for grant-financed activities where remuneration is received afterwards and where agreements/contracts exist to confirm this.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


NOTES

Note 22. Other accrued revenue 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

9,340

4,379

Accrued contract revenue Other accrued revenue

5,446

3,548

14,787

7,927

Under the item Accrued contract revenue, accrued costs are reported for contract-financed activities where remuneration is received afterwards and where agreements/contracts exist to confirm this.

Note 23. Settlement with the Government 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

-14,820

-12,947

-1,871

-1,881

8

8

-16,690

-14,820

-71,796

-6,118

Revenue collection Opening balance Reported against revenue headings (-) Funds from interest account credited to revenue headings (+) Liabilities relating to Revenue collection Funding in interest-bearing flows Opening balance Reported against funding (+)

2,456,146

2,345,907

-2,455,505

-2,401,734

Repayment of funding

-18,961

-9,851

Liabilities related to funding in interest-bearing flows

-90,116

-71,796

Funding credited to the interest account (-)

Other receivables/liabilities on the Government’s central account at Riksbanken Opening balance

14,495

12,689

Deposits in non-interest-bearing flows (+)

1,882

2,489

Payments in non-interest-bearing flows (-)

-5

-683

Claims on the Government’s central account at Riksbanken Balance

16,372

14,495

-90,435

-72,121

KI has reduced first-level education funding with a funding saving totalling SEK 89.8 million. The shortfall is due primarily to the effects of KI having lost the right to issue the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing for three terms in December 2008. SEK 28.8 million must be repaid to the Swedish National Debt Office, as the authority may only have total funding saving of a maximum of 10 per cent of the year’s allocated funding cap – see also Note 1.

Note 24. Swedish National Debt Office interest account balance 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

3,191,142

2,941,510

0

0

Balance of Swedish National Debt Office interest account of which short-term liquidity needs

Granted, unused credit on Swedish National Debt Office interest accounts stands at SEK 153.8 million.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

77 


NOTES

Note 25. Administrative capital Change in capital according to the Balanced Swedish Financial Accounting change in capital Standards Council

Total administrative capital

Government capital

Profit participation in subsidiaries

5,238

128,604

690,486

254,513

1,078,841

-4,304

258,817

-254,513

0

124,300

949,303

0

1,078,841

Opening balance Previous year’s allocation Corrected opening balance

5,238

Change in equity, subsidiary

-27,331

-27,331

From the National Public Art Council

0

Change in capital for the year

144,506

144,506

Closing balance sheet total

5,238

96,969

949,303

144,506

1,196,016

0

-31,635

258,817

-110,008

117,174

Change during the year

Change in capital by business area is detailed in Note 11.

Note 26. Provisions for pensions and similar obligations 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Opening provision

14,694

7,807

Change in pension provisions for the year

-1,229

8,445

Pension payments for the year Closing provision

-1,916

-1,558

11,548

14,694

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

2,000

2,000

Note 27. Other provisions Disposal of radiation source Skills exchange and skills development initiatives

36,013

32,544

Closing provision

38,013

34,544

Note 28. Swedish National Debt Office loans 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Opening balance

376,343

348,716

New loans

131,285

119,191

Repayments for the year

-107,383

-91,564

Liabilities to the Swedish National Debt Office

400,245

376,343

Granted loan framework at the Swedish National Debt Office

440,000

435,000

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


NOTES

Note 29. Accrued costs 31/12/2011

31/12/2010

Accrued salaries

28,828

21,341

Holiday pay liabilities

84,161

82,703

Accrued cost to the National Government Employee Pensions Board for pension funds

10,522

20,522

Other accrued costs

16,012

16,405

139,522

140,971

The Accrued costs item includes salary review costs including salary cost increments for the period October–December of SEK 12.4 million.

Note 30. Unused grants Unused grants, other Government authority Unused grants, non-government Donations

31/12/2011

31/12/2010

773,373

756,873

1,279,324

1,258,051

223,925

209,466

2,276,622

2,224,390

These liabilities relate to non-accrued costs for grant-financed activities where remuneration is paid in advance.

Note 31. Other prepaid revenue 31/12/2011 Prepaid contract revenue, other Government authority Prepaid contract revenue, non-Government Other prepaid revenue, other Government authority Other prepaid revenue, non-Government

31/12/2010

55,035

57,682

302,956

303,460

5,290

3,239

7,591

6,335

370,871

370,716

Prepaid contract revenue relates to non-accrued costs for contract-financed activities where remuneration is paid in advance.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

79 


the university board

The University Board Remuneration paid to the Board of Karolinska Institutet in 2011 and details of other commissions Remuneration paid to the Board of Karolinska Institutet in 2011 and details of other commissions. (The commissions listed are board memberships and council memberships for other Government authorities, as well as directorships of Swedish and foreign limited companies.)

Name

Other commissions

Salary/Fee SEK

Chair Susanne Eberstein

Västernorrland Police Board, chair The National Swedish Police Board, member Swedish Commission for Security and Integration, member Judicial Appointments Board, member

66,000

President Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson

Karolinska Institutet Holding AB, director The Swedish Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency’s risk management council, member The Board of Stockholm Science City Foundation, director Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship SSES, director Biomedical Sciences International Advisory Council, Singapore, adviser The Transparency Council of Stockholm County Administrative Board, member The Danish Council for Research Policy

1,548,549

Members appointed by the Government Annika Andersson, Vice Chair

No other commissions

28,000

Dan Andersson from 15/09/2011

The Swedish Cancer Society’s finance board

Richard Bergström until 31/05/2011

The Welfare Development Council, member The Swedish Institute for Health Economics, subsidiary of Apoteket AB, director The Anti-Corruption Institute, director WHO – Good Governance in Medicine, adviser

Anders Blanck from 15/09/2011

No other commissions

Eva Fernvall

e-Health Institute, Linnaeus University of Kalmar, chair IQ, subsidiary of the Swedish Alcohol Retail Monopoly, member

28,000

Eskil Franck

Umeå School of Education at Umeå University, chair

28,000

Torbjörn Rosdahl from 04/02/2011

The Clara Foundation, chair AB SLL Internfinans, chair Landstingshuset i Stockholm AB, chair

25,665

8,175 11,665 1

8,175

1

To be paid in 2012.

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


the university Board

Name

Other commissions

Salary/Fee SEK

Representatives of the teaching staff Elias Arnér from 01/07/2011

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – General Subjects, Elsevier, editor IMCO Corporation Ltd AB, director and shareholder PRIMA Barn- och Vuxenpsykiatri AB, director and shareholder

739,730

Klas Kärre until 30/04/2011

The Wenner-Grenska Samfundet Foundation, member The Axel Wenner-Gren Foundation for International Exchange of Scientists, member The Georg & Eva Klein Foundation, member

966,559

Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren from 01/07/2011

Umeå Center for Microbial Research, Advisory Board Society for Natural Immunity, Vice President (President Elect) Stockholm–Uppsala Life Sciences organization, ambassador Hannover Biomedical Research School, member International Advisory Board Scandinavian Foundation for Immunology, member of the Board

705,927

Marie Wahren-Herlenius

The Tore Nilsson Foundation, director Rocognition AB, director

731,083

Lotta Widén- Holmqvist, until 30/04/2011

No other commissions

712,096

Isidor Braekke until 31/12/2011

No other commissions

28,000

Mattias Lindsäter until 31/12/2011

No other commissions

30,240

Ola Nilsson until 31/12/2011

No other commissions

320,147

Tobias Brosjö from 01/01/2012

B1 International AB (formerly Dahlgren-Brosjö Productions AB), deputy director until 04/03/2011

-

Felicia Fixell from 01/01/2012

No other commissions

-

Åsa Samuelsson from 01/01/2012

No other commissions

307,091

Student representatives

Co-opted Jan Andersson, Vice President

Centre for Translational Molecular Medicine, the Netherlands, scientific adviser The Flemingsberg Science Foundation, member The Carnegie Foundation, scientific adviser The Center for Molecular Medicine, director Journal of Internal Medicine, editor

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

1,078,764

81 


82 

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


the university board

Decision on the annual report and assessment of internal governance and control The University Board hereby submits its annual report for 2011. We confirm that the annual report provides a true and fair impression of the authority’s results, costs, revenue and financial position. We also judge the authority’s internal governance and control to be satisfactory.

Stockholm, 20 February 2012

Susanne Eberstein, Chair

Eva Fernvall

Harriet Wallberg-Henriksson, President

Felicia Fixell

Annika Andersson

Eskil Franck

Dan Andersson

Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren

Elias Arnér

Torbjörn Rosdahl

Anders Blanck

Åsa Samuelsson

Tobias Brosjö

Marie Wahren-Herlenius

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

83 


Appendix: Costs for performance

Appendix: Costs for performance Development work has been carried out between the educational institutions with the aim of developing measurements to describe the “cost per performance” in accordance with the requirements of the Swedish Annual Reports and Budget Documentation Ordinance (2000:605). This development work, which has been carried out by the planning managers at Sweden’s universities, led to the Ministry of Education and Research deciding to add the following to the “Significant information” summary with effect from 2010: • cost per full-time student (excluding contract education and commissioned education) • cost per annual performance equivalent (excluding contract education and commissioned education) • total number of peer-reviewed scientific publications • cost per peer-reviewed scientific publication The measures relating to “cost per performance” are explained in greater detail below.

Definitions of performance measures Full-time students and annual performance equivalents are the performances carried out during the year (excluding December performances from 2010), and are defined in accordance with the public service agreement. Costs relate to costs reported for the year within the operational area of Government Fundingfinanced first-/Bachelor’s and second-cycle/Master’s education. Costs also include grant-financed and fee-financed costs associated with the activity. However, as mentioned, contract education are not included. It should be noted that full-time students and annual performance equivalents have been related to costs individually. It is not therefore possible to relate costs per full-time student and annual performance equivalent to the price tags used in the Government’s allocation of resources to the educational institutions. In this context, it should be noted that the costs are also included in the clinical sections of physician and speech therapist education (corresponding to the funding for medical training and research) and dentistry education (the dental care centre). The measurements of costs per full-time student and annual performance equivalent are deemed to be relatively secure, as the constituent elements relate to the current year and are conventional. Cost per peer-reviewed scientific publication includes all costs belonging to research and education at third-cycle level, including contract research. There is no separation of the actual course components in doctoral education because they cannot be read from the accounting system. In the concept of scientific publication, KI has chosen to take articles and overview articles from its bibliometric database based on data from Thomson Reuters’ citation databases (Web of Science).

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A working party within the Association of Swedish Higher Education’s forum for chief librarians has investigated the issue of fractionation (the proportion of a publication attributable to authors at the educational institution in question), and has proposed that the number of publications be reported unfractionated as long as there are differences between the publication registers in terms of registering these details. KI has therefore chosen to continue reporting the number of publications, unfractionated, under Key-ratios. In terms of publications, KI does not report any information for the most recent year (2011) since there is a delay in reporting. The measurement “cost per peer-reviewed scientific publication” should be viewed with caution since there is no direct link between the year’s costs and the same year’s published articles. The research work involved in an article may have taken many years. In view of the above, this measurement should be regarded as an approximate value. Finally, it should be emphasised that these performance measurements do not say anything about the quality of operations. The development of the three measurements is commented on below.

The development of costs per full-time student, annual performance equivalent and peer-reviewed publication The following comments refer to the unit cost report under Key ratios.

Costs per full-time student and annual performance equivalent The cost per full-time student has only increased marginally for the last four years, and is linked primarily to the changes in the education offered during the period. However, the cost per annual performance equivalent is rising, and this is due mainly to a somewhat declining performance level in recent years. It should also be noted that, up until 2007, KI had surplus production (more students than what the funding provided remuneration for), which naturally resulted in a lower unit cost. See also the section on first-cycle/Bachelor’s and second-cycle/Master’s education.

Cost per peer-reviewed scientific publication The number of publications has increased during the period, while costs have increased somewhat more, resulting in an increased unit cost. However, KI’s internal governance model in the allocation of resources between institutions values quality in the form of citations and the publications’ reputation and impact rather than the number of articles. An increase in costs per publication therefore only provides information about productivity and not about scientific impact. See also the section on Research and education at third-cycle level.

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Appendix: Costs for performance

Key ratios

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Number of full-time students

5,815

5,524

5,595

5,336

5,516

146

144

143

143

130

5,351

5,050

5,012

5,052

5,203

159

157

159

151

138

Number of peer-reviewed scientific publications

3,855

3,766

3,773

3,522

Cost per peer-reviewed scientific publication, SEK thousands

1,075

1,032

929

938

Cost per full-time student, SEK thousands Number of annual performance equivalents Cost per annual performance equivalent, SEK thousands

Performance and costs within education at third-cycle level and cooperation The Swedish National Audit Office has imposed a requirement on the universities to also report the cost for education at thirdcycle level and for cooperation. Separating education at third-cycle level from research is difficult at KI, since a considerable portion of this education consists of participating in research projects and carrying out active research. It is not therefore possible to obtain the cost directly from the accounting system for education at third-cycle level or for a PhD student. Instead, most of the calculation of the costs must be carried out based on costings and estimates. A significant portion of PhD students are not employed or supported by KI, and are instead usually employed or supported by one of the teaching hospitals in Stockholm or another related organisation. Against this background, KI has chosen to report here the cost for a PhD student with employment or an education grant at KI. In 2011, the average cost for study support was SEK 341,000 for PhD students with employment and education grants. These costs can be obtained directly from the financial and staff reporting system. (554 PhD students with employment and 340 with education grants in October 2011.) In addition, there are the following costs: • supervision • operating costs such as courses/education, thesis defence, travel and other project costs (including write-offs against equity) • premises • equipment (depreciation costs) • indirect costs

Operating and premises costs, and depreciation for PhD students The costs have been proportioned on the basis of the number of employed full-time equivalents including PhD students with education grants within the business area of research and education at third-cycle level. Whether or not PhD students’ costs are lower than this average is, of course, open to discussion. At the same time, doctoral education is an extremely important part of the business area of research and education at third-cycle level, and requires both advanced equipment and laboratory premises. There are also costs for education, thesis defence, etc. On this basis, these costs total SEK 409,000 per year per PhD stu-

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

dent. The number of full-time equivalents within research and education at third-cycle level has been calculated based on how staff are account coded in different projects. From this account coding, the business area to which a cost should be charged can be identified directly. Unallocated support staff are allocated to business areas based on how the indirect costs are allocated.

Supervision The costs for supervision have been estimated using the Supervisor Exit poll at 17 hours per month for main supervisors. This study is a pilot project which was sent in 2011 to main supervisors with a PhD student who had defended his or her thesis during the year. The response frequency was low, but interviews with central directors of studies gave roughly the same number of hours per month for their estimation of the time main supervisors spent on supervision. It can reasonably be assumed that a co-supervisor spends half that time, i.e. 8.5 hours per month. An estimate shows that every PhD student has an average of two co-supervisors, giving 34 hours per month for all supervision: 17 + (8.5 x 2). Converted into a full year, this gives 340 hours after deductions for holidays and other absence. On the basis of these hours, the salary cost including salary cost increments can be calculated at SEK 151,000 per year. On top of this comes operating and premises costs and depreciation, which is calculated at SEK 79,000 per year. The total supervisor cost is therefore SEK 230,000 per year per PhD student. Operating and premises costs and depreciation have been proportioned on the basis of the number of employed full-time equivalents including PhD students with education grants in the same was as above for PhD students. On average, the indirect costs total 23.3 per cent of salary and operating costs within research and education for thirdcycle level for 2011, giving SEK 181,000. The mean annual cost for a PhD student with employment or an education grant can therefore be calculated at SEK 1,161,000 for 2011. This information is based to some extent on assumptions, and should therefore be viewed as approximate. A table of costs and comments is included under the section entitled Education at third-cycle level. Performance and certain costs linked to cooperation are reported under the section entitled Cooperation.

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Appendix: REVENUE

Appendix: Revenue Revenue 20110, SEK million Bachelor’s and Master’s education

Research

Source Research councils Government authorities Organisations and foundations Swedish companies County & municipal councils Foreign Own funds Financial revenue Total external funds

0.1 120.7

Research 654.4 298.0 688.0 170.6 457.1 431.1 66.5 56.3 2,822.1

Direct Government funding

805.5

1,630.1

Total

926.2

4,452.1

43.5 6.4 19.8 40.4 10.4

Asset management 16.4 10.9 20.0 2.5 -66.5 9.3 -7.5

Total 654.4 341.5 710.8 201.3 517.5 444.0 0.0 65.7 2,935.2 2,435.6

-3.0

5,370.8

Largest sources of funding Research councils Swedish Research Council FAS Formas Other government agencies Swedish Government Agency for Innovation Systems Royal Institute of Technology Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) The Legal, Financial and Administrative Services Agency National Board of Health and Welfare Stockholm University Swedish Armed Forces The Swedish National Institute of Public Health Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board The Swedish Social Insurance Agency Organisations and foundations The Cancer Fund Wallenberg Foundations The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research The Heart and Lung Foundation Karolinska Institutet Foundations Children’s Cancer Foundation The T & R Söderberg Foundation The Persson Family Foundation The Gustav and Tyra Svensson Foundation The Swedish Society of Medicine

86 

County & municipal councils 548.8 94.5 11.1

Stockholm County Council Botkyrka Municipality City of Stockholm

492.8 3.1 3.0

Companies 68.4 43.3 40.6 36.2 21.9 20.0 10.0 9.8 8.0 7.6

141.7 76.3 56.9 45.9 45.6 39.9 31.6 28.3 14.1 10.4

AFA Insurance AstraZeneca Novo Nordisk A/S KI Science Park AB Pfizer IPULS AB Schering-Plough AB Merck & Co Centocor Biogen Sweden AB Foreign organisations and foundations European Union (EU) Rausing Foundation National Institutes of Health (NIH) Org. for economic corp. and dev. (OECD) Novo Nordic Fund The Stanley Medical Research Inst. Structural Genomics Consortium United Arab Emirates (Government) Embassy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Århus University Hospital

47.9 34.7 10.8 8.9 8.8 7.9 7.7 7.3 6.4 5.5

225.6 19.6 17.4 17.4 7.5 7.2 5.6 4.4 4.1 3.4

KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011

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Karolinska Institutet Annual Report 2011 Design: Sofia Lindberg Photo: Berg/C.F. Møller Architects, Bildmakarna, Erik Cronberg, KOD Arkitekter, Science Photo Library, Camilla Svensk, Erik G Svensson, Wingårdh Arkitektkontor and Pierre Zoetterman Print: Danagård LiTHO ISBN: 978-91-85681-42-6


Karolinska Institutet Annual Report 2011 This publication is an abridged version of the document delivered to the Swedish Government in February, 2012 Compiled by: The University Administrative Department, Karolinska Institutet Coordinator: Nils-Fredrik Ankarcrona Published by: The Information and Public Relations Office Karolinska Institutet 171 77 Stockholm ki.se

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KAROLINSKA INSTITUTET ANNUAL REPORT 2011


Karolinska Institutet Annual Report 2011