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PERMIT NO. 30 JULIAN, CA

ESTABLISHED

An Independent Weekly Newspaper Serving the Backcountry Communities of Julian, Cuyamaca, Santa Ysabel, Shelter Valley, Mt. Laguna, Ranchita, Canebreak, Sunshine Summit, Warner Springs and Wynola.

Julian News

PO Box 639 Julian, CA 92036

1985

Change Service requested

DATED MATERIAL

The Newspaper of Record.

Wednesday

For the Community, by the Community.

New Covid-19 Case Confirmed, Testing Available Friday

As of Wednesday, June 24 the County Health Department confirmed a third Covid-19 positive case in the 92036 zip code. As a service to the community CALFire and the County will once again be conducting driveup testing, by appontment at the Library this Friday - July 3rd from 9am until 2pm. You will need to call 2-1-1 and make an appointment to get the test.

Annual Legion BBQ Saturday

The American Legion’s Annual 4th of July pit BBQ happens Saturday, even without the prade. A pit is dug, a fire is started with a bunch of rocks lining the bottom. This year your options will be a choice of Pit Barbecued Pulled Pork or Smoked Chicken Quarter, served with BBQ sauce, ranch beans, corn on the cob, coleslaw, and a Hawaiian sweet roll. Twelve bucks for adults and $10 for the kids, are you kidding me? There will be an outdoor bar selling beer, libations and soft drinks. This is about as Americana in a small town as it gets. Spread the word to your friends from down-the hill, they’re never disappointed by the Pit BBQ.

Pressure Washing Of Main Street The Julian Chamber of Commerce has contracted to have all the sidewalks of Main Street from Washington to ‘C’ Streets cleaned and prepared for the day when all health restrictions are gone. And to present the best look for downtown merchants. Original planned to spruce up town ahead of the parade, it was approved with the idea that a means of reinforcing peoples perceptions of the town as a safe place in these strange times. The Schedule started on Monday night the 29th of June and will continue through the 2nd of July. The project will take place in the late night / early morning hours and it is the Chambers hope that it will not disturb too many residents while being accomplished. A map of the project is posted at the bulletin board adjacent to Town Hall and the Post Office.

July 1, 2020

Julian, CA.

Volume 35 — Issue 48 ISSN 1937-8416

www.JulianNews.com

The Declaration of Independence: A History Nations come into being in many ways. Military rebellion, civil strife, acts of heroism, acts of treachery, a thousand greater and lesser clashes between defenders of the old order and supporters of the new--all these occurrences and more have marked the emergences of new nations, large and small. The birth of our own nation included them all. That birth was unique, not only in the immensity of its later impact on the course of world history and the growth of democracy, but also because so many of the threads in our national history run back through time to come together in one place, in one time, and in one document: the Declaration of Independence. Moving Toward Independence The clearest call for independence up to the summer of 1776 came in Philadelphia on June 7. On that date in session in the Pennsylvania State House (later Independence Hall), the Continental Congress heard Richard Henry Lee of Virginia read his resolution beginning: "Resolved: That these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved." The Lee Resolution was an expression of what was already beginning to happen throughout the colonies. When the Second Continental Congress, which was essentially the government of the United States from 1775 to 1788, first met in May 1775, King George III had not replied to the petition for redress of grievances that he had been sent by the First Continental Congress. The Congress gradually took on the responsibilities of a national government. In June 1775 the Congress established the Continental Army as well as a continental currency. By the end of July of that year, it created a post office for the "United Colonies." In August 1775 a royal proclamation declared that the King's American subjects were "engaged in open and avowed rebellion." Later that year, Parliament passed the American Prohibitory Act, which made all American vessels and cargoes forfeit to the Crown. And in May 1776 the Congress learned that the King had negotiated treaties with German states to hire mercenaries to fight in America. The weight of these actions combined to convince many Americans that the mother country was treating the colonies as a foreign entity. One by one, the Continental Congress continued to cut the colonies' ties to Britain. The Privateering Resolution, passed in March 1776, allowed the colonists "to fit out armed vessels to cruize [sic] on the enemies of these United Colonies." On April 6, 1776, American ports were opened to commerce with other nations, an action that severed the economic ties fostered by the Navigation Acts. A "Resolution for the Formation of Local Governments" was passed on May 10, 1776. At the same time, more of the colonists themselves were becoming convinced of the inevitability of independence. Thomas Paine's Common Sense, published in January 1776, was sold by the thousands. By the middle of May 1776, eight colonies had decided that they would support independence. On May 15, 1776, the Virginia Convention passed a resolution that "the delegates appointed to represent this colony in General Congress be instructed to propose to that respectable body to declare the United Colonies free and independent states." It was in keeping with these instructions that Richard

Henry Lee, on June 7, 1776, presented his resolution. There were still some delegates, however, including those bound by earlier instructions, who wished to pursue the path of reconciliation with Britain. On June 11 consideration of the Lee Resolution was postponed by a vote of seven colonies to five, with New York abstaining. Congress then recessed for 3 weeks. The tone of the debate indicated that at the end of that time the Lee Resolution would be adopted. Before Congress recessed, therefore, a Committee of Five was appointed to draft a statement presenting to the world the colonies' case for independence. The Committee of Five The committee consisted of two New England men, John

from the U.S. National Archive (America's Founding Documents)

been officially adopted. The Declaration of Independence is made up of five distinct parts: the introduction; the preamble; the body, which can be divided into two sections; and a conclusion. The introduction states that this document will "declare" the "causes" that have made it necessary for the American colonies to leave the British Empire. Having stated in the introduction that independence is unavoidable, even necessary, the preamble sets out principles that were already recognized to be "self-evident" by most 18thcentury Englishmen, closing with the statement that "a long train of abuses and usurpations . . . evinces a design to reduce [a people] under absolute

John Dunlap printed on his busy night of July 4. There are 26 copies known to exist of what is commonly referred to as "the Dunlap broadside," 21 owned by American institutions, 2 by British institutions, and 3 by private owners. (See Appendix A.) The Engrossed Declaration On July 9 the action of Congress was officially approved by the New York Convention. All 13 colonies had now signified their approval. On July 19, therefore, Congress was able to order that the Declaration be "fairly engrossed on parchment, with the title and stile [sic] of 'The unanimous declaration of the thirteen United States of America,' and that the same, when engrossed, be signed by every member of Congress." Engrossing is the process of

Signing the Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull Adams of Massachusetts and Roger Sherman of Connecticut; two men from the Middle Colonies, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania and Robert R. Livingston of New York; and one southerner, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia. In 1823 Jefferson wrote that the other members of the committee "unanimously pressed on myself alone to undertake the draught [sic]. I consented; I drew it; but before I reported it to the committee I communicated it separately to Dr. Franklin and Mr. Adams requesting their corrections. . . I then wrote a fair copy, reported it to the committee, and from them, unaltered to the Congress." (If Jefferson did make a "fair copy," incorporating the changes made by Franklin and Adams, it has not been preserved. It may have been the copy that was amended by the Congress and used for printing, but in any case, it has not survived. Jefferson's rough draft, however, with changes made by Franklin and Adams, as well as Jefferson's own notes of changes by the Congress, is housed at the Library of Congress.) Jefferson's account reflects three stages in the life of the Declaration: the document originally written by Jefferson; the changes to that document made by Franklin and Adams, resulting in the version that was submitted by the Committee of Five to the Congress; and the version that was eventually adopted. On July 1, 1776, Congress reconvened. The following day, the Lee Resolution for independence was adopted by 12 of the 13 colonies, New York not voting. Immediately afterward, the Congress began to consider the Declaration. Adams and Franklin had made only a few changes before the committee submitted the document. The discussion in Congress resulted in some alterations and deletions, but the basic document remained Jefferson's. The process of revision continued through all of July 3 and into the late morning of July 4. The Declaration had

Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security." The first section of the body of the Declaration gives evidence of the "long train of abuses and usurpations" heaped upon the colonists by King George III. The second section of the body states that the colonists had appealed in vain to their "British brethren" for a redress of their grievances. Having stated the conditions that made independence necessary and having shown that those conditions existed in British North America, the Declaration concludes that "these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved." Although Congress had adopted the Declaration submitted by the Committee of Five, the committee's task was not yet completed. Congress had also directed that the committee supervise the printing of the adopted document. The first printed copies of the Declaration of Independence were turned out from the shop of John Dunlap, official printer to the Congress. After the Declaration had been adopted, the committee took to Dunlap the manuscript document, possibly Jefferson's "fair copy" of his rough draft. On the morning of July 5, copies were dispatched by members of Congress to various assemblies, conventions, and committees of safety as well as to the commanders of Continental troops. Also on July 5, a copy of the printed version of the approved Declaration was inserted into the "rough journal" of the Continental Congress for July 4. The text was followed by the words "Signed by Order and in Behalf of the Congress, John Hancock, President. Attest. Charles Thomson, Secretary." It is not known how many copies

preparing an official document in a large, clear hand. Timothy Matlack was probably the engrosser of the Declaration. He was a Pennsylvanian who had assisted the Secretary of the Congress, Charles Thomson, in his duties for over a year and who had written out George Washington's commission as commanding general of the ContinentalArmy. Matlack set to work with pen, ink, parchment, and practiced hand, and finally, on August 2, the journal of the Continental Congress records that "The declaration of independence being engrossed and compared at the table was signed." One of the most widely held misconceptions about the Declaration is that it was signed on July 4, 1776, by all the delegates in attendance. John Hancock, the President of the Congress, was the first to sign the sheet of parchment measuring 24¼ by 29¾ inches. He used a bold signature centered below the text. In accordance with prevailing custom, the other delegates began to sign at the right below the text, their signatures arranged according to the geographic location of the states they represented. New Hampshire, the northernmost state, began the list, and Georgia, the southernmost, ended it. Eventually 56 delegates signed, although all were not present on August 2. Among the later signers were Elbridge Gerry, Oliver Wolcott, Lewis Morris, Thomas McKean, and Matthew Thornton, who found that he had no room to sign with the other New Hampshire delegates. A few delegates who voted for adoption of the Declaration on July 4 were never to sign in spite of the July 19 order of Congress that the engrossed document "be signed by every member of Congress." Nonsigners included John Dickinson, who clung to the idea of reconciliation with Britain, and Robert R. Livingston, one of the Committee of Five, who thought the Declaration was premature.

The Chamber / Town Hall is Offering to Exhibit the Items Local’s Intended for Fair. Email: chamber@julianca.com to register

Parchment and Ink Over the next 200 years, the nation whose birth was announced with a Declaration "fairly engrossed on parchment" was to show immense growth in area, population, economic power, and social complexity and a lasting commitment to a testing and strengthening of its democracy. But what of the parchment itself? How was it to fare over the course of two centuries? In the chronicle of the Declaration as a physical object, three themes necessarily entwine themselves: the relationship between the physical aging of the parchment and the steps taken to preserve it from deterioration; the relationship between the parchment and the copies that were made from it; and finally, the often dramatic story of the travels of the parchment during wartime and to its various homes. Chronologically, it is helpful to divide the history of the Declaration after its signing into five main periods, some more distinct than others. The first period consists of the early travels of the parchment and lasts until 1814. The second period relates to the long sojourn of the Declaration in Washington, DC, from 1814 until its brief return to Philadelphia for the 1876 Centennial. The third period covers the years 1877-1921, a period marked by increasing concern for the deterioration of the document and the need for a fitting and permanent Washington home. Except for an interlude during World War II, the fourth and fifth periods cover the time the Declaration rested in the Library of Congress from 1921 to 1952 and in the National Archives from 1952 to the present. Early Travels, 1776-1814 Once the Declaration was signed, the document probably accompanied the Continental Congress as that body traveled during the uncertain months and years of the Revolution. Initially, like other parchment documents of the time, the Declaration was probably stored in a rolled format. Each time the document was used, it would have been unrolled and re-rolled. This action, as well as holding the curled parchment flat, doubtless took its toll on the ink and on the parchment surface through abrasion and flexing. The acidity inherent in the iron gall ink used by Timothy Matlack allowed the ink to "bite" into the surface of the parchment, thus contributing to the ink's longevity, but the rolling and unrolling of the parchment still presented many hazards. After the signing ceremony on August 2, 1776, the Declaration was most likely filed in Philadelphia in the office of Charles Thomson, who served as the Secretary of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1789. On December 12, threatened by the British, Congress adjourned and reconvened 8 days later in Baltimore, MD. A light wagon carried the Declaration to its new home, where it remained until its return to Philadelphia in March of 1777. On January 18, 1777, while the Declaration was still in Baltimore, Congress, bolstered by military successes at Trenton and Princeton, ordered the second official printing of the document. The July 4 printing had included only the names of John Hancock and Charles Thomson, and even though the first printing had been promptly circulated to the states, the names of subsequent signers were kept secret for a time because of fear of British reprisals. By its order of January 18, however, Congress required that "an authentic copy of the Declaration of Independency, with the names of the members of Congress subscribing to the same, be sent to each of the United States, and that they be desired to have the same put continued on page 4 ESTABLISHED

1870

YEARS


July 1, 2020

2 The Julian News

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*** Nothing manifests more persuasively the American contradiction than that the author of the Declaration of Independence, a slave owner, wrote an antislavery clause into the document - as if to compel himself to be better than he was - which then had to be edited out so the Southern states, including Thomas Jefferson's own, would sign it. — Steve Erickson ***

Due to current circumstances, this year’s Summer Learning Program will be completely virtual. There will be no physical prizes but you can explore our new program and earn badges. June 22 through August 31, 2020. WE INVITE YOUR OPINION! The views expressed by our contributing writers are their own and not necessarily those of The Julian News management. We invite all parties to submit their opinions and comments to The Julian News. All contributed items are subject to editorial approval prior to acceptance for publication. Letters must include your name and contact information. Letters may be mailed to: Julian News P.O. Box 639 Julian, CA 92036 email: letters@juliannews.com in person: Julian News Office 1453 Hollow Glen Road Deadline is Friday Noon for the next weeks issue

In Congress, July 4, 1776. The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world. He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them. He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands. He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers. He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries. He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance. He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures. He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power. He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation: For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us: For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States: For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world: For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent: For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury: For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument continued on page 8

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1985 Featured Contributors

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Syndicated Content King Features Syndicate E/The Environmental Magazine North American Precis Syndicate, Inc. State Point Media The Julian News is published on Wednesdays. All publications are copyright protected. ©2020 All rights reserved. The Julian News is a legally adjudicated newspaper of General Circulation in the State of California, Case No. 577843 Contacting The Julian News

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WHAT A CHILD LEARNS ABOUT VIOLENCE A CHILD LEARNS FOR LIFE. Teach carefully. We can show you how. Call 877-ACT-WISE for a free brochure or visit www.actagainstviolence.org.

The Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, the constitutions of the several states, and the organic laws of the territories all alike propose to protect the people in the exercise of their God-given rights. Not one of them pretends to bestow rights. — Susan B. Anthony NOTE TO PUB: DO NOT PRINT INFO BELOW, FOR I.D. ONLY. NO ALTERING OF AD COUNCIL PSAS.

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The nonprofit organization, Julian Pathways, Inc. provides a variety of programs and services to the community of Julian. Not only does the group operate before/after school programs on the Julian Union School District campuses, they are also responsible for providing much needed social services within the community. For years the nonprofit received a large amount of donated clothes and shoes that were distributed to the elementary and middle school students in need. When a student’s shoes fell apart during the school day or if a student was not prepared for the cold wind, Julian Pathways, Inc. has been able to step in to give out a pair of shoes or a jacket. With Julian’s rural location and demographics, it’s become apparent that individuals and entire families are in need. Since the organization operates solely on grants and donations, being able to provide for an entire community takes a lot of support. Luckily, so many within Julian are willing to donate in any way that they can. Prior to the global pandemic, members of Julian Pathways, Inc. had begun to toss around ideas regarding how to expand their services. With so many already wanting to donate clothes to the organization, Executive Director, Hilary Ward, thought that the community would benefit from a thrift store. A kind of resale store stocked with items from within and outside of the community that would be reasonably priced. In turn, proceeds would go back to servicing those in Julian. After a lot of discussion, research and planning, Ward and her team started building the groundwork for Julian’s much awaited thrift store. The quarantine hampered their efforts at first however, that let the organization concentrate on food distribution and supporting students with enrichment videos and activities. When it became apparent that restrictions would be lifted soon, the team got back to work pushing the thrift store along. Donations from staff, family and friends had already been quarantined for several weeks and preparations for opening under recommended guidelines became a major focus. With donated products and display fixtures from the Julian Mercantile and Michelle Harvey, who previously owned Julian Yesteryears, the organization kept their set up costs to a minimum. Word began to spread throughout the community and people reached out to donate items to the store. The extra time at home, gave many the opportunity to clean out their unwanted items and Julian Pathways, Inc. was very happy to take them.

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On Saturday, June 20th, the Pathways Op Shop opened their doors for the first time. With custom made shirts and smiling faces, members of Julian Pathways, Inc. eagerly greeted customers. The organization has received a lot of positive reviews of the “upscale thrift store” and many are looking forward to donating to the cause. Ward and her lead staff will be volunteering much of their time to run the store. In the coming months, they hope to utilize volunteers within the community to keep costs at a minimum. That way more of the proceeds from the Op Shop sales can go back to the nonprofit’s programs. The organization is also interested in providing retail work experience for those who need to expand their skills or are just entering the workforce. By doing so, the Pathways Op Shop’s motto, “a place for opportunities” will definitely be fulfilled. Ward recently commented, “It warms my heart to be able to provide a place for locals and visitors to shop, give back and support the Julian community. Everyone at Pathways has been working so hard to see this through and we’re looking forward to the exciting changes our little shop will do for the community.” Visit their website at www.julianpathways.org to learn more about this wonderful organization. If you would like to make a donation to any of the programs and services that Julian Pathways, Inc. offers, contact them at 760-765-0661 x6 or via email at info@julianpathways.org.

There’s nothing more important to us than keeping you safe. During wildfire season, sometimes that means implementing a Public Safety Power Shutoff, as a measure of last resort. It’s a decision we don’t take lightly. As soon as it’s safe to restore power, we will. Let’s stay in touch to stay safe together. Update your contact info to receive text notifications - sdge.com/wildfire-safety

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4 The Julian News

Julian Calendar

CALENDAR LISTINGS If you are having or know of an event in Julian, Lake Cuyamaca, Ranchita, Warner Springs, Santa Ysabel, Shelter Valley Sunshine Summit or elsewhere that should be listed in the Backcountry Happenings column, please contact the JULIAN NEWS at PO Box 639 Julian, CA 92036, voice/fax 760 765 2231 email: submissions@ juliannews.com or bring the information by our office.

ONGOING EVENTS

Julian Community Planning Group 2nd Monday Every Month Town Hall - 7pm Architectural Review Board 1st Tuesday of the Month Julian Town Hall Downstairs - 7pm Julian Chamber of Commerce Mixer - 1st Thursday of Month Board - 3rd Thursday of Month Town Hall - 6pm 760 765 1857 Julian Community Services District Third Tuesday of every month at 10:00 A.M. at the San Diego County Sheriff’s Office, Julian Substation, Public Meeting Room, 2907 Washington Street, Julian Julian Women’s Club 1st Wednesday - 1pm 2607 C Street information: 760 765 0212 Julian Historical Society The Witch Creek School House and the Julian Stageline Museum are open the first weekend of the month 11am to 4pm. Historical presentations, 4th Wednesday of the Month - Julian Historical Society Building, 2133 4th Street - 7pm Julian Arts Guild General Meeting: Second Wednesday of the Month, Julian Library - 4:00pm Program: Fourth Tuesday of Month Julian Library - 6:00pm

July

Friday, July 3 Covid-19 Drive Up Testing Julian Library 9-2 Call 2-1-1 for appointment or informatiom Saturday, JulyL4ED E Independence NC Day Parade A NoonC Wednesday, July 8 Feeding San Diego Free produce and select staple items. No income or eligibility requirements. - DRIVE THRU Julian Library - 9:30am Shelter Valley CC - 11:30am Wednesday, July 22 Feeding San Diego Free produce and select staple items. No income or eligibility requirements. - DRIVE THRU Julian Library - 9:30am Shelter Valley CC - 11:30am

August

Tuesday, August 11 Julian Schools Return* Wednesday, August 12 Feeding San Diego Free produce and select staple items. No income or eligibility requirements. - DRIVE THRU Julian Library - 9:30am Shelter Valley CC - 11:30am Tuesday August 18 Julian High School - Back to School Night

Zumba Aerobics with Gaynor Every Monday and Thursday Town Hall - 5pm, info: 619 540-7212

Wednesday, August 19 Spencer Valley School Returns

Julian Arts Chorale Rehearsals at JCUMC Monday @ 6:15pm

Thursday, August 20 Julian High School Board Meeting - 6pm

Every Tuesday Healthy Yoga with Lori Munger HHP,RYT Julian Library - 10am

Monday, September 25 Native American Day

Every Wednesday @ Julian Library 10:30am - Preschool Story Time and Crafts 11:00am - Sit and Fit for Seniors - Gentle Stretching and flexibility exercises with Matt Kraemer 2:30pm - After School STEM Flex your brain muscles with fun, educational activities for kids & teens. Second and Fourth Wednesdays Feeding San Diego Julian Library parking lot - 9:30am Shelter Valley CC - 11:30am Fourth Wednesday Julian Indivisible Community United Methodist Church of Julian - 2pm Julian Historical Society Witch Creek School - 7pm Every Thursday Beginning Spanish for Adults Learn basic Spanish at the library. - 2:30pm Every 2nd and 4th Thursday Julian Lions Club 7pm downstairs at the town hall Every Saturday Ebook Workshop Learn how to download Ebooks & audiobooks from the library for free! - 11am Techie Saturday at Julian Library - We now have a 3D printer! Come in on any Saturday and get individual instruction and assistance. Every Sunday (Weather permitting) Julian Doves and Desperados historic comedy skits at 2 pm – In front of the old Jail on C Street

Wednesday, August 26 Feeding San Diego Free produce and select staple items. No income or eligibility requirements. - DRIVE THRU Julian Library - 9:30am Shelter Valley CC - 11:30am Wednesday, August 26 Back To School Night at Spencer Valley School Thursday, August 27 Julian Elementary - Back to School Night

September Thursday, September 3 Julian Junior High - Back to School Night Monday, September 7 Labor Day Holiday Wednesday, September 20 Julian High School Board Meeting (2nd Thursday – Unaudited Actuals) - 6pm

October

Saturday, October 31 Halloween

November

Sunday, November 1 Daylight Saving Ends - 2am Wednesday, November 11 Veterans Day November 23 - 27 Thanksgiving Break For All Schools Thursday, November 26 Thanksgiving Saturday, November 28 Country Christmas - Tree Lighting

December

December 21 - January 8 Every day during business Winter Break - Julian Schools hours – Vet Connect VA Friday, December 25 services available at Julian Christmas Day Library. Call 858-694-3222 for appointment. The American Revolution and Declaration of Independence, it has often been argued, were fueled by the most radical of all American political ideas. — Carl Bernstein

and

July 1, 2020

Back Country Happenings

Declaration of Independence: A History continued from page 1

upon record." The "authentic copy" was duly printed, complete with signers' names, by Mary Katherine Goddard in Baltimore. Assuming that the Declaration moved with the Congress, it would have been back in Philadelphia from March to September 1777. On September 27, it would have moved to Lancaster, PA, for 1 day only. From September 30, 1777, through June 1778, the Declaration would have been kept in the courthouse at York, PA. From July 1778 to June 1783, it would have had a long stay back in Philadelphia. In 1783, it would have been at Princeton, NJ, from June to November, and then, after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, the Declaration would have been moved to Annapolis, MD, where it stayed until October 1784. For the months of November and December 1784, it would have been at Trenton, NJ. Then in 1785, when Congress met in New York, the Declaration was housed in the old New York City Hall, where it probably remained until 1790 (although when Pierre L'Enfant was remodeling the building for the convening of the First Federal Congress, it might have been temporarily removed). In July 1789 the First Congress under the new Constitution created the Department of Foreign Affairs and directed that its Secretary should have "the custody and charge of all records, books and papers" kept by the department of the same name under the old government. On July 24 Charles Thomson retired as Secretary of the Congress and, upon the order of President George Washington, surrendered the Declaration to Roger Alden, Deputy Secretary of Foreign Affairs. In September 1789 the name of the department was changed to the Department of State. Thomas Jefferson, the drafter of the Declaration, returned from France to assume his duties as the first Secretary of State in March of 1790. Appropriately, those duties now included custody of the Declaration. In July 1790 Congress provided for a permanent capital to be built among the woodlands and swamps bordering the Potomac River. Meanwhile, the temporary seat of government was to return to Philadelphia. Congress also provided that "prior to the first Monday in December next, all offices attached to the seat of the government of the United States" should be removed to Philadelphia. The Declaration was therefore back in Philadelphia by the close of 1790. It was housed in various buildings--on Market Street, at Arch and Sixth, and at Fifth and Chestnut. In 1800, by direction of President John Adams, the Declaration and other government records were moved from Philadelphia to the new federal capital now rising in the District of Columbia. To reach its new home, the Declaration traveled down the Delaware River and Bay, out into the ocean, into the Chesapeake Bay, and up the Potomac to Washington, completing its longest water journey. For about 2 months the Declaration was housed in buildings built for the use of the Treasury Department. For the next year it was housed in one of the "Seven Buildings" then standing at Nineteenth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue. Its third home before 1814 was in the old War Office Building on Seventeenth Street. In August 1814, the United States being again at war with Great Britain, a British fleet appeared in the Chesapeake Bay. Secretary of State James Monroe rode out to observe the landing of British forces along the Patuxent River in Maryland. A message from Monroe alerted State Department officials, in particular a clerk named Stephen Pleasonton, of the imminent threat to the capital city and, of course, the government's official records. Pleasonton "proceeded to purchase coarse linen, and cause it to be made into bags of convenient size, in which the gentlemen of the office" packed the precious books and records including the Declaration. A cartload of records was then taken up the Potomac River to an unused gristmill belonging to Edgar Patterson. The structure was located on the Virginia side

of the Potomac, about 2 miles upstream from Georgetown. Here the Declaration and the other records remained, probably overnight. Pleasonton, meanwhile, asked neighboring farmers for the use of their wagons. On August 24, the day of the British attack on Washington, the Declaration was on its way to Leesburg, VA. That evening, while the White House and other government buildings were burning, the Declaration was stored 35 miles away at Leesburg. The Declaration remained safe at a private home in Leesburg for an interval of several weeks-in fact, until the British had withdrawn their troops from Washington and their fleet from the Chesapeake Bay. In September 1814 the Declaration was returned to the national capital. With the exception of a trip to Philadelphia for the Centennial and to Fort Knox during World War II, it has remained there ever since. Washington, 1814-76 The Declaration remained in Washington from September 1814 to May 1841. It was housed in four locations. From 1814 to 1841, it was kept in three different locations as the State Department records were shifted about the growing city. The last of these locations was a brick building that, it was later observed, "offered no security against fire." One factor that had no small effect on the physical condition of the Declaration was recognized as interest in reproductions of the Declaration increased as the nation grew. Two early facsimile printings of the Declaration were made during the second decade of the 19th century: those of Benjamin Owen Tyler (1818) and John Binns (1819). Both facsimiles used decorative and ornamental elements to enhance the text of the Declaration. Richard Rush, who was Acting Secretary of State in 1817, remarked on September 10 of that year about the Tyler copy: "The foregoing copy of the Declaration of Independence has been collated with the original instrument and found correct. I have myself examined the signatures to each. Those executed by Mr. Tyler, are curiously exact imitations, so much so, that it would be difficult, if not impossible, for the closest scrutiny to distinguish them, were it not for the hand of time, from the originals." Rush's reference to "the hand of time" suggests that the signatures were already fading in 1817, only 40 years after they were first affixed to the parchment. One later theory as to why the Declaration was aging so soon after its creation stems from the common 18th-century practice of taking "press copies." Press copies were made by placing a damp sheet of thin paper on a manuscript and pressing it until a portion of the ink was transferred. The thin paper copy was retained in the same manner as a modern carbon copy. The ink was reimposed on a copper plate, which was then etched so that copies could be run off the plate on a press. This "wet transfer" method may have been used by William J. Stone when in 1820 he was commissioned by Secretary of State John Quincy Adams to make a facsimile of the entire Declaration, signatures as well as text. By June 5, 1823, almost exactly 47 years after Jefferson's first draft of the Declaration, the (Washington) National Intelligencer was able to report "that Mr. William J. Stone, a respectable and enterprising Engraver of this City, has, after a labor of three years, completed a fac simile of the original of the Declaration of Independence, now in the archives of the government; that it is executed with the greatest exactness and fidelity; and that the Department of State has become the purchaser of the plate." As the Intelligencer went on to observe: "We are very glad to hear this, for the original of that paper which ought to be immortal and imperishable, by being so much handled by copyists and curious visitors, might receive serious injury. The facility of multiplying copies of it now possessed by the Department of State will render further exposure of the original unnecessary." The language of the newspaper report, like that of Rush's earlier comment, would

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seem to indicate some fear of the deterioration of the Declaration even prior to Stone's work. The copies made from Stone's copperplate established the clear visual image of the Declaration for generations of Americans. The 200 official parchment copies struck from the Stone plate carry the identification "Engraved by W. J. Stone for the Department of State, by order" in the upper left corner followed by "of J. Q. Adams, Sec. of State July 4th 1823." in the upper right corner. "Unofficial" copies that were struck later do not have the identification at the top of the document. Instead the engraver identified his work by engraving "W. J. Stone SC. Washn." near the lower left corner and burnishing out the earlier identification. The longest of the early sojourns of the Declaration was from 1841 to 1876. Daniel Webster was Secretary of State in 1841. On June 11 he wrote to Commissioner of Patents Henry L. Ellsworth, who was then occupying a new building (now the National Portrait Gallery), that "having learned that there is in the new building appropriated to the Patent Office suitable accommodations for the safekeeping, as well as the exhibition of the various articles now deposited in this Department, and usually, exhibited to visitors . . . I have directed them to be transmitted to you." An inventory accompanied the letter. Item 6 was the Declaration. The "new building" was a white stone structure at Seventh and F Streets. The Declaration and Washington's commission as commander in chief were mounted together in a single frame and hung in a white painted hall opposite a window offering exposure to sunlight. There they were to remain on exhibit for 35 years, even after the Patent Office separated from the State Department to become administratively a part of the Interior Department. This prolonged exposure to sunlight accelerated the deterioration of the ink and parchment of the Declaration, which was approaching 100 years of age toward the end of this period. During the years that the Declaration was exhibited in the Patent Office, the combined effects of aging, sunlight, and fluctuating temperature and relative humidity took their toll on the document. Occasionally, writers made somewhat negative comments on the appearance continued on page 5

gs etin ntil e M U All nded ice ot pe Sus ther N Fur

Julian Historical Society

Monthly presentations on the fourth Wednesday of the month Look our return Thefor Historical Building toSociety the Witch Creek 2133 4thHouse Street School

7:00pm

• On July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, the Continental Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence, which proclaims the independence of a new United States of America from Great Britain. The declaration came 442 days after the first shots of the American Revolution. • On July 2, 1937, the Lockheed aircraft carrying American aviator Amelia Earhart and navigator Frederick Noonan is reported missing in the Pacific. No trace of Earhart or Noonan was found. However, photos taken years later in the Marshall Islands were believed to be of Earhart and Noonan. • On July 3, 1958, President Dwight Eisenhower signs the Rivers and Harbors Flood Control Bill, which allocates funds to improve flood-control and water-storage systems. The bill was introduced in the wake of disastrous hurricanes that hit the U.S. in 1955. • On June 30, 1974, Soviet dancer Mikhail Baryshnikov defects from U.S.S.R. after four years of planning. While touring in Canada, Baryshnikov evaded his KGB handlers at the end of a performance, disappearing into the crowd outside. He hid until he was granted political asylum. • On July 1, 1984, the Motion Picture Association of America introduces a new movie rating, PG-13. The action film "Red Dawn" became the first-ever PG13 movie. • On June 29, 1995, the American space shuttle Atlantis docks with the Russian space station Mir to form the largest man-made satellite ever to orbit the Earth. It marked the 100th human space mission in American history. • On July 5, 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) announces that all person-toperson transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) has ceased. In the previous eight months, the disease had killed 775 people in 29 countries. The first cases of SARS, caused by the SARS coronavirus, appeared in China in November 2002, and soon spread around the world via air travel. © 2020 Hearst Communications, Inc. All Rights Reserved


July 1, 2020

EAST OF PINE HILLS

My Thoughts by Michele Harvey

Thomas Alexander Gaines

November 20, 1958 - June 12, 2020

Life Interrupted

by Kiki Skagen Munshi

Rethinking Our Heritage Mrs. Patton taught American History in Julian Union High School more than half a century ago and we were actually taught about the Civil War: Started because of tariff disagreements and opposition in the North to slavery, fought with bloody battles and won by the North which then abolished slavery as was right and good—according to the text. Everyone agreed without discussing it much that the North was in the right and slavery was bad. But no one thought about the fact that there were statues of Jefferson Davis (with his gray horse, Traveller) and other leaders around, that buildings were named after him and other southern leaders, or in fact anything much at all about the subject since there weren’t any in Julian except the name of the town itself, which we didn’t think about at all. Now that we ARE thinking about it, It makes sense to take down statues of people who tried to rend our union asunder. It doesn’t make sense to take them down because they—or Thomas Jefferson or George Washington—were slave owners. Being a slave owner two hundred years ago was not like being a slave owner today. People back then, regardless of color, didn’t all have the same rights, this had been the reality all over the world for many centuries, and the U.S. was only beginning to feel its way toward a time, after 1789, after 1865, after 1920 (women, remember?), after 1965, when everyone was equal in the sight of the law. Back then inequality was a fact of life, a life which was much MUCH harder for everyone, not just slaves, than anyone these days seems to realize. Think of a world without aspirin, let alone toilet paper, electricity and running water in the (often one-room and we’re not talking about slave cabins) house. It’s possible that some readers will have smoke coming out of their ears at this point. Please continue, you will probably get angrier. We Americans forget history if we ever learned it. Most Americans don’t know, for instance, that in East Africa slave trading began earlier, lasted longer, and was far more brutal than slave trading out of West Africa. Most also don’t know that a newly captured ‘slave’ coming on to Bunce Island, the British slave trading fort in what is now Sierra Leone, lived longer, on average, than the British soldier brought to enslave him. Life was hard in those days, especially for white men in the tropics, but really for everyone. The ‘free’ sailors on the slave ships were often NOT free at all, having been shanghaied into a brutal dangerous life where many of them got scurvy and lost all their teeth at an early age if they didn’t just up and die. And be tossed overboard Making judgments about life in the past based on your life today is temporal imperialism (whee!) and the result is pretty off-base. In 1839 a distant ancestor—we have the letter—wrote from New Jersey to her sister in Ohio telling her that she had an eleven year old bound girl to help in the kitchen. That child, white, WOULD be free but her childhood years had been sold in return for, basically, food and shelter. One hopes the ancestor was a kind woman. And we now estimate that about half the white immigrants in the original colonies came as indentured servants who sold their labor in exchange for ship’s passage. The period of indenture varied, often about five years. Indentured servants were to be fed and clothed. They could be sold. Current estimates were that only about 40% of them lived to complete their contracts. Life was brutal and often short. Also nasty and dirty while we’re at it. Slaves gradually replaced indentured servants though not completely. As property they were often treated better than the indentured white (mostly) men—three cheers for capitalism. Neither system was what we would deem acceptable…now. Both were acceptable then. Where the shame begins for the U.S. is less in slavery than in what happened when those slaves became free, whether it was in 1789 or in 1865. In the East, slaves taken out of East Africa were forced to become Muslims. All Muslims are equal before God and when slaves were freed (a relative term) they became equal. The picture at the head of this column, from the famous Sidi Sayyid mosque in Ahmedabad, India, has become symbol of Indian beauty and achievement throughout that country. “Sidi” is a term for Africans; Sidi Sayyid, who built the mosque, was a former slave who became a general. That kind of thing didn’t happen here. We never allowed our freed slaves to become equal in the way Arabia, Muscat, Persia, India and other countries did. And this is our shame. Not the original slavery— which was bad, slavery is bad, okay, but it was normal then and not all that much different from a lot of miserable lives—but our continuing treatment of African Americans as unequal from the past into the present. THIS is what has to be changed even though it’s much easier to pull down statues and feel good about it then go back to whatever. Mike Julian and Drue Bailey were Confederates. Perhaps we should rename this town, too, as long as we’re on a let’s-forgethistory-so-we-can-feel-good spree.

Declaration of Independence: A History continued from page 4 of the Declaration. An observer in the United States Magazine (October 1856) went so far as to refer to "that old looking paper with the fading ink." John B. Ellis remarked in The Sights and Secrets of the National Capital (Chicago, 1869) that "it is old and yellow, and the ink is fading from the paper." An anonymous writer in the Historical Magazine (October 1870) wrote: "The original manuscript of the Declaration of Independence and of Washington's Commission, now in the United States Patent Office at Washington, D.C., are said to be rapidly fading out so that in a few years, only the naked parchment will remain. Already, nearly all the signatures attached to the Declaration of Independence are entirely effaced." In May 1873 the Historical Magazine published an official statement by Mortimer Dormer Leggett, Commissioner of Patents, who admitted that "many of the names to the Declaration are already illegible." The technology of a new age

The Julian News 5

and the interest in historical roots engendered by the approaching Centennial focused new interest on the Declaration in the 1870s and brought about a brief change of home. The Centennial and the Debate Over Preservation, 1876-1921 In 1876 the Declaration traveled to Philadelphia, where it was on exhibit for the Centennial National Exposition from May to October. Philadelphia's Mayor William S. Stokley was entrusted by President Ulysses S. Grant with temporary custody of the Declaration. The Public Ledger for May 8, 1876, noted that it was in Independence Hall "framed and glazed for protection, and . . . deposited in a fireproof safe especially designed for both preservation and convenient display. [When the outer doors of the safe were opened, the parchment was visible behind a heavy plate-glass inner door; the doors were closed at night.] Its aspect is of course faded and time-worn. The text is fully

We get used to our routines and we get comfortable within them. Maybe we dust and vacuum on Monday, do laundry on Tuesday clean the kitchen on Wednesday and clean the bathroom on Thursday. This is a routine that can be worked around a job schedule, or it can all be accomplished on a weekend. Either way, we get used to doing things a certain way and many of us don’t like change. When we all had to evacuate for the Cedar Fire that was certainly an interruption to our normal way of living. It was difficult living while not knowing if our homes were still standing or if they had burned down. Many of us, including me have had medical issues that interrupted my normal life. A few years ago I fell and crushed my shoulder. After having it replaced and after it healed enough I received several months of physical therapy. After my surgery and before my therapy I spent my days and nights sitting on my couch. I sat there and I slept there. At that time I couldn’t get in and out of our water bed. So my sleeping schedule got all turned around and even now no matter how early I wake up in the morning it’s difficult for me to go to sleep before 3 a.m. Once I thought I might get back to a semi-normal schedule, one of my toes was infected. I had weekly appointments at the Wound Care Center in Poway and I was back to sitting with orders to stay off of my feet. Once again my life was interrupted. I owned my own gift shop and during that time I received lots of help from friends and family. A bit over a year ago I was given an eviction notice for my shop and in hindsight it was a very good thing. The tremors in my hands had taken over to the extent that I can no longer print or write so I couldn’t do the paperwork that I needed to do for my shop. A week or two after I vacated my shop I got pneumonia and then found out that I have emphysema. I already have diabetes so my life just keeps getting more interesting. I’m not complaining about my health. What is, is. Now we are all dealing with the COVID-19 virus. I don’t have to work to pay my rent and I can carry my oxygen machine with me when I wear my mask so breathing isn’t a bigger problem for me than it would be normally. I’m glad I live in California because I believe our governor is doing his best to keep us all safe. I know that some don’t agree and they may have good reasons, however, I’ve lived nearly seventy years and many of those years have been interrupted in one way or another and I just try to adjust. These are my thoughts.

legible, but the major part of the signatures are so pale as to be only dimly discernible in the strongest light, a few remain wholly readable, and some are wholly invisible, the spaces which contained them presenting only a blank." Other descriptions made at Philadelphia were equally unflattering: "scarce bears trace of the signatures the execution of which made fifty-six names imperishable," "aged-dimmed." But on the Fourth of July, after the text was read aloud to a throng on Independence Square by Richard Henry Lee of Virginia (grandson of the signer Richard Henry Lee), "The faded and crumbling manuscript, held together by a simple frame was then exhibited to the crowd and was greeted with cheer after cheer." By late summer the Declaration's physical condition had become a matter of public concern. On August 3, 1876, Congress adopted a joint resolution providing "that a commission, consisting of the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Librarian of Congress be empowered to have resort to such means as will most effectually restore the writing of the original manuscript of the Declaration of Independence, with the signatures appended thereto." This resolution had actually been introduced as early as January 5, 1876. One candidate for the task of restoration was William J. Canby, an employee of the Washington Gas Light Company. On April 13 Canby had written to the Librarian of Congress: "I have had over thirty years experience in handling the pen upon parchment and in that time, as an expert, have engrossed hundreds of ornamental, special documents." Canby went on to suggest that "the only feasible plan is to replenish the original with a supply of ink, which has been destroyed by the action of light and time, with an ink well known to be, for all practical purposes, imperishable." The commission did not, however, take any action at that time. After the conclusion of the Centennial exposition, attempts were made to secure possession of the Declaration for Philadelphia, but these failed and the parchment was returned to the Patent Office in Washington, where it had been since 1841, even though that office had become a part of the Interior Department. On April 11, 1876, Robert H. Duell, Commissioner of Patents, had written to Zachariah Chandler, Secretary of the Interior, suggesting that "the Declaration of Independence, and the commission of General Washington, associated with it in the same frame, belong to your Department as heirlooms.

Chandler appears to have ignored this claim, for in an exchange of letters with Secretary of State Hamilton Fish, it was agreed-with the approval of President Grant-to move the Declaration into the new, fireproof building that the State Department shared with the War and Navy Departments (now the Old Executive Office Building). On March 3, 1877, the Declaration was placed in a cabinet on the eastern side of the State Department library, where it was to be exhibited for 17 years. It may be noted that not only was smoking permitted in the library, but the room contained an open fireplace. Nevertheless this location turned out to be safer than the premises just vacated; much of the Patent Office was gutted in a fire that occurred a few months later. On May 5, 1880, the commission that had been appointed almost 4 years earlier came to life again in response to a call from the Secretary of the Interior. It requested that William B. Rogers, president of the National Academy of Sciences appoint a committee of experts to consider "whether such restoration [of the Declaration] be expedient or practicable and if so in what way the object can best be accomplished." The duly appointed committee reported on January 7, 1881, that Stone used the "wet transfer" method in the creation of his facsimile printing of 1823, that the process had probably removed some of the original ink, and that chemical restoration methods were "at best imperfect and uncertain in their results." The committee concluded, therefore, that "it is not expedient to attempt to restore the manuscript by chemical means." The group of experts then recommended that "it will be best either to cover the present receptacle of the manuscript with an opaque lid or to remove the manuscript from its frame and place it in a portfolio, where it may be protected from the action of light." Finally, the committee recommended that "no press copies of any part of it should in future be permitted." Recent study of the Declaration by conservators at the National Archives has raised doubts that a "wet transfer" took place. Proof of this occurrence, however, cannot be verified or denied strictly by modern examination methods. No documentation prior to the 1881 reference has been found to support the theory; therefore we may never know if Stone actually performed the procedure. Little, if any, action was taken as a result of the 1881 report. It was not until 1894 that the State Department announced: "The rapid fading of the text of the original Declaration of Independence and the deterioration of the parchment upon which it is engrossed, from

Thomas “Tag” Gaines, 61, passed away unexpectedly June 12, 2020. Tag was born in Encino, California and grew up in Long Beach, California. He was the youngest son of Arthur and Josephine Gaines. Tag was a motorhead since high school and loved hot rodding every engine he could find – everything from street racers, cars and trucks to tractors. He loved working with his hands and was very skilled, as evidenced by the many trades he had. He was a certified welder, journeyman electrician, journeyman diesel mechanic, heavy equipment operator, licensed water distribution operator and class A truck driver to name a few of his many talents. These skills served him well throughout his 30 years in the fire service. He loved being a firefighter and often remarked how he missed it and opportunity it gave him to help others. He started as a volunteer with Riverside County then moved to San Diego County where at Julian Cuyamaca Fire District and Intermountain Fire he worked as an EMT, Fire Apparatus Engineer, and Fire Captain. He worked at the Ramona Air Attack Base as an Aviation Ground Support Specialist and Fire Retardant Mix Master. His inventive mind and mechanical knowledge, along with his love of the fire service, led him to develop of safer and more modern firefighting apparatus and equipment. His innovative delivery system for fire retardant chemicals had him working with the Australian government. When he wasn’t firefighting he pursued his love of agronomy and soil science, becoming a rancher and cattleman in Murrieta, California. After retiring from firefighting, his love of agronomy led him to become a dealer for Alforex Seed, a top supplier of alfalfa and forage crops that help farmers reach higher yields and better nutrition for each crop planted. He also became a dealer for Vermeer Farm Equipment, a global manufacturer of industrial and agricultural machines such as hay balers, wheel rakes and forage equipment. Tag was a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints through which he met his wife, Dorothy “Dottie” Gaines of Ramona, California. They were married on Sept 7, 2018. He is survived by his wife Dottie, two older sisters Joan and Claudia, an older brother Arthur and many nieces and nephews. Everyone was Tag’s friend and he loved meeting new people. He will be missed by all who knew and loved him. Bonham Bros & Stewart Mortuary and Cremation Service in Ramona is assisting the family.

exposure to light and lapse of time, render it impracticable for the Department longer to exhibit it or to handle it. For the secure preservation of its present condition, so far as may be possible, it has been carefully wrapped and placed flat in a steel case." A new plate for engravings was made by the Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1895, and in 1898 a photograph was made for the Ladies' Home Journal. On this latter occasion, the parchment was noted as "still in good legible condition" although "some of the signatures" were "necessarily blurred." On April 14, 1903, Secretary of State John Hay solicited again the help of the National Academy of Sciences in providing "such recommendations as may seem practicable . . . touching [the Declaration's] preservation." Hay went on to explain: "It is now kept out of the light, sealed between two sheets of glass, presumably proof against air, and locked in a steel safe. I am unable to say, however, that, in spite of these precautions, observed for the past ten years, the text is not continuing to fade and the parchment to wrinkle and

perhaps to break." On April 24 a committee of the academy reported its findings. Summarizing the physical history of the Declaration, the report stated: "The instrument has suffered very seriously from the very harsh treatment to which it was exposed in the early years of the Republic. Folding and rolling have creased the parchment. The wet presscopying operation to which it was exposed about 1820, for the purpose of producing a facsimile copy, removed a large portion of the ink. Subsequent exposure to the action of light for more than thirty years, while the instrument was placed on exhibition, has resulted in the fading of the ink, particularly in the signatures. The present method of caring for the instrument seems to be the best that can be suggested." The committee added its own "opinion that the present method of protecting the instrument should be continued; that it should be kept in the dark and dry as possible, and never placed on exhibition." Secretary Hay seems to have accepted the committee's recommendation; in the following year, William H. Michael, author of The continued on page 10

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Reopening June 1st

for shopping and dine in with pre-order reservation only

Julian Tea & Cottage Arts

Two locations to serve you:

Julian

2124 Third Street one block off Main Main Street

760 765 0832

www.juliantea.com

10 am- 4 pm Thursday through Monday CLOSED Tuesday and Wednesday

Santa Ysabel

2225 Main Street 21976 Hwy. 79 (760) 765-2449 (760) 765-2400 www.julianpie.com

Chef’s Corner

vertical stripes] are those used in the flag of the United States of America; White signifies purity and innocence; Red, hardiness and valor; and Blue, the color of the Chief [the broad band above the stripes] signifies vigilance, perseverance and justice.” July 4th, also known as Independence Day, has a fascinating history as well. “No taxation without representation!” That was the battle

Three Cheers for the Red, White Tea Room nditioned Blue! ir Coand

A One

*** I should like to know if, taking this old Declaration of Independence, which declares that all men are equal upon principle, you begin making exceptions to it, where will you stop? If one man says it does not mean a Negro, why not another say it does not mean some other man? — Abraham Lincoln *** 1. U.S. STATES: Bay Staters hail from which U.S. state? 2. GEOGRAPHY: What is the capital of Lebanon? 3. HISTORY: Which major World War II battle was known by the code name “Operation Detachment”? 4. MUSIC: Which rock group had a 1960s hit with the song “Incense and Peppermints”? 5. MEASUREMENTS: What does a chronometer measure? 6. ADVERTISING SLOGANS: Which automotive company had the slogan, “Quality is Job 1”? 7. MOVIES: Which movie won the 1991 Oscar for Best Picture? 8. SCIENCE: What kind of adaptation allows an organism to blend into its environment? 9. LANGUAGE: What does the Latin phrase “amor vincit omnia” mean? 10. TELEVISION: What is the capital of the Seven Kingdoms in “Game of Thrones”? Answers on page 11

of the most recognized symbols of the Fourth of July celebration is the American flag. The American flag began with 13 stars, and today, 50 stars are displayed to represent the number of states now in the union. This number has followed the growth of our country since its infancy. The 13 alternating red and white stripes represent the 13 original colonies that joined together to declare their independence from Britain in order to establish themselves as a sovereign nation. Originally, the colors red, white and blue had neither specific meaning nor representation when the flag was adopted in 1777. However, the colors in the Great Seal of the United States did have specific meanings. Charles Thompson, secretary of the Continental Congress, reporting to Congress on the Seal, stated: “The colors of the pales [the

cry of the 13 colonies in America that were forced to pay taxes to England’s King George III with no representation in Parliament. As dissatisfaction grew, British troops were sent in to quell any signs of rebellion, and repeated attempts by the colonists to resolve the crisis without war proved fruitless. On June 11, 1776, the colonies’ Second Continental Congress meeting in Philadelphia formed a committee to draft a document that

continued on page 11


July1, 2020

Lollipop Basket

This rare double lollipop basket was made in the early 20th century. It is 4 1/2 inches high, 9 inches long and 8 1/4 inches wide with a swing handle. Nantucket baskets have been popular purses and collectibles since the 1940s. The first baskets on Nantucket Island were made by the Wampanoag

The Julian News 7

Indians, but they were not like the later Nantucket baskets. The Nantucket Lightship Station was at Nantucket in 1854 and had a crew of six. A lightship is a substitute for a lighthouse in waters that can't hold a lighthouse because of the depth or the rough water. The crew worked 30 days at a time with little to do. So, some started making baskets. The first basket was made by Capt. Charles Ray. The wooden parts were made on land, carried to the ships and used to make the woven baskets. The government made them stop basket making while on duty in 1900, but baskets were still made on the island. Purses were made by 1900, and in the 1940s, friendship baskets were made. New ones today sell for $500 to thousands of dollars. One very rare type is the lollipop basket. The top rim has round pieces that look like little lollipops. They have had auction estimates at $40,000 to $60,000. They are

very difficult to make. *** Q: I almost bought a strange piece of gold jewelry that had a picture of an eye and no other decoration in the frame. The antique 18th-century pin was gold with a border of pearls and blue enamel, and it was in an auction estimated at over $2,000. Why just an eye? A: This type of pin is known as a "Lover's Eyes." They were exchanged by lovers and for other types of remembrance, including those lovers who had died. According to legend, it started in 1784 when the Prince of Wales fell in love at first sight with Maria Fitzherbert, a twice widowed commoner. The prince needed permission from his father to wed, so he proposed to Maria in a letter that mentioned he was sending an eye. It was a miniature of his eye painted by a famous miniaturist. She accepted the proposal. They were secretly married, and Maria later sent the

prince an eye miniature for his birthday. It became a trend and similar eye jewelry was made into the 19th century. The pin was worn in a secret, unseen place, like under a coat lapel. The pins were always miniatures in watercolor on ivory, vellum or gouaches. They were covered with glass. A few were made as pendants or rings. One expert says less than 1,000 still exist. Watch out for fakes made years ago. *** CURRENT PRICES Bride's basket, satin glass, blue, silver plate, Aurora, 10 inches, $80. Map, England, title cartouche, shield, acanthus, multicolor, Robert Morden, 1695, 14 1/2 x 16 3/4 inches, $140. Cash register, National, model 313, brass, drawer, scrolls, banners, c. 1920, 17 inches, $360. Cane, silver, monkeys, climbing, tree branch, wood, 35

x 4 inches, $625. ***

For more collecting news, tips and resources, visit www.Kovels.com ® 2020 King Features Syndicate, Inc.

1. In 1982, the California Angels retired No. 26 in honor of the Major League Baseball franchise’s first owner. Who was he? 2. In Super Bowl XXVII, the Dallas Cowboys’ Leon Lett was enroute to a fumble return touchdown, but he had the ball swatted away before he crossed

the goal line, resulting in a touchback. What speedy Buffalo Bills receiver forced Lett’s fumble? 3. In the final round of the 1995 Open Championship, what Italian golfer sunk a 60-foot putt on the 18th hole to force a playoff with eventual winner John Daly? 4. In what team sport would you find two “bails” balanced atop three stumps? 5. How many home runs did Jose Canseco’s identical twin brother, Ozzie, hit during his 24 Major League Baseball game appearances? 6. Syracuse University basketball standout Rony Seikaly was the first draft pick ever selected by what NBA expansion team in 1988? 7. In 1999, the New Orleans Saints traded eight draft picks to the Washington Redskins in order to select what Heisman Trophy winner from the University of Texas? Answers on page 11


July 1, 2020

8 The Julian News

continued from page 2 for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies: For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments: For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us. He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people. He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation. He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands. He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends. We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

*** I am in favor of carrying out the Declaration of Independence to women as well as men. Women having to suffer the burdens of society and government should have their equal rights in it. They do not receive their rights in full proportion. — Leland Stanford ***

first responders, particularly fire fighters. The most surprising thing was running into a woman that I had met at a craft fair downstairs in Town Hall the day before. She remembered meeting me and invited me to be one of the many people needed to carry the large flag down Main Street. It felt special as a resident of only a few days to be given a responsibility and included in the celebration. The experience of carrying the flag with many others stirred a patriotism I hadn’t felt for a while. Certainly, that patriotism was tied in part to the meaning of the holiday and the history it represents. Our history as a nation has many things for which to be proud. I think some of my patriotic feelings were more pronounced here than other places I’ve lived because of the small-town

Faith and Living

Pastor Cindy Arntson

I moved to Julian the first of July in 2013. Experiencing our Fourth of July Parade that year gave me a wonderful first impression of our town. I’ve never been to a Fourth of July celebration that was more fun and inspiring. As I walked through town that day, I was warmly welcomed by each person to whom I introduced myself. I met ladies from the Woman’s Club at the Quilt show in Town Hall. I discovered that my neighbor was one of the announcers. I got an idea of what people here valued as I watched all the different groups march by. It was inspiring to see the great appreciation residents have for

atmosphere. Here, more than in other larger communities where I’ve lived, there is a feeling of interconnection and kinship. It reminded me that much of our patriotism is related the powerful sense that we have strived for and achieved great things together. Sometimes deep patriotism is not expressed in ways that are easy to see like wearing red, white and blue or waving a flag. Patriotic love of nation must also include love for and loyalty to our fellow citizens. It includes working to make life better for everyone who lives here. Fighting for our own freedom is not patriotic if we are willing to harm other citizens in the process. I read an article recently written by Jill Richardson who teaches college level sociology. She reminded me that patriotism doesn’t require blind loyalty.

Criticizing things that are happening in our nation can also be a sign of patriotism. She said, “For me, loving this country means making it better. It means taking a good hard look at our mistakes, learning from the ones in the past, and correcting the ones in the present.” Cindy Arntson is ordained clergy serving Community United Methodist Church at 2898 Highway 78, Julian. Direct all questions and comments to: Faith and Living, c/o CUMCJ, Box 460, Julian, CA, 92036. (Opinions in this column do not necessarily express the views of Julian News, its editor, or employees.)

*** It is hard to conceive of the utter demoralization, of the political blindness and immorality, of the patriotic dishonesty, of the cruelty and degradation of a people who supplemented the incomparable Declaration of Independence with the Fugitive Slave Law. — Robert Green Ingersoll ***

...and then watching fantastic fireworks!

We are having a family barbecue...

Newspaper Fun! www.readingclubfun.com

Happy

Annimills LLC © 2020 V16-26

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The Declaration of Independence is the document that told the world that the 13 colonies were united as one country - the United States of America. It told that all ties to England were broken. The people wished to have a voice in their own government. 2 Independenc e Day 3 Philadelphia

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I am a symbol of freedom. I called people to meetings that rang of liberty. I announced the first time that the Declaration of Independence would be read to the crowds on July 8, 1776. Can you follow the dots to see me? Put my name on the blanks:

July 4, 1776

Liberty Bell

Answer the six questions below and fill in the puzzle.

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George Washingto

The Spirit of ‘76

6 I love to wave my flag at parades and at the fireworks. I’m very proud of my country. Do you know how many stars are on our nation’s flag? There is one for each state in the union. Color in the squares.

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Little Mouse is jumping for joy! He can barely wait to get to the fair and fireworks. Can you help him?

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Newspaper Fun! Created by Annimills LLC © 2020

In Congress, July 4, 1776


July 1, 2020

The Julian News 9

California Commentary

ACA25 Is Wrong For California

by Jon Coupal

Times are strange indeed when the Howard Jarvis Taxpayers Association finds itself fighting on the same side as left-leaning organizations such as Voices for Progress, Common Cause and the ACLU. The saying that politics makes for strange bedfellows is never more true than in times of crisis and confusion. When the COVID-19 virus descended on California, it caused near panic throughout the state. Because we knew so little, our elected leaders were probably justified in heeding the advice of health officials who recommended strict shelter-inplace orders. Among the institutions placed on lockdown was the California Legislature. The emergency necessitated immediate action back in March, but on June 10, when lawmakers returned to the Capitol, the California Assembly quickly passed Assembly Constitutional Amendment 25 to address how the legislature would operate during a statewide emergency in the future. Proving the adage that “haste makes waste,” ACA25 was rushed through the Assembly in only three weeks. By the time transparency advocates were aware of what was happening, they had little opportunity to analyze it or provide meaningful commentary. The proposed constitutional amendment is now pending in the California Senate. Without mincing words, ACA25 lays waste to the notion of legislative transparency. First, as currently worded, ACA25 authorizes both houses of the legislature to use proxy voting, which is a clear danger to representative democracy. Allowing persons who are not elected to vote on behalf of citizens weakens the deliberative process and negates the electorate’s ability to hold their officials accountable for votes they did not personally take. Second, although the chance is remote of a statewide catastrophe where one-fifth of the members of a House are “deceased, disabled, or missing,”

under those circumstances ACA25 would allow appointment of substitute members by some process to be determined by a majority-vote statute. The lack of clarity in this provision is an invitation for mischief, especially in an emergency. For example, the majority party could pass a statute over the minority party’s objection, allowing appointments of individuals that neither live in the district nor are even of the same party as the legislator they are replacing. Moreover, the terms “disabled” and “missing” in ACA25 are not clearly defined and should be replaced with more precise language, such as “incapacitated” and “presumed deceased.” Legislators with disabilities can and do cast votes now. And “missing” must be defined in a way that does not theoretically allow legislators to be replaced in circumstances where, for example, they purposefully skip town. Third, ACA25 lowers the quorum requirement to a majority of members “able to attend” when more than one-fifth of a House’s members have been incapacitated. This could permit a small minority of the state’s elected representatives to make laws of permanent duration affecting the entire state. We find it odd that, at the same time legislators didn’t show up for work within the confines of their place of employment, construction workers were busy outside building the new legislative office building that, when complete, will serve as a temporary Capitol annex while the original annex is demolished and rebuilt. We’re hopeful that the broad spectrum of interest groups supporting legislative transparency can convince the Senate this week to either reject or substantially amend ACA25 in a way that does not return to the days when the Legislature operated in darkness. *** Jon Coupal is the president of the Howard Jarvis Taxpayers Association..

• Following the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, thousands of hairstylists and alpaca farmers donated over 19 warehouses worth of cut hair to help absorb the spilled oil. • Los Angeles' full name is "El Pueblo Nuestra Senora la Reina de los Angeles de Porciuncula," or "Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the River Porciuncula." Now you know why people usually just call it "L.A." • Sex expert Dr. Ruth was trained as a sniper by the Israeli military. • Looking for the perfect gift for the object of your affection? How about a toilet seat? Don't laugh -- that's what Ben Affleck gave Jennifer Lopez when the two were a hot item. Of course, this particular "throne" cost $105,000 and was covered in diamonds, rubies and sapphires! • Astronaut Neil Armstrong threatened legal action against his barber for selling his hair to a collector for $3,000. • The Benguet of northwestern Philippines blindfold their dead and place them next to the main entrance of the house. • Mr. and Mrs. Curry, of New York City, got married inside a 120,000-gallon shark tank. The bride wore a white wetsuit and the groom wore black, saying their "I do's" while circled by different types of sharks and eels. Both were experienced divers but had to broadcast their vows to the wedding officiant, family and friends, since (unsurprisingly) none of them possessed equal nerve to enter the tank. • Jewish diarist and Holocaust victim Anne Frank was posthumously baptized "by proxy" into Mormonism at least nine times. • Boxer Mike Tyson once bribed a zoo worker to open the attraction for just him and his wife. During the visit, he also tried to bribe an attendant to let him fight a gorilla. The employee said no. (One wonders who would have won.) *** Thought for the Day: "So long as we are loved by others I should say that we are almost indispensable; and no man is useless while he has a friend." -- Robert Louis Stevenson ® 2020 King Features Syndicate, Inc.

® 2020 King Features Syndicate, Inc.

The U.S. Declaration of Independence enshrines the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Alas, that is not the case everywhere in the world. — Haris Pasovic


10 The Julian News

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restricts the usefulness in real-world applications for this emerging technology. Putting 3D printers on huge robotic arms and combining the technology with natural forms of building (like the silkworm’s silk) could revolutionize how we build. “In the future, we will not build our products and our architecture; rather we will grow them,” Oxman predicts. “But it will take a village, not a lab.” To see more of Oxman’s work and find out more about the fastevolving world of Material Ecology, check out the Museum of Modern Art’s virtual exhibit “Neri Oxman: Material Ecology” which ran from February 22-May 25, 2020. CONTACTS: Neri Oxman, neri.media.mit.edu; “Silkworms and robot

• FISHING REPORT •

July 1, 2020

work together to weave Silk Pavilion,” dezeen.com/2013/06/03/silkwormsand-robot-work-together-to-weave-silk-pavilion. EarthTalk® is produced by Roddy Scheer & Doug Moss for the 501(c)3 nonprofit EarthTalk. See more at https://emagazine.com. To donate, visit https://earthtalk.org. Send questions to: question@earthtalk.org.

® Dear EarthTalk: Can you explain the concept of “Material Ecology” as advertised in a new Museum of Modern Art exhibit? -- Nancy R., New York, NY Israeli-born designer and architect Neri Oxman, founding director of the Mediated Matter Group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Media Lab, coined the term Material Ecology to describe a process of combining materials science, digital fabrication technologies and organic design to produce techniques and objects informed by the structural, systemic and aesthetic wisdom of nature. Oxman’s vision involves harnessing biological impulses to grow and build in the pursuit of developing structures out of natural elements alongside man-made designs and parts. “It is the definition of ecology—the branch in biology that deals with the relations between organisms and their physical surroundings—applied to all things man-made or human-designed,” she tells Dezeen. “Biology is far more refined and sophisticated than material practices involved in polymers, concrete, steel and glass,” she adds. “But what if we could change that by creating new technologies that can vary the physical properties of matter at a resolution and sophistication that approaches that of the natural world?”

The best-known example of Neri Oxman’s work to date in "Material Ecology" is the so-called Silk Pavilion whereby 6,500 silkworms were fed and released onto a human-designed, robot-created cocoon-like dome structure, eventually completing the human/natural architecture by weaving a silk cover. Credit: Mediated Matter Group, MIT. The best-known example of Oxman’s work to date is the so-called Silk Pavilion, first conceived at MIT in 2013, whereby 6,500 silkworms were fed and released onto a human-designed, robot-created cocoon-like dome structure, eventually completing the human/natural architecture by weaving a silk cover. Animal rights activists might at first be alarmed at the concept of enslaving silkworms to make use of their biological product for human benefit, but taking a wider view of the situation affords a more humane conclusion. Oxman points out that the traditional process of harvesting silk (“sericulture”) kills silkworm larva, effectively sacrificing the next generation of silkworms for the sake of producing silk. “In the textile and silk industry today, silkworms are exterminated while in their cocoon, dissolving the adhesive that glues one strand of silk to the layers below,” reports Oxman. “This process allows a single silk strand to be unrolled from the cocoon, but disrupts the life cycle and development of the organism.” But in creating the silk cover for the pavilion, the silkworms’ product ends up in use as strands in the structure’s cover instead of as the walls of a cocoon; no silkworms-to-be are harmed. Oxman hopes her work can highlight that, with creative thinking, we can overcome the limitations of “additive manufacturing” (e.g., 3D printing) at architectural scales. Currently the small size of 3D printers

Declaration of Independence: A History continued from page 5 Declaration of Independence (Washington, 1904), recorded that the Declaration was "locked and sealed, by order of Secretary Hay, and is no longer shown to anyone except by his direction." World War I came and went. Then, on April 21, 1920, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby issued an order creating yet another committee: "A Committee is hereby appointed to study the proper steps that should be taken for the permanent and effective preservation from deterioration and from danger from fire, or other form of destruction, of those documents of supreme value which under the law are deposited with the Secretary of State. The inquiry will include the question of display of certain of these documents for the benefit of the patriotic public." On May 5, 1920, the new committee reported on the physical condition of the safes that housed the Declaration and the Constitution. It declared: "The safes are constructed of thin sheets of steel. They are not fireproof nor would they offer much obstruction to an evil-disposed person who wished to break into them." About the physical condition of the Declaration, the committee stated: "We believe the fading can go no further. We see no reason why the original document should not be exhibited if the parchment be laid between two sheets of glass, hermetically sealed at the edges and exposed only to diffused light." The committee also made some important "supplementary recommendations." It noted that on March 3, 1903, President Theodore Roosevelt had directed that certain records relating to the Continental Congress be turned over by the Department of State to the Library of Congress: "This transfer was made under a provision of an Act of February 25, 1903, that any Executive Department may turn over to the Library of Congress books, maps, or other material no longer needed for the use of the Department." The committee recommended that the remaining papers, including the Declaration and the Constitution, be similarly given over to the custody of the Library of Congress. For the Declaration, therefore, two important changes were in the offing: a new home and the possibility of exhibition to "the patriotic public." The Library of Congress . . . and Fort Knox, 1921-52 There was no action on the recommendations of 1920 until after the Harding administration took office. On September 28,

1921, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes addressed the new President: "I enclose an executive order for your signature, if you approve, transferring to the custody of the Library of Congress the original Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States which are now in the custody of this Department. . . . I make this recommendation because in the Library of Congress these muniments will be in the custody of experts skilled in archival preservation, in a building of modern fireproof construction, where they can safely be exhibited to the many visitors who now desire to see them." President Warren G. Harding agreed. On September 29, 1921, he issued the Executive order authorizing the transfer. The following day Secretary Hughes sent a copy of the order to Librarian of Congress Herbert Putnam, stating that he was "prepared to turn the documents over to you when you are ready to receive them." Putnam was both ready and eager. He presented himself forthwith at the State Department. The safes were opened, and the Declaration and the Constitution were carried off to the Library of Congress on Capitol Hill in the Library's "mail wagon," cushioned by a pile of leather U.S. mail sacks. Upon arrival, the two national treasures were placed in a safe in Putnam's office. On October 3, Putnam took up the matter of a permanent location. In a memorandum to the superintendent of the Library building and grounds, Putnam proceeded from the premise that "in the Library" the documents "might be treated in such a way as, while fully safe-guarding them and giving them distinction, they should be open to inspection by the public at large." The memorandum discussed the need for a setting "safe, dignified, adequate, and in every way suitable . . . Material less than bronze would be unworthy. The cost must be considerable." The Librarian then requested the sum of $12,000 for his purpose. The need was urgent because the new Bureau of the Budget was about to print forthcoming fiscal year estimates. There was therefore no time to make detailed architectural plans. Putnam told an appropriations committee on January 16, 1922, just what he had in mind. "There is a way . . . we could construct, say, on the second floor on the western side continued on page 11

Alena Kormos recently got into fishing and caught a 20 inch 6lbs bass

Howdy From Lake Cuyamaca

“Dusty Britches” here along with “Festus” Hagan… U.S. Deputy Marshall, “Hop Along” Casaday (William Boyd), “Mr. Rogers”(Fred), and “Mr. Ed”(Wilber and Carol…owners… Carol was always jealous of Wilbur spending too much time with Mr. Ed). The temperatures here at the pond are hotter than pancakes just off the griddle and lots of people just “hangin out” enjoying the ability to get out, breathe some fresh air, and look at some stars. The summer solstice (also known as the Estival solstice or mid-summer) has just passed us. When the sun is at its highest point in the sky and we have our longest day. After this, the days will shorten slowly. The fishing at the pond is spotty. Some trout are still coming out… I’d always rather be lucky, than good when it comes to fishing. The crappie (and blue gill) bite is still strong over at the north end of the dike below Chambers. Some smaller catfish are being taken along the west shoreline. Because the trout bite was so strong after the Memorial Day plant, and has slowed down considerable, I have been in touch with Mt Lassen to see if another truck is coming this far down from Northern California soon. I can only afford so much for a trout plant and that is about half of what they need to transport in order to make it profitable for them, so they are looking for another lake in the San Diego area that want some trout… still trying though. I have not seen a sturgeon come out in a while, but they have always been unpredictable. Lots of new Canada goslings trundling around behind their parents, as are the mallard ducklings. We have finished the majority of our water transfer, and the large pump has been shut down leaving the remainder of the water in the upper basin to be transferred using the smaller pump to re-fill the west, so “Pump House Cove” won’t be as popular as is it has been recently. It has been all boats out on the weekends by 8:00 a.m., so if you plan on a visit to the pond and want to use a motor boat… or any boat, better get here early. The restaurant has been picking up in business. Dolores Gomez, Blanca, Reina, Moisan, Fernando, and the rest of the crew work very hard to make your experience at the restaurant a good one. The “DINE-IN” light is lit with tables available inside the restaurant, outside on the deck, or under the “Big Top” canopy. They have endured a lot, as many in the restaurant business have. So if your in the area, stop in for a chicken pot pie, apple pie, or one of their huge mountain burgers. Added to my list of expendable items that my almost new yellow Labrador retriever has violated is (another) ohm meter; a drywall hand saw; 2- screwdrivers… both slotted and craftsman, and both ends of my dry/wet vacuum hose… someday he will grow out of this… I’m hoping. It is fun to watch him leap at a “Dorito” chip thrown into the air, then not know the difference between it and the Monarch Butterflies migrating through ... Happy Trails… “Cauliflower is nothing but cabbage with a college education” … Mark Twain “It is just like man’s vanity and impertinence to call an animal dumb because it is dumb to his dull perceptions”… Mark Twain Tight Lines and Bent Rods ... Dusty Britches

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Electric

Gus Garcia’s

Home and Business Electrical Service  New Meters  New Panels  Fans & Lighting  Additional Circuits  Water Well Electrical

cell (760) 271 0166 License # 678670

PROBLEM WATER?

Excavation / Site Work

General Contractor

LARRY NOBLE CONSTRUCTION INC. General Contractor

New Construction Room Additions Decks Remodels

Call – Bert Huff !

For 30 years I have been taking care of San Diego and the backcountry’s water problems. big or small. Bad taste. odor, hard water, iron ... no mater what your water problem I can guarantee the highest quality products at the best price. WE REPAIR ALL MAKES & MODELS • www.haguewatersandiego.com

760•789•5010

SALES • SERVICE Residential & Commercial Water Treatment Systems - Water Testing License No. 415453

Heating / Air Conditioning Service

Over 35 Years Experience Lawrence Noble, Owner Julian Resident for 27 years State Lic.602654

760 • 765 • 2363 PO Box 1342 JULIAN, CA 92036

Carpet / Flooring / Window Treatment

GOT WATER PROBLEMS?

• CUSTOM HOMES • DECKING • DOORS and WINDOWS • ELECTRICAL SERVICE • HARDWOOD FLOORING •

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July 1, 2020

Declaration of Independence: A History continued from page 10 in that long open gallery a railed inclosure, material of bronze, where these documents, with one or two auxiliary documents leading up to them, could be placed, where they need not be touched by anybody but where a mere passer-by could see them, where they could be set in permanent bronze frames and where they could be protected from the natural light, lighted only by soft incandescent lamps. The result could be achieved and you would have something every visitor to Washington would wish to tell about when he returned and who would regard it, as the newspapermen are saying, with keen interest as a sort of 'shrine.'" The Librarian's imaginative presentation was successful: The sum of $12,000 was appropriated and approved on March 20, 1922. Before long, the "sort of 'shrine'" was being designed by Francis H. Bacon, whose brother

Henry was the architect of the Lincoln Memorial. Materials used included different kinds of marble from New York, Vermont, Tennessee, the Greek island of Tinos, and Italy. The marbles surrounding the manuscripts were American; the floor and balustrade were made of foreign marbles to correspond with the material used in the rest of the Library. The Declaration was to be housed in a frame of goldplated bronze doors and covered with double panes of plate glass with specially prepared gelatin films between the plates to exclude the harmful rays of light. A 24-hour guard would provide protection. On February 28, 1924, the shrine was dedicated in the presence of President and Mrs. Calvin Coolidge, Secretary Hughes, and other distinguished guests. Not a word was spoken during a moving ceremony in which Putnam fitted the

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Declaration into its frame. There were no speeches. Two stanzas of America were sung. In Putnam's words: "The impression on the audience proved the emotional potency of documents animate with a great tradition." With only one interruption, the Declaration hung on the wall of the second floor of the Great Hall of the Library of Congress until December 1952. During the prosperity of the 1920s and the Depression of the 1930s, millions of people visited the shrine. But the threat of war and then war itself caused a prolonged interruption in the steady stream of visitors. On April 30, 1941, worried that the war raging in Europe might engulf the United States, the newly appointed Librarian of Congress, Archibald MacLeish, wrote to the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr. The Librarian was concerned for the most precious of the many objects in his charge. He wrote "to enquire whether space

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might perhaps be found" at the Bullion Depository in Fort Knox for his most valuable materials, including the Declaration, "in the unlikely event that it becomes necessary to remove them from Washington." Secretary Morgenthau replied that space would indeed be made available as necessary for the "storage of such of the more important papers as you might designate." On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. On December 23, the Declaration and the Constitution were removed from the shrine and placed between two sheets of acid-free manilla paper. The documents were then carefully wrapped in a container of allrag neutral millboard and placed in a specially designed bronze container. It was late at night when the container was finally secured with padlocks on each side. Preparations were resumed on the day after Christmas, when the Attorney General ruled that the Librarian needed no "further continued on page 12

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bursting I can see colors _______________ in the sky and blazing bonfires _______________. booming and I can hear fireworks _______________ honking car horns _______________ and cheering people _______________. icy sweet I can taste watermelon _______________ and ________________ spicy sizzling a hotdog, ________________ and _______________. burning and I can smell sulfur _______________ cooking food _______________. cool , _________ wet grass under my feet I can feel the ________ and _______________ for my country in my heart! pride

Chef’s Corner continued from page 6

would formally sever ties with Great Britain. The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman and Robert R. Livingston. Jefferson, who was considered the strongest and most eloquent writer, crafted the document. (Nevertheless, a total of 86 changes were made to his draft.) The Continental Congress officially adopted the final version on July 4. The following day, copies of the Declaration of Independence were distributed and, on July 6, “The Pennsylvania Evening Post” became the first newspaper to print the extraordinary document. The Declaration of Independence has since become our nation’s most cherished symbol of liberty. On July 8, 1776, the first public readings of the Declaration were held in Philadelphia’s Independence Square to the ringing of bells and band music. One year later, on July 4, 1777, Philadelphia marked Independence Day by adjourning Congress and celebrating with bonfires, bell-ringing and fireworks. The custom eventually spread to other cities and towns, both large and small, where the day was marked with processions, oratory, picnics, contests, games, military displays and fireworks. Observations throughout the nation became even more common at the end of the War of 1812 with Great Britain. Congress established Independence Day as a holiday in 1870, and in 1938, Congress reaffirmed it as a holiday, but with full pay for federal employees. Even in this time of COVID-19 and social distancing, communities across the nation will find a way to mark this major summer holiday with parades, firework displays and the playing of the “The Star-Spangled Banner” and marches by John Philip Sousa while waving the American flag.

BACKCOUNTRY CLASSIFIEDS

Placing a Classified Advertisement: To order a classified ad by mail, please send your advertisement with a check or Money Order to Julian News PO Box 639 Julian, CA 92036. Phone Orders are accepted Wednesday, Thursday 9 am to 5 pm, Friday 9 am to 12 noon. Visa and Master Card are accepted. Ads must be paid for at time of placement and will appear in the next issue. NO refunds for Classified Ads. Office phone - 760 765 2231.

MEETINGS

In accordance with Federal law and U.S. Department of Labor Policy, The Julian News will not publish, any advertisement for employment that discriminates on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability. The Julian News encourages equal opportunity employment in the work place.

AA Meetings

TIRED OF MAKING MINIMUM WAGE? Miner’s Diner is hiring dependable, honest, friendly and hard-working cooks, fountain and hostess positions. No experience necessary, We Will Train! Must be available to work weekends and holidays. Contact Will at 909576-5618 or apply in person at 2134 Main Street, Julian, CA (Do Not Send Resumes) 7/3

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNTIES LOCAL JULIAN COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITY Local resident looking to borrow 550k secured by developed Julian commercial property. 5-10 year term, 6% interest only, low loan to value (LTV), first trust deed. Please send inquiries to Julian News PO Box 639 Julian, CA 92036 1/31

The U.S. Declaration of Independence enshrines the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. Alas, that is not the case everywhere in the world. — Haris Pasovic

*** Angela Shelf Medearis is an award-winning children's author, culinary historian and the author of seven cookbooks. Her new cookbook is "The Kitchen Diva's Diabetic Cookbook." Her website is www. divapro.com. To see how-to videos, recipes and much, much more, Like Angela Shelf Medearis, The Kitchen Diva! on Facebook. Recipes may not be reprinted without permission from Angela Shelf Medearis. © 2020 King Features Synd., Inc., and Angela Shelf Medearis

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CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING - Notice to Advertisers: Any error should be reported to the Julian News prior to Thursday at 12 Noon following the publication date. The Julian News accepts advertising on the condition that advertiser agrees that at no time shall The Julian News Liability exceed the cost of space involved and that the Julian News is not liable for incidental or consequential damages. The Julian News accepts no responsibility for ad contents or errors in spelling or grammar.

EMPLOYMENT OFFERED

ORCHARD HILL COUNTRY INN, Full and part-time Jobs available. Excellent working conditions, will train. * A.M. Breakfast cook * Housekeeper * Front Desk – computer skills required Beginning wage determined by experience and qualifications, 2502 Washington Street – 760-765-1700 6/17

The Julian News 11

This delicious Flag Day in America Watermelon Feta Salad will be an edible reminder of the flag we all hold dear, and a beautiful centerpiece for your Independence Day celebration! FLAG DAY WATERMELON FETA SALAD 1/4 cup red wine vinegar 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard 1 tablespoon grated lemon peel 1 teaspoon sugar, agave syrup or stevia 1/2 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon pepper 1/3 cup olive oil 1/4 cup finely chopped red onion Salad: 6 cups fresh arugula (about 5 ounces) 1 1/2 cups fresh blueberries 5 cups cubed seedless watermelon 1 package (8 ounces) feta cheese, cut into 1/2-inch cubes 1. For vinaigrette, in a small bowl, whisk the first six ingredients; gradually whisk in oil until blended. Stir in onion and set aside. 2. In a large bowl, lightly toss arugula with 1/4 cup vinaigrette. Arrange evenly in a large rectangular serving dish. 3. For stars, place blueberries over arugula at the top left corner. For stripes, arrange watermelon and cheese in alternating rows. Drizzle with remaining vinaigrette. Serve immediately. Serves 10 to 12.

www.NCsandiegoAA.org 760-758-2514

Monday - 11am

Shelter Valley Community Center (Information: 760 765 3261 0R 760 765 0527)

Monday - 7pm 3407 Highway 79

(across from Fire Station)

Tuesday - 9am Sisters In Recovery

(open to all females - 12 step members)

information: 760-765-2331

WORSHIP SERVICES Worship and Sunday School at 8:30 and 10:00 Blending of traditional and contemporary elements Warm welcome and uplifting music Relevant, thoughtful message

Community United Methodist Church

Celebrating 50 years of loving God and serving our neighbors Location: 2898 State Hwy 78 No (just west of Pine Hills Road, look for the white rail fence)

Services Phone: 760-765-0114 This E-mail: communityumcjulian@yahoo.com Sunday PERSONAL SUPPORT

Tuesday - 7pm

Santa Ysabel Mission Church (Open Big Book Study)

Tuesday - 7pm Julian Men’s Meeting

3407 Highway 79

(across from Fire Station)

Wednesday - 6pm Warner Community Resourse Center

(Across street from Warner Unified School)

Thursday - 7pm

BYOB - Bring Yer Own Book Closed meeting; book study

St. Elizabeth Church (Downstairs)

Thursday - 7pm Julian Prospectors AA Open Meeting

Need help? Call 800.656.HOPE (4673) to

(across from Fire Station)

be connected with a trained staff member from a sexual assault service provider in your area.

Shelter Valley Community Center Shelter Doodle Group AA Open Meeting

Teen Crisis HotLine 1-800- HIT HOME

3407 Highway 79

Thursday - 7pm Friday - 5pm

Ramona Sobriety Party

Spirit of Joy Church - 1735 Main St

Saturday - 5pm

Ramona Free Thinkers AA Ramona Recovery Club 1710 Montecito Road

Sunday - 5:30pm Sweet Surender Speaker Meeting Ramona Recovery Club 1710 Montecito Road

SUBSTANCE ABUSE CRISIS LINE

1•888•724•7240

continued from page 7 1. Gene Autry. 2. Don Beebe. 3. Costantino Rocca. 4. Cricket. 5. Zero. 6. The Miami Heat. 7. Ricky Williams.

Trivia Time

continued from page 6

Answers

1. Massachusetts 2. Beirut 3. Invasion of Iwo Jima 4. Strawberry Alarm Clock 5. Time 6. Ford Motor Co. 7. “Dances With Wolves” 8. Camouflage 9. Love conquers all 10. King’s Landing

® 2020 King Features Syndicate, Inc.


12 The Julian News

LEGAL

NOTICES

Volume 35 - Issue 48

Your Weekly Horoscope

The Julian News is authorized to print official legal notices of all

types including: Liens, Fictitious Business Names, Change of Name, Abandonment, Estate Sales, Auctions, Public Offerings, Court ordered publishing, etc. Please call The Julian News at (760) 765 2231 for our competitive rates. The Julian News is a legally adjudicated newspaper of General Circulation in the State of California, County of San Diego on February 9, 1987. Case No. 577843

IMPORTANT NOTICE FOR BUSINESSES

Renewal filing of Fictitious Business Name Statements (your DBA) is now required by the County of San Diego every five (5) years. If your business name was originally filed or renewed prior to June 1, 2015; 2015; you need to re-file. If you have not renewed since that date call The Julian News office, (760) 765-2231. We can provide this essential legal service at a very reasonable rate. County forms are available at our offices - we can explain how to complete the re-filing for you without your having to take a trip to the city. Failure to re-file could result in the loss of the exclusive rights to your business name. name. You may use the Julian News or any other publication that is authorized to publish Fictitious Business Name Statements and Legal Notices. FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9008901 SUMMIT HOMES 16932 Iron Springs Rd., Julian, CA 92036 The business is conducted by An Individual Curtis Pfizenmaier, 16932 Iron Springs Rd., Julian, CA 92036. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/ COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON May 27, 2020. LEGAL: 08554 Publish: June 10, 17, 24 and July 1, 2020

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9010472 a) FC GOLDEN STATE NORTH COUNTY b) CARLSBAD RECREATIONAL SOCCER 765 Avocado Lane, Carlsbad, CA 92008 (Mailing Address: PO Box 1862, Carlsbad, CA 92018) The business is conducted by A Corporation Caribbean Connection Foundation, 765 Avocado Lane, Carlsbad, CA 92008. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 19, 2020. LEGAL: 08560 Publish: June 24 and July 1, 8, 15, 2020

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9009213 ARCTIC AIR 17843 Sun Walk Ct., San Diego, CA 92127 The business is conducted by A Corporation - ATS Heating and Air Corp., 17843 Sun Walk Ct., San Diego, CA 92127. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/ COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 4, 2020.

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9009483 G&N COMPLIANCE CONSULTING GROUP, INC 7325 Calle Conifera, Carlsbad, Ca 92009 The business is conducted by A Corporation - G&N Compliance Consulting Group, Inc, 7325 Calle Conifera, Carlsbad, Ca 92009. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 9, 2020.

LEGAL: 08555 Publish: June 17, 24 and July 1, 8, 2020

LEGAL: 08558 Publish: June 24 and July 1, 8, 15, 2020

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9009163 APPLE ALLEY BAKERY 2122 Main Street, Julian, CA 92036 (Mailing Address: PO Box 1688, Julian CA 92036) The business is conducted by an Individual Debra K. Gaudette, 1801 Whispering Pines Dr., Julian, CA 92036. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/ COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 3, 2020. LEGAL: 08557 Publish: June 17, 24 and July 1, 8, 2020

ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE FOR CHANGE OF NAME

Case Number: 37-2020-00018933-CU-PT-CTL

IN THE MATTER OF THE APPLICATION OF: TATIANA SMELOVA FOR CHANGE OF NAME PETITIONER: TATIANA SMELOVA and on behalf of: MARINA NICOLE KUZNETSOVA, a minor HAS FILED A PETITION FOR AN ORDER TO CHANGE NAMES FROM: MARINA NICOLE KUZNETSOVA, a minor TO: MARINA NICOLE SMELOVA, a minor IT IS ORDERED that all persons interested in this matter appear before this court in Department 61 of the San Diego County Superior Court at the address shown (1100 Union Street, San Diego, CA 92101) on JULY 20, 2020 at 8:30 a.m., and show cause, if any, why the petition for a change of name should not be granted. IT IS FURTHER ORDERED that a copy of this ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE be published in the Julian News, a newspaper of general circulation published in this county, at least once a week for four successive weeks prior to the day of the hearing. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH THE COURT CLERK OF THE SUPERIOR COURT ON June 5, 2020. LEGAL: 08556 Publish: June 17, 24, and July 1, 8, 2020

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9010243 PENDRAGON CONSULTING LLC 13779 Paseo Cardiel, San Diego, CA 92129 The business is conducted by An Individual David Clifton Phillips, 13779 Paseo Cardiel, San Diego, CA 92129. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/ COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 18, 2020. LEGAL: 08559 Publish: June 24 and July 1, 8, 15, 2020

STATEMENT OF ABANDONMENT OF USE OF FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME File No. 2020-9010471 In reference to the activity doing business as: a) GPS San Diego b) GPS SD Located at: 765 Avacado Lane, Carlsbad, CA 92008 The following registrant(s) has abandoned use of the fictitious business name: Caribbean Connection Foundation. This fictitious business name referred to above was filed in San Diego County on January 30, 2020, and assigned File No. 2020-9002709. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG, JR., RECORDER/COUNTY CLERK, COUNTY OF SAN DIEGO ON June 19, 2020. LEGAL: 08561 Publish: June 24 and July 1, 8, 15, 2020

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9010256 OPTION D GRAPHICS, LLC 2525 Pioneer Ave, Suite 2, Vista, CA 92081 The business is conducted by A Limited Liability Company - Option D Graphics, LLC, 2525 Pioneer Ave, Suite 2, Vista, CA 92081. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 18, 2020. LEGAL: 08562 Publish: July 1, 8, 15, 22, 2020

FICTITIOUS BUSINESS NAME STATEMENT File No. 2020-9010319 MACKENZIE ADVISORY 4724 Panache Dr, Fallbrook, CA 92028 The business is conducted by An Individual Beborah Elizabeth Burnes, 4724 Panache Dr, Fallbrook, CA 92028. THIS STATEMENT WAS FILED WITH ERNEST J. DRONENBURG JR., RECORDER/COUNTY CLERK OF SAN DIEGO COUNTY ON June 19, 2020. LEGAL: 08563 Publish: July 1, 8, 15, 22, 2020

Declaration of Independence: A History

continued from page 11 authority from the Congress or the President" to take such action as he deemed necessary for the "proper protection and preservation" of the documents in his charge. The packing process continued under constant armed guard. The container was finally sealed with lead and packed in a heavy box; the whole weighed some 150 pounds. It was a far cry from the simple linen bag of the summer of 1814. At about 5 p.m. the box, along with other boxes containing vital records, was loaded into an armed and escorted truck, taken to Union Station, and loaded into a compartment of the Pullman sleeper Eastlake. Armed Secret Service agents occupied the neighboring compartments. After departing from Washington at 6:30 p.m., the Declaration traveled to Louisville, KY, arriving at 10:30 a.m., December 27, 1941. More Secret Service agents and a cavalry troop of the 13th Armored Division met the train, convoyed its precious contents to the Bullion Depository at Fort Knox, and placed the Declaration in compartment 24 in the outer tier on the ground level. The Declaration was periodically examined during its sojourn at Fort Knox. One such examination in 1942 found that the Declaration had become detached in part from its mount, including the upper right corner,

which had been stuck down with copious amounts of glue. In his journal for May 14, 1942, Verner W. Clapp, a Library of Congress official, noted: "At one time also (about January 12, 1940) an attempt had been made to reunite the detached upper right hand corner to the main portion by means of a strip of 'scotch' cellulose tape which was still in place, discolored to a molasses color. In the various mending efforts glue had been splattered in two places on the obverse of the document." The opportunity was taken to perform conservation treatment in order to stabilize and rejoin the upper right corner. Under great secrecy, George Stout and Evelyn Erlich, both of the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, traveled to Fort Knox. Over a period of 2 days, they performed mending of small tears, removed excess adhesive and the "scotch" tape, and rejoined the detached upper right corner. Finally, in 1944, the military authorities assured the Library of Congress that all danger of enemy attack had passed. On September 19, the documents were withdrawn from Fort Knox. On Sunday, October 1, at 11:30 a.m., the doors of the Library were opened. The Declaration was back in its shrine. With the return of peace, the keepers of the Declaration were mindful of the increasing

ARIES (March 21 to April 19) A plan you've kept on hold for a long time finally could be greenlighted. But in typical Aries form, you'll need to be sure that everything is in place before you hit the "start" button. TAURUS (April 20 to May 20) Others might urge you to act more quickly on your ideas. But you'd be wise to follow your Bovine instincts and get more facts to bolster your position when you finally present it. GEMINI (May 21 to June 20) You might be tempted to accept the well-meaning offer of a friend to act as an intermediary in a dispute. But you know best what it's about, and you can handle the challenge. Good luck. CANCER (June 21 to July 22) Entertainment can play an important role this week. Enjoy some well-earned diversion with people you care about. Something especially wonderful might come from this well-spent time. LEO (July 23 to August 22) Catnaps and playtime are in order for Leos and Leonas who need to take some time off from their hectic schedules to restore their energies and rebuild their mental muscles. Have fun. VIRGO (August 23 to September 22) Virgos will need to keep an open mind this week about choices that seem improbable. A closer study might well reveal possibilities that might have been overlooked. Stay with it. LIBRA (September 23 to October 22) A disappointing outcome of a well-intentioned effort should be seen as a lesson in how to do it right the next time. Note all your changes and have your new plan set up by week's end.

technological expertise available to them relating to the preservation of the parchment. In this they were readily assisted by the National Bureau of Standards, which even before World War II, had researched the preservation of the Declaration. The problem of shielding it from harsh light, for example, had in 1924 led to the insertion of a sheet of yellow gelatin between the protective plates of glass. Yet this procedure lessened the visibility of an already faded parchment. Could not some improvement be made? Following reports of May 5, 1949, on studies in which the Library staff, members of the National Bureau of Standards, and representatives of a glass manufacturer had participated, new recommendations were made. In 1951 the Declaration was sealed in a thermopane enclosure filled with properly humidified helium. The exhibit case was equipped with a filter to screen out damaging light. The new enclosure also had the effect of preventing harm from air pollution, a growing peril. Soon after, however, the Declaration was to make one more move, the one to its present home. The National Archives, 1952 to the Present In 1933, while the Depression gripped the nation, President Hoover laid the cornerstone for the National Archives Building in Washington, DC. He announced that the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution would eventually be kept in the impressive structure that was to occupy the site. Indeed, it was for their keeping and display that the exhibition hall in the National Archives had been designed. Two large murals were painted for its walls. In one, Thomas Jefferson is depicted presenting the Declaration to John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress while members of that Revolutionary body look on. In the second, James Madison is portrayed submitting the Constitution to George Washington. The final transfer of these special documents did not, however, take place until almost 20 years later. In October 1934 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed the first Archivist of the United States, Robert Digges

SCORPIO (October 23 to November 21) Creative projects might have to go on standby as you tackle other matters making demands on your time and energy. Things should ease by the middle of next week. SAGITTARIUS (November 22 to December 21) Your honest approach to an unsettling experience draws admiration from others. Use their positive feedback to build support for your program to introduce needed changes. CAPRICORN (December 22 to January 19) A workplace goal that suddenly seems out of reach is no problem for the surefooted Goat, who moves steadily forward despite any obstacles placed in his or her way. AQUARIUS (January 20 to February 18) A job-related situation could provide an opportunity you hadn't considered before. Look it over carefully and see where and how you can tailor it to fit your needs. PISCES (February 19 to March 20) Showing strength as well as sympathy helps you deal with a difficult personal matter. It also helps you set an example for others when it's their turn to get involved in the situation. BORN THIS WEEK: You have a way of making people feel comfortable without losing one whit of your own dignity in the process. © 2020 King Features Syndicate, Inc.

Wimberly Connor. The President told Connor that "valuable historic documents," such as the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, would reside in the National Archives Building. The Library of Congress, especially Librarian Herbert Putnam, objected. In a meeting with the President 2 months after his appointment, Connor explained to Roosevelt how the documents came to be in the Library and that Putnam felt another Act of Congress was necessary in order for them to be transferred to the Archives. Connor eventually told the President that it would be better to leave the matter alone until Putnam retired. When Herbert Putnam retired on April 5, 1939, Archibald MacLeish was nominated to replace him. MacLeish agreed with Roosevelt and Connor that the two important documents belonged in the National Archives. Because of World War II, during much of which the Declaration was stored at Fort Knox, and Connor's resignation in 1941, MacLeish was unable to enact the transfer. By 1944, when the Declaration and Constitution returned to Washington from Fort Knox, MacLeish had been appointed Assistant Secretary of State. Solon J. Buck, Connor's successor as Archivist of the United States (1941-48), felt that the documents were in good hands at the Library of Congress. His successor, Wayne Grover, disagreed. Luther Evans, the Librarian of Congress appointed by President Truman in June 1945, shared Grover's opinion that the documents should be transferred to the Archives. In 1951 the two men began working with their staff members and legal advisers to have the documents transferred. The Archives position was that the documents were federal records

and therefore covered by the Federal Records Act of 1950, which was "paramount to and took precedence over" the 1922 act that had appropriated money for the shrine at the Library of Congress. Luther Evans agreed with this line of reasoning, but he emphasized getting the approval of the President and the Joint Committee on the Library. Senator Theodore H. Green, Chairman of the Joint Committee on the Library, agreed that the transfer should take place but stipulated that it would be necessary to have his committee act on the matter. Evans went to the April 30, 1952, committee meeting alone. There is no formal record of what was said at the meeting, except that the Joint Committee on the Library ordered that the documents be transferred to the National Archives. Not only was the Archives the official depository of the government's records, it was also, in the judgment of the committee, the most nearly bombproof building in Washington. At 11 a.m., December 13, 1952, Brigadier General Stoyte O. Ross, commanding general of the Air Force Headquarters Command, formally received the documents at the Library of Congress. Twelve members of the Armed Forces Special Police carried the 6 pieces of parchment in their helium-filled glass cases, enclosed in wooden crates, down the Library steps through a line of 88 servicewomen. An armored Marine Corps personnel carrier awaited the documents. Once they had been placed on mattresses inside the vehicle, they were accompanied by a color guard, ceremonial troops, the Army Band, the Air Force Drum and Bugle Corps, two light tanks, four servicemen carrying submachine guns, and a motorcycle escort in a parade down Pennsylvania and Constitution Avenues to the Archives Building. Both sides of the parade route were lined by Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Marine, and Air Force personnel. At 11:35 a.m. General Ross and the 12 special policemen arrived at the National Archives Building, carried the crates up the steps, and formally delivered them into the custody of Archivist of the United States Wayne Grover. (Already at the National Archives was the Bill of Rights, protectively sealed according to the modern techniques used a year earlier for the Declaration and Constitution.) The formal enshrining ceremony on December 15, 1952, was equally impressive. Chief Justice of the United States Fred M. Vinson presided over the ceremony, which was attended by officials of more than 100 national civic, patriotic, religious, veterans, educational, business, and labor groups. After the invocation by the Reverend Frederick Brown Harris, chaplain of the Senate, Governor Elbert N. Carvel of Delaware, the first state to ratify the Constitution, called the roll of states in the order in which they ratified the Constitution or were admitted to the Union. As each state was called, a servicewoman carrying the state flag entered the Exhibition Hall and remained at attention in front of the display cases circling the hall. President Harry S. Truman, the featured speaker, said: "The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights are now assembled in one place for display and safekeeping. . . . We are engaged here today in a symbolic act. We are enshrining these documents for future ages. . . . This magnificent hall has been constructed to exhibit them, and the vault beneath, that we have built to protect them, is as safe from destruction as anything that the wit of modern

Wednesday - July 1, 2020

man can devise. All this is an honorable effort, based upon reverence for the great past, and our generation can take just pride in it." Senator Green briefly traced the history of the three documents, and then the Librarian of Congress and the Archivist of the United States jointly unveiled the shrine. Finally, Justice Vinson spoke briefly, the Reverend Bernard Braskamp, chaplain of the House of Representatives gave the benediction, the U.S. Marine Corps Band played the "Star Spangled Banner," the President was escorted from the hall, the 48 flagbearers marched out, and the ceremony was over. (The story of the transfer of the documents is found in Milton O. Gustafson, " The Empty Shrine: The Transfer of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution to the National Archives," The American Archivist 39 (July 1976): 271285.) The present shrine provides an imposing home. The priceless documents stand at the center of a semicircle of display cases showing other important records of the growth of the United States. The Declaration, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights stand slightly elevated, under armed guard, in their bronze and marble shrine. The Bill of Rights and two of the five leaves of the Constitution are displayed flat. Above them the Declaration of Independence is held impressively in an upright case constructed of ballistically tested glass and plastic laminate. Ultraviolet-light filters in the laminate give the inner layer a slightly greenish hue. At night, the documents are stored in an underground vault. In 1987 the National Archives and Records Administration installed a $3 million camera and computerized system to monitor the condition of the three documents. The Charters Monitoring System was designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to assess the state of preservation of the Constitution, the Declaration of Independence, and the Bill of Rights. It can detect any changes in readability due to ink flaking, off-setting of ink to glass, changes in document dimensions, and ink fading. The system is capable of recording in very fine detail 1-inch square areas of documents and later retaking the pictures in exactly the same places and under the same conditions of lighting and charge-coupled device (CCD) sensitivity. (The CCD measures reflectivity.) Periodic measurements are compared to the baseline image to determine if changes or deterioration invisible to the human eye have taken place. The Declaration has had many homes, from humble lodgings and government offices to the interiors of safes and great public displays. It has been carried in wagons, ships, a Pullman sleeper, and an armored vehicle. In its latest home, it has been viewed with respect by millions of people, everyone of whom has had thereby a brief moment, a private moment, to reflect on the meaning of democracy. The nation to which the Declaration gave birth has had an immense impact on human history, and continues to do so. In telling the story of the parchment, it is appropriate to recall the words of poet and Librarian of Congress Archibald MacLeish. He described the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution as "these fragile objects which bear so great a weight of meaning to our people." The story of the Declaration of Independence as a document can only be a part of the larger history, a history still unfolding, a "weight of meaning" constantly, challenged, strengthened, and redefined.

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