Issuu on Google+

ARCHITECTURE HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES JORGE LOBOS

02


AUTHOR

Jorge Lobos, architect, Visiting teacher KARCH Institute 3 DHS

COURSE CONCEPT

Jorge Lobos, architect, Visiting teacher KADK Institute 3 DHS Jorgen Eskemose Andersen, lector, cand, arch MAA Maria Gomez-Guillamon, cand, arch MAA

EDITOR BOARD

Peder Duelund Mortensen, lector, cand, arch MAA Jorgen Eskemose Andersen, lector, cand, arch MAA Jorge Lobos, associate professor, master, arch U. of Chile Maria Gomez-Guillamon, cand, arch MAA Rune Asholt, cand, arch. MAA

GRAPHIC EDITOR AND DESIGN Rune Asholt, cand, arch. MAA

TEXT EDITOR AND TRANSLATION Monica Johansson

GRAPHIC LAYOUT Vicki Thake, arch. MAA

PRINTING Arco Grafisk A/S

FUNDS

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture. Denmark Faculty of Architecture of Alghero, University of Sassari, Italy

COPYRIGHT

Š 2011 The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture, Design and Consevation and the author www.karch.dk

ISBN

978-87-7830-283-0


ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES


02 I

II

FOREWORD INTRODUCTION

III

IV

ARCHITECTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS THE WORKSHOP FORMAT: A WAY OF SPREADING IDEAS

ARTICLES 1 2 3

The Humanitarian sector and the role of architects and urban planners HOW TO IMPROVE EDUCATION OF ARCHITECTS FOR WORKING IN THE HUMANITARIAN FIELD The Role of Architects in the International Response to Disasters

ARCHITECTURE FOR HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCIES 1 2

PROJECT MATRIX Disaster Circle Diagram

WORKSHOP 5X5 COPENHAGEN 1 2

V

GENERAL INFORMATION COMPARATIVE INFORMATION Sudan Al Fasher Denmark Copenhagen Haiti Port-au-prince Pakistan Punjab MALDIVES Malé

Civil war Social Conflict Earthquake Flood Climate Change

WORKSHOP MAPUTO

mOZAMBIQUE Chirembue

Flood

WORKSHOP SAO PAULO VI VII

bRAZIL

Sao Paulo

Social conflict

EPILOGUE BIBLIOGRAPHY AND CREDITS


INDEX


Foreword In cases of emergencies fast sheltering the ones in need is of outmost importance. Effective and immediate well managed action is central to success when a catastrophe hit a given location. The many disasters over recent years have proved that despite intentions to coordinate and manage the operations the reality is often quite chaotic and full of conflicting interests hampering the relief efforts. Architects and planners may play a much more prominent role in this respect than it often is the case.

Providing shelter implies temporary settlements which gradually become more permanent and hence the need for social sustainable solutions based on environmentally sound planning adapted to local conditions is a prerequisite. Refugee camps will often be permanent towns prone to develop slum characteristics. Architects have the expertise to make a difference in avoiding this in tandem with other professionals. The universities and the research within the architectural profession have an implicit responsibility and a role to play in this regard. This is linked to tradition of training students in a holistic approach to problem identification and solutions.

This publication documents the result of a two week workshop in January 2011 at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture and further workshops in Sao Paulo in Brazil and in Maputo in Mozambique. The workshops have been implemented as course modules integrated in the curriculum at the participating institutions planned and implemented by the respective lecturers in a dialog with international networks and resource persons.

Network ahs been established with universities and institutions, lecturers and researchers in Italy, Chile, England, Turkey, Brazil and Mozambique. In most of these partner institutions workshops have been implemented with participants from the involved institutions and coordinated by the School of Architecture in Copenhagen. This mutual exchange of ideas and experience is considered paramount for the continued development of technical knowledge within this specific area of expertise. It is the intention to maintain this collaboration and establish the workshops as annual events.

The long term goal is to turn the shelter for disaster theme into a full semester course. A future course activity will eventual span over the entire profession from product design, shelter and architecture and finally town- and country planning. However the course shall emphasize shelter, social and technical infrastructure. This model facilitates the possibilities for a two week long annual workshop as one option and

6


introduction.

In the case of the full semester course the process is an important share of the course as catastrophes under different contexts and often under extreme conditions demands certain qualifications and approaches. Hence the course offers a unique opportunity for students to adapt themselves to quite different professional circumstances.

The experiences from Brookes University in London have shown that students either choose a semester course or a full year Master course. This suggests that there is an interest in the approach the course applies based on the process as determining problem identification and eventual solution viewed as an architect. The experiences from Department 2 from the School of Architecture in Copenhagen with field studies in towns and urban settings in the periphery of Europe for the entire department as the point of departure for a full one year programme for all students is worthwhile taking as an important point of reference.

It is the intention to establish research within the field in order to continuously produce knowledge and qualify the involved lecturers. In the long run it is hoped to be able to offer an international Master in Shelter for Disaster in collaboration eventual with some of the institutions involved already in so doing i.e. Copenhagen and Lund Universities and Brookes.

FOREWORD

on the other hand some departments may integrate the activity into the semester curriculum and make use of the workshop as an

I hereby warmly thank all participating students, teachers and departments from the many institutions engaged in this important academics activity to date and a special thank to the researchers and lecturers providing articles to this publication. A specific thank to the editors who has put an enormous effort in making this publication a reality.

Peder Duelund Mortensen Associate professor, Institute of Planning

7


ARCHITECTURE AND HUMAN RIGHTS by Jorge Lobos * The relation between Architecture and Human Rights has been absent in the field of architectural theory. We consider it necessary that attention is paid to this connection, so that the emergence of new professional profiles can be stimulated, and so that experience gained in the field of architecture can be brought to millions of human beings who have the right to enjoy and use knowledge generated in the world in which we all live.

It is clear that architecture can no longer be considered merely an artistic and aesthetic field. The conceptual emphasis on Human Rights is a fundamental aspect that needs to be brought into the field of architecture and that helps us understand contemporary problems that create tension in our professional life

Architecture, in this context, plays a crucial role, being a social science that contributes with professional knowledge and skills that can help redefine the priorities of the planet. Architecture is, hence, an important science in dealing with many contemporary challenges faced all over the world: The right, established by the United Nations, of all human beings to live at a reasonable standard1 ; Millions of refugees in humanitarian catastrophes; The need to use the territory rationally and democratically; Consciousness and active involvement in issues regarding environmental and social sustainability; Huge migration movements with their cultural conflicts and/or cultural encounters, and the 2/3 of the world population that do not have any access to the solutions and products that architecture could bring2.

These are some of the urgent problems that will have to be faced immediately, but for which approaches and instruments presently available to architects do not suffice. Throughout the 20th Century, architects have concentrated on buildings as objects, form, design and architecture as an artistic expression rather than on the important task of solving social challenges.

As we enter into the field of Architecture and Human Rights, the theoretical discourse is immediately brought to the global level, since it is a

Jorge Lobos architect University of Chile. Associate Teacher University of Sassari, Italy. Guest Teacher Royal Danish Academy of Copenhagen, Denmark. Founder of E Architecture & human rights *

8


a part of human rights). Savater makes an interesting reflection on civilisation and culture3, as he shows how our identity is based on a scale of values, covering a wide span – from the universal to the local – and how we act in cohesion with these values, using them as interchangeable, selecting those that are adequate for adapting our behaviour to the specific circumstances in which we find ourselves.

There is no contradiction in using universal, yet still clinging to local values – they are simply indisoluble, reciprocally complementing elements. They are both part of the same entity – or as Salvater writes – they are exactly the same thing, civilisation is a global culture 4

. Human Rights is the protagonist element, and a cornerstone of the concepts of civilisation and universal culture.

To deal with the challenge of solving problems related to social inequality, conceiving the situation just at the local or national levels can be useful as a first step. However, once internal conflicts have been settled, we must focus on the global situation. It is not only a matter of solidarity or generosity – external imbalance will, sooner or later, always affect our fragile local balance.

One phenomenon which can be mentioned as an example is the immigration and the solid welfarestate in the Scandinavian countries. On the one hand, the global inequal distribution of wealth is starting to become a threat to the populations that are enjoying a high standard of living. On the other hand, this process of immigration may help solving problems related to the future socio-economic equilibrium in receiving countries, since immigrants – as they become taxpayers - contribute to the overall social welfaresystem. However, immigration processes deserve the highest political priority since they do imply obvious risks and tensions. Furthermore, we can expect that the clash between immigration with its great diversity of cultures - colourful like the rainbow, and the welfarestate with its homogeneous culture will cause considerable repercussions in the architectural field.

Facts:

INTRODUCTION

universal issue for which we are all responsible. It transcends every region without contradicting the local identities (the latter make up

1 The planet is populated by 6.600.000.000 persons. Approximately 2/3 of the population (4.400.000.000 persons) do not have any relation whatsoever with architecture5. How is it then, that architects claim that they cannot find a job?6 9


2 More than 90% of the total number of architects in the world live in the richest countries, cities and neighbourhoods of the planet. This impedes a global distribution of the knowledge that has been generated within the field of architecture, but what is even worse is that the knowledge can never be utilised by the thousands and millions of persons who live in the poorest areas. The democratisation of knowledge and free access to knowledge are universal rights of every human being. They are, furthermore, elements that will contribute considerably to improving equality and solidarity .

The reason for why architecture has been transformed into a consumption good is that the knowledge accumulated in the field of architecture has remained accessible only within the richest sectors of society. For the same reason, the sector has become sensible to economic fluxes, which, in turn, has resulted in high unemployment among architects, planners and constructors. It is our duty to bring our profession into the field of social sciences, and to consolidate architecture so that it can become a basic resource for as many as possible, rather than a consumer good available exclusively for the richest people.

Issues related to the profession and the problem of unemployment of architects – which is a result of the architects’ long indulgent relation to power – should, however, no longer be our main focus. We should rather concentrate on finding distribution networks for spreading knowledge accumulated within architecture, and on establishing and developing this network so that the whole planet can be connected in a more democratic and equal society. In our time, around the world, several occurrences seem to indicate that the society will soon be facing thorough social changes. Some examples are the political movements in the Arab world in which the population demands the right to participate, the social discontent with political processes in solid democracies like Spain with the movement called 15M and England with the protests in Tottenham, or demonstrations against nuclear energy in post-Fukushima Japan. The population calls for improved possibilities to influence decisions as well as for more social benefits and new political structures capable of protecting citizens.

In some countries, the field of Architecture is starting to take some cautious steps towards prospects that would lead towards an enhanced social equilibrium. Examples of such initiatives are: Architecture for humanitarian emergencies, Architecture for social equilibrium and social mobility and Architecture as a mitigator in conflicts. These fields are completely new, and they do focus mainly on the 2/3 of the world

10


population that do not enjoy access to professional architecture, and that therefore is an important target group for us.

As we can see, some democratisation tendencies are discernable within the field of architecture. One example of a team of architects aiming at enhancing democracy through and within the production and creation of the project is Shigeru Ban7 in Japan, a studio which intervenes in situations of humanitarian emergencies, yet another example is CamerĂłn Sinclair8 with his organisation “Architects for Humanityâ€?

RECONNECTING WITH SOCIOLOGY It is necessary to abandon traditional academic reasoning and to work towards a more creative, open and possibilistic architectural process, including people as a cultural resource in the project. This is one of the challenges that we will have to face in order to shape new paradigms for the professional field of architecture. This does, however, not imply abandoning the thought of considering architecture as an art, from which we always have many and great things to learn. We ought try to collocate architecture in an intermediate space betweeen art and sociology.

It is a generally held belief, that the field of architecture underwent considerable progress during the 20th Century, but if we analyse the progress closely it is easy to detect that development was mainly aesthetic, and related to the dialectic couple of concepts problem/ solution or ethics/aesthetics. Architecture did create thousands of new possibilities and solutions in the 20th Century, but it is also clear that this great advance in the field of solutions did not present answers to the most urgent questions and challenges in society. This is, indeed, an interesting paradox. Architecture created answers although no clear question had been posed. Architecture is one of the

11


professional fields that is most absent when it comes to dealing with social global challenges, and for issues that are on the political agenda all over the world. One example of this absence is the palpable dissent within UN-HABITAT9 and the contemporary architecture. It appears of considerable importance that the community of architects return to sociology and Human Rights, so that architecture can become a useful and indispensable professional field for society.

Architecture has played an extremely important role in finding solutions as well as in elaborating variations of logical and formal components used in projects; algorithms, the theory of fractals, the theory of chaos, mathematical formulas and all the support available through the new technologies. To use these techniques and formulas to continuously improve architectonic solutions is an important capacity distinguishing the professional architect.

However, although architects have good and useful capacities, serious shortcomings are found in the field of architecture – architects have not been capable of grasping and facing globlal social problems: The right, established by the United Nations, of all human beings to live at a reasonable standard10 ; Millions of refugees in humanitarian catastrophes; The need to use the territory rationally and democratically; Consciousness and active involvement in issues regarding environmental and social sustainability; Huge migration movements with their cultural conflicts and/or cultural encounters, and the 2/3 of the world population that do not have any access to the solutions and products that architecture could bring11. Architects have not been capable neither of creating, nor of using systems that could be adequate for understanding and describing possible causes behind social imbalance. In the field of enviromental issues a certain consciousness is starting to develop among various countries in the world regarding the fact that environmental problems or concerns are not national but global – hence there are no national frontiers to environmental issues. In the future we could possibly arrrive at a similar consciousness as we think of social movements or issues. We are certainly not there yet - we mostly engage in solving social problems of regional or national character. But the Northafrican context, and the strive for democracy is a good example of how not only environmental but also social challenges are global and how challenges in one region or country spread far beyond formal borders.

The field of architecture seems, hence, incomplete: on the one hand it did contribute to important development during the last two decades, as a field derived from mathematical processes and manifested in arts and aesthetics. On the other hand, it has been incapable of elaborating,

12


understanding and dealing with social problems. Schools of Architecture all over the world are, as a matter of fact, still lagging behind in integrating social sciences as part of he compulsory study plan for architects to be. Instead, students learn that Architects are artists, the most important skills and knowledge remain composition and aesthetics.

It appears that society has reached a point at which it is necessary to merge the two distinct aspects – hence to bring “traditional” features of architecture closer to scientific fields that have developed a thorough understanding of reality, such as sociology and anthropology. This would, in other words, imply addressing the problems or challenges with the same engagement and effort that has always been put into the traditional approach to the architectural project as aesthetic.

This changed approach would also require conceiving architecture as a professional field at the service of society, not merely an art. Artists’ general approach to society is that engagement in civic matters is voluntary. Hence, we need to change the image of artists that architects have developed about themselves, and transform artists into public servants. This suggestion is radical, since it would modify the way in which architects approach the project, and the modes for educating our future architects. It proposes a new conception of architecture as a system for solving problems experienced by citizens, and are related to social phenomena such as democracy, social justice, cultural development and conception rather than to physical representations of society.

Clifford Geertz12 and Max Weber suggest that culture, of which architecture makes up a part, can be conceived of as the production of various expressions and meanings of daily life. Hence, if we wish to get to know a certain cultural group, we are – actually – trying to understand what the meaning of life is for that group, compared to the significances that humanity in general would give life. We will, thus, have to face the challenge of trying to discover this “meaning of life” in practical everyday life for its actors. This is a substantial problem in the field of architecture, and very difficult to solve when a project is planned and implemented. Social sciences can, however, be of great help and will certainly help us take a step forward.

Each group of human beings attributes certain meanings to their everyday life and their view of the world. Significances are connotations given exclusively by the members of a group, sometimes seemingly similar to the meanings given to the same phenomena also by other

13


groups, but never completely identical. The culture of each group becomes, hence, its digital footprints. As a matter of fact, two groups of human beings with the same culture do not exist, although - at the same time - all of us are part of the same universal culture. The drafting of the Human Rights is perhaps the most relevant attempt to establish a common denominator globally.

To break the relation between aesthetics and architecture which has been constant during the entire 20th Century must become one of the principal missions of the 21st Century, especially for the Universities wanting to reach and stay in the forefront of scientific thought and research. One example: Eduardo Feuerhake, Architect from the University of Chile, moved to Mozambique, where there is a great need for architects. Among his projects is: “Learning How Living with Flood”13. Feuerhake’s projects are positive examples of the important contribution that can be brought by architecture, as well as of the large scope of possibilities that exists for architecture to be used for improving the lives of millions of people. An additional example is Fernando Ferreiro, another architect from the University of Chile working with UN HABITAT. He says: I’m not a humanitarian architect. I’m just an architect whose clients have less Money.14

NEW PROFESSIONAL ROLES Several ways forward exist for the field of architecture, but to achieve progress, architecture must be enriched with new professional roles and certain capacities of architects must be enhanced. Measures must be taken urgently, since 2/3 of the population, or 4400 millions of people do not have any access whatsoever to formal products of architecture: construction material, industrialisation, projects, urban plans, professional consultants, etc. In the search for, and construction of these new roles, we need to look away from the traditional architects as mere social depositaries and

14


cultivators of aesthetic values, and – instead welcome and encourage the arrival of architects who act as social reformers and constructors of democracy. The definition given by Esther Charlesworth to describe the new generation of architects is “architects as constructors of peace and political actors”.

THE ARCHITECT AS A CONSTRUCTOR OF DEMOCRACY Democracy and its various forms in the contemporary world must influence architecture. In the 20th Century, architecture became the expressions of the two major political forces, socialism and capitalism. Today, in the 21st Century is should give expression to what philosophers generally call “the second globalisation”16. In politics, the same phenomenon is often referred to as movements for a new world. The latter are, actually, a number of heterogeneous groups, but they do have in common the respect for differences, and they generally support the coexistence of many distinct groups and cultures in society. These tendencies are fairly new, and started to occur at the end of the 20th Century, which, until then, had been characterised mainly by the polarised political landscape of capitalism-socialism. Participation can be used as a means for rendering projects more democratic. Democracy can indicate ways to arrrive at auto-determination, which is an important aspect in the contemporary world, hence also in the field of architecture. For instance, people who inhabit a city, have opinions about the city and what it is like to live there. It is crucial that architects pay close attention to these opinions. Chris Younés17 calls for a renovation of projectual methods that could be used for improving the process of community building, enhancing the way human beings live in contact with and proximity to others, fostering respect for differences among individuals as well as respect for nature.

THE ARCHITECT AS A CREATOR OF COLLECTIVITY AND HETEROGENITY Creative systems, springing from art, can be described as open processes. As stated by Joseph Beuys18 in his art performances “...every man is an artist”. Production within the field of architecture should learn from auto-determination as described by Beuys, achieved and expressed in the fields of politics and arts. Arts can, hence, be conceived as a system of human evolution. Also John Cage19 views the artistic expression as a form of auto-determination as he refers to improvised and random music. This is exactly what Marcel Duchamp20 does as he uses plastic materials, or as he adds a detail or an unexpected and open, non concluded movement that produces imperfection and finally integrates it in the final creation. If we manage to consider the imperfection as a part of the creative process we will become more flexible to accept the presence of human beings in the production of the architectural project.

15


An open process implies that the creator, the architect, is not in full control of the entire process. This situation provokes great fear in the mind of the architect, who generally convinces him/herself of possessing particular capacities that would make him/her more suitable than other individuals to interpret and understand reality. The architect believes that his/her understanding of reality cannot be shared with “common people”. Schools of Architecture foster and teach architects to conceive of themselves in this manner. Most of the time, this attitude contributes to architects’ maintenance of social status, although it clearly does not solve problems related to social aspects. The architect’s fear of losing control is also related to the self-imposed objective to create a piece of art. Obviously the attention paid to perfection in the design of the objects is excessive and impossible to achieve in reality, the perfection of the object in architecture is a utopia. When an open system approach is applied in an architectural project, the objective of arriving at a high level of perfection loses importance, and it is, instead, the social process that must be given priority. In such a situation, there is an obvious risk that architects prefer a solution that seems safe, and that they go back to their own personal endemic and hermetic routine of creation. In Architecture for Human Emergencies, for instance, it is possible to consider imperfection as a part of the creative system, since people are a part of random processes. As a matter of fact, often we do not know how a project is going to end, we can only lean on a set of rules as tools for a general orientation.

THE ARCHITECT AS A CULTURAL ACTIVIST The concept “cultural activism” does not necessarily refer to action in the field of party-politics. Rather, it emphasises the importance of getting involved and participate in social processes, and to insert them as a natural part of architectural practise. Clear examples of architects taking on new roles are: Eduardo Feuerhake and Fernando Ferreiro in Mozambique, Edward Rojas in Chiloé

16


(Chile), Ecosistema urbano in Madrid or Shigeru Ban in Japan. All of these architects received their education in traditional schools of architecture, but their works, especially those of Rojas, Feuerhake and Ban, represent the social ideals of the 1960’s and 70’s– the era in which architecture was particularly involved in social issues. We can conclude that education in the field of architecture must change. This is especially important in developing countries. Traditional and academic education that mainly teaches students how to design buildings related to arts and aesthetics, is not so useful in developing countries, After all, it is very common that an architect does not get the chance to design one single building in his/her entire life. The perspective in the field of teaching architecture must, hence, be widened and open up for additional dynamics that are crucial for understanding architecture. This way, architects would be allowed to act as artists, as well as cultural activists, constructors of democracy, creators of community or constructors of peace.

UN, General Assembly (1948) Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December, 1948. SALAS, Julián (2000) Director Postítulo de Asentamientos Humanos, ETSAM Madrid, Spain 3 SAVATER, Fernando (1999) “Universalism and identities/civilisation versus culture” Conference ETSAM 22 February, Synthesis for Architect Jorge Lobos, May, 2000, Madrid, Spain 4 SAVATER, Fernando (1995): Diccionario filosófico. Planeta. Barcelona, Spain 5 SALAS, Julián (2000) Director Postítulo de Asentamientos Humanos, ETSAM Madrid, Spain 6 LOBOS, Jorge (2001) Universidad de Chile, profesor visitante ETSAM Madrid, Spain 7 BAN, Shigeru http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/ Japan 8 SINCLAIR, Cameron http://architectureforhumanity.org/ UK 9 UN HABITAT, State of the world’s cities 2010/2011 ed. Earthscan London & Washington UK & USA 10 UN, General Assembly (1948) Declaration of Human Rights, 10 December, 1948 11 SALAS, Julián (2000) Director Postítulo de Asentamientos Humanos, ETSAM Madrid, Spain 12 GEERTZ, Clifford (1987) La interpretación de las culturas, Editorial Gedisa, 387pp, Mexico 13 FEUERHAKE, Eduardo, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nAJpn1G9wE4 14 FERREIRO, Fernando (2010) Workshop 5x5 Copenhagen, architect U.N. Mozambique 15 CHARLESWORTH, Esther (2006) Architects Without Frontiers, Edition Architectural Press, London, UK 16 BOFF, Leonardo. “Estamos en la edad de piedra de la globalización” entrevista Diario El País, Madrid, 6 de julio del 2001. Juan Bedoya - El País <http://www.elpais.es>. http://www.morfonet.cl/secciones/mundo/007.htm 17 YOUNÉS, Chris (2001) Convocatoria Europan VI, Editorial Europan, Comunidad Europea, France 18 BODENMANN, Ritter Clara (1972), Josephs Beuys. Cada hombre, un artista. Editorial Antonio Machado, Conversaciones en Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany 19 KOSTELANETZ, Richard (1988), Conversing with Cage, Limelight editions, New York, USA 20 CABANNE, Pierre (1972) Conversaciones con Marcel Duchamp, Editorial Anagrama, Barcelona, Spain 1 2

17


THE WORKSHOP FORMAT: A WAY OF SPREADING IDEAS by Jorge Lobos

The experience “Workshop 5x5”, was organised for the first time in January 2010 in Copenhagen, and has – since then - travelled to other countries and continents. It was carried out in Aguas Calientes, México in October 2010, then, once again, in Denmark in January 2011. We also used the format for participating at the workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil in April 2011 and organised the workshop of Maputo, Mozambique in May 2011. These experiences made us discover students’ particular interest in the topic. It also made us reflect upon the importance of calling for inserting the subject “Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies” as a permanent course in the educational offer at the university level. This book will be used to show the experiences from Copenhagen, Sao Paulo and Maputo in 2011.

This second book includes articles that are related to the fields of “Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies” or “Architecture for Human Rights” A theoretical discussion takes into consideration various nuances and contrasts that each of the two definitions may suggest.

Approaching the theme “Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies” (earthquakes, floods, etc.) brings the advantage of facing the challenge of human catastrophes that affect more than 200 million people every year. This making it the centre of attention for international mass media. In these cases, architecture is absent in sites of power as well as in moments of important decisions. Architecture is not considered a resource capable of improving the lives of people who find themselves in a state of emergency. There is no doubt, however that, if applied, the field of architecture would add vital knowledge to physical and social environment and contribute considerably to the solution of these problems. The contribution of architecture in this context is that it does account for the initial condition of the affected community, as it was prior to the humanitarian emergency-situation. However, using this theoretical approach to architecture often implies a disadvantage, in that measures of prevention or mitigation – tools that would be necessary or urgent for preventing future tragedies in the human habitat - are not taken in consideration. The concept “Architecture and Human Rights”, opens, on the one hand, up for wider and enhanced reflection. On the other hand it may, however, make the field of research and action more complex and vague. This gives us the opportunity to amplify the range of action of intervention, so as to deal with other social problems less urgent, yet no less significant or worthy of attention.

18


As a matter of fact, many social problems are impossible to discern in urban dynamics and remain, thus, invisible to mass media. They attract attention only in the occasion of a tragedy. The Favellas in Brazil, one of the cases in this book, is considered worthy of attention because of the criminal activity or drug trafficking, rather than for its general critical urban situation. The immigrant ghettoes in Paris is another example of a precarious situation that attracted political attention only after the breakout of civil riots. The case of the neighbourhood Maxaquene in Maputo, an area of spontaneous growth, attached to the formal city is a clear example of the defenseless situation in which millions of urban inhabitants in many parts of the world find themselves. This neighbourhood is facing the challenge of surrendering to private exploitation of land, expelling the inhabitants. Another solution would be to leave the existing urban structure to the population that has been living here for generations, and that does not own the urban land.

Also the theme of Human Rights allows us to reflect upon extremely urgent social problems in many countries: Turkey is a fast growing country, and would need an additional 350.000 homes/year for an entire decade, in order to fill the deficit. In Chile, still suffering the effects of the last earthquake, reaching 8.8° Richter, there is a deficit of 500.000 homes. Approximately 15% of the population is living on the very edge of subsistence level. These aspects have not yet been subject to action taken by Architecture for Human Emergencies â&#x20AC;&#x201C; yet they clearly make up the most vulnerable areas of society, as they face the threat of being struck by natural or social disasters or suffering the effects following from climate changes. The Maldives has become the icon of the disasters following climate change. This is a country that, literally, will have to move to another place in the near future, so as to deal with serious problems related to contamination produced by, more industrially developed countries. These environmental problems threaten to completely wipe out the Maldive Islands. These tendencies symbolise the crisis of our planet, the slow tragedy witnessed by humanity. The authors are not sure whether it fits into the theoretically strict definition of the field of Human Emergencies caused by natural disasters, but find these threats relevant to approach, since they call for a conceptualisation of the theme.

Regardless of the theoretical path chosen, there are three areas that must be touched upon, so as to develop architecture: Research, Education and Professional practise. Each of these three areas is discussed more thoroughly, in three articles in our book. These individual experiences, together with the workshops organised during 2011, help us develop new perspectives within the fields, constantly growing and gaining increasing relevance: Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies or Architecture and Human Rights.

19


The Humanitarian sector and the role of architects and urban planners By Jørgen Eskemose Andersen * The knowledge gap Within recovery operations many agencies have adopted transitional shelter as the best option of re-housing people better that the classical emergency solution intents. This is crucial when balancing short term needs and longer term considerations as any catastrophe will run through the same circle beginning with the Emergency period immediately after a given catastrophe and then pass to the recover phase over some month and eventually turn into the Reconstruction phase. Finally the Rehabilitation phase which can takes up to decades and appears at times to be never ending. Before any disaster governments needs to be prepared with established warning systems and mitigation measures. Preparedness and prevention are issues many governments have taken on board after recent years with continuously returning catastrophes.

It is the aim of this paper to stress the potential role of architects in theses processes. The architectural profession needs to increasingly engage with humanitarian issues and this is a call for the educational institutions to adapt Humanitarian Architecture as part of the curriculum.

Theories that underpin the interplay between architecture, settlement planning and disaster risk reduction are yet to be systematically studied, theorized and applied. At practical level, this disparity is very clearly depicted in a manner by which urban growth takes place. Urban areas especially in the developing world are increasingly becoming hotspots of disaster risks and vulnerable to a range of hazards and disaster risks. Such risks include flooding, epidemics and diseases, accidents, fire incidences, deterioration of the social and physical infrastructure.

Increased natural hazards due to climate change are increasingly putting people in poor countries at risk of loosing their lives and livelihoods. Shelter and settlement planning is central to human life and wellbeing and focus for reducing vulnerabilities to disasters and in getting back to normality after a given catastrophe. Initiatives for an integrated approach to recovery, reconstruction and disaster risk reduction, is leading towards more systematic research and education of disaster management practices.

* Jørgen Eskemose Andersen, is an architect working for many years in Sub-Saharan Africa, with expertise in: Low Cost Housing, Urban Environmental Planning, Upgrading of Informal Settlements, Land Use Planning and Land Tenure Systems and Participatory Urban Planning. He is Head of Department of Human Settlement within the School of Architecture, Copenhagen.

20


systematic research is available and most agents rely on ad hoc knowledge. UN Habitat has started to collect Best Practice samples and most research is based on such case study evidence. Over the years there has been substantial criticism of organisational weaknesses in the humanitarian sector with poor coordination with resulting tragic loss of life and livelihoods. The Tsunami in 2004 was a wake up call for the disaster profession and the recent catastrophes in Haiti and Pakistan are tragic examples of the need for more knowledge based approaches to disasters. Recent evaluation of the international and local responses to these catastrophes in terms of shelter and settlement have again pointing to a number of critical issues that have failed to deliver shelter at scale in safe locations.

Hence more research focusing on shelter and participatory planning and the role of the architect and urban planner in disaster management is highly desired. The aim of this project is threefold: 1)

Introduce the issue as a regular course at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen

2)

Outline the effects of innovative use of materials and technical solutions in an appropriate architecture based on local

knowledge rethinking settlement and neighbourhood planning

3)

Introduce a Building back Better philosophy aimed at delivering people窶田entred housing and reconstruction at scale

RESEARCH

Shelter during recovery and reconstruction is receiving increased attention after decades of humanitarian relief efforts, however little

The aim of the research attached to the School of Architecture is to establish a knowledge base for future architects based on methods to ensure sustainability in shelter strategies taking into account the fact that many camps established as an immediate response to a certain catastrophe often becomes permanent cities over time. The ultimate aim is raising awareness of this pertinent issue equipping future architects and planners to play a comprehensive and qualified role in the whole disaster management cycle and coordinate complex issues related to shelter and settlement planning.

As a part of this process, the academic capacity at the School of Architecture to teach and conduct research in the field, are sought strengthened through the experiences gained through a annual course and further through research carried as a collaborative effort with the Partner Institutions with whom the School of Architecture to date has engaged with e.g. UEM/CEDH University in Mozambique, Oxford Brookes University (Cendep) and Copenhagen University.

21


The hypothesis of this research project is that architects can develop methods for participatory planning in reconstruction and resettlement and together with the local population develop simple and innovative solutions for emergency housing and appropriate long term reconstruction, taking into account local factors including availability of materials, topography and local organisation.

The availability of land is key element to a successful shelter strategy, which requires special attention, often complicating the resettlement process for displaced people in need of appropriate locations to restart their lives. Too often emergency camps are located on inappropriate sites and in locations that cannot offer long term solutions to their shelter needs. From experience it is widely accepted that camps in many cases are long term and in cases these are turned into cities as is the case in a number of refugee camps in Lebanon where hundreds of thousands Palestinians are living now with a second generation growing up. It is hence important that camps identification and camp planning

A high density informal settlement, in locations with poor drainage, puts the inhabitants at risk when extreme weather with heavy rain hits. Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya

22


are thoroughly thought through bearing in mind the longer perspective. Planning camps implies planning for infrastructure and layouts as future neighbours based on sustainable concepts i.e. technical and social and hence architects needs to have qualifications ranging from building technology, urban planning at city and neighbour level and settlement planning at the detailed local level. Without these insights camps runs the risk of turning into future slums.

The many spontaneous camps often erected overnight when a catastrophe hits cannot continue. The land is often needed for other purposes and the conditions are inadequate. It is therefore essential for exit strategies to be developed that enable residents to find other more permanent and appropriate solutions. This is difficult and will require creativity from all parties concerned, particularly given the general shortage of housing stock that any emergency situation will confront. The relief agencies have an obligation to ensure that people who transit out of camps avoiding them being pushed back into situations where they continue living in unsafe conditions.        The shelter sector is a central part of the humanitarian relief effort, and there seems to be lack of knowledge of how to proceed from one phase into another in the relief and recovery work. A long term shelter strategy with integrated risk reduction efforts can save lives and livelihoods in vulnerable natural environments. Disaster thinking and preparedness integrated in the municipal planning apparatus is a prerequisite for any successful reconstruction and resettlement effort.

In general the research project seeks to address the following issues: a) developing simple low cost technical solutions b) designing with the climate based on natural ventilation c) drawing on traditional design and relate this to the architecture prevailing in the region and d) involving local communities in the design and implementation process to ensure social sustainability.

Bibliography Wamsler C (2007) “Managing Urban Disaster Risk”, HDM, Lund University Lyons M & Schilderman T (2010) “Building Back Better”, Practical action Publishing Ltd Sanderson D et al (2011) “Urban disasters- lessons from Haiti”, Disasters Emergency Committee Satterthwaite D et al (2009) “Adapting Cities to Climate Change”, Earthscan Sinclair C et al “Design Like you Give a Damn”, Thames & Hudson

Norwegian Refugee Council (2004) “Camp Management Toolkit” Farmers P (2011) “Haiti after the earthquake”, Public Affairs Priya T (2003) “Urban Disaster Management Practises of India”, Trondheim University UN Habitat (2010) “The State of African Cities” UN Habitat

23


HOW TO IMPROVE EDUCATION OF ARCHITECTS FOR WORKING IN THE HUMANITARIAN FIELD By Maria Gomez-Guillamon 1

The first experience learned in the workshop 5x5 at the School of Architecture in Copenhagen January 2010 was the importance of teachers defining the problems and challenge and architectural constraints embedded in the project. From an academic point of view the institutions involved with such activities need to built up systematic research within the humanitarian sector and thereafter plough this into the workshops and other teaching sessions with students.

After the second workshop experience in January 2011, some reflections in a more general way about the impact and benefits of such workshops, not necessarily evaluated by their form, but from evaluating the content and academic quality of the activity.

One of the problems that we face in schools of architecture is the difficulty that arises when teaching architectural project discussing projects beyond the formal aspects. Most students´ projects, even in cases with a committed intention of a different approach it usually ends up mainly as a formal exercise with limited if any relevance to the real life situations and often with no social built in considerations.

The importance and clarity that the issue of emergency demands and provides, there is no room to smart forms without a clear justification Projects must necessarily be functional, social oriented targeting specific burning issues and hence projects are developed in a committed manner highlighting the identified need due to a clear and rough needs assessment. The formal architectural solutions are often trivial and would in most cases be discarded in this process. In this sense, students are urged to realize that architectural project is more than just a formal response to a given programme. It is important that students in this process facilitated by the tutors understands that the quality of the project increases the more specific conditions and restrictions exist. Emergencies are complex issues and the response from architecture need to learn to adapt to this peculiarity.

As discussion starts to go beyond the architectural project per se and engage with an everyday praxis then the issue of sustainability in its broadest sense becomes relevant and easier to relate to and give an appropriate architectural form. 1 Maria Gomez-Guillamon, architect maa, is a Spanish architect established in Denmark in year 1992. She started teaching at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture in the year 2000 and is the owner of MGG/architects, working in worldwide projects.

24


Sustainability is more than the technical connotation, which is a discussed issue in architecture schools at the moment, though not as

EDUCATION

Students working

much as one may wish, but in a broader sense incorporating social and economic issues.

We believe that one of the challenges in teaching architecture and in the 21st century architecture is considering sustainability not just as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;subjectâ&#x20AC;?, or an option, but as an integrated methodology, one of the a priori conditions for developing/study of the architectural project.

In this sense working within architecture for emergency forces the tutors and students introducing concepts of sustainability as something obvious demanding responses to emergency situations it is the most rational and sustainable way, architecture must

25


engage using as limited as possible resources in the endeavor providing sustainable solutions as technical interventions meeting basic needs and social solutions with a human and inclusive face.

The workshop sessions establishes windows of opportunity to develop new forms of teaching architecture by creating new strategies and methodologies facilitating students with clear concepts of sustainability as a an embedded strategy for the project. The issue of appropriate technologies and the requirements of being able to deliver fast and effective architectural solutions in case of emergencies is a huge challenge that must be in the forefront when introducing these kinds of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; activities.

Besides working thoroughly with sustainability from strategy to the outset, projects must relate to and discuss other aspects in architectural projects at times neglected at the architecture schools namely:

1.

Appropriate and Adaptable architecture using local available materials, manpower and general skills within communities all in

harmony with the environment and people

2.

The general context, the social structure and the political environment

The challenge of contemporary architecture is not about reinventing the wheel everyday and design more spectacular pieces of architecture making landmarks and monuments. In contexts of catastrophes and emergencies such solutions loose meaning and value as these are just more architectural icons built in recent years and not responding to an increasingly complex reality due to globalization, migration and climate change. Architecture needs to regain its more human and holistic nature once a significant feature in the Nordic countries long before the terminology of sustainability was a buzz word but nevertheless many of these projects in the social housing sector are indeed quite sustainable time has proved.

Over the last 10-15 years we have experienced enormous change in the appreciation of architecture and the role they play in society and in supporting specific market trends and social interventions not least in the cultural sector, but also in education we see the change clear. Within the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, the change has been remarkable: From being a school where knowledge was based on the craftsman

26


skill knowledge, where most of the students were already carpenters, cabinetmakers, masons to a school where the theoretical, academic knowledge has taken over, and the same goes with the background of the students.

This change together with a change in the way architecture is discussed and perceived today, focusing on the artistic aspect in architecture, the architects considers themselves more as artist leaving behind the importance of architecture in society and as a social movement which was one of the strongest tradition within Danish architecture, pioneered since the 1950 and throughout the 1970ies for its social awareness and engagement. In Denmark and in the developing world.

It is high time to bring back this commitment into academia and make sure that future graduates are socially sound equipped and ready to meet the challenge of an changing world with social unrest and natural disasters as the order of the day.

When the theme of architecture for emergency is introduced as a specific discipline with the architecture school in Copenhagen we are opening up a discussion of the importance of ethics in architecture prevailing over aesthetics.

It is the aim of the initiators and facilitators of the introduction in to the curriculum at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture to enable and qualify the eternal discussion about ethics and aesthetics in architecture and eventual create a revised understanding of the role architects as member of society with a certain responsibility in terms of sustainable technical and social solutions the immense challenges we are facing today in the social and built environment.

Which leads us to another of the problems we have in teaching architectural project, probably a CONSEQUENCE of the above is.

27


The Role of Architects in the International Response to Disasters By Gert Lüdeking1 Introduction The number and gravity of disasters are increasing as countries and international organizations struggle to manage complex disaster response operations, reduce risk and vulnerabilities as well as adapting to climate change. The number of internally displaced persons2 (IDPs) that are displaced by natural disasters and complex emergencies3 has never been higher than today resulting in an increased demand for emergency shelter. Although national disaster authorities, the UN and international and national NGOs today are working intensely to meet the needs for shelter and settlements solutions during and after disasters, shelter and settlements provision remains a challenge for these organizations in terms of numbers and complexity. Only a few academic institutions so far have reacted to the emerging needs for competent candidates who combine building and planning knowledge and skills with humanitarian response tools and practices. The changing shelter and settlements assistance needs While tented camps for decades has been the default standard emergency shelter solution, the need for additional shelter and settlements interventions and solutions is today emerging rapidly. IDPs now often disregard camp solutions and prefer shelter “solutions” in urban areas where they might choose to live with “host families”4 or in informal settlements, as urban areas are perceived to afford better protection and provide broader income generation opportunities.

1 Gert Lüdeking, Architect maa is a former Director a.i. of the UN-Habitat Humanitarian Affairs Office, Geneva. Today he is an External Lecturer at the University of Copenhagen. 2 An IDP is a person who is displaced within the country as opposed to a refugee who must have crossed a border to another country to assume refugee status. 3 Civil wars, internal conflicts, etc. 4 Islamabad 2009 is a good example of IDPs preference for host families rather than camps

28


offer personal safety and protection

are cost-effective (compared with tents)

easy to transport by air and road

possibly re-use into more permanent housing

prevent overcrowding and depletion of resources

maximize the sustainable use of natural resources

take into account religious and cultural practices

utilize locally available materials

maximize durability and sustainability

consider safety towards fire, flooding, etc.

take into account climate change issues while

considering the selection of sites and materials

Humanitarian shelter agencies, such as UNHCR5 and IFRC6 , are today facing a formidable challenge when transiting from emergency shelter to recovery: reintegrating IDPs and refugees into existing or new urban settlements while at the same time preventing new

RESPONSE

PROFESSIONAL

Emergency shelter solutions are best when they:

urban slum formations. This includes the challenge of moving from “humanitarian relief standards” to common building and planning standards. As such, the need for shelter and settlements assistance is changing both during displacement and after, when people return from displacement. The new challenges include both institutional and technical tasks. In the events where governments have requested the assistance from international humanitarian agencies to assist addressing shelter in disasters, the response is organized in a number of “humanitarian clusters” under the overall coordination of the UN Humanitarian Coordinator in the country. The humanitarian shelter assistance falls under the “shelter cluster”. Organizations planning and implementing shelter response projects coordinated under the shelter cluster

5 6

United Nations High-Commissioner for Refugees International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent 29


require shelter competent persons who are familiar with the humanitarian response system and can combine technical knowledge and skills with humanitarian procedures while preparing short- and longer term shelter and settlements solutions. In terms of changing technical responsibilities, some of the emerging new tasks include: •

Assisting “host families and communities” where IDPs live

Providing shelter reconstruction assistance in terms of materials, tools, cash or technical assistance

Rehabilitation of shelter and settlements in urban and rural return areas

Programming shelter resettlements and relocation projects in rural and urban areas

Repair of community infrastructure, public buildings, schools and clinics

Upgrading slums with high presence of IDPs

Skills training, management of local environment, local project management and community mobilization

Assist IDPs and refugees who faces land disputes upon return and those without land

Defining strategies for risk and vulnerability reduction

The changing needs for shelter and settlements expertise Along with the changing shelter and settlements needs the demand for specialized shelter expertise must follow suit. In addition to training own staff and associates to meet the changing requirements, UN agencies and international NGOs are drawing extensively on external shelter and settlements expertise to boost their response capacity during and after disasters. Currently, only few NGOs are able to supply shelter specialists with a profile matching today’s challenges, especially during the relief and emergency phases7. While most shelter experts are capable of working with reconstruction and development, only a few have the experience of coordinating and preparing shelter operations during the initial relief and emergency situations and securing a sustainable transition towards recovery through strategic planning with agencies and donors. Therefore, access to specialized short- and longer term emergency shelter and settlements experts remains a challenge for the agencies today.

7

Broadly the phases are: emergency shelter, transitional shelter, shelter in returns, reintegration and early recovery.

30


The way forward for Danish educational institutions The need for shelter and settlements expertise from emergency shelter to recovery and reconstruction is undergoing a rapid transformation. This is not to say that conventional shelter and settlements expertise is no longer in demand in humanitarian operations. However, with the changing patterns of displacements going beyond the sheer provision of tented camps towards assisting IDPs in urban areas living with “host families and communities” or just in urban slums, the tasks and challenges change simultaneously. While the tasks and roles become increasingly complex, the need for expertise with matching skills changes accordingly. Many operational staff working for international and national organizations in disaster areas unfortunately do not possess the skills of linking emergency shelter technology with long term and sustainable shelter and settlements solutions. International educational institutions today have a challenge in providing academic training which combines shelter technical subjects with humanitarian skills and tools that prepares candidates for shelter assistance as part of international humanitarian work.

A few Universities globally have embraced the emerging challenge of delivering courses or academic degrees in shelter after disasters. In Denmark, Copenhagen University in cooperation with Lund University offers a 1-year Masters in Disaster Management at the School of Global Health. This Masters will introduce a 2-month shelter course in the semester starting autumn 2011, which will emphasize the need for combined knowledge and skills. The School of Architecture, Department of Human Settlements, provides short term courses in disaster architecture and planning. The two Danish NGOs, “Architects without Borders” and “Engineers without Borders” include post-graduate training preparing technically competent members for deployment to disaster areas. All of the courses are attractive from different points of view. However, there remains a significant need for a Masters Degree which combines building technology, architectural elements and humanitarian response organization that can provide the international humanitarian organizations with the shelter and settlements candidates they need. A collaborative approach between Universities and Schools of Architecture may be the way forward.

31


PROJECT MATRIX

KIND OF EMERGENCIES

Dry arid Dry semiarid

A - NATURAL DISASTERS Drought

Matrix created by Jorge Lopos and designed by Rune Adholt

Climate & Geography

2.1

Tropical wet

2.3

1.4

Floods 1.1

Tropical wet and dry

Eathquake

2.4 2.6*

Tsunami

Moderate Mediterranean

1.2

Volcano Eruption Hurricane B - CLIMATE CHANGE Climate Change

1.5

Moderate Humid subtropical

2.5

Moderate Marine west coast

C - COMPLEX OR MANMADE EMERGENCIES Social conflict

1.3

Continental Humid

2.2

Continental Subarctic

Political conflict

32

North American

Central American catholic

South American catholic

East European

North European protestant

European Mediterranean catholic

Asiatic Hindu

Asiatic Islamic

Asiatic Buddhist

Middle East

The numbers of the tragedies: First number refers to the books. Second number refers to the projects .

Sub Sahara

Pendemia

North African

D - PANDEMIC

Polar

Culture

Civil war


DISASTER 0 EMERGENCY

PREPAREDNESS

MITIGATION

K AR NM

IL

DE

AZ BR

SU DA N

Building codes and zoning Vulnerability analyses Public educations Manuals on reconstruction and Building Back Better solutions Posters etc.

RECOVER Assessment phase Temporary housing Mall grants Medical care Refugee camps 10 days - 3 months

HAITI

Architecture model for shelters to incorporate Disaster Risk Reduction concepts adaptation

ys

da

ZA

MO

MALDIVES

PREVENTION

UE

IQ MB

PA K IST AN

plans emergency exercises and training warning systems evacuation routes

10

Search and rescue Emergency relief Delivery food and shelter First hours to 10 days

3m

on

ths RECONSTRUCTION

Long term solutions Re-building housingsand economy systems Loans, resettlements 3 months to 24 months (variable)

24 months

EMERGENCIES

CIRCLE OF TRAGEDY

REHABILITATION

33


FLOOD

EARTH QUAKE

CIVIL WAR

GENERAL INFORMATION THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE JANUARY 2011

HAITI 673 USD GDP

CLIMATE CHANGE

TROPICAL SEMIARID

SOCIAL CONFLICT

CLIMATE

TRAGEDY


NATURAL RELIGIONS CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY

DIFFERENT RELIGIONS AFRICAN CULTURE

ISLAMIC SUNNI ETHNIC MIX( MUSLIM/HINDU ETC)

CULTURE

MODERATED TROPICAL CORAL ISLANDS/ REEFS

INDIC OCEAN

SUBTROPICAL COASIAL PLAIN RIVER

COLD CLIMATE

WORKSHOP 5X5

ISLAMIC SUNNI

COPENHAGEN

COUNTRY

MALDIVES 4.951 USD GDP

PAKISTAN 1.050 USD GDP

SUDAN 1.705 USD GDP

DENMARK 56.147 USD GDP

EUROPEAN PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY


DENMARK KØBENHAVN

COMPARATIVE INFORMATION

SUDAN AL FASHER

TRAGEDY YEAR

CIVIL WAR 2003-2011

SOCIAL CONFLICT 2010- 2011

AFFECTED PEOPLE

178.500

1.500

36


PAKISTAN PUNJAB HAITI PORT-AU- PRINCE

MALDIVES MALÉ

EARTHQUAKE 2010

FLOODS

2010

CLIMATE CHANGES 2011-2061

3.000.000

20.000.000

350.000

37


UDA

L FASHER/ CIVIL WA


SUDAN - AL FASHER - CIVIL WAR

2.000.000 persons live permanently in refugee camps

PROBLEM The first and the second civil wars (1955-1972 respectively1983-2005) broke out as results of religious tensions between the northern part of the county, mainly supporting Islamism, and the southern part, dominated by Christianity. In 2005, the country was divided into two nations, Sudan and South Sudan. In 2003 a new conflict was on the rise in the eastern part of Sudan, Darfur. This time it was an interracial conflict regarding the limited natural resources. Among others, there was a conflict regarding water in an area suffering from increasing drought and deforestation. 400.000 persons died in the Darfur war. 2 million have been displaced to refugee camps and 4 million need humanitarian aid, yet only 1 million persons receive it. 178.000 live in Al Fasher city. 40


PROBLEM 1X5 Still, in 2011 there are refugee camps in Darfur, and the inhabitants continue to depend on international help. The most frequent problems are related to the use of wood as combustible, which - in turn - has resulted in deforestation, soil-erosion, shortage of water and a massive demand for construction materials. Due to deforestation, the traditional houses constructed in the form of circles, using branches and representing the property of a family or a clan is disappearing. OFFICIAL SOLUTION At present there is no official solution to the problem. The Government must now focus on facing the principal challenge of consolidating the recently founded country of South Sudan. 41


1w

1w 1m

redefine social boundaries to transform camps into cities 1w 1 week

1m 2m

1 month 1m 6m 2m

6 month 1y

6m m 2

3 years 3 6 1 ym

1 3 yy

3y

PROJECT STRATEGY Project interventions aim at redefining the boundaries of family properties and, hence, enhancing and consolidating the identity of groups reunited as clans or enlarged families. This will contribute to the reproduction of and return to traditional ways of life and housing in villages in Darfur. Sand can be used for constructing new buildings. This use of available resources would definitely contribute to saving money. In this case, a resistant and malleable sack or container would be used for structuring the sand. Another possibility would be to utilize stabilised soil blocks (SSB).

42


1 month 1 month

2 month 2 months

6 month 6 months

1 year 1 year

year 33 years

SOLUTION 1X5

1 week

1 week

43


OPENHAGEN/ SOCIAL CONFLIC

ENMAR


DENAMARK - COPENHAGEN - SOCIAL CONFLICT

In winter homeless can become a Humanitarian emergency

PROBLEM There are more than 5000 homeless in Denmark, 1500 of them live in Copenhagen. Organisations such as Udenfor or Sand state that there are several different groups of “homeless” and that everyone should not be lumped together, when defining the concept. The term “homeless”, generally and implicitly refers to a wide range of people who do not have a home. They belong to different subgroups of homeless. There are individuals that are voluntarily homeless because they have chosen to remain outside of the system, but also those who find themselves without a home due to various individual circumstances.

46


PROBLEM 2X5 In Denmark, a country in which â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in the wintertime and for several months - temperatures generally drop and stay below zero, the situation for the homeless becomes a clear case of humanitarian emergency.

OFFICIAL SOLUTION There are hostels for homeless in various parts of the city, but they only host persons who are registered in the social service-system, hence they exclude immigrants or other individuals that may not be able to present official personal documents. It should be mentioned here that Denmark would have the economic and social conditions to face the challenge of helping the homeless. 47


Social agreement: residents and homeless share space Wast of heating

Byens dagligstue

Wast of space

Byens sovevĂŚrelse/ dagligstue

Wast of heating Byens badevĂŚrelse

Byens senge og stuer

PROJECT STRATEGY Most homeless live in city centres and use urban facilities and premises to organise their lives. For instance, they use space available inside of train stations or close to the tracks. The project strategy involves mapping out the many residual spaces that exist in the city centre and using them as temporary sites that can easily be set up and removed. This structure for organising space could be temporary. Spaces could be removed after having been used during the winter, or they could be developed into something more utopian. In any case, it would be an interesting social project. One idea could be to create balconies in the solid facades or walls that divide offices or houses. The balconies would be covered by a roof, and offered to the homeless during wintertime, and 48


SOLUTION 2X5 to families or office workers in the summer, as an extension of already existing space. In this way homeless and families or office workers could benefit from the

49


AIT

ORT-AU-PRINCE/ EARTHQUAK


HAITI - PORT-AU-PRINCE - EARTHQUAKE

THE MOST SEVERE EARTHQUAKE IN MORE THAN 200 years

PROBLEM On 12 January, 2010 an earthquake of 7.3 degrees Richter struck Haiti. The epicentre was located 25 kilometres southeast of the capital Portau-Prince, the most densely populated area of the country. The earthquake affected 3 million persons (about 1/3 of the total population of the country) and was followed by a series of aftermaths. In Haiti, the incapability of burying the 200.000 victims of the earthquake quickly enough, was one of the reasons leading to a serious health crisis. One year after the earthquake, the crisis worsened, with an outbreak of cholera.

52


PROBLEM 3X5 OFFICIAL SOLUTION A political crisis had occurred in Haiti before the earthquake, which was later followed by a period of political stalemate. The troubleshooting approach after the earthquake was therefore developed and implemented in collaboration with international organisations. ONG PLAN is one of the organisations operating in Haiti. Their mission is to set up temporary schools in the event of a human tragedy. Interventions aim at, as quickly as possible, bringing children and their families back to a situation that is as close to â&#x20AC;&#x153;normalâ&#x20AC;? as possible. Action also helps protect children from the many dangers to which they are exposed, as they find themselves in a situation of chaos, and loss of civil norms which characterises all humanitarian tragedies. 53


Earthquakeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s debris as a new construction material

Before

PROJECT STRATEGY The project aims to use containers to transport help supplies for humanitarian emergencies. A system of metal covers serve as gabions for recycling the debris generated by the earthquake. This strategy contributes to solving several problems: 1. It keeps the city clean from debris and stones that impede movement on the streets. Experience shows that it is very difficult to find international donators that would contribute to this kind of cleaning activity.

54


SOLUTION 3X5

After

2. A school can be constructed quickly, using available materials; debris, stones, broken bricks and recycled containers which have been used for transporting help supplies. 3. The temporary school can easily be transformed into a permanent building. We can use the same material, gabions, to build a solid structure for the future construction.

55


AKISTA UNJAB/ FLOOD


PAKISTAN - PUNJAB - FLOODS

1/3 OF THE PAKISTAN TERRITORY was under water

PROBLEM Pakistan is a country of 170 million inhabitants. 2/3 of these live in rural areas, in the basins of the largest rivers that supply water for irrigating cultivations. The flood following the torrential rain from 27 July through 7 August 2010 therefore caused the most serious damage in 80 years, affecting 20 million persons and 1/3 of the total territory of the country. In some places the water level reached 5 metres.

58


PROBLEM 4X5 Official solution The authorities evacuated inhabitants and asked for international humanitarian help.

59


AN ARCHITECTURAL SURVIVAL KIT FOR RURAL HOUSES Latrine Water Food

Private financed

Collective financed or public supported

Chaos

Order

Chaos

PROJECT STRATEGY Intervention is concentrated to the most isolated rural areas. These areas are usually the last to receive aid. An individual floating system will be created for each rural house. This system would then protect properties as well as inhabitants. A particular system for leading and collecting rainwater through the roof of each house supplies each unit with drinking water.

60


Canvas

Pontoon

Wood base

Wood

Interwoven mats

Barrels

Hybrid

Ventilation Water collection

Safety chamber moves up

Traditional house

SOLUTION 4X5

Tarpaulin

Different placement for safety chamber

61


ALDIVE

ALÉ/ CLIMATE CHANG


MALDIVES - MALÉ - CLIMATE - CHANGE

2.3m. the highest maldives point, soon it’ll be under water

PROBLEM The position of the Maldives, only 1.5 meters above sea level in average, makes the country lowest located in relation to the sea level in the world. The Maldives is also the country with the world’s lowest peak. The highest peak that can be found in the Maldives is only 2.3 metres. This extraordinary geography of islands and coral reefs also makes up the world’s most vulnerable country, extremely sensible to climatic change. If the predictions of experts and politicians worldwide are correct, the entire country will disappear within some decades, as a consequence of the general elevation of the sea-level. Also, due to lack of available land, the Maldives is forced to import all construction materials. This renders any work carried out on the islands expensive and difficult. 64


PROBLEM 5X5 OFFICIAL SOLUTION The government of the Maldives is negotiating to buy land in India or in Sri Lanka, and plans to offer its 350.000 inhabitants to move there. Inhabitants, however, wish to remain in their country of origin. The president says â&#x20AC;&#x153;the solution is neither to sink, nor to swim, we have to look for other alternativesâ&#x20AC;?.

65


MOVING SOIL TO CREATE ARTIFICIAL HILLS The edge of the island Today

The edge of the urban island Today

Solutions

Solutions

PROJECT STRATEGY The project follows a simple strategy: to move soil so as to create high dikes or edges, such as hills that would protect inhabited areas. This solution would be applied on two different sites in the country. A On islands: where soil can be moved from the centre of the island to create a perimetral artificial hill that protects the whole island, and that â&#x20AC;&#x201C; at the same time - generates a lake in the centre of the island.

66


Year 2036

Year 2061

SOLUTION 5X5

Today

B The city of Male. Soil is moved from streets and parks. This intervention increases, hence, the surface that might run the risk of being struck by a flood within the city. To compensate for the high density that is a necessary condition for growth, the affected buildings are moved to the highest part of the more solid buildings. These will then host new inhabitants. Either one of the interventions described above would imply a transformation of the landscape.

67


WORKSHOP: SAO PAULO Escola da Cidade School of architecture APRIL 2011 WORKSHOP: MAPUTO Eduardo Mondlane UNIVERSITY School of architecture MAY 2011

TRAGEDY FLOODS

BRAZIL 12.422 USD GDP

SOCIAL CONFLICT

TROPICAL WET

CLIMATE GENERAL INFORMATION


COUNTRY

MOZAMBIQUE 465 USD GDP

DIFFERENT RELIGIONS AFRICAN CULTURE

CULTURE MAPUTO SAO PAULO

WORKSHOPS

Latin American Catholic

SUBTROPICAL COASTAL PLANE RIVER


OZAMBIQU

hirembue/ FLOO


MOZAMBIQUE - Chirembue - FLOOD

moderate floods return annually to the same areas

PROBLEM Mozambique is flooded severely every decade by the two large Rivers, Limpopo and Zambeze. Chirembue is an area situated close to the Zambeze River. Here the flooding is usually moderate, approximately 60-80 centimetres. The last flood affected 4 000 persons. Being an area of moderate flooding, this site permits for more specific and local measures than would be the case in areas affected by heavy floods.

74


PROBLEM OFFICIAL SOLUTION The government of Mozambique is preparing to move inhabitants from flooded areas to drier and more remote sites than the cultivated areas in the river basins. This strategy is, however, slightly changing, as a result from previous experiences. Organisations, such as UN Habitat Mozambique, also influence decisions as they suggest the possibility to provide the population with new homes, capable of resisting floods in areas in which the river level rises moderately.

75


NEW METAL SHEET ROOF FOR FLOATING RURAL HOMES

PROJECT STRATEGY The aim of this project was to create houses or parts of houses that would float and, hence, serve as “life-saving rafts”. The solution used in this project was to construct roofs that would be bigger than the traditional. The aim was to offer safer homes, but also to create new semi-external spaces, where inhabitants - peasant families - would spend a considerable part of their time. The metal roof produces heat, a problem that can be solved by separating the roof from the house and covering the empty space with a mosquito net. This permits the house to move upwards and downwards, since the net is flexible and adjusts to various heights. This solution, with the roof separated from the house also allows for constructing the walls in whatever material available as long as it is not structural; cañizo, cement blocks, wood, SSB (soil solid block), etc. 76


SOLUTION 1 Solution with flood

Solution before flood

77


UMBRELLAS FOR COLLECTING RAINWATER create PUBLIC SPACEs

PROJECT STRATEGY Flooding gives rise to a paradox - although there is an excess of water, drinking water is lacking. This situation, in turn, makes diseases spread rapidly and complicates the rescue and recovery of affected persons, since the lack of water reduces precious time that is needed for saving lives. Project action includes the construction of public space consisting of tanks containing water, and textile covers that collect water which can be used by refugees during floods. During periods of the year, when the level of the river returns normal, these spaces will turn into shady squares or markets.

78


79

SOLUTION 2


SOLUTION 3

concrete ROOF to RECEIVe REFUGEES for a longer time

PROJECT STRATEGY The project will use the experience from Mozambique, following the Portuguese tradition of using cement or concrete as construction materials. The roof is highly resistant, and will host hundreds of persons looking for shelter in case of floods. The roof can be placed in areas in which various rural communities gather. The shelter can cover a square or a market, host a school, a health centre or a public building. It can also be constructed as a roof, covering existing public buildings. The project is based on a design that puts together various prefabricated elements, such as walls, water tanks, ramps and a central water channel.

80


Solution 1

SOLUTION 4

textil COVERS give shade and COLLECT rain WATER

Solution 2

PROJECT STRATEGY The strategy is to construct high platforms that contain water tanks and independent covers for collecting water. The team working on this project, has come up with two suggestions: one is the use of inverted umbrellas and the other proposal builds on the idea of a large channel for rain water.

81


PROJECT STRATEGY This project suggests a strategy for constructing common areas or small semi-urban centres that would unite inhabitants in rural areas. The objective is to facilitate the rescuing of inhabitants. The project proposes that public buildings constructed by the government must be placed in dry or moderately flooded areas. Furthermore, buildings should be connected by 100 centimetres high footbridges. These footbridges will serve also during periods when areas are not flooded â&#x20AC;&#x201C; for framing public space and as artisan market-booths.

82

SOLUTION 5

PUBLIC FOOTBRIDGES to connect social buildings


SOLUTION 6

a ‘celeiro’ to PROTECT family BELONGINGS

PROJECT STRATEGY The project embraces various constructions that constitute components in a rural traditional household. The introduction of a new element, facilitating the protection and storing of family members’ personal belongings is the suggested solution. An additional intervention would involve putting the latrines on a higher level. These are two examples of minimum, low-cost interventions that would improve life in rural areas. This project focuses on creating a safe place, such as a “Celeiro”, a traditional tall construction in which it is possible to store and protect crops and grain. This project suggested that the “Celeiro” could serve for protecting not only foods and grain – but also personal belongings in general, as well as the family itself.

83


RAZI

ao Paulo/ SOCIAL CONFLICT


BRAZIL - SAO PAULO - SOCIAL CONFLICT

FAVELA OF 200.000 PEOPLE TOO CLOSE TO THE WATER RESERVOIR

PROBLEM The area CAVALO BRANCO is situated nearby Guaripiranga dam. This is one of the most important water reservoirs of the city of Sao Paulo. The consolidation of a degraded area like this; a fabella of more than 200.000 inhabitants, a very primitive and uncontrolled settlement, is always problematic, but in this case it increases by the environmental problems attached to the geographical situation nearby the water reservoir. The consequences are not showing only in a local scale but is affecting in a regional and metropolitan scale as well.

88


PROBLEM OFFICIAL SOLUTION Brazil government is working in a huge strategy to integrate fabellas to the formal city It means an enormous social work with several actors; community, government, private entrepreneur, etc. They are running several social programs like â&#x20AC;&#x153;Integrated Action Program for Combating Violenceâ&#x20AC;? or various environmental actions.

89


ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT, A DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITY

STA TRATAMENTO ESGOTO

AGUA water

ECONOMIA economy

RECURSOS resources

EDUCACAO education

ENERGIA economy

52 Km HOMEM man

TRANSPORTE economy

ALIMENTACAO food

MEIO AMBIENTE enviroment

CULTURA culture

TEMPO / EDUCACAO time/education

ESPACIO URBANO urban space + HABITACAO dwellings

CIUDADANIA

INFRAESTRUTURA + EQUIPAMENTOS

TRANSFORMACAO transformation

PROJECT STRATEGY Clearly the problem is the water in different scales: In the local level, black, dirty water is not controlled and is a contamination problem, not only for the inhabitants, but for the nearby water reservoir. In the regional and metropolitan scales obviously the contamination issue, but also it is an opportunity for this Fabella. We believe that the inhabitants of CAVALO BRANCO might involve in the transformation, both of the public space, now degraded, into a qualified space, and by removing constructions in areas directly affected or contaminating the water. Transforming dirty water into sustainable water by producing energy, separating black from rainwater and then use it in dwellings or gardens, creating green areas, etc. 90


SOLUTION We can divide into three main strategies/solutions: 1. Introducing water as a sustainable generator of public space, separating and cleaning black water from rain water. Collection of rain water for domestic use and for gardening 2. Removing dwellings from affected/polluted areas and moving them into areas of no risk 3. Creating new dwellings not by introducing new typologies or new ways of live, but by solving the problems the exiting typology has, as: lack of ventilation and light, thermal and acoustic isolation , integrating private and semiprivate free spaces, as patios, terraces and green space, etc..

91


EMERGENCY PROJECT = RESEARCH + EDUCATION + PROFESSIONAL PRACTISE by Jorge Lobos

5 projects for humanitarian emergencies in 3 continents In this second book about Humanitarian Emergencies, we wish to reaffirm the necessity of joining, in the architectural project, the three fields introduced in the opening section of this book: research, education and professional practise. Currently, each of these fields are generally used separately and without regard to the others.

We believe that this unification could be better explained by using practical examples and projects, rather than by resorting to a merely theoretical discourse. We have selected construction projects in the three countries in which our workshops have been carried out â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Mozambique, Denmark and Brazil. We have also added a project for refugees in Tohoku, Japan. The latter has been selected as one of the cases, since it is a tragedy which has had an enormous impact globally â&#x20AC;&#x201C; comparable only to the earthquake and the Tsunami in Indonesia in 2004 - and since the project builds on research carried out before the tragedy. The method applied in all of these projects combines, in a natural and creative way, research, education and professional practise, contributing to improve the general quality of life for many people.

In addition to the methodological approach, shared by all of the projects described here, there are other common aspects: the involvement of the community and the particular sensitivity in relation to cultural aspects of each site. The participation of the community in the projects can, as shown in our analysis, take on various expressions and forms. In the case of Mozambique, the community was in charge of the construction, and the project was, thus, adapted to local resources and capacities. In Sao Paulo, residents participated in functional decisions, as well as in decisions related to location, management and monitoring of the works. In Denmark, various social organisations, stimulated through the architectural workshop, organised themselves and collaborated to carry out a project. Various methods have, thus, been used to achieve the common objective: the democratisation of architectural processes.

These projects show that participation and sensibility to local resources and capacities are key aspects of democratisation. Projects are embedded in cultural and social processes, of which is is crucial that architects have a thorough understanding, so that they can contribute with their knowledge.

94


received authorisation from their husbands to carry out the work, and constructed most of the school themelves.

The Japanese project of paper and textile is characterized by silence and delicacy. It is most unlikely that such a project would take place in other countries, with different understandings and interpretations of concepts like community, respect and silence.

The Danish project for homeless for instance - without doors or windows - taking on the form of an open architectural labyrinth encouraging functional liberty, is feasible only in socially balanced societies, such as the Scandinavian countries.

There is, however, yet another element that is common to all of the projects presented here: the cultural substratum making up the fundaments of the architectural project is key for evaluating and understanding the outcome of a solution and its social acceptance. It would therefore be impossible to comprehend the quality of these projects without understanding their cultural context. The social narrative is, hence, just as important as the physical architectonical solution.

epilogue

The school in Maniquenique in Mozambique was constructed for (and by) the women of the community. As a matter of fact, women

3 SCHOOLS OF ARCHITECTURE IN 3 CONTINENTS The cases referred to above, remind us of the importance of including the themes of Humanitarian Emergencies or Architecture and Human Rights, in the ordinary academic programme in schools of architecture. It should be taught in the normal course of projects. The workshop 5x5 represents various realities from several and different countries. Denmark, Brasil and Mozambique have accumulated dissimilar experiences related to the approach of the project, as well as to the professional field of architecture. This diversity expressed in a number of construction projects and academic wokshops certainly emphasise the importance of increasing exchange among physically distant and culturally diverse countries, aiming at enriching the architectonic experience of scholars and professors. The example from Copenhagen, for instance, illustrates the importance given to the process of abstraction in design, as well as the emphasis put in producing many models and mainly aesthetic representations to find solutions to various problems. These values have influenced the entire Danish educational system during the last decades.

95


In Mozambique, it was surprising to witness the simple and concrete suggestions expressed by students as they approached the project. Furthermore, there was a natural willingness to search for the most economic and most practical solution. The Mozambican students were capable of arriving at solutions that would be logical, useful and sensible to the needs and capabilities of the community. They also concluded the project faster than students from all of the other participant universities.

The Escola da Cidade in Sao Paulo represents, indeed, a particular experience: Students and professors combine literary and practical studies by designing and constructing their own projects. This is a method of empirical learning, based on constructive practise. The approach enabled students to get actively involved in the highly complex reality of a city like Sao Paulo.

The practical method applied by the Escola da Cidade de Brasil represents an approach that is radically different from the aestheic abstraction of Copenhagen, as well as from the low-cost pragmatism of Maputo. However, all of these systems can be complementary, and they can easily strengthen each other. It would, indeed, be interesting to allow students who participated in the workshops to circulate among the universities, and, hence, to bring together individuals and architectural schools with various experiences and highly different cultural and historical backgrounds.

Despite considerable cultural differences among students participating in our workshops, many similarities are discernable. The natural motivation for using architecture as a solution to social problems is, perhaps the most important common tendency. Furthermore, all students learn and become aware of the fact that knowledge obtained from studies may have important practical repercussions on their communities and that architecture can be an effective means for improving life for thousands of people. Consequently, the fields of Humanitarian Emergencies and/or Architecture and Human Rights is a vast field of action in which architecture has participated little or occasionally. Students of architecture are, however, generally interested in getting involved in projects related to these themes. This provides us with an additional argument for taking on the challenge of reaching out, making architecture available and accessible to communities all over the world. It also encourages us to take on the challenge of expanding the professional field for future architects towards other perspectives and roles.

96


97


FLOODS

MOZAMBIQUE 465 USD GDP

DENMARK 56.147 USD GDP

EARTHQUAKE

BRAZIL 12.422 USD GDP

SOCIAL CONFLICT

SUBTROPICAL COASTAL PLANE RIVER

COLD CLIMATE

TROPICAL WET

CLIMATE

TRAGEDY

GENERAL INFORMATION

SOCIAL CONFLICT


BUDDHISM and religious syncretism

PROJECTS

CLIMA MODERATE HUMIT SUBTROPICAL

EUROPEAN PROTESTANT CHRISTIANITY

COUNTRY

JAPAN 33.688 USD GDP

Latin American Catholic DIFFERENT RELIGIONS AFRICAN CULTURE

CULTURE


MOZAMBIQUE - MANIQUENIQUE - FLOOD - 2007

A RURAL SCHOOL AS A SURVIVAL PLATFORM FOR FLOODS

Lokal community involvement

Research: UN HABITAT Arch. Eduardo Feuerhake. He produced several manuals, games and a movie entitled â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sometimes The Riverâ&#x20AC;?. The material is distributed by the government to the rural schools, so that children and communities can learn how to prepare for floods. Education: Universidad de Chile. Fernando Ferreiro obtained his degree in architecture by carrying out this project. Professional practise: UN Habitat, architects Eduardo Feuerhake and Fernando Ferreiro, and professor Carlos Trindade from the School of Architecture Eduardo Mondlane of Maputo carried out this project. This low-cost school, constructed by the community itself, besides serving as an institution for teaching and learning, is transformed into a survivalplatform in the event of flooding. The building is situated in an area which is generally subject to moderate flooding, and has therefore been constructed 1.4 metres above ground level. It can receive hundreds of persons in the aulas and on the roof. The project also includes a system for 100


storing rainwater in ponds, supplying the community with drinking water. Toilets have also been constructed above the ground, so that they will be protected from flooding. The strategy of the project is to increase the time span that inhabitants have at their disposal to remain safe. This improves the chance for survival and leaves more time for governmental emergency assistance to arrive to rescue victims. In architectural terms, this building could be described as â&#x20AC;&#x153;social minimalismâ&#x20AC;?. Each element and each part of it has a functional as well as a practical aim. The hollow bricks, for instance, permit the air to flow through the building. The red walls help helicopters locate the building, and save refugees who might have resorted to the school in the event of an emergency. The inclined roof efficiently collects rain water. The staircase leading to the entrance also serves as a space for gathering the pupils of the school. The only remaining place did not have a function, was the space of 1.4 metres under the floor. However, the smallest children transformed this space into a shady and exclusive playground. Architects did not plan for this solution initially. The small children made this space their very own, as they started to use it for their games. 101


MOZAMBIQUE - VILANKULO - CICLONS - 2007-2011

LOW COST TECHNOLOGY PROTECTS HOUSES FROM CYCLONES

Normal wind 1-20 km/t

Strong wind 20-70 km/t

Ciclone 120 km/t

Research: UN HABITAT and Arch. Eduardo Feuerhake have been elaborated various manuals with easy drawings on how to prepare for and protect oneself from cyclones. Education: Universidad of the Witwatersrand, South Africa: Engineer Silva Jacinto Magaia. Thesis ‘”Earth Domes in Low-Cost Housing” Professional practise: UN HABITAT, architect Fernando Ferreiro. The project aims at modifying the system of construction, and make buildings more resistant to cyclones. The architects used research made by engineer Silva Magaia, who obtained his degree in engineering with a thesis on a machine that would be able to construct a low-cost brick dome made of soil. This particular method was then combined with roofs made by low-cost, corrugated cement, a system developed by Fernando Ferreiro 102


in UN HABITAT. These were constructed in situ with a mold in the ground. Both of these projects aim at constructing a heavier roof, more resistant to the strong winds in the event of cyclones. The roof is one of the most vulnerable and delicate elements in the event of a cyclon, and may suffer serious damages. Another important element to consider is the form of the house. Traditional constructions in rural areas are usually built in cane and have a framework of wood. Right now there is a tendency to modify building techniques and materials. As a matter of fact, erosion and deforestation is making it increasingly difficulty to find wood in this part of Mozambique. Cement and bricks (made by pressed soil) are currently used to replace timber at the new buildings. The tradition of using cement derives from the Portuguese colonial period in Mozambique. It has been reintroduced and is widely practised. 103


DENMARK - COPENHAGEN - SOCIAL CONFLICT - 2010-2011

CONTAINERS COVER GAPS IN THE DANISH WELFARESTATE Enegy tower

Flowers Herbs Workspace Storage

Dogs Social service

Kitchen

Research: E Architecture & Human Rights: Jorge Lobos, Erik Juul, Jorgen Taxholm Education: Workshop 5x5, Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen Professional practise: Architect Erik Juul, E Architecture & Human Rights This small project, carried out in a limited space of only 50 m2, was developed in close collaboration with social workers, and based on these officersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; great knowledge about the local communities. Social participation: Various workshops and meetings were organised, involving representatives from various social institutions. The aim was to figure out what kind of construction would be needed. It is important to remember here, that the Danish welfarestate guarantees assistance to all its citizens â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including individuals who may have decided voluntarily to live as homeless. 104


The construction is completely open, and no particular administration or authority is in charge of it. Also, no formal regulations have been established for the use of the space. This has, most likely, contributed to the positive result that homeless accepted and appropriated of the space. The project uses containers that are easy to transport, that can be dismantled in 1 day and reassembled in just two days. In Denmark, regulations for constructing architectonic works are strict. This made a low-cost project for homeless completely impossible. To avoid the problem, and to make the low-cost project feasible, it was not presented as an architectonic work. Instead it was delivered as a piece of art, called “THIS IS NOT A HOME”. The construction was placed in the garden of the museum “Den Frie”, that accepted the challenge of constructing this “piece of art”. The title of the project is actually paraphrasing a well-known sentence by Marcel Duchamp in New York 1917: “THIS IS NOT A TOILET”. The authors of the project have used the same expression, to explain that “THIS IS NOT A HOME”. We could also extend the concept to say: “THIS IS NOT ARCHITECTURE”. 105


BRAZIL - SAO PAULO- SOCIAL CONFLICT - 2001-2010

COMUNITY AND ARCHITECTS WORK TO MITIGATE URBAN VIOLENCE

Research: Escuola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Education: School of Cidade, Sao Paulo Professional practise: Scuola da Cidade, Department of application: architects Paulo Brazil and Celso Pazzanese and geographer José Guilherme Schutzer, a huge number of professors, students and collaborators In Sao Paulo, 2.000.000 persons live in extremely poor urban neighbourhoods - the “Favelas”. The University “Escuola da Cidade” has developed its own strategy for education, and projects are carried out in areas or sectors of communities that are in great need of urban help. In this case, the project involves a collaboration with the governmental project “Integrated Action Program for Combating Violence” The project used pipes for a sewer- and water system that was constructed by appointment of the government for the entire area. Construction 106


work was carried out mainly in ravines, open or abandoned spaces, so that the densely populated part of the area would not be affected by the intervention. The university suggested that economic resources would be used for establishing the sewer- and water system, but also for cleaning up the degraded spaces and for building a park that would serve to integrate people from different neighbourhoods or favelas. The project covers 7.8 km (a total surface of 224.000 m2). From one of the neighbourhoods in the outskirts of the area, “Sapopemba”, at “Largo Sao Mateo” Sapopemba was the pilot experience of implementation. The project was developed 2001-2005, and construction was concluded in 2010. Community participation was crucial for the success of the work. Each neighbourhood suggested various solutions that were to be assembled in the Integration Park. The architects acted as intermediaries, and tried to bring the social (community) and physical (buildings and construction activities) aspects together. The Sao Paulo experience, as well as a similar work in Medellín, Colombia are excellent examples of situations in which architecture has been used successfully as a powerful tool to mitigate in cases of serious urban violence in Latin American cities. 107


JAPAN - Fukushima - EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI - 2011

PAPER AND TEXTIL GIVE HOME SPACE FOR REFUGEES

Research: Shigeru Ban Laboratory Education: Keiko University, Kyushu industry and Kyushu University. Professional practise: Shigeru Ban architects After the earthquakes in Niigta, 2004 and in Fukoka, 2005, Shigeru Ban Laboratory in collaboration with various Japanese universities developed the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Paper Houseâ&#x20AC;? system. The project was developed with the objective of providing rapid assistance to victims in the event of a humanitarian tragedy, and aimed at using existing buildings, such as gymnasiums or schools. This paper system was used by Shigeru Ban for the earthquake in Fukushima in 2011. The reception of refugees is managed in two phases: In the first phase all victims are received. The solution is to provide large paper sheets and put them on the floor to define and divide the space 108


among families and to give victims the opportunity to sleep during the first nights after the crisis. The second phase is entered when some of the victims start to abandon the refugee camp leaving some empty space inside of the buildings. At this point, the architects used the same kind of paper sheets of the first phase to create walls that divided the space into rooms. This time the paper sheets mainly serve to offer a greater privacy for families who are hosted temporarily in refugee centres, hoping to return to a normal life. The system of paper and cardboard is simple and easy to assemble rapidly, and has been designed so that anyone can use it. One important detail is the junction between the cardboard tubes. A thorough study was carried out to find the ultimate solution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a piece of rigid wood which prevents the tubes from moving. This simple low-cost project is the product of joint research among various institutions. It shows how architecture can improve the quality of life for individuals and families in the event of a crisis, simply through supplying better spaces for living a life that comes as close to a â&#x20AC;&#x153;normalâ&#x20AC;? everyday life as possible. 109


(1) Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate f cluding food, clothing, housing and medical care and neces unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or o

(2) Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All ch

article 25 Universal Declaration of


for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, inssary social services, and the right to security in the event of other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control

hildren, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection

f Human Rights, Paris, U.N. 1948


BIBLIOGRAPHY AMPHOUX, Pascal (2001) Convocatoria Europan VI. Ed. Europan EU Suiza BENÉVOLO, Leonardo (2002) Historia de la arquitectura moderna. Ed. Gustavo Gili, 2° edición Barcelona España BODENMANN, Ritter Clara (1972) Josephs Beuys. Cada hombre, un artista. Ed. Antonio Machado, Conversaciones en Documenta 5, Kassel, Germany BUENO, Gustavo (1996) El mito de la cultura. Ensayo de una filosofía materialista de la cultura. Ed. Prensa Ibérica, Barcelona España CABANNE, Pierre (1972) Conversaciones con Marcel Ducham., Ed. Anagrama Barcelona España CASSIRER, Ernst (1964) Philosophie der symbolischen Formen. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. Trad. Español Filosofía de las formas simbólicas. FCE. México

LOBOS, Jorge (2006) Guía de arquitectura de Chiloé Ed. Junta de Andalucía, 405 pag. Sevilla, España LOBOS, Jorge y GOMEZ-GUILLAMON, Maria (2010) Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies 01 Ed. Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen Denmark MORANDE, Pedro (1984) Cultura y Modernización en América Latina. Ensayo sociológico acerca de la crisis del desarrollismo y su superación. Cuadernos del Instituto de Sociología, Ed. PUC de Chile (1987) Reeditado por Encuentro Ediciones, Madrid MUNTAGNOLA, Thornberg Joseph (2000) Topogénesis, Fundamentos de una nueva arquitectura, Collección Arquitext 11. Ed. UPC Barcelona, España MUNTAÑOLA, Thornberg Joseph (2006) Mind, Land and Territory. Ed. Exlibris, Barcelona, España

CHARLES, Daniel (1981) Para os pájaros. Conversaciones con John Cage. Ed. Monteávila Caracas, Venezuela

PARIS, Carlos (1994) El animal cultural. Biología y cultura en la realidad humana. Ed. Crítica, Barcelona España

CHARLESWORTH, Esther (2006) Architects Without Frontiers, Ed. Architectural Press London UK

PEREZ TAPIAS, José Antonio (1995) Filosofía y crítica de la cultura. Ed. Trotta, Madrid España

CURTIS, William (2006) La Arquitectura Moderna desde 1900. Ed. Phaidon Press Llimited, 3ª edición en español, London UK

ROJAS, Edward (1996) El reciclaje insular En colección Somosur. Ed. Escala Bogotá Colombia

ESTEFANIA, Joaquín (2002) Hijo, Que es la Globalización? Ed. Aguilar Madrid España

SAN MARTIN SALA, Javier (1999) Teoría de la cultura, Ed. Síntesis S.A. Madrid España

FERNÁNDEZ COX, Cristian (1991) Hacia una Modernidad Apropiada, en libro Nueva Arquitectura en América Latina. Ed. G. Gili, Barcelona España

SAN MARTIN SALA, Javier (1998) Fenomenología y cultura en Ortega. Ensayos de interpretación. Ed. Tecnos, Madrid España

FRAMPTON, Kenneth (1983) Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance, in The Anti-Aesthetic. Essays on Postmodern Culture. Ed. by Hal Foster, Bay Press, Port Townsen

SAVATER, Fernando (1995) Diccionario filosófico Ed. Planeta. Barcelona España

FREUD, Sigmund (1927) El porvenir de una ilusión. Obras Completas, vol. II, pag 73-99. Trad. De L. López-Ballesteros. Ed. Biblioteca Nueva, Madrid España GEERTZ, Clifford (1987) La interpretación de las culturas. Ed. Gedisa, 387pp, Mexico KANT, Immanuel (1958) Crítica del juicio, Traducción por Manuel G. Morente Ed. Librería General Victoriano Suárez Madrid España KANT, Immanuel (1994) Ideas para una historia universal en clave cosmopolita y otros escritos sobre filosofía de la historia. Estudio preliminar de R. Rodriguez Aramayo. Trad. De C. Roldán Panadero y R. Rodriguez Aramayo. Ed. Tecnos Madrid España KAHN, J.S. (1975): El concepto de cultura textos fundamentales. Compilados y prologados por J.S.S kahn. Ed. Anagrama. Barcelona España KOSTELANETZ, Richard (1988) Conversing with Cage. Ed. Limelight editions, New York, USA

112

SAVATER, Fernando (1999) “Universalismo e identidades / civilizacion versus cultura” Conferencia en ETSAM 22/02/1999 SAVATER, Fernando (2001) Sobrevivir. Ed. Ariel S.A. 3° edición Barcelona España SIMMEL, Georg (1950) The Metropolis and Mental Life. Ed. Free Press New York USA SOMMER, Robert (1969) Personal space: the behavioral basis of design. Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N. J: Prentice-Hall USA TAIBO, Carlos (2002) Cien Preguntas Sobre el Nuevo Desorden Ed. Suma de letras, madrid España THAMES&HUDSON (2006) Design Like You Give a Damn, Architectural Responses to Humanitarian Crises. Ed. Architecture for Humanity London UK UN (1948) Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 10 December 1948 Paris France UNHCR (2007) Handbook for Emergencies Ed. UNHCR Geneve Switzerland


UNHABITAT (2011) Shelter and Housing: UNHABITAT In disaster and conflict contexts Ed. UNHABITAT Geneve Switzerland UNHABITAT (2010) Shelter Project 2009 Ed. UNHABITAT Geneve Switzerland UNHABITAT (2009) Shelter Project 2008 Ed. UNHABITAT Geneve Switzerland YOUNÉS, Chris (2001) Convocatoria Europan VI, Ed. Europan EU France WISNER Ben, BLAIKIE Piers, CANNON Terry and DAVIS Ian (2005) At Risk Ed. Routledge 2nd edition London UK WHITE, Leslie A. (1964) La ciencia de la cultura. Ed. Paidós, Buenos Aires Argentina HOMEPAGES BAN, Shigeru http://www.shigerubanarchitects.com/ Japan BOFF, Leonardo (2001) “Estamos en la edad de piedra de la globalización” Ed. El País, Madrid, 6 de julio Juan Bedoya - El País <http://www.elpais.es> http://www.morfonet.cl/secciones/mundo/007.htm FEUERHAKE, Eduardo (2007) http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=nAJpn1G9wE4

CREDITS

UN HABITAT (2011) State of the world’s cities 2010/2011 Ed. Earthscan London & Washington UK & USA

GARCIA, Sierra Pelayo, Diccionario filosófico, Biblioteca Filosofía en español, http://filosofia.org/filomat LOBOS, Jorge (2004) Arquitectura Cultural. En Revista de Urbanismo Nº11 Santiago de Chile. Ed. FAU Universidad de Chile I.S.S.N. 0717-5051 http://revistaurbanismo.uchile.cl/CDA/urb_complex/0,1311,SCID%253D1377 6%2526ISID%253D496%2526IDG%253D2%2526ACT%253D0%2526PR T%253D13008,00.html SINCLAIR, Cameron http://architectureforhumanity.org/ UK TAYLOR, Sir Edward B. (1871) Primitive Culture Antropología cultural http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antropolog%C3%ADa_cultural

113


PICTURE COPYRIGHTS PAGES 4 / 5

PAGES 48/49 http://clikhear.palmbeachpost.com/2010/worldna tion/natural-disaster/the-haiti-earthquake/

Jorgen Eskemose

PAGES 52

PAGES 22

http://levehaiti.org/Refugee_Camps.html

PAGES 53

PAGES 29

PAGES 34/35/70/71/98/99

www.worldmapper.org copyright 2006 SASI GROUP

PAGES 36/37

Google map

PAGES 38/39

http://images.businessweek.com/ss/09/04/0410_ world_water_crisis/20.htmhttp://images.businesswee k.com/ss/09/04/0410_world_water_crisis/20.htm

PAGES 40

114

http://nyhederne.tv2.dk/article.php/id-35531633:df- afviser-sf-om-hjeml%C3%B8se.html

http://kollaps.dk/?p=272 http://ibyen.dk/gadeplan/ECE1135557/koebenhav nere-inviterer

http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/2465453/ posts http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8460574.stm http://ncbm.org/haiti-relief/ http://bizzom.com/6-1-aftershock-touches-down-in haiti/

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen

http://paperforgood.wordpress.com/2010/08/23/ pakistan-flood-relief/

PAGES 58

PAGES 47

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts

http://rwrant.co.za/2010/08/02/copenhagen-skyline/ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:K%C3%B8b enhavns_Hovedbaneg%C3%A5rd_02.jpg

http://newseumfutureofnews.com/2010/01/15/in haiti-television-trumps-other-media-coverage/haiti earthquake/

PAGES 56/57

PAGES 46

http://formaementis.wordpress.com/2008/08/03/un- renews-darfur-peacekeeping http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/ topten/2009/photos.cfm

PAGES 44/45

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen

PAGES 54/55

PAGES 42/43

http://www.telespazio.com/calendar10/darfur.htmlsi rocco.blogsome.com/category/us-politics/dar furstoves.lbl.gov/

PAGES 41

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen

PAGES 25

PAGES 50/51

Jorge Lobos

PAGES 11/14/16

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/picture/2010/aug /15/pakistan-natural-disasters http://publicintelligence.net/pakistan-flood-photos/

PAGES 59

http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2010/08/27/29 94949.htm http://salsa.democracyinaction.org/o/1439/p/dia/ac tion/public/?action_KEY=4596

PAGES 60/61

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen

PAGES 62/63

Todos los derechos reservados por ahmed (John)

PAGES 64

Todos los derechos reservados por Lauren Pehoski Todos los derechos reservados por m o d e

PAGES 65

Todos los derechos reservados por thovie333 Algunos derechos reservados por Presidency Maldives

PAGES 66/67/68/69

Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts of Copenhagen

PAGES 72/73

Mozambique Fernando Ferreiro


Todos los derechos reservados por billig Todos los derechos reservados por africankelli United States Government Work

PAGES 75

Todos los derechos reservados por DomoJ Algunos derechos reservados por Peter Casier

PAGES 76-85

Eduardo Mondlane University of Maputo

PAGES 86/87

Brazil Maria Gomez Guillamon

PAGES 88

http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=29 7566&page=2 Jorgen Eskemose

PAGES 89

http://www.publico.es/internacional/309504/la-espe culacion-expulsa-a-los-brasilenos-de-sus-favelas maria Gomez-Guillamon

PAGES 90-93

CREDITS

PAGES 74

Escuola da Cidade, Sao Paulo

PAGES 100/101

UN HABITAT, Fernando Ferreiro, Eduardo Feuerhake and Rune Asholt

PAGES 102/103

UN HABITAT, Fernando Ferreiro and Rune Asholt

PAGES 104/105

Jorge Lobos, Erik Juul and Rune Asholt

PAGES 106/107

Escuola da Cidade, Sao Paulo and Paulo Brazil

PAGES 108/109

http://www.experimenta.es/noticias/industrial/shigeru ban-japon-refugio-terremoto-tsunami-artuiectura-2827 Shigeru Ban laboratory

115


participants COURSE CONCEPT Jorge Lobos, Visiting teacher KADK Institute 3 DHS Jorgen Eskemose Andersen KADK Institute 3 DHS Maria Gomez-Guillam贸n KADK Department 7 & International department ORGANIZATION, TEACHING AND RESEARCH KARCH INSTITUTE 3 Peder Duelund Mortensen J酶rgen Eskemose Andersen Rune Asholt Jorge Lobos (Visiting teacher) KADK DEPARTMENTS Jakob Knudsen Maria Gomez-Guillam贸n

KADK Department 2 KADK Department 7

ADMINISTRATION Trine Baek Birgitte Weien

INSTITUTIONS Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture of Copenhagen Scuola di architettura di Alghero, Sardegna, Italy LECTURERS Gert Luediking Erik Juul Jakob Knudsen Anders Brix

116

Former director U.N.Habitat Ginebra E Architecture. DHS DK KADK Department 2 KADK Dep artment 11


WORKSHOP TEACHERS Peder Duelund Mortensen Jakob Knudsen Jorge Lobos Maria Gomez-Guillamón Jørgen Eskemose Andersen Rune Asholt Erik Juul

KADK Head institute 3 KADK Department 2 KADK institute 3 DHS, visiting teacher KADK Department 7 KADK institute 3 DHS, KADK institute 3 DHS, E Architecture.dk

Sudan Karoline Jacobsen Sørum Saga Bernadina Andersson Shota Tsikoliya

KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2 Erasmus - Czech Republic

Copenhagen Heidi Rasmussen Vilhelmsen Christina Kongsmark Flanding

KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2

Haiti Marie Hallandvik Hortemo Anders Gade Jørgensen Hedvig Elisabet Skjerdingstad

KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2

Pakistan Arendse Emilie Agger Isabella Caterina Kleivan Martin Frederik Cederval Kragh

KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2

Maldives Emilie Harpøth Zilstorff Viktor Harald Nilsson Christoffer Brøchmann Christensen

KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2 KADK Department 2

WORKSHOP STUDENTS

CREDITS

WORKSHOP 5x5 DENMARK.

117


WORKSHOP MOZAMBIQUE. WORKSHOP TEACHERS Carlos Trindade Jorge Lobos Eduardo Feuerhake Fernando Ferreiro Rune Asholt

University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo KADK Institute 3 DHS, Visiting teacher Copenhagen U.N.HABITAT Mozambique U.N. HABITAT Mozambique KADK institute 3 DHS, Copenhagen

Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University

Group 2 Pedro Coimbra Mónica Loureiro João Gaspar Solange Chin Ku Chon Choo

Eduardo Mondlane University Erasmus from Portugal Erasmus from Portugal Eduardo Mondlane University

Group 3 Noé Antonio Nhico Tsambe Gércio Chaibande Lasson Mogn Seiuane

Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University

Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University

Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University

WORKSHOP STUDENTS Group 1 Jessica Lage Nelma Daisy Abdulahé Amino Mussagy Lineia Coldeira

Group 4 Edson Pereira Abdul Afande Dahir-Sólok Alkatiri Kuaong-Lee Group 5 Yara Chiadiamassamba Abel Mabunda Jorge Arone Júnior Tecuenné Guite 118


Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University Eduardo Mondlane University

WORKSHOP Brasil WORKSHOP TEACHERS Maria G贸mez. Guillam贸n Paulo Brazil Helene Afanasieff

KADK department 7, Copenhagen Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo

WORKSHOP STUDENTS Andressa Capriglione Walter Rigueti Aline Missau Fernanda Resstom Lena Imperio Hamburger Thais Santos Paulo Salvetti Paloma Mecozzi Mariana Ribeiro Diego Borell Leonardo Rosa Pace Armando Palomares

Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escola da Cidade, Sao Paulo Escuela de arquitectura de La Plata, Argentina Escuela de Arquitectura de Granada, Spain

CREDITS

Group 6 Carlos Franque Nurdino Manjate Ros谩rio Agostinho Lopes Jugana

119



Architecture for Humanitarian Emergencies