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Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden ADVISORY BOARD PATRICIA K. HoLMGREN, Director of the Herbarium The New York Botanical Garden JAMES L. LUTEYN, Senior Curator The New York Botanical Garden

ScoTT A. MoRI, Senior Curator The New York Botanical Garden EDITORIAL BOARD

WILLIAM R. BucK, Editor The New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458-5126 WM. WAYT THOMAS, Associate Editor The New York Botanical Garden Bronx, New York 10458-5126 THOMAS F. DANIEL (1991-2001) Department of Botany California Academy of Sciences Golden Gate Park San Francisco, California 94118

The MEMOIRS are published at irregular intervals in volumes of various sizes and are designed to include results of original botanical research by members of The New York Botanical Garden's staff, or by botanists who have collaborated in one or more of The New York Botanical Garden's research programs. Ordinarily only manuscripts of lOO or more typewritten pages will be considered for publication. Manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor. For further inforrnation regarding editorial policy and instructions for the preparation of manuscripts, contact the Editor. Orders for published and forthcoming issues and volumes should be placed with:

Scientific Publications Department THE NEW BOTANICAL GARDEN Bronx, New York 10458-5126 U.S.A. (718) 817-8721; fax (718) 817-8842 email: scipubs@nybg.org


a checklist ofplant diversity,

geographical distribution, andbotanical literature

James L. Luteyn with contributions from

Steven P. Churchill Dana Griffin III S. Rob Gradstein Harrie J. M. Sipman Mauricio R. Gavilanes A.

Memoirs ofThe NewYorkBotanical Garden Volume 84


© Copyright 1999 by The New York Botanical Garden Press

Published by The N ew York Botanic~l Garden Press

The páramo scene on the cover is taken from a mural that hangs in The Field Museum (Chicago). The mural was painted in 1948 by staff artist Arthur. G. Rueckert from photographs and other material provided by José Cuatrecasas. This mural shows a scene from "one of the most beautiful and least visited páramos ofColombia"-·the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy (compare with Fig. 4). The dominant species depicted in the mural is Espe/etia /opezii. (Reproduced with perrnission from The Field Museum, Chicago [Neg #B80317].)

The paper used in this publication meets the requirements ofthe American National Standard for Information Sciences-Perrnanence of Paper for Publications and Documents in Libraries and Archives, ANSI/NISO (Z39.48-1992). Printed in the United States of America using soy-based ink on recycled paper

Líbrary of Congress Catalogíng-in-Publicatíon Data Luteyn, James L. Páramos : a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanicalliterature 1 James L. Luteyn; with contributions from Steven P. Churchill ... [et al.]. p. cm.- (Memoirs ofthe New York Botanical Garden; v. 84) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-89327-427-5 l. Paramo plants--Andes Regían. 2. Paramo ecology-Andes Region. 3. Paramos-Andes Region. I. Title. II. Series. QK1.N525 vol. 84 [QK241] 580 s----dc21 [581.7'53'098] 99-17171


"!

1

Contents Abstract Dedication Foreword • S.A. Mari Contributors Preface Color Plates Introduction to the Páramo Ecosystem General Definition Geographical Distribution Clima te Soils Paleohistory and Paleoecology Vegetation Zonation Superpáramo Grass Páramo Subpáramo Morphological and Physiological Adaptations Growth Forms Rosette Plants Cushion Plants Bunchgrasses Microphyllous Shrubs Prostrate Dwarf Shrubs Geophytes Vagrant Plants Flora General Floristic Diversity General Phytogeography and Origins Fauna Hurnan Influence The Pre-Columbian Period The Colonial and Independence Periods The Modem Period Impact of Buming and Grazing Vegetative Structure, Composition, and Species Diversity

Vlll

ix X XI Xll XVll

1 1 2 3

4 6 9 10 10 17 19 20 21 23 23 23 24 24 25 25 25 28 30 30 32 32 33 34 34

Soil Structure and Water Storage Capacity Decomposition, Nutrients, and Productivity The Future of the Páramo Ecosystem Scientific Reasons Ecological Reasons Economic Reasons Management Conservation Environmental Education

35 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 38

Checklist of Páramo Plants Lichens • H. J M Sipman Lichenized Ascomycetes Lichenized Basidiomycetes Mosses • S. P. Churchill & D. Griffin !JI Hepatics • S. R. Gradstein Anthocerotae Hepaticae Vascular Plants • J L. Luteyn Fems and Fem Allies Gymnosperms Angiosperms

41 41 42 51 53 65 65 66 74 76 82 82

137

Gazetteer of Páramo Localities Costa Rica and Panama • J L. Luteyn Colombia • J L. Luteyn & M R. Gavilanes A. Venezuela • J L. Luteyn & M R. Gavilanes A. Ecuador • J L. Luteyn & M. R. Gavilanes A. Peru • J L. Luteyn Bibliographic Sources for Locations ofPáramos

138 142 172 194 220 226

Botanical References to Páramo

229

Appendices Appendix 1: Families and Genera in the Páramo Checklist Appendix 2: Nomenclatura! Novelties

272 278


The New York Botanical Garden Press thanks the following donors for their generous support of this publication:

The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Metropolitan Life Foundation, a leadership funder of The New York Botanical Garden's Scientific Publications Program.


Pรกra111os


ABSTRACT Luteyn, J. L. (Institute of Systematic Botany, The N ew York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, U.S.A.). Páramos: A checklist ofplant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanicalliterature. Memoirs ofThe New York Botanical Garden 84: 1-000. 1998.-Páramo is restricted to the northem Andes ofSouth America and adjacent southem Central America. It is a high-elevation ecosystem, from ca. 3000 m to 5000 m, between the continuous forest line and the upper limit of plant life at the snowline. It is characterized by tussock grasses, large rosette plants, shrubs with evergreen, coriaceous, and sclerophyllous leaves, and cushion plants. It has high biological diversity and is rich in endemism, but it is ecologically fragile. Páramo is a center of economic importance in the high Andes, .especial! y for agriculture and cattle raising. Its most important role, however, relates to Andean hydrology. Páramo has the richest high-mountain flora in the world. This book includes the family, genus, authority,·pertinent synonymy, and geographical and altitudinal ranges for each ofthe 3399 vascular and 1298 nonvascular páramo plant species. It a,lso gives the country, proper name, maximum altitude, latitude and longitude, political subdivisions, and notes for approximately 2100 páramo localities, plus fullliterature citations for more than 1570 páramo botanical references. Many ofthe black-and-white photos illustrating the book were taken by one ofthe early students ofpáramo, José Cuatrecasas.

'Key words: Páramo, South America, Central America, Andes, mountains, ecology, vegetation biogeography, human influence, taxonomy, checklist, lichens, mosses, hepatics, vascular plants, gazetteer, botanicalliterature.

RESUMEN Luteyn, J. L. (lnstitute of Systematic Botan y, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY 10458-5126, U.S.A.). Páramos: A checklist ofplant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanicalliterature. Memoirs ofThe New York Botanical Garden 84: 1-000. 1998.-El páramo está restringido al norte de los Andes de Sur América y a las áreas adjacentes al sur de Centro América. Es un ecosistéma de alta montaña, el cual va desde 3000 m a 5000 m de altitud, entre la franja de bosque continuo y el límite superior de nieve perpetua donde aún ocurre vida vegetal. Está caracterizado por gramíneas en macolla, plantas en rosetas, arbustos siempreverdes con hojas coriáceas y esclerófilas, y plantas en cojín. Tiene una diversidad biológica alta y es rico en endemismo, pero es ecológicamente frágil. El páramo es un centro de importancia económica en los altos Andes, especialmente en agricultura y ganadería. Sin embargo, su papel más importante está relacionado con la hidrología andina. El páramo tiene la flora más rica de alta montaña en el mundo. Este libro incluye familia, género, especie, autor, sinónimos pertinentes y rangos geográficos y altitudinales para cada una de los 3399 especies de plantas vasculares y 1298 especies de plantes no vasculares del páramo. También presenta el país, el nombre proprio, la altitud máxima, la latitud y la longitud, las divisiones políticas y algunas notas sobre aproximademente 2100 localidades de páramo, más citaciones de literatura completa para más de 1570 referencias botánicas del páramo. Muchas de las fotos en blanco y negro que ilustran el libro fueron tomadas por uno de los estudientes pioneros del páramo, José Cuatrecasas. Palabras clave: Páramo, América del Sur, América Central, Andes, montañas, ecología, vegetación, biogeografía, influencia humana, taxonomía, lista anotada, líquenes, musgos, hepáticas, plantas vasculares, diccionario geográfico, literatura botánica. viii


DEDICATION I am proud to dedicate this book to the memory of two outstanding field botanists, scholars, gentlemen, and friends-José Cuatrecasas and Luis Ruiz-Terán. José Cuatrecasas Arumí (1903-1996) (Fig. 1), "Don José," is tome the father ofmodern páramo studies. Born in Spain, he made his first trip to Colombia in 1932. His lo ve for the neotropical flora in general and for the páramos of Colombia in particular is reflected in the large number of botanical collections he made, the numerous taxonomic revisions and general papers he published (see Robinson et al., 1996), and the excellent photographs he took. His charm (e.g., while entertaining at home, showing slides and eating Chinese takeout), friendship, and many years of dedicated service to botany willlong be remembered by those of us who knewhim. Luis Enrique Ruiz-Terán (1923-1979) (Fig. 2) was born and raised in the páramo region ofMérida, Venezuela. He maintained a humble lifestyle, dedicating mostofhis energy to the study ofbotany. His special !ove for páramo is reflected in the great number ofvery detailed and carefully documented herbarium collections he made. As a professor ofbotany at the Universidad de Los Andes in Mérida, he influenced and stimulated many ofus to appreciate the páramo. Those ofus who knew him in the field (where he frequently stopped to prepare "tinto" and smoke a cigarette) will never forget the man. He did not publish much, but his intimate knowledge of and dedication to the flora of his native Andes was unsurpassed. Luis was also an avid mountain climber, and Pico Ruiz-Terán was named after him.

Fig. l. José Cuatrecasas standing alongside a population of Coespeletia timotensis at 4200 m in Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Mérida, Venezuela). (From Rundel et al., Tropical Alpine Environments, Cambridge University Press, New York. Reproduced with permission from Cambridge University Press. Photo probably taken by AJan P. Smith in about 1978.)

Fig. 2. Luis Ruiz-Terán standing next to his namesake, Ruilopezia ruizii, at ca. 2800 m in Páramo de Las Coloradas (Mérida, Venezuela). (Photo Cuatrec. I-4420, probably taken by José Cuatrecasas in about 1978.) ix


FOREWORD The Andes harbor the richest assemblage ofplants and animals in the Neotropics and perhaps in the world. The wide range ofhabitats caused by vast differences in elevation (from sea level to nearly 7000 meters at the summit of Aconcagua in Argentina), enormous differences in rainfall (from no rain in a given year in the Atacama Desert to 4500 mm per year at the foothills ofthe Andes in westem Amazonia), and the relative isolation of numerous mountain valleys have combined to produce ni ches inhabited by countless plant and animal species. The crown jewel of Andean vegetation types is páramo, located abo ve the last continuous forests and below the permanent snowline between 8°S and 11 °N latitudes in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, but with a few outliers in northem Peru in the south and' Panama and Costa Rica in the north. Páramo plays and has played an essential role in the ecology and evolution of Andean ecosystems. Despite its relatively small surface area-no more than 2% of the land area of the countries in which it is foundthe páramo flora is nevertheless extremely diverse with many endemic species. In fact, it is the richest high-mountain flora ofthe world (Smith & Cleef, 1988). Within the confines ofpáramo, Jim Luteyn and his collaborators have registered 3399 vascular and 1298 nonvascular plant species. Today, as in the past, páramo also acts as a center of economic importance in the high Andes, especially for agriculture and cattle raising. Its most importantrole, however, relates to Andean hydrology, where it acts as a sponge absorbing moisture from rain and fog for subsequent use by plants and animals, including man, in all of the Andean ecosystems. The expansion and contraction of páramo in conformity with climatic changes in the Pleistocene had a tremendous impact on the evolution and subsequent distribution of plants and animals. During glacial periods páramo expanded into lower elevations, and during interglacial periods it contracted to higher elevations. These movements created the opportunity for evolution ofboth páramo and lower-elevation plant and animal species. Jim became interested in páramo in 1978, on his first trip to Venezuela, where he was fascinated by its general beauty, interesting life forms, and variety of plants, including those he studies, the N ew W orld blueberries (Ericaceae ). The blueberries are the seventh largest family of flowering plants in the páramo (see Table VI), currently known to be represented by 16 genera and 79 species. During that trip Jim met José Cuatrecasas and Luis Ruiz-Terán for the frrst time, and formulated the idea (with Ruiz-Terán) of a revision ofVareschi' s (1970) Flora de Los Páramos. Since then Jim has retumed to the Andes nearly 50 times, and on many of those trips he collected in páramo. In 1992, Jim Luteyn and Henrik Balslev edited a multi-authored book entitled Páramo: An Andean Ecosystem under Human Injluence, following a symposium they organized in Aarhus, Denmark. This current book is, therefore, the result oflong-term interests Jim and his collaborators have had in páramo. This carefully crafted reference book to the páramo ecosystem will serve as a basis for a future páramo flora. It is divided into four parts: an introduction to páramo, checklists of plants, a gazetteer of páramo localities, and references to páramo in the botanicalliterature. Each part provides basic information for those interested in practically any aspect ofpáramo. For example, professors teaching courses in plant ecology will want to consult the introduction for the detailed descriptions of the different plant growth forms found in páramo; botanists producing local floras will need to refer to the checklists of lichens, mosses, hepatics, and vascular plants; geographers will fmd a great deal of information in the gazetteer enabling them to locate places where páramo plants have been collected, thereby facilitating the production of maps showing geographic distributions; the detailed botanical reference section will be indispensable to anyone interested in Andean vegetation; and conservationists and park managers will find data useful to them in all parts of the book. The strength of this book is that, for the first time, it assembles in one place information covering the entire páramo ecosystem that ranges from Costa Rica to Peru, and includes all higher plant groups, inX


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cluding lichens, mosses, hepatics, and vascular plants. Moreover, the data has been derived from an exhaustive search of numerous Latin American, North American, and European libraries and herbaria. The checklists provided by Churchill, Griffin, Gradstein, and Sipman have added data for groups of their expertise. For botanists interested in Andean plants this book is an essential reference. The checklist, in lieu of a complete flora, will facilitate plant identification. Although most botanists have a general idea ofthe classification of plants they observe and collect, they frequently need a memory aid in the form of a list of names to allow them to go to the right places in herbaria to confirm their determinations. Moreover, future botanists wishing to produce guides to the lichens, mosses, hepatics, and vascular plants of páramo have in this book the first step, a checklist, already done for them. Many ofthe photos illustrating the book were taken in the 1930s and 1940s by one ofthe early students of páramo, Dr. José Cuatrecasas, and depict páramo before much of it was disturbed by man. Today, similar! y undisturbed páramo is difficult, if not impossible, to find because of excessive human interference. Jim Luteyn and his collaborators have assembled the information upon which sound conservation plans can be developed to protect remaining páramos throughout the Andes. The authors will have achieved a very important goal ifthis book stimulates govemments and conservation organizations to preserve and restore representative páramos to the state they were observed by José Cuatrecasas and Luis Ruiz-Terán, pioneer páramo botanists to whom this book is dedicated.

Scott Mari The New York Botanical Garden, 1999

CONTRIBUTORS Steven P. Churchill- Institute of Systematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126, U.S.A.; current address: Dept. 23, Missouri Botanical Garden, Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166-0299, U.S.A. Mauricio R. Gavilanes A.- Av. Amazonas 1230 y Foch, Local "ARAMIS," Quito, Ecuador. S. Rob Gradstein - Systematisch-Geobotanisches Institut, University of Gottingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Gottingen, Germany. Da na Griffin IH- Florida Museum ofNatural History, University ofFlorida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-2035, U.S.A. James L. Luteyn- Institute ofSystematic Botany, The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York 10458-5126, U. S.A. Harrie J. M. Sipman- Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, KoniginLuise-Stra!3e 6-8, D-14191 Berlin, Germany.


PREFACE Above the montane forest and below the permanent snowline, a mostly open vegetation collectively known as páramo is scattered within the humid equatorial Andes. Like isolated mountaintops, islands in the sky, the páramo ecosystem is discontinuously distributed between 11 °N and 8°S latitudes, primarily in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, but also with a few outliers to the north in Costa Rica and Panama and to the south in northern Peru. The páramo ecosystem has high biological diversity and is rich in endemism, but it is ecologically fragile. Though it has provento be resilient to human disturban ce, it is rapidly reaching its limits. With human population size at its greatest in history and steadily rising, pressure for increased food production and land use within páramo has intensified, and deterioration of the environmenf has inevitably followed. With the public' s increased desire for leisure time, there is also a new awakening to the potential of the páramo for recreation and tourism. Therefore, the páramo ecosystem is in a precarious environmental position and is being threatened. There is an urgent need to in crease our efforts to study this ecosystem, not only to know what is there by means of inventory and ecological analyses, but also to monitor the effects of disturbance upon the vegetation and aquatic resources. Páramos have fascinated scientists ever since the first Europeans visited them in South America. Plants from páramo were first collected by Mutis in Colombia in the late 1700s and formally described by Humboldt (1816, 1817 for Colombia), Goebel (1891 for Venezuela), and Diels (1937 for Ecuador). In the late 1800s, Funck and Schlim, Jameson, Karsten, Purdie, H. H. Smith, Spruce, Triana, and others collected páramo plants. In the first half of the 20th century, Killip and A. C. Smith, Troll, Cuatrecasas, and Jahn were actively collecting, and more recently Acosta-Solís, H. Barclay, Ewan, Fassett, Fosberg, Haught, Little, López-Figueiras, Ruiz-Terán, Wm. Steere, Steyermark, and Vareschi, among others, gathered large numbers of páramo plants. In recent years, the Universidad de Los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela) has become a leading center ofpáramo ecology through its Centro de Investigaciones Ecológicas de los Andes Tropicales (CIELAT). Also, the Instituto de Ciencias Naturales (Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá) and the Instituto Geográfico 'Agustín Codazzi' (Bogotá), in cooperation with the Hugo de Vries Laboratory (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands), has significantly advanced our knowledge about the paleoecology and community structure of páramo in Colombia through its ECO ANDES program (Estudios de Ecosistemas Tropandinos). It is because of all this activity, associated with many collecting efforts, that there are literally thousands ofherbarium specimens of páramo plants available for study. Therefore, from a taxonomic and ecological point of view, certain aspects of páramo have been relatively well studied. Currently, however, there is no written flora ofthe entire páramo, and the only means to identify páramo plants is by using individual, widely scattered monographs or comparisons in the herbarium. Neither is there any authoritative book that summarizes our overall knowledge about páramo or guides one to literature about this ecosystem. Furthermore, although the vascular páramo flora is one ofthe richest in genera (500) and species (3399) ofthe high mountains of the world, the cold montane tropics are still overlooked by students of tropical biology, who focus more on the warm lowlands (Vuilleumier & Monasterio, 1986). My own interest in páramos started in 1978-1979, with m y first collecting trips to Venezuela, in the company ofLuis Ruiz-Terán. After working together for nearly two years, we decided to begin a revision ofVareschi's (1970) Flora de los Páramos. Unfortunately, this idea was cut short by Luis's unexpected death in 1979. My own interest remained dormant, although I have always tried to collect in the páramos on each field trip to northwestern South America. In 1986, on a trip to the Netherlands, I met with Antaine Cleef and we put together an idea for a generic flora and guide to the páramos in collaboration with Orlando Rangel Ch. (from Colombia). We had four purposes for xii


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the project: 1) to encourage and in crease botanical research in the páramo ecosystem; 2) to publish a checklist ofthe moss, hepatic, lichen, and vascular plant species; 3) to publish in Spanish an illustrated manual ofthe genera ofvascular plants suitable for both the layman and specia1ist; 4) to increase pub1ic awareness of páramo with the aim of stimulating efforts to conserve the páramo ecosystem. The fact that páramo areas have received re1atively good attention from botanists (compared to lowland and even sorne middle c1oud-forest habitats) made a páramo flora project feasib1e. The idea ofthe páramo project was formally presented at the first Páramo Symposium in Aarhus, Denmark in 1991 (Luteyn et al., 1992). Later I decided to put together a database of information necessary to begin such a flora, enlisting the help of specialists in lichens, hepatics, and mosses. In 1994 1 began to construct three databases: one that included for each páramo plant species its family, genus, authority, synonymy, geographical and altitudinal ranges, páramo subdivision, voucher specimen, and notes; a second database for each páramo locality giving its country, proper name (sometimes cross-referenced to other names used), maximum altitude, latitude and longitude, politica1 subdivisions, and notes; and a third database for botanical1iterature. These three databases form the basis for the current volume, which is the first major result ofthat idea born in 1979. In 1996, for practica! reasons, I rea1ized that I would not be able to complete a flora; therefore, I have brought together the current book to "pave the way" and stimu1ate the production of a full flora ofthe páramos. The emphasis ofthis book is taxonomic; details of ecological, evolutionary, and biogeographical studies should be sought elsewhere. There is very litt1e 1iterature about the páramos of northern Peru, and relatively little about those of Ecuador and Costa Rica; therefore, this vo1ume' s "Introduction to the Páramo Ecosystem" is based mostly on the páramos of Venezuela and Colombia, where the 1iterature abounds. Because there has not been any general flora of the páramos, nor for any high montane region in Latin America since Weddell (1855), this book will help fill a 1arge gap in our lmowledge about the páramo ecosystem and hopefully will become a standard reference for the high-e1evation flora ofthis region. Not only should it stimulate further work in the páramo-enabling comparisons ofthe richness, distribution, evolution, and biogeography of different taxa-but it should a1so provide the necessary raw data often requested by scientists, pub1ic officials, and_nongovernmental agencies to intelligently address conservation issues. While the check1ist provides important floristic information, it is nota substitute for a written flora ofthe páramos, which is still sorely needed. Finally, as with so many other experiences in life, it may be difficult for sorne to understand and appreciate the páramo solely from this book, if it has not already been experienced firsthand. Therefore, the book begins with a brief description ofpáramo: its definition, general ecology, life forms, growth habits, vegetation, and conservation. Once páramo has been experienced personally, this book will become much more meaningful and the páramo easier to visualize.

Acknowledgments.-There are so many people to whom I need to say "thank you" for helping me with the many different aspects ofthis book. Ifi have forgotten anyone, it is certainly unintentional and I do appreciate your efforts. 1 showed sorne stage of the manuscript to many peop1e, especially specialists in different plant groups, whom I have listed alphabetically by the plant family in which they assisted: Acanthaceae (D. Wasshausen), Alstroemeriaceae (R. Gereau, M. Neuendorf), Apiaceae (L. Constance), Asclepiadaceae (G. Morillo), Asteraceae (A. Anderberg, V. Badillo, J. Cuatrecasas, S. Díaz P., M. Dillon, V. Funk, B. Nordenstam, J. Panero, J. Pruski, H. Robinson), Berberidaceae (C. Ulloa U.), Brassicaceae (I. Al-Shehbaz), Bromeliaceae (J. Betancur), Buddlejaceae (E. Norman), Campanulaceae (T. Ayers, T. Lammers), Chloranthaceae (C. Todzia), Clethraceae (C. Gustafsson), C1usiaceae (N. Robson), Crassulaceae (A. Freire-Fierro), Cyperaceae (A. Reznicek, M. Strong, W. Thomas, G. Tucker, G. A. Wheeler), Eriocaulaceae (N. Henshold), Fabaceae (R. Barneby, J. Grimes), ferns


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(D. Lellinger, B. León, J. Mickel, R. Moran, A. R. Smith), Gentianaceae (J. Pringle), Gesneriaceae (L. Skog), Juncaceae (H. Balslev), Lamiaceae (R. Hariey), Liliaceae (R. Cruden), Loasaceae (M. Weigend), Loranthaceae s.l. (J. Kuijt), Lycopodiaceae (B. 0llgaard), Malvaceae (L. Dorr, P. Fryxell), Melastomataceae (F. Almeda, S. Renner, J. Wurdack), Myrsinaceae (J. Pipoly), Myrtaceae (L. Landrum), Onagraceae (P. Berry, J. Solomon), Orchidaceae (K. Barringer, E. Christenson, C. Dodson, G. Romero), Piperaceae (R. Callejas), Poaceae (B. Briceño, L. Clark, G. Davidse, S. Lcegaard, P. Peterson, S. Renvoir), Polygalaceae (B. Eriksen, J. Wurdack), Potamogetonaceae (R. Haynes), Rosaceae (K. Romoleroux), Rubiaceae (J. Kirkbride), Scrophulariaceae (F. Astholm, J. L. Fernández-Alonso, N. Holmgren, U. Molau), Selaginellaceae (1. Valdespino), Solanaceae (C. Benitas de Rojas, S. Knapp, M. Nee, C. Ochoa), Symplocaceae (B. Stahl), Valerianaceae (B. Eriksen), Violaceae (U. Molau). I also want to express my gratitude to the library and/or herbarium staff ofthe following institutions for allowing access to their collections andhelp iri finding materials: The New York Botanical Garden (Bronx), Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC), Institute of Systematic Botan y at the State UniversitYofUtrecht and the Hugo de Vries L<tboratory ofthe University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), Department ofSystematic Botany ofthe University of Aarhus (Denmark), Botanical Museum (Goteborg) and Herbarium of the Swedish Museum of Natural History (Stockholm), Instituto de Ciencias Naturales ofthe Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá), Universidad de Los Andes (Mérida, Venezuela), Herbario. Nacional de Venezuela (Caracas), Herbario de la Facultad de Agronomía de la Universidad Central de Venezuela (Maracay), and the Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC (Caracas), Herbario QCA ofthe Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador and Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Quito), Missouri Botanical Garden (St. Louis), Field Museum (Chicago), Harvard University Herbaria (Cambridge), Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew), Herbario Nacional de Costa Rica (San José), and the American Museum ofNatural History and New York Public Library (New York). I want to extend m y appreciation to the Department ofBotany, Smithsonian Institlition, for awarding mean Andrew W. Mellon Foundation "Senior Mellon Fellowship" (under the sponsorship of Laurence J. Dorr) during 1993-1994, to work at the United States National Herbarium (Washington, DC) to begin compiling the data. It was during m y tenure there that I was really able to get this project off the ground. They are also to be thanked for allowing me free access to the late José Cuatrecasas's office, where I was able to search for and select from don José's original negatives of páramo habitats and plants that so embellish the pages ofthis book, and to see his final unpublished manuscript "A Systematic Study ofthe Subtribe Espeletiinae (Heliantheae, Asteraceae)." Thanks also to the Smithsonian Institution Center for Scientific Imaging and Photography for their care in printing the negatives, sorne of which were glass negatives from the 1930s. Cuatrecasas 's photos are cited by his abbreviated name followed by the series and negative number (e.g., "Cuatrec. C-276"). M y thanks al so go to the following individuals who helped me in sorne additional way: J. Aguirre, G. Aymard, C. Benitas de Rojas, P~ Berry, J. Betancur, F. Bouman, B. Briceño, B. Buck, P. Buck, R. Callejas, E. Cotton, S. Churchill, T. Croat, D. Díaz-Miranda, L. Dorr, E. Farr, J. L. FernándezAlonso, J. Fernández Casas, L. D. Gómez P., F. González, R. Gradstein, D. Griffin III, Th. Van der Hammen, R. Hofstede, L. Hollenberg, H. Hooghiemstra, S. Horn, O. Huber, M. Kappelle, P. Keating, S. León, Y. León, J. F. Morales, S. A. Morí, G. Morillo, J. Mulroy, F. Pérez, T. Pocs, G. Raeymaekers, B. Ramírez P., P. Ramsay, O. Rangel Ch., R. Riina, H. Rodríguez, A. Sagástegui A., S. Salamanca V., D. Sánchez, l. Sánchez Vega, H. Sipman, P. Sklenáf, J. Solomon, H. Witte, and K. Young. 1 thank Bobbi Angell for preparing the maps and climatic diagrams. Special thanks go to those who were especially generous with their time and efforts: H. Balslev andA. M. Cleef for conversation, reading and correcting manuscript, and support over the years; M. Gavilanes A. for hclp in all aspects ofthe initial stages ofthe checklist and gazetteer; F. Sarmiento and C. Ulloa U. (Ecuador) and G. Morillo and B. Briceño (Venezuela) for careful reading and helpful comments, especially on the


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gazetteers; J. Sánchez G. for allowing me access to his (and G. Vargas Ulate) unpublished manuscript on the páramo plants of Costa Rica and for helping with the Costa Rican gazetteer; P. M. J0rgensen for helpful comments and sharing personal data from his experiences in Ecuador, and along with the MissouriBotanical Garden for sharing data from TROPICOS; l. Sánchez Vega for sharing his checklist ofplants from the Peruvianjalca; M. Sánchez Montoya for gathering information for the gazetteer ofPeru; and to F. González, O. Huber, S. Mori, C. Peters, and K. Young for taking so much oftheir time toread the manuscript in its final stages and for their helpful comments and constructive criticisms; andan extra special thanks to D. S. Sylva S. for helping with computerization, reading and correcting text, and encouraging me in so many other ways throughout this project. In addition, 1 want to thank all those colleagues, students, guides, and "mulleteros" who accompanied me on various trips into the páramo, and to the many campesinos who gave considerable assistance by means of their kindness and access to their homes and food; the only things warmer than their hospitality were the many bottles of rum and aguardiente that we shared during the very cold nights! One last word: This book is the result of a labor oflove for the páramo ecosystem, through which 1 have so often passed and in which 1 have spent so many enjoyable days collecting plants. 1 have tried to pull together in this one volume as much information as possible about all botanical aspects of páramo, in the hopes that this effort will stimulate and encourage others to study the páramo and to publish a full flora of this marvelous ecosystem.

James L. Luteyn New York, 1999


COLOR PLATE I. Top left, Páramo Las Cajas (Cuenca, Ecuador), 4300 m. Note thejagged terrain with numerous glaciallakes and grass páramo. (Photo: P. Keating, taken 1991.) Top right, Jalea de Las Lagunas (Cajamarca, Peru), 4500 m. Glaciallakes surrounded by Stipa-dominated, short-grass páramo. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1995.) Bottom left, Páramo de Mojanda (Imbabura, Ecuador), 3 700 m. Grass páramo dominated by Calamagrostis spp. with Polylepis sp. forest growing along steep slopes and cliffs. Note the sharp boundary between the forest and páramo, probably dueto the influence offire. (Reproduced with permission ofthe Department ofSystematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark. Photo: B. 011gaard, taken 1976.) Bottom right, Volcán Cotopaxi (Cotopaxi, Ecuador), 4000 m. Bunchgrass páramo dominated by species of Festuca and Calamagrostis. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1997.)


CoLOR PLATE II. Top left, Páramos de Matanga (Azuay, Ecuador), 3300 m. Mosaic of grass páramo and isolated patches offorest. (Photo: C. Ulloa U., taken 1990.) Top right, Volcán Chiles (Carchi, Ecuador), 4200 m. Páramo bog with mats of Distichia muscoides and Plantago rigida. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1989.) Bottom left & right, Páramos del Angel (Carchi, Ecuador), 3500 m. Grass páramo dominated by the bunchgrass Calamagrostis effusa, the stem rosette Espeletia pycnophylla, and the acaulescent rosette Puya hamata. (Photos: bottom left, H. Ba1slev, taken 1995; bottom right, P. M. Jorgensen, taken 1983.)


CoLOR PLATE Ill. Top left, Páramo de Piñango (Mérida, Venezuela), 3500 m. Each October this páramo is decorated with magenta flowers of Chaetolepis lindeniana and yellow flowers ofEspe/etia schultzii and Hypericum /aricifolium. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1996.) Top right, Páramo de Mucubají (Mérida, Venezuela), 3500 m. Steep slopes showing yellow inflorescences ofEspeletia schultzii and fields ofimmaturewheat with red patches ofRumeX: acetosel/a, an aggressive colonizerofold fields. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1996.) Bottom left, Volcán Antisana (Pichincha, Ecuador), 4000 m. The gradual transition frumforest belowtopáramo above. Dominants are Polylepis incana, Gynoxys acostne, Baccharis sp., Loricaria thuyoides, and L. antisanensis. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1992.) Bottom right, Volcán Chimborazo (Chimborazo, Ecuador), 4200 m. Desert páramo with drifting and eroding sand. Plants commonly scattered include the bunchgrass Stipa, low shrubs of Chuqiraga, and circular clumps ofBidens (yellow flowers shown). (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1997.)


CoLOR PLATE IV. Top left, Senecioformosus, a common plant in the Páramo de Piedras Blancas above lv!érida (Venezuela), which provides spectacular displays ofmagenta flowers in October and November. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1996.) Top right, Gentianella hyssopifolia, a colorful herb from the páramos south ofCuenca (Ecuador). (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1990.) Bottom left, Ca/ceo/aria ericoides, a suffrutescent herb found in the shelter of rocks on Volcán Chimborazo (Ecuador). (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1997). Bottom right, Jamesonia cinnamomea, a "cobra" fem in the grass páramo on Volcán Cayarnbe (Ecuador). The dense reddish-brown pubescence and curled leaves help protect the plants from the harsh environment. (Reproduced with permission ofthe Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark. Photo: L. B. Holm-Nielsen.)


CoLOR PLATE V. Top left, Loricaria thuyoides, from upper grass páramo on Volcán Chiles (Ecuador), is a microphyllous shrub with small, sclerophyllous, imbricate leaves on flattened stems. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1989.) Top right, Festuca dolichophylla, a characteristic bunchgra~s in this grazed páramo on Volcán Cotopaxi (Ecuador). Note the bigh proportion of dead shoots among the living, which gives grasslands their silvery-grayish or brownish look and provides insulation for buds and young leaves. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1997.) Bottom left, Bleclmum schomburgkii, a population oftree fems in the mist on Volcán Sumaca (Ecuador) showing the stem rosette growth form. (Photo: Department ofBotany, University of Aarhus.) Bottom right, Valeriana rígida, a small plantwith white flowers from Páramo Las Cajas (Ecuador) that combines sharply pointed, rigid leaves with an acaulescent rosette/cushion growth form. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1990.)


CoLOR PLATE VI. Top left, Xenophyllum humile, a hemispherical, cushion plant from the Páramo de Guamaní (Ecuador). (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1981.) Top right, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, an iris-like herb with succulent rhizomes from the Llanos de Cuibá (Colombia). An example of a plant with the geophyte growth form. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1984.) Bottom left, Lupinus sp., a common herbaceous legume growing in the grass páramo ofthe Páramos de Matanga (Ecuador). (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1990.) Bottom right, Semiramisia pulcherrima, a scandent, climbing epiphytic shrub endemic to this Páramo de Bordoncillo region of southern Colombia. The orangeish-red, waxy flowers are up to 6 cm long and 2 cm in · diameter. (Photo: J. L. Luteyn, taken 1997.)


INTRODUCTION TO THE PARAMO ECOSYSTEM "The páramo zone is the most interesting of the life zones of the Andes, since it shows to the highest degree, the struggle ofplant and animallife against conditions of extreme cold temperature." [Chardón, 1933]

General Definition Within the tropical regions ofMexico, Central and South America, Africa, Malesia including New Guinea, and Hawaii, there is a vegetation type that occurs between the upper limit of continuous, closedcanopy forest (i.e., forest line or timberline) and the upper limit of plant Ji fe (i.e., snowline) that is characterized by tussock grasses, large rosette plants, shrubs with evergreen, coriaceous, and sclerophyllous leaves, and cushion plants. This vegetation type is §cattered along the crests of the highest mountain ranges or on isolated mountaintops from about 3000 m to 5000 m, like islands in a sea of forest. Locally these areas are lmown as "zacatonales" (the Mexican and Guatemalan volcanic highlands), "páramo" (Central and northem South America), "jalea" (northern Peru), "puna" (drier areas ofthe altiplano ofthe central Andes), "afroalpine" and "moorland" (East Africa), and "tropical-alpine" (Malesia). Although neither Beard (1944), Troll (1958b ), nor Lauer (1981) felt the term "alpine" was appropriate for intertropical high-altitude landscapes, these vegetation types have been more recently referred to as "tropical alpine" (Ramsay & Oxley, 1997; Rundel et al., 1994b; Smith & Young, 1987) or "tropicalpine" (Smith & Cleef, 1988). Ido not like to apply the general term "alpine" to vegetation in the tropics, because it is a term derived from temperate regions. Furthermore, high-elevation tropical climates differ sharply from those of tempera te alpine regions, particularly with respect to seasonality and diurna! pattems oftemperature change (Rundel, 1994). Sorne authors, including Walter (1973), Lauer ( 1981 ), and Monasterio and Vuilleumier (1986), advocate using the term "páramo" in the broadest sense possible, on a worldwide basis, for all high tropical montane vegetation abo ve the continuous timberline-for the sake of nomenclatura! simplicity, if for no other reason. Monasterio and Vuilleumierwould simply add a geographic adjective to characterize the particular area being discussed-Andean páramo, African páramo, and so forth. Andean páramo is often compared with

other alpine and arctic ecosystems (Baruch, 1979; Billings, 1973,1974, 1979;Billings&Mooney, 1968; Smith & Young, 1987). For the purposes ofthis book, the term "páramo" is used in its regional sense, being restricted to the northern Andes of South America and adjacent southem Central America. It is here used as a collective term for the entire landscape unit (or ecosystem) ofthe high altitude above continuous forest !ine and below the permanent snowline. Many different plant communities can be found in páramo, and will be discussed below, but the most widespread are dominated by tussock-forming grasses (Fig. 3). The word páramo comes from the Latín word "paramus," according to the Diccionario de la Lengua Española (Real Academia Española, 1992). Corominas (1973) states that this Hispanic-Latín word seemingly arose from the midwestern portion ofthe northem !berían Península but that its exact origin is uncertain. He further suggests that it may have been adopted by the Romans as a Celticism, or instead is neither Iberian nor Celtic but originates from another Indo-European language in pre-Roman times. In Spain, up until the epoch of the Conquest, the desertic platean of arid Castile, which contrasts with the fertile regions lower down, was called "paramera." Font Quer (1977) states that in Castilian Spanish the general significance ofthe word "páramo" is a flat plain. The early Spanish explorers applied the word "páramo" to north Andean areas that were high, cold, inhospitable, and wind- and rain-swept, perhaps reminding them of the plains of their native Iberian Península. In Colombia, atmospheric moisture in the form of drizzle is often referred to as "paramitos," while in Ecuador the term "parameando" has come to mean "it is raining," and in Venezuela one might say "estoy emparamado" when one is getting wet because of rain and cold (Monasterio, 1980b; Nuñes & Pérez, 1994; Ramsay, 1992; Vareschi, 1970; Weber, 1958; pers. comm. with local inhabitants). For definitions and insight into conceptualizations ofthe páramo ecosystem by local "parameros" (inhabitants ofthe páramos), see LópezZent, 1995, and Zambrano, 1993.


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Fig. 3. Páramo del Escoba! (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 3700 m elevation, dominated by the rosette plant Espeletia lopezii and grass Calamagrostis sp. with Hypericum mexicanum, Arcytophyllum sp. and Orthrosanthus chimboracensis. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1210A taken in 1938.)

The páramo landscape has been influenced by glaciation (Fig. 4). It is irregular and uneven, from jagged and very rough with erratic rocks to rolling or flat, oftentimes with many small glaciallakes and tributaries (Color Plates I-II). It is the source ofmany ofthe large rivers of northem South America (e.g., Río Magdalena and Río Cauca ofColombia, Río Napo and Río Coca of Ecuador, and Río Orinoco ofColombia and Venezuela). As will be seen from the discussions in this Introduction, there is no single definition of páramo, because it is characterized by a variety of geographic, geologic, climatic, physiognomic, and floristic features, all of which will be briefly touched upon.

Geographical Distribution In the tropics of the Americas, the páramo ecosystem is discontinuously distributed between 11 °N and sos latitudes. It is concentrated in the northwest corner of South America, mostly in Venezuela, Colom-

bia, and Ecuador, with sorne outliers in Costa Rica, Panama, and northem Peru (on the endpapers of this volume, the area above 3000 m elevation that is potentially páramo is shown in black). The northemmost páramos are located in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta of Colombia, located at about 11 °N. The westemmost páramos are located in Costa Rica, in the Cerro Buena Vista (Cerro de La Muerte) region of the Cordillera de Talamanca, at about 83°W longitude. The eastemmost páramos are located in north-central Venezuela, in the state of Lara, at about 70°W. The southernmost páramos (locally called "jalea") are found in northern Peru in the department of La Libertad, at about 8°S, just north of the Cordillera Blanca. Other neotropical areas that have páramo-like vegetation or that correspond ecologically and have sometimes been referred to as páramo, but that fall outside the geographical range or definition used in this book, include Pico Duarte in the Dominican Republic, the "zacatonales" of Mexico, Pico Naiguatá


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Fig. 4. Panoramic view ofNevado del Cocuy (Boyacá, Colombia) looking East from the Pozo Azul ranch at ca. 4110 m. The rocky peak to the left is Los Guasquines, the glaciated peak in the center is Pan de Azucar (4 755 m), the peak to the right is El Campanario, and the valley represented is called Las Lagunillas. Tree in foreground is Gynoxys paramuna. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1219A taken in 1938.)

(Avila and the Silla de Caracas areas) in the Cordillera Costal of north-central Venezuela, Pico de la Neblina along the Venezuela~Brazil border, scattered "humid puna" areas ofthe eastem slopes ofthe Peruvian Andes, the "yungas" region of northeastem Bolivia, scattered areas in Chile and Argentina, and the Itatiaia area of eastem Brazil. For other opinions about the geographical distribution of páramo, see the following: Brack Egg, 1986b; Braun, 1956; Cleef, 1978, 1981b; Cuatrecasas, 1968; Mann, 1968; Monasterio, 1980b; ONERN, 1976; Ribera et al., 1994; Tosí, 1960; Unzueta Q., 1975; Vareschi, 1955; Vuilleumier & Monasterio, 1986.

Clima te The páramos of Colombia and northern Ecuador are influenced by the intertropical convergence of air masses (a low-pressure trough) because oftheir geo-

graphicallocation near the equator. They are generally hum id throughout all or most months ofthe year, with continuous moisture in the form of rain, clouds, and fog, mostly dueto orographic uplift caused by the Andes. Many páramos receive more than 2000 mm of rain annually on their exposed slopes (absolute range 500 toca. 3000 mm/yr). They have a high relative humidity averaging 70~85% (absolute range 25~ 100%). This contrasts with páramos in the northernmost Andes ofVenezuela, the Sierra N evada de Santa Marta in northern Colombia, and in Costa Rica, where there is a marked dry season due to the influence of the northeast Trade winds (Herrmann, 1970, 1971; Lauer, 1979a, 1979b). Páramo becomes driest near its southern limits in southern Ecuador and northern Peru, where they are influenced by two air masses: one from the Amazon basin, which has already re1eased its moisture on the eastern slopes, and another dry cool air mass from the west under the influence of the Humboldt Current. In addition to the large-scale cli-


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

matic parameters given above, local microclimates may strongly influence regional weather patterns (Sarmiento, 1986). In northern Peru, the páramo environment grades almost imperceptibly into the "puna" ecosystem, which is more characteristic ofthe central and southern Andean altiplano highlands of central Peru, Bolivia, and Argentina. Puna, in contrast to páramo, is typically xeric and has lower humidity, a shorter wet season, and six months or more of almost no rain. Figure 5 illustrates the overall climate of páramo by the use of climate diagrams from scattered localities. For additional climate diagrams, see Cañadas Cruz, 1983; Cleef, 198lb; Guhl, 198~; J0rgensen & Ulloa U., 1994; Monasterio & Reyes, 1980; Van derHammen et al., 1995b; and Witte, 1994. For comparisons ofpáramo and puna, see reviews in Cabrera, 1957, 1968; Lauer, 1952; QuintanillaP., 1983b;. Sarmiento, 1986; Troll, 1968b; and Young et al., 1997. Páramos have a generally cold and·humid climate with sudden changes in the weather anda diumál fluctuation in temperature from below freezing toas much as 30°C, which often results in a daily freeze-and-thaw cycle that has been referred to as "summer every day and winter every night" (Hedberg, 1964). During the dry season, for example, Páramo Piedras Blancas (Venezuela), at 3700-4700 m elevation, shows exc tremes in air temperatures ranging from -5°C to -11 oc at night to 25-30°C during the day, with freezing temperatures occurring 325-350 nights ofthe year (Pérez, 1987a, 1996b; Pfitsch, 1994). Although overall mean annual temperatures of páramo range from 2°C to l0°C, there is much greater contrast in the climate of higher-elevation areas than is found in lower zones ofthe same mountain ranges. Therefore, the environment becomes harsher and more severe for plant life as altitude increases (Javellas & Thouret, 1995). A typical day often begins cloud-free, cold, crisp, and occasionally windy until mid-moming (Fig. 6); then increased cloud cover from lower elevations, caused by convectional and orographic uplift, brings rain, sleet, fog, and drizzle for much ofthe aftemoon; clearing often occurs in the late afternoon or early evening. Nights are always cold and usually clear with stars filling the ski es; however, frost is frequent in the high páramos and snow is common at the highest altitudes (Fig. 7). During any given day ofthe year, rain, ice, snow, and fog may alternate abruptly with clear sunny ski es and elevated temperatures; in one moment the wet cold necessitates heavy clothing, raincoats, and gloves, while in the next moment, lotion is needed to protect against sunburn. For other general references that discuss páramo climate, see Cuatrecasas, 1968; Eidt, 1968; Guhl, 1974; Lauer, 1981; Monasterio, 1980a; Rundel, 1994;

[VOL. 84

Schnetter et al., 1976; Snow, 1976; Sturm, 1978; Sturm & Rangel Ch., 1985; Troll, 1968b; Van der Hammen & Ruiz, 1984; Van der Hammen & Santos, 1995, in press; Van der Hammen et al., 1983, 1989, 1995b; Weber, 1958; and Witte, 1994.

Soils The geology ofthe Andes is extremely variable and consequently so are the soils. Most páramo soils are relatively young and only slightly developed, and are broadly classified into the orders Andosols, Inceptisols, Histosols, Entisols, and Mollisols (Buol et al., 1980; Buringh, 1979; FAO, 1975; Soil Survey Staff, 1975). · · Andosols and Inceptisols include older soil names such as Ando soils, brown tropical soils, black soils, Onji soils, humic allophane soils, hydro humic latosols, volcarric soils, and volcanic ash soils. They are soils formed from and associated with volcanic ash, have a low supply of ( or have lost) bases or iron and aluminum, and show moderate weathering. In páramo, these m ay include Andepts and some Aquepts, as well as Tropepts and Umbrepts. The Andosols most likely to form in páramos are Aquands, Cryands, and Udands. Histosols include older soil names such as bog soils, muck soils, organic soils, and peat soils. They are soils that are highly organic and are found in very wet places such as bogs and swamps. These may inelude Fibrists, Folists, Hemists, and Saprists. Entisols are soils that have little or no evidence of development (i.e., absence of horizons) and have a highly mineral nature. These are often found near snowline and may include Aquents, Fluvents, Orthents, and Psamments. Mollisols are a less common soil group in the páramo, but are very dark colored and base-rich. The most likely group to develop are the Aquolls. At its highest elevations (i.e., superpáramo), páramo soils are very shallowand coarse with a high percentage of rock and sand, there is little to no production of organic matter, and consequently, low water retention (Fig. 8). Superpáramo soils are extremely infertile, for without organic matter or fine grains they have practically no ability to hold exchangeable cations (Pérez, 1992c). Furthern10re, in the superpáramo, the soil surface is recurrently disturbed by needle-ice activity (a type of ground frost), and soilmoving phenomena such as frost-heaving and thawing and sorting of material are common (Pérez, 1987c). In this part ofthe high páramo, the mean annual air temperatures are always low ( 4-6°C), but the cold does not penetra te very deeply into the soil. Soil temperatures, at about 30 cm, more or less reflect those of the mean annual temperatures of the air (Lauer, 1979b). Soil temperature does, however, have a pro-


1999]

PARAMOS

Cerro de la Muerte (3365 m)

7.6" 246r

5

Lo Aguada (3452m)

7.1° 1811

[4]

[19-21]

Páramo lo Culata (3090m)

mm

•e

140

10.13" 1121

mm

[16]

•e

140

IZO

100

50

lOO

40

80

40

80

30

60

60

20

40

40

10

20

20

B.

J

F M A M J

J A S

Lag U!JOS CHingazo {3250 m)

o

5.

J F M A M J

J A S

O N

9.3° 2139

mm

340

969

8.3° 720

Páramo de Berlin (3230m)

mm 120

[ 9]

•e

C,

N D

•e Mucubaji (3550m)

IZO

50

mm

[ 2-1]

160

•e

50

100

40

80

30

60

140 IZO

1~

zo 10

D.

lh_./

40

zo

50

lOO

40

80

30

60 40

JFMAMJJASONO

zo.

F. Laguna del Otúo

50

lOO

40

80

Pampa Galeros (4000m) [ 4-4]

30

60

zo

40

10

zo

G.

•e

o

N

o

4.8°

822

mm 300 280

J

F M A M J

J

A

E.

S O N O

Laguna de Plsoyomtm (3615m)

•e a•

Catopoxl (3560m)

•e

J A S

mm IZO

[1]

•e

J F M A M J

5.5" 929

(4000m)

1150

7.1°

1279

[ 10] 180 160

mm

[10]

140 120

50

100

40

80

30 20 10

H.

~ JFMAMJJ

60 40

zo

ASOND

Fig. 5. C1imate diagrams for páramo (A-l) and puna (J). Walter climate diagrams show the curves ofthe average month1y a ir temperature ("C) and precipitation (mm rainfall) [ 10°C on the ordinate corresponds to 20 mm; hum id periods are shown by vertical! y striped are as; months with greater than 100 mm/month are indicated with black]. Ea eh station' s name, e1evation (m), average monthly temperature (0 C), average year1y precipitation (mm), and number of years of observation [in square brackets] are given. (Sources: A from Stein & Weberling, 1992; B, C from Monasterio & Reyes, 1980; D from Azócar 8F Monasterio, 1979; E, F, I, J from C1eef, 1981 b; G from Witte, 1995b; H from J0rgensen & Ulloa U., 1994.)


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Fig. 6. Páramo de Zipaquirá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 3100 abo ve the Valle de Riofiio. Gentle, but consistent winds blow across the top ofthis páramo causing the inflorescences of Espeletia grandiflora to bend. Other associated plants include Puya cryptantha, P. nitida, Paepalanthus columbiensis, and Gaylussacia buxifolia. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1664 taken in 1940.)

found effect on nutrient and water availability, root growth, seed survival and germination, and vegetation zonation (Diemer, 1996; Lauer, 1981; Pérez, 1987b; Smith, 1976; Walter & Medina, 1969a, 1969b). At its middle elevations (i.e., grass páramo), páramo soils are relatively deep, humic, black or dark brownish, and acidic with pH ranging from about 3. 7 to 5.5. They are continuously moist, ore ven saturated with water, dueto the daily formation of dew or frost and the water-retaining capabilities ofthe highly organic, peat-like content. In the lowermost part of the páramo (i.e., subpáramo), near Bogotá (Colombia) and elsewhere in the northem Andes, Sturm ( 1978) has stated that soils share the following properties: dar k color ("black coloured"), moderate to high pH and correspondingly low Ca levels, low free P content, relatively higl). K and N content and reduced uptake of these elements by plants, greater than 10% organic content in the top !ayer, little or no "podzolic" features, and high water capacity. For a discussion of the factors that help to form páramo soils, see Cortés Lombana, 1982, 1995. For

soil types in local páramo studies, see Baruch, 1979; Botero, 1985; Hofstede, 1995c; Pérez, 1991c, 1992c, 1996b; Quintanilla P., 1983b; Rangel Ch., 1989; Salomons, 1986; Sánchez M. et al., 1989; Sevink, 1984; Sturm & Rangel Ch., 1985; Thouret & Faivre, 1989; and Vis in Van der Hammen & dos Santos, 1995. F or other general references about páramo soils, see also Del Llano, 1990; Jenny, 1948; Jenny et al., 1948; Simonson, 1979; Stum1, 1994a; VanderHammen & Ruiz, 1984; Van der Hammen & Santos, 1995, in press; Van der Hammen et al., 1983, 1989; Vareschi, 1970; Wright & Bennema, 1965; and Zéittle, 1970.

Paleohistory and Paleoecology Reconstruction of the paleoecology of páramo and high-elevation montane forest has been the subject of study by Thomas Van der Hammen and his associates since the 1960s. The following is a brief summary of an article by Van der Hammen and C!eef (1986) that emphasizes the paleohistoric events that gave rise to and further influenced development ofthe páramo


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7

Fig. 7. Campsite on the Nevado del Tolima (Tolima, Colombia) at 3800-4200 m. Ovemight snow in a grass páramo with Espe/etia sp., the leaves ofwhich were undoubtedly used for cushion and insulation on the ground. José Cuatrecasas on the left with guides Conne Marulanda, Marco Tulio, and dog. (Photo from glass negative Cuatrec. C-796 taken in 1932.)

ecosystem we see today in the high plain of Bogotá (Colombia). The sequences may be similar or different in other parts of the northern Andes. Unfortunately, detailed accounts from other areas are few in number or not yet available. The Andes began to arise during the Paleocene, and during the Miocene they were probably on the arder of ridges to low mountains up to ca. 1000 m elevation. It was not until the beginning of the Pliocene or slightly later that the northern Andean region uplifted to its present altitudes. During the PlioPleistocene, ca. 4-5 Ma (mi Ilion years ago) there was abundant volcanic activity, at which time elevations above the present treeline carne into being. There may not have been forest y el at the high elevations, since considerable time was needed for the forest line to have risen from around 2500 m (the leve! at that time) up to around 3500 m. The upper Andean forest and páramo belts evolved more or less simultaneously during the Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene (2-4

Ma). There is evidence that an early páramo vegetation, what Van der Hammen and Cleef (1986) ca11 "protopáramo" vegetation, was present and consisted of Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Ericaceae, a Polylepis-Acaena (Rosaceae) type of po11en, and Symplocos (Symplocaceae ), Myrica (Myricaceae ), Aragoa (Scrophulariaceae), Hypericum (Clusiaceae), Miconia (Melastomataceae ), Ilex (Aquifoliaceae ), Hydrocotyle (Apiaceae), Borreria (Rubiaceae), Ludwigia (Onagraceae), Polygonum (Polygonaceae ), Valeriana (Valerianaceae), Plantago (Plantaginaceae ), Ranunculus (Ranunculaceae), Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae ), Jamesonia (Pteridaceae ), and Hymenophyllum (Hymenophy1laceae). By 1 Ma (for the high plain ofBogotá, Colombia, at about 2600 111), there is evidence of about 15 to 20 repeated alternations of forest and páramo (i.e., fluctuations of climatic zones) in interglacial and glacial periods. During this time, genera of north temperate origin-such as Alnus (Betulaceae) ca. 1 Ma and Quercus (Fagaceae) ca. 0.3


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Fig. 8. Páramo communities. A. Páramo de Piedras Blancas (Mérida, Venezuela), Mifafí Valley; Pico Los Nevados in the background reaches 4685 m. The upper altitudinal limit of the dense woodlands of Coespeletia lutescens extends into the superpáramo between 4395 m and 4500 m and altemates with largely bare gravelly sand zones clearly differentiated by the sharp contras! in soil color. (Photo by F. L. Pérez taken in 1980.) B. Páramo del Almorzadero (Santander, Colombia) at ca. 3800 m. The superpáramo scree slopes are colonized by severa] species of Senecio, including S. niveo-aureus (see also Fig. 13D), S. almorzaderonis, S. canescens, and S.folidentatus, all characterized by the light-colored, woolly pubescence over much ofthe plant. Other plants often found on superpáramo scree slopes include Werneria pygmaea, Hypochaeris se/osa, Geranium multiceps, Bartsia santo/inifolia, Lachemilla spp., and Plantago monticola. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetación natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. 10(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-1974 taken in 1941.) C, D. Desert páramo or "Arenal del Chimborazo" found on the northwest side ofVo1cán Chimborazo (Ecuador) at ca. 3800-4400 m. Strong winds are common in this sand dune type of vegetation dominated by the grasses Stipa hans-meyeri, Calamagrostis mollis, C. ligulata, Cortaderia sericantha, andAgrostis spp., and including scattered p1ants of Bidens hu milis, Loricaria ilinissae, Lasiocepha/us ovatus, L. lingulatus, Pentacalia teretifolius, Senecio nivalis, Astragalus geminiflorus, Geranium ecuadoriense, and Nototriche spp. (Reproduced with pem1ission of the Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark. Photo C taken by L. B. Holm-Nielsen in 1980; photo D taken by B. 0llgaard in 1976.)

Ma-appeared in the pollen record and must have passed over a Panamanian landbridge. During the later part ofthe Quatemary, ca. 44,00021,000 B.P. (years before the present) ofthe Last Glacial stadial, glacial and interglacial periods continued to altemate, with sorne short but severe cold periods. At that time there were numerous changes in the proportions between páramo and forest elements, although the páramo flora became well established and dominated the scene. Between ca. 45,000 B.P. and 25,000 B.P., there was a cold and wet period during which glaciation reached its maximum advance. Van der Hammen and Cleef (1986) further explain that during this time the glaciers and forest may even have

been in contact at elevations between 2200 m and 2700 m, and the páramo belt must have been relatively narrow and wet. On the contrary, between 21,000 B.P. and 14,000 B.P. there was a very cold but dry period during which the mean ahnual temperature may have been 6-7°C lower than today. Glaciation was not so extensive, but the páramo belt was broad and dry and covered most ofthe area above 2000 m (i.e., the area where present-day forest occurs). This means that páramo vegetation covered a much greater area than it does today, and that many ofthe currently isolated páramos were then united. It also means that the upper forest line was lowered by 1300-1500 m. At the beginning ofthe Holocene (ca. 10,000 B.P.)


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the climate became much warmer; forest limits rose to elevations even higher than today and páramo vegetation was restricted to above 3300-3500 m. The lower-elevation forest includedDodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae), Myrica (Myricaceae), Myrsine (= Rapanea) (Myrsinaceae), and Miconia (Melastomataceae); it continued upward withAlnus (Betulaceae) and ended at the highest elevations with Weinmannia (Cunoniaceae) and Quercus (Fagaceae). During the period from 7500 B.P. to ca. 3000 B.P. temperatures rose about 2°C more, causing another upward shift in the forest line of about 300-400 m higher than today and thereby reducing the area occupied by páramo. Finally, at about2900 B.P., there was a noticeab le lowering of the temperature that marked the last downward movement ofthe forest and páramo belts to their present-day positions. Van der Hammen and Cleef (1986) state that the most important changes in the Holocene period have been the temperature changes mentioned above, the development of soils, and the development of peat bogs and soil~ with increased humidity. They summarize by saying that the present-day páramo flora and vegetation is the result of an amalgamation of approximately 4-5 million years of complicated paleohistoric events. Sorne recent publications suggest that the situation may be more complex or may differ in other parts of the Andes than that desc,ribed by Van der Hammen and Cleef (1986). Colinvaux et al. (1997), for example, refute Van der Hammen's idea that Andean vegetation zones were compressed and moved in belts during Quatemary times. Instead, they suggest that during times of glacial cooling or Holocene warming, plant associations showed different spatial diversity and were reformed according to the temperature tolerance of individual species, with heat-intolerant species showing larger displacements. The following list of additional general references about geology, glaciation, and paleohistory in the páramo regions of Central and South America is organized by country: Costa Rica: Hom, 1990b; Weber, 1958. Venezuela: Salgado-Labouriau, 1986; Schubert & Vivas, 1993. Colombia: Helmens, 1990; Hooghiemstra & Ran, 1994; Van der Hammen, 1981b, 1989; Van der Hammen et al., 1973. Ecuador: Colinvaux et al., 1997; Hastenrath, 1981; Wolf, 1892. General Central and South America: Graham, 1973a, 1973b, 1989a, 1989b; Markgraf, 1989.

Vegetation Zonation Over the years, numerous authors have given various names to the different vegetation zones and plant

9

associations within the high Andes. At times the usage of these names can become confusing and it is difficult to know exactly what is being discussed ami/ or compared, but Huber and Riina (1997) and Jorgensen and Ulloa U. (1994) provide summaries of this nomenclature. When thinking of or talking about páramo, for example, reference is generally being made to the open, treeless grasslands with scattered espeletias and shrubs. Much ofthe present-day páramo vegetation of treeless grasslands, however, probably has anthropogenic origins, being maintained by cutting, periodic burning, and grazing-practices that intensified mostly within the last 300 years. Therefore, the natural forest line at which forest ends and undisturbed páramo begins was probably higher than what is seen today, and above 4000 m elevation in sorne places. The evidence for this is that in an undisturbed system there is usually not an abrupt end to the forest, nota sharp edge or border, but instead more of a transition: from the tall forest trees to gradually shorter trees as the elevation increases, then to small trees and shrubs in a more or less thicket formation, and final!y, above the forest line, to the grasses, herbs, and scattered small shrubs ofpáramo (Color Plate III, bottom left). As one reaches the naturallimits of one zone with the next, many ofthe plant species characteristic ofthese zones intermix. It must also be remembered that the boundaries of the vegetation zones and the elevations at which they begin and end are not fixed. Depending on environmental features, such as topography, exposure, soils, and general clima tic conditions, and human intervention, timberline may occur anywhere between about 2800 m and 4000(--4800) m in the northern Andes. Furthermore, on the wetter or windward si de of a mountain or cordillera, the boundary betwe~n forest and páramo (i.e., the contiguous forest line) is higher than on the dry or leeward side (Komer, 1998; L::egaard, 1992; Lauer, 1981, 1993; A. P. Smith, 1975b, 1975c, 1994; Troll, 1958b, 1959, 1968b, 1973; Verweij, 1995). This book follows Cuatrecasas (1934, 1954, 1958, 1968) in dividing páramo ideally into three broad zones based on overall altitude and vegetation structure, with varying degrees of intergradation. From the highest elevations to the lowest, these three zones are called superpáramo, páramo (here referred to as grass páramo), and subpáramo. Superpáramu may be looked upon as the transition belt or ecotone between the permanent snow region above and the grass páramo below. Subpáramo may be seen as the transition belt or ecotone between the grass páramo above and the montane forest below. A brief summary of these three zones follows. Other ideas of páramo zonation or


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

modifications ofCuatrecasas's ideas may be found in papers by Monasterio ( 1980c) and Vareschi ( 1970) for Venezuela; by Cleef (1981 b ), Espinal and Montenegro (1963), Fosberg (1944), and Guhl (1982) for Colombia; by Acosta-Solís (1984), Cafiadas Cruz (1983), Harling (1979), J0rgensen and Ulloa U. (1994), and Ramsay (1992) for Ecuador; by Brack Egg (1986b) for Peru; and by Cabrera (1957), Fosberg (1967), and Holdridge (1967) for more general systems of overall vegetation classification that include páramo.

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(Violaceae ); the only páramo gymnosperms, Ephedra americana andE. rupestris (Ephedraceae ); and various species of cryptogams including vagrant ballforming mosses and unattached lichens.

GRASS pÁRAMO

[Cuatrecasas referred to this zone as "grass páramo," "páramo propiamente dicho," or "páramo proper."] At about 3500-4100(-4400) m, vegetation of the grass páramo is continuous and plant cover is generally 100% (Fig. 9; Color Platel). It is composed SUPERPÁRAMO mainly oftussock- or bunch-grasslands dominated by This is a narrow zone of vegetation growing on spe'eies of Calamagrostis and/or Festuca (Color Plates rocky scree and coarse, sandy soils below the snowline I.:_Il). There is a high proportion of dead shoots among at about ( 4000-)4500-4800( -5000) m (Fig. 8). the living that give a yellowish brown or olive-brown Among the three páramo zones it is characterized by to grayish loo k to the grasslands as a whole (Penland, having the lowest air temperature, precipitation, soil · 194la). This is the classic area ofthe genus Espeletia water-holding capacity, and nutrient content, arid by and its relatives (Asteraceae: Espeletiinae), in local communities called "frailejonales," which for so many having the highest solar radiation and night-frost frequency (Baruch, 1984). Plants in this zone must be have cometo symbolize páramo vegetation with their capable of enduring the daily extreme conditions of columnar, woolly, rosette-plant growth form (Color coldness and strong radiation, and regular or frequent Plate Il, bottom left and right). During October and snowfalls. Superpáramo is the zone of least distur- November, in the higher Venezuelan páramos, there bance by humans. It is very localized because of its is no greater display ofbrilliant floral colors anywhere scattered occurrence only on the highest mountains, than when Espeletia schultzii (deep yellow) and Seneand thus has very high endemism. Sorne superpáramos cioformosus (violet-maroon) (Asteraceae), Castilleja occur on mountaintops that are high enough to have fissifolia (bright red, yellow, and green) (Scrophulariglaciers in their uppermost regions, while others are aceae), and Chaetolepis lindeniana (intense magenta) without permanent snow. Vegetation referred to as (Melastomataceae) are in full bloom (Color Plates III, "desert páramo," or sometimes locally called top left, and IV, top left). "arenales," may have so much sand that they loo k like The grass páramo is the most broadly circumbeaches (Fig. SC, D; Color Plate III, bottom right). scribed ofthe three páramo zones. It includes not only At first glance, superpáramo often looks from a the dominant grassland communities but also the distance to be bare ground. In reality, however, it is greatest number of azonal communities, which are home to tiny, clumped or scattered plants such as determined by specific factors such as soil moisture Azorella pedunculata (Apiaceae); Hypochaeris and topography, and páramo growth forms. The most sessiliflora, Senecio canescens, S. nivalis, S. frequently encountered azonal communities are deadglacialis, S. supremus, S. comosus, Pentacalia scribed below under the grass páramo, but severa! are gelida, andXenophyllwn rigidum (= Werneria rigida) also found to a lirnited extent in the superpáramo and (Asteraceae); Draba pachythyrsa, D. depressa, and subpáramo zones as well. The grassland comrnunities Eudema nubigena (Brassicaceae); Arenaria spp. and of the grass páramo zone have suffered greatly frorn Cerastium jloccosum (Caryophyllaceae ); Pernettya burning and grazing (see "Impact of Burning and pros trata and Disterigma empetrifolium (Ericaceae ); Grazing," below). Astragalus geminifloms, Lupinus alopecuroides, L. Grass páramo rnay consist oftall- and short-grass microphyllus, and L. smithianus (Fabaceae); Gera- communities ("pajonales," "pastizales," or "prados") nium multipartitum (Geraniaceae); Luzula racemosa that include both herbaceous and woody vegetation, (Juncaceae); Nototrichejamesonii and N. chimbo- but they are dominated by tussock or bunchgrasses razoensis (Malvaceae ); Aciachne pulvinata, Agrostis (Fig. 1OA, B; Color Plate I, bottom right). In the tallnigritella, Bromus oliganthus, Poa cucullata, P. grass communities, with grass to 1 m tall, Calamatrachyphylla, P. orthophylla, and Stipa ichu (Poaceae); grostis recta usually dominates on drier sites and C. Plantago sericea subsp. nubigena (Plantaginaceae); effusa dominates on moister. Short-grass communiValeriana alpifolia (Valerianaceae); Viola pygmaea ties usually indicate grazing and burning pressures and


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Fig. 9. Páramo communities. A. Climbing Volcán Puracé (Cauca, Colombia) at ca. 4200 m. The dominants in this rocky-soil vegetation are the clump-forming grassFestuca tolucensis and the dark-colored shrub Loricaria thuyoides. Other associated plants include Agrostisfoliata, Luzula gigantea, and Lasiocephalus puracensis. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Páramo vegetation and its Ji fe forms," Col!. Geogr. 9. Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-2103 taken in 1943.) B. Climbing Nevado del Cocuy above Pozo Azul (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 4150 m. In the foreground an open hillside is dominated by the grass Calamagrostis ,e./fusa and the asteraceous Espeletiopsis colombiana. Other associates in this community include Oritrophium peruvianum, Baccharis tricuneata, Hypericum prostratum, H. mexicanuin, Aciachne sp., Jamesonia sp., Bartsia laniflora, Castilleja sp., and Geranium sp. (Photo Cuatrec. 1225A taken in 1938.) C. Grass páramo with Espeletia sp. below the Nevado del Tolima (Quindío, Colombia) at ca. 4000 m. (Photo Cuatrec. C-803 taken in 1932.) D. Páramo de Cruz Verde abo ve Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 3400 m. Páramo with shrubs of Diplostephium heterophyllum, Pentacaliaflos~fragrans, P. vaccinioides, Senecio subruncinnatus, Hypericum laricifolium, H. thuyoides, Berberís sp., and Aragoa abietina, rosettes of Puya trianae and P. santosii, the bamboo Chusquea tesse/lata and bunchgrasses of Calamagrostis e.lfusa and Festuca dolichophy/la, and herbs such as Halenia adpressa, Gentianella spp., Carex pichinchensis, Valeriana pilosa, Paepalanthus karstenii, P. columbiensis, Geranium multiceps, and Bartsia santolinifolia. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Páramo vegetation and its life forms," Col!. Geogr. 9. Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-1740 taken in 1940.)

are often dominated by species of Agrostis, Fes tuca, and Paspalum. The grass Aciachne pulvinata often forms low or flat cushions with very sharp (to the touch) leaves in drier-site short-grass páramos. In Colombia, dwarfbamboos (Chusquea spp.) domínate on slopes with very wet clima tes in communities known as bamboo brakes or "chuscales." If one takes the time to search between the bunchgrasses of the open grass páramo, there is an astonishing array of species of small herbs: Bomarea spp. (Alstroemeriaceae) (Fig. !lA); Eryngium humile

(Apiaceae); Perezia spp. (Asteraceae); Lysipomia spp. (Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae); Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae) (Fig. 12A); Lupinus spp. (Fabaceae) (Fig. 12C; Color Plate VI, bottom left), Gentiana sedifolia, Gentianella spp. (Color Plate IV, top right), and Halenia spp. (Gentianaceae); Lachemilla spp. (Rosaceae) (Figs. 12B, l3A); Gunnera magellanica (Haloragaceae) (Fig. l3C); Sisyrinchium spp. and Orthrosanthus chimboracensis (Iridaceae) (Color Plate VI, top right); Oenothera epilobiifolia (Onagraceae); Ranunculus spp. (Ranunculaceae);


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Fig. 10. Páramo communities. A. Páramo Almorzadero (Santander, Colombia) at ca. 3800 rrt. Wet, short-grass páramo ("prado turboso pantanoso") with Espeletia estanislana and the grass Calamagrostis bogotensis. Other associates include Espeletia conglomerata, Diplostephium revolutum, Hypericum sp., and Castratella piloseloides. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetación natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. 10(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-1705 taken in 1940.) B. Macizo de Bogotá, Quebrada de San Cristobal, abo ve El Delirio, near Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 2950 m. Heavily disturbed, short-grass vegetation ("prado") of Lachemilla orbiculata with Hypochaeris sessiliflora (see close-up photo in Fig. 13A) andAa rostrata, in a disturbed shrub community ("matorral") consisting of Viburnum triphyllum, Tibouchina grossa, Perseo mutisii. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1599 taken in 1940.) C. Páramo del Escoba! on ascent to Nevado del Cocuy (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 3700 m. Residual forest with shrubs and small trees of Polylepis sp. (note peeling bark on small tree to right), Esca/lonia myrtilloides, Gynoxys sp., Miconia salicifolia ( on left), Espeletiopsis jimenez-quesadae (center right), Espeletia lopezii (lower plants to left), Hypericum mexicanum, Ageratina sp., and Baccharis sp. Other herbaceous plants include Acaena sp., Gentiane/la sp., Sisyrinchium sp., and Orthrosanthus chimboracensis. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1244 taken in 1938.) D. Ascent ofNevado del Cocuy near La Cueva (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 3700 m. Shrub páramo with small tree of Esca/lonia myrtilloides (center) parasitized by Aetanthus dichotomus (see close-up photo in Fig. 14B). On the left a shrub of Miconia salicifolia. Other plants include Espeletiopsis jimenez-quesadae, Orthrosanthus chimboracensis, andAcaena cylindrostachya. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1204A taken in 1938.)

Castillejo fissifolia and Bartsia spp. (Scrophulariaceae); the lycopods Huperzía spp.; and the fem genus Jamesonía (Pteridacae) (Color Plate IV, bottom right). Common species rooted within the tussock formations include Cerastium spp. (Caryophyllaceae), Vicia andicola (Fabaceae), Geranium spp. (Geraniaceae) (Fig. 13D), and Bromus lanatus (Poaceae). Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae) is a weedy adventive species that often forms a red ground cover over large disturbed areas, usually after potato or wheat cultivation (Color Plate III, top right). Senecío níveo-

aureus (Asteraceae) (Fig. 12D) and related species in Senecío sect. Culcitíum (Fig. llB) add a stark beauty

with their dense, woolly, whitish to pale yellowish pubescence, which covers practically the entire plant. Also common in the grass páramo are acaulescent rosette-plants in the genera Oreomyrrhis (Apiaceae), Hypochaeris (Asteraceae) (Fig. 13A), Acaulímalva (Malvaceae), and Acaena (Rosaceae), and cushionplants in genera such as Wernería and Xenophyllum (Asteraceae) (Color Plate VI, top left), Draba (Brassicaceae ), Arenaría (Caryophyllaceae), andPaepalanthus


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Fig. 11. Páramo herbs. A. Bomarea pauciflora from area of San Miguel, SW ofthe Sabana de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 2900 m. Flowers orange when fresh. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1858 taken in 1941.) B. Senecio santanderensis from Páramo Almorzadero (Santander, Colombia) at ca. 3800 m. Note dense white, woolly pubescence covering plant. (Photo Cuatrec. C1976 taken in 1941.) C. Arcytophyllum nitidum from area ofQuebrada de Chico near Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 2650 m. Flowers white when fresh. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1393 taken in 1939.) D. Chuquiragajussieui ("cartagena") from páramo along the Quebrada de Las Vegas (source ofthe Río Tuluá) (Valle, Colombia) al ca. 3500 m. Capitula with involucra] bracts bright orange-yellow when fresh and the styles vivid red; the leaves are brilliant green. (Photo Cuatrec. C-2397 taken in 1946.)


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Fig.12. Páramo herbs. A. Paepalanthus sp. from páramo on the Macizo de Bogotá, region ofGuadalupe, above Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 3220 m. Plant association includes Espe/etia grandiflora, Puya goudotiana, and Ca/amagrostis sp. (Photo Cuatrecasas C-1392 taken in 1939.) B. Along the Quebrada de Las Vegas (source ofthe Río Tuluá) (Valle, Colombia) at ca. 3500 m. Wet páramo meadow with a mixture ofIsoetes killipii, Plagiochei/us solivaeformis, Lachemil/a niva/is, Sisyrinchium sp., Ranunculus spp., Caro: bonplandii, Jso/epis inundata, and Oreobolus obtusangu/us. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetación natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. 10(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-2398 taken in 1946.) C. Lupinus alopecuroides, an acaulescent rosette plant, from moist bunchgrass area of Páramo del Puracé (Cauca, Colombia) at ca. 3900 m. Note columnar inflorescence with paJe blue flowers (when fresh). (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetación natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. 10(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-21 06 taken in 1943.) D. Senecio niveo-aureus from short-grass area ofPáramo del Escoba! (Boyacá, Colombia) around La Cueva at ca. 3800 m. Plants are ca. 1 m tall and densely white villose; the ray flowers are yellow-gold when fresh. Other plants in this community included Senecio formosoides, Carex bonplandii, Jsolepis inundata, Gunnera mage/lanica, Geranium stramineum, Ha/eniafo/iosa, and Jamesonia cinnamomea. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1212A taken in 1938.)

(Eriocaulaceae). Grass páramo is also rich in small and large shrubs, such as those genera mentioned below in the section on subpáramo, buÚhey are more scattered in the grass páramo (Color Plate II, top left). They include many species of Baccharis, Diplostephium (Fig. 14A), Gynoxys, Loricaria (Color Plate V, top left), and Pentacalia (Asteraceae ); Hypericum (Clusiaceae); Gaylussacia, Gaultheria, Pernettya, and Vaccinium (Ericaceae); Arcytophyllum (Rubiaceae) (Fig. llC); and Valériana (Valerianaceae). Swampy or boggy azonal sites, called "cushion mires" or "turberas," are common, especially in the uppermost grass páramo (Bosman et al., 1993; Cleef,

1980a; Fig. 15A; Color Plate II, top right). Here species ofthe spectacular cushion-plant growth form attain their best development, e.g., Azorella aretioides, A. multzfida, and A. pedunculata (Apiaceae); Oreobolus obtusangulus (Cyperaceae ); the moss-like Distichia musco ides (Juncaceae ); andP!antago rígida (Plantaginaceae). These long-lived cushions often form the substrate for other, smaller plants (as epiphytes) such as Hypochaeris spp. (Asteraceae), Carex spp. (Cyperaceae), Disterigma empetrifolium and Pernettya pros trata (Ericaceae ), Gen tia na sedifolia and Gentianella spp. (Gentianaceae), Agrostis spp. and Poa spp. (Poaceae), and Lachemilla spp. (Rosaceae). These cushion "epiphytes" derive their wa-


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Fig. 13. Páramo herbs. A. Lachemilla orbiculata, the plants with rounded 1eaves and crenate margins, but without flowers and Hypochaeris sessi/iflora, the plant with yellowish-orange (when fresh), sessile ray flowers, forming a thick mat in a heavily disturbed, short-grass ("prado") vegetation on the Macizo de Bogotá along the Quebrada de San Cristobal near Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 2950 m (see Fig. 10B). (Photo Cuatrec. C-1598 taken in 1940.) B. Castratella pi/loseloides from the Macizo de Bogotá between La Viga and Diego largo (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at ca. 3380 m. This endemic, rosette-forming Me1astomataceae (with yellow flowers when fresh) grows in the moist, shortgrass páramo community along withAzorel/a sp., Valeriana pilosa, Lachemi/la sp., Niphogeton glaucescens, Calamagrostis effusa, Huperzia hohenackeri, L. c/avatum, and the shrubs Miconia buxifolia, Arcytophyllum muticum, Ugni myricoides, Hypericum spp., and Diplostephium phylicoides (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetación natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. 1O(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-1405 taken in 193 9.) C. Gunnera megallanica from wet páramo meadow along the Quebrade de Las Vegas (source of Río Tuluá) (Valle, Colombia) at ca. 3500 m (see a1so Fig. 12B). (Photo Cuatrec. C-2396 taken in 1946.) D. Geranium multiceps, the plant with pinkish-white flowers (when fresh) with the bunchgrass Calamagrostis effusa from Páramo de Cruz Verde above Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia). See Fig. 9D for associated species in this community. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1738 taken in 1940.)

ter and nutrients from the process of litter decomposition and nutrient release taking place within the cushion itself(Sklenáf, 1998). Other common species of swampy or boggy sites include Juncus spp. (Juncaceae ), the páramo endemic Castratella piloselloides (Melastomataceae) (Fig. 13B), and Valeriana spp. (Valerianacee). Also sometimes abundant are the lichen genera Cladia (Cladoniaceae) and Usnea (Parmeliaceae); mosses Campylopus (Dicranaceae), Breutelia (Bartramiaceae), and Sphagnum (Sphagnaceae); and liverworts Riccardia (Aneuraceae), Frul-

lanía (Jubulaceae), andLophozia (Jungermanniaceae). Other wet or flooded azonal communities such as marshes ("pantanos" or "ciénagas"), seeps, and springs (Fig. 15B) may also include bunchgrasses (especially Festuca dolichophylla), but with more species of sedges ( Carex, Eleocharis, etc.) and mosses such as Drepanocladus (Amblystegiaceae) and Sphagnum (Sphagnaceae). Also found are the various species of Lilaeopsis and Hydrocotyle (Apiaceae), Oritrophium peruvianum (Asteraceae ), Plagioboth1ys linifolius (Boraginaceae), Draba lindenii (Brassi-


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Fig.14. Páramo shrubs. A. Diplostephium phylicoides from area oiSan Miguel, SW ofthe Sabana de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at 2900 m. Ligulate flowers blue when fresh. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1853A taken in 1941.) B. Aetanthus dichotomus from aseen! ofNevado del Cocuy near La Cueva (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 3700 m. This plant is a parasite on small tree of Escal/onia myrtilloides in a shrub páramo (see Fig. lOD formore associates in this community). Flowers have red corollas with yellowthroat and lobes when fresh. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1828 taken in 1941.) C. Aragoa abietina from the Macizo de Bogotá, Quebrada de Chico area near Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at 2800---3000 m. It was associated with Gay/ussacia buxifo/ia, Hypericum sp., Dip/ostephium ochraceum, and Espe/etia grandij/ora. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1404 Ú1ken in 1939.) D. Berberís cuatrecasasii ("grano de oro") from Páramo de Bavaya (= Paramillo de Santa Lucía) near Corrales in the Cuchilla de Barragán (Valle, Colombia) at 3500 m. Part of a shrub community consisting of Hypericum laricifolia, Hesperomeles sp., Bejaria spp., Gynoxys laura/a, Tibouchina grasa, Tristerix sp., Puya sp., and Valeriana sp. (Photo Cuatrec. C-2391 taken in 1946.)

caceae ), Stellaria media (Caryophyllaceae ), Halenia spp. (Gentianaceae), Myriophyllum quítense (Haloragaceae), Juncus spp. (Juncaceae), Huperzia spp. (Lycopodiacee), Rumex tolimensis (Polygonaceae) to 4-5 m tall, Caltha sagittata and Ranunculus praemorsus (Ranunculaceae), andMimulus glabratus and Pedicularis in curva (Scrophulariaceae ). Shallow pool, lake, and river communities (Fig. 15C, D) inelude Callitriche spp. (Callitrichaceae), E latine spp. (Elatinaceae ), Myriophyllum spp. (Haloragaceae ), Isoetes spp. (Isoetaceae), Cortaderia spp. (Poaceae), Potamogeton spp. (Potamogetonaceae), and Ranunculus spp. (Ranunculaceae). Roe k ledge and cliff communities harbar another distinct group of interesting plants including Draba

spp. (Brassicaceae ), Luzula racemosa (Cyperaceae), Escalla nía myrtilloides and Ribes hirtum (Grossulariaceae), Calceolaria spp. (Scrophulariaceae) (Color Plate IV, bottom left), and numerous fem species in the generaAsplenium and Cystopteris (Aspleniaceae) and Elaphoglossum and Woodsia (Dryopteridaceae). Trees ofthe genus Polylepis (Rosaceae), with their characteristic reddish, exfoliating bark and strangely contorted trunks and branches, may form localized, isolated woodlands or forest communities to over 4000 m elevation within otherwise grass páramo (Fig .. !OC). They are often found on scree slopes, near the shelter ofrock cliffs, or in river valleys (Color Plate I, bottom left). It is interesting that within the Polylepis forest there is a noticeable drop in plant diversity as


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Fig. 15. Páramo communities. A. Cushion bog or "turbera" dominated by Distichia tolimensis floating on swampy ground in páramo ofthe Nevado del Cocuy (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 4200 m. Between the cushions are Calamagrostis sp., Xenophyllum crassa, Plagiocheilus solivaeformis, a few stems of Pernettya prostrata, and Sphagnum spp. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Páramo vegetation and its life forms," Col l. Geogr. 9. Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-1231 taken in 1938.) B. Marshy area or "pantanoso" along meandering river in the Valle de Las Lagunillas near the Nevado del Cocuy (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 3900 m. The wet, short grasslands are dominated by Aciachne sp. with Agrostis trichodes, Sisyrinchium pusillum, and Halenia insignis; the marshy areas contain Espe/etia lopezii, while the slopes are occupied by Espeletiopsis colombiana, Pentacalia vaccinoides, Diplostephium /acunosum, and Baccharis sp. (Photo Cuatrecasas C-1215A taken in 1938.) C. Shallow pool or "lagunita" on the Planos del Toldadero (near locality of Fig. l5B) at ca. 3900 m. The same species as in Fig. 15B domínate the surrounding areas, whereas the pools have aquatic vegetation such as Ranunculus spp., Plagiocheilus solivaeformis, and Isoetes spp. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1235 taken in 1938.) D. Glaciallake in superpáramo immediately below the Nevado del Cocuy (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 4500 m. Agrostis nigritella is one ofthe first species to colonize the wet areas between the rocks. (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetación natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. 10(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. C-1229 taken in 1938.)

compared to the surrounding grass páramo (páramo species are probably shade intolerant), and furthermore that certain plants grow only under Polylepis. Polylepis forest is still relatively underexplored, and an overall study of its flora would be very interesting (but see Amal, 1983; Fjeldsa & Kessler, 1996; and Hueclc, 1960a). SUBPÁRAMO

The lowest zone, called subpáramo, is also the most diverse and floristically showy. It is a shrub-

dominated transition zone at (2800-)3000-3500 m comprising elernents from forest below and the grass páramo above (Fig. 16). It is often a mosaic of shrubs and small scattered trees, gradually reduced in size, giving way to scrub and low vegetation of dwarf shrubs, grasses, and herbs ofthe grass páramo above (Fig. lOD). Sometimes local changes in topography and soils may give way to different microclimatic conditions, so small patches of forest may be present (Color Plate II, top left). Where the ecotone between forest and páramo is abrupt, or where isolated shrubtree islands are found within páramo, it is usually


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Fig. 16. Páramo communities. A, B. Páramo de Santa Lucía, just south ofthe Laguna de La Cocha (Putumayo, Colombia) at ca. 3100 m. A. Subpáramo woodland withEspeletia sp., Calamagrostis cf. bogotensis, Chusquea tessellata,Blechnum auratum, Weinmannia cf. cochensis, Hypericum lancioides, Diplostephiumjloribundu, Miconia sp., and Clusia multiflora. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1824 taken in 1941.) B. General view ofthe Espeletia woodland or "frailejonal." (Photo Cuatrec. C1827 taken in 1941.) C; Páramo de San Antonio del Bordoncillo (Putumayo, Colombia), between Santiago de Sibundoy andEl Encano, at ca. 3250 m. Subpáramo remnant forest with small trees and shrubs of Weinmannia cochensis, Clusia multiflora, Clethra ovalifolia, Hesperomeles pachyphylla,Myrsine dependens, Oreopanax nigrus, Hedyosmum cumbalense, Gaiadendron punctatum, Miconia nodosa, M ligustrina, Ilex myricoides, Diplostephium hartwegii, D. bicolor, Baccharis granadina, Semiramisia pulcherrima, Themistoclesia epiphytica, Plutarchia angulata, Monnina obtusifolia, Fuchsia petiolaris, the tree fern Blechnum auratum, and rosette species Espeletia pycnophylla and Puya vestita, the grasses Calamagrostis bogotensis, Neurolepis acuminatissima, and Chusquea tessellata, and the sedge Rhynchospora sp. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1819 taken in 1941.) D. Shrub páramo/subpáramo NE ofPamplona (Norte de Santander, Colombia) at ca. 2770 m. In the foreground are acaulescent rosettes of Espeletiopsis santanderensis and behind themEspeletia brassicoidea. In the background is a matorral with small trees of Weinmannia tomentosa, shrubs of Arcytophullum nitidum, Be}aria resinosa, Gaultheria erecta, Plutarchia coronaria, Chaetolepis microphylla, Monochaetum bonplandii, Miconia spp., Hypericum spp., and Ternstroemia meridionalis, and herbaceous rosettes of Paepalanthus columbiensis. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1722 taken in 1940.)

brought about by anthropogenic means, especially cutting, buming, and cattle-grazing. Therefore, it is possible that subpáramo consists ofnearly all secondary communities. The subpáramo communities, often known as scrub, thickets, "chaparrales" or "·mattorales," are composed predominantly of shrubby or woody vegetation that is sometimes lacking or rare in the Andean forest below. These include species ofthe general!ex (Aquifoliaceae), Ageratina, Baccharis, Chuquiraga

(Fig. llD), Diplostephium (Fig. 14A), Gynoxys, Loricaria, Senecio and Stevia (Asteraceae ), Berberís (Berberidaceae) (Fig. 14D), Siphocampylus (Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae), Hypericum (Clusiaceae), Coriaria (Coriariaceae), Desfontainia (Desfontainiaceae), Bejaria, Cavendishia, Gaultheria, Afacleania, Pernettya, Semiramisia (Color Plate Vl, bottom right), Themistoclesia and Vaccinium (Ericaceae), Brachyotum, Chaetolepis (Color Plate III, top left), Miconia and Monochaetum (Melastomataceae), Myrsine


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(Myrsinaceae), Monnina (Polygalaceae ), Rubus (Ro- tion, alliance, order, class, etc.). For further explanasaceae), Arcytophyllum (Rubiaceae) (Fig. l!C), tion ofthis methodology, see Becking, 1957; BraunAragoa (Fig. 14C) and Calceolaria (Scrophulari- Blanquet, 1964; Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg, 1974; aceae), Symplocos (Symplocaceae ), and Ternstroemia and Westhoff & Van der Maarel, 1973. For applied (Theaceae ). Also common are woody epiphytes in the examples of this methodology, with lists of species Ericaceae ( e.g., Disterigma, Plutarchia, Sphyro- characterizing the various plant communities, see spermum, Thibaudia) and Loranthaceae (e.g., Aetan- Aguirre & Rangel Ch., 1976; Cleef, 198lb (includthus) (Figs. 10D and 14B). ing figs. 11-79); Franco R. et al., 1986; Lozano C. & Genera forming low forests of small trees up to eight Schnetter, 1976; Sturm & Rangel Ch., 1985 (includmeters tal!, often in tree islands known as "bosques ing figs. 4-7); and Vargas Ríos & Zuluaga, 1980. achaparrados," include Oreopanax and Schefflera Páramo studies using other quantitative methods may (Araliaceae), Gynoxys, Diplostephium and Senecio be seen in works by Baruch (1984) and Fariñas and (Asteraceae), Buddleja (Buddlejaceae), Weinmannia Monasterio (1980) for Venezuela, and by Balslev and (Cunoniaceae), Bejaria (Ericaceae), Escallonia de Vries (1982), Grubb et al. (unpubl.), Muñoz et al. (Grossulariaceae), Miconia (Melastomataceae), Myrsine (1985), and Ramsay (1992) for Ecuador. (Myrsinaceae), and H esperomeles (Rosaceae). Subpáramo has many common names, of which Morphological and Physiological Adaptations the most frequently used are páramo forest, páramo thicket, shrubby páramo, subpáramo woodland, Since páramo is a high-elevation tropical ecosyssubpáramo chaparral, subpáramo elfin forest, and tem, certain characteristic physical, chemical, and tropical subalpine forest (in English); paramillo, climatic features affect the biological functioning of paramito, bosquecillo de páramo, matorral de páramo, the organisms that live there. Therefore, the plants that matorral de subpáramo, bosque paramero, bosque grow in these areas must be adapted to the following subparamero, bosque enano, bosque musgoso de conditions: 1) high-elevation air (with less water consubpáramo, bosquete andino, and (in Venezuela) tent and lower partía! pressures of gasses such as 0 2 chirivital (in Spanish); and paramillo thicket and and CO); 2) low temperatures ( the annual mean temperature in the shade decreases about 0.6°C for each paramillo scrub (mixed Spanish and English). In general terms, subpáramo is the most difficult 100 m increase, whereas in full sunlight it increases of the three páramo zones to define, because it has with elevation because the atmosphere neither absorbs been greatly extended and expanded both horizontal! y nor disperses as much radiation energy as in the lower and vertical! y (downwards) by human disturbance and regions); 3) intense ultraviolet radiation (highest in habitat destruction over hundreds, perhaps thousands, equatorial high mountains, but controlled by frequent ofyears. This is due especially to cutting and burning fog and cloud cover); 4) rapid changes in insolation at the upper forest line for herding and agricultura! resulting in quick absorption or loss of heat; 5) drypurposes. Correspondingly, forest lines appear to have ing effect ofwinds (which can increase transpiration been lowered by as much as severa! hundred meters to the point of desiccation); 6) physiological dryness by human interference (Lregaard, 1992), and rpany (due to the combination of low temperatures, intense species that were more restricted to relatively high transpiration during sunny periods, and drying effects elevations appear to have colonized lower life zones ofwinds, along with high soil acidity and high osmotic (Budowski, 1968). Much ofboth subpáramo (noncon- pressure of soil water making root water-absorption troversial) and grass páramo (somewhat controversia!) difficult); and 7) physical damage from hail and posnow occur in areas that in the past were probably cov- sibly snow (Acosta-Solís, 1984; Cleef, 1981 b; Cuatrecasas, 1968; Little, 1981; Mani, 1980; ered with upper montane forests (Uegaard, 1992). Sarmiento, 1986; Smith, 1981; Vareschi, 1970; Detailed classifications ofpáramo vegetation have Young, pers. comm.). Consequently, growth and debeen constructed utilizing relevés in the Zürich- composition are slow, primary productivity is low, and Montpellier approach and described following the natural succession of the vegetation takes a long time, Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (Barkman especially when woody species are involved et al., 1976). This system divides vegetation into units (Ferweda, 1987; Hofstede, 1995c; Hom, 1989a, 1997; or communities on the basis of floristic, physiogno- Janzen, 1973; Ramsay & Oxley, 1996; Salamanca V., mic, and ecologic similarities, and usual! y employs a 1991; Sarmiento M. et al., 1990; Smith, 1981; Sturm, detailed classification ofthe vegetation consisting of 1978; Williamson et al., 1986). It is important to rea syntaxonomical hierarchy (subassociation, associa- member that there is no strong temperature seasonal-


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

ity, no marked change from summer to winter as in the temperate regions; rather, growth in the páramo is continuous throughout the year, and great changes in temperature (and precipitation, toa certairt'extent) occur every da y ( diumally). Smith and Young (1987) noted that "many aspects of morphology and physiology séem to provide escape from, or tolerance to, extreme diurna! climatic fluctuations." Recent studies have shown how giant Andean rosettes (e.g.,Espeletia and Puya) have evolved adaptations that favor temperature insulation and the maintenance of a positive water balance under the severe conditions of the páramo environment. Adaptations to low temperatures include freezing-avoidance mechanisms such as supercooling of adult leaves (Goldstein et aL, 1985b; Larcher, 1975; Rada R. et aL, 1985a); insulation by retention of dead leaves (marcescent leaves), which protects rosette stems from freezing (Goldstein & Meinzer, 1983; Rada R. et aL, 1985a; Smith, 1979); parabolic 1eaf geometry and nyctinastic movements ofthe leaves, which result in protection of the apical leaf bud from freezing (Hedberg, 1964; Larcher, 1975; Smith, 1974b); thermal buffering by mucilaginous fluids secreted by the leaf bases, which protects apical buds (Smith & Y oung, 1987); dense leaf pubescence, which reduce~ transpiration (Baruch, 1972) and increases leaftemperature (Baruch, 1975; Meinzer & Goldstein, 1985; Meinzer et aL, 1994a; Miller, 1986, 1994); tal! aerial stems, which protect buds against the low mínimum nighttime temperatures at ground leve] (Meinzer et aL, 1994a; A. P. Smith, 1980); and contractile roots in juvenile plants, which draw the developing stem into the ground (Smith in Smith & Y oung, 1981). Rosette adaptations to 1ow moisture levels include changes in the method of C0 2 assimilation, such as a switch to the CAM photosynthetic pathway (Baruch & Smith, 1979; Medina, 1974) anda well-developed water-storing pith tissue that can be used particular! y during early moming hours, when cold or frozen soils limit water uptake during that period ofhigh transpiration (Goldstein & Meinzer, 1983; Goldstein et aL 1984; Meinzer & Goldstein, 1986; Meinzer et aL, 1985, 1994b ). Sorne rosette plants, like Draba chionophila (Brassicaceae), which grows at elevations to ca. 4800 m in the Venezuelan Andes, are freezetolerant (i.e., freezing injury occurs only when temperatures drop below the temperature at which extracellular ice formation begins) (Azócar et aL, 1988; Goldstein et aL, 1994; Pfitsch, 1994). For reviews of general adaptive radiation in Espeletia and other plants ofthe high Andes, see also Beck, 1994; Goldstein et aL, 1994; Hedberg & Hedberg, 1979; Monasterio,

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1986b; Monasterio & Sarmiento, 1991; Ramsay, 1992; Rundel et aL, 1994b; and Smith & Young, 1987. Sorne ofthe physiological and morphologi'cal adaptations discussed above work in combination~i.e., not only as avoidance/tolerance mechanisms against a cold environment but also as useful adaptations against a hot environment resu1ting from frequent tires (see Fig. 17). Adaptations to high elevation by páramo p1ants result in the characteristic growth forms discussed below.

Growth Forms Most high-elevation tropical plant communities háve a characteristic physiognomy that repeats in geographically disjunct areas ofthe world where they ·occur~e.g., South America, East Africa, and Hawaii ~Cuatrecasas, 1968; Hedberg, 1964, 1992; Hedberg & Hedberg, 1979; Raunkiaer, 1934; Troll, 1958b; Vareschi, 1970). The growth forms (sensu lato) that characterize this physiognomy are examples of convergent evolution, the forms having evolved independently in severa] different plant families on distant continents in response to the unique high-altitude tropical environments. These growth forms often result from the ecological and morphological adaptations mentioned above. Many are also apparently adapted to survive fire (L::egaard, 1992; Young & León, 1991). While the tree is the dominant growth form in the forest, it is essentially absent from páramo (except the genus Polylepis anda few associated species). Apparently it cannot survive at such elevations. In fact, tree growth ceas es when soil temperatures drop to 6-1 0°C (Larcher, 1975; Lauer, 1979a, 1981; Walter & Medina, 1969a, 1969b). Páramo, however, has its own important and conspicuous growth forms (not al! of which are strictly found in páramo), such as bunchgrasses, rosette plants, cushion plants, microphyllous and dwarf shrubs, vagrant plants, and geophytes. The presence of rosette plants (some of giant size), for example, is probably a good general indicator of páramo and seems to be one of the clearest distinctions between high-elevation areas of tropical and temperate latitudes (Smith, 1994). The most characteristic growth forms of the high-elevation páramos are summarized below. See also Balslev & de Vries, 1991; Hedberg, 1964 (for comparisons with Afroalpine plants); Hedberg & Hedberg, 1979; and Ramsay & Oxley, 1997. RosETTE PLANTS

This growth form gives páramo vegetation its distinctive character (see Fig. 18). Two kinds ofrosette


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Fig. 17. Adaptation to tire in Espeletia pycnophylla ssp. angelensis in Páramo del Angel (Carchi, Ecuador) at about 3500 m. A. Plants that have not been subjected to tire. Note the marcescent leaves along entire stem, and living leaves clustered at the distal end that protect the buds (center plan! is ca. 2.5 m tall). B. Plants that have been subjected to tire. Note how the lowermost lea ves ofthe plan! ha ve been bumed off and the stem is naked, but the apex has been protected by the distal living leaves and the plan! continues to grow (talles! plants are ca. 3.5 m tall). (Photos by J. L. Luteyn taken in 1997.)

plants, the stem rosette and the acaulescent rosette, have been described. The stem rosette, the columnar woolly type of rosette plant, is the most typical and well-known growth form of páramo. Members of the genus Espeletia (Asteraceae), the frailejón (literally, "big friar")-so called because of the grayish woolly coat of pubescence-are the classical example. These plants produce an erect, normally unbranched, thick-woody stem tightly encased by the dense bases of old leaves (Cuatrecasas, 1968). The erect stems may be as tall as 15 m in undisturbed páramo (Fig. 18B-C; Color Plate II, bottom left). Lateral inflorescences are produced from the single aerial meristem. Other examples of this growth form are the fern Blechnum schomburgkii (Biechnaceae) (Color Plate V, bottom left) and Plantago serie ea subsp. penymondii (Plantaginaceae). It has been shown that woolliness is a response to ultraviolet light and is associated with

thermoregulation, the retarding of evaporation, and general protection from UV light (Miller, 1994). Acaulescent rosette plants develop thick, perennial, taproots and a dense rosette of leaves at the ground leve!. The flowering stems may be very short, with the flowers hidden in and amongst the leafbases, or longer, thereby lifting the flowers above the ground surface. Sorne plants, such as Puya spp. (Bromeliaceae), produce giant, bulky inflorescences severa! meters tall (Fig. 18D). In all cases, the buds that form the flowers originate in the axils ofthe rosette leaves, which are sunken a few centimeters below the ground. Acaulcscent plants thereby protect their buds from fire and frost. Experiments ha ve shown that the mean temperature within the rosette is higher (by about 6°C) than in the surrounding air (Hedberg & Hedberg, 1979) and that these plants seem to buffer temperature variations to such an extent that they are able to avoid both positive and negative extremes (Goebel,


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Fig. 18. Rosette growth form. A. Coespeletia timotensis from the superpáramo ofPáramo de Piedras Blancas (Mérida, Venezuela) at ca. 4300 m. The plant at the center is about 2.3 m tal!. (Photo by F. L. Pérez taken in 1980.) B. Páramo de Santa Lucía, just south ofthe Laguna de La Cocha (Putumayo, Colombia) at ca. 3100 m. Subpáramo woodland with Espeletia sp. (For size comparison, note man alongside plant in lower center right.) (See Fig. 16A for details of associated plants.) (Photo Cuatrec. C1825 taken in 1941.) C. Espe!etia discoidea from Páramo de Guantiva (Boyacá, Colombia) at ca. 3250 m (H. García-Barriga is standing alongside the plant). This wet páramo al so containedEspelelia nemenkenii, Espeletia congestijlora, Espe/etia arbe/aezii, and Espeletiopsis muiska. Other associates included Ca/amagrostis planijolia, Blechnum sp., Rubus sp., Weinmanniafagaroides,

Pentacalia corymbosa, Val/ea stipularis, Be)aria aestuans, Gaultheria anastomosans, Pernettya pros/rata, Hypericum sp.,Excremis coarctata, and Paepalanthus crassicaulis. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1685 taken in 1940.) D. Puya goudotiana, an ac:aulescent rosette plant from Macizo de Bogotá region, in páramo near Guadalupe above Santafé de Bogotá (Cundinamarca, Colombia) at.ca. 3220 m. Al so in this community were Espeletia grandijlora, Espeletiopsis co¡ymbosa, Aragoa sp., Miconia pallida, Brachyotum sp., Monnina salicifolia, and Paepalanthus sp. (Photo Cuatrec. C-1390 taken in 1939.)


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1891; Hedberg, 1964). Examples are found in Hypochaeris (Fig. 13A) and Werneria (Asteraceae), Lysipomia (Campanulaceae-Lobelioideae), Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae) (Fig. 12A), Lupinus alopecuroides (Fabaceae) (Fig. 12C), Acaulimalva and Nototriche (Malvaceae), Rumex tolimensis (Polygonaceae), Ranunculús gusmanni (Ranunculaceae ), A caen a cylindristachya (Rosaceae), Valeriana plantaginea (Valerianaceae), and Viola (Violaceae). CusHION PLANTS

These plants form a flat, convex, or hemispherical cushion as the result ofthe regular outward branching of dense radially oriented buds (Fig. 19). Each branch has a small rosette ofleaves at the tip, and only the outer and upper leaves are green and living; the interior of the cushion consists of a peaty mass, the remains of dried leaves, accumulated humus, dust, soil, and rain water, all ofwhich protect the buds and stems from wind, desiccation, and predation, and pro vide a reservoir ofwater and nutrients (Sklenáf, 1998).1As in rosette plants, the mean temperature is higher within the cushion than at the cushion surface, thereby protecting the buds from cold temperatures. The plants are often very prickly and hard to the touch, yet firm enough that one is able to walk on top of certain species, such as in Azorella (Apiaceae), Plantago (Plantaginaceae) (Figs. 9C & 19), andDistichia (Juncaceae) (Fig. 15A). Many different species, in different families, form cushions of different sizes, from flat or only a few centimeters tall to cushions over one meter tall and severa] meters in diameter, e.g., Azore!!a pedunculata. In moist or humid sites, where cushions are more frequently found, Distichia muscoides and Plantago rígida are dominant species (Figs. 9C, 15A & 19; Color Plate II, top right), whereas in drier places Azore!!a pedunculata andA. aretioides are common. Other genera that produce cushions include Wemeria pygmaea andXenophyllum spp. (Asteraceae) (Color Plate VI, top left), Draba aretioides (Brassicaceae), Arenaría spp. (Caryophyllaceae), Oreobolus spp. (Cyperaceae),Disterigma empetrifolium and Pernettya pros trata (Ericaceae ), Paepalanthus lodiculoides (Eriocaulaceae), Geranium spp. (Geraniaceae), Aciachne pulvinata (Poaceae), Calandrinia acaulis (Portulacaceae), Valeriana rigida (Valerianaceae) (Color Plate V, bottom right), and Xyris subulata (Xyridaceae). For extensive discussions ofrnorphology and actaptation of cushion plants to hÍgh~eievation environments, see Hedberg, 1964, 1992; Heilbom, 1925; Rauh, 1939; and Sklenár, 1998. BUNCHGRASSES (oR TUSSOCK GRASSES)

This growth form is the most widespread in the páramo. In undisturbed areas, grasses may average 1-

23

1.5 m tall with a.coverage ofup to 100%. Members of the grass and sedge families frequently form tufts or dense bunches of stems (culms) with rigid, pointed, tubular or inrolled leaves (Figs. 8C,D, 9, 17; Color Plates I, bottom right and V, top right). These dense tufts in which the dead leaves are maintained and decay on the plant, along witlrthe culms, provide good insulation for the buds and young leaves from cold temperatures, high radiation, evaporation, and heat of fires to 500°C (Ramsay, 1992; Ramsay & Oxley, 1996). Much oftheir regeneration takes place through the production of vegetative buds near the ground. Here the tufts are very dense and living shoots are found along with dead culms and leaves. These tufts protect the vegetative buds. The most common species are Calamagrostis recta and C. effitsa (Poaceae) (Figs. 9B,C, 13D; Color Plate II, bottom left); other important genera and species are Carex and Uncinia (Cyperaceae), Cortaderia spp., Festuca dolichophylla, F. tolucensis (Fig. 9A), Stipa spp., and Lorenzochloa erectifolia (Poaceae). For additional discussion ofhow the bunchgrass growth form is an adaptation to fire in the páramo environment, see Hofstede, 1995c; Ramsay, 1992; and Ramsay & Oxley, 1997. MICROPHYLLOUS SHRUBS

These shrubs are characterized by dense foliage of small, xeromorphic leaves, sometimes with many of the following combinations of adaptations in the same species, al! acting as protection from ultraviolet light and/or the reduction oftranspiration (Hedberg, 1964; Larcher, 1975). Examples of genera and/or species with hard or sclerophyllous leaves include Gaultheria anastomosans and Gaylussacia buxifolia (Ericaceae) and Miconia summa (Melastomataceae); squamous or rolled leaves Baccharis revoluta and Diplostephium revolutum (Asteraceae) and Miconia salicifolia (Melastomataceae); imbrica te lea ves Loricaria (Asteraceae) (Color Plate V, top left) andAragoa cupressina (Scro. phulariaceae ); aciculate or spine-tipped lea ves Chuquiraga (Asteraceae) (Fig. 11D), Hypericum laricifolium (Clusiaceae), and Valeriana microphylla (Valerianaceae ); and densely tomentose-pubescent leaves Diplostephium eriophorum and Pentacalia guicanensis (Asteraceae) and Gaultheria lanigera (Ericaceae). The so-ca1led bouquet plants ("plantas en ramilletes de florones") are a subset of microphyllous shrubs with a special habit. These plants feature an increase in the size of an individual flower in relation to the total appearance of the plant (e.g., Bidens hu milis), or the dense aggregation of many small flowers into a bouquet of dense flowering stalks (Vareschi,


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Fig. 19. Pรกramo community showing cushion plant growth form. Climbing Nevado del Ruiz abo ve Termales (Caldas, Colombia) looking to the East at ca. 3900 m. In the foreground are f01mations ofthe bunchgrasses Calamagrostis ejjitsa and C. recta, and cushion plants of Plantago rigida (From J. Cuatrecasas, "Aspectos de la vegetaciรณn natural de Colombia," Revista Acad. Colombiana Ci. Exact. l 0(40). Reproduced with permission. Photo Cuatrec. I-235 taken in 1940.)

1970). This is considered an adaptation that makes the flowers more attractive to pollinators by forming a large and noticeable splash of color that attracts insects from a distance, as in species of Draba (Brassicaceae), Gentianella (Gentianaceae), and Chaetolepis (Melastomataceae) (Color Plate III, top left). PROSTRATE DWARF SHRUBS

These are small, woody plants that rarely produce shoots over 0.75 m tall. The speciaร feature separating them from microphyllous shrubs is that they ha ve a larger part of their branch system protected below or on the soil surface. They are often pros trate, growing laterally along the ground. Sometimes entire

branching systems occur underground and only the current year's growth is seen above ground. This growth form often has its regenerative buds below ground, where they are protected from fire and frost. Examples are found in Bidens and Senecio (s.l.) (Asteraceae), Lupinus and Astragalus (Fabaceae) (Color Plate VI, bottom left), Pernettya andDisterigma (Ericaceae), andArcytophyllum (Rubiaceae). GEOPHYTES

These are herbs that survive the unfavorable periods of the year (including times of fire) by means of subterranean organs, such as succulent roots, rhizomes, stolons, tubercules, or bulbs (L<egaard, 1992; Raunkiaer,


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1934; Vareschi, 1970). Examples of geophytes include Orthrosanthus chimboracensis (Iridaceae) (Color Plate VI, top right), the genus Stenomesson (Amaryllidaceae), Altensteinia and Gomphychis (Orchictaceae), and the fem Ophioglossum crotalophoroides (Ophioglossaceae).

25

Table I Numbers offamilies, generá, and species ofmajor plant groups in the páramo Taxanomic group Non-vascular plants

V AGRANT PLANTS These plants grow free, unattached to the substrate and are found in many biomes throughout the world (Pérez, 1994a, 1997b ). They are found in the superpáramo zone, where frost-heaving is a common phenomenon, and only in cryptogamic plants such as the fruticose lichen Thamnolia vermicularis (family uncertain) and the acrocarpous moss Grimmia longirostris (Grimmiaceae). These plants have been variously referred to as erra tic, vagant, vagrant, solifluction floaters, errant cryptogams, and sometimes globular mosses or moss balls when their growth shape becomes more spherical (see Pérez, 1997b, for more details). Cryptogams as a whole (i.e., bryophytes and lichens) have been considered a true growth fonn by Cuatrecasas (1968), Griffin (1979), and Ramsay (1992), oras composed of severa] growth forms by Ramsay and Oxley (1997).

Flora On a geological timescale the páramo flora is young, the so-called protopáramo vegetation of Van der Hammen and Cleef (1986) having evolved during the Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene, sorne 2~ Ma. Páramo environments suitable for plant colonization on an extensive scale, however, have been available only since the Quatemary (Simpson, 1975; Van der Hammen, 1974; Van der Hammen & Cleef 1986). The youth ofthe páramo flora is al so evidenced by the presence of relatively few endemic or near endemic genera (23 genera, ca. 5% based on this work) and the absence of any endemic families in the vascular flora. Although the páramo ecosystem occupies no more than 2% ofthe land area ofthe countries in which it is found, the flora is extremely diverse. In fact, the páramo flora is the richest high-mountain flora ofthe world (Smith & Cleef, 1988). The páramo flora has evolved in various ways: by adaptation of lower-elevation plants (i.e., tropical elements) to highelevation environments, by immigration (i.e., dispersa!) of cool-adapted plants from north and south temperate regions, and by speciation through isolation from within (i.e., autoc)1thonous element). For discussion of these and other ideas, see Chapman, 1917; Chardon, 1938; Simpson, 1975; Simpson & Todzia, 1990; Van der Hammen, 1972a, 1972b; and Vuilleumier, 1970.

Lichens' Mosses Hepatics Vascular plants Fems/Fem Allies

Families

Genera

Species

130 45 51 34 124 22

365 114 163 500 52

101 16 85 254

447 101 346 865

1298 465 544 291 3399 352 2 3045 634 2411 4697

88

Gymnosperms Angiosperms Monocots Dicots Total

'Lichenicolous fungi are not included in this table.

GENERAL FLoRrsnc DrvERSITY

For the nonvascular plants, the lists herein presented include 114 genera in 45 families of lichens (excluding lichenicolous fungi), 163 genera in 51 families of mosses, and 88 genera in 34 families of hepatics, for a total of 365 genera and 1298 species (see Table I). For the vascular plants, the lists in elude 52 genera in 22 families of fems and fern allies 1 genus in 1 family of gymnosperms, 101 genera in '16 families of monocotyledons, and 346 genera in 85 families of dicotyledons, for a total of 500 genera and 3399 species (see Table I). Tables II-VI show the largest families and genera of páramo lichens, mosses, hepatics, ferns and fern allies, and flowering plants, respectively. Table VII lists the genera endemic to páramo and notes those that are monotypic. Luteyn (1992) provided a preliminary estima te of specific endemism of páramo vascular plants as high as 60%. However, it is now realized that species numbers, limits, and distribution patterns are too poorly known and that a realistic approximation of species endemism in the páramo is not yet possible. As a result, detailed estimates of overall specific endemism and the geographical origins and relationships ofthe páramo flora have not been calculated from the data herein presented. Nonvascular plants.-In this study, 1298 species of non vascular plants have been found throughout the geographical and elevational range ofpáramo as here defined (Table I), of which 36% are lichens (lichenicolous fungi are not included) 42% mosses and 22% hepatics. ' '


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Table U Ten largest families and genera ofpáramo lichenized fungi• (prepared by H. Sipman) Fami1y (no. generalspecies) Parme1iaceae (25/159) C1adoniaceae (3/45) Physciaceae (8/27) Collemataceae (2/26) Lobariaceae (3/24) Stereocau1aceae (1/19) Peltigeraceae (3/13) Rama1inaceae (1/12) Lecanoraceae (4/11) Pannariaceae (4/1 O)

Genus (fami1y) (no. species)

Hypotrachyna (Parme1iaceae) (50) Cladonia (C1adoniaceae) (38) Leptogium (Collemataceae) (25) Oropogon (Parmeliaceae) (21) Stereocau/on (Stereocau1aceae) (19) Xanthoparme/ia (Parme1iaceae) (18) Heterodermia (Physciaceae) ( 17) Sticta (Lobariaceae) (13) Parmotrema (Parmeliaceae) (13) , Ramalina (Rama1inaceae) (12)

'Lichenico1ous fungi are not included in this tab1e.

Table 111 Ten largest families and genera ofpáramo mosses (prepared by S. P. Churchill and D. Griffin III) Fami1y (no. generalspecies)

Genus (fami1y) (no. species)

Dicranaceae ( 17/67) Bryaceae ( 10/65) Pottiaceae (19/63) Bartramiaceae (7 /40) Orthotrichaceae (3/36) Sphagnaceae (1/27) , Amblystegiaceae (9/19) Brachytheciaceae (7 /18) Grimmiaceae (4/ 17) Polytrichaceae (6/16)

Campylopus (Dicranaceae) (37) Sphagnum (Sphagnaceae) (27) Zygodon (Orthotrichaceae) (21) Bryum (Bryaceae) (18) Leptodontium (Pottiaceae) ( 16) Orthotrichum (Orthotrichaceae) (14) Breutelia (Bartramiaceae) ( 13) Daltonia (Daltoniaceae) (13) Macromitrium (Macromitriaceae) (13) Schizymenium (Bryaceae) (11)

Within the lichens, Table II shows the 10 largest families and genera of páramo lichenized fungi. At the fami1y leve!, Parmeliaceae (25 genera and 159 species) are by far the most diverse, with more than three times as many genera and species as the next closest families Physciaceae (8 gen.) and Cladoniaceae (45 spp.), respectively. Four of the 10 most speciose páramo genera are al so ParmeliaceaeHypotrachyna (50 spp.), Oropogon (21 spp.),Xanthoparmelia (18 spp.), and Parmotrema (13 spp.)-accounting for just over 100 species. The second most speciose family is Cladoniaceae, with Cladonia having 38 species. Additional general comments about lichens are given by Ahti (1992) and Sipman (1992, and below in the introduction to his checklist). Table III shows the 1Olargest faínilies and genera ofpáramo mosses. At the family leve!, Dicranaceae (17 gen., 67 spp.), Bryaceae (10 gen., 65 spp.), and Potti, aceae (19 gen., 63 spp.) are the most diverse. The most speciose genera are Campylopus (Dicranaceae, 37 spp.),

Sphagnum (Sphagnaceae, 27 spp.), and Zygodon (Orthotrichaceae, 21 spp.). Additional general comments about mosses are given below by Churchill and Griffin in the introduction to their checklist. Table IV shows the 1O largest families and genera of páramo hepatics. Lejeuneaceae (16 gen., 38 spp.) and Jungermanniaceae (11 gen., 31 spp.) are the most diverse families in terms ofboth genera and species. The most speciose genera are Riccardia (Aneuraceae, 20 spp.), Metzgeria (Metzgeriaceae, 20 spp.), Plagiochila (Plagiochilaceae, 18 spp.), Frullania (Jubulaceae, 13 spp.), and Bazzania (Lepidoziaceae, 13 spp.). Additional general comments about liverworts are given below by Gradstein in the introduction to his checklist. Vascular plants.-In this study, 3399 species ofvascular plants have been found from throughout the geographical and elevational range of páramo (Table I), of which 10.4% are fems and fem allics, 0.06% gymnosperms, and 89.6% angiosperms. Of the angiosperms (flowering plants), 21% are monocots and 79% are dicots.


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Table IV Ten largest families and genera of páramo hepatics (prepared by S. R. Gradstein) Fami1y (no. genera/species)

Genus (family) (no. species)

Lejeuneaceae (16/38) Jungermanniaceae (11/31) Lepidoziaceae (6/29) Aneuraceae (2/21) Metzgeriaceae (1/20) Plagiochilaceae (2/19) Geocalycaceae (7/18) Gymnomitriaceae (5/14) Jubulaceae (1/13) Ba1antiopsaceae (2/7)

Riccardia (Aneuraceae) (20) Metzgeria (Metzgeriaceae) (20) Plagiochila (P1agiochi1aceae) (18) Frullania (Jubu1aceae) (13) Bazzania (Lepidoziaceae) (13) Anastrophyllum (Jungermanniaceae) (8) Lepidozia (Lepidoziaceae) (8) Leptoscyphus (Geoca1ycaceae) (7) Isotachis (Balantiopsidaceae) (6) Cephaloziella (Cephaloziellaceae) (6) Marsupe/la (Gymnomitriaceae) (6) Radula (Radulaceae) (6)

Table V Ten largest families and genera ofpáramo fems and fem allies Family (no. genera/species)

Genus (family) (no. species)

Dryopteridaceae (5/77) Lycopodiaceae (3/69) Polypodiaceae (14/60) Pteridaceae (7 /43) Hymenophyllaceae (1/20) Isoetaceae (1/18) Thelypteridaceae (1/13) Aspleniaceae (2/11) Blechnaceae (1/9) Cyatheaceae ( 1/6)

Elaphoglossum (Dryopteridaceae) (65) Huperzia s.str. (Lycopodiaceae) (60) (Lycopodium s.l. = 69) Hymenophyllum (Hymenophyllaceae) (20) Isoetes (Isoetaceae) (18) Jamesonia (Pteridaceae) ( 18) Eriosorus (Pteridaceae) (14) Thelypteris (The1ypteridaceae) (13) Polypodium (Polypodiaceae) (12) Melpomene (Polypodiaceae) (11) Asplenium (Asp1eniaceae) ( 1O)

Table V shows the largest families and genera within the páramo ferns and fem allies. Dryopteridaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Polypodiaceae, and Pteridaceae are the largest and most di verse families at the generic and specific levels. At the generic leve!, Polypodiaceae (14 gen.) are the most diverse, with twice as many genera as the next closest family, Pteridaceae (7 gen.). At the specific leve!, Dryopteridaceae are the largest dueto the numerous species of Elaphoglossum (65 spp.); this genus is also the largest ofthe páramo pteridophytes. Huperzia (Lycopodiaceae), with 60 species, is the second largest genus (or the largest, with 69, if considered as Lycopodium in the broad sense), followed by Hymenophyllum (20 spp.), Isoetes (18 spp.), and Jamesonia (18 spp.). Table VI shows the composition of the páramo flowering plants in terms ofthe 15largest families and genera. In this study, the Asteraceae are the largest family by far in both numbers of genera and species. The data from this study show that Asteraceae are two

and a half times larger than the Poaceae in numbers of genera (101 gen. vs. 41 gen.) and nearly four times larger in numbers of species (858 spp. vs. 227 spp.). Four of the five most speciose páramo genera are Asteraceae-Pentacalia (89 spp.), Senecio s.str. (69 spp.), Diplostephium (70 spp.), andEspeletia s.str. (61 spp.)-accounting for nearly 300 species. Asteraceae also have the highest number of endemic genera of any páramo vascular plant family ( 16 genera, or 70% ofthe endemic páramo genera). The largest genera of Poaceae are Festuca (38 spp.), Calamagrostis (36 spp.), Agrostis (24 spp.), and Poa (20 spp.). The Orchidaceae are surprisingly diverse in the páramo, with 25 genera and 152 species herein recorded, al" though (as discussed below) their tabulation has pro ven difficult and their numbers may be questioned. It is interesting to note that in virtually all páramo studies that have been published, the Asteraceae are always the largest family in numbers of species and genera, followed closely by Poaceae. Other families


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Tablé VI Fifteen largest families and genera ofpáramo flowering plants Fami1y (no. genera!species) Asteraceae (101/858) Poaceae (41/22 7) Orchidaceae (251152) Scrophulariaceae (14/144) Melastomataceae (9/1 07) Gentianaceae (4/93) Ericaceae (16/79) Bromeliaceae (6/78) Rosaceae (1 0/77) Fabaceae" (9/76) Brassicaceae (13/71) Cyperaceae (8/70) Apiaceae (15/61) Solanaceae (8/58) Clusiaceae (2/56)

Genus (fami1y) (no. species) Pentacalia (Asteraceae) (89) Senecio s.str. (Asteraceae) (69) (Senecio s.l. = 172) Diplostephium (Asteraceae) (70) Ca/ceo/aria (Scrophu1ariaceae) (65) Espe/etia s.str. (Asteraceae) (61) (Espe/etia s.l. = 123) Lupinus (Fabaceae) (56)' Miconia (Melastomataceae) (54) Hypericum (C1usiaceae) (54) Va/er¡'ana (Valerianaceae) (54) Gen.tianella (Gentianaceae) (48) Puj;a (Bromeliaceae) (48) Gynoxys (Asteraceae) (46) Baccliaris (Asteraceae) (45) . Draba (Brassicaceae) (45) Geranium (Geraniaceae) (43) Soianum (Solanaceae) (43)

"Rupert Bameby, who is curren ti y studying Lupinus, feels there are only about 15 species in the genus. Ifthis is true the overall family number drops toca. 35 species.

Table VII Vascular plant genera endemic (or nearly so) to the páramo. Those marked with an asterisk (*)are monotypic Vascular plants Apiaceae Cotopaxia Perissicoe/um Asteraceae Aphanactus Ascidiogyne

Blakiella' C!uysactinium Coespe!etia Espeletia Espe!etiopsis Floscaldasia' F/osmutisia'

Freya Hinterhubera Ja/cophila La estadía Paramiflos Raouliopsis Westoniel/a

that rank consistently high in overall importance in the páramo ecosystem include (in alphabetical order) Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Bromeliaceae, Cyperaceae, Ericaceae, Gentianaceae, Melastomataceae, Orchidaceae, Rosaceae, and Scrophulariaceae. There is also a trend in the upper páramo (i.e., superpáramo at ca. 4000+ m) for certain families, often with a more northtemperate element, to become increasingly importan!. For example, the Apiaceae, Brassicaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae, and Valerianaceae become more conspicuous, while the Bromeliaceae, Melastomataceae, Orchidaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae decline (see also Jorgensen & Ulloa U., 1994: tab. 9). GENERAL PHYTOGEOGRAPHY ANO ÜRIG!NS

Frequently, the overall floristic and phytogeo-

Campanulaceae Lysipomia Melastomataceae Castratella Scrophulariaceae Aragoa

Ferns Pteridaceae Jamesonia Nephopteris'

graphical relationships ofthe páramo flora have been discussed and compared with the Mexican and Guatemalan alpine floras (Beaman, 1965; González, 1986; Islebe & Cleef, 1995; Rzedowski, 1978), the tepuis ofthe Guayana High1ands (Cleef et al., 1993; Riina, 1996), the lowland savannas of South America in general (Cleef et al., 1993), the puna flora (Baumann, 1988; Quintanilla P., 1983b), the subantarctic flora (Cleef, 1978, 1980a), and the world's other high-elevation tropical floras such as in A frica and Malesia (Smith & Cleef, 1988). In common with al! other highelevation tropical floras, the páramo flora is predominantly of temperate zone origin at the generic leve]; but in contrast, the páramo flora is the richest overall and has the largest actual number of genera and endemic elements (Smith & Cleef, 1988). Future research efforts are needed to see ifthe previous com-


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Table VIII Percentage ofvascular plant genera in each phytogeographical element in the neotropical páramos

Geo¡¡;raEhical element Páramo Qther neotropical Wide tropical Holarctic Austral-Antarctic Wide temperate CosmoEolitan

CR' 4 25 7 15 14 24 11

Percentage ofvascular ¡;¡lant genera VEh C0-2d EC-1' CO-l' 7 8 4 7 24 34 32 30 3 10 28 10 13 ll 12 10 7 9 5 10 39 26 20 7 7 8 10 9

EC-2' 9 21 3 14 10 26 17

'Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica (Cleef & Chaverri P., 1992). hBased on data from the superpáramo ofPáramo de Piedras Blancas, Venezuela (Ricardi S. et al., 1997). 'Based on ca. 600 relevés from all parts of the páramo throughout the Cordillera Oriental, Colombia (Cleef, 1979a). dBased on the 130 most important species of the Colombian páramo flora as a whole (Sturrn & Rangel Ch., 1985). 'Páramo de Guamaní, Ecuador (León Y., 1993). 'Based on 192 quadrats in zonal vegetation from 12 scattered páramos in Ecuador (Ramsay, 1992).

parisons, based mostly on a restricted data-set from the páramos ofthe Colombian Cordillera Oriental, are representative for the páramo flora as a whole. In an effort to understand the origins ofthe páramo flora, recent phytogeographical studies have followed Cleef(1979a) in assigning each genus to one ofseven geographical floristic elements: páramo, other neotropical, widespread tropical, Holarctic, AustralAntarctic, widespread temperate, and cosmopolitan (see Table VIII). In the Colombian Cordillera Oriental, the most comprehensively studied páramo region to date, Cleef (1979a, 1980c) and Van der Hammen and Cleef (1986) found that the páramo genera of vascular plants are about 50% tropical in origin and 50% temperate. Within the tropical element, strictly neo tropical genera are the most strongly represented. Within the temperate element, the widespread genera are most strongly represented (about 20% ofthe genera), while the Austral-Antarctic and Holarctic elements are represented each by about 10%. See al so Sturm and Rangel Ch. (1985), who studied the phytogeography ofthe 130 most important species ofthe Colombian páramo flora as a whole. In the páramo flora ofthe Cordillera de Talamanca (Costa Rica), Cleef and Chaverri P. (1992) found that, of the páramo genera of vascular plants, about 36% are tropical in origin and 64% temperate. Within the tropical and temperate elements ofCosta Rica, strictly neotropical genera and widespread genera, respectively, are the most strongly represented, as they are in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. Although the Costa Rican páramo flora shares about 95% of its

vascular genera with the Andes, the larger proportion ofthe temperate component in Costa Rica, with genera such as Garrya (Garryaceae), Arctostaphylos (Ericaceae), Mahonia (Berberidaceae), and Romanschulzia (Brassicaceae), was attributed to the more northern geographical position ofthe country. [Note: The genera Helianthemum (Cistaceae) and Smilacina (Liliaceae) have also been reported from the páramos of Costa Rica by Cleef and Chaverri P. (1992), but I have not seen any herbarium specimens unequivocally from páramo and, therefore, ha ve not included them in this book.] Ricardi S. et al. (1997b) studiedthe superpáramo (above 4000 m) in Venezuela and compared it with other high-elevation floras along the entire length of the Andes from Costa Rica to Patagonia. They found that 34% ofthe genera ofvascular plants are tropical in origin and 66% temperate, with the greatest similarity to that ofColombia and next to Ecuador. In northern Ecuador, León Yánez (1993) found that, ofthe genera ofvascular plants, 45% are oftropical origin and 55% of temperate. In the southern páramos of Ecuador, Ramsay (1992) found fewer families and genera than in Colombia, with about 33% ofthe genera ofvascular plants oftropical origin and 67% temperate. He attributed this to the lower humid~ ity and more extreme cold temperatures ofEcuadorean páramos. Ramsay (1992) also compared the Ecuadorean páramo flora to the puna ofPem and the mountains ofEast Africa and New Guinea (see also Balslev, 1988; Mena V., 1984; andMena V. &Balslev, 1986). There are, unfortunately, no similar phytogeographi-


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cal studies from the páramos (jalea) ofnorthem Petu. phibians such as the salamander (Bolitoglossa spp.), Monasterio (1980b) looked at the entire páramo frog and toad (Eleutherodactylus spp., Hyla spp., region and found the following trend: the jalea and Ate/opus spp.), and reptiles such as the lizard and Ecuadorean páramos consist mainly oftussock grasses chameleon (Stenocercus spp., Phenacosaurus spp., with genera from extra-tropical regions, the Venezu- Proctoporus spp.). Invertebrates are less conspi'cuous and found elan páramos are dominated by rosettes, and the páramos of Colombia show equal importance of mostly in the subpáramo. These include lepidopterans (Descimon, 1986) and other insects such as grassgrasses and rosettes. For additional studies that include phytogeographi- hoppers, cockroaches, beetles, and flies; molluscs cal analyses, see Ahti, 1992 (lichen family Cladoni- such as a few snails and slugs; and earthworms. aceae); Becker, 1988; Cabrera, 1957; Cleef, 1981b; Arthropods and other microfauna (e.g., mites and Duque N., 1987; Jorgensen & Ulloa U., 1994; springtails) are rarely seen but are abundant (Sturm, Keating, 1995; Lozano C. & Rangel Ch., 1989; Rangel 1978, 1983, 1990, 1994a; van VeJez, 1992). Ch., 1991b, 1995a; Rangel Ch. & Garzón, 1995, 1997; . A number ofthe larger páramo mammals, as well Sipman, 1992 (Colombian lichens); Tirado M. & · as the Andean candor, ha ve been extensively hunted Ricardi S., 1997); Vargas Ulate & Sánchez G., unpubl. by man and their numbers are now very low. Hum. mingbirds, bees, and flies seem to be important polliFauna nators in the páramo (see, e.g., Berry & Calvo, 1994; Brand Prada, 1994b). Birds, rabbits, and guinea pigs Páramo grass- and shrublands support a number (as well as wind, water, and gravity) are important of native animal species. It is not the purpose of this agents of dispersa! (Frantzen & Bouman, 1989; Graf book to discuss the general fauna ofthe páramos, but Bock, 1984; Simpson & Todzia, 1990). sorne of the larger, more common, and conspicuous Additional references about the páramo fauna include animals are mentioned here. Aagaard, 1982; Adams, 1973; Amat García, 1987, Mammals in the páramo include the puma (Felis 1991a, 1991b; Arias Lemas, 1989; Aristide U., 1969; concolor), spectacled bear or "oso de anteojos" Bamett & Gordon, 1985; Barrientos & Monge-Nájera, (Tremarctos ornatus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus 1995; Berna] C., 1985; Berna! C. & Figueroa, 1980; virginianus), mountain tapir or "danta". (Tapirus Brand Prada, 1994a; Cadena G. & Malagón, 1994; pinchaque), rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), guinea pig Chapman, 1917, 1926; Davis et al., 1997; Del Llano, (Cavia porcellus ), Andean fox (Duscicyon culpaes ), 1990; Duellman, 1979a, 1988; Fjeldsil. & Krabbe, 1990; mountain coatí (Nasuella olivaceae), long-tailed weaGaray, 1981; E. Gaviria, 1991; S. Gaviria, 1989; sel (Mustela ji-enata ), shrew ( C!yptotis spp. ), rat oposGrabandt, 1983; Hoffstetter, 1986; Hoyos, 1991; sum (Caenolestes spp.), and various small rodents. INDERENA, 1984; Janzen et al., 1976; Lynch, 1986; Rabbit feces are extremely common in the grass Maní, 1962; Mora O. & Sturm, 1994a; Phelps & Phelps, páramo, especially in open areas between tussocks. 1958, 1963; Rangel Ch. & Berna!, 1980; Reig, 1986; Stotz et al. (1996) list 69 species ofbirds as "total Righi, 1995; Rivera, 1979; Sturm, 1984a; Sturm & users" ofthe páramo habitat, with 41 species making Rangel Ch., 1978; Vuilleumier, 1980; Vuilleumier & it their primary habitat and 16 as indicator species. Ewert, 1978; Wolf & Gil!, 1986; and Yerena, 1994. Sorne ofthe better-known páramo birds include vultures su eh as the Andean candor ( Vultur gryphus) and Human Influence the turkey buzzard ( Cathartes aura), eagle, hawk, and falcon (Phalcoboenus carunculatus, Buteo spp., There have been settlements in the highlands of Geranoaetus spp., Falca sparverius), owl (Buba virgi- the Andes for perhaps 15,000 years or more (Eckholm, nianus andAsio spp.), hummingbird or "colibrí" (fam1975; Little, 1981). Man's influence there has been ily Trochilidae: e.g., Oxypogon guerinii and Patagona profound, with the result that nearly 90-95% of the gigas), duck (A nas spp.), and the rufous-fronted para- forests of the northern Andes have been cleared keet (Bolborhynchus ferrugineifi·ons). For a discus- (Henderson et al., 1991). Exploitation ofthe high-elsion ofthe origins ofthe high Andean bird fauna, see evation puna ecosystem of the central and southern Vuilleumier, 1986. Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and northern Argentina ocNative páramo fish species are few, but rainbow trout curred in the pre-Hispanic period and has been relaor "trucha" (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been introduced tively well documented (see, e.g., Baker & Little, to many lakes and streams for food and sport. 1976; Brush, 1976, 1982; Ellenberg, 1979). Intensive The herpetofauna has been relatively well studied land use in the páramos ofthe northern Andes has been (see especially Duellman, 1979b) and includes am- a more recent phenomenon and needs further study


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(Hess, 1990). Did similar changes ofhabitat destruction and alteration take place in the essentially unpopulated high-elevation páramo areas as it did in the puna or in the lower montan e regions of the Andes? One of the most frequently discussed questions about the historical development of highland regions ofthe northem Andes is whether the páramo that we see today, specifically the grass páramo, is a natural ecosystem or one that man created in order to provide more pasture and agriculturalland. Ellenberg (1979) championed the theory that the climax vegetation ofthe tropical Andes was forest and that man has been responsible, largely by means of fire, for nearly all the large open areas (Becker, 1988; Fjeldsa, 1992;-La::gaard, 1986, 1992). Other authors feel that both Polylepis forest and sorne form of páramo grassland have always existed as independent formations, expanding and contracting throughout time in response to climatic changes (Cleef, pers. comm.; Lauer, 1981; Troll, 1959; Van der Hammen & Cleef, 1986; Walter & Medina, 1969a, 1969b). Charcoal fragments in core sediment samples revea! that fires have occurred in-páramo since Holocene times (Hom, 1989c; Hom & Sanford, 1992; Salomons, 1986). Those fires may have been ignited by natural Sources (i.e., lightning or volcanic activity) or by man (deliberate or accidental), but usually their exact origins are unknown. Verweij (1995) has stated that fires caused by natural sources occur less than once in 1000 years. Published records oflightning-set páramo fires have not been found, although Horn (1989c) and Young (pers. comm.) ha ve mentioned lightning strikes in Chirripó páramo (Costa Rica) and the Río Abiseo area (northern Peru), respective! y. In studies of the Costa Rican páramos, Hom (1989c, 1993, in press; Hom & Sanford, 1992) has correlated modem and prehistoric fires together with palien analyses of sediment cores. She has concluded that in the Chirripó highlands páramo communities are the "natural" vegetation and that modem poli en assemblages of individual taxa have not differed greatly from those developed since deglaciation sorne 10,000 years ago. She has also found that fires have been a part ofChirripó páramos throughout the Holocene but have not "carved páramo from forest." Without doubt man has had major impact on the origin and subsequent spread of grasslands throughout the Andes, and perhaps he has been the single most important reason why grass páramo exists today, where shrub/tree woodlands of Polylepis, Buddleja, and Gynoxys may have once dominated. It is unlikely, however, that we wili ever be able to say with confidence what percentage oftoday's páramo has anthrpogenic origins. Whateverthe outcome ofthis discussion,

31

the facts remain that grass páramo currently exists, covers large expanses of the high-elevation Andes, and has great ecological and economic importance. The following discussion summarizes what we do know about the history of man's presence in the páramos of the high Andes and the effect he has had on them. Although many ofthe references and quotes given below are specific to one country, I am certain that similar events have occurred in al! of the north Andean countries including Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and probably, by extension, Costa Rica and Panama. The situation in southern Ecuador and northem Peru is less clear, however, and may be quite different due to its overall drier climate and proximity to the larger pre-Columbian civilizations that occupied high elevations to a much greater extent in the central Andes than in the northern Andes. For example, the intense grazing pressure may have occurred earlier in Peru because of the presence of native camelids and their herding. THE PRE-COLUMBIAN PERIOD

It is assumed that the Venezuelan páramos have been exploited for more than 1400 years (López del Pozo, 1992). They ha ve been occupied for at least 500 years, although there were no permanent settlements untll colonial times (Wagner, 1978, 1979, 1988). The páramos were used, however, as corridors, in rituals, oras hunting areas (Clarac, 1981, 1985; Rojas, 1985). According to Salgado-Labouriau (1976) and Monasterio (1980d), pre-Columbian agriculture was present in Venezuela up to 3000 m, the lower edge of the páramo, but it was concentrated below 2000 m and the cultures that developed in or near páramo were dedicated to agriculture and hunting/gathering (Molinillo & Monasterio, 1997). In Colombia, the pollen record shows that human activity in the páramos around Bogotá began about 800 years ago (Van der Hammen, 1968). The Colombian páramos were mostly uninhabited, however, although they too were used for the cultivation of sorne tuber crops and as a crop-storage area (Langebaeck, 1988; López del Pozo, 1992). The highestmountains and páramos were mostly considered sacred and had mystical qualities attributed to them; their main use was for religious purposes and to bury the prominent dead (G. Correal U., cited in Cleef, 1981b; Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1982; Zambrano, 1993). THE COLONIAL ANO lNDEPENDENCE PERIODS

Europeans settled the New World in the 16th century. They introduced exotic animals that were totaliy new to the northem Andes, viz., cows, sheep, goats,


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horses, and donkeys, which added to the herds of native THE MüDERN PERIOD During the 20th century, man's impact on páramo camelids (llama, alpaca, and vicuña) in Peru and further south. [Llamas and alpacas have only recently been in- has been a story driven by demographics, i.e., the troduced into the Ecuadorean páramo (Hervas Ordoñez, numbers, density, and distribution ofpopulations (see 1994).] Exotic plants were also introduced by Europe- Fig. 20). As population densities in the interandean ans for cultivation at the cooler high elevations, espe- valleys increased, people began to colonize new arcially the grains wheat and barley, but also vegetable eas in order to satisfy their needs (Bernsen, 1991; crops such as broad or faba beans, lentils, peas, carrots, Brush, 1976, 1982; Ellenberg, 1979; Hess, 1990; radishes, onions, and garlic. These new plants added to Hofstede, 1995c; López del Pozo, 1992; Molinillo & Monasterio, 1997; Monasterio, 1980d; Parsons, 1982; the native grain quinoa and tuber crops such as potato. Early colonists (including pre-Columbian man) Pérez, 1992a). The annual population growth rates, founded their villages and towns primarily in the previously over 3% in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuacooler interandean valleys along rivers, where their dor, and Peru (Little, 1981) and currently 2.6-2.9% crops were grown in the fertile floodplains (com) and (World Population Data Sheet 1997 from the Populaalong the adj acent upland slopes (potatoes and grains). tion Reference Bureau), are still the highest in South Cattle reached the Andes of Venezuela and Colom- America. The Colombian population, for example, bia in the late 16th century but probably were not in- increased from 3 million to 12 million between 1900 troduced into the páramos until the early 18th, and and 1950, rose to 26 million in 1975 and then to 33 then only at elevations to ca. 3000 m (Vila, 1962; million in 1990, and is expected to reach 49 million Wagner, 1967). The cattle foraged in the páramo in 2025; the Venezuelan population increased from 5 grasslands above the forest, severa! hours' or days' million to 20 million between 1950 and 1990, roseto walk from their homes. As herds of cattle grew in 22 million in 1995, and is expected to reach 35 milnumbers, fires were periodically set to bum off the lion in 2025; while the Ecuadorean population indead material from the páramo and provide fresh new creased from 3 million to 11 million between 1950 grass for the cattle. With time the páramo became and 1990, rose to 12 million in 1995, and is expected overgrazed and eJ5.cessively bumed. W ood was also to reach 18 million in 2025 (W orld Resources, 1996cut from nearby forests, mostly for fue! and as build- 1997). ing material (including road-building). Gradual! y, the Because ofland and agrarian reforrn policies durneed arose to cut and burn the forest immediately ing the 1960s and 1970s, most parts of Colombia, below the páramo to provide additional new grass- Venezuela, Ecuador, and northern Peru have experilands for pasturing and arable land for crops. Sedi- enced two recent tendencies: the upward movement ment cores from Laguna Victoria, Venezuela (3250 m), of agriculture into the páramo belt between 3000 m show that at about this same time large amounts ofpol- and 4000 m, and the intensification of animal produclen of Rumex acetosella, an herb introduced with wheat tion in the lower páramo belts (Baruch, 1979; Becker, and potatoes, as well as a drastic drop in tree pollen, 1988; Bernsen, 1991; Ferwerda, 1987; Hess, 1990; suggesting a massive deforestation of the upper López-Zent, 1993; Monasterio, 1980d; Pérez, 1992b; Andean forest (Salgado-Labouriau & Schubert, 1977). Verweij, 1995; Verweij & Beekman, 1995). In VenThe numbers of cattle continued to rise steadily ezuela, Monasterio ( 1980d) reported that sin ce the during the 18th century. In the 19th century, during 1960s, the highest limit of cultivation (in Páramo the wars ofindependence and civil strife in Venezu- Piedras Blancas, ca. 4200 m) has increased dueto the ela (and possibly throughout Colombia, Ecuador, and introduction offrost-resistant varieties ofpotato, such Peru), the numbers of cattle oscillated, sometimes as the "papa negra." decreasing by almost 95%, although they again The last 20-25 years have also seen, however, a reached the pre-independence levels by ca. 184 7 regional growth in urbanization, with farrners aban(Brito, 1972; Pérez, 1992a, in press; Rouse, 1977; doning the countryside to cities such as Mérida, Vila, 1962, 1978). Bogotá, Nariño, Quito, Cajamarca, etc. This has reThus it would seem that in the early 18th century sulted in greater demand and increased pressure on the páramos ofthe northern Andes were still not utilized fewer farrners throughout the Andes to cultivate new to the extent ofthe altiplano orpuna to the south (Brush, land to produce more food. As natural soil fertility 1982). However, during the late Colonial period and decreased in the páramo, usage of chemical ferti1izinto the Independence period, agriculture and cattle- ers, insecticides, pesticides, and fungicides increased raising became common (Velázquez, 1986) and the (Bemsen, 1991; Ferwerda, 1987; López-Zent, 1993), range ofpáramo-like habitats probably expanded. followed by soil contamination. For instance, in the


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33

Fig. 20. House or "choza" at Pozo Azul on the ascent ofNevado del Cocuy (Boyacá, Colombia) at 411 Om, after a night oflight snow. Walls ofthe house are formed from the stems of Espeletia lopezii and the roofthatch from the bunchgrass Calamagrostis sp. These "bornes away from home" are often used by local inhabitants as temporary shelter during travel or periods of harvest or herding. The travelers shown in this photo are (from the right) José Cuatrecasas, H. García-Barriga, Martínez Zuloaga, Páez, and two guides. (Photo Cuattec. C-1221A taken in 1938.)

crop belt ofthe Venezuelan páramos (3000-4000 m), the traditionalland-use system of short periods of crop production (1-4 years) altemating with fallows of720 years-which allows 1ong-term recuperation of nutrients with negligible erosion rates and maintenance ofhigh 1evels of soil organic matter-has been interrupted by massive use of chemical fertilizers and a market-oriented agricultura! system. Sorne of the consequences have been "greater incidence of pest outbreaks, soil exhaustion, a possible decrease in soil organic matter, and intensification of erosion" (Sarmiento M. et al., 1990, 1993). According to Ferwerda (1987), more than 70 years are needed for regeneration of páramo bunch-grasslands after patato cultivation. Along with the Upward movement of agriculture and increased livestock production have come 1.he continued lowering ofthe forest line due to wood cutting to make more room for crop production

and pastureland (Kok et al., 1995). The timber is used (locally and regionally) for building, fence posts, fue!, etc. Fuelwood collection, mainly for cooking purposes, also removes shrubby vegetation from the páramo proper (Becker, 1988). Verweij (1995) estimated that an average family of seven persons uses about 20 kg offuelwood every day, which corresponds to a cleared area of one hectare per year. Other recent developments that have led to additional páramo disturbance include construction of aqueducts, drainage systems, and roads ( Young, 1994), an increase in the number of off-road vehicles (Pérez, 1991 b), mining (especially of sand, grave!, and peat), and afforestation projects (Rangel Ch., 1989; pers. observ.). The impact ofplantations ofexotic tree species (especially Pinus radiata and P. patula) on the development of soils and vegetation placed in or near (extensively grazed) páramo has recently been


34

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

described by Hofstede (1997). Even tourists are now becoming a problem in sorne areas (Horn, 1986; Urgilés Sánchez, 1990).

Impact of Burning and Grazing Fire is used in the páramo for two main purposes. First, it is a means to clear the upper limits of forest, thus providing open grasslands for grazing oflivestock and new land for cultivation of crops. Second, because forage quality is poor and up to 80% of the aboveground biomass ofthe tussock- or bunchgrass growth form is dead material (Cardozo & Schnetter, 1976), farmers bum offthe old or dead nonpalatable parts to provide new, more nutrient-rich growth for cattle. Ramsay and Oxley ( 1997) say that it is quite difficult to estimate the ultimate effects offire on páramo vegetation and its species diversity, since fire has been so mucha part ofpáramo history. Nevertheless, buming and grazing go hand-in-hand in most high-elevation areas of the northem Andes; seemingly they are the only applied "management practice." However, in view of the fact that it has be en part of páramo history sin ce at least Holocene times, is fire necessarily bad for páramo? And what are the actual effects of fire and grazing on páramo? How do the continuous and repetitive practices ofbuming and grazing combine to affect species composition, nutrient and soilwater content, biomass and productivity, decomposition, and short-term and long-term stability of the páramo ecosystem? The following discussion out! in es what is currently known about the role and impact of fire on the páramo ecosystem. Four recent studies about the combined effects of buming and grazing on the páramo ecosystem contribute new insight and provide valuable basic information that is necessary for future management programs (Hofstede, 1995c; Keating, 1995; Ramsay, 1992; Verweij, 1995). In the following section, I ha ve drawn heavily from the excellent dissertation ofRobert Hofstede ( 1995c ), who studied the ecological impacts ofburning and grazing on biomass, nutrient status ofvegetation and soil, and hydrology, in the Los Nevados National Park (Cordillera Central, Colombia). In a complementary study, Pita Verweij (1995) focused on the impacts ofmanagement on vegetation development and landscape ecology in the same national parle. In addition, Paul Ramsay (1992) and Philip Keating (1995) studied páramo vegetation in Ecuador, including community ecology, dynamics, and productivity. Sorne oftheir main conclusions are summarized in the following paragraphs. Hofstede (1995c), Lregaard (1992), Ramsay (1992), and Verweij (1995) all conclude that natural

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páramo vegetation is to a certain extent tolerant toward the management practices ofbuming and grazing, and that fire does offer sorne short-term advantages to the cattle-farmer (overall palatability, initial productivity). It is not, however, a wise long-term management too!, because when the burning frequency is more than once per decade (Verweij, 1995) and grazing intensity increases, then stress on the vegetation is too great, effects are mostly negative, and there is degradation ofthe ecosystem, including a loss in species diversity. Unfortunately, it has been shown that farmers will choose the short-term solution-i.e., rapid post-fire regeneration of palatable forage for maximum livestock production-at the expense of · long-term degradation of the vegetation and soil (Hofstede, 1995; Ramsay, 1992; Verweij, 1995). Burning and grazing affect the páramo ecosystem most importantly in the following three ways: 1) vegetation structure, composition, and species diversity; 2) soil structure and water-storage capacity; and 3) decomposition, nutrients, and productivity. VEGETATION STRUCTURE, COMPOSITION, AND SPECIES DIYERSITY

Despite their many adaptations, rosette plants (especial! y members of the Espeletiinae) and tussocks or bunchgrasses are sorne of the most susceptible species to burning and grazing in the páramo. In Venezuela, Smith (1981) found that 55% of the adult Espeletia schultzii (Asteraceae: Espeletiinae) plants could be killed by fire in a dry season, while in Colombia, Verweij and Kok (1992, 1995) found greater than 80% mortality in juveniles of E. hartwegiana immediately after fire. Verweij and Kok (1992) also found that grazing hada major impact on adult mortality of E. hartwegiana in Colombia, and Pérez (1992a) found that cattle browsing c.ould cause a decrease of 37% in rosette cover of Coespeletia timotensis (Asteraceae: Espeletiinae) in Venezuela. In southemEcuador, Keating (1995) found thatburning and cutting reduced the number of rare species and the relative frequency of shrub species. In the Buenavista subpáramos of Costa Rica, Horn (1997, in press) found that 90-99% ofthe dominant bamboo, Chusquea subtessellata, and the ericaceous shrub Vaccinium consanguineum resprouted following fire, whereas the second most common woody species, the shrub Hypericum irazuense (Clusiaceae), súffered 94% mortality. This display of fire sensitivity in woody species certainly affects species composition and may be the reason for the present dominance of the bamboo. For tussocks and bunchgrasses, buming and subsequent grazing also lead to fragmentation be-


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cause of trampling by livestock after the fire. Continued grazing 'or overgrazing leads to replacement of the tussocks and bunchgrasses by short-grass communities (Agrostis, Festuca, Paspalum), rosaceous species (Acaena and Lachemilla orbiculata), and species of low or matted herbs such as Eryngium humile (Apiaceae); Bidens, and Hypochaeris (Asteraceae) (Fig. 10B). These plants are better adapted to cattlegrazing and to more exposure of bare ground. Alien species, which are frequently found in these communities, are indicators ofhuman and grazing (with sorne fire) disturbance; these in elude (among others) Achillea millefolium, Gamochaeta americanum (formerly Gnaphalium americanum), Stevia lucida, and Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae), Arenaría serpens, Cerastium arvense, and Stellaria media (Caryophyllaceae), Trifolium repens and Lupinus spp. (Fabaceae), Geranium multipartitum (Geraniaceae), Juncus effusus (Juncaceae ), Oxalis spp. (Oxalidaceae), Anthoxanthum odoratum, Dactylis glomerata, Digitalis purpurea, Poa annua, and Holcus lana tus (Poaceae ), Rumex acetosella (Polygonaceae ), and the fem Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) (Cleef, 1981b; Cleef & Rangel Ch., 1984; Ewe1 et al., 1976; Hofstede, 1997; Hofstede, Chilito P. & Sandoval S., 1995a, 1995b; Keating, 1995; Ramsay, 1992; Rangel Ch., 1989; Salamanca, 1991; Smith, 1974a; Verweij & Budde, 1992; Verweij & Kok, 1995). Based on studies of small-scale dynamics within severa! páramos in Ecuador, Ramsay (1992) generalized that a) it is mainly vegetation structure that determines fire temperature, with the highest temperatures (to 600°C) produced in the tussock canopy and the lowest (ca. 65°C) found within the tussock base and just beneath the soil surface; b) the main form of recovery from fire is regeneration by vegetative reproduction ofbelow-ground plant parts; e) the degree of survival of intertussock species depends on the severity ofthe fire, which is largely a function ofthe time interval since the last burning; d) survival following fire does not guarantee a plant's persistence in the community, since both tussock grasses and intertussock species show significant mortality rates in the months following fire; e) recovery at higher altitudes is slower; t) burning may cause the pattems of community development to become cyclical; g) sorne species that quickly colonize bare ground by seed may persist, but as the vegetation matures most are killed by competition; and h) establishment within tussocks after burning is the preferred method of sorne species, such as Lupinus cf. pubescens. Minimum fire recovery periods, i.e., the period of post-fire growth required to generate enough fue! to carry a subsequent fire (Verweij, 1995), of3-10 years

35

have been reported depending on the vegetation structure (Horn, 1990a, i991; Janzen, 1973; Ramsay, 1992; Ramsay & Oxley, 1996; van Groen, 1987; Verweij, 1995). However, the frequency ofburning is typically every 2-4 years (Ramsay & Oxley, 1996), and in practice, fire is applied too frequently to allow full bunchgrass recovery (Verweij, 1995). Minimum fire recovery periods do not mean that the vegetation will ha ve recovered completely, however, because species composition and distribution will change and more bare spots will be present (Hofstede, 1995c; Horn, 1989a; Janzen, 1973; Miller & Silander, 1991; Verweij, 1995; Williamson et al., 1986). Furthermore, since grasses have high relative growth rates, and burning and grazing stimulate tillering, they are favored over woody species by high fire frequencies (Horn, 1991; Janzen, 1973; Ramsay, 1992; Ramsay & Oxley, 1996; Verweij, 1995; Williamson et al., 1986). Verweij (1995) concluded that more than 1O years are needed before the average number of vascular plant taxa stabilizes back to pre-fire levels, implying also that fire frequency may influence species richness in the vegetation. In summary, it would appear that occasional disturbances over short intervals may allow for relatively rapid recovery of community structure and composition, but that repeated burning, combined burning and grazing, or severe disturbances at intervals of even 24 years are too great to allow complete recovery of páramo vegetation and sorne species are lost. SO!L STRUCTURE AND WATER STORAGE CAPAC!TY

The páramo belt is an indispensable source ofwater for drinking and irrigation for a majority of the people in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador. In its natural, undisturbed condition, páramo acts as a sponge, where the excess water is slowly but constantly returned to the ecosystems oflower elevations (GómezMolina & Little, 1981). Natural páramo shrub vegetation holds up to 12 times more water than a disturbed grass community (Schnetter et al., 1976), while water retention in soils of the páramo surpasses 200% of its own dry weight (Cañadas Cruz, 1983). Hofstede and Sevink (1995) showed that undisturbed páramo has a larger water-storage capacity than bumed and grazed páramo, and that a continuously wet plant !ayer is important for maintaining ihe large soil storage for drier periods. With grazing and burning, however, vegetation cover disappears and is replaced by a low-growing ground cover that cannot hold as much moisture since the páramo soils are more compressed, drier, less acidic, and somewhat less organic (Hofstede, 1995c). Verweij and Budde (1992) and Verweij (1995) also found that during the first


36

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

1.5-5 years following fire the percentage ofbare soil increased by more than 10%, depending on the vegetation structure and grazing intensity. Meanwhile, vegetation is trampled and compacted and the turf is broken-up by cattle (Grubb, 1970; Pérez, 1993a), thus favoring eros ion, loss of soil, and micro-terracing, especially on slopes (Flores Ochoa, 1979; Pérez, 1992b, in press; Troll, 1973). DECOMPOSITION, NUTRIENTS, AND PRODUCTIYITY

Hofstede (1995c) and Verweij (1995) have shown that grazing and especial! y buming practices result in faster decomposition and mineralization dueto drier soils and higher maximum soil temperatures, but this does not necessarily lead to higher nutrient contents of soils and plant tissues. On a short-term basis, mineralized nutrients may become available for imq¡ediate plant regrowth, but generally they are very quickly unavailable in the soil due to immobilization especially of phosphorus, volatilization especial! y of nitrogen and sulphur, or, less important, erosion or leaching. Therefore, the vegetation remains nutrient poor. The change in vegetation structure and composition eventually leads to less tussocks, which may have more tillers per unit area anda higher Ji ve material content, but the overalllower stature and leaf elongation rates yield less productivity (Hofstede, 1995c ). This low productivity, combined with nutrient-poor vegetation, results in poor-quality cattle (Hofstede, 1995d; Pels & Verweij, 1992; Schmidt & Verweij, 1992; Verweij, 1995). In summary, the general impact ofincreased buming and grazing was summarized by Verweij (1995) as follows: The structure ofthe bunch-grasslands becomes more open. Fire events cause temporal changes in vegetation structure o ver the relatively short time span of a few years. Without the influence of grazing, the vegetation is able to recover and retums to the initial structure of dense bunchgrassland, the floristic composition remaining largely unchanged. Under prolonged grazing pressure, however, short matted grasses and forbs increase anda gradual transformation into other communities occurs. Changes in structure are of vital importan ce in relation to the water holding capacity of both vegetatiorí and soil. Hofstede & Sevink (1995) concluded that water retention capacity is reduced in grazed and burned situations, with an increased risk of drying especially in the drier seasons.

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The Fu tu re of the Páramo Ecosystem The páramo is rapidly becoming a threatened ecosystem. With human population size at its greatest in history and steadily rising, pressure for greater food production and land use has intensified and deterioration of the environment has inevitably followed. Activities such as deforestation, road building, buming, agriculture, and herding of animals ha ve significantly altered this fragile ecosystem. They have also caused native páramo plants and timberline forests to disappear atan alarming rate, thereby allowing weedy species to domínate sorne landscapes. Such activities also Iead to accelerated erosion on the slopes and flooding;· as the soils are notable to retain moisture within tlieir drainage basins. Furthermore, with the publi~:'s increased desire for leisure time anda gradual awakeriing to the potentia! of the páramo for recreation and tourism, we need to quickly increase our efforts to study this ecosystem, not only to know what is there by means of inventory and ecological analyses, but also to monitor the effects of disturbance on the vegetation and aquatic resources so that rational management programs can be established to protect and preserve the páramo. Why is the páramo important and what needs to be done to maintain this ecosystem? Can we still turn the ti de of alteration and destruction? Must it be totally preserved and protected? As has been discussed above, páramos are important for scientific, ecological, and economic reasons-all ofwhich are interconnected and interdependent. Sorne ofthese reasons are summarized below, and opinions are offered about what should be done. SCIENTIFIC REASONS

Páramos occupy no more than 2% ofthe land area of the northem Andes in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador, and yet they are highly di verse biologically and contain many plants that grow nowhere else in the world. Their geographical isolation along the mountainous chain from Costa Rica to northem Peru and their high diversity and endemism combine to malee them biogeographically unique. Paleoecological studies indica te that páramo habitats have undergone repeated expansion and contraction during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. These high-elevation, cold-climate ecological islands of endemism are surrounded by a sea oflow-elevation, warm tropical forest. Therefore, the insular dispersa!, age, origin, affinities, and evolutionary pattems ofthe plant taxa are open to detailed systematic and evolutionary biogeographic studies. Human activities, however, are severely limiting biodiversity in the páramo ecosystem. Basic facts


1999]

PARAMOS

about the taxonomy, relationships, distribution, and ecological preferences of most high-elevation groups is very incomplete. We must know the names ofthe taxa we are dealing with before we are able to compare them or effectively communicate data about their ecology, evolution, and so forth (Vuilleumier & Monasterio, 1986). Therefore, it is appropriate and timely that páramo plants be studied and a complete flora with keys, species descriptions, and indications of geographical distribution be written. EcoLOGICAL REASONS

Perhaps the single most important ecological function ofpáramo is as a regulator of Andean hydrology. However, deterioration of the páramo due to loss of vegetation cover, soil compaction, and weakened water storage capacity may increase soilloss, erosion, ard flooding and contribute to droughts during dry periods. Therefore, ecological studies must also begin at the basic leve!, including additional short- and longterm studies ofthe dynamics ofpáramo vegetation as it affects landscape heterogeneity and plant species diversity, keeping in mind the use ofbetter management techniques that could lead to stabilization of water supplies, increased productivity, and a subsequent lesser need to cut more forest and exploit new areas of land (Ramsay, 1992; Verweij, 1995). Also needed is a better understanding of the dynamics of fire, repeated fires, and recovery after fire in order to properly assess its role as a too! in the management and conservation of páramo ecosystems. It has also been noted that the páramo is a very sensitive ecosystem and could provide an excellent area for additional environmental studies of global and regional climatic changes, such as the effects of global climate change (the greenhouse effect) and drought or increased rain (brought on by El Niño) on plant species distributions and adaptations. EcoNOMIC REAsONS

The major economic use of the páramo toda y is for agriculture and livestock. But, as has been discussed abo ve, the management practices of buming and grazing, and the increased use of chemicals, emphasize only short-tem1, not long-term, usage. Ifthe páramo ecosystem is going to remain an important ecological and economic center, it must continue to be the natural source of clean water as well as a resource for agriculture and grazing, new foods, ornamentals and medicines, and recreation and tourism. Páramo plants are contributors of important genetic factors to high-elevation or cool-habitat crops such as

37

the potato (Solanum tuberosum, Solanaceae) and the grain quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Chenopodiaceae ). Páramos are also a source of potential new foods ("new" to non-Andean peoples) derived from pre-Columbian tuber crops such as "oca" or "íbias" (Oxalis tuberosa, Oxalidaceae), "ulluco" or "olluco" (Ullucus tuberosus, Basellaceae), and "añu," "mashua,".or "cúbios" (Tropaeolum tuberosum, Tropaeolaceae) (King, 1988; National Research Council, 1989; Schjellerup, 1989). New ornamental plants such as Senecio niveo-aureus (Asteraceae), and new medicines such as those derived from Oritrophium spp. and Chuquiraga jussieui (Asteraceae) and Thamnolia verm icularis (a lichen of uncertain affinity), have as yet unrealized potential (Aranguren B. & Márquez, 1995; Aranguren B. et al., 1996; López-Zent, 1993; Paredes, 1962; Pérez, in press). Historically, the páramo has been a source of traditional medicines for local communities, and even today 56% (43 out of77) ofthe medicinal plants used by the Cogui, an indigenous people living in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia), come from the páramo (Carbonó de la Hoz, 1987). Although there are limitations, the potential for ecotourism or for recreation-fishing, hiking, camping-in páramo regions has gone almost unnoticed (Black, 1983, 1988; Ramsay, 1992; Rangel Ch., 1989; Urgilés Sánchez, 1990). The so-called wilderness experience can draw many visitors, but, as Hofstede (1995c) has reminded >IS, these same visitors are disappointed when meeting unnatural elements such as cattle, fences and meadows. Both national and intemational tourists potentially visiting the páramo are not directly interested in a high species richness, a high water storage or a good soil protection, but their demand is that the landscape is as original as possible: they simply enjoy touching the snow and seeing an Espeletia. Nonethe1ess, the ecological and hydrological sustainability benefits directly from the conservation of an original landscape and vegetation structure .... In the future, it should be evaluated which yields more money: a productive cow ora majestic Frailejón. What can be done? Virtually any extended use ofthe high-elevation páramos-be it for science, economics (including both resource production and extraction), or conservation-will, to sorne extent, have an impact on species composition, vegetation structure, biodiversity, and soil hydrology. It is only if all human activities in páramos are ceased that ecological


38

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL O ARDEN

and hydrological sustalnability will be assured. With the current socioeconomic situation in the Andes, however, the exclusion of all human activities from the páramo is not realistic, and agricultura! production has to be accepted and respected (Hofstede, 1995c; Lauer, 1993; Verweij, 1995). Given the scientific evidence at hand, it is relatively easy to identify the major problems that have changed the páramo ecosystem-but what are the practica! alternatives? At this time, three areas in particular need to looked at: management practices, conservation efforts, and environmental education. MANAGEMENT

It seems generally agreed upon that there is not any single management practice that addresses all páramo functions; therefore, perhaps the challenge to managers is to vary their programs in order to meet the demands of one function in one area and those of another somewhere else (Hofstede, 1995c; Horn, in press; Pérez, in press; Ramsay, 1992; Verweij, 1995; Young, 1997). While banning the use ofburning is advocated by sorne (e.g., Hofstede, 1995c; Verweij, 1995), Horn (in press) believes that fire management efforts need to be changed from the prevention of all fires to the control of fire frequency, thus recognizing its place in the páramo landscape. Ramsay ( 1992) advocated shifting agricuiture and grazing to lowerelevation zones, since it appeared from the results of his productivity studies that lower-elevation pastures were "silbstantially underproductive." Rangel Ch. (1989) suggested severa! measures: declaring all páramos as nationally protected areas, primarily to protect the water resources; restricting use of all páramo bodies ofwater, especially in the production of energy; avoiding the exploitation of páramo biological resources and especially avoiding grazing by sheep; establishing research centers to study páramo; and using particular páramo areas for recreation (with controls). Numerous smaller, but nonetheless important, changes should also be considered for implementation wherever possible: prohibiting the cutting of natural vegetation and the collection of fallen stems for fue!, creating fenced enclosures to exclude cattle or allow rotation of grazing, and excluding motorcycles and off-road vehicles from the páramo (Pérez, in press). If new management strategies are to be considered, there needs to be strong coordination and cooperation between scientists, local people, nongovernmental institutions, and government departments in the entire process ofplanning, design, and implementation.

[VOL. 84

Becker (1988) has stressed that within indigenous communities there are needs for alternative sources of income to alleviate the pressures ofhabitat destruction for agricultura! purposes (see al so Verweij et al., in press), better social organization with the promotion of traditiona1 techno1ogies such as terracing for soil conservation (Lauer, 1993; Nieto Cabrera et al., 1997; Sarmiento M. et al., 1993), reforestation with useful and native species (Brandbyge, 1984; Brandbyge & Holm-Nielsen, 1986; Lauer, 1993; Sarmiento M. et al., 1993), and integrated agroforestry systems and controlled grazing and burning to allow regeneration of native plants (Hofstede, 1995c; Ramsay & Oxley, 1996; Verweij, 1995). CONSERVATION

Because oftheir high biological diversity and their biogeographica1, evolutionary, ecological, and economic significance, páramos are unique and the species that have adapted to them will not grow elsewhere. These facts, along with the realization that the páramo, like so many other tropical ecosystems, is being altered by human activities, qualify them as high-priority areas for conservation. "Their preservation in the face of these ever-expanding human activities, however, will depend on their rational use" (Vuilleumier & Monasterio, 1986). The farmer's aim in buming is to increase livestock productivity, a practice that may work in the short-term; however, the process of recovery in páramo takes a long time and subsequent repeated burning and grazing may cause long-term damage, in complete contrast to the original aim of the burning (Ramsay, 1992). Therefore, conservation of the páramo ecosystem, including watersheds and natural vegetation, is imperative. Until about 40 years ago there was little direct action taken toward preservation of the páramo ecosystem. Recently, however, páramos have been included within the boundaries of many national parks, frequently with recognition as regulators of Andean hydrology. National parks that include important stretches ofpáramo are Chirripó (Costa Rica); Sierra Nevada de Mérida and Tamá (Venezuela); Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Sierra Nevada de Cocuy, Sumapaz, Chingaza, Los Nevados, and Puracé (Colombia); Cotopaxi, Sangay, and Podocarpus (Ecuador); and the Río Abiseo watershed in northern Peru. More representa ti ve páramo areas still need to be set aside, however, and there must be greater efforts to increase the numbers of rangers to enforce existing boundaries and park regulations.


1999]

PARAMOS

ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

Scientists have the responsibility to see that factual data from páramo studies be presented to the general public, local authorities, and indigenous communities, because public awareness and public support are essential to the achievement of conservation ancl/or management goals. People from large cities like Bogotá, Quito, Cuenca, and Mérida flock to the páramos on weekends for the natural beauty, the "wilderness experience," and recreation, but at the same time they often use branches from shrubs for their campfires and leave behind their litter (Urgilés Sánchez, 1990). We must make the general public aware of the value of páramo, which can also serve as an educational model in student field trips and ecological tours. For instance, one excellent means of educating the public about dif-

39

ferent aspects of the environment is to place narrative signs along roads throughout the parks. If, as Horn (in press) advocates, fire is recognized as having a place in the páramo landscape, then park managers will also need to educate the general public about the role of fire in maintaining diversity ofhabitats and species. The training oflocal students is also critica! for longterm maintenance of diversity and identification of critica! areas for protection and management (Balslev & Paz y Miño C., 1991; Verweij, 1995). For logistical reasons, local scientists can more easily undertake long-term surveys and their follow-ups. Furtherrnore, many young scientists will become key government officials or leaders in conservation groups in their countries, thus improving the quality of decisionmaking about conservation and management issues.


CHECKLIST

OF

PARAMO

The following checklists for lichens, mosses, hepatics, and vascular plants were written by and are the responsibility of their respective authors. Each section begins with a brief introduction stating the concept of páramo used by each author and providing general information about the group. This is followed by a species list compiled by each author, based on his concept of páramo as stated in his introduction. The checklists are arranged alphabetically by family and, within each family, by genus and species. The first family and/or genus entry may be followed by one or more literature references. Each specific entry gives the proper genus and species name, authority, relevant synonymy, geographical distribution of the species, elevational range of the species, and sornetimes brief statements conceming inclusive taxa, origin, use, etc. Fom1al notes are referred to by either the word "Note(s)" or by numbers in square brackets; normally, they are listed immediately after the entry (family, genus, or species names) to which they refer, or rarely at the end of the entry to which they refer. A question mark (?) after an entry s_ignifies the

PLANTS

author's doubt asto presence of a taxon in the country (e.g., EC?), or sorne degree of uncertainty about exact elevation (e.g., 3500-? m). Finally, a short bibliography specific to that group of plants is given, usually referring only to papers cited in the text and generally taxonomic in nature; these usually are not repeated in the overall páramo bibliography at the end of the book. Herbarium acronyms follow the most recent edition of Index Herbariorum (Holmgren et al., 1990). Author abbreviations follow Authors ofPlant N ames (Brummitt & Powell, 1992). Symbols used in the checklists, referring to the geographical range of páramo countries, are given in the following sequence: CR =Costa Rica, PA= Panama, CO = Colombia, VE =Venezuela, EC = Ecuador, and PE = northem Peru. Literature Cited Brummitt, R. K. & C. E. Powell (eds.). 1992. Authors of plant names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Holmgren, P. K., N. H. Holmgren & L. C. Barnett (eds.). 1990. lndex herbariorum. Part !: The herbaria of the world. Ed. 8. Regn. Veg. 120. International Association for Plant Taxonomy, Bronx, NY.

Lichens H. J. M. Sipman The species listed reflect this preference for azonal habitats: a considerable group inhabits xerothermic habitats and has its main distribution at lower elevations, including species of Catapyrenium, Toninia, and Xanthoparmelia. The same holds true for most species from tree trunks, which equally seem to be outposts of taxa from lower elevations. The genus Stereocaulon, on the contrary, is clearly more diverse in the páramos, probably because it grows on free rock faces. At lower elevations it can be found mainly where human activities have created suitable habitats in road cuts or in deforested areas. The checklist is based principally on an evaluation ofthe literature. The main sources were a list ofmacrolichens from parts of Venezuela (López-Figueiras, 1986), a survey of lichen zonation in Ecuador

This checklist presents all species of lichenized fungi currently known from the páramo region and includes 45 families, 114 genera, and ca. 463 species. Neither subspecific taxa or lichenico1ous fungi (fungi that grow on lichens) are included in the list. For the preparation of the checklist, the páramo region is defined as the area above 3200 m elevation in Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and northernmost Peru. Vegetation characteristics have not been used for delimitation, because literature references and herbarium labels tend to give little information on the vegetation. Also, lichens depend on the availability ofmicrohabitats, such as rock outcrops and tree bark, rather than on the zonal vegetation. For example, pure grassland, including páramo grassland, tends to be poor in lichens. 41


42

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

(Arvidsson, 1991), a checklist for the Venezue1an páramos (Marcano et al., 1996), and, in particular, the information accumulated for a planned checklist of Co1ombian lichens. For completion, information was taken from herbarium specimens archived at B, and to a lesser extent at NY, U, and in the herb. Aptroot. However, the evaluation of the herbarium material was not complete, and various additions can be expected, in particular from NY, GB, and US. Early literature required special attention, because different species concepts were sometimes used. Where an occurrence in the páramos seemed unlikely in view ofthe presently known distribution, it is supposed that the recorded material does not belong to the species in its current sense, and the record has been omitted. However, the actual distribution is poorly known for many species, so that sorne doubtful records may still be listed. Checking of specimens, on which the records are based, has not been done. Literature references are given at the beginning of each family or genus. For species where no published information was available, a single representative . specimen is indicated. The indicated altitudinal range concems only the countries where páramos are found. In other countries the altitudinal range of a species may be considerably different from that listed here. Many species have large ranges, extending far beyond the páramos, and may occur at considerably lower elevation in, e.g., temperate areas with an oceanic climate. This list is probably more incomplete than those of the other groups in this book because of a lack of distribution data and because of incomplete taxonomic knowledge of lichens in general. Few páramo areas have been investigated more than superficially for their lichen flora, and the results ofthese explorations are only to a small extent published. In sorne publications, no precise indication of elevation is given, so that páramo records could not be recognized as such. Few groups have received sufficient taxonomic attention to make reliable determinations possible. Among the fairly well-known groups are the families Cladoniaceae and Parmeliaceae (excl. Usnea), and the genera Stereocaulon and Umbilicaria. An increased knowledge ofpáramo lichens will certainly show that sorne ofthe poorly known genera are much more diverse in the páramos than the present list suggests. Furthermore, it seems probable that at least twice as many species will eventually be found and that most taxa will eventually be found in all páramo countries. Lichens have wide geographical and altitudinal ranges, as compared with seed plants. Consequently, most species extend far beyond the páramos, and few páramo endemics are expected. For an analysis ofthe geographical affinities of the páramo lichen flora, se e

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Sipman, 1992b. Nevertheless, there are indications for floristic differentiation within the páramo area. The southern part, from southern Colombia southward, seems to have a markedly different lichen flora, as could be observed in the genera Everniastntm (Sipman, 1986a), Stereocaulon (Sipman, 1987), and Umbilicaria (Sipman, 1992a). A restricted range in the southern part is fairly well documented for, e.g., Cetrariastntm ecuadoriense, Stereocaulon globuliferum, and S. novogranatense. A well-documented species apparently restricted to the northem part ofthe páramos is Cladina halei (Ahti, 1986). Table II lists the 10 largest families and genera of páramo lichenized fungi.

CHECKLIST OF LICHENS

Lichenized Ascomycetes ACAROSPORACEAE Re f.: Hertel, 1971. Polysporina Vezda P. simplex (Davies) Vezda [syn.: Sarcogyne simplex (Davies) Nyl.]; VE; 4250 m

ARTHOPYRENIACEAE Ref.: Hawksworth, 1985. Mycomicrothelia Keissl. M. apposita (Nyl.) D.Hawksw.; CO; 3500 m

ARTHRORHAPHIDACEAE Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; Hertel, 1971; Sipman, 1989. Arthrorhaphis Th.Fr. A. alpina (Schaer.) R.Sant. [syn.: A. citrinella var. alpina (Schaer.) Poelt]; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3500~300 m A. citrinella (Ach.) Poelt; VE, EC; 2850-4500 m

ASTEROTHYRIACEAE Asterothyrium Müll.Arg. A. leptosporum Müll.Arg.; CO; 3200 m [Note: leg. Sipman & Aguirre 27486 (B)]

BACIDIACEAE Bacidiopsora Kalb Ref.: Kalb, 1988. B. squamulosula (Nyl.) Kalb; EC; 1750-3200 m Hypocenomyce M.Choisy Ref.: Sipman, 1989. H. scalaris (Ach.) M.Choisy; CO; 3750 m


43

PARAMOS

1999]

CHRYSOTHRICHACEAE

Phy/lopsora Müll.Arg. Ref.: Brako, 1991; Kalb, 1988. P. buettneri (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr. var. glauca (de Lesd.) Brako; VE; 1400-3500 m P. confusa Swinscow & Krog; VE; 1600-3500 m P.fendleri (Tuck. & Mont.) Müll.Arg.; VE; 2400-3600 m P. parvifolia (Pers.) Mü1l.Arg. var. parvifolia; EC; 3200 m

Chrysothrix Mont. C. chlorina (Ach.) Laundon [syn.: Lepraria chlorina (Ach.) Ach.]; CO, VE; 3500-4175 m

Tephromela M.Choisy Ref.: Hertel, 1971; Ny1ander, 1863a, 1863b. T aglaea (Sommerf.) Herte1 & Rambold; VE; 4000-4700 m T atra (Huds.) Hafellner [syn.: Lecanora atra (Huds.) Ach.]; CO, VE; 1400-3900 m T elixii Kalb;'VE; 3500 m

CladiaNyl. Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; Filson, 1981; López-Figueiras, 1986. C. aggregata (Sw.) Nyl.; CO, VE, EC; 1300-4550 m C. fuliginosa Fi1son; CO, EC; 3605-4040 m [Note: This concerns probably an undescribed species different from the Australasian C.fuliginosa, under study by T. Ahti.]

BAEOMYCETACEAE Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; López-Figueiras, 1986; Vries & Sipman, 1984. Baeomyces Pers. B. rufus (Huds.) Rebent.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3350-4150 m Phyllobaeis Gierl & Ka1b P. erythre/la (Mont.) Kalb [syn.: Baeomyces imbricatus Hook. var. e~ythrellus (Mont.) de Vries]; VE, EC; 18003452 m P. imbricata (Hook.) Kalb & Gierl (syn.: Baeomyces imbricatus Hook.); CO, VE, EC; 1200-4400 m P.linearis (de Vries) V.Marcano & Sipman; VE; 2400-3400 m

CALICIACEAE Ref.: Sipman, 1989; Tibell, 1996. Calicium Pers. C. glaucellum Ach.; CO; 1750-3750 m C. salicinum Pers.; CO; 3500-3750 m C. subquercinum Asahina; CO; 3500 m

CANDELARIACEAE Candelaria A.Massal. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986. C.fruticans Poelt & Oberwink1er; CO, VE; 1100-3500 m Candelarie/la Müll.Arg. Ref.: Hertel, 1971. C. vi tellina (Hoffm.) Müll.Arg.; VE; 3900 m

CATILLARIACEAE [Note: The systematic position of these two genera is unc1ear; they are placed here provisionally.] Lopezaria Ka1b & Hafellner [1] Ref.: Sipman, 1989. L. versicolor (Fée) Ka1b & Hafellner [syn.: Catinaria versicolor (Fée) Sipman]; CO, VE; 300-3500 m Sporastatia A.Massal. Re f.: Hertel, 1971. S. testudínea (Ach.) A.Massal.; VE; 4250 m

Ref.: Sipman, 1989.

CLADONIACEAE

Cladina (Nyl.) Nyl. Ref.: Ahti, 1961, 1986; Arvidsson, 1991; LópezFigueiras, 1986; Sipman & Cleef, 1979. C. arcuata (Ahti) Ahti & Follmann (syn.: Cladonia arcuata Ahti); CO, VE, EC; 1900-3950 m C. boliviana (Ahti) Ahti; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1150-4000 m C. confusa (R.Sant.) Follmann & Ahti; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1280-4000 m; includes fo. bicolor (Müll.Arg.) Ahti and fo. confusa C. halei Ahti; CO, VE; 2000-4100 m C. rangiferina (L.) Nyl. subsp. abbayesii (Ahti) W.L.Cu1b. [syn.: Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H.Wigg. var. abbayesii Ahti]; CO, VE; 1500-4050 m Cladonia Hill ex P.Browne Re f.: Ah ti & Stenroos, 1986; Arvidsson, 1991; LópezFigueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989; Stenroos, 1989a; Vainio, 1894, 1899b. C. aleuropoda Vain.; CO, EC; 3800-4250 m C. andesita Vain.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2100-3900 m C. bacillaris Nyl.; VE; 1400-3600 m C. calycantha (De1ise) Nyl.; CO, EC; 2750-3700 m [Note: See Ahti & Marcelli, 1995.] C. carassensis Vain.; VE; 1800-3450 m C. cartilaginea Müll.Arg.; VE; 1200-3450 m C. chlorophaea (F!Orke ex Sommerf.) Spreng.; CO, VE, EC; 2100-4350 m C. chondrotypa Vain.; CO; 1900-3300 m [Note: leg. Aguirre & Sipman 5858 (B)] C. coccifera (L.) Willd.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2150-4350 m C. corniculata Ahti & Kashiw.; CO, VE, EC; 2000-4350 m C. corymbites Nyl.; VE; 3500 m C. corymbosula Nyl.; CO, VE; 3750-4315 m C. crispata (Ach.) Flot.; VE; 1700-3450 m C. cryptochlorophaea Asahina; CO; 3100-38 iO m [Note: !eg. Cleef6792 (U)] C. dactylota Tuck.; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3400 m C. didyma (Fée) Vain.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 230-4050 m; ineludes var. vulcanica (Zoll. & Moritzi) Vain and var. didyma C. dilleniana Fl6rke; VE, EC;? m [Note: VE collection leg. Sipman 11225 (U)] C. furcata (Huds.) Schrad.; CO, VE, EC; 1800-4100 m


44

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOT ANICAL O ARDEN

C. granulosa (Vain.) Ahti; VE; 1800-4000 m C. grayi Merr. ex Sandst.; CO, VE; 2300-3620 m [Note: 1eg. Aguirre & Sipman 5722 (B)] C. humilis (With.) J.R.Laundon; EC; 3400 m [Note: leg. Harris 17057 (NY)] C. isabel/ina Vain.; CR, CO, VE; 2450-4330 m C. leprocephala Ahti & S.Stenroos; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4250 m C. lopezii S.Stenroos; CO, VE; 2400-3900 m [Note: Cited as Cladonia minia/a G.Meyer in Ah ti & Stenroos, 1986 (230).] C. macilenta Hoffm. (syn.: C. bacil/aris Nyl.); CO; 12003700m C. macrophyllodes N yl.; EC C. meridensis Ahti & S.Stenroos; CO, VE, EC; 2400-4475 m C. merochlorophaea Asahina; CO, VE; 2400-3400 m; in- . eludes var. merochlorophaea in VE and var. novochlorophaea Sipman in CO [Notes: leg. Cleef9749b (U)] C. mexicana Vain.; CR, VE, EC; 2000-3500 m C. microscypha Ahti & S.Stenroos; CO, VE; 2300-3800 m C. ochrochlora Fl<'irke; CO, VE; 2000-3800 m C. pleura/a (Fiiirke) Sehaer.; CO, VE; 2900-4000 m C. pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. [syn.: C. pocil/um (A eh.) O.J.Rieh.]; CO, VE, EC; 2300-4425 m C. rappii A.Evans var. exiliar (Abbayes) Ahti; CO, VE; 1450-3800 m C. squamosa (Seop.) Hoffm.; CO, VE, EC; 1400-4510 m; includes var. subsquamosa (Nyl. ex Leight.) Vain. and var. squamosa C. subradiata (Vain.) Sandst.; CR, CO; 1900-4550 m C. subsquamosa Kremp.; CO, VE, EC; 1000-4150 m C. verruculosa (Vain.) Ahti; CO, VE, EC; 2200-4550 m

COCCOCARPIACEAE Ref.: Arvidsson, 1982; López-Figueiras, 1986. Coccocarpia Pers. C. e¡ythroxyli (Spreng.) Swinseow & Krog; CR, CO, VE; 240-3750 m C. palmicola (Spreng.) Arv. & D.J.Galloway; CR, CO, VE; 200-3500 m

[VOL. 84

L. burnetiae Dodge; VE; 2400-3500 m L. caperatum P.M.Jorg. & Wallaee; CO, VE, EC; 2000-4000 m L. chloromelum (Sw.) Nyl.; VE; 2400-3500 m L. coralloideum (G.Mey. & F1ot.) Vain.; CR, CO; 17503975 m L. cyanescens (Rabenh.) Korb.; CR, VE; 500-3500 m [Note: VE voucher 1eg. Sipman 11330c (U)] L. denticulatum Nyl.; VE; 1400-3500 m L. diaphanum (Sw.) Mont. (syn.: L. punctulatum Ny l.); VE; 1400-3400 m L. digitatum (A.Mass.) Zahlbr.; CO, VE; 1500-3975 m L.jloridanum Sierk; VE; 3750 m L. hibernicum M.E.Mitch.; VE; 2400-3450 m L. inversum P.M.Jorg. & Wallace; CO; 4070 m L. isidiosel/um (Riddle) Sierk; VE; 600-3300 m L. )Úressianum Tav.; CR, CO; 3300 m [Note: CO voucher 1eg. Aguirre & Sipman 5974b (B)] L. laceroides de Lesd.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2000-3975 m L. mandonii P.M.Jorg.; CR, CO, VE; 2400-4325 m L. olivaceum (Hook.) Zah1br. (syn.: L.foveolatum Nyl.); CR, CO, VE, EC; 1250-3750 m L. papillosum (de Lesd.) Dodge; CO, VE; 2500-3500 m L. phy/locarpum (Pers.) Ny l.; CO, VE, EC; 1100-4600 m [Note: See Müller Argovensis, 1879: 163.] L. resupinans Nyl.; CR, CO, VE; 3000-4285 m L. stipitatum Vain.; VE; 1400-3300 m

CONIOCYBACEAE Ref.: Sipman, 1989; Tibell, 1996. Chaenotheca Zukal C. brunneola (Ach.) Mü11.Arg.; CO; 3500-3750 m C. carthusiae (Harrn.) Lettau; CO; 3500 m C. chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th.Fr.; VE; 4000 m C. gracillima (Vain.) Tibell; CO; 3500 m C. hispidula (Ach.) Zahlbr.; CO; 3500 m C. laevigata Nádv.; CO; 3750 m C. trichia/is (Ach.) Th.Fr.: CO; 3500 m

ECTOLECHIACEAE COLLEMATACEAE Ca/lema F.H.Wigg. Ref.: Dege1ius, 1974; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. C. glaucophthalmum Nyl.; CO, VE, EC; 1100-4000 m; ineludes var. glaucophthalmum and var. implicatum (Ny l.) De gel.

Ref.: Santesson, 1952. Tapel/aria Mü11.Arg. T. epiphylla (Müll.Arg.) R.Sant.; CO; 1800-3200 m T. nigrata (Müii.Arg.) R. San t.; CO; 3200-3200 m [Note: 1eg. Aguirre & Sipman 5146 (B)]

FUSCIDEACEAE Ref.: Kalb, 1988.

Leptogium (Aeh.) Gray Ref.: Jorgensen, 1997; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. L. aciculare P.M.Jorg.; VE; 3500 m L. andinum P.M.Jorg.; CO, VE, EC; 2000-4050 m L. austroamericanum (Malme) Dodge; VE; 3500 m [Note: 1eg. Sipman 11330b (U)] L. azureum (Sw.) Mont.; VE, EC; 1300-3500 m L. burgessii (L.) Mont.; CR, CO, VE, 2000-4325 m

Mm·onea A.Massal. M. constans (N y l.) Hepp; EC; 3200 m

GOMPHILLACEAE Echinoplaca Fée E. lucernifera Ka1b & Vezda; CO; 3200 m [Note: leg. Aguirre & Sipman 5146b (B)]


1999]

PARAMOS

Gomphillus Nyl. Ref.: Kalb, 1988. G. ophiosporus Kalb & Vezda; EC; 3400 m Gyalideopsis Vezda Ref.: Kalb, 1990. G. monospora Kalb & Vezda; VE; 3500 m G. peruviana Merr. ex Vezda; CR, VE; 3500 m

GYALECTACEAE

45

Lecide/la Kiirb. Ref.: Hertel, 1971. L. carpathica Kiirb.; VE; 4150 m L. e/aeochroma (Ach.) M.Choisy; VE; 3500-4720 m L. inamoena (Müii.Arg.) Hertel; VE; 4250 m L. /actea/a (Nyl.) Hertel & Leuckert; VE; 3500 m L. stigmatea (Ach.) Hertel & Leuckert; VE; 4250 m L. wulfenii (Hepp) Kiirb.; VE; 4150-4200 m Rhizop/aca Zopf R. me/anophthalma (DC.) Leuckert & Poelt; VE; 4000-4200 m

Ref.: Kalb, 1988. Dimere/la Trevis. D. chiodecton;ides Kalb; EC; 3200 m

HYMENELIACEAE Megaspora (Ciauzade & CI.Roux) Hafellner & V.Wirth Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; Hertel, 1971; Sipman, 1989. M. verrucosa (Ach.) Hafellner & V.Wirth [syn.: Pachyospora verrucosa (Ach.) A.Massal.]; CO, VE, EC; 38304540m Tremolecia M.Choisy Re f.: Hertel, 1971. T. atrata (Ach.) Hertel; VE; 3900-4730 m

ICMADOPHILACEAE Dibaeis Clem. Ref.: Gierl & Kalb, 1993; López-Figueiras, 1986; Vries & Sipman, 1984. D. absolutus (Tuck.) Kalb & Gierl (syn.: Baeomyces abso/utus Tuck.); CO, VE; 1200-3 750 m D. columbina (Vain.) Kalb & Gierl; CR, CO, EC; 1200-3950 m D.fungoides (Sw.) Kalb & Gierl [syn.: Baeomycesfungoides (Sw.) Ach.]; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3950 m Icmadophila Trevis. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. J. aversa (Nyl.) Rambold & Hertel (syn.: G!ossodium aversum Nyl.); CO, VE; 2750-4040 m

LECANORACEAE Carbonea.(Hertel) Hertel Ref.: Hertel, 1971. C. vorticosa (Fliirke) Hertel; VE; 3900-4150 m Lecanora Ach. Ref.: Hertel, 1971. L. caesiorubella Ach. subsp. glaucomodes (Nyl.) Imshang & Brodo; CO; 3200 m [Note: leg. Sipman & Aguirre 27460 (B)] L. intricata (Schrader) Ach.; CO; 3200 m [Note: leg. Sipman & Aguirre 27439 (B)] L. polytropa (Ehrh.) Rabenh.; CO, VE; 3200-4750 m

LECIDEACEAE Ref.: Hertel, 1971. Lecidea Ach. L. confluentula Müll.Arg.; VE; 4700 m L. /apicida (Ach.) Ach.; VE; 3900-4150 m L. limosa Ach.; VE; 4000-4700 m L. secernens H.Magn.; VE; 4700 m L. tesselata Fliirke; VE; 3900-415Ó m

LOBARIACEAE Lobaria (Schreb.) Hoffm. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989; Yoshimura, 1984; Yoshimura & Arvidsson, 1994. L. botryoides Yoshim. & Arv.; EC; 3350-3950 m L. eren u/ata (Hook.) Trevis.; CR, PA, CO, EC; 1100-3700 m L. exornata (Zahlbr.) Yoshim. var. cora/lophora Yoshim.; CO, EC; 2000-3500 m L. pallida (Hook.) Trevis.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1600-4000 m L. subdissecta (Nyl.) Vain.; CR, CO; 1800-3500 m L. subexornata Yoshim.; CR, CO, EC; 1100-3800 m Pseudocyphellaria Vain. Ref.: Galloway & Arvidsson, 1990; Sipman, 1989. P. aurata (Ach.) Vain.; EC; 700-3500 m P. bartlettii D.J.Galloway; EC; 3350-3600 m P. crocata (L.) Vain.; CO, EC; 1500-3750 m P. encoensis R.Sant.; EC; 3500 m P. intricata (Delise) Vain.; EC; 3400 m Sticta (Schreb.) Ach. Ref.: Gyelnik, 1938; Kalb, 1988; López-Figueiras, 1986; Nylander, 1863a, 1863b; Sipman, 1989. S. ambavillaria (Bory) Ach.; VE; 3450 m S. andensis (Nyl.) Trevis.; CO, VE; 1800-4400 m S. camelia Ach.; EC; 4000 m S.fit!iginosa (Dicks.) Ach.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1600-4750 m S. granatensis Nyl.; CO; 2125-3750 m S. gya/ocarpa (Nyl.) Trevis.; CR, CO, VE; 2300-4325 m S. humboldtii Hook.; CO, VE; 2300-3975 m S. !imbata (Sm.) Ach.; CO; 3200 m [Note: leg. Sipman & Aguirre 27463 (B)] S. neolinita Gyeln.; CO; 3540-3800 m S. neopulmonaria Gyeln.; CO; 3200 m S. peruviana Ach.; CR, VE, EC; 3300-3350 m


46

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

S. tomentosa (Sw.) Ach.; CO, VE, EC; 1000-4330 m; in-

eludes var. dilatata (Nyl.) Hue and var. tomentosa S. weigelii Ach.; CO, VE, EC; 1250-4800 m

MEGALOSPORACEAE Megalospora Meyen Ref.: Kalb, 1990; Sipman, 1986c, 1989. M. admixta (Nyl.) Sipman; CO, EC; 2400-3975 m M. foersteri Kalb; VE; 4200 m M. tuberculosa (Fée) Sipman; CO, EC; 240-3750 m

P ANNARIACEAE Erioderma Fée Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986. E. chilense Mont.; CR, VE; 2500-3500 m E. sorediatum D.J.Galloway & P.M.Jorg.; CR, CO, VE; 2450-3200 m [Note: CO voucher leg. Sipman & Aguirre 27392 (B)] E. verruculosum Vain.; CR, VE; 3300-3350 m [Note: CR voucher leg. Sipman 20957 (Lichenotheca Latinoamericana 21) (B)] E. wrightii Tuck.; VE; 3000-3500 m Pannaria Delise ex Bory Ref: López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. P. conoplea (Ach.) Bory; CO; 3100-3500 m P. rubiginosa (Ach.) Bory; CO, VE; 2500-4325 m Parmelie/la Müll.Arg. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. P. mariana (Fr.) P.M.Jorg. & D.J.Galloway [syn.: Pannaria mariana (Fr.) Mü11.Arg.]; CO; 2000-3900 m P. nigrocincta (Mont.) Müll.Arg.; CR, CO, VE; 200-4075 m Psoroma Michaux Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. P. hypnorum (Vahl) Gray; CO, EC; 3700-4550. P. paleaceum (Fr.) Nyl.; CO; 4150-4175 m

[VOL. 84

A. dictyorhiza (Massee) Yoshim.; VE; 2750-3600 m A. leucobates (Nyl.) Müll.Arg.; CO, VE; 2000-3600 m A. lopezii Yoshim.; unspecified; 3000-3600 m A. masonii Yoshim.; CO, VE; 2400-3750 m A. parasítica (Fée) Zahlbr.; CO, VE; 2000-3500 m Bulbothrix Hale Ref.: Hale, 1976. B. imshaugii (Hale) Hale; VE; 2600-3200 m B. laevigatula (Nyl.) Hale; CO; 2700-3500 m Canoparmelia Elix & Hale C. texana (Tuck.) Elix & Hale [syn.: Pseudoparmelia texana (Tuck.) Hale]; VE; 800-3500 m Céraria Ach. Ref.: Kamefelt, 1979; Kamefelt et al., 1993; Sipman, 1992b. C. arenaría Kamefelt; CO; 2700-3815 m C. islandica (L.) Ach.; CO; 3590-4475; includes subsp. crispiformis (Rasanen) Kamefelt and subsp. islandica C. muricata (Ach.) Eckf. [syn.: Coelocaulon muricatum (Ach.) Laundon]; VE, EC; 3500 m C. nigricans N y!.; CO; 4320 m Cetrariastrum Sipman Ref.: Sipman, 1980. C. andense Kamefelt; VE, EC; 3300-4000 m C. dubitans Sipman; CO, EC; 3300-4475 m C. ecuadoriense (R.Sant.) Sipman; CO, EC; 4250-4325 m Cetrariella Kamefelt & A.Thell Ref.: Kamefelt el al., 1993. C. delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Kamefelt & A.Thell [syn.: Cetraria delisei (Bory ex Schaer.) Nyl.]; EC;? m

Alectoria Ach. Ref.: Marcano et al., 1994. A. imshaugii Brodo & D.Hawksw. var. venezuelensis V.Marcano & AMorales; VE; 3500-3800 m A. ochroleuca (Hoffm.) A.Massal.; CO, VE, EC; 3350-4510 m; includes var. ochroleuca and var. tropica V.Marcano & A.Morales [Note: Marcano et al. (1994) suggested that all neotropical material of Alectoria ochroleuca belongs lo var. tropica.]

Everniastrum 1:-íale ex Sipman Ref.: Kalb, 1988; Sipman, 1980, 1986a. E. arvidssonii Sipman; EC; 3000-3200 m E. catawbiense (De gel.) Hale ex Sipman; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3000-4020 m E. cirrhatum (Fr.) Hale ex Sipman; CR, CO, VE, EC; 20004150 m E. columbiense (Zahlbr.) Hale ex Sipman; CO, VE, EC; 2300-3600 m E. fragile Sipman; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3000-4400 m [Note: CR voucher leg. Sipman (B).] E. lipidiferum (Hale & M.Wirth) Hale ex Sipman; CO, VE; 3000-3750 m E. nigrociliatum (de Lesd.) Hale ex Sipman; VE; 3500 m E. planum Sipman; CR, CO, EC; 3300-3350 m E. sorocheilum (Vain.) Hale ex Sipman; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2400-4540 m E. vexans (Zahlbr. ex W.L.Cu1b. & C.F.Culb.) Hale ex Sipman; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1400-4050 m

Anzia Stizenb. Ref.: Yoshimura, 1995.

Everniopsis N y!. E. trulla (Ach.) Nyl.; EC; 3500 m

P ARMELIACEAE Re f.: Arvidsson, 1991; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989.


1999]

PARAMOS

Flavoparmelia Hale F. ecuadoriensis Nash, Elix & J.Johnst.; CO, EC; 3200 m [Note: For EC voucher see Arvidsson, 1991.] F. gerlachei (Zahlbr.) Hale [syn.: Pseudoparmelia gerlachei (Zahlbr.) Hale]; CO, VE; 1800-3700 m F. soredians (Nyl.) Hale [syn.: Pseudoparmelia soredians (Nyl.) Hale]; VE; 2700-3800 m

H. H. H. H. H. H. H.

Flavopunctelia Hale F.jlaventior (Stirt.) Hale; VE, EC; 2000-3400 m

H. H. H. H.

Hypogymnia (Nyl.) N y!. Ref.: Sipman & Aguirre, 1982. H. bitteri (Lynge) Ahti; CO, VE, EC; 3100-4550 m H. vittata (Ach.) Gas.; VE; 3500 m [Note: leg. Sipman 11344 (B)] Hypotrachyna (Vain.) Hale Ref.: Aguirre, 1982; Hale, 1972, 1975. H. andensis Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1600-4000 m H. bogotensis (Vain.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2200-4000 m H. brevirhiza (Kurok.) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1400-4325 m H. caraccensis (Taylor) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1400-4300 m H. cendensis Hale & López-Fig.; VE; 2800-3400 m H. chicitae (Hale) Hale; VE; 2700-4200 m H. costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3750 m H. croceopustulata (Kurok. & Hale) Hale; VE; 1400-3750 m H. degelii (Hale) Hale; CO, VE; 1400-3500 m H. densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 24003900 m H. dentella (Hale & Kurok.) Hale; VE; 1600-3800 m H. ducalis (Jatta) Hale; CR, CO, VE; 1600-3450 m H. enderythraea (Zahlbr.) Hale; CO, VE; 1900-4000 m H. endoch/ora (Leight.) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1900-3400 m H. ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2800-4100 m H. erythrodes (Zahlbr.) Hale; CO, VE; 1400-3750 m H. exsplendens (Hale) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1400-4750 m H. flavida (Zahlbr.) Hale; CO, VE; 1200-3750 m H. gigas (Kurok.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2200-3900 m H. gondy/ophora (Hale) Hale; VE; 1800-3600 m H. imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale; CR, CO, VE; 1100-3730 m H. immaculata (Kurok.) Hale; CO, VE; 1800-3780 m H. laevigata (Sm.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1300-3935 m H. lineariloba (Kurok.) Hale; VE; 2400-3500 m H. livida (Taylor) Hale; VE; 2100-3450 m H. lopezii Hale; CR, CO, VE; 2800-4050 m H. microblasta (Vain.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1400-3975 m H. monilifera (Kurok.) Hale; CO, VE; 2350-3600 m H. neodissecta (Hale) Hale; VE; 1300-3300 m H. neojlavida Hale; VE; 3200 m H. obscurella (Vain.) Hale; CO, VE; 1900-3500 m H. oostingii (Dey) Hale; VE; 3300-3500 m H. osteoleuca (Nyl.) Hale; CO, VE, 1500-3500 m H. paramensis W.L.Culb. & C.F.Culb.; VE; 2400-3750 m H. partita Hale; CR, CO, VE; 2400-3750 m H. physcioides (Nyl.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1900-4100 m H. physodalica (Hale) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 2950-4050 m H. primitiva Hale & López-Fig.; CO, VE; 3100-4000 m H. producto Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1300-3500 m

47

prolongata (Kurok.) Hale; CR, CO, VE; 2300-3800 m protenta Hale; VE; 1300-4000 m protoboliviana (Hale) Hale; CR; 3300 m pseudosinuosa (Asahina) Hale; VE; 1500-3750 m pulvinata (Fée) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1200-4300 m reducens (Nyl.) Hale; CR, CO, VE; 2600-4175 m revoluta (Fliirke) Hale; CO; 1700-3400 m [Note: leg. Aguirre & Sipman 5322 (B)] rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1500-4050 m sinuosa (Sm.) Hale; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1200-4540 m sublaevigata (Nyl.) Hale; CO, EC; 200-3800 m subsaxatilis (de Lesd.) Hale; VE; 3100-4050 m

Melanelia Essl. M. panniformis (Nyl.) Essl.; VE; 4200 m Oropogon Th.Fr. Ref.: Esslinger, 1989. O. aliphaticus Essl.; PA, VE; 2500-3300 m O. americanus Essl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3300-4100 m O. atranorinus Essl.; CR, VE; 2000-3490 m O. barbaticus Essl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2880-4200 m O. bicolor Essl.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 2600-4300 m O. byssaceus Essl.; VE; 4050 m O. colibor Essl.; CR, PA, VE; 2400-4000 m O. diffractaicus Essl.; CR, PA, VE; 1600-4000 m O.fissuratus Essl.; CR, VE; 1600-3600 m O.formosanus Asahina; PA, CO, VE, EC; 2100-4200 m O. granulosus Essl.; VE, EC; 2500-3500 m O. halei Essl.; CR, VE; 3000-3500 m O. lopezii Essl.; VE; 2250--3300 m [Note: leg. Sipman 11222 (B)] O. lorobic Essl.; CR, PA, VE; 2450-3600 m O. loxensis (Fée) Th.Fr. (sensu Essl.); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2400-4200 m O. macilentus Essl.; EC; 3450 m O. maurus Essl.; VE; 3200-3600 m O. parietinus Essl.; VE; 3500 m O. pendulus Essl.; EC; 4300-4450 m O. sperlingii Essl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2400-4100 m O. striatulus Essl.; VE; 2400-3500 m Parmelina Hale P. versiformis (Kremp.) Hale; VE; 2600-3450 m Parmelinopsis Elix & Hale P. cleefii (Sipman) V.Marcano & Sipman; CO, VE; 34504300 m P. cryptochlora (Vain.) Elix & Hale [syn.: Parmelina cryptochlora (Vain.) Hale]; VE; 1300-3400 m P. swinscowii (Hale) Elix & Hale (syn.: Parmelina swinscowii Hale); CO, VE, EC; 3200-4550 m Parmotrema A.Massal. Ref.: Aguirre, 1982; Hale, 1965. P. arnoldii (DuRietz) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 1950-3935 m P. bangii (Vain.) Hale; EC;? m [Note: leg. Harris (NY)] P. chinense (Osbeck) Hale & Ah ti; EC;? m [Note: leg. Harris (NY)]


48

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

conferendum Hale; VE; 1200-3300 m crinitum (Ach.) M.Choisy; CO, VE, EC; 1400-3600 m eborinum (Hale) Hale; VE; 200-3450 m ecrinitum Hale; VE; 2200-3450 m fasciculatum (Vain.) Hale (syn.: Parmelia fasciculata Vain.); CO, VE; 3300-3780 m P.fractum (Hale) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 2300-3950 m P. mellissii (Dodge) Hale; VE; 1225-3450 m P. rampoddense (Nyl.) Hale; VE; 1200-3300 m P. robustum (Degel.) Hale (syn.: Parmotrema dilatatum auct.); CO, VE; 1500-3800 m P. virescens Hale; VE; 1400-3500 m P. P. P. P. P.

Protoparmelia M.Choisy Re f.: Hertel, 1971. P. badia (Pers.) Hafellner; VE; 3900-4740 m P. picea (Dicks.) Nyl.; CO; 3200 m [Note: leg. Sipman & Aguirre 27440 (B)] Psiloparmelia Hale P. distincta (Nyl.) Hale [syn.: Xanthoparmelia distincta (Nyl.) Hale]; EC; 4100 m Punctelia Krog P. rudecta (Ach.) Krog; VE, EC; 1200-3200 m P. stictica (Duby) Nyl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2400-4080 m P. subrudecta (Nyl.) Krog; VE; 900-3400 m Rimelia Hale & A.Fletcher R. cetrata (Ach.) Hale & A.Fletcher [syn.: Parmotrema cetratum (Ach.) Hale]; CO, VE; 400--4200 m R. reticulata (Taylor) Hale & A.Fletcher [syn.: Parmotrema reticulatum (Taylor) Hale]; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3650 m Tuckneraria Randlane & A.Thell Ref.: Kalb, 1990. T. laureri (Kremp.) Randlane & A.Thell (syn.: Cetraria laureri Kremp.); CO, VE; 3500--4200 m Usnea Dill. ex Adans. Ref.: Kalb, 1988; Lindan, 1912; Motyka, 1936-1938; Vainio, 1899a; Walker, 1985. U. acanthella (Lamb) F.J.Walker; VE, EC; 3450--4500 m U. angulata Ach.; CO; 2000-3500 m U. bogotensis Vain.; CO, VE, EC; 2200-3950 m U. durietzii Motyka; PA, CO, VE, EC; 2800--4750 m U. jelskii Motyka; CO; 3500-4000 m U. moreliana Motyka; CO; 2740-3800 m U. sphacelata R.Br.; CO, VE, EC; 4000-4900 m U. spinul!fera (Vain.) Motyka; CO; 3600-4250 m Xanthoparmelia (Vain.) Hale Ref.: Nash et al., 1995. X arvidssonii Nash & Elix; EC; 3200-3900 m X conspersa (Ach.) Hale; VE; 3500 m X cotopaxiensis Nash, Elix & J.Johnst.; EC; 3400 m X cumberlandia (Gyeln.) Hale; VE; 2800--4400 m X lopezii Nash & Elix; VE; 4100 m

X X X X X X X X X X X X X

[VOL. 84

microspora (M체li.Arg.) Hale; VE, EC; 2100--4200 m mougeotii (Schaer.) Hale; CO, VE, EC; 2900--4200 m neowyomingica Hale; EC; 2600-3900 m sipmanii Nash & Elix; VE; 4100 m somloensis (Gyeln.) Hale; VE; 3800 m standaertii (Gyeln.) Hale; VE; 3700 m subsorediata Hale; VE, EC; 3000-4200 m subulcerosa Nash & Elix; EC; 2300-3840 m succedans Elix & J.Johnst.; EC; 4200 m tasmanica (Hook.f. & Taylor) Hale; VE; 3200 m ulcerosa (Zahlbr.) Hale; VE; 2100-3700 m vagans (N y l.) Hale; EC; 3200 m wildeae (Dodge) Hale; EC; 1680-3300 m

PELTIGERACEAE Nephroma Ach. Ref.: L처pez-Figueifas, 1986; Sipman, 1989, 1990. N. helveticum Ach.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2700-3900 m Peltigera Willd. Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; L처pez-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989; Vitikainen, 1994. P. austroamericana Zahlbr.; CO, VE, EC; 1550--4000 m P. canina (L.) Willd.; VE; 2400-3800 m P. didactyla (With.) J.R.Laundon [syn.: P. spuria (Ach.) DC.]; CO; 1900--4680 m P. dolichorhiza (Nyl.) Nyl.; CO; 1000-3750 m P. lacinia/a (Merril ex Riddle) Gyeln.; CO, VE, EC; 15004200 m P. pulverulenta (Taylor) Nyl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2300-4400 m P. rufescens (Weiss) Humb.; VE; 1750--4050 m P. soredians Vitik.; CO; 3200-3750 m P. ulcera/a M체ll.Arg.; CO, VE; 1700--4150 m P. vainioi Gyeln.; CO, VE; 2000-3300 m So/orina Ach. Re f.: Arvidsson, 1991. S. saccata (L.) Ach.; EC; ? m S. spongiosa (S m.) Anzi; CO; 3675 m [Note: leg. Cleef5432 (B)]

PERTUSARJ!ACEAE Ref.: Sipman, 1986b, 1989. Pertusaria DC. P. acroscyphoides Sipman; CO; 3830--4450 m P. culbersonii Vezda; CO, VE; 3500--4450 m

PHL YCTIDACEAE Phlyctis Wallr. Ref.: Sipman, 1989. P. endecamera (Nyl.) Nyl. [syn.: Phlyctella endecamera (Nyl.) Nyl.]; CO; 2400-3500 m

PHYSCIACEAE Buellia De Not. Ref.: Hertel, 1971.


1999]

PARAMOS

B. nivalis (Bagl. & Carestía) Hertel ex Hafellner [syn.: Polyschistes nivalis (Bagl. & Carestía) Keissl.]; VE; 4250 m Dirinaria (Tuck.) Clem. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986. D. applanata (Fée) Awas.; VE; 30-2200(-3452) m

49

PILOCARP ACEAE Byssoloma Trevis. B. subdiscordans (Nyl.) P.James; CO; 300-3200 m [Note: leg. Aguirre & Sipman 5145 (B)]

PORPIDIACEAE Hafellia Kalb, H.Mayrhofer & Scheid. Re f.: López-Figueiras, 1986. H. dissa (Stirt.) H.Mayrhofer & Sheard [syn.: Buellia callispora (Knight) Stein]; VE; 3300 m

Ref.: Hertel, 1971. Porpidia Korb. P. crustulata (Ach.) Herte! & Knoph; VE; 3500 m

PSORACEAE Heterodermia Trevis. Ref.: Aptroot, 1989; López-Figueiras, 1986. H. albicans (Pers.) Swinscow & Krog; EC; ? m [Note: leg. Sipman 7777 (B)] H. antillarum (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog; VE; 1400-3400 m H. casare/liana (A.Mass.) Trevis.; CR, CO, VE; 1000--3750 m H. circinalis (Zahlbr.) W.A. Weber; CR, CO, VE, EC; 23003800 m H. corallophora (Tayl.) Skorepa; VE; 600-3300 m H. ga/actophylla (Tuck.) Trevis.; CO; 2120-3730 m H. hypoleuca (Mühl.) Trevis.; CO; 2200-3200 m H. isidiophora (Vain.) Awas.; VE, EC; 1200-3450 m H.japonica (Sato) Swinscow & Krog; VE; 900-3500 m H. /eucome/os (L.) Poelt [syn.: H. boryi (Fée) Kr.P.Singh & S.R.Singh]; CO, VE, EC; 400-3700 m H. lutescens (Kurok.) Follmann & Redon; CR, CO; 16003750 m H. magellanica (Zahlbr.) Swinscow & Krog; VE, EC; 13003750m H. obscura/a (Nyl.) Trevis.; VE; 700-3900 m H. podocarpa (Bél.) Awas.; VE; 1300-3500 m H. speciosa (Wulf.) Trevis.; CO, VE; 300-3730 m H. verrucifera (Kurok.) W.A.Weber; VE; 1100-3450 m . H. vulgaris (Vain.) Follmann & Redon; EC;? m [Note: leg. Harris (NY)] Hype1physcia Müll.Arg. H. adglutinata (F!Orke) Mayrhofer & Poelt; EC;? m [Note: leg. Sipman 7785 (B)]

Ref.: Hertel, 1971; Kalb, 1988. Psora Hoffm. P. icterica (Mont.) Müll.Arg.; VE, EC; 4100-4500 m

RAMALINACEAE Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Kalb, 1988; Marcano & Morales Méndez, 1993. Ramalina Ach. R. asahinae W.Culb. & C.Culb.; VE; 600-3500 m R. camptmpora Nyl.; VE; 3200-3600 m R. ce/astri (Spreng.) Krog & Swinscow; VE; 1200-3500 m R. cochlearis Zahlbr.; VE; 1700-3800 m R. complanata (Sw.) Ach.; VE; 1100-3500 m R. cumanensis Fée; VE, EC; 2100-3550 m R. dictyota Dodge & Vareschi; VE, EC; 2600-3500 m R. puiggarii Müll.Arg.; VE; 3100-3500 m R. pusiola Müii.Arg.; VE; 900-3500 m R. rectangularis Nyl.; VE; 1100-3350 m R. tenuissima V.Marcano & A. Morales; VE; 2200-3400 m R. usnea (L.) R.H.Howe; VE; 1100-3500 m

RHIZOCARP ACEAE Ref.: Hertel, 1971. Rhizocarpon Ramond ex DC. R. /eptolepis Anzi; VE; 3500 m R. superficiale (Schaer.) Vain.; VE; 4250 m

SOLORINELLACEAE Phaeophyscia Moberg Re f.: López-Figueiras, 1986. P. endococcinodes (Poelt) Essl.; VE; 2000-4050 m P. hispidula (Ach.) Moberg; VE, EC; 1750-3450 m Physcia (Schreb.) Michaux Ref.: Moberg, 1990. P. cinerea Moberg; VE, EC; 2200-3600 m P. lopezii Moberg; VE; 2200-3600 m P. poncinsii Hue; VE; 200-3600 m Pyxine Fr. P. limbulatd Müli.Arg.; VE; 3800-4200 m

Ref.: Vézda & Poelt, 1991. Gyalidea Lettau G. costaricensis Vézda & Hafellner; CO; 3300-3390 m G. hya/inqcens (Nyl.) Vézda var. hyalinescens; EC; 20003550 m

SPHAEROPHORACEAE Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1990. Bunodophoron A.Massal. B. me/anocarpum (Sw.) Wedin [syn.: Sphaeroplzorus melanocarpus (Sw.) DC.]; CO, VE, EC; 1800-4750 m


50

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN ·

STEREOCAULACEAE Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; Boekhout, 1982; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1986b, 1989.

Stereocaulon Hoffm. S. atlanticum (Lamb) Lamb; CR, CO, VE; 2700-4500 m S. claviceps Th.Fr.; CO; 3750-4300 m S. crambidiocephalum Lamb; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3100-4340 m S. delisei Bory ex Duby; CR, CO; 3350-4340 m S. didymicum Lamb; VE; 2000-3400 m [Note: 1eg. Sipman 11212 (U)]

S. glareosum (Savicz) H.Magn.; CO, EC; 4000-4530 m S. globisorum Sipman; CO, EC; 3750-4340 m S. meyeri Stein; CO, VE, EC; 2450-4300 m S. microcarpum Müll.Arg.; VE, EC; 1400-4050 m S. novogranatense Lamb; CO, EC; 1700-3750 m . S. obesum Th.Fr.; CO, VE, EC; 2450-4160 m S. pachycephalum Vain.; CO; 2500-4200 m S. pityrizans N y l.; CO, VE, EC; 2300-3500 m . S. pomiferum P.A.Duvign.; CO, VE, EC; 1500-3750. in S. ramulosum Raeusch.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1800-4500 m S. strictum Th.Fr.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1700-3900(-4500) m; inc1udes var. compressum (Nyl.) Lamb ex Vezda. and var. strictum S. tomentosum Th.Fr. [syn.: S. myriocarpum Th.Fr.]; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2300-4400 m S. verruciferum Nyl. var. surreptans (Lamb) Lamb; EC; 3400-4500 m S. vesuvianum Pers.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2100-4750 m

TELOSCHISTACEAE Caloplaca Th.Fr. C. brebissonii (Fée) R.Sant. ex Hafellner & Poe1t; CO, EC; 2100-3400 m [Note: CO voucher 1eg. Aguirre & Sipman 5818 (B)] C. calicioides P.M.Jorg.; VE; 3500 m Te/oschistes Norman Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986. T. ch1ysophthalmus (L.) Th.Fr.; VE, EC; 2900-3450 m T. exilis (Michx.) Vain.; EC;? m [Note: leg. Harris (NY)] T.jlavicans (Sw.) Norman; VE, EC; 700-3500 m T. hypoglaucus (Nyl.) Zah1br.; EC; ? m [Note: 1eg. Sipman 7792 (B)] Xanthoria (Fr.) Th.Fr. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986. X elegans (Link) Th.Fr.; VE; 3900-4250 m

THELOTREMATACEAE Diploschistes Norman Re f.: Arvidsson, 1991 ; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. D. cinereocaesius (Sw. ex Ach.) Vain.; CR CO VE EC· 2400-4450 m ' ' ' ' D. diacapsis (Ach.) Lumbsch; CR; 3400 m [Note: 1eg. Sipman & Chaverri 20705 (B)] D. gypsaceus (Ach.) Zah1br.; VE; 3450-3500 m

[VOL. 84

D. muscorum (Scop.) R.Sant. subsp. bartlettii Lumbsch; CO; 1900-4300 m The/otrema Ach. Ref.: Sipman, 1989. T. lepadinum (Ach.) Ach.; CO; 2700-3730 m

TRAPELIACEAE Placopsis (Nyl.) Linds. Ref.: Ka1b, 1988; López-Figueiras, 1986. P. gelida (L.) Lindsay; CO, VE, EC; 2100-3700 m P. parellina (Nyl.) Lamb; EC; 3400 m Placynthiella E1enkin Ref.: Sipman, 1989. P. icmalea (Ach.) Coppins & P.James [syn.: Saccomorpha icmalea (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux]; CO; 4350 m Trapelia M.Choisy Ref.: Hertel, 1971. T. coarctata (Tum.) M.Choisy; VE, EC; 1600-3900 m T. mooreana (Caroll) P.James [syn.: Trapelia torellii (Anzi) Herte1]; CO, VE; 2000-3500 m T. obtegens (Th.Fr.) Herte1; VE; 3500 m Trapeliopsis Herte1 & Gotth.Schneid. Ref.: Hertel, 1971, 1973; Sipman, 1989. T. glauco/epida (Nyl.) Gotth.Schneid.; CR, CO; 3130-4400 m T. subconcolor (Anzi) Herte1; CO, VE; 3500-4000 m

UMBILICARIACEAE Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Marcano, 1994; Sipman, 1989, 1992a.

Umbilicaria Hoffm. U. africana (Jatta) Krog & Swinscow; CO, VE, EC; 30004750m U. calvescens Nyl.; VE, EC; 3000-4100 m U. hap/ocarpa Nyl.; EC; ? m [Note: herb. Aptroot] U. leprosa (Zah1br.) Frey; CR, CO, EC; 3200-4540 m U. mifafensis V.Marcano & A.Morales; VE; 4115 m U. nylanderiana (Zah1br.) H.Magn.; VE, CO, EC; 38004750m U. po/yphylla (L.) Baumg.; CO, VE; 3200-4330 m U. po/yrrhiza Ach.; CO, VE; 2700-3850 m U. subca/vescens Sipman; CO, VE; 2450-4350 m

VERRUCARIACEAE Catapyrenium F1ot. Ref.: Breuss, 1993. C. exaratum Breuss; EC; 4500 m C. lachneoides Breuss; EC; 3300-4500 m C. squamulosum (Ach.) Breuss var. squamulosum; EC; 3900-4500 m Normandina Nyl. Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. N. pulchella (Borr.) Nyl.; CO, VE, EC; 1750-3975 m


1999]

PARAMOS

INCERTAE SEDIS Cystacaleus Thwaites Ref.: Sipman, 1990. C. ebeneus (Dillwyn) Thwaites; CO, VE; 3000-4500 m Lepraria Ach. Ref.: Sipman, 1989. L. caesiaatra (de Lesd.) J.R.Laundon (syn.: L. neglecta Auct.); CO; 4300-4500 m Lepracaulan Lamy Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; Lamb & Ward, 1974; LópezFigueiras, 1986; Marcano etal., 1997; Sipman, 1989. L. albicans (Th.Fr.) Nyl. ex Hue; CO, EC; 2800-4475 m L. cangestum (Nyl.) Lamb & A.Ward; CO, VE, EC; 28004400 m L. gracilescens (Nyl.) Lamb & A.Ward; VE, EC; 3500-4450 m L. micrascapicum (Vill.) Gams ex D.Hawksw.; VE; 35003600m Lepra/ama Crombie Ref.: Leuckert & Kümmerling, 1991. L. vauauxii (Hue) Laundon; CO, EC; 4300 m Racadium Pers. R. rupestre Pers.; VE; 3000-4500 m Siphula Fr. Ref.: Arvidsson, 199l;.López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1984. S. ceratites (Wahlenberg) Fr.; CO; 3100 m [Note: leg. Aguirre & Sipman 5857 (B)] S.fastigiata (Nyl.) Nyl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3100-4560 m S. pterulaides N y l.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2400-4560 m Thamnalia Ach. ex Schaerer Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. T. vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer. emend. Asahina; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2800-4550 m

Lichenized Basidiomycetes MERULIACEAE Dictyanema Agardh ex Kunth Ref.: López-Figueiras, 1986; Sipman, 1989. D. glabratum (Spreng.) D.Hawksw. [syn.: Cara pavania (Sw.) Fr.]; CO, VE, EC; 240-4550 m D. sericeum (Sw.) Berkh.; VE; 1900-3300 m

TRICHOLOMATACEAE Omphalina Qué!. Ref.: Arvidsson, 1991; Jorgensen, 1989.

51

O. ericetarum (Pers. ex Fr.) M.Lange; VE; 3500 m O.faliacea P.M.Jorg.; CO, VE, EC; 3555-4250 m Phytacanis Bory Ref.: Redhead & Kuyper, 1987. P. aurantiaca (Redhead & Kuyper) Redhead & Kuyper (syn.: Batrydina aurantiaca Redhead & Kuyper); CO; 3000-4000 m P. !abata (Redhead & Kuyper) Redhead & Kuyper (syn.: Batrydina !abata Redhead & Kuyper); CO; 3000-4000 m

Acknowledgments The kind cooperation ofR. C. Harris (NY) andA. Aptroot (Baarn), who provided unpublished inforrnation oftheir Ecuadorean collections, is gratefully acknowledged.

Literature Cited in Checklist of Lichens Aguirre C., J. 1982. Contribución al conocimiento de los líquenes de Colombia-U. Observaciones acerca de Hypatrachyna y Parmatrema (Líquenes: Parmeliaceae). Bol. Dept. Biol., Fac. de Cienc. 1(4): 29-44. Ahti, T. 1961. Taxonomic studies on reindeer lichens (Cladania, subgenus Cladina). Ann. Soc. Zool. Bot. Fenn. Vanamo 32(1): 1-160, pi. 1-44. --~. 1986. New species of reindeer lichens (Cladina). Ann. Bot. Fenn. 23: 221-227. --~ & M. P. Marcelli. 1995. Taxonomy ofthe Cladania verticillaris complex in South America. Biblioth. Lichenol. 58: 5-26. --~ & S. Stenroos. 1986. A revision of Cladania sect. Cacciferae in the Venezuelan Andes. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 23: 229-238. Aptroot, A. 1989. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XL. The family Pyxinaceae (lichenized fungi). Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C, 92: 269-280. Arvidsson, L. 1982. A monograph of the lichen genus Caccacarpia. Opera Bot. 67: 1-96, figs. 1-63. --~. 1991. Lichenological studies in Ecuador. Pp. 123134. In: D. J. Galloway (ed.), Tropical lichens: Their systematics, conservation, and ecology. Systematics Association Special Volume 43. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Boekhout, T. 1982. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XVIII. The genus Stereacaulan (Schreber) Hoffmann (Lichenes). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 53: 438-511. Brako, L. 1991. Phyllapsara (Bacidiaceae). Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 55: 1-67. Breuss, O. 1993. Catapyrenium (Verrucariaceae) species from South America. PI. Syst. Evol. 185: 17-33. Degelius, G. 1974. The lichen genus Ca!iema with special reference to the extra-European species. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 20(2): 1-215. Esslinger, T. L. 1989. Systematics of Orapagan (Alectoriaceae) in the New World. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 28: 1-111. Filson, R. B. 1981. A revision ofthe lichen genus Cladia. Unpubl. list of specimens.


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Galloway, D. J. & L. Arvidsson. 1990. Studies in Pseudocyphellaria (Lichenes) II. Ecuadorian species. Lichenologist 22: 103-135. Gierl, C. & K. Kalb. 1993. Die Flechtengattung Dibaeis. Eine Übersicht über die rosafrüchtigen Arten von Baeomyces sens. la t. nebst Anmerkungen zu Phyllobaeis gen. nov. Herzogia 9: 593-645. Gyelnik, V. (Kiifaragó-). 1938. Fragmenta lichenologica I. Lilloa 3: 49-80. Hale, M. E. 1965. A monograph of Parmelia subgenus Amphigymnia. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 36(5): 193-358, pi. 1-16, figs. 1-29. - - - . 1972. New species of Parme/ia sect. Hypotrachyna. Phytologia 22: 433-438. ---·. 1975. A revision ofthe lichen genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in tropical America. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 25: i-iii, 1-73, figs. 1-20. - - - . 1976. A monograph ofthe lichen genus Bulbothrix Hale (Parmeliaceae). Smithsonian Contr. Bol. 32: 1-29, figs. 1-7. Hawksworth, D. L. 1985. A redisposition ofthe species referred to the ascomycete genus Microthelia. Buli: Brít. . Museum (Nat. Hist.), Bot. Ser. 14(2): 43.:-181. Hertel, H. 1971. Über holarktische Krustenflechten aus den venezolaníschen Anden. Willdenowia 6: 225-272. - - - . 1973. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Flechtenfamilie Lecideaceae V. Herzogia 2: 479-515. J0rgensen, P. M. 1989. Omphalína foliacea, a new basídíolichen from America. Nordic J. Bot. 9: 89-95. Kalb, K. 1988. (Schedae ad) Lichenes Neotropici, Fascikel X (No. 401-450), p. 1-16. Neumarkt/Opf., Germany. - - - . 1990. (Schedae ad) Lichenes Neotropicí, Fascikel XI (No. 451-475), p. 1-12. Neumarkt/Opf., Germany. Kamefelt, I. 1979. The brown fruticose species ofCetraria. Opera Bot. 46: 1-150, figs. 1-74. ---,J.-E. Mattson & A. Thell. 1993. The 1ichen genera Arctocetraria, Cetraria, and Cetrariella (Parmeliaceae) and their presumed evolutionary affinities. Bryologist 96: 394-404. Lamb, I. M. & A. Ward. 1974. A preliminary conspectus of the species attributed to the imperfect Jichen genus Leprocau/on Nyl. J. Hattori Bol. Lab. 38:499-553, figs. 1-11. Leuckert, Ch. & H. Kümmerling. 1991. Chemotaxonomische Studien in der Gattung Lepro/oma Nyl. ex Crombie (Líchenes). Nova Hedwigia 52: 17-32. Lindau, G. 1912. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Flechten von Kolumbien. Mém. Soc. Neuch. Sci. Nat. 5: 57-66. López-Figueiras, M. 1986. Censo de macrolíquenes venezolanos de los estados Falcón, Lara, Mérida, Táchira y Trujillo. Universidad de Los Andes, Facultad de Farmácia, Mérida, Venezuela. Marcano, V. 1994. Revisión del género Umbílicaria (Ascomicetes liquenizados) en Venezuela. Emstia 4: 21-35. - - - & A. Morales Méndez. 1993. Ramalina reducto Krog et Swinscow, especie de liquen de los Andes venezolanos, nueva para America. Ernstia 3: 19-26. ---,A. Morales Méndez & L. Martínez. 1994. El género Alectoria Ach. (Ascomicetes líquenizados) en los Andes venezolanos. Emstia 4: 89-100. - - - , - - - , H . Sipman & L. Calderón. 1996. A first checklist ofthe lichen-forming fungi ofthe Venezuelan Andes. Tropical Bryology 12: 193-235. - - - , L. Galiz, S. Mohali, A. Morales Méndez & E. Palacios-Prü. 1997. Revisión del género Leprocau/on

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Nyl. ex Lamy (Lichenes Imperfecti) en Venezuela. Tropical Bryology 13: 47-56. · Moberg, R. 1990. The Jichen genus Physcia in Central and South America. Nordic J. Bot. 10: 319-342. Motyka, J. 1936-1938. Lichenum genus Usnea studium monographicum. Pars systematica [Lwow] 1: 1-304 (1936); 2(1): 305-560 (1937); 2(2): 561-651, i-iv (1938). Müller Argoviensis, J. 1879. Lichenes aequinoctialiamericani, a el. Ed. André, annis 1875-1876, praesertim in editioribus Ecuador (E) et in Nova Granata (N.Gr.) lecti. RevueMycol. 1879(4): 163-171 (7-15). Nash, T. H., III, C. Gries & J. A. Elix. 1995. A revision of the lichen genus Xanthoparmelia in South America. Biblioth. Lichenologica 56: 1-158. Nylander, W. 1863a. Lichenographiae novo-granatensis prodromus. Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 7: 415-504 (pp. 1-90 · of separate edition). -·- - . 1863b. Lichens in J. Triana & J. E. Planchan, Prodromus florae novo-granatensis. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bol. IV, 19: 285-382; 20: 228-279 (p. 1-148 of separate edition). Redhead, S. A. & Th. W. Kuyper. 1987. Lichenized agarics: Taxonomic and nomenclatura! riddles. Pp. 319-349. In: G. A. Laursen, J. F. Ammirati & S. A. Redhead (eds.), Arctic and alpine mycology II. Environmental Science Research 34. Santesson, R. 1952. Foliicolous lichens I. A revision ofthe taxonomy ofthe obligately foliicolous, lichenized fungi. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 12(1): 1-590, pi. 1, figs. 1-92. Sipman, H. J. M. 1980. Studies on Colombian cryptogams X. The genus Everniastrum Hale and related taxa (Lichenes). Proceed. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. e, 83: 333-354. - - - . 1984. Lichens ofthe Buritaca-La Cumbre transect, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Pp. 185-188. In: T. Van der Hammen & P. M. Ruiz (eds.), La Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia). Transecto BuritacaLa Cumbre. Studies of Tropical Andean Ecosystems 2. J. Cramer, Berlín. - - - . 1986a. Notes on the lichen genus Everniastrum (Parmeliaceae). Mycotaxon 26: 235-251. - - - . 1986b. Three new lichens from Colo,mbia. Willdenowia 16: 279-284. - - - . 1986c. Additional notes on the lichen family Megalosporaceae. Willdenowia 15: 557-564. - - - . 1987. Distribution patterns of the lichen genus Stereocau/on in the northern Andes. P. 320. In: W. Greuter, B. Zimmer & H. D. Behnke (eds.), Abstracts of the General Lectures, Symposium Papers and Posters presented at the XIV Intemational Botanical Congress, Berlín. - - - . 1989. Lichen zonation in the Parque Los Nevados transect. Pp. 461-483. In: T. Van der Hammen, S. Díaz P. & V. J. Alvarez (eds.), La Cordillera Central Colombiana. Transecto Parque Los Nevados (Segunda parte). Studies of Tropical Andean Ecosystems 3. J. Cramer, Berlín. - - - , 1990. Lichenotheca Latinoamericana a museo botánico berolinensi edita, fasciculum primum. Willdenowia 19: 543-551. - - - . 1992a. The genus Umbilicaria (lichenized ascomycetes) in Colombia. Nova Hedwigia 54: 63-75. - - - . 1992b. The origin ofthe lichen flora ofthe Colombian páramos. Pp. 95-109. In: H. Balslev & J. L. Luteyn

¡\

1


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(eds.), Páramo: An Andean ecosystem under human influence. Academic Press, London. - - - & J. Aguirre C. 1982. Contribución al conocimiento de los líquenes de Colombia-l. Clave genérica para los líquenes foliosos y fruticosos de los páramos colombianos. Caldasia 13(64): 603-634. - - - & A. M. Cleef. 1979. Studies on Colombian cryptogams V. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of macrolichens of the Colombian páramos: l. Cladonia subgenus Cladina. Proceed. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C, 82: 223-241. Stenroos, S. 1989a. Taxonomic revision of the Cladonia minia/a group. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 26(3): 237-261. - - - . 1989b. Taxonomy ofthe Cladonia coccifera group 2. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 26(3): 307-317. Tibell, L. 1996. Caliciales. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr: 69: 1-79. Vainio, E. A. 1894. Monographia Cladoniarum universalis II (partie systématique et descriptive II). Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 10: 1-499. - - - . 1899a. Lichenes novi rarioresque, ser. l. Beibl. Hedwigia 38(3): (121)-(125). - - - . 1899b. Lichenes novi rarioresque, ser. II. Beibl. Hedwigia 38(3): (186)-(190).

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Vezda, A. & J. Poelt. 1991. Die F1echtengattung Gyalidea Lett. ex Vezda (Solorinellaceae), eine Übersicht mit Bestimmungsschlüssel. Nova Hedwigia 53: 99-113. Vitikainen, O. 1994. Notes on sorne Peltigera of the Neotropics. Acta Bot. Fenn. 150: 217-221. Vries, B. G. de & H. J. Sipman. 1984. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XXI. The lichen genus Baeomyces in Colombia and Venezuela. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C, 87: 235-246. Walker, F. J. 1985. The lichen genus Usnea subgenus Neuropogon. Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Bot. 13(1): 1-130. Yoshimura, I. 1984. Taxonomic studies on Lobaria crenulata and its allies. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 57: 57-66. - - - . 1994. Taxonomy and chemistry of the Lobaria crenulata group in Ecuador. Acta Bot. Fenn: 150: 223-233. - - - . 1995. The lichen genus Anzia (Parmeliaceae, Lecanorales) in Central and South America. Pp. 377387. In: F. J. A. Daniels, M. Schulz & J. Peine (eds.), Flechten Follmann, Contributions to lichenology in honour of Gerhard Follmann. Koeltz, Koenigstein. - - - & L. Arvidsson. 1994. Taxonomy and chemistry of the Lobaria crenulata group in Ecuador. Acta Bot. Fenn. 150:223-233.

Mosses Steven P. Churchill and Dana Griffin III

Mosses are a conspicuous element of two neotropicallife zones: montan e forests, particular!y cloud forests, and páramo. This contribution focuses on the taxonomic diversity ofmosses found in the pár(lmo. There are approximately 51 families, 163 genera, and 543 species presently recorded in our list ofpáramo mosses. The 1Olargest families and genera of páramo mosses account for 66% and 34%, respective! y (Table III). Endemism is relatively low in moss taxa. No families are endemic to the páramo. Two genera are endemic, both described relatively recently. Kingiob1yum (Dicranaceae), originally described by Robinson (1967) and later in greater detail by Zander and Cleef ( 1982), is known from severallocalities in the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia and the Cordillera de Mérida of Venezuela. Gradsteinia (Amblystegiaceae ), an aquatic moss found on rocks in streams, is presently known only from the type locality in the Páramo de Sumapaz (Depto. Meta, Colombia) (Ochyra, 1990). At the species leve! approximately 9% are endemic; this figure is likely to be reduced after further taxonomic investigation and exploration, particularly in the central Andes. The concept of páramo adopted in our checklist for the mosses includes both subpáramo and páramo.

Elevation generally exceeds 3300 m, but in manyareas the páramo and páramo-like vegetation can extend down to 2800 m or less, and, at least for Colombia, páramo is frequently encountered around 3000 m. Defining the páramo and páramo plants (in this case, mosses) is not problematic when characterized by typical alpine-like open grassy vegetation, often dominated by members of the Poaceae such as Calamagrostis, Chusquea, and Festuca, cushion plants of various families and genera, and the often defining element Espeletia and related members of the tri be Espeletiinae for Venezuela south to northem Ecuador. However, challenges begin to arise when dealing with the forest elements present in the páramo zone. The first difficulty is related to the boundary between the montane forest and páramo; the subpáramo may be envisioned as the interfsce between the two zones, with open or shrubby montane forest grading into subpáramo or páramo. The second problem is the incursion of gallery forests into the páramo, and isolated forested escarpments within the páramo that harbor typical montan e mosses. It is only logical that the latter elements, gallery forest and forested escarpment, be included; but the former element,


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the interface between montane and páramo, is more subjective dueto the relative nature of zonations. The páramo zone (including subpáramo) exhibits a surprisingly wide range ofhabitats for mosses. The preponderance of species occur in exposed habitats on soil, humus, and rock, and many of these species readiiy ext¡:nd down slope into the open montane forest. Characteristic families of this group include the Bartramiaceae, Bryaceae, Dicranaceae, Ditrichaceae, Polytrichaceae, Pottiaceae, and Splachnaceae. A few families are generally restricted to the páramo, e.g., Andreaeaceae, Encalyptaceae, and Grimmiaceae (Racomitrium being the exception). Relatively few species are associated with streams and nearly always restricted to rocks, e.g., Andreaea nitida, A. acutifolia, Blindia magellanica, Dendrocryphaea latlfolia, Ditrichum bogotense, Fissidens rigidulus, Fon(inalis bogotensis, Holodontium strictum, Hygrodicranum bolivianum, Platyhypnidium aquaticum, and Schistidium rivulare. Typical forest elements, the majority found as epiphytes, include, among others, the Daltoniaceae, Macromitriaceae, Meteoriaceae, Neckeraceae, Orthotrichaceae, and Prionodontaceae. A few families---e.g., Brachytheciaceae, Hypnaceae, and Thuidiaceae-are found equally in exposed and forest si tes. Azonal habitats, such as marshy or boggy si tes, are characterized by such families as the Amblystegiaceae and Sphagnaceae. Severa! trends related to páramo mosses have been outlined by Griffin (1990a) for Venezuela, and they appearto be equally true for the whole ofthe páramo. The páramo zone is the second or possibly third most species-rich zone (for mosses) in the Neotropics. Given the extremely small surface area occupied by the páramo, it may even be the richest if species per area is considered in the assessment of diversity. The total number of species for the five tropical Andean countries is just over 2000 (Churchill et al., 1995). The northem Andean countries (Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador) are estimated to contain 1460 species (S. P. Churchill & D. Griffin, unpubl. data), of which approximately 34% of the species can be found in the páramo. The preponderance of páramo mosses (ca. 75%) are acrocarpic, tuft-forming mosses. Even among epiphytic mosses, a good number are acrocarpic or at least are erect in their growth form. Phytogeographical elements represented in the páramo include neotropical first, followed by Andean, cosmopolitan, Andean-African, neotropical-Asian, and finally, in equal parts, neotropical-Australasian, temperate Southem Hemisphere, and northern temperate/boreal. Studies related to páramo mosses include floristic inventaries (Bartram, 1953, 1964; Bowers, 1970;

Griffin, 1979; Magdefrau, 1983; Vareschi, 1970). Relatively few vegetational studies have included mosses-Balslev and de Vries (1991) did one, and of particular importance is the detailed study done by Cleef (1981 ). Although no floristic treatment of the páramo mosses presently exists, Churchill and Linares C. (1995) provide a synoptical flora ofColombia that includes páramo species, and D. Griffin is in the final stages of completing a full flora ofthe Venezuelan páramo. The following checklist has been compiled from the herbaria ofFLAS, NY, and US. Our own experiences in Costa Rica (DG), Venezuela (DG), Colombia (SPC & DG), and Ecuador (SPC) have also provided a certain amount of observational data for taxa both common and rare. The decision to include or exclude certain species, when confronted with marginal taxa or for which !abe! information was often inadequate, was based on our combined field knowledge. Literature has been employed only when no collections have been available in the above-mentioned herbaria. One hindrance in preparing this list related to labeled collections. At this time it seems incredible that professional systematists continue to provide inadequate !abe! information to accompany a collected specimen. Like sorne field-oriented taxonomists have done before us, we would urge workers to provide accurate !abe! information, including latitude and longitude, elevation ( or range ), associated vegetation type, and substrate. All taxa are listed in alphabetical order by family, genus, and species. Each country (six in al!) where a species is recorded as occurring in the páramo or páramolike vegetation (or at times marginal vegetation, as in subpáramo) is indicated. The elevational data, derived from a checklist in preparation for the tropical Andean countries, represent the entire elevation range ofthe species indicated only for Venezuela to Ecuador (in rare cases these have been modified due to additional data either from the highlands ofCentral America or Peru). For each species we have consulted voucher specimens from FLAS, NY, and US in an attempt to verify the species' occurrence in the páramo zone in each country. When we have not seen a specimen, the appropriate literature citation is given.

CHECKLIST OF MOSSES. ADELOTHECIACEAE Adelothecium Mitt. A. bogotense (Hampe) Mitt.; CO, VE;

1140~3300

m


55

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1999]

AMBLYSTEGIACEAE

BARTRAMIACEAE

Calliergon (Su11.) Kindb. C. luipichense R.S.Williams; EC; 4050 m C. sannentosum (Wah1enb.) Kindb.; VE, CO, EC; 35004050 m C. stramineum (Brid.) Kindb.; VE; 3100-4270 m C. trifarum (F.Weber & D.Mohr) Kindb.; VE; 3800 m

Anacolia Schimp. A. laevisphaera (Tay1or) F1owers; CO, VE, EC; 1850-4300 m

Cal/iergonel/a Loeske C. cuspidatum (Hedw.) Kindb.; CO, EC; 3000-4180 m Campyliadelphus (Lindb.) Broth. C. polyganus (Schimp.) Kanda; EC; 2000-3920 m Cratoneuron (Sull.) Spruce C.fi/icinum (Hedw.) Spruce; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3950 m Drepanocladus (Müll.Hal.) G.Roth D. aduncus (Hedw.) Wamst.; EC; 3800 m D. exannulatus (Schimp.) Wamst.; CO; 3450-3680 m D.jluitans (Hedw.) Wamst.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4100 m D. leitensis (Mitt.) Broth.; EC; 2370-3800 m D. trichophyllus (Warnst.) Podp.; VE; 3700 m D. vernicosus (Mitt.) Wamst.; CO, VE; 3500-3800 m Gradsteinia Ochyra G. andicola Ochyra; CO; 3650 m Hygroamblystegium Loeske H. meridense E.B.Bartram; VE; 4000 m

Sanionia Loeske S. uncinata (Hedw.) Loeske; CO; 2800-4100 m

Sc01pidium (Schimp.) Limpr. S. cossonii (Schimp.) Hedenas; CO, EC; 3570-3950 m S. scorpioides (Hedw.) Limpr.; CO, VE, EC; 2900-4200 m S. turgescens (T.Jensen) Loekse; EC; 3800-4100 m

ANDREAEACEAE Acroschisma (Hook.f. & Wi1son) Lindl. A. wilsonii (Hook.f.) Lindl.; CO, EC; 3040-4100 m Andreaea Hedw. A. acutifolia Hook.f. & Wi1son; CO; 3700 m A. brevipes Spruce; CO, VE, EC; 3500-4765 m A. karsteniana Mü1l.Hal.; EC;? m [Note: Collected from the summit ofVo1cán Pichincha.] A. nítida Hook.f. & Wi1son; CO, VE, EC; 3240-4650 m A. rupestris Hedw.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2900-4500 m A. seria/a G.Roth; EC; 5300 m A. striata Mitt.; EC; 5195 m A. urophylla H.Rob.; EC; 4200 m A. vulcanica Lorentz; EC; 3385-3690 m

AULACOMNIACEAE Aulacomnium Schwagr. A. palustre (Hedw.) Schwagr.; VE, EC; 3850-3950 m

Bartramia Hedw. Ref.: Fransén, 1995. B. angustifolia Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2800-4170 m B. brevifolia Brid.; CO, VE, EC; 2500-4030 m B. humilis Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1846-4000 m B. longifolia Hook.; CO, VE, EC; 2550-4070 m B. mathewsii Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 3700-4360 m; inc1udes var. mathewsii and var. synoica Fransén B. polytrichoides Mü11.Hal.; CO, EC; 2620-4000 m B. potosica Mont.; CO, VE, EC; 2800-4765 m B. strumosa (Hampe) Mitt.; CR, CO, VE; 2800-4100 m Breutelia (Bruch & Schimp.) Schimp. Ref.: Griffin, 1988. B. brevifolia Herzog; CO; 3300-3745 m B. brittoniae Renau1d & Cardo!; CO, VE, EC; 2700-4030 m B. chrysea (Müll.Hal.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2200-4300 m B. inclina/a (Hampe & Lorentz) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2100-3975 m B. integrifolia (Tay1or) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4150 m B. karsteniana (Müll.Hal.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 25554200m B. maegdefraui H.A.Crum; CO; 3400 m B. polygastrica (Müll.Hal.) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 2550-4300 m B. rhythidioides Herzog; CO, VE, EC; 2555-4000 m B. squarrosa A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2340-4000 m B. subarcuata (Müll.Hal.) Schimp.; CO, VE, EC; 1500-4300 m B. tomentosa (Brid.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 1900-3930 m B. trianae (Hampe) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2100-4340 m Conostomum Sw. C. tetragonum (Hedw.) Lindb. [syn.: C. pentastichum (Brid.) Lindb.); CR, CO, VE, EC; 3410-4200 m Flowersia D.G.Griffin & W.R.Buck F. setifolia (Hook. & Amott) D.G.Griffin & W.R.Buck; CO, PE; 4000-4300 m Leiomela (Mitt.) Broth. L. aristifolia (A.Jaeger) Wijk & Margad.; CO, EC; 32604250 m L. bartramioides (Hook.) Paris; CR, CO, VE, EC; 12003200 m L. deciduifolia Herzog; CO, EC; 2480-4250 m L. ecuadorensis H.Rob.; CO, EC; 3200-4200 m L. lopezii D.G.Griffin; CO, VE; 2440-3680 m L. peruviana R.S.Williams; EC; 3730-4155 m Philonotis Brid. P. andina (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2770-4000 m P. cernua (Wilson) D.G.Griffin & W.R.Buck; VE; 3300 m P. crassinervia Broth. & Paris; VE; 1700-3600 m P. erecta (Mitt.) D.G.Griffin & W.R.Buck; VE; 3200 m P.fontanella (Hampe) A.Jaeger; CO, EC; 2700-3750 m P. has/ata (Duby) Wijk & Margad.; VE; 2900-3500 m


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YÜRK BOTANICAL GARDEN

56

P. /ongiseta (Michx.) E.Britton; CR, 3300 m P. revoluta Bosch & Sande Lac.; CO; 2100--4100 m P. rufzjlora (Homsch.) Reichardt; CO, VE, EC; 1000--4000 m P. scabrifolia (Hook.f. & Wilson) Braithw.; CO, VE, EC; 3750-4170m

BRACHYTHECIACEAE Aero/indigia M.Menzel A. capil/acea (Hornsch.) M.Menzel; CO, EC; 700-3700 m Brachythecium Schimp. Ref.: McFarland, 1988. B. austro-glareosum (Müli.Hal.) Kindb.; CO, EC; 33004100 m B. chocayae Herzog; CO; 3550 m B. cirriphylloides McFarland; CO, VE; 2900-3620 m B. conostomum (Taylor) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 3100--4500 m B. accidenta/e (Hampe) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2500--4500 m B. plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp.; CO, VE, EC:; 2000-3600 m B. praelongum Schimp. ex Müll.Hal.; CO, VE, EC; 36004350 m B. rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp.; CO, VE, EC; 2400--4050 m B. stereopoma (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 900-3650 m Eurhynchium Schimp. E. prae/ongum (Hedw.) Schimp.; CR, VE, EC; 2100-3780 m Palamocladium Müii.Hal. P. leskeoides (Hook.) E.Britton; CO, VE, EC; 2000-3300 m Platyhypnidium M.Fleisch. P. aquaticum (A.Jaeger) M.F1eisch.; CO, VE, EC; 15004200 m Rhynchostegium Bruch & Schimp. R. inerme (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; EC; 3810 m R. scariosus (Taylor) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 800-3680 m R. serrulatum (Hedw.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 1000--4000 m Rozea Be'sch. R. chrysea B~sch.; VE; 3500-3520 m. R. subjulacea B~sch.; CO VE; 3300--3670 m

BRUCHIACEAE Eobruchia W.R.Buck E. ecuatoriana Steere; EC; 4200 m

BRYACEAE Ref.: Ochi, 1980, 1981. Acidodontium Schwagr. A. heteroneuron (Mitt.) Broth.; VE, EC; 1600-3750 m A. /ongifolium (Paris) Broth.; EC; 3690 m. A. mega/ocarpum (Hook.) Renau1d & Cardo!; CO, EC; 2310--4050 m A. seminerve Hook.f. & Wilson; CO, EC; 1540-3825 m A. subrotundum (Tay1or) Hook.f. & Wilson; EC; 3400 m

[VOL. 84

, Anomobtyum Schimp. A. clavicaule (Müll.Hal.) Broth.; CO, VE; 3085-3965 m A. conicuin (Homsch.) Broth.; EC; 1050--4000 m A. ju/aceum (P.Gaertn., B.Mey. & Scherb.) Schimp. (syn.: A.filiforme (Dicks.) Solms.]; CR, CO, VE, EC; 23204050 m A. p/icatum Cardo!; CR, CO, VE; 3300-3700 m A. prostratum (Müll.Hal.) Besch.; CO, VE, EC; 1230-3890 m A. robu'stum Broth.; CO; 3000-3525 m Brachymenium Schwagr. B. globosum A.Jaeger; EC; 1200-3450 m B. speciosum (Hook.f. & Wi1son) Steere; CO, EC; 12303385 m B. systylium (Mü11.Hal.) A.Jaeger; VE, EC; 3020-3600 m Btyum Hedw. B. a/govicum Sendtn. ex Mü1l.Hal.; VE, EC?; 3800--4400 m B. alpinum Hüds. ex With.; CO, VE; 2900-3700 m B. andicola Hook.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1100--4325 m B. argentelfm Hedw.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 20--4250 m B. biforme R.S.Williams; VE; 4070 m B. canariense Brid.; CO; 3620 m B. capil/are Hedw.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2285--4260 m B. chryseum Mitt.; CR; 2200-3600 m B. densifo/ium Brid.; EC; 940-3385 m B. dichotomum Hedw.; CO, EC; 1050--4100 m B. ellipsifo/ium Müll.Hal.; VE, CO; 3630--4400 m B. goudotii Hampe; VE; 3350-3600 m B. incacorralis Herzog; VE; 4070 m B. innovans H.A.Crum; CO; 4150 m B. /aevigatum Hook.f. & Wilson; CO, VÉ; 3000--4335 m B. micro-nitidum Ochi; EC; 375'0-3860 m B. pal/escens Schleich. ex Schwagr.; CO, EC; 3080--4340 m B. pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) P.Gaertn., G.Mey. & Scherb.; CO, VE, EC; 1400--4100 m LeptobtJ'llm (Bruch & Schimp.) Wi1son L. pyriforme (Hedw.) Wilson; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2750--4100 m L. wilsonii (Mitt.) Broth.; EC; 3700 m Mielichhoferia Nees, Hornsch. & J.W.Sturm M. antisanensis (E.B.Bartram) H.Rob.; CO, EC; 3440 m ,M, argentifolia Mitt.; VE, EC; 3900 m M. dip/odonta Mitt.; EC; 3110-3505 m M. laxiretis Thér.; EC; 4000--4400 m M. longiseta Mü1l.Hal.; EC; 2400-5110 m M megalocmpa (Amott) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2215--4000 m Orthodontium Schwagr. O. graci/e Schwagr. ex Bruch, Schimp. & W.Gümbel; VE; 3000-3400 m O. pellucens (Hook.) Bruch, Schimp. & W.Gümbel; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1420-3400 m Pohlia Hedw. P. chilensis (Mont.) A.J.Shaw; EC; 3500-3900 m P. elongata Hedw.; CO, VE, EC; 1450-3450 m P. /ongicollis (Hedw.) Lindb.; VE; 3100-3250 m

/


1999]

P. P. P. P.

PARAMOS

papillosa (A.Jaeger) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 2200-4045 m richardsii A.J.Shaw; CR; 3100 m schisticola (Müll.Hal.) Broth.; PE; 2700-3100 m wahlenbergii (F.Weber & D.Mohr) A.L.Andrews; CO, VE, EC; 2900-4045 m

Rhodob1yum Hampe R. beyrichianum (Homsch.) Müll.Hal.; VE; 1300-3600 m R. grandifolium (Tay1or) Schimp.; CO, VE, EC; 1300-4000 m R. perspinidens (Broth.) Pócs; CO; 3220-3780 m R. procerum (Besch.) París; CO, VE, EC; 2900-3700 m R. roseodens (Mü1l.Hal.) Paris; CO, VE; 3350-4000 m Schizymenium Harv. S. andinum (Sull.) A.J.Shaw; VE; 2500-4000 m S. bogotense (Hampe) A.J.Shaw; CO, EC; 2700-3800 m S. campylocarpum (Hook. & Amott) A.J.Shaw; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3300-4100 m S. fusiferum (Mítt.) A.J.Shaw; CO, EC; 2925-3800 m S. gracilisetum (Hampe) A.J.Shaw; CO, VE; 2200-3600 m S. lindigii (Hampe) A.J.Shaw; CO, EC; 2600-3700 m S. linearicaulis (Mü1l.Hal.) A.J.Shaw; EC; 3910 m S. lonchocarpum (Hook. & Amott) A.J.Shaw; VE; 3390 m S. nanum Tay1or; EC; 4115-4570 m . S. pseudopohlia A.J.Shaw; CO, VE, EC; 2900-3800 m S. pusillum (Hook.f. & Wilson) A.J.Shaw; VE; 3100-3600 m

CALLICOSTACEAE Callicostellopsis Broth. C. meridensis (Mü11.Hal.) Broth.; VE; 3400-3620 m Cyclodicyton Mítt. C. roridum (Hampe) Kuntze; CO, EC; 1950-3950 m Lepidopilum (Bríd.) Brid. L. longifolium Hampe; CO, VE, EC; 1790-3700 m Trachyxiphium W.R.Buck T. steerei (D.G.Griffin) S.P.Churchill; VE, CO; 3500-3755 m

CATAGONIACEAE Catagonium Mü11.Hal. C. brevicaudatum Müii.Hal. ex Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 27004250 m

CRYPHAEACEAE Crypháea D.Mohr C.fasciculosa Mitt.; VE; 2900-3600 m C. jamesonii Taylor; VE, EC; 1850-3900 m C. patens Homsch.; CO, EC; 1520-3700 m C. pilifera Mítt.; CO, VE, EC; 1800-3500 m Dendrocryphaea París & Schimp. ex Broth. D. latifolia D.G.Gríffin, Gradst. & J.Aguirre; CO; 30803400m

57

DALTONIACEAE Daltonia Hook. & Tay1or Re f.: Bartram, 1931. D. bilimbata Hampe; CO, VE, EC; 2000-4100 m D. brevinervis E.B.Bartram; CO; 3300 m D.fenestrellata D.G.Griffin; CO; 3350 m D. gracilis Mítt.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2100-4200 m D. jamesonii Taylor; CO, EC; 3000-4260 m D. latolimbata Broth.; VE; 2900-3500 m D. lindigiana Hampe; CR, CO, EC; 2620-4000 m D. longifolia Tay1or; CO?, EC; 1540-4080 m D. peruviana Mitt.; VE, EC; 3400-4100 m D. pulvinata Mitt.; CR, CO, EC; 1800-4200 m D. stenophylla Mitt.; CO, EC; 3000-3850 m D. tenuifolia Mitt.; CO?, EC; 2050-3500 m D. t1'achyodonta Mítt.; VE, EC; 3400-4000 m Leskeodon Broth. L. andicola (Mitt.) Broth.; CO, EC; 310-3730 m

DICRANACEAE Ref.: Frahm, 1991.

Aongstroemia Bruch & Schimp . A.julacea (Hook.) Mitt.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3000-4600 m A. orientalis Mítt.; VE; 2900-3800 m Campylopus Bríd. C. albidovirens Herzog; CO, VE, EC; 2500-4000 m C. amboroensis Thér.; VE?, CO; 3575-4300 m C. anderssonii (Müll.Hal.) A.Jaeger; CO; 3260-4100 m C. arctocarpus (Homsch.) Mítt.; CO, VE?, EC; 2200-3700 m C. areodictyon (Mü11.Hal.) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2900-3950 m C. argyrocaulon (Mü11.Hal.) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 30004000 m C. asperifolius Mítt.; CO, VE, EC; 2000-3350 m C. bryotropii J.-P.Frahm; VE, CO; 3500-3730 m C. capitulatus E.B.Bartram; VE, EC; 2000-3950 m C. cavifolius Mitt.; CO, VE?, EC; 3240-4300 m C. cleefii J.-P.Frahm; CO; 3300-4400 m C. densicoma (Müll.Hal.) París; VE, CO; 2100-4250 m; includes var. densicoma and var.yungarum (Herzog) J.P.Frahm C. dicnemioides (Mü11.Hal.) París [syn.: C. cucullatifolius Herzog, C. cuspidatus (Homsch.) Mitt. var. dicnemioides (Mü11.Hal.) J.-P.Frahm]; CO, VE, EC; 2450-3950 m C. edithae Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 3600-4100 m C. flexuosus (Hedw.) Brid.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2850-3950 m; íncludes var..flexuosus and var. incacorralis (Herzog) J.-P.Frahm C. fragilis (Bríd.) Bruch & Schimp. var. fragilis; CR, CO, VE?, EC; 1550-4000 m C. heterostachys (Hampe) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 16404300m C. huallagensis Broth.; CO, EC; 1800-4100 m C. incertus Thér.; CO, VE, EC; 2800-3850 m C.jamesonii (Hook.) A.Jaeger; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2180-4000 m


58

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

C.jugorum Herzog; CO; 3100-4235 m C. lamellinervis (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. var. /amellinervis; CO;

3300-3520 m C. longicel/ularis J.-P.Frahm; VE?, CO; 2970-3830 m C. nivalis (Brid.) Brid.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2500-4800 m; includes var. multicapsularis (Mü1l.Hal.) J.-P.Frahm and var. nivalis C. oblongus Thér.; VE, CO; 2900-3200 m C. pauper (Hampe) Mitt. var. pauper; CO, EC; 2200-3400 m C. perexilis (Müll.Hal.) Paris; CO; 3750 m C. pilifer Brid. var. pilifer; CO?, VE, EC; 1500-4000 m C. pittieri R.S.Williams; CO, VE, EC; 2500-4200 m C. rejlexisetus (Müll.Hal.) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 2600-3690 m C. richardíi Brid.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 600-3910 m C. sharpii J.-P.Frahm, D.G.Horton & Vitt; CO, EC; 31Q03570 m C. subcuspidatus (Hampe) A.Jaeger; CO, EC; 3650-3850 m C. subjugorum Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 3050-4250 m C. thysanomitrioides Thér.; VE; 3600-3750 m C. trichophylloides Thér.; CO, EC; 3850-4700 m C. trivialis Mü11.Hal. ex E.Britton; CO, EC; 1600-4300 m Chorisodontíum (Mitt.) Broth.

Ref.: Frahm, 1989. C. mittenií (Müli.Hal.) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 2100-3750 m C. wallisii (Müli.Hal.) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 2340-4050 m; includes var. speciosum (Hook.f. & Wilson) Broth. and var. wallisii Dicranella (Müll.Hal.) Schimp. [Note: Includes Anisothecíum Mitt.] D. campylophyllum (Tay1or) A.Jaeger [syn.: Cheilothela vaginata H.Rob.; D. cardotii (R.Br. ter.) Dixon]; CO,

VE, EC; 2940-4400 m D. hookeri (Müli.Hal.) Cardot; CO, VE, EC; 2240-4100 m D. vaginatum (Hook.) Cardot; CO, EC; 2700-3950 m Dicranodontíum Bruch & Schim¡i. D. pulchroalare Broth. (syn.: D. meridiana/e E.B.Bartram);

CO; 2660-3500 m Dicranoweisia Lindb. ex Milde D.fastigiata (Mitt.) Paris; EC; 3000-4410 m Dicranum Hedw. D.frigídum Müli.Hal.; CR, CO, VE 1 EC; 1600-3800 m D. peruvianum H.Rob.; CO, EC, PE?; 3200-3800 m Holodontíum (Mitt.) Broth. H. strictum (Hook.f. & Wilson) Ochyra [syn.: H. inerme

[VOL. 84

Kingiobryum H.Rob. K. paramicola H.Rob.; VE, CO; 3490-4200 m Metzleria Schimp. ex Milde (syn.: Atracty/ocarpus Mitt.) M. longiseta (Hook.) Broth.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2000-4300 m Oreoweisia (Bruch, Schimp. & W.Gümbel) De Not.

Ref.: Griffin, 1986. O. O. O. O.

brasiliensís Hampe;VE, CO; 2600-3200 m erosa (Müll.Hal.) Kindb.; CO, VE, EC; 2600-4500 m laxiretís Broth. ex Herzog; VE; 3390 m tunariensís Herzog; VE, PE; 3100-3900 m

Pilopogon Brid. P.- guade!oupensis (Brid.) J.-P.Frahm; CR, CO, VE, EC;

1440-4400 m P. laevis (Taylor) Thér.; CO, VE, EC; 3200-4410 m P. macrocarpus Broth.; CO; 2700-3500 m Rhabdoweisia Bruch & Schimp. R.fugax(Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.; CR, CO,EC; 2200-3600 m Sphaerothecíum Hampe S. phascoides Thér.; CO; 2770-3400 m Symblepharís Mont. S. fragilis Mitt.; EC; 2770-4000 m S. líndigií Hampe; CO, EC; 2500-3750 m S. vaginata (Hook.) Wijk & Margad.; EC; 1850-3690 m

DITRICHACEAE Ceratodon Brid. C. stenocarpus Bruch & Schimp.; CR, CO, VE, PE; 2400-

3900 m Chrysoblastella R.S.Williams C. chilensís (Mont.) Reimers; VE, CO, EC; 2900-4200 m Distichum Bruch & Schimp., nom. cons. D. capillaceum (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.; CO, VE, EC;

3500-4280 m Ditrichum Hampe, nom. cons. D. erina/e (Tay1or) Kuntze; CO, VE, EC; 2700-4300 m D. gracile (Mitt.) Kuntze; CO, EC; 3000-4350 m D. rufescens (Hampe) Hampe; CO, VE, EC; 2000-3700 m D. submersum Cardot & Herzog; CO; 3600-3800 m D. bogotense (Hampe) Broth. (syn.: D. venezuelanum

D.G.Griffin); VE, CO; 3100-3240 m

(Mitt.) Broth.]; EC; 4200 m Holomitrium Brid. H. arboreum Mitt.; CO, EC; 500-3500 m H.jlexuosum Mitt.; CO, EC; 1800-3500 m H. pulchellum Mitt.; CR, CO, EC; 2460-4000 m Hygrodicranum Cardo! H. bo!ivíanum Herzog; EC; 3900-4100 m

Pleurídium Rabenh. P. andínum Herzog; VE; 3500 m P. lindígianíum (Hampe) S.P.Churchill; CO; 2500-3200 m P. venezuelanum D.G.Griffin; VE; 3800 m Trístichíum Müll.Hal. T. lorentzií Herzog; CO; 4130 m T. mirabile (Müll.Hal.) Herzog; CR, CO, VE; 3300-3600 m


1999]

PARAMOS

ENCALYPTACEAE

59

GRIMMIACEAE

EUSTICHIACEAE

Grimmia Redw. G. donniana Sm.; EC; 4650 m G.fuscolutea Rook.; VE, EC; 3960--4650 m G. /ongirostris Rook.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2800-4400 m [Note: G. affinis Romsch. and G. ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb. ofreports.] G. navicularis Rerzog; CO, VE, EC; 3850-5300 m G. ova lis (Hedw.) Lindb.; CR, VE, EC; 3100--4060 m G. pansa R.S.Williams; CO, VE, EC; 3200--4400 m G. trichophylla Grev.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 2900-3900 m

Diplostichum Mont. (syn.: Eustichia Broth.) D. longirostre (Brid.) Brid.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2200--4030 m

Ptychomitrium Fürnr. P. chimborazense (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; VE, EC?; 2615-3200 m

FABRONIACEAE

Racomitrium Brid. R. brachypus Mü1l.Ral.; EC; 3700 m R. crispipilum (Tay1or) A.Jaeger; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2600--4500 m R. cucullatifolium Rampe; VE, CO, EC; 2400-3885 m R. dichelymoides Herzog; CO; 1500-3800 m R. lanuginosum (Hedw.) Brid.; CO, EC, PE; 3000--4200 m R. steerei D.G.Griffin; VE; 3370-3750 m

Encá!ypta Hedw. E. asperifolia Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 3600--431 O m E. ciliata Hedw.; CO, EC; 3080--4200 m

ENTODONTACEAE Entodon Müll.Hal. E.jamesonii (Taylor) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3500 m

Fabronia Raddi F. ciliaris (Brid.) Brid. var. wrightii (Su!!.) W.R.Buck; EC; 1800-3500 m F. jamesonii Taylor; VE; 3100-3200 m

FISSIDENTACEAE Fissidens Í-!edw. F. crispus Mont. (syn.: F. repandus Wilson ex Mitt.); CO, F. F. F. F.

EC; 200-3500 m curvcllus Homsch. (syn.: F. milobakeri L.F.Koch); VE; 2900-3500 m rigidulus Hook.f. & Wilson; CO, VE, EC; 2200--4100 m serrulatus Müll.Ral. var. leptochaete (Dusén) Brugg.Nann. & Pursell; EC; 3700 m wallisii Müll.Ral.; CO; 2200-3700 m

Schistidium Brid. S. angustifolium (Mitt.) Herzog; EC; >4000 m S. apocarpum (Redw.) Bruch & Schimp.; CO, VE, EC; 2900-3890 m S. rivulare (Brid.) Podp.; CO, VE, EC; 3530--4000 m; ineludes subsp. /atifolium (Brid.) Podp. in EC and subsp. rivulare

HEDWIGIACEAE FONTINALIACEAE Fontinalis Redw. F. bogotensis Hampe; CO; 2000-3700 m

FUNARIACEAE Entosthodon Schwiigr. Ref.: Fife, 1987. E. bonplandii (Hook.) Mitt.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1545-3690 m E.jamesonii (Taylor) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2200--4200 m E. /aevis (Mitt.) Fife; EC; 2000-3900 m E. /axus (Wilson & Hook.f) Mitt.; VE, EC; 3400--4100 m E. lindigii (Rampe) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2500-3690 m E. mathewsii Hook.f.; EC; 3385 m E. obtusifolius Rook.f.; VE; 1850-3500 m E. radians (Redw.) Müll.Ral. [syn.: E. acaulis (Hampe) Fife]; VE, EC; 1900-3310 m Funaria Redw. F. ca!vescens Schwiigr.; CR, CO, EC; 1000-3 750 m F. hygrometrica Redw.; CO, VE; 2900--4400 m F. macrospora R.S.Williams; VE; 4000 m F. microstoma Bruch ex Schimp.; VE; 2900-3300 m

Braunia Bruch & Schimp. B. cirrhifolia (Wilson) A.Jaeger; EC; 3000-3300 m B. diaphana (Müll.Ral.) A.Jaeger [syn.: B. plicata (Mitt.) A.Jaeger]; EC; 3200-3300 m B. /axifolia Rerzog; VE; 3100-3200 m B. nephelogenes DeLuna & W.R.Buck; EC; 3600-3755 m B. secunda (Rook.) Bruch & Schimp.; VE, EC; 3100--4150 m Hedwigia P.Beauv. H. ciliata (Redw.) P.Beauv.; CO, VE, EC; 1800-3690 m Hedwigidium Bruch & Schimp. H. integrifolium (P.Beauv.) Díxon; CR, CO, VE, EC; 24204150 m

HYLOCOMIACEAE Loeskeobryum M.Fieísch. ex Broth. L. giganteum (E.B.Bartram) J.R.Rohrer; CO; 3570 m Pleurozium Mitt. P. schreberi (Brid.) Mitt.; CO, VE?, EC; 2650--4200 m


60

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Rhytidium (Sull.) Kindb. R. rugosum (Hedw.) Kindb.; VE; 3100 m

HYPNACEAE Cariobaeohypnum Ando & Higuchi C. po/ypterum (Mitt.) Ando & Higuchi [syn.: Hypnum polypterum (Mitt.) Broth.]; CO, VE, EC;2800-3500 m Ctenidium (Schimp.) Mitt. C. malacodes Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1700-4000 m Herzogiel/a Broth. H cy/indricarpa (Cardot) Z.lwats.; CO, VE, EC; 2600-4100 m Hypnum Hedw., noin. cons. H. amabi]e (Mitt.) Hampe; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1850-3750 m H. cupressiforme Hedw.; CO, VE, EC; 2900-4100 m; ineludes var.lacunosum (Brid.) Bertsch. and var. cupressiformein CO

MACROMITRÍACEAE Macrocoma (Mü11.Hal.) Grout M. tenue (Hook. & Grev.) Vitt subsp. sullivantii (Mü1l.Hal.) Vitt; VE, EC; 1400-3300 m Macromitrium Brid. M. aureum Mü11.Hal.; CO, EC; 2460-3750 m M. cirrosum (Hedw.) Brid.; CR, CO, EC; 520-4200 m M. drewii H.Rob.; EC; 3750-3850 m M.fiiscoaureum E.B.Bartram; CO, VE, EC; 1850-3385 m M. guatemalense Mü11.Hal. (syn.: M. serrulatum Mitt.); CO, VE, EC; 1940-3750 m M. longifolium (Hook.) Brid.; CO, VE, EC; 1800-4220 m M ob/ongum (Tay1or) Mitt.; EC; 3100 m · Ú. perrejlexum Steere; EC; 2750-3700 m M. punctatum (Hook. & Grev.) Brid.; EC; 300-3300 m ·M. subcirrosum Müll.Hal.; CO; 1840-3550 m M. subcrenulatum Broth.; EC; 3200-3600 m M. trachypodium Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1800-3630 m M. ulophyllum Mitt.; CO, EC; 2000-3600 m

Mittenothamnium Henn., nom. cons. M. /ehmannii (Besch.) Cardot; CR; 1300-3500 m M. reptans (Hedw.) Cardot; CO, VE, EC; 975-3400 m Pseudotaxiphyllum Z.Iwats. P. distichaceum (Mitt.) Z.Iwats.; CO, VE; 3700 m

[VOL. 84

MEESIACEAE Meesia Hedw. M. longiseta Hedw.; CO, EC; 2300-3800 m M. triquetra (Hedw.) Angstr.; VE; 3500 m

Pylaisiel/a Kindb. ex Grout P.fa/cata (Schimp.) Ando; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2460-4000 m

METEORIACEAE Lindigia Hampe

HYPOPTERYGIACEAE Hypopterygium Brid. H. tamarisci (Sw.) Brid. ex Müll.Hal.; VE, EC; 900-3300 m

L. debi/is (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2580-3400 m

Meteorium (Brid.) Dozy & Mo1k. M. sinuatum (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. (syn.: M. il/ecebrum Sul1.); CO, VE, EC; 1000-3775 m

LEPYRODONTACEAE Lepyrodon Hampe L. tomentosus (Hook.) Mitt.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 29004300 m

LESKEACEAE Leskea Hedw. L. angustata Tay1or; Vp, EC; 2155-3500 m L. teretiuscu/a Mitt.; EC; 2460-3385 m Leskeadelphus Herzog L. bolivianus (E.Britton) W.R.Buck; CO, EC; 2300-3500 m

LEUCODONTACEAE Leucodon Schwagr. L. curvirostris Hampe; CR, VE, CO; 2600-3600 m

Papillaria (Müll.Hal.) Mü11.Hal. P. deppei (Homsch.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE; 1030-3500 m P. impon de rosa (Taylor) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 130-3100 m P. penici/lata (Dozy & Molk.) Broth.; VE; 1300-3000 m Pilotrichella (Müll.Hal.) Besch. P. jlexilis (Hedw.) Ángstr.; CO, VE, EC; 1725-3550 m P. quitensjs (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; EC; 2850-3500 m Squamidium (Müll.Hal.) Broth. S. /eucotrichum (Taylor) Broth.; CR, CO, VE?, EC; 6003800m S. nigricans (Hook.) Broth.; CO, EC; 750-3500 m Zelometeorium Manuel Z. patulum (Hedw.) Manuel; VE; 20-3200 m

MNIACEAE LEUCOMIACEAE Rhychostegiopsis Mü1l.Hal. R. tunguraguana (Mitt.) Broth.; CO, EC; 2600-3450 m

Plagiomnium T.J.Kop. P. rhynchophorum (Hook.) T.J.Kop.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 5003850m


1999]

PARAMOS

NECKERACEAE Neckera Hedw. andina Mitt.; EC; 3500 m chilensis Schimp. ex Mont.; CO, VE, EC; 1680-4100 m ehrenbergiiMüll.Hal.; CO, EC; 3100-4100 m obtusifolius Taylor; CO, VE, EC; 2000-4000 m scabridens Müll.Hal.; CO, EC; 1700-3750 m

N. N. N. N. N.

ORTHOTRICHACEAE Amphidium Schimp., nom. cons. A. tortuosum (Hornsch.) Cufod. [syn.: A. cyathicarpum (Mont.) Broth.]; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4100 m Orthotrichum Hedw. Ref.: Lewinsky, 1984, 1987. O. aequatoreum Mitt.; VE, EC; 2200-3800 m O. elongatum Taylor; CO, VE, EC; 2560-4050 m O. latimarginatum Lewinsky; EC; 3780 m O. laxifolium Wilson; VE, EC; 2900-3690 m O. mandonii Schimp. ex Hampe; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4120 m O. pallens Brid.; VE; 3100-3300 m O. pariatum Mitt.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2590-4000 m O. penicillatum Mitt.; CO, VE; 2700-4000 m O. pungens Mitt.; EC; 2600-4000 m O. pycnophyllum Schimp.; CO, VE, EC; 2200-4100 m; ineludes var. pycnophyllum and var. verrucosum Lewinsky O. rupestre Schleich. ex Schwagr.; VE, EC; 3200-4210 m O. steerei Lewinsky; CO, VE, EC; 3200-3750 m O. subulatum Mitt.; EC; 3100-3200 m O. trachymitrium Mitt.; EC; 3500 m Zygodon Hook. & Taylor Ref.: Griffin, 1990b; Malta, 1926. Z. altarensis Broth.; EC; 4000-4200 m Z. campylophyllus Müll.Hal.; CO; 3550 m Z. ehrenbergii Müll.Hal.; CO, EC; 2000-3500 m Z.fasciculatus Mitt.; EC; 3000-4100 m Z.fi'agilis H.Rob.; CO, VE, EC; 3220-4200 m ,z. goudotii Hampe; VE; 2700-3800 m Z. liebmannii Schimp.; CR, EC; 3200-3750 m Z. longicel/ularis D.G.Griffin; VE; 3600-3750 m Z. nivalis Hampe; CO, EC; 3300-4050 m Z. oeneus Herzog; VE; 3200 m Z. peruvianus Sull.; CO, VE, EC; 2460-4230 m Z. petrophilus R.S.Williams; VE; 2900-3300 m Z. pichinchensis (Taylor) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 3300-451 Om Z. quitensis Mitt. var. integrifolius Malta; EC; 4000-4200 m Z. reinwardtii (Hornsch.) Braun; CR, CO, VE, EC; 19403750m Z. rufescens (Hampe) Broth.; VE; 2900-3600 m Z. sordidus Müll.Hal.; VE; 2900-3300 m Z. squarrosus (Taylor) Müll.Hal.; CO, EC; 3000-4200 m Z. stenocarpus Taylor; CO, EC; 3200-4100 m; includes var. !inearifolius (Mitt.) Malta and var. stenocarpus Z. subsquarrosus Broth.; EC; 3810-4000 m Z. venezuelensis D.G.Griffin; VE; 3700 m

61

PHYLLOGONIACEAE Phyllogonium Brid. P. fu/gens (Hedw.) Brid.; CO, EC; 500-4200 m P. viscosum (P.Beauv.) Mitt.; CO, EC; 1000-3500 m

PLAGIOTHECIACEAE Plagiothecium Bruch & Schimp. P. conostegium Herzog; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4040 m P. drepanophyllum Renau1d & Cardot; CO, VE; 2500--3740 m P. lucidum (Hook.f. & Wilson) Paris; CO, VE, EC; 20004120m P. novo-granatense (Hampe) Mitt.; CO, EC; 2600-3700 m

POLYTRICHACEAE Notoligotrichum G.L.Sm. N. trichodon (Hook.f. & Wilson) G.L.Sm.; CO, EC; 40004200 m 0/igotrichum Lam. & A.DC. O. erosum (Hampe) Lindb.; CO?, EC; 2600-3400 m Pogonatum P.Beauv. Ref.: Hyviinen, 1989. P. campy/ocarpum (Müll.Hal.) Mitt.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1400-4000 m P. neglectum (Hampe) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC?; 1900--3600 m P. perichaetiale (Mont.) A.Jaeger var. oligodus (Müll.Hal.) Hyviinen; CO, VE, EC; 1700-4180 m P. procerum (Lindb.) Schimp.; EC; 3600 m Polytrichadelphus (Müll.Hal.) Mitt. P. aristatus (Hampe) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1140-4200 m P. ciliatus (Hook.f. & Wilson) Mitt.; CO, VE; 2500--3500 m P. costaricensis E.B.Bartram; CR; ? m P. giganteus (Hook.) Mitt.; CO; 3500 m P. /ongisetus (Hook.) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1440-4080 m P. purpureus Mitt.; CO, EC; 3000-3900 m Polytrichastrum G.L.Sm. P. alpiniforme (Cardot) G.L.Sm.; CR, EC; 3500-4120 m P. tenel/um (Müll.Hal.) G.L.Sm.; CO, VE; 2800-4100 m Polytrichum Hedw. P. ericoides Hampe; CO, EC?; 1500-3450 m P.juniperinum Hedw.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 800-4680 m

POTTIACEAE Ref.: Zander, 1993.

Alonia Kindb. A. rigida (Hedw.) Limpr.; EC; 3385 m Aloinella Cardot A. cucullatifolia (Müll.Hal.) Broth.; EC; 3690 m A. cucul/ifera (Mü1l.Hal.) Steere; EC; 3385-4310 m A. venezue/ana D.G.Griffin; VE; 3800-4000 m


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MEMOIRS OF TRE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

L. longicau/e Mitt.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2350-4600 m; ineludes var. /ongicaule and microruncinatum (Dusén·)

Anoectangium Schwagr. A. aestivum Redw. [syn.: A. euchloron (Schwagr.) Mitt.];

R.R.Zander

CO, VE, EC; 1120-4030 m Barbula Redw., nom. cons. B. appressifolia (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; CO; 4100 m B. costa/a (Mitt.) A.Jaeger; EC; 2200-4100 m B. glaucescens Rampe; CO, EC; 3200-4000 m B. vulcanica Lorentz; EC; 2770-3690 m Bellibarbula P.C.Chen B. recurva (Gdff.) R.R.Zander [syn.: B¡yoerythrophyllum recurvum (Griff.) K.Saito]; VE; 3200 m Bryoerythrophyllum ~.C.Chen B. bolivianum (Mü1l.Ral.) R.R.Zander; EC; 3690 m B. campylocarpum .(Müli.Ral.) R.A.Crum; CO, VE, EC;

2100-3500 m B. inaequalifolium (Tay1or) R.R.Zander; CO, VE, EC; 3000-

4300 m B.jamesonii (Tay1or) R.A.Crum; CO, VE, EC; 1400-4300 m Didymodon Redw. D. australasiae (Roo k. & Grev.) R.R.Zander; CO, VE, EC;

1650-4300 m D. inundatus (Mitt.) Broth.; EC; 3570 m D. laevigatus (Mitt.) R.R.Zander; CO, VE, EC; 2400-4350 m D. nigrescens (Mitt.) Saito (syn.: Barbula brunneola Müli.Ral.); CR; 3491 m D. rigidulus Redw.; VE, EC; 1700-4300 m; includes var. gracilis (Schleich. ex Roo k. & Grev.) R.R.Zander in VE, and var. icmadophila (Schimp. ex Mü1l.Ral.) R.R.Zander and var. rigidulus in EC D. taylori R.R.Zander; EC; 2400-3385 m D. umbrosus (Müll.Ral.) R.R.Zander [syn.: D. australasiae (Roo k. & Grev.) R.R.Zander var. umbrosus (Müii.Ral.) R.R.Zander]; VE; 2000-3300 m D. vinea/is (Brid.) R.R.Zander; VE; 1660-3600 m Erythrophyllastrum R.R.Zander E. andina (Sull.) R.R.Zander; CO, EC; 3600-4200 m Hennediella Paris H. bellii (E.B.Bartram) R.R.Zander; EC; 3110-3260 m H. denticulata (Wilson) R.R.Zander; EC; 3080-3090 m H. limbata (Mitt.) R.R.Zander; EC; 2200-4100 m Hymenostylium Brid. H. recurvirostrum (Redw.) Dixon; VE, CO; 950-4100 m Leptodontium (Müll.Ral.) Rampe ex Lindb.

Ref: Zander, 1972. L. araucarietii (Müli.Ral.) Paris; EC; 2100-4100 m L. brachyphyllum Broth. & Thér.; CO, VE, EC; 2650-4100 m L. capitu/igerum Müll.Ral.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2200-4100 m L. erythroneuron Rerzog; CO, VE, EC; 3500-4050 m L.jlexifolium (Dicks. ex With.) Rampe; CR, CO, VE, EC;

2400-4525 m

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L. luteum (Taylor) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2420-4000 m L. planifolium Rerzog; CO, EC; 3300-3700 m L. proliferum Rerzog; CO; 3500 m , L. pungens (Mitt.) Kindb.; CO, VE, EC; 2265-5300 m L. stellaticuspis E.B.Bartram; CO; VE, EC; 3500-4470 m L. stoloniferum R.R.Zander; CR, CO, EC; 3450-3600 m L. subintegrifolium Thér. ex Rerzóg; EC; 4250 m L. syntrichioides (Müii.Ral.) Kindb.; CO, EC; 3080-3700 m L. viticulosoides (P.Beauv.) Wijk & Margad.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1800-4000 m; includes var. exasperatum (Cardo!) R.R.Zander, var. sulphureum (Lorentz) R.R.Zander, and var. viticulosoides L. wallisii (Müli.Ral.) Kindb.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3000-4270 m Mironia R.R.Zander [syn.: Morinia Cardo! (1910) nom. illeg., non A.Berl. & Bres. (1889)] M. ehrenbergiana (Müii.Ral.) R.R.Zander; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2700-4350 m; includes var. ehrenbergiana and var. elongata (Wi1son) R.R.Zander

.

Molendoa Lindb. M. andina (Mitt.) Broth.; EC; 3080 m Pseudocrossidium R.S.Williams P. excavatum (Mitt.) R.S.Williams; EC; 2700-3900 m P. replicatum (Tay1or) R.H.Zander; CO, VE, EC; 1030-4200 m Pseudosymblepharis Broth. P. schimperiana (París) R.A.Crum; CO, O:C; 1000-4000 m Sagenotortula R.R.Zander (syn.: Tortula p.p.) S. quitoensis (Taylor) R.R.Zander; CO, EC; 2500-4100 m Streptopogon Wilson S. calymperes Müli.Ral. ex Geh.; CO, VE, EC; 1000-4000 m S. erythrodontus (Spruce) Spruce ex Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1300-3900m Syntrichia Brid. (syn.: Tortu/a p.p.) S. aculeata (Wi1son) R.R.Zander; EC; 3810-4570 m S. amphidiacea (Müli.Ral.) R.R.Zander; VE, EC; 22003500m S. andicola (Mont.) Ochyra; CO, VE, EC; 3300-4340 m S. bogotensis (Rampe) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2460-3950 m S.fragilis (Tay1or) Ochyra; CO, VE, EC; 2000-3690 m S. percarnosa (Müli.Ral.) Broth.; CO; 3520-4350 m S. pichinchensis (Taylor) R.R.Zander; CO, EC; 2700-4200 m S. princeps (DeNot.) Mitt.; EC; 4170 m S. ruralis (Redw.) F. Weber & Mohr; EC; 3700-4120 m Trichostomum Bruch T. aequatoriale Spruce ex Dixon; EC; 1830-4480 m T. brachydontium Bruch; CR, CO, VE, EC; 740-4000 m T. tenuirostris (Rook. & Taylor) Lindb.; CO, VE?, EC; 180-

3780m


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63

PRIONODONTACEAE

SPHAGNACEAE

Prionodon Müll.Hal. P. densus (Hedw.) Müll.Hal.; CO, VE, EC; 1450--4000 m P.fusco-lutescens Hampe; CO, VE, EC; 1750-3720 m

Sphagnum L. S. azuayense H.A.Crum; EC; 3350 m S. bals/evii H.A.Crum; EC; 2430-3630 m S. barclayae H.A.Crum; EC; 3750 m S. boyacanum H.A.Crum; CO; 3400 m S. cleefii H.A.Crum; CO; 3390 m S. compactum DC.; CO, VE; 1900-3600 m S. cundinamarcanum H.A.Crum; CO; 3300 m S. curvatulum H.A.Crum; CO, EC, 3050-3700 m S. cuspidatum Ehrh.; CR, CO, EC; 2500-3800 m S. cyclophyllum Su!!. & Lesq.; CO; 3375-3650 m S. incommodum H.A.Crum; EC; 2550-3450 m S. /aegaardii H.A.Crum; EC; 3900 m S. /ewisii H.A.Crum; CO; 3100 m S. limbatum Mitt.; CO, VE; 1680--4030 m S. maegdefraui H.Suzuki; VE; 3350 m S. magel/anicum Brid.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1500-3980 m S. meridense (Hampe) Müll.Hal.; CO, VE, EC; 1220--3600 m S. oxyphyllum Wamst.; CO; 1400-3340 m S. pulchricoma Müll.Hal.; EC; 2800-3000 m S. pylaesii Brid.; EC; 3870 m S. recurvum P.Beauv. var. recurvum; CO; 1725-3800 m S. rio-negrense H.A.Crum; CO; 3350-3375 m S. sanctojosephense H.A.Crum & Crosby; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2200--4020 m S. sparsum Hampe; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1340-3800 m S. subsecundum Nees var. rufescens (Nees & Hornsch.) Hüb.; CR, CO, EC; 1400-3500 m S. sumapazense H.A.Crum; CO; 3500-3650 m S. tenerum Su11. & Lesq. ex Sull.; CO; 2460-3600 m

RACOPILACEAE Racopilum P.Beauv. R. intermedium Hampe; VE; 1800-3100 m R. tomentosum (Hedw.) Brid.; CR, CO; 245-3500 m

RHACOCARPACEAE Rhacocarpus Lindb. R. purpurascens (Brid.) Paris; CR, CO, VE, EC; 600--4200 m

RHIZOGONIACEAE Leptotheca Schwagr. L. boliviana Herzog; CO, EC; 1840-3700 m Pyrrhobryum Mitt. P. mnioides (Hook.) Manuel; CR, CO, VE; 2750-3670 m Rhizogonium Brid. R. novae-hollandiae (Brid.) Brid. [syn.: R. lindigii (Hampe) Mitt.]; CO, VE; 1500-3720 m

.RIGODIACEAE Rigodium Kunze ex Schwagr. R. toxarion (Schwagr.) A.Jaeger; CO, VE, EC; 2550--3750 m

SPLACHNACEAE

SELIGERIACEAE Blindia Bruch, Schimp. & W.Gümbel Ref.: Bartlett & Vitt, 1986. B. gradsteinii J.K.Bartlett & Vitt; CO; 4090 m B. magellanica Schimp.; CO, VE, EC; 2940--4200 m

Brachymitrion Taylor B.jamesonii Taylor; CO, VE, EC; 2770--4200 m B. moritzianum (Müll.Hal.) A.K.Kop.; CR, VE; 1780--3500 m Splachnum Hedw. S. weberbaueri Reim.; CO, VE, EC; 2500-3950 m

SEMATOPHYLLACEAE

Aptychella (Broth.) Herzog A. proligera (Broth.) Herzog; CO, VE, EC; 1800-3700 m

Tay/oria Hook. T. altorum Herzog; CO; 3400 m T. magellanica (Brid.) Mitt.; CO; 3200-3750 m T. rubricaulis A.K.Kop.; CO; 4260 m T. scabriseta (Hook.) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 2500--4340 m

Aptychopsis (Broth.) M.Fleisch. A. pycnodonta Herzog; CO; 3500 m

Tetraplodon Bruch & Schimp. T. mnioides (Hedw.) Bruch & Schimp.; CR, CO, VE, EC;

Acroporium Mitt. A. pungens (Hedw.) Broth.; CO; 80-3500 m

1800-3800 m Sematophyllum Mitt. S. aureo-sulfureum (Müli.Hal.) Broth.; CO; 2650-3690 m S. esmeraldicum (Müll.Hal.) Broth.; VE, EC; 2930-3700 m S. decumbens Mitt.; CO, EC; 1850-3800 m S. napoanum (DeNot.) Steere; CO, VE, EC; 1900--4000 m S. obliquerostratum Mitt.; EC; 3250 m S. swartzii (Schwagr.) Welch & H.A.Crum; VE; 2900--3300 m

THAMNOBRYACEAE Porotrichodendron M.F1eisch. P. nitidum (Hampe) Broth.; CO, EC; 2500-3700 m P. robustum Broth.; CO; 2340-3750 m P. superbum (Tay1or) Broth.; CO, VE, EC; 2400-3700 m


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Porotrichum (Brid.) Hampe P. lancifrons (Hampe) I.Sastre; CO, VE; 1400-3250 m P. longirostre (Hook.) Mitt.; CO, VE; 500-3200 m

THUIDIACEAE Cyrto-hypnum (Hampe) Hampe & Lorentz C. leptocladium (Taylor) W.R.Buck & H.A.Crlim; EC; 1230-3690 m Thuidium Bruch & Schimp. T. delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 10003700 m T. peruvianum Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 1840-4200 m T. phi/ibertii Limpr.; VE; 3000-3500 m T. pseudo-protensum (Müll.Hal.) Mitt.; CO, VE, EC; 22003000m

Acknowledgments Thanks are due to T. Pócs for severa! additional moss records for Venezuela and to Jesús Muñoz for data on Grimmia. A portion of this work was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (DEB-88-18051, DEB-92-01281) to the first author, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (grant to Dr. James L. Luteyn) funded a visit (for SPC) to the Smithsonian Institution.

Litera tu re Cited in Checklist of Mosses Balslev, H. & T. de Vries. 1991. Life forms and species richness in a bunch grass páramo on Mount Cotopaxi, Ecuador. Pp. 45-58. In: W. Erdelen, N. Ishwaran & P. Müller ( eds.), Tropical ecosystems. Margraf Scientific Books, Saarbrüken. Bartlett, J. K. & D. H. Vitt. 1986. A survey ofspecies in the genus B/india (Bryopsida, Seligeriaceae). New Zealand J. Bot. 24: 203-246. Bartram, E. B. 1931. A review ofthe American species of Da/tonia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 58: 31-48. - - - . 1953. Paramo mosses ofVenezuela and Colombia, collected by A. H. G. Alston. Bryologist 56: 165-168. - - - . 1964. Mosses ofCerro Antisana, Ecuadorian Andes. Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 33: 1-14. Bowers, F. D. 1970. High elevation mosses of Costa Rica. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33: 7-35. Churchill, S. P. & E. L. Linares C. 1995. Prodromus bryologiae novo-granatensis. 2 vols. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana 12: 1-924. ---,D. Griffin III & M. Lewis. 1995. Moss diversity of the tropical Andes. Pp. 335-346. In: S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero & J. L. Luteyn (eds.), Biodiversity

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and conservation of neotropical montane forests. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Cleef, A. M. 1981. The vegetation of the páramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental.Diss. Bot. 41: 1-320. Fife, A. J. 1987. Taxonomic and nomenclatura! observations on the Funariaceae. 5. A revision of the Andean species of Entosthodon. Mem. NewYork Bot. Gard. 45: 301-325. Frahm, J.-P. 1989. The genus Chorisodontium (Musci, Dicranaceae) in the Neotropics. Trop. Bryol. 1: 11-23. ~~~. 1991. Dicranaceae: Campy1opodioideae, Paraleucobryoideae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 54: 1-238. Fransén, S. 1995 [ 1996]. A taxonomic revision ofneotropical Bartramia section Vaginel/a C. Müll. Linbergia 20: 147-179. Griffin, D., III. 1979. Briófitos y líquenes de los páramos. . Pp. 79-87. In: Salgado-Labouriau (ed.), 1979a. --·- . 1986. Oreoweisia (Dicranaceae, Musci) in tropical ·: America: An annotated key to species. Cryptog. Bryol. Lichénol. 7: 433-438. -..- - . 1988. New World species of Breute!ia with erectappressed 1eafbases. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 90: 357-382. - - - . 1990a. F1oristics of the South American páramo moss flora. Trop. Bryol. 2: 127-132. - - - . 1990b. Two new pentastichous species of Zygodon from high e1evation in Venezuela. Cryptog. Bryol. Lichénol. 11: 163-168. Hyvi.inen, J. 1989. A synopsis of the genus Pogonatum (Polytrichaceae, Musci). Acta Bol. Fennica 138: 1-87. Lewinsky, J. 1984. Orthotrichum Hedw. in South America. l. Introduction and taxonomic revision oftaxa with immersed stomata. Lindbergia 10: 65-94. - - - . 1987. Orthotrichum (Orthotrichaceae) in South America. 2. Taxonomic revision of laxa with superficial stomata. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 45: 326-370. Magdefrau, K 1983. The bryophyte vegetation ofthe forests and páramos of Venezuela and Colombia. Nova Hedwigia 38: 1-63. Malta, N. 1926. The genus Zygodon Hook. et Tayl. Acta Horti Bol. Univ. Latvian 1: 1-184. McFarland, K D. 1988. Revision of Brachythecium (Musci) for Mexico, Central America, South America, Antarctica, and Circum-subantarctic Islands. Ph.D. dissertation, University ofTennessee, Knoxville. Ochi, H. 1980. A revision of the neotropica1 Bryoideae, Musci (first part). J. Fac. Educ. Tottori Univ., Na!. Sci. 29: 49-154. - - - . 1981. A revision of the neotropical Bryoideae, Musci (second part). J. Fac. Educ. Tottori Univ., Nat. Sci. 30: 21-55. Ochyra, R. 1990. Gradsteinia andicola, a remarkable aquatic moss from South America. Trop. Bryol. 3: 19-28. Robinson, H. 1967. Pre1iminary studies on the bryophytes ofColombia. Bryologist 70: 1-43. Vareschi, V. 1970. Flora de los páramos. Talleres Gráficos Universitarios, Mérida. Zander, R. H. 1972. Revision of the genus Leptodontium (Musci) in the New World. Bryologist 75: 213-280. - - - . 1993. Genera of the Pottiaceae: Mosses of harsh environments. Bu!!. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 32: 1-378. - - - & A. M. Cleef. 1982. Studies on Colombian cryptogams XVI. Taxonomy and habitat of Kingiobryum paramico/a (Dicranaceae, Musci). Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., Ser. C., 85: 627-634.


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Hepatics S. Rob Gradstein Richard Spruce, the great 19th-century explorer of the Andes and author of the classic Hepaticae Amazonícae et Andinae (Spruce, 1884--1885), was one ofthe first to collect hepatics in páramos. Surprisingly, he considered the zone quite poor in species (Spruce, 1886: 77): "La zone alpine des Andes est aussi pauvre en hépatiques que celle des Pyrenées." Spruce's negative impression ofhepatic diversity in the páramos was probably due to the fact that he visited only the rather dry, species-poor páramos of central Ecuador (Pichincha and Chimborazo provinces). His appreciation ofthe hepatic flora would undoubtedly have been different had he visited the species-rich, humid páramos of northern Ecuador, Colombia, or Venezuela. The most important hepatic collections made in páramos are those made by Antaine M. Cleef in Colombia during 1970-1972 (Gradstein, 1982, 1983, 1990; Gradstein et al., 1977; Gradstein & Hekking, 1979) and by Rudolf M. Schuster in Venezuela in 1976 (Schuster, 1978, 1978b, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1991, 1995). Other irnportant collectors include G. Wallis, H. Bischler, J. Cuatrecasas, J. Aguirre, K. Magdefrau, S. Winkler (Colombia), M. Allioni, E. Asplund, G. Harling, W. Jameson, H. Meyer (Ecuador), D. Griffin, J. Steyermark (Venezuela), G. Dauphin, N. Salazar Allen (Panama), A. M. Cleef et al., and G. Dauphin (Costa Rica). The author has collected hepatics in páramos in Costa Rica (years 1993, 1994), Colombia (years 1980, 1982, 1984, 1992), Ecuador (years 1976, 1988), and Peru (year 1982). At present 291 species of hepatics, in 88 genera and 34 families, are known from the neotropical páramos. Accepting about 1250 hepatic species in tropical America, in 189 genera (Salazar Allen et al., 1996), it appears that páramos harbar more than onefifth of the neotropical species and almost one-half ofthe genera. Taking into account the relatively small area occupied by the páramos, these figures indicate a very high diversity. Another striking feature ofthe hepatic flora ofthe páramos is the high degree of endemism. Seven genera and subgenera and about 70 species are exclusive!y known from páramos, accounting for 26.5% ofthe hepatic flora (Gradstein, 1998). The principal hepatic groups of the páramos are listed in Table IV. It appears that almost four-fifths of the neotropical hepatic families are represented in

the páramos; those lacking are usually small, specialized groups. Many families have only few taxa in páramos, however. It appears that the largest •mmber of species recorded per country by far have been those from Colombian páramos (230 spp.); the smallest nurnber are known from Panama (7 spp.). The relatively large area covered by páramo and the very moist climate may explain why Colombian páramos have so many species. On the other hand, Colombian páramos have also been studied more intensively than those of other countries. Therefore, the principal conclusion that can be drawn is that our knowledge of the páramo flora is very uneven and that much more collecting needs to be done to reach a reasonable leve! of understanding ofhepatic diversity in the páramos ofthe different countries. All taxa recorded at or abo ve 3200 m in the Andes and above 3000 m in Costa Rica have been included in the list ofspecies. Species occurring at lower elevations are excluded from this list unless it is stated that the record was from páramo. Elevational ranges of species are the total range ofthe taxon in the Neotropics. The information is based on the references cited at the end of the list and on herbarium specimens in SJU (records from Costa Rica), PMA (records from Panama), and U (all countries). The latter herbarium holds the largest collection ofpáramo hepatics worldwide and was a particularly rich source of information. In sorne instances it was uncertain whether the record was actually from páramo. This concerns particularly old references or old herbarium specimens, \acking details on locality or habitat. Additional fieldwork on the habitat preferences of the species is needed to help resolve these uncertainties.

CHECKLIST OF HEPATICS Anthocerotae ANTHOCEROTACEAE Phaeoceros Prosk. P. pichinchensis (Spruce) Haessel; EC; ?-3600 m


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R. columbica (Steph.) Hassel ex Gradst.; CO; 1900-3700 m R. crassicaulis (Steph.) Meenks & DeJong; CO, PE; 19003600m Megaceros Campb. R.foliacea Meenks & DeJong; EC; 4000 m Megaceros sp.; CO; ?-4000 m R. hansmeyeri (Steph.) Meenks & DeJong; CO, VE, EC; 3200-4300 m R. herzogiana (Steph.) Meenks & DeJong; CO, VE, PE; 1400-4000 m Hepaticae R. judithae Meenks & DeJong; CO, PE; 3000-3400 m R. leptophylla (Spruce) Herzog; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1000ACROBOLBACEAE 3500m R. pallida (Spruce) Meenks & DeJong; CO, EC; 1500-4100 m Acrobolbus Nees R. papillata (Gottsche) Hasse1 ex Gradst.; CO, VE; 1950A. laceratus R.M.Schust.; VE; 3140 m 3450 m [Note: The record of R. insignis Schiffn. from Colombian páramo (Winkler, 1976) is erroneous and Lethocolea Mitt. refers to R. papillata (Meenks, 1987).] L. glossophylla (Spruce) Grolle; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2400- , R. paramorum Meenks; CO; 3400-3800 m 3750 m R. parasitans (Steph.) Meenks & DeJong; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4500 m Marsupidium Mitt. R. plumaeformis (Spruce) Méenks; CO, EC, PE; 1500-3700 m M. latifolium R.M.Schust.; VE; 3100 m R. poeppigiana (L.Lehm. & Lindenb.) Hassel ex Meenks & DeJong; CO, EC, PE; 2900?-4200 m Tylimanthus Mitt. R. smaragdina Meenks & DeJong; CO, VE; 2350-3600 m T. setaceo-ciliatus Steph.; CR?, CO, EC; 2800-4000 m R. trichomanoides (Spruce) Meenks; CO, EC, PE; 29003900 m ADELANTHACEAE R. wallisii (Steph.) Gradst.; CO; 3000?-4000 m

DENDROCEROTACEAE

Adelanthus Mitt. Ref.: Grolle, 1972; Schuster, 1978a, 1978b. A. aureomarginatus R.M.Schust.; CO, VE; 2000-3500 m A. crossii Spruce; CR, CO, VE; 3000-4250 m A. decipiens (Hook) Mitt. subsp. aureocinctus R.M.Schust.; VE; 3140 m [Note: Adelanthus crossii andA. decipiens subsp. aureocinctus may be untoothed high-altitude forros of A. decipiens (Hook) Mitt.] A. lindenbergianus (F.Lehm.) Mitt.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1800-4200 m A. pittieri (Steph.) Grolle; CR, CO, VE; 2500-3500 m

ANEURACEAE Cryptothallus Malmb. Ref.: Crum & Bruce, 1997. C. hirsutus Crum; CR; 3100 m Riccardia Gray [Note: Riccardia is one of the most common hepatic genera in the neotropical páramos; the taxonomy and distribution ofthe species are still very incompletely known. The present list is largely based on Meenks, 1987. The lack ofrecords from Costa Rican páramo is an artifact; severa! (unidentified) species have been collected by the author and others.] Ref.: Meenks, 1987. R. aberrans (Steph.) Gradst.; CO, PE; 3000-3700 m R. algoides (Taylor) Meenks [syn.: R. squarrosa (Steph.) Gradst.]; CO, EC; 3000-3900 m R. capillacea (Steph.) Meenks & DeJong; CO, VE, EC?, PE; 2600-3900 m R. cilio/ata (Spruce) Gradst.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2650-3750 m

ARNELLIACEAE Gongylanthus Lindb. G. granatensis (Gottsche) Steph.; CO, PE; 2500-4050 m G. liebmannianus (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Steph.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2600-4300 m G. limbatus (Herzog) Grolle & Váiía (syn.: G. innovans S.Winkl., n.v.); CO, VE; 3100-4300 m

AYTONIACEAE Asterella P .Beauv. A. macropoda (Spruce) A.Evans; CR, CO, EC, PE; 23003700m

BALANTIOPSIDACEAE !sota chis Mitt. Ref.: Fulford, 1963. l. lacustris Herzog (syn.: Triandrophyllum maegdefraui S.Winkl., syn. nov.); CO, EC; 2500-4700 m l. lindigiana Gottsche; CO; 2300-3500 m l. lopezii (R.M.Schust.) Gradst. (syn.: Ruizanthus lopezii R.M.Schust.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3800 m [Note: Ruizanthus lopezii ( fide Gradstein 974 7, Costa Rica, Cerro de la Muerte, on bank ofPanamerican Hwy. together with R. venezuelanus, 3000 m, 29 Sep 1995, GOET) has spiraled instead of straight capsule valves. The 2-lobed leaves of this species al so indicate a c1oser relationship to Isotachis than to Ruizanthus, which has 4-lobed 1eaves. Therefore, it is herewith transferred to Isotachis, as I.lopezii (R.M.Schust.) Gradst. comb. nov.


1999]

PARAMOS

(basionym: Ruizanthus lopezii R.M.Schust., Phytologia 39: 241. 1978).] l. multiceps Gottsche; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1250-4100 m l. obtusa Steph.; VE, EC; 3200-3400 m [Note: Jsotachis lacustris and l. obtusa are characteristic species of shallow lakes and rivulets in neotropical páramos. As shown by Fulford (1963 ), the type specimens have very different leaf shapes (o vate in J. lacustris, orbicular in J. obtusa) and leaf incisions. However, additional collections made by the author and others show considerable variation and overlap in these characters, suggesting that the two may be conspecific. In the latter case, J. obtusa Steph. would be the older, hence corree! name.] l. serrulata (Sw.) Gottsche [syn.: l. haematodes (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Gottsche, l. madida (Hook. & Taylor) Mitt.]; PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 700-4450 m [Note: Jsotachis haematodes (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Gottsche and J. madida (Hook. & Taylor) Mitt. are treated as synonyms of the common, highly variable l. serrulata following Gradstein et al., 1977.] Ruizanthus R.M.Schust. [Note: See note under Jsotachis lopezii.] R. venezuelanus R.M.Schust.; CR, CO, VE; 3000-4050 m

CAL YPOGEIACEAE Calypogeia Raddi Ref.: Fulford, 1968. C. andicola Bischler; CO, EC; 800-4100 m C. cyclostipa (Spruce) Steph.; CO, PE; 1700-3600 m C. peruviana Nees & Mont.; CO, EC, PE; 500-3800 m

CEPHALOZIACEAE Cephalozia (Dumort.) Dumort. Ref.: Váiía, 1988. C. bicuspidata (L.) Dumort.; CO; 3500-3800 m C. crossii Spruce (syn.: C. dussii Fulford); CR, CO, EC, PE; 500-4100 m C. pleniceps (Austin) Lindb.; CO; 3500-3700 m Odontoschisma (Dumort.) Dumort. O. atropurpureum Steph.; CO, VE, EC; 250?-4000 m O. denudatum (Nees) Dumort.; CO, EC; 600?-3500 m

CEPHALOZIELLACEAE Cephaloziella (Spruce) Schiffn. Ref.: Fulford, 1976; Schuster, 1978b. C. divaricata (Sm.) Schiffn. (syn.: C. andina Herzog); CO, VE, EC; 3400 m C.fragillima (Spruce) Fulford; CO, VE; 3000-3330 m C. granatensis (Jack) Fulford; CR, PA, CO; 2500-4000 m C. grisea R.M.Schust.; VE; 4150 m C. pungens Steph. ex Fulford; VE; 3600 m C. stolonifera R.M.Schust.; VE; 3650 m

67

FOSSOMBRONIACEAE Austrofossombronia R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster, 1994. A. peruviana (Gottsche) R.M.Schust. (syn.: Fossombronia ptychophyl/a Spruce, n.v.); CO, EC, PE; 3600-4000 m Fossombronia Raddi [Note: Neotropical Fossombronia has not been studied critically. The present list therefore like1y contains errors in identification.] F. brasi/iensis Steph.; CO, EC; 1800-4200 m F. paranapanemae Schiffn.; CO; 3000-4250 m F. sp.; CR; 3000 m

GEOCALYCACEAE Ref.: Fulford, 1976. Campanocolea R.M.Schust. Re f.: Schuster, 1997. C. fragmentissima (R.M.Schust.) R.M.Schust. (syn.: Lophocoleafragmentissima R.M.Schust.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-4200 m Clasmatocolea Spruce Ref.: Engel, 1980. C. vermicularis (F.Lehm.) Grolle; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1500-4500 m Heteroscyphus Schiffn. H. marginatus (Steph.) Fulford; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3300? m H. polyb/epharis (Spruce) Schiffn.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 23003500m Leptoscyphus Mitt. L. amphibolius (Nees) Grolle; PA; 1000-3150 m L. cleefii Fulford; CO; 3200-4100 m L. cuneifolius (Hook.) Mitt.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2600-4400 m L.jackii (Steph.) Grolle; CO, EC; 3000-3900 m L. obcordatus (Spruce) Grolle; CO, EC; 3300-3500? m L. physocalyx (Rampe & Gottsche) Gottsche; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2000-3850 m L.porphyrius(Nees) Grolle; PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 100-4300m Lophocolea (Dumort.) Dumort. L. bidentata L. (syn.: L. coaduna/a (Sw.) Nees); PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 100-3700 m L. erosa Gradst.; CR, EC; 3200-3700 m L. granatensis Gottsche; CO, PE; 1000-3700 m L. muricata (F.Lehm.) Nees; CO, VE; 1300-3400 m L. trapezoidea Mont.; CR, CO, EC, PE; 500-4000 m P/atycaulis R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster, 1995. P. renifolia R.M.Schust.; VE; ? m Pseudocephaloziella R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster, 1991. P. epiphytica R.M.Schust.; VE; 3140 m


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTAN! CAL OARDEN

GYMNOMITRIACEAE Gyinnomitrion Corda Ref.: Schuster, 1996a; Váiía, 1976. G. andinum (Herzog) Herzog; CO, PE; 3450-4200 m G. atrofi/um Váiía; CO; 3400-4000 m G. setacewn Grolle & Váiía; CR, CO; 3000-4300 m G. truncato-apicu/atum Herzog; CR, CO; 3400-4300 m Marsupel/a Dumort. Re f.: Schuster, I 996a. M. emarginata (Ehrh.) Dumort.; CO; 3150 m M. invo/uta Váiía; CO; 3600-4300 m M. microphyl/a R.M.Schust.; VE; 4160 m M. revo/uta (Nees) Dumort.; VE; 4400-4500 m M. tro/lii Herzog; CR, CO; 3500-4400 m M. xenophyl/a R.M.Schust. [syn.: Nanomarsupella xenophyl/a (R.M.Schust.) R.M.Schust.]; VE; 4160 m Paramomitrion R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster, l996a. P. paradoxum R.M.Schust.; VE; 4160 m Stephaniel/a Jack Ref.: Schmitt & Wink1er, 1969. S. paraphyllina Jack; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2700-4500 m S. rostrata U.Schmitt; CR, CO; 3000-4300 m Stephanie/lidium S.Winkl. ex Grolle S. sleumeri (Mü1l.Frib.) S.Winkl. ex Grolle; CO; 3100-? m

HAPLOMITRIACEAE Haplomitrium Nees Ref.: Bartho1omew-Began, 1992. H. blumei Nees [syn.: H. andinum (Spruce) R.M.Schust.]; EC; 3900 m

I[VOL. 84

lombia, seems to be a synonym of Jsotachis lacustris judging from the original description and illustration.] T. subtrifidum (Hook. & Taylor) Fulford & Hatcher; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1800-4500 m

JUBULACEAE Frullania Raddi Ref.: Stot1er, 1969; Yuzawa, 1991. F. a/bertii Steph.; CO, EC; 3400-3950 m [Note: F. albertii is probably a robust, high-altitude form ofF. standaertii Steph. Both taxa are characterized by the rather large, lanceolate stylus (Yuzawa, 1991).] F. 1,1recae (Spreng.) Gottsche; CO, EC; 800-3800 m [Note: The páramo records ofF. a recae are in need ofrevision. As shown by Yuzawa (1991), the species has been confused with both F. ecklonii (Spreng.) Spreng. and F. viminicola Spruce.] F. brasiliensis Raddi; CO, EC; 200-3800 m F. convoluta Lindenb. & Hampe; P A, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1900-4000 m F. cuencensis Taylor; CO, EC; 2100-3400 m F. dusenii Steph.; CO, EC; 1600-3400 m F. holostipula Hatt. & D.G.Griffin; VE; 2600-3300 m F. lobato-hasta/a Steph.; CO; 1800-3500 m F. peruviana Gottsche; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1500-3700 m [Note: Two species of Frullania sect. Meteoriopsis are recognized in neotropical páramos: F. convoluta (with rounded to obtuse 1eafapex) andF. peruviana (with acule to short acuminate leaf apex). Both species have deep1y cordate 1eafbases with two large auricles.] F. planifolia Steph.; CR; 3000 m F. pluricarinata Gottsche; CO, EC; 1800-3350 m F. sphaerocephala Spruce; CR, CO, EC, PE; 2700-4000 m F tetraptera Nees & Mont.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100-3850 m

JUNGERMANNIACEAE HERBERTACEAE Herbertus S.Gray Ref.: van Reenen, 1982. H. acanthe/ius Spruce (syn.: H. limbatus Steph.); CR, CO, EC, PE; 2400-4350 m H. co/ombianus Reenen; CO; 3250-3750 m H.juniperoides (Sw.) Grolle; CR, PA, CO, EC, PE; 20003600m H. oblongifolius (Steph.) Gradst. & C1eef; CO; 4060 m H. subdentatus (Steph.) Fu1ford (syn.: H. subnivalis S.Winkl.); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2400-4350 m 0/gantha R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster, l996b. O. eophyl/a R.M.Schust.; EC; 4100 m Triandrophyllum Fu1ford & Hatcher [Note: Triandrophyllum maegdefraui S.Winkl., described from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Co-

Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph. Ref.: Váiía, 1980, 1984; Gradstein & Váiía, 1987. A. auritum (F.Lehm.) Steph.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 20004500 m A. austroamericanum Váiía (syn.: Marsupe/la austroamericana Váiía, nom. inval.); CO, VE; 3750-4300 m A. leucocepha!um (Tay1or) Steph.; CO, EC, PE; 2300-4250 m A. minutum (Schreb.) R.M.Schust. [syn.: A. gemmiferum S.Winkl., syn. nov.]; CO, VE; 3700-4500 m [Note: Anastrophyllum gemmiferum S.Winkl. (Type: Colombia, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, leg. S. Winkler, ULM) is treated as a synomym of A. minutunz (Schreb.) R.M.Schust., at the advice of J. Váiía (in 1itt.).] A. nigrescens (Mitt.) Steph.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 20004300m A. pearcei (Steph.) R.M.Schust.; CO, VE, PE; '?m A. stellatunz R.M.Schust. (syn.: A. gradsteinii Váiía, nom. inval.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3140-4000 m A. tubu/osum (Nees) Grolle; CO, VE, EC, PE; ? m


1999]

69

PARAMOS

Andrewsianthus R.M.Schust. A. jamesonii (Mont.) Váiía [syn.: A. kilimajaricus (S.W.Arnell) Grolle & Váiía; Lophozia incisa (Schrad.) Dumort. subsp. austrigena R.M.Schust., n.v.); CO, VE, EC, PE"; 2000-4750 m Cryptochila R.M.Schust. Ref.: Grolle, 1971. C. grandiflora (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Grolle; PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1300-4630 m Gymnocoleopsis (R.M.Schust.) R.M.Schust. G. multiflora (Steph.) R.M.Schust.; CO, VE, PE; 3500-4400 m

S. liberata Inoue; CR, CO; 3000-3900 m S. manca (Mont.) Steph.; CO, EC, PE; 3000?-3500 m

LEJEUNEACEAE Amphilejeunea R.M.Schust. Re f.: Schuster, 1986. A. patellifera (Spruce) R.M.Schust.; CR; 2500-3200 m A. viridissima R.M.Schust.; CO, VE; 3000-4150 m Anoplolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. A. conferta (Meissn.) A.Evans; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 6003700 m

Jamesoniella (Spruce) Carring Ref.: Grolle, 1971. J. autumnalis (DC.) Steph.; CO, VE; 2000-3500 m J. rubricaulis (Nees) Grolle; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1350-4300 m J. undata (Mont.) Steph.; CO, PE; 1900-4300 m

Aureolejeunea R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster, 1986, 1987. A. aurifera R.M.Schust.; CO, VE; 3500-3700 m A. paramicola (Herzog) R.M.Schust. [syn.: Aureolejeunea paramoensis R.M.Schust.; Omphalanthus paramicola (Herzog) Gradst.]; CO, VE, EC; 2000-3700 m A. quinquecarinata R.M.Schust.; CO, VE; 3000-4000 m

Jungermannia L. Ref.: Váiía, 1973, 1974. J. decolor Schiffn.; CO, PE; 500-3500 m J. hyalina Lyell; CO; 3150 m J. linguifolia Gottsche; CO, EC, PE; 2500-3600 m J. ovato-trigona (Steph.) Grolle; CO, EC, PE; 2800-4200 m J. sphaerocarpa Hook.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2000-4100 m

Blepharolejeunea R.M.Schust. Ref.: Gradstein, 1994. B. incongrua (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Van S1ageren & Kruijt; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1800-4100 m B. securifolia (Spruce) R.M.Schust.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4600 m

Lophonardia R.M.Schust. [Note: According to J. Váiía (in litt.), Lophonardia is a doubtfu1 taxon, probab1y not meriting recognition as a separate genus.] L. caespitosa R.M.Schust.; VE; 4150 m Lophozia (Dumort.) Dumort. L. incisa (Schrad.) Dumort.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 25004500m L. laxifolia (Mont.) Grolle (syn.: L. subinflata Steph.); CR, CO, VE, EC; 3000-4100 m L. stolonifera R.M.Schust.; VE; ? m L. verruculosa R.M.Schust.; VE; ca. 3150 m Nardia Gray Ref.: Enge1, 1988. N succulenta (Rich. ex F.Lehm.) Spruce; CO, EC; 800--3300 m

Brachiolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. Ref.: Van Slageren, 1985; Gradstein, 1994 B. laxifolia (Taylor) Schiff¡¡.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 15003800 m Cheilolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. [Note: Two additional species of Cheilolejeunea from the páramos ofCo1ombia were described by Schuster ( 1992). Since Latin descriptions were not provided, the names are invalid and have been omitted from the present list.] C. choachina (Gottsche) Gradst., comb. nov. [syn.: Lejeunea choachina Gottsche, Ann. Sci. Na!. Bot., Sér. 5, 1: 156. 1864; Strepsilejeunea choachina (Gottsche) Steph.]; CO; 3000-4300 m C. erostrata R.M.Schust.; VE; 3140 m C. laevicalyx (Jack & Steph.) Grolle; CO; 3300 m

Rhodoplagiochila R.M.Schust. [Note: Following Inoue (1984), Rhodoplagiochila is p1aced in the Jungermanniaceae instead of P1agiochi1aceae.] Ref.: Schuster, 1978a; lnoue, 1984. R. rosea R.M.Schust.; VE; 3700-3750 m

Calura Nees C. calyptrifolia (Hook.) Dumort.; VE; 3200+ m C. naumannii Steph. (syn.: C. patagonica Ast); CO, EC; 3200-3800 m C. ornithocephala Herzog; CO, VE, EC; 3300-3800 m C. tenuicornis (A.Evans) Steph.; VE; 2300-3450 m

Syzygiella Spruce Ref.: Inoue, 1966. S. anomala (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Steph.; CR, CO, EC, PE; 2000-3600 m S. campanulata Herzog; CR, CO, VE; 2000-3750 m S. integerrima Steph.; CO; 1000-3550 m

Diplasiolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. D. alafa Ast.; VE; 2900-3300 m D. involuta S.Winkl. subsp. andicola Pócs; VE; 3300 m D. papilionacea R.M.Schust.; VE; 2900-3450 m D. pauckertii (Nees) Steph.; CO, VE, PE; 2900-3340 m


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTAN! CAL GARDEN

Drepanolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. Ref.: Bischler, 1964. D, andina Herzog; CO; 3500-4100 m D. araucariae Steph.; VE; 3050-4000 m D. aurita Bischler; EC; 3350-3450 m D. granatensis (Jack & Steph.) Bischler; CO, VE; 20003700 m . D. navicularis Steph.; CO, VE; 3000-3700 m Frullanoides Raddi Ref.: Van Slageren, 1985; Gradstein, 1994. F. densifolia Raddi; CO, EC, PE; 500-3650 m Harpalejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn. ?H. ancistrodes (Spruce) Schiffn.; CO, EC; 3000-3800 m. H. cinchonae (Nees) Schiffn.; CO, VE, PE; 700-3400 m H. grandis Grolle; CO; 3750 m H. verrucosa Herzog; VE; 3200 m H. sp. nov.; CO; 3200-3680 m Leucolejeunea A.Evans L. xanthocarpa (F.Lehm. & Lindenb.) A.Evans; CO, VE, EC; 500-3500 m Lindigianthus Kruijt & Gradst. Ref.: Gradstein, 1994. L. cipaconeus (Gottsche) Kruijt & Gradst. [syn.: Dicranolejeunea cipaconea (Gottsche) Steph.]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1700-3500 m Macrolejeunea (Spruce) Schiffn.

M. pallescens (Mitt.) Schiffn.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 20003800m Microlejeunea (Steph.) Schiffn.

M. bullata (Tay1or) Steph.; CR, CO, VE, EC; (0-)1000-3600 m M. colombiana Bischl.; VE; 3090-4070 m Omphalanthus Nees O.filiformis (Sw.) Nees; CR, CO, EC, PE; 1200-3900 m O. platycoleus Herzog; CO; 3000?-3750 m

LEPICOLEACEAE Lepicolea Dumort. Ref.: Fulford, 1963. L. ochroleuca (Spreng.) Spruce; CR; 1600-3100 m L. pruinosa (Taylor) Spruce; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 17003800m L. ramentifissa Herzog; VE; 2900-3300 m

LEPIDOZIACEAE Bazzania S.Gray [Note: The neotropical species of Bazzania and Lepidozia are poorly known and in need ofrevision; the present

[VOL. 84

list like1y contains misidentifications, and sorne species names may prove to be synonyms.] Ref.: Fulford, 1963. B. arcuata (Lindenb. & Gottsche) Trevis.; CR, CO, EC; 2003600m B. canelensis (Steph.) Fulford; CO; ?-3750 m B. chilensis (Steph.) Fulford; CO, EC; 2500-3600 m B. crassidentata Fulford; CO; 3500-3600 m B. diversicuspis Spruce; CO; 100-3500 m B. falca/a (Lindenb.) Trevis.; CO; 1000-3600 m B. hookeri (Lindenb.) Trevis. (syn.: B. robusta Spruce); CO, VE, PE; 100-3700 m B. jamaicensis (F.Lehm. & Lindenb.) Trevis.; CR, CO; 1500-3500 m B. latidens (Gottsche) Fu1ford; CO; 3750 m B . .longistipula (Lindenb.) Trevis.; CO, EC; 750-3500 m B. placophylla (Taylor) Grolle; CO, EC, PE; ?-3750 m B. roraimensis (Steph.) Fu1ford; CO, PE; 1500-3600 m B. taleana (Gottsche) Fulford; VE; 3200+ m Kurzia G.Martens Ref.: Pรณcs, 1984. K. capillaris (Sw.) Grolle (syn.: Kurzia verrucosa Steph.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 500-3800 m K.jlagellifera (Steph.) Grolle; CO; 1500-3700 m Lepidozia (Dumort.) Dumort. [Note: The neotropical species of Bazzania and Lepidozia are poorly known and in need ofrevision; the present list 1ike1y contains misidentifications, and sorne species names may pro veto be synonyms.] Ref.: Fulford, 1966. L. alstoni Fulford; CO, EC; 3200-4500 m L. andicola Beauverd; CO, VE, EC; 2650-3600 m L. auriculata Mitt. ex Steph.; CO, EC, PE; 3300?-4000 m L. caespitosa Spruce; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1200-3800 m L. cupressina (Sw.) Lindenb.; PA, CO, VE, PE; 1000-3600 m L. macrocolea Spruce; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1000-4000 m L. peruviensis Steph.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2500-3650 m L. wal!isiana Steph.; CO, VE, EC; 1000-3400 m Paracromastigum Fulford & J.Tayl. P. bifidum (Steph.) R.M.Schust.; VE; 2000-3400 m P. granatense (Gottsche) R.M.Schust. [syn.: Bonneria granatensis (Gottsche) Fulford & J.Tayl.]; CR, CO; ?-3200 m Pseudocephalozia R.M.Schust. Ref.: Schuster & Engel, 1974. P. quadriloba (Steph.) R.M.Schust.; CR, CO, EC, PE; 32004100 m Telaranea Spruce ex Schiffn. Re f.: Schuster, 1978a. T. microstipulata R.IVLSchust.; VE; ? m T. nematodes (Gottsche ex Austin) Howe; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 200-4250 m T. quadrifida R.M.Schust.; VE; '! m


1999]

PARAMOS

71

brogniartii Mont.; CO, VE, EC; 700-3600 m marginata Steph.; CO; 800-4000 m podophylla (Thunb.) Mont. & Nees; CO; 1800-3850 m rubescens Steph.; CO; ?-3600 m

Dumortiera Nees D. hirsuta L.; CO, EC; 150-3500 m

S. S. S. S.

Marchan tia L. Ref.: Bisch1er, 1984. M. berteroana F.Lehm. & Lindenb.; CR, CO; 1800-3600 m M. plicata Nees & Mont.; CR, CO, EC, PE; 1700-3800 m M. polymorpha L.; CO; 3000-3800 m

Noteroclada Tay1or ex Hook. & Tay1or N. conjluens Taylor ex Hook. & Wilson; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1800-4000 m

MARCHANTIACEAE

PELLIACEAE

METZGERIACEAE

PLAGIOCHILACEAE

Metzgeria Raddi [Note: The neotropica1 species of Metzgeria are still poor1y known, notwithstanding the work by Kuwahara (1986); the present 1ist shou1d be considered pre1iminary.] Ref.: Kuwahara, 1986. M. albinea Spruce; CO, EC; 500-3800 m M. atramentaria Kuwah.; CO; 3450--4000 m M. attenuata Steph.; CO; 3350-3600 m M. bischlerae Kuwah.; CO; 3500-3600 m M. cleefii Kuwah.; CO; 3300 m M. consanguínea Schiffn.; CO, VE, PE; 2100-3500 m M. decipiens (C.Massal.) Schiffn.; CO, PE; 500-3900 m M. dorsipara (Herzog) Kuwah.; CO, EC; 3350-3900 m M.filicina Mitt.; CO, EC, PE; 2000-3300 m M. gigantea Steph.; CR, CO, PE; 1500--4350 m M. lechleri Steph.; CO, PE; 3000-3800 m M. leptoneura Spruce; CO, VE, EC, PE; 500--4200 m M. liebmanniana Lindenb. & Gottsche; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1500-4000 m M. metaensis Kuwah.; CO; 4000-4200 m M. neotropica Kuwah.; CO, EC, PE; 3100--4000 m M. papulosa Steph.; CO, VE; 700-3600 m M. parviinvolucrata Kuwah.; PE; 3400 m M. polytricha Spruce; CO, PE; 1000--4000 m M. procera Mitt.; CO; 200-3600 m M. sandei Schiffn.; CO; 650-3950 m

Plagiochila (Dumort.) Dumort. [Note: The neotropical species of Plagiochila are very poorly known. The present list is large1y based on identifications of the late Dr. H. Inoue, whose revision ofthe group remained unfinished at the time of his death in 1989.] Ref.: Inoue, 1987, 1989; Robinson, 1967. P. cleefii Inoue; CO; 4050 m P. cuatrecasii H.Rob.; CO; 3600-4200 m P. dependula Taylor [syn.: Jamesoniella dependula (Taylor) Steph.]; CO, EC; 3500-4200 m P. echinella Gottsche; CO, VE?, EC, PE; 2400-3750 m P. fuscolutea Taylor (syn.: P. jelskii Loitl., P. scopulosa Steph.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2600-4000 m P. guevarii H.Rob. (syn.: P. dana-griffinii Inoue, n.v.); CO, VE; 3300-3700 m P. jamesonii Taylor; CO, EC; 2000-3600 m P. jarami/loi H.Rob.; CR, CO; 3000-3520 m P. /ongispina Lindenb. & Gottsche; CR, CO, VE, EC; 28003700m P. oblita Steph.; CO; 3750 m P. ovala Lindenb. & Gottsche; CR, CO; 2500-3750 m P. pachyloma Taylor; CO, EC, PE; 2000-3600 m P. paraphy/lina Herzog; CO; 3200 m P. revo/vens Mitt.; CO, EC; 4000-4300 m P. stolonifera Lindenb. & Gottsche; CR, CO; 1900-4200 m P. triangulifolia Steph.; CO; 4050 m P. umbrosa Steph.; CO; 3000-3750 m P. verrucu/osa R.M.Schust.; CO; 1500-3300 m

MONOCLEACEAE Monoclea Hook. Ref.: Gradstein et al., 1993. M. gottschei Lindb. subsp. elongata Gradst. & Mues; CR, CO, EC; 150-3500 m

PALLAVICINIACEAE Jensenia Lindb. Ref.: van der Gronde, 1980. J. erythropus (Gottsche) Grolle; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2200-4100 m J. jlorschuetzii van der Gronde; CO, EC; 4000-4100 m Symphyogyna Nees & Mont. Ref.: Uribe & Aguirre, 1995. S. brasiliensis Nees & Mont.; CR, CO, EC; 1000-3300 m

Steereochila Inoue Ref.: Inoue, 1988; Gradstein et al., 1994. S. ecuadorica Inoue; CR, EC; 2500?-3200 m

PLEUROZIACEAE Pleurozia Dumort. Ref.: Thiers, 1993. P. paradoxa Jack [syn.: Eop/eurozia paradoxa (Jack) R.M.Schust.]; CO, VE, EC; 2500-3800 m

PORELLACEAE Parella L. Ref.: Swai1s, 1970.


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P. leiboldii (F.I.,ehm. & Lindenb.) Trevis.; CR; 1360-4000 m P. squamulifera (Tay1or) Trevis.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 22003900 m

PSEUDOLEPICOLEACEAE

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T.fi/icau/is Steph.; CO; 800-3500 m T. robusta Steph.; CO; 2800-360 m T. sprucei Steph.; CO, PE; 1800-3600 m T. tomentosa (Sw.) Gottsche; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1003600m

Ref.: Schuster, 1985.

B/eph'arostoma (Dumort.) Du~ort. B. trichophy/lum (L.) Dumort.; CR, CO, VE, PE; 2700-4000 m Temnoma Mitt. T. chaetophyl/a R.M.Schust.; CO, VE; 3000-3700 m

RADULACEAE Radula Dumort. Ref.: Jans, 1980; Yamada, 1988; Reiner-Drehwald, 1994. R. episcia Spruce (syn.: R. cornucopiae Spruce); CO, EC; 1000-3600 m R.frondescens Steph.; CO, VE; ?-3800 m R.jamesonii Taylor; CO, EC; ?-3700 m R. nudicaulis Steph.; CO; 1500-4000 m R. sonsonensis Taylor; CO; 3000-4200 m R. voluta Tay1or (syn.: R. ramulina Taylor); CR, CO, EC, PE; 1500-4200 m

RICCIACEAE Riccia L. R. lame/losa Raddi (syn.: R. indusiata S.Winkl., syn. nov.); CO; 4200 m [Note: Riccia indusiata S.Winkl., described from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is a synonym of R. lame/losa Raddi (fide holotype in ULM; identity confirmed by S. Jovet-Ast, Paris).] R. sorocarpa Bisch.; PE; 1500-4550 m

SCAP ANIACEAE Ref.: Gradstein & Váña, 1987.

Dip/ophyllum (Dumort.) Dumort. D. andico/um R.M.Schust.; VE; 4200 m D. obtusatum (R.M.Schust.) R.M.Schust.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2500-4200 m Scapania (Dumort.) Dumort. S. cuspiduligera (Nees) Müll.Frib.; CO; 4300 m S. portoricensis Hampe & Gottsche; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1500-3750 m

TRICHOCOLEACEAE Trichocolea Dumort. [Note: The taxonomy ofneotropical Trichocolea is still incompletely known; the present lis! like1y contains misidentifications, and sorne species names may prove to be synonyms. Most species listed are forest laxa occurring only accidentally in páramo.] Ref.: Fulford, 1963. T. elliotii Steph.; CO; l 000-3650 m

Acknowledgments This paperwas drafted while the author was an Andrew W. Mellon Visiting Scientist at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. I am grateful to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for making m y visit possible (grant to James L. Luteyn) and to the Director and staff of the Botany Department, Smithsonian Institution, for support and use of their facilities. Thanks are also dueto Gregorio Dauphin (SanJosé) forproviding additional records from Costa Rica and Panama, to Tamás Pócs (Eger) for additional records from Venezuela, to Andrea Lücking (Ulm) for loan of the type of Riccia indusiata, and to Antoine Cleef, Jim Luteyn, and Orlando Rangel for valuable suggestions.

Literature Cited in Checklist of Hepatics Bartholomew-Began, B. 1992. A morphogenetic re-evaluation of Haplomitrium Nees (Hepatophyta). Bryophyt. Biblioth. 41: l-297. Bischler, H. 1964. Le genre Drepano/ejeunea Stephani ~n Amérique Centrale et Méridionale. Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 33:15-179. - - - . 1984. Marchantia L. The New World species. Bryophyt. Biblioth. 26: 1-228. Crum, H. & J. Bruce. 1997. A new species ofC!yptothallus from Costa Rica. Bryologist 99: 433-438. Engel, J. J. 1980. A monograph ofthe genus Clasmatocolea. Fieldiana, Bot. n.s. 3: 1-229. - - - . 1988. The taxonomic position of Apotomanthus (Hepaticae). Beih. Nova Hedwigia 90: 203-221. Fulford, M. H. 1963. Manual ofthe leafy Hepaticae ofLatin America. I. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 11: 1-172. - - - . 1966. Manual of the leafy Hepaticae of Latin America. II. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 11: 173-276. - - - . 1968. Manual of the leafy Hepaticae of Latin America. III. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 11: 277-392. ----. 1976. Manual of the leafy Hepaticae of Latin America. IV. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 11: 393-535. Gradstein, S. R. (ed.). 1982. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams I-X. Institute ofSystematic Botan y, University of Utrecht. - - - . 1983. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams XI-XX. Institute ofSystematic Botany, University ofUtrecht. - - - (ed.). 1990. Studies on Colombian Cryptogams XXIXL. Institute ofSystematic Botan y, University ofUtrecht. - - - . 1994. Lejeuneaceae: Ptychantheae, Brachiolejeuneae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 62: 1-225. - - - . 1998. Hepatic diversity ofthe neotropical páramos. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missom:,i Bot. Gard. 68: 69-85. - - - & W. H. A. Hekking. 1979. A catalogue of the Hepaticae ofColombia. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 45: 93-144. - - - & J. Váiía. 1987. On the occurrence of Laurasian


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liverworts in the tropics. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 45: 388--425. ---,M. H. Fulford & A. M. Cleef. 1977. Oil body structure and ecological distribution of selected species of tropical Andean Jungermanniales. Proc. Kon. Ned. Acad. Wetensch. ser. C, 80: 377--420. ---,R. Klein, L. Kraut, R. Mues, J. Sporle & H. Becker. 1993. Phytochemical and morphological support for the existence of two species in Monoc/ea (Hepaticae ). PI. Syst. Evol. 180: 115-135. - - - , A Lücking, M. Morales & G. Dauphin. 1994. Additions to the hepatic flora ofCosta Rica. Lindbergia 19: 73-86. Grolle, R. 1971. Jamesonie/la und Verwandte. Feddes Rep. 82: 1-99. - - - . 1972. Zur Kenntnis von Ade/anthus Mitt. J. Hattori Bol. Lab. 35: 325-370. Inoue, H. 1966. A monograph ofthe genus Syzygie/la Spruce. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 29: 171-213. - - - . 1984. The genus Plagiochila (Dum.) Dum. in Southeast Asia. Akademia Scientific Book, Tokyo. - - - . 1987. New species of Plagiochila (Dum.) Dum. from the Neotropics. Pp. 95-105. In: H. Inoue (ed.), Studies on cryptogams in southem Peru. Tokai University Press, Tokyo. - - - . 1988. Steereochila, a new genus ofthe Plagiochilaceae from the Neotropics. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 45: 279-282. - - - . 1989. Studies on some Plagiochila species in the Neotropics. Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, Ser. B, 15:35--47. Jans, E. 1980. High Andean species of Radula (Hepaticae). Proc. Kon. Ned. Acad. Wetensch. ser. C, 82:421--432. Kuwahara, Y. 1986. The Metzgeriaceae ofthe Neotropics. Bryophyt. Biblioth. 28: 1-254. Meenks, J. J. D. 1987. A guide to the tropical Andean species of Riccardia (Hepaticae). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 62: 161-182. Pócs, T. 1984. Synopsis of the African Lepidoziaceae. Proc. Third Meeting Bryol. Centr. East. Europe, Praha: l 07-119. Reiner-Drehwald, E. 1994. El género Radula Dum. (Radulaceae, Hepaticae) en el noreste de Argentina. Trop. Bryol. 9: 5-22. Robinson, H. 1967. Preliminary studies on the bryophytes of Colombia. Bryologist 70: 1--61. Salazar Al!en, N., S. R. Gradstein & S. P. Churchill. 1996. A guide to the bryophytes of Tropical America: A report. Anales Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. Mexico, Ser. Bot. 67: 59-65. Schmitt, U. & S. Winkler. 1969. Systematische Untersuchungen über die foliase Lebermoosgattung Stephaniel/a Jack. Osterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 115: 120-135. Schuster, R. M. 1978a. Studies on V enezuelan Hepaticae. l. Phytologia 39: 239-251. - - - . 1978b. Studies on Venezuelan Hepaticae. II. Phytologia 39: 425--432. - - - . 1985. Studies on Venezuelan Hepaticae. III. FamiIies Blepharostomataceae and Ba1antiopsidaceae. Nova Hedwigia 42: 49-79. - - - . 1986. Studies on Venezuelan Hepaticae. IV. On Amphilejeunea Schust. and Aureo/ejeunea Schust. Nova Hedwigia 44: 1-23. - - - . 1987. On Aureo/ejeunea Schust. and Brachiolejeunea paramicola Herzog. Phytologia 61: 445--44 7. - - - . 1991. Studies on Venezue1an Hepaticae. V. On Pseudocephaloziella epiphytica Schust. Nova Hedwigia 53: 331-339. - - - . 1992. The oi1-bodies ofthe Hepaticae. Il. Lejeuneaceae (Part 2). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 72: 163-359.

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- - - . 1994. Studies on Metzgeria1es. III. The c1assification of the Fo·ssombroniaceae and on Austrofossombronia Schust., gen. n. Hikobia 11: 439--449. - - - . 1995. Venezuelan Hepatics. VI. On P/atycaulis Schust. (Jungermanniales). Nova Hedwigia61: 391-396. - - - . l996a. Studies on antipodal Hepaticae. XII. Gymnomitriaceae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 80: 1-147. - - - . 1996b. On Olgantha Schust., gen.n. Nova Hedwigia 63: 529-543. - - - . 1997. On Campanocolea Schust. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 82: 253-259. - - - & J. J. En gel. 1974. A monograph ofthe genus Pseudocephalozia (Hepaticae). J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 38: 665-701. Spruce, R. 1884-1885. Hepaticae amazonicae et andinae. Trans. Proc. Bol. Soc. Edinburgh 15: i-xi, 1-588. [Pp. 1-308 published in 1884, pp. 309-588 in 1885.] - - - . 1886. Voyage de Richard Spruce dans l'Amérique équatoriale pendant les années 1849-1864. Rev. Bryol. 13: 61-79. [Reprinted under the alternative title: Précis d'un voyage d'exploration botanique dans l'Amérique équatoriale, pour servir d'introduction provisoire a son ouvrage sur les hépatiques de 1'Amazone et des Andes, par Richard Spruce, p. 1-20.] Stotler, R. 1969. The genus Fruilania subgenus Fru/lania in Latín America. Nova Hedwigia 18: 397-555. Swails, L. F. 1970. The genus Parella in Latín America. Nova Hedwigia 19: 201-291. Thiers, B. M. 1993. A monograph of Pleurozia (Hepaticae: Pleuroziaceae). Bryologist 96: 517-554. Uribe M., J. & J. Aguirre C. 1995. Las especies Colombianas del género Symphyogyna (Hepaticae: Pallaviciniaceae). Caldasia 17: 429--458. Váiía, J. 1973. Studien über die Jungermannioideae (Hepaticae). 2. Jungermannia subg. Jungermannia. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 8: 255-309. - - - . 1974. Studien überdie Jungermannioideae (Hepaticae). 4. Jungermannia subg. Plectoco/ea, subg. Solenostoma. Allgemeines. Süd- und mittelamerikanische Arten. Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9: 179-208. - - - . 1976. Drei neue Gymnomitriaceae aus Südamerika. J. Hattori Bol. Lab. 41:411--417. - - - . 1980. Some new South and Central American hepalies. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 48: 225-234. - - - . 1984. Anastrophyllum (Spruce) Steph. in Latín America-pre1iminary information. Proc. Third Meeting Bryol. Centr. East. Europe, Praha: 99-106. - - - . 1988. Cephalozia (Dum.) Dum. in Africa, with notes on the genus. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 90: 179-198. van der Grande, K. 1980. The genusJensenia Lindb. (Hepaticae). Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. ser. C, 83: 271-278. van Reenen, G. B. A. 1982. High Andean species of Herbertus S. F. Gray. Lindbergia 8: 110-120. van Slageren, M. W. 1985. A taxonomic monograph ofthe genera Brachiolejeunea and Frullanoides. Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Rijksuniv. Utrecht 544: 1-309. Winkler, S. 1976. Die Hepaticae der Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Kolumbien. I: Terrestrische, epixyle und epipetrische Arten. Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 42: 789-827. Yamada, K. 1988. The genus Radula from Cuba. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 65: 379-390. Yuzawa, Y. 1991. A monograph ofsubgenus Chonanthelia of genus Frullania (Hepaticae) ofthe world. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 70: 181-291.


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Vascular Plants James L. Luteyn

The checklist of vascular plants started with the lists ofC!eef(1981 b) and Vareschi (1970). Additions were made after scanning numerous monographs, revisions, and country or regional floras, such as Flora de Colombia, Flora of Ecuador, Flora Neotropica, and Flora de Venezuela. Then a very intensive and exhaustive family-by-family and genus-by-genus search for taxa (native ¡md naturalized) represented in the páramo flora was made at the United States National Herbarium (US) by myself and Mauricio Gavilanes, followed by lesser general searches by myself at AAU, NY, and U. Numerous specific herbaria (e.g., COL, CR, GB, GH, K, MER, MERF, MO, NY, S, VEN, etc.) were also consulted for particular families (or genera) when a specialist had worked there. Once the basic family or generic. lists were made, copies were sent to individual speciálists for comment, correction, and suggestion. Whenever possible, I have tried to include in this list only species for which I found specimen determinations made by recognized authorities. Norrnally I have not used species determined with the notations "aff." or "ve! aff.," and only rarely are species included when detennined with "cf." Furthermore, I have used a very conservative approach, including in the list only species for which I have seen at least one voucher from páramo (as herein defined), or when a literature citation or personal communication was considered by me to be extremely reliable. A bit of subjectivity was involved in the compilation of this checklist of páramo vascular plants. So me may say that the list does not include this or that species for which the !abe! clearly says "Páramo de XYZ." But it is sometimes very difficult to decide whether or not to in elude a species. In many cases, it is dangerous to include species for which the !abe! says only "páramo" and nothing else, often because collectors' concepts of páramo may differ. Severa! things must be remembered in this regard. First of all, páramo does not automatically include everything above the general3000 m elevation leve!. As has been stated in the Introduction of this book, montane forest may reach as high as 4300 m in the northern Andes. Second, the fact that a collectionlabel says "Páramo de XYZ" does not automatically mean that the plant was collected in a páramo habitat as herein defined. Among local people it is very common for the proper name "Páramo de XYZ" to include the full range of

low to very high elevations and montane forest to superpáramo-that is to say, the term "páramo" in itself is not enough of a criterion for including a plant in the checklist. Therefore, I have not included a species solely because the !abe! says "Páramo de XYZ" unless the !abe! also tells me something about the habitat (e.g., grass páramo), or I know the plant is a typical páramo plant, or I know the area from personal experience, or I know the collector and can be quite certain of what concept is used. On the other hand, so me may say that this or that genus or species found in this list ought not to have been included, because it occurs mostly in forest. This is where my own personal field experience (i.e., knowledge of the area) or definition of páramo is needed. Here, too, is where the difficulty of"What is subpáramo?" comes into play. For the purposes of this book and the checklist herein, subpáramo ineludes elements of small trees and shrubs in transition to grass páramo, and species ofthe isolated shrubtree islands or forest patches within open grass páramo. It may be debated whether or not the plants of the shrub-tree islands ought to be included in a páramo checklist, because they are usually forest species; but I have eh osen to include them just as I have included species of Polylepis forest. From the beginning ofthis project, my goal has been to presenta list of al! plants found in the páramo, whether from the more distinctive open grass páramo or superpáramo areas to the less distinctive, more transitional subpáramo zone that includes sorne forest elements. I ha ve not, however, included species of plants that are characteristic ofthe "southem Ecuadorean scrub" vegetation as defined by Harling (1979), which sorne call "subpáramo chaparral" and include in páramo vegetation, but which I consider a natural vegetation type distinct from páramo. The geographical and elevational ranges given in this checklist are only for species distributions within the páramo countries here considered (i.e., Costa Rica to northern Peru), not for total geographical and elevational ranges. This needs to be clarified with two hypothetical examples. Example 1: The geographical range given in the list for species A is CR, CO, EC, PE; however, it is al so found in PA and VE, but not in páramo there; and it is also found in Mexico and Bolivia, but these countries are outside the defined páramo range.


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Example 2: The elevational range given in the list for species A is 3100-3900 m; however, it also occurs in PA and VE, but at 2500-2700 m, which is not considered páramo; and it is found in Mexico and Bolivia at 1500-2100 m, but these elevations are not included because the countries are outside the defined páramo range. Because the data were gathered in this manner, 1 was not, unfortunate1y, able to calculate the total number of endemic páramo species. The taxa in this checklist are organized according to the rank of species, and 1 have not formal! y listed the ranks of subspecies or variety, when they occur. However, if a recognized species consists of one or more subspecies anci/or varieties, these are formally recognized at the end ofthe entry after the word "ineludes." Furthermore, certain taxa included in this checklist as synonyms may be recognized at another rank (perhaps as accepted species) in other publications, or, conversely, taxa recognized as species in other publications may be included as synonyms in this checklist. This is inevitable because species concepts often vary among specialists. Rather than trying to give complete synonymy, I have given only those synonyms in common or regional use or ofhistorical importance. Two genera that are cited as north-temperate elements reaching their southern limit at the Chirripó páramo in Costa Rica (Cleef & Rangel Ch., 1984; Cleef & Chaverri P., 1992), Helianthemum (Cistaceae) and Smilacina (Liliaceae), are not included in this checklist because I have not been able to locate herbarium specimens that clearly indicate a páramo habitat. As for the many species that are weeds (ruder¡1ls) or that have been cultivated in or near páramo and have subsequently escaped into páramo habitats, or those that are now naturalized-1 have included them in this list only when I have seen a herbarium voucher specimen. Many other species that have not yet become naturalized, or have escaped and are only rarely found in páramo, or are reported in the literature or by personal communication to me as occurring in páramo have not been included because 1 was unable to find voucher specimens in herbaria. Por discussions ofplants introduced to páramo regions, see Pérez, in press; Sauer, 1988; and Vareschi, 1970. The following species may be expected to occur in páramo following their escape from cultivation, but are not included in the list. Apiaceae Ciclospermum leptophy/lum (Pers.) F.Muell. Brassicaceae Arabis turrita L. and other spp. (native to Europe)

75

Brassica campes tris L. Raphanus raphanistrum L. (native to Europe, introduced and cultivated)

Caryophyllaceae Si/ene injlata Sm. (native to Europe)

Fabaceae Medicago lupulina L. (native to Europe, now cultivated, naturalized and used as forage) andM. denticulata Willd. Melilotus officinalis Willd. (native to Europe and Asia) U! ex europaeus L. (used as ornamental) Vicia faba L. (introduced as crop) and V. sativa L. (as forage)

Lamiaceae Mentha (cf. M. viridis L.)

Papaveraceae Papaver glaucum Boiss. & Hausskn. ex Boiss. (and perhaps P. somniferum L.) (native to Middle East)

Phytolaccaceae Phytolacca octandra L. (native to Asia)

Pinaceae Pinus radiata D.Don

Poaceae Avena sativa L. Hierochloe mexicana Benth. (native to Mexico ?) Hordeum muticum J.S.Presl (cultivated as forage) Lolium multiflorum Lam. and L. perenne L. (cultivated as forage) Melinis minutiflora P.Beauv. (native to Africa, introduced vi a Brazil, cultivated as forage) Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov. (introduced from Africa, now escaped) Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd.) Hubb. [syn.: Tricholaena repens (Willd.) Hitchc.] (native to South Africa) Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen [syn.: S. geniculata (Lam.) P.Beauv.] (cultivated as forage) Triticum aestivum L. (cultivated as crop)

Polygonaceae Rumex crispus L. (native to Europe)

The families given in the checklist are divided alphabetically within the larger artificial groups: fems and fern allies, gymnosperms, and angiosperms (including both monocots and dicots). The taxonomic system used is basically that of Cronquist (1981 ), with modifícations. Certain families such as Asteraceae and Poaceae, because they are so large, will always need additional work and updating. As mentioned abo ve, I feel most unsure about the Orchidaceae, because, in my opinion, they still need much basic taxonomic study, the nomenclature is confusing, they are very much undercollected at páramo elevations, and the


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herbarium specimens have labels with poor or little A. palyphyllum Bertol.; CR, VE; 2600-3400 m habitat data, are few in number, and were generally A. serra Langsd. & Fisch.; CO, PE; 100-3650 m unavailable for my study. I am indebted to Cal Dodson A. sessilifalium Desv.; CO, EC, PE; 2500-4000 m for sharing with me unpublished information from his A. squamasum L.; EC, PE?; 2100-3900 m A. triphyllum C.Presl; CO, EC, PE; 2800-4800 m database ofEcuadorean orchids. The list ends with literature citations of a strictly Cystapteris Bernh. taxonomic nature that have been cited in the check- C.fi'agilis (L.) Bernh. [syn.: C. diaphana (Bory) Blasdell]; list. These references are not meant.to be exhaustive; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 300-4500 m they are restricted to those with an emphasis on páramo taxa, those in which many páramo taxa are treated, and AZOLLACEAE those ofhistorical ami/or nomenclatura] importance. Azalla Lam. Finally, when questions arose concerning proper author citation or spellings of sorne species names, I A. caraliniana Willd.; VE?, EC; 3600-4100 m generally followed the TROPICOS database of the .. A.filiculaides Lam.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3600 m Missouri Botanical Garden, and for this help I am very BLECHNACEAE · much indebted to Peter M. J0rgensen. As mentioned abo ve, I ha ve tried to be consistent Blechnum L. in the way I recognize taxa in this checklist and ha ve B. auratum (Fée) R.M.Tryon & Stolze (syn.: B. buchtienii usually followed the taxonomy of one author or one Rosenst., B. calumbiense Hieron., B. ca/umbiense var. institutional system (e.g., US for Asteraceae); but new bagatense Hieron.); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 19004000 m; includes subsp. auratum and subsp. ca/umbiense revisions, monographs, and floras appear every day. (Hieron.) R.M.Tryon & Stolze

B. binervatum (Poir.) C.V.Morton & Lellinger subsp.fragile R.M.Tryon & Stolze [syn.: B. fragile (Liebm.) C.V.Mortori & Lellinger]; CO; 1550-3500 m

CHECKLIST OF VASCULAR PLANTS Ferns and Fern Allies Ref.: Moran & Riba, 1995; Smith, 1985; Tryon & Stolze, 1989a, 1989b, 1991, .f992, 1993, 1994; Tryon & Tryon, 1982.

ADIANTACEAE Adiantum L. A. pairetii Wikstr.; EC, PE; 1200-4200 m A. raddianum C.Pres1; PE; 400-4000 m

ASPLENIACEAE Asplenium L. A. cuspidatum Lam.; CO, EC, PE; 1500-3950 m; includes var. cuspidatum and var.faeniculaceum (Kunth) Morton & Lellinger

A. haenkednum (C.Pres1) Hieron. (syn.: A. clada/eptan Fée); VE; 2900-4100 m

A. mananthes L. (syn.: A .. castaneum Schltdl. & Cham.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 1300-4900 m; intludes var. castaneum (Schltdl. & Cham.) Stolze and var. manan/hes A. aellgaardii Stolze; EC; 3400 m A. peruvianum Desv. (syn.: A.fi'agile C.Presl); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2750-4500 m

B. B. B. B.

cardatum (Desv.) Hieron.; CO, VE, PE; 700-4300 m lech/eri Mett.; CO, EC; 3000 m lima Rosenst.; CO, EC; 3200-3950 m /axense (Kunth) Hook. ex Salomon;_ CR, PA, CO, VE, · EC, PE; 1750-4100 m; includes var. /axense and var. stenaphyllum (Klotzsch) C. V.Morton B. accidenta/e L.; VE; 3400 m B. schamburgkii (Klotzsch) C.Chr.; CO, VE, EC, PE?; 1450-3700m

B. sprucei C.Chr.; EC; 3700 m

CYATHEACEAE Cyathea Sm. (syn.: Trichipteris C.Presl) [Note: All ofthe species of Cyathea listed here (except C. atahuallpa) are found in subpáramo woods or thickets or in paramillo and shrubby páramo (Tryon, 1976). !, myself, would not consider Cyathea a páramo genus, but in elude it here only on the basis ofTryon's paper.] Ref.: Tryon, 1976. C. atahuallpa (R.M.Tryon) Lellinger (syn.: Sphaerapteris atahua/lpa R.M.Tryon); PE; 2850-3450 m C. caracasana (Klotzsch) Domin var. baliviensis (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon; CO; 1000-4200 m C. frigida (H.Karst.) Domin [syn.: Alsaphila frigida H.Karst.; Trichipteris frigida (H.Karst.) R.M. Tryon ]; CO, VE; 2800-3500 m C. fu/va (M.Mart~s & Galeotti) Fée; CO; 1300-4200 m C. pallescens (Soéliro) Domin; PE; 1250-3500 m C. suprastrigasa (H.Christ) Maxon; CR; 2000-3000 m

! .


1999]

PARAMOS

Trichipteris C.Pres1 (see Cyathea)

DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Histia;·teris (J.Agardh) J.Sm. H. incisa (Thunb.) J.Sm.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1000-3750 m Hypolepis. Bemh. H. bogotensis H.Karst. (syn.: H. flexuosa Sodiro); CR, CO, EC; 2400-4050 m H. obtusata (C.Pres1) Kuhn ex Rieron.; CO, EC, PE; 28004600 m H. purdieana Rook.; CO, EC; 3900 m Pteridium G1ed. ex Scop. P. aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. arachnoideum (Kau1f.) Brade [syn.: P. arachnoideum (Kau1f.) Maxon]; CO, PE; 4003000 m ·

DICKSONIACEAE Dicksonia L'Rér. D .. sellowiana Roo k. [syn.: D. karsteniana (K1otzsch) T.Moore, D. stuebellii Rieron.]; CO, PE; 2200-3450 m

DRYOPTERIDACEAE Athyrium Roth A. filix-femina (L.) Roth (syn.: A. dombeyi Desv., A. paramico/a L.D.Gómez); CR, CO, VE, PE; 2500-3550 m Dryopteris Adans. D. wallichiana (Spreng.) Ryl. [syn.: D. paleacea (Sw.) Rand.-Mazz., D. parallelogramma (Kunze) A1ston]; CO, VE, PE; 3200-4400 m Elaphoglossum Schott ex J.Sm. Ref.: Micke1, 1991, 1995. E. affine (M.Martens & Ga1eotti) T.Moore [syn.: E. revolvens (Kunze ex Kuhn) C.Chr.]; CR, CO, VE, PE; 3000-4050 m E. albescens (Sodiro) H.Christ; CO, VE?; 2500-3400 m E. anceps Micke1; VE; 3000 m E. andico/a (Fée) T.Moore; CO, VE?; 1200-3400 m E. andrea!1um R.Christ; CO; 3300 m E. atrorubens Mickel; VE; 3200-3600 m E. atrosquamatum Mickel; CO, VE, PE; 3500-4250 m E. bonapartei Rosenst.; EC; 4000? m E. camptplepis Mickel; PE; 3500 m E. cardiophyllum (Rook.) T.Moore; CO, EC; 3850-4000 m E. castaneum (Baker) Diels; CO, EC, PE; 1950-3450 m E. chrysopogon Mickel; VE; 1500-3300 m E. conspersum H.Christ; CR; 2500-3150 m E. corderoanum (Sodiro) H.Christ; CO; 4050 m E. cuspfdatum (Willd.) T.Moore; CO; 1200-3800 m E. delicatu/um Mickel; VE; 2500-3000 m E. deltoideum (Sodiro) H.Christ; CO; 3530 m E. dendricola (Baker) H.Christ; EC; 3050-3600 m E. deorsum (R.Karst.) Vareschi; VE; 2400-4000 m

77

E. dombeyanum (Fé.e) T.Moore & Rou1ston; VE, EC; 24003800m E. drewianum Micke1; VE; 3000-3200 m E. engelii (R.Karst.) H.Christ; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 28004600 m E. erinaceum (Fée) T.Moore; PE; 700-3400 m E.fournierianum L.D.Gómez; CR, PA; 900-3400 m E.funkii (Fée) T.Moore; CO; 3000-3400 m E.fiafuraceum (Mett. ex Kuhn) H.Christ; CR, PA; 900--3820 m E. glabellum J.E.Sm.; CO; 500-4100 m E. glossophyllum Rieron.; CO, EC; 2200-3750 m E. huacssaro (Ruiz) H.Christ; CR, CO, EC; 2900-3375 m E. inaequa/ifolium (Jenman) C.Chr. [syn.: Acrostichum sellowianum (K1otzsch ex Kuhn) T.Moore]; VE; 38003900 m E. latifolium (Sw.) J.Sm. [syn.: E. longifolium (C.Pres1) J.Sm.]; CO; 550-3800 m E. laxisquama Micke1; PE; 3350-3600 m E. leporinum L.D.Gómez; CR, PA; 3350-3550 m E. lindenii (Bory ex Fée) T.Moore; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE?; 3000-4500 m E. lingua (C.Pres1) Brack.; CO; 3000-4200 m E. /loense (Rook.) T.Moore; EC; 3200-3350 m E. luteynii Micke1; VE; 3000-3350 m E. mathewsii (Fée) T.Moore [syn.: E. hartwegii (Fée) T.Moore]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-5100 m E. melancholicum Vareschi; CO, VE, PE; 2480-4050 m E. minutum (Poh1 ex Fée) T.Moore [syn.: E. gayanum (Fée) T.Moore,E.leptophyllum (Fée) T.Moore]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2000-3900 m E. muscosum (Sw.) T.Moore; VE, EC; 2900-4100 m E. nigrocostatum Mickel; CO, EC; 1300-3750 m E. nivosum (Kunze) Micke1; VE, PE; 2600-3900 m E. odonto/epis Mickel; PE; 3200-4000'm E. ovatum (Rook. & Grev.) T.Moore; CO, VE, EC; 20004700 m E. paleaceum (Rook. & Grev.) S1edge; CO, EC, PE; 9503950m E. papillosum (Baker) H.Christ; VE, PE; 2000-3200 m E. petiolatum (Sw.) Urb.; CO; 1900-3380 m E. petiolosum (Desv.) T.Moore; CO, PE; 3050-3950 m E. pi/osius Micke1; CR, P A, CO, VE, PE; 2900-4600 m E. plicatum (Ca.v.) C.Chr.; CO, EC, PE; 3300-3450 m E. rimbachii (Sodiro) R.Christ (syn.: E. pichinchae H.Christ); EC, PE; 2300-4700 m E. rosenstockii H.Christ ex Rosenst.; EC, PE; 3400-3950 m E. ruficomus Micke1; PE; 3050-4200 m E. rupestre (R.Karst.) H.Christ; CO; 3800 m E. sporado/epis (Kunze ex Kuhn) T.Moore; VE; 750--3300 m E. squamipes (Rook.) T.Moore; VE, PE; 2400-3450 m E. stramineum (Mett.) T.Moore; CO; 3400-3550 m E. tabanense André ex H.Christ; CO; 3050-3725 m E. tachirense Micke1; VE; 3100-3300 m E. tectum (Rumb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) T.Moore; EC; 19003650 m E. tenuifolium (Liebm.) T.Moore; CO; 3950 m E. vagans (Mett.) Rieron.; CO; 3650-3700 m E. vulcanicum H.Christ; EC; 2500-3500 m E. yatesii (Sodiro) R.Christ; CO, EC; 3600-4500 m

.-L 1


. !

78

MEMOIRS OF TRE NEW YORK BOT ANICAL GARDEN

Po/ystichum Roth P. aculeatum (L.) Schott [syn.: P. coch/eatum (Klotzsch) Rieron.]; CO, VÉ, EC; 3100--4300 m P. montevidense (Spreng.) Rosenst. var. nudicau/e (Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon (syn.: P. nudicaule Rosenst.); CO, VE, PE; 3200--4400 m P. muricatum (L.) Fée; EC; 1500-3650 m P. orbiculatufn (Desv.) J.Remy & Fée var. orbiculatum [syn.: P. polyphyllum (C.Pres1) C.Pres1]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000--4900 m ) P. pumilisMaxon; CO, EC; 3500-3700 m P. pycno/epis (Kunze ex K1ot¡¡sch) T.Moore [syn.: P. gelidum (Kunze ex K1otzsch) Fée]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000--4400 m P. sodiroi H.Christ; CO, EC; 3220-3600 m P. speciosissimum (A.Braun ex Kunze) Cope!. [syn.: Plecaso rus speciosissimum (A.Braun ex Kunze) T.Moore]; CR; 2500-3500 m P. ta/amancanum Barrington; CR, PA; 3100-3500 m Woodsia R.Br. W. montevidensis (Spreng.) Rieron. [syn.: W. crenata (Kunze) Rieron.]; CO, PE?; 3200--4400 m

EQUISETACEAE Equisetum L. E. bogotense Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE;. 3000-3800 m

GLEICHENIACEAE Gleichenia Sm. (syn.: Sticherus C.Pres1) G. revo/uta Kunth [syn.: S. revolutus (Kunth) Ching]; EC, PE; 1750-3500 m G. rubiginosa Mett. [syn.: S rubiginosus (Mett.) Nakai]; PE; 11 00--4200? m G. simplex (Desv.) Rook. [syn.: S. simplex (Desv.) Ching]; CO, EC, PE; 2700--4000 m Sticherus C.Pres1 (see Gleichenia)

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po/yanthos (Sw.) Sw.; PA, CO, VE; 3100--4450 m pulchel/um Schltd. & Cham.; CR; 3350-3550 m ruizianum (K1otzsch) Kunze; CO; 2800 m si/iquosum H.Christ; CR; 3100-3'400 m tegularis (Desv.) Proctor & Lourteig (syn.: H. e/egantulum Bosch); PA, CO, PE; 3100--4000 m H. trichophyllum Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2200--4450 m H. tunbrigense (L.) Sm.; CR, VE, EC; 2600--4000 m · H. undu/atum (Sw.) Sw. var. undulatum; CR, CO, EC?; 1500--4100m H. H. H. H. H.

ISOETACEAE Isoi!te1- L. (syn.: Stylites Amstutz) Rd.: Fuchs-Eckert, 1982; Rickey, 1985. l. a~dico/a (Amstutz) L.D.Gómez (syn.: Stylites andicola Amstutz); CO; 3600 m 1. andina Spruce ex Rook. (syn.: l. triquetia A.Braun); CO, VE, EC; 3400--4300 m l.bisch/erae R.P.Fuchs; CO; 32Ó0-3600 m l. boliviensis Weber; PE; 4100-5000 m l. boyacensis R.P.Fuchs; CO; 3400--4000 m l. c/eejli R.P.Fuchs; CO; 3750--4250 m l. colombiana (T.C.Pajmer) H.P.Fuchs (syn.: l. /ech/eri Mett. var. colombiana T.C.Pa1mer); CO; 3900 m 1. dispara Rickey; PE; 3300 m l. ecuadoriensis Asp!.; EC; 4240 m l. hewitsonii Rickey; PE; 3700 m 1. karstenii A.Braun; CO, VE; 3400--4100 m 1. killipii C.V.Morton; CO, VE, EC; 3200--4250 m l. lech/eri Mett. (syn.: l. socia A.Braun, /. g/acia/is Aspl.); CO, VE, PE; 3300--4800 m 1. novo-granadensis R.P.Fuchs (syn.: 1. dichotoma L.E.Mora & W.Ragemann); CO, EC; 3250--4300 m l. pa/meri R.P.Fuchs; CO, VE, EC; 3350--4450 m 1. ramboi Rerter; CO; 3800 m l. rimbachiana H.P.Fuchs; EC; 4200 m l. storkii T.C.Pa1mer (syn.: l. tryoniana L.D.Gómez); CR, PA; 3100-3800 m Stylites Amstutz (see lsoi!tes)

HYMENOPHYLLACEAE Hymenophyllum Sm. (syn.: Sphaerocionium C.Pres1) H. amabile C.V.Morton; VE, EC, PE; 2600--4200 m H. cristatum Rook. & Grev.; EC; 3500-3800 m H.ferax Bosch; CO; 2400-3300 m H.fucoides (Sw.) Sw. (syn.: H. ca/odictyon Bosch); CO, VE, PE; 1700-3700 m H. gol/meri Bosch; CO, EC; 3800-3900 m H. jamesonii Roo k.; CO, EC; 3100-3900 m H. karstenianum J.W.Sturm; PE; 3100 m H. molle C.V.Morton; CO; 3500 m H. multialatum C.V.Morton; PE; 200--4200? m H. myriocarpum Rook. var. endiviifolium (Desv.) Sto1ze (syn.: H. andinum Bosch, H. nigrescens Liebm., H. multijlorum Rosenst.); PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2000--4200 m H. peltatum (Poir.) Desv.; EC; 2800--4700 m H. plumier! Roo k. & Grev.; CO, PE; 3000-3500 m

LOPHOSORIACEAE Lophosoria C.Pres1 L. quadripinnata (J.F.Gme!.) C.Chr. var. contracta (Rieron.) R.M.Tryon & A.F.Tryon; CO, EC, PE; 2800-3600 m

L YCOPODIACEAE Ref.: 0llgaard, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1992, 1995. Huperzia Bernh. (syn.: Urostachys Rerter) H. andina (Rosenst.) Ro1ub; PE; 3300-5000 m H. arcturii (Rerter) C.V.Morton; CO, VE; 3200-3500 m H. ascendens (Rerter ex Nesse1) Rolub; EC; 3370--4050 m H. attenuata (Spring) Trevis.; CR, EC, PE; 3100--4000 m H. austroecuadorica B.0llg.; EC; 2500-3400 m H. binervia (Rerter) B.0llg.; PE; 2000-331 O m


1999]

PARAMOS

H. brevifolia (Grev. & Hook.) Ho1ub (syn.: H. goudotii Herter); CR, CO, EC, PE; 2700-4200 m H. cape/lae (Herter) Holub [syn.: Lycopodium capellae (Herter) C.V.Morton]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3050-4300 m H. catacachiensis (Herter ex Nessel) B.011g.; CO; ? m H. chiricana (Maxon) Holub; PA; 3400 m H. colanensis B.01lg.; PE; 3140-3600 m H. columnaris B.01lg.; EC, PE?; 3800-4000 m H. compacta (Hook.) Trevis.; EC; 3000-3550 m H. crassa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Rothm. (syn.: Lycopodium erythraeum Spring); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3500-4700 m; in eludes vars. crassa, gelida B.01lg., and manus-diaboli B.0llg. H. cruenta (Spring) Rothm.; GO, VE; 3100-3700 m H. cumingii (Nessel) Holub; EC; 3350-4300 m H. dianae (Herter) B.01lg.; CO; 3650 m H. espinosana B.011g.; EC; 3000-3400 m H. eversá (Poir.) B.01lg. (syn.: Lycopodium ecuadoricum Herter); CR, PA, CO, PE; 3000-3700 m H. hartwegiana (Spring) Trevis.; CO, VE, EC; 2700-3850 m H. hasta/a B.01lg.; EC; 3000-3450 m H. bippuridea (H.Christ) Holub; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2400. 3600 m H. hoffmannii (Maxon) Rolleri & Deferrari; CR, PA; 20003600 m H. hohenackeri (Herter) Holub; CO, EC; 3400-4400 m H. hypogaea B.011g.; CO, EC, PE; 3000-4450 m H. hystrix (Herter) Holub; CO, EC; 3100-4100 m H. cf. innocentium (Herter) Holub; CO?, VE; 3300-4250 m H. kuesteri\(Nesse!) B.011g.; EC, PE; 2750-3600 m H. lignosa (Herter) Holub [syn.: H. serpentiformis (Herter) Rolleri & Deferrari]; CO; 3100-3400 m . H. lindenii (Spring) Trevis.; CO, EC; 3500-4200 m H. llanganatensis B.01lg.; EC; 3600-4000 m H. loxensis B.011g.; EC; 2500-3200 m H. macbridei (Herter) B.011g.; EC, PE; 2550-3650 m H. m:Yf'tuosa (Spring) Trevis.; CO, VE; 3000-3500 m H. ocanana (Herter) Holub (syn.: Lycopodium moritzii Grev.); CO, VE; 3000-4000 m H. pflanzii (Nessel) Rolleri & Defarrari; CR; 3100-3200 m H. phylicifolia (Desv. ex Poir.) Ho1ub; CO, EC, PE; 23003700 m H. polydactyla B.01lg.; EC; 3800-4200 m H. polylepidetorum B.01lg.; EC; 3650-4000 m H. rejlexa (Lam.) Trevis.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 900-3400 m H. riobambensis (Herter) B.01lg. [syn.: H. castoris (Herter) C.V.Morton]; CO, VE; 3100-3400 m H. rosenstockiana (Herter) Holub [syn.: H. sacra/ea (Herter) Rolleri & Deferrari]; CO, EC, PE; 3000-3700 m H. rufescens (Hook.) Trevis.; CO, VE, EC; 3200-4200 m H. sagasteguiana B.01lg.; PE; 3900-3950 m H. saururus (Lam.) Trevis.; PE; 3300-4500 m H. scabrida B.01lg.; EC; 3800-4000 m H. schlimii (Herter) B.011g.; CO; 3250-3300 m H. schmidtchenii (Hieron.) Holub; CO; 3300-3750 m H. sellifolia B.01lg.; CO, EC, PE; 3100-4200 m H. subulata (Desv. ex Poir.) Holub; CR, PA, CO, EC, PE; 2850-3450 m

H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H.

79

talamancana B.01lg.; CR, PA; 3000-3400 m talpiphila B.01lg.; EC; 3400-4150 m taxifolia (Sw.) Trevis.; PA, CO; 3100-4330 m tetragona (Hook. & Grev.) Trevis.; CO, EC, PE; 37004200m transilla (Sodiro ex Baker) Holub; CO, EC; 3700-4250 m ulixis (Herter) Holub; CO; 3700 m urbanii (Herter) Holub; EC; 2800-3800 m venezuelanica (Herter) Holub (syn.: Lycopodium schneei Vareschi); CO, VE; 3600-4!'00 m weberbaueri (Nessel) Ho1ub; EC, PE; 3000-3600 m weddellii (Hieron. & Herter ex Nessel) Holub; EC, PE; 2600-3900 m

Lycopodiella Holub L. alopecuroides (L.) Cranfill; PE; 2400-3450 m L. caroliniana (L.) Pic.Serrn. var. meridionalis (Underw. & Lloyd) B.01lg. & Windisch; PE; 1350-3450 m L. matthewsii (Hook.) Holub; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2950-3650 m L. pendulina (Hook.) B.011g.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 22003600m Lycopodium L. L. clavatum L. subsp. contiguum (Klotzsch) B.01lg. (syn.: L. contiguum Klotzsch); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 29004100 m; includes var. aristatum (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Spring L.jussiaei Desv. ex Poir.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900-3900 m L. magellanicum (P.Beauv.) Sw. [syn.: L. spurium Wílld.]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2750-4200 m L. thyoides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (syn.: L. complanatum L. var. tropicum Spring); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 20004000m L. vestitum Desv. ex Poir.; EC, PE; 2400-3800 m

MARSILEACEAE Pilularia L. P. americana A.Braun; VE; 3300-3500 m P. mandonii A.Braun; CO, VE; 4000-4100 m

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Bollychium Sw. B. schaffneri Underw. [syn.: B. ternatum (Thunb.) Sw.]; CO, VE, PE; 2350-3850 m B. virginianum (L.) Sw.; PE; 1800-3450 m Ophioglossum L. O. crotalophoroides Walt.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 600-4400 m O. reticulatum L. (syn.: O. petiolatum Hook.); VE; 400-3800 m

PLAGIOGYRACEAE Plagiogyria (Kunze) Mett. Ref.: Lellinger, 1971. P. semicordata (C.Presl) H.Christ (syn.: P. costaricensis Mett. ex Kuhn); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1800-3600 m


MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARI)EN

80

POLYPODIACEAE Campyloneurum C.Presl C. amphostenon (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Fée (syn.: C. irregulare Lellinger; Po/ypodium amphostenon Kunze ex K1otsch, P. angustifo/ium Sw. var. amphostenon (Kunze ex Klotzsch) Baker, P. /eucorhizon K1otzsch); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2650--4200 m C. angustifolium (Sw.) Fée [syn.: C. ensifo/ium (Willd.) J.Sm.; Po/ypodium angustifolium Sw.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2000--4500 m C. cochense (Hieran.) Ching; CO; 3-300-3790 m C. densifolium (Hieran.) Lellinger; CO, VE, PE; 3000-3600 m C.fascia/e (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) C.Presl; VE; 30003700m C. remotifolium (I;Iieron.) Lellinger; CO, VE, EC; 34003800 m C. solutum (K1otzsch) Fée; CO, EC, PE; 3750--4000 m Ceradenia L.E.Bishop Ref.: Bishop, 1988. C. aulaeifolia L.E.Bishop ex A.R.Sm.; CR, PA; 3100-3350 m C. farinosa (Hook.) L.E.Bishop [syn.: Grammitis farinosa (Hook.) C.V.Morton]; CO, EC; 3650--4050 m C. intricata (C.V.Morton) L.E.Bishop ex A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis intricata C.V.Morton]; CO, EC; 3800-3900 m

C. mayoris (Rosenst.) L.E.Bishop (syn.: Polypodium mayoris Rosenst.); CO; 3400-3700 m C. ph/oiocharis L.E.Bishop; PA; 3100-3300 m C. semiadnata (Hook.) L.E.Bishop [syn.: Grammitis semiadnata (Hook.) C.V.Morton]; CO, EC; 3050--4000 m Cochlidium Kau1f. Ref.: Bishop, 1978. C. serru/atum (Sw.) L.E.Bishop (syn.: Polypodium dua/e Maxon); CO; 3360-3470 m Ctenopteris Kunze (see Grammitis) Enterosora Baker Ref.: Bishop & Smith, 1992. E. asplenioides L.E.Bishop (syn.: Gymnogramma sinuata T.Moore ex Baker); CO; 3000 m Grammitis Sw. (syn.: Ctenopteris Kunze) (see a1so synonyms under Ceradenia, Lellingeria, Melpomene, Micropo/ypodium, Terpsichore, and Zygoph/ebia) Ref.: Morton, 1967. G. leptopoda (C.H.Wright) Copel.; CO; 2000-3400 m G. paramicolq,L.E.Bishop; CO, PE; 2750-3500 m

[VOL.

~4

myosuroides Sw.; Xiphopteris jamesonii Hook.]; VE, EC; 3100-3450 m L. pseudocapillaris (Rosenst.) A.R.Sm. & R. C. Moran [syn.: Grammitis pseudocapillaris (Rosenst.) C.V.Morton]; EC; 2200-3550 m L. tmesipteris (Cope!.) A.R.Sm. & R. C. Moran [syn.: Grammitis tmesipteris (Cope!.) F.Seym.]; CR; 2700-3300 m Me/pomene A.R.Sm. Ref.: Smith & Moran, 1992. M. andico/a (Sto1ze) A.R.Sm .. & R.C.Moran (syn.: Grammitis andico/a Sto1ze); CO, PE;? m M. anfractuosa (Kunze ex K1otzsch) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis anfi"actuosa (Kunze ex K1otzsch) Proctor]; CO; 2200--4300 m M.'assurgens (Maxon) A.R.Sm.·& R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis assurgens (Maxon) C.V.Morton)]; CO, EC; 2900-3700 m M e f. firma (J.Sm.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis firma (J.Sm.) C.V.Morton]; VE, PE; 1200-3800 m Mjlabelliformis (Poir.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Polypodium rigescens Bory ex Willd.; Grammitis jlabel/i./órmis (Po ir.) C.V.Morton, G. rigescens (Bory ex Willd.) Lellinger]; PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000--4800 m M moni/iformis (Lag. ex Sw.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis moniliformis (Lag. ex Sw.) Proctor]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100--4600 m M. peruviana (Desv.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis peruviana (Desv.) C.V.Morton]; CO, VE, EC; 3000--4450 m M. pi/osissima (M.Martens & Ga1eotti) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis pilosissima (M.Martens & Ga1eotti) C.V.Morton; Polypodium acrodontium Fée]; CR, CO, VE, PE?; 2900--4200 m M. pseudonutans (H.Christ & Rosenst.) A.R.Sm. & R. C. Moran [syn.: Grammitis pseudonutans (H.Christ & Rosenst.) C.V.Morton]; CO, EC, PE; 3000--4000 m M sodiroi (H.Christ & Rosenst.) A.R. Sm. & R. C. Moran· [syn.: Polypodium sodiroi H.Christ & Rosenst.; Grammitis sodiroi (H.Christ & Rosenst.) C.V.Morton; Xiphop- · teris sodiroi (H.Christ & Rosenst.) Crabbe]; EC; 4200 m M. xiphopteroides (Liebm.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Polypodium rigens Maxon, P. xiphopteroides Liebm.; Grammitis rigens (Maxon) Proctor, G. xiphopteroides (Liebm.) A.R.Sm.]; CO, VE, EC, PE?; 3000-3800 m Micropolypodium Hayata Ref.: Smith, 1992. M aphe/olepis (C.V.Morton) A.R.Sm. (syn.: Grammitis aphelolepis C.V.Morton); CO, EC; 2400-3500 m Niphidium J.Sm.

Lellingeria A.R.Sm. & R. C. Moran Ref.: Smith et al., 1991. L. humilis (Mett.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitis humilis (Mett.) Lellinger]; CO; 2700-3400 m L. myosuroides (Sw.) A.R.Sm. & R.C.Moran [syn.: Grammitisjamesonii (Hook.) C.V.Morton; Po/ypodium

.N. crassifolium (L.) Lellinger(syn.: Po/ypodium crassijloium

L.); EC, PE; 1000-3400 m Pec/uma M.G.Price P. absidatum (A.Evans) M.G.Price (syn.: Po/ypodium absidatum A.Evans); CO; 3800--4100 m


1999]

PARAMOS

P. curvans (Mett.) M.G.Price (syn.: P¡¿lypodium curvans Mett.); CO; 3400-3850 m P. eurybasis (C.Chr.) M.G.Price (syn.: Po/ypodium eW)'basis C.Chr.); CO, PE; 2500-3600 m /.

'

P/eopeltis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. P. macrocarpa (Bory ex Willd.) Kaulf. (syn.: Polypodium /anceolatum L.); VE; 3000-3900 m ·' Polypodium L. P. chirripoense Lellinger; CR; 3100-3400 m P. chryso/epis Hook. [syn.: Microgramma chryso/epis (Hook.) Crabbe]; PE; 3200-3500 m P.fimbriatum Maxon; CO; 1500-3300 m P. gil/iesii C.Chr.; CO; 3000-3700 m P. /asiopus K1otzsch; CO, VE; 800-3700 m P. macrolepis Maxon; CR; 3100-3400 m P. mindense Sodira; CO, EC; 3850 m ,P. monosorum Desv.; CO, EC; 3000~200 m P. murorum Hook.; CO, VE, EC; 2800~100 m P. pycnocarpum C.Chr. var. buchtienii (H.Christ & Rosenst.) R.M.Tryon & Sto1ze (syn.: Pplypodium buchtienii H.Christ & Rosenst.); PE; 800-3650 m P. subandinum Sodira; CO, EC; 3000-3450 m .P. wiesbauerii Sodiro; CO; 3300-3600 m

\ Terpsichore A.R.Sm. Ref.: Smith, 1993. T. athyrioides (Hook.) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis athyrioides (Hook.) C.V.Morton]; PE; 3400-3550 m T. cultrata (Bory ex Willd.) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis cultrata (Bory ex Willd.) Practor]; EC, PE; 1800-3400 m T. heteromorpha (Hook. & Grev.) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis heteromorpha (Hook. & Grev.) C.V.Morton]; CO, VE, EC; 3400~600 m T.jamesonioides (Fée) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitisjamesonioides (Fée) C.V.Morton]; CO, VE; 2900-3750 m T. lanigera (Desv.) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis /anigera (Desv.) C.V.Morton]; CO, EC, PE; 1000~100 m T. /eucosticta (J.Sm.) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis /eucostricta (J.Sm.) C.V.Morton]; CO; 3200-3400 m T. semihirsuta (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis semihirsuta (Klotzsch) C.V.Morton]; CO, EC; 2200~000 m T. subscabrum (Klotzsch) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Grammitis pichinchensis (Hieran.) C.V.Morton, G. subscabrum (Klotzsch) C.V.Morton; T. pichinchensis (Hieran.) A.R.Sm.]; EC; 3100-3500 m T. variabilis (Mett. ex Kuhn) A.R.Sm. [syn.: Po/ypodium variabile Mett. ex Kuhn; Grammitis varia bilis (Mett. ex Kuhn) C.V.Morton]; CO, EC; 3700~350 m Xiphopteris Kaulf. {see Grqmmitis) Zygophlebia L.E.Bishop Ref.: Bishop, 1989. Z. eminens (C.V.Morton) L.E.Bishop (syn.: Grammitis eminens C.V.Morton); EC; 2750-3350 m

81

PTÉRIDACEAE Cheilanthes Sw. hirsuta Link; CO; 3000 m /endigera (Cav.) Sw.; VE, EC; 2600-3600 m margina/a Kunth; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1500~000 m myriophylla Desv.; PE; 1550-3250 m scariosa (Sw.) Presl.; PE; 3400~000 m

C. C. C. C. C.

Eriosorus Fée Ref.: Tryon, 1970. E. accrescens A.F.Tryon; PE; 2900-3500 m E. cheilanthoides (Sw.) A.F.Tryon; EC, PE; 2300~000 m E. e/ongatus (Hook. & Grev.) Cope!.; EC, PE; 230~ 100m E. ewanii A.F.Tryon; CO, EC; 3350-3950 m E. flabellatus (Hook. & Grev.) Cope!.; CO, PE; 3400 m [Note: Thought to be a hybrid between E. chei/anthoides andE. sp. (Tryon & Stolze, 1989b).] E.jlexuosus (Kunth) Cope!. var.jlexuosus [syn.: E. villosu/us (Maxon) Scamman]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 220~200 m E. hirsutulus (Mett.) A.F.Tryon (syn.: Gymnogramma karstenii Mett.); CO; 2800~200 m E. hispidulus (Kunze) Vareschi var. hispidulus; VE; 30003100m E. lindigii (Mett.) Vareschi; CO; 2800-3350 m E. /ongipetiolatus (Hieran.) A.F.Tryon; CO, EC; 3300--3900 m E. novagranatensis A.F.Tryon; CO, EC; 3000~050 m E. rufescens (Fée) A.F.Tryon; VE, EC, PE; 2300-3700 m E. setu/osus (Hieran.) A.F.Tryon; CO, EC; 3000-3750 m E. warscewiczii (Mett.) Cope!.; CR, CO; 3200-3550 m Jamesonia Hook. & Grev. Ref.: Tryon, 1962. J. a/stonii A.F.Tryon; CR, PA, CO, EC, PE; 3300~200 m J. auricu/ata A.F.Tryon; VE; 2600-3200 m J. b/epharum A.F.Tryon; CO, EC; 1500-3400 m J. bogotensis H.Karst.; CO, VE; 2950~400 m J. canescens Kunze; CO, VE; 2600~400 m J. cera cea Maxon; CO; 3100-3200 m J. cinnamomea Kunze; CO, EC, PE; 3100-5000 m J. cuatrecasasii A.F.Tryon; CO, VE; 3500~400 m J. goudotii (Hieran.) C.Chr.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 300~800 m J. imbrica/a (Sw.) Hook. & Grev.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 30004400 m; includes var. glutinosa (H.Karst.) A.F.Tryon, var. imbrica/a & var. meridensis A.F.Tryon J. laxa (Mett. ex Kuhn) Die1s; VE; 2900~450 m J. peruviana A.F.Tryon; PE; 2800~300 m J. pulchra Hook. & Grev.; CO, VE?, EC, PE; 3000~250 m J. robusta H.Karst.; CO, EC; 2700-3600 m J. rotundifolia Fée; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3000~200 m J. sca/aris Kunze; VE?, PE; 2700~300 m J. scammanae A.F.Tryon; CR, PA, CO, EC; 2750~400 m J. verticalis Kunze; CO, EC; 3000-3600 m Nephopteris Lellinger Re f.: Lellinger, 1966. N. maxonii Lellinger; CO; 2900-3200 m


·..

82

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

. •Pel/aea Link P. ternifolia (Cav.) Link var. ternifolia; CQ, PE; 1800-4600 m Pityrogramma Link P. cluysoconia (Desv.) Maxon ex Domin [syn.: P. ornithopteris (Kiotzsch) Maxon ex R.Knuth]; CR, PA, CO, VE; 2500-3850 m P. tartarea (Cav.) Maxon; VE; 1200-3000.m Pteris L. P. longipetiolulata Lellinger; CO; 3200-3500 m P. muricata Hook.; CO; 1700--4000 m

SELAGII'!ELLACEAE Selaginella P.'Beauv. S. carinata R.M.Tryon; EC; 3500 m S. cavifolia A.Braun; CO, EC; 2100-3680 m

THEL YPTERIDACEAE Thelypteris Schmidel T. arenosa A.R.Sm.; CO; 3000 m T. atropurpurea Hieron.; CO; 3800--4200 m T. caucaensis (Hieron.) Alston; CR, CO, EC, PE; 33004300 m T. cheilanthoides (Kunze) Proctor; VE; 2500-3000 m T. euthythrix A.R.Sm.; EC; 3400-3450 m T. gomeziana A.R.Sm. & Lellinger; CR; 3000-3300 m T. minutula C.V.Morton; CO, EC; 3550--4500 m T. perstrigosa (Maxon) Ching; CO; 3000-3300 m T. rigescens (Sodiro) A.R.Sm.; EC; 2800-3900 m T. rosenstockii (C.Chr.) R.M.Tryon; EC; 3000-3300 m T. rudis (Kunze) Proctor; CO; 1300--4000 m T. subtilis A.R.Sm.; EC; ·3200-3350 m T. supina (Sodiro) A.R.Sm.; EC; 3100-3550 m

VITTARIACEAE Re f.: Crane, 1997. Radiovittaria (Benedict) E.H.Crane R. ruiziana (Fée) E.H.Crane (syn.: Vittaria ruiziana Fée); PE; 1800-3650 m

[VOL. 84

Angiosperms Ref.: Brako & Zarucchi, 1993; Davidse et al., 1994; J0rgensen & Ulloa U., 1994; Macbride et collab., 1936-present.

ACANTHACEAE Stenandrium Nees S. dulce (Cav.) Nees; CO, PE; 3100-3400 m

ALSTROEMERIACEAE Bomarea Mirb. B. acutifolia (Linh. & Otto) Herb,; CR, CO; 3200-3550 m B. ambigua Sodiro; EC; 3780 m B. anceps (Ruiz & Pav.) Herb.; PE; 3400-3500 m B. angustipetala (Benth.) Baker; CO; 3500 m B. cf. angustissima Killip; PE; 3500 m B. caldasii (Kunth) Asch. & Graebn.; CO, EC; 2100-4200 m B. chimboracensis Baker; EC; 3800 m B. crassifolia Baker; CO; 3200-3500 m B. dulcis (Hook.) Beauverd; PE; 3200--4500 m B. glaucescens (Kunth) Baker; EC, PE; 2900--4400 m B. hazenii Killip; CO; 3400 m B. hirsuta (Kunth) Herb.; CR, PA, CO, EC; 2000-3540 m B. linifo/ia (Kunth) Baker; CO, EC; 2500-3800 m B. multiflora Mirb.; VE; 4050--4100 m B. nervosa (Herb.) Baker; PE; 3100-3400 m B. pauciflora (Kunth) Herb. (syn.: B. holtonii Hochr.); CO, VE; 2500-3500 m B. purpurea (Ruiz & Pav.) Herb.; PE; 2650-3500 m B. setacea (Ruiz & Pav.) Herb.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2400-4200 m B. stenopetala Baker; CO; 3000-3200 m B. cf. subspicata Sodiro; PE; 3200-3400 m B. tomentosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Herb.; CO; 2900-3450 m B. torta (Kunth) Herb.; PE; 2800-3600 m

AMARANTHACEAE Alternanthera Forssk. A. lupulino Kunth; PE; 3800-3850 m A. macbridei Stand!.; PE; 2500-3500 m

AMARYLLIDACEAE Vittaria Sm. V. graminifo/ia Kaulf.; VE, PE; 1200--3150 m

Gymnosperms Ref: Brako & Zarucchi, 1993.

Stenomesson Herb. S. aurantiacum (Kunth) Herb.; EC, PE; 3300-3400 m S. variegatum (Ruiz & Pav.) J.F.Macbr.; PE; 3000-3500 m

APIACEAE Ref.: Mathias & Constance, 1976b. Apium L. (see NiphogetÓn)

EPHEDRACEAE Ephedra L. E. americana Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. (syn.: E. andina Poepp.; EC, PE; 3800--4600 m E. rupestris Benth.; EC, PE; 3500--4500 m

Arracacia Bancr. A. atropurpurea (Lehm.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Hemsl.; CR?, PA; 3500--4000 m A. elata H.Wolff (syn.: A. pennel/ii Constance); CO, VE?, EC, PE; 3400--4100 m

·\


1999]

PARAMOS

A. maschata (Kunth) DC.; CO, EC; 3300-3400 m; possibly cultivated A. talucénsis (Kunth) Hemsley var. multifida (S.Wats.) Jy!athias & Constance; CO; 3250-3850 m A. vaginata Cou1t. & Rose; VE; 2000--4200 m Azorella Lam. Ref.: Martínez, 1993. A. aretiaides (Spreng.) DC.; CO, EC; 3500--4500 m A. hilaba (Schltdl.) Wedd. (syn.: A. lehmannii Hieron.); CR, EC, PE; 3500--4400 m A. carymbasa (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; CO, EC, PE; 3600--4450 m A. crenata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; CO, VE,EC, PE; 3300--4200 m . A'. cuatrecasasii Mathi¡¡s & Constance; CO, VE; 3000-3800 m A. ecuadorensis Domin; EC; 3700--4600 m A. julianii Mathias & 'Constance; VE; 3250--4550 m A. multifida (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; CO, EC, PE; 3500--4300 m A. pedunculata (Spreng.) Mathias & Constance; CO, EC; . 3550--4650 ni Bowlesia Ruiz & Pav. B. !abata Ruiz & Pav.; EC, PE; 3450--4100 m B. sodiroana H.Wo!:l'f; EC; 3650 m Cotopaxia Mathias & Constance Ref.: Mathias & Constance, 1967. C. asp/undii Mathias & Constance; EC; 3500--4000 m C- whitei Constance & Alverson; CO; 4300 m Daucus L. D. montanus Humb. & Bonpl. ex Spreng.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 1900--4000 m Eryngium L. E. humboldtii F.Delaroche; CO, VE; 2700--4200 m E. humile Cav.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100--4300 m; includes-\Íar. brevibracteatum Hieron.·, var. caulescens Kurith, var. pulchellum Wedd., var. radicijlarum (Trattinnick) Hieron. ex. H.Wolff, and var. ste/latum (Mutis) Hieron. Hydracatyle L. H. alchemilloides A.Rich.; EC, PE; 3700--4200 m H. andina Cuatrec.; CO; 3500 m H. banplandii A.Rich. (syn.: H. bonplandii A.Rich. var. · glabra Mathias); CO, VE, EC, PE?; 3300--4100 m H. gunnerifolia Wedd.; CO, VE; 2800--4000 m H. hederacea Mathias; CO, VE; 3700--4000 m H. humbaldtii A.Rich. (syn.: H. humbaldtii A.Rich. var. pubescens Mathias); CO; 3100-3600 m H. incrassata Ruiz & Pav.; CO, PE; 3700-3800 m H. lehmannii Mathias; CO; 3300-3550 m H. mexicana Schltdl. & Cham.; CO; 3300-3600 m H. multifida A.Rich.; CO, VE; 3100-3500 m H. cf. palmata Mathias; PE; 3400-3550 m H. ranunculaides L. f.; CO, VE, PE; 2800-3800 m Lilaeopsis Greene L. mac/aviana (Gand.) A.W.Hill; CO, EC, PE; 3100--4100 m

83

L. schaffneriana (Sch1tdl.) J.M.Coult. & Rose subsp. schaffneriana; CO, EC; 2900--4450 m Micrapleura Lag. M.jlabellifa/ia Mathias; CO;? m [Note: Collected near snow line; and in the uppennost (ecotone) forest (Cieef, pers. comm.)] Myrrhidendran J.M.Coult. & Rose M. chirripaense Suess.; CR; 3300-3900 m M. dannell-smithii J.M.Cou1t. & Rose; CR, PA; 1800-3800 m M. glaucescens (Benth.) J.M.Coult. & Rose; CO, EC; 35004400 m M. maxanii J.M.Coult. & Rose; CR, PA; 3500--4000 m M. pennellii J.M.Coult. & Rose; CO; 3550 m Neanelsania J.M.Coult. & Rose N. acuminata (Benth.) J.M.Coult. & Rose ex Drude; CO; 2100-3400 m Niphagetan Schltdl. Ref.: Mathias & Constance, 1951, 1962, 1967, 1976a. N. azarellaides Mathias & Constance; EC, PE; 3600--4100 m N. chirripoi (Suess.) Mathias & Constance [syn.: N. angustisecta (H.Wo1ff) Mathias & Constance]; CR, PA, CO, VE; 2700-3800 m N. cleefii Mathias & Constance; CO; 3600--4000 m N. colombiana Mathias & Constance; CO; 3250-3500 m N. dissecta (Benth.) J.F.Macbr.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 32004500 m; includes var. ciliata (Wedd.) J.F.Macbr. & var. dissecta N. fruti casa Mathias & Constance; CO; 3750--4050 m N. g/aucescens (Kunth) J.F.Macbr.; CO, EC; 3000--4050 m N.jasei Mathias & Constance; CO; 3000--4500 m N. kalbreyeri (H.Wolff) Mathias & Constance; CO, VE; 3100--4200 m N. /ingula (Wedd.) Mathias & Constance; CR, PA, CO; 3200--4300 m N. pusilla (Wedd.) Mathias & Constance; CO; 3600--4150 m N. sprucei (H.Wolff) Mathias & Constance; EC;? m N. terna/a (Willd. ex Schltdl.) Mathias & Constance; CO, VE, EC; 2800--4000 m; includes var. orientalis Mathias & Constance & var. terna/a Oreamyrrhis Endl. O. andicola (Kunth) Hook.f.; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3100--4500 m Ottaa Kunth O. aenanthoides Kunth; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3100--4300 m; includes var. majar Wedd. & var. aenanthaides Perissacaeleum Mathias & Constance (syn.: Prianasciadium S.Watson) Ref.: Mathias & Constance, 1967. P. barclayiae Mathias & Constance; CO; 3150-3400 m P. crinaideum (Mathias & Constance) Mathias & Constance (syn.: Prianosciadium crinaideum Mathias & Constance); CO; 3250-3850 m


84

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL OARDEN

P. phylloideum (Mathias & Constance) Mathias & Constan ce . (syn.: Prionosciadium phylloideum Mathias & Constance); CO; 3000-3100 m P. purdiei Mathias & Constance; CO; 3250-4500 m Prionosciadium S.Watson (see Perissocoeleum)

AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex L. l. colombiana Cuatrec.; CO; 3450-3800 m l. ericoides Loes.; PE; 3500-3650 m l. kunthiana Triana; CO, VE; 3100-3700 m l. myricoides Kunth var. polyphylla (Benth.) Loes.; CO; 2800-3250 m l. pernervata Cua_trec.: CO; 3500-3600 m l. sessiliflora Triana; CO; 3000 m l. spinulosa Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3600 m J. suprema Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3750 m J. truxillensis Turcz. var. bullatissima Cuatrec.; VE; 3100_:_ 3400m J. unijlora Benth. var. paramensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3550 m

ARALIACEAE Oreopanax Decne. & P1anch. [Note: The genus is native to montane forest, but the species listed may be found at the upper edges of the forest or in disturbed subpáramo shrubberies.] O. argentatus (Kunth) Decne. & Planch.; CO, EC; 3250 m O. bogotensis Cuatrec.; CO; 2800-4000 m O. chrysoleucus Planch. & Lind.; VE; 3400-4000 m O. crassinervius (Kunth) Decne. & Planch.; CO; 2700-3900 m O. crataegodorus Harms; CO; 3850-3900 m O. discolor (Kunth) Decne. & Planch.; CO; 3000-3500 m O. farallonensis Cuatrec.; CO; 2700-3600 m O.fontquerianus Cuatrec.; CO; 3250-3300 m O. incisus (Willd.) Decne. & Planch.; CO; 3800-4200 m O. killipii Harms; CO; 3800-4200 m O. mutisianus (Kunth) Decne. & Planch.; CO; 3000-3800 m O. nigrus Cuatrec.; CO; 2750-3250 m O. obscurus Borchs.; EC; 2800-3500 m O. seemannianus Marcha! ("seemannianum") [syn.: O. nitidus Cuatrec. ("nitidum")]; CO, EC?; 2400-4000 m O. tolimanus Harms; CO; 3650 m Sche.fflera J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. [Note: A forest genus of mainly hemi-epiphytes, but sorne species are found in subpáramo shrubberies or forest patches.] S. bogotensis Cuatrec.; CO; 2800-4000 m S. manus-dei Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3600 m S. marginata Cuatrec.; CO; 2800 m S. velutina Cuatrec.; CO; 2800 m

ASCLEPIADACEAE Cynanchum L. C. bricenoi Morillo; VE; 3100-3350 m

[VOL. 84

C. diazmirandae Morillo; VE; 3400-4100 m C. granatense (Baill.) Morillo; CO; ? m C. intricatum K.Schum.; EC; 3900-4200 m C. longecalicinum Morillo; EC; 3700-3800 m C. paramorum Morillo; VE; 3000-3200 m C. rugosum (Turcz.) Morillo (syn.: Metastelma rugosa Turcz.); CO, VE; 2925-3500 m

Metastelma R.Br. (see Cynanchum) Sarcostemma R.Br. S. lysimachioides (Wedd.) R.W.Holm; PE; 3000-3750 m

ASTERACEAE ·'Ref.: Anderberg, 1991; Aristeguieta, 1964; Badillo, 1994, 1997; Bremer, 1994; Cuatrecasas, 1969, 1976, 1985b; Díaz Piedrahita & Vélez-Nauer, 1993; Dillon & Sagástegui, 1991a, 1991b; Jeffrey, 1992; King & Robinson, 1987; McVaugh, 1984; Nesom, 1994b, 1994c; Sagástegui & Dillon, 1986; Vision & Dillon, 1996; Weddell, 1855-1857. Achillea L. [Note: lntroduced from Europe and now escaped.] A. millefolium L.; CR, CO, EC; 2800-3500 m Achyrocline (Less.) DC. A. afata (Kunth) DC. (syn.: Gnaphalium rufescens DC., G. pellitum Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 3300-4100 m A. bogotense (Kunth) DC.; CO, VE; 3400-4000 m A. celosioides (Kunth) DC.; PE; 2200-3300 m A. crassipes S.F.Biake; CO; 3150-3700 m A. hallii Hieron.; EC; 2800-3300 m A. lehmannii Hieron.; CO, VE; 3150-4300 m A. mollis Benth.; CO; 3100-3300 m A. moritziana Klatt [syn.: Gnaphalium moritziana (Kiatt) Aristeg.; Pseudognaphalium moritzianum (Kiatt) V.M.Badillo]; CO, VE, EC; 3100-3930 m A. satureioides (Lam.) DC. [syn.: A. candicans (Kunth) DC.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3400-4000 m A. trianae Klatt; CO, EC; 3000-3700 m Aequatorium B.Nord. A. albiflorum (Wedd.) Cuatrec. & S.Díaz (syn.: Gynoxys albiflora Wedd.); CO; 2000-3900 m A. latibracteolatum S.Díaz & Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3350 m A. polygonoides (Cuatrec.) B.Nord. (syn.: Senecio polygonoides Cuatrec.); CO; 3400-3700 m A. verrucosum (Wedd.) S.Díaz & Cuatrec. (syn.: Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd. var. verrucosa and var. grandifolia Cuatrec.); CO; 3200-3900 m Aetheolaena Cass. (see Lasiocephalus) Ageratina Spach A. ampla (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 3400-4000 m A. angustifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 20503575 m A. anisochroma (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CR; 2000-3600 m

.{


1999]

PARAMOS

A. aristeguietii R.M.King & H.Rob.; VE; 3200--4025 m A. articu/ata (Sch.Bip. ex Hieran.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO, VE, EC; 2800--4000 m A. asclepiadea (L.f) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 2800-3100 m A. azangaroense (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO, EC, PE; 1700--4150 m A. baccharoides (KuntlÚ R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 28004000 m A. chachapoyensis (Cuatrec.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; PE; 3100-3550 m A. chiriquensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; PA; 3350-3400 m A. crassiceps (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 38004100m A. cuatrecasii R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 2800-3100.m A. cuencana (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 35003700 m A. cutervensis (Hieran.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 32503700 m A. e/egans (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 2800--4000 m A. exertovenosa (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC, PE; 32003500 m A.fastigiata (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 3000-3700 m A.flaviseta (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 2600-3800 m A. g/yptoph/ebia (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO, EC; 3250--4050 m A. graci/is (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob. var. epilobioides (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO, VE; 1700--4050 m A. gynoxoides (Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 3350--4000 m A. ixiocladon (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CR, PA; 10003800m A.jahnii (.EÍ.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob. [syn.: A. stevioides (Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Rob.]; VE; 2600--4000 m A. kupperi (Suess.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CR, PA; 34003700m A. la lipes (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 2800-3500 m A. mutiscuensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 28804200 m A. ocanensis (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium ocanense B.L.Rob.); CO; 3200-3700 m A. paramense (Aristeg.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; VE; 27003200m A. pichinchensis (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob. [syn.: A. ibaguensis (Sch.Bip. ex Hieran.) R.M.King & H.Rob.]; CO, VE, EC; 3000--4500 m A. prunifolia (H.B.K.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 2800-3400 m A. pseudochilca (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium cotacachense Hieran.); CO, EC; 2600-3500 m A. scopulontm (Wedd.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; PE; 3000-3800 m A. sodiroi (Hieran.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 2500-3400 m A. sternbergiana (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; PE; 2800-3450 m A. theaefolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO, VE; 34004100 m; including var. subel/iptica B.L.Rob. & var.

theaefolia A, tinifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO, VE; 3000-

Alloispermum Willd. Ref.: Fernández, 1980.

A. caracasanum (Kunth) H.Rob. [syn.: Catea caracasana (Kunth) Kuntze]; CO, VE; 3300--4000 m

A. insuetum Fernández, Urbatsch & Sullivan; CO; 24503050 m

A. sodiroi (Hieran.) H.Rob.; CO; 2650-3000 m Antennaria Gaertn. A. linearifo/ia Wedd. [syn.: Gnaphalium linearifolium (Wedd.) Franchet]; EC, PE; 3100--4000 m

Aphanactis Wedd. Ref: Robinson, 1997; Turner, 1980.

A. antisanensis H.Rob.; EC; 4200--4400 m A. barclayae H.Rob.; EC; 4100--4300 m A. brevi/igulata (see Se/loa breviligulata) A. cocuyensis Cuatrec.; CO; 4100 m A.jamesoniana Wedd.; CO, EC; 3500--4300 m A. ligulata (see Sel/oa ligulata) A. oel/gaardii H.Rob.; EC; 3500--4600 m A. pi/ose/loides Cuatrec.; CO; 3100--4300 m A. vi/losa S.F.Blake; EC, PE; 3500--4200 m Aristeguietia R.M.King & H.Rob. Ref.: King & Robinson, 1975.

A. anisodonta (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; PE; 22003450 m

A. arborea (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium arboreum Kunth); EC; 3180-3500 m A. buddleaifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium buddleaifolium Benth.); PE; 3300 m A. caca/oides (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 3100-3350 m A. glutinosa (Lam.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium glutinosum Lam.); CO, EC; 3500-3950 m Ascidiogyne Cuatrec. A. sanchezvegae Cabrera; PE; 3600--4500 m A. wurdackii Cuatrec.; PE; 3200-3900 m Aster L. (see Noticastrum) Baccharis L.

B. B. B. B. B. B. B. B.

3700 m

A. vaccinifolia (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 32503600m

A. vallincola (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; PE; 2800-3500 m

85

B. B.

[Note: Species of this genus are found mostly in subpáramo shrubberies.] Ref: Cuatrecasas, 1967a, 1967b, 1968, 1969. alaternoides Kunth; EC; 3300-3900 m arbutifolia (Lam.) Vahl; EC; 3600--4600 m; includes var. arbutifolia and var. jamesonii Cuatrec. aretioides Turcz.; EC; 4300 m auriculigera Hieran.; PE; 2700-3500 m barragensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-3700 m bogotensis Kunth; CO; 2800--4100 m boyacensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3400 m brachy/aenoides DC.; CO, VE, EC; 2800-3450 m; ineludes var. brachylaenoides and var. oblanceolata (Hieran.) Cuatrec. buddleioides Kunth; CO, EC; 2590-3420 m buxifo/ia (Lam.) Pers.; CO, EC; 3300--4200 m


86

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOT ANICAL O ARDEN

B. taespitosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (syn.: B. alpina Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 3600--4700 m; includes var. alpina (Kunth) Cuatrec., var. alpicola Cuatrec., and var. caespitosa B. caldasiana Cuatrec.; CO; 3400--4300 m B. cochensis Hieran.; CO, EC; 2850-3300 m B. cutervensís Hieran.; EC, PE; 2400-3400 m B. emarginata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; PE; 2400-3300 m B.fi'igida Kunth; PE; 3100 m B. genístelloides .(Lam.) Pers.; CO, EC, PE; 3300--4300 m B. granadina Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3200 m B. grandicapitulata Hieran. var. grandícapítulata; PE; 25004000m B. grandiflora Kunth; CO, EC; 2800-4000 m; includes subsp.faralloensís Cuatrec. and subsp. grandzjlora B. huairacajensis Hieran.; E¡C; 3000-3500 m B. humifitsa Kunth; EC; 3800--4200 m B. hutchínsonii Cuatrec.; PE; 3000-3SOO m B. klattií Benaist; EC; 3400--4300 m B. latifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (syn.: B.jloribunda Kunth); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200--4000 m B. ledifolia Kunth; PE; 3200-3500 m B. lehmannii Klatt; CO; 3000-3550 m B. libertadensís (S.B.Janes) H.Rab.; PE; 2900-3400 m B. macrantha Kunth (syn.: B. cundínamarcensis Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 3200-4000 m; includes subsp. caucacensis Cuatrec., subsp. cundinamarcensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. and its var. cocuyensis Cuatrec., subsp. macrantha, and subsp. minar (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. B. marcetíifolia Benth.; CO, EC; 3200--4000 m B. oblongifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; EC; 2400-3400 m B. odorata Kunth; CO, EC; 2200--4000 m B. pachycepha/a Hieran.; PE; 2700-3700 m B. padifolia Hieran.; CO, EC; 3500--4250 m B. paramíco/a Cuatrec.; CO; 3300--4000 m B. peruviana Cuatrec.; PE; 3000-3900 m B. prunifolia Kunth (syn.: B. densifolia Rus by); CO, EC, VE; 3300-4500 m; includes var. prunifo/ia, var. sierrana Cuatrec., and var. subprunifolia Cuatrec. B. revo/uta Kunth; CO; 3100--4000 m B. rupíco/a Kunth (syn.: B. capitoides Cuatrec.); CO; 31004350 m; includes var. orienta lis Cuatrec., var. rupicola, var. serrata Cuatrec., and var. summapacis Cuatrec. B. tarmensis Cuatrec.; PE; 2600-3600 m B. teindalensis Kunth; CO, EC; 2800-3700 m B. tricuneata (L.f.) Pers. (syn.: B. microphylla Kunth); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800--4400 m; includes var. antioquensis Cuatrec., var. paramontm Cuatrec., var. parvifolia Cuatrec., var. procumbens Cuatrec., var. tolimensis (Hieran.) Cuatrec., and var. trícuneata B. uniflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; PE; 3300--4000 m B. vacciniifolia Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3700 m B. venosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.; PE; 3500-3750 m Badilloa R.M.King & H.Rab. B. salicina (Lam.) R.M.King & H.Rab.; EC; 3700-3750 m B. venezuelense (V.M.Badilla) R.lVÍ.King & H.Rab.; VE; 2200-2900m

[VOL. 84

Barnadesia Mutis ex L. f. Ref.: Chung, 1965. B. arborea Kunth (syn.: B. sodiroi Hieran.); EC; 3100--4250 m B. dombeyana Less.; PE; 2700--4000 m B. spínosa L.f.; CO, EC; 2600--4100 m Be/loa Remy B. longifolia (Cuatrec. & Aristeg.) Sagást. $<- M.O.Dillan (syn.: Lucilia /ongifolia Cuatrec. & Aristeg.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3600--4300 m B. lopezmírandae Cabrera; PE; 3100 m B. piptolepis (Wedd.) Cabrera (syn.: Lucilia pípto/epís Wedd.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2350--4300 m B.plícatifolia Sagást. & M.O.Dillan; PE; 3000-3500 m B.'radíans (Benth.) Sagást. & M.O.Dillan [syn.: Lucilia radí. ans (Benth.) Cuatrec.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100--4300 m B. spathulifolia Sagást. & M.O.Dillan; PE; 3200-3800 m B. turno·¡' Sagást. & M.O.Dillan; PE; 3200--4000 m Bídens L. Ref.: Sherff, 1937. B. andico/a Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900--4300 m B. humilis Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 3000--4200 m B. obstruthoídes (DC.) Sch.Bip.; CR; 2000-3500 m B. pusil/a Sherff; EC; 3700 m B. rubifolia Kunth; CO, VE; 1800-3700 m B. tríplinervia Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100--4000 m; ineludes var. boyacana Sherff, var. macrantha (Wedd.) Sherff, and var. mollis (Paepp. & Endl.) Sherff B/akiella Cuatrec. B. bartsíifolia (S.F.Blake) Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3400--4200 m Cabreríel/a Cuatrec. C. opposítícordís (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio oppositícordius Cuatrec.); CO; 2970-3000 m C. sanctae-martae (Greenm.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2400-3200 m Calea L. (see Sabazía and Alloispermum) Chamomilla Gray (see Matricaria) Chaptalia Vent. C. anisobasis S.F.Blake; CO; 3200-3850 m C. cordata Hieran.; CO, EC, PE; 3500--4200 m C. e f. incana Cuatrec.; CO; 3500--4050 m C. merídensís S.F.Blake; VE; 2000-3600 m C. nutans (L.) Palak; VE; 3400-3600 m C. paramensís Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3250-3350 m Chersodoma Phi!. Ref.: Dillan & Sagástegui, 1996. C. deltoídea M.O.Dillan & Sagást.; PE; 3450--4000 m Chevreulia Cass. C. acumínata Less.; PE; 1600-3500 rri


1999]

PARAMOS

Chionolaena DC. Ref.: Freire, 1993. C. cf. ch1ysocoma (Wedd.) Freire; CO; 3300-4300 m C. columbiana S.F.Blake; CO; 3250-4450 m Chromolaena DC. C." bu/lata (Klatt) R.M.King & R.Rob.; CO; 2625-3575 m [Note: This species may be equal to C. hypericifolia.] C. colombiana (Reering) R.M.King & R.Rob.; CO; 34503750m C. hypericifolia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 700-3700 m C. persericea R.M.King & R.Rob.; CO, VE; 2800-3100 m Chrysactinium (Kunth) Wedd. Ref.: Zermoglio & Funk, 1997. C. acaule (Kunth) Wedd. [syn.: C. longiradiatum (Rieron.) R.Rob. & Brettell]; EC, PE; 2800-4300 m C. breviscapum Sagรกst. & M.O.Dillon; PE; 3300-3600 m C. caulescens (Rieron.) R.Rob. & Brettell; EC, PE; 3200 m C. hieracioides (Kunth) H.Rob. & Brettell; EC, PE; 30004300m C. rosulatum (Rieron.) R.Rob. & Brettell; PE; 3450-4000 m Chuquiraga Juss. Ref.: Ezcurra, 1985. C. jussieui J.F.Gme!. [syn.: C. insignis (Willd.) Rumb. & Bonpl., C. lancifolia Humb. & Bonpl.]; CO, EC, PE; 3400-4750 m C. oblongifolia Sagรกst. & Sรกnchez Vega; PE; 3300 m C. weberbaueri Tovar; PE; 3000-4400 m Cirsium Mili. [Note: The genus and species are introduced European weeds in pรกramo.] C. subcoriaceum (Less.) Sch.Bip.; CR; 1900-3500 m C. vulgare (Savi) Ten.; EC; 3400-3500 m Coespeletia Cuatrec. C. albarregensis Cuatrec., sp. nov. ined.; VE; 3850 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] C. elongata (A.C.Sm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia elongata A.C.Sm.); VE; 3300-3900 m C. moritziana (Sch.Bip.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia moritziana Sch.Bip.); VE; 3700-4400 m C. spicata (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Espeletia alba A.C.Sm., E. spicata Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.; C. alba (A.C.Sin.) Cuatrec.]; VE; 3000-4500 m C. thyrsiformis (A.C.Sm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia marcan a Cuatrec., E. racemosa Cuatrec., E. thyrsiformis A.C.Sm.); VE; 2800-3400 m C. timotensis (Cuatrec.) }:uatrec. [syn.: Espeletia timotensis Cuatrec., E. lutescens Cuatrec. & Aristeg.; C. lutescens (Cuatrec. & Aristeg.) Cuatrec.]; VE; 3900-4500 m Conyza Less. Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1969. C. bonariensis (L.) Cronquist var. leiotheca (S.F.Biake)

87

Cuatrec. [syn.:. C. jloribunda Kunth, C. sumatrensis (Retz.) E.Walker]; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3400 m C. cardaminifolia Kunth; EC; 3450-4600 m C. coronopifolia Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m C.filaginoides (DC.) Rieron. (syn.: Laenneciafilaginoides DC.); CO, VE; 3200 m C. gnaphalioides Kunth [syn.: Laennecia gnaphalioides (Kunth) Cass.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200 m C. laevigata (Rich.) Pruski (syn.: C. apurensis Kunth); VE; 3300-3350 m C. lasseriana Aristeg. [syn.: Laennecia lasseriana (Aristeg.) G.L.Nesom]; VE; 2500-4100 m C. mima S.F.Biake [syn.: Laennecia mima (S.F.Blake) G.L.Nesom]; VE; 3500-4300 m C. primuliifolia (Lam.) Cuatrec. & Lourteig (syn.: C. chilensis Spreng.); EC; 3600-4000 m C. prolialba Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3350-4300 m C. sophiifolia Kunth (syn.: Laennecia sophiifolia (Kunth) G.L.Nesom]; CO, VE, EC; 2100-3700 m C. trihecatactis (S.F.Biake) Cuatrec. [syn.: Erigeron trihecatactis S.F.Biake]; CO, EC; 3000-3900 m C. uliginosa (Benth.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Erigeron popayanensis Rieron.); CO, VE, EC; 3100-4500 m; includes var. angustifolia Cuatrec., var. columbiana (Rieron.) Cuatrec., var. hirsuta (Rieron.) Cuatrec., and var. uliginosa] Coreopsis L. Ref.: Tadesse et al., 1995. C. fasciculata Wedd. (syn.: C. suaveolens Sherff var. ecuadoriensis Sherff); EC, PE; 2700-4000 m C. integra S.F.Biake; PE; 2250-3750 m C. obovatifolia Sagรกst.; PE; 2700-3600 m C. petrophiloides B.L.Rob. & Greenm.; CR; 3300 m C. polyactis S.F.Biake & Sherff ex Sherff; PE; 3500-3600 m C. venusta Kunth (syn.: C. !angula S.F.Biake); EC, PE; 2100-4100 m C. woytkowskii Sherff; PE; 2700-3400 m Cotufa L. C. australis (Sieber ex Spreng) Roo k. f.; PE; 3100-3200 m C. mexicana (DC.) Cabrera [syn.: C. minuta (L. f.) Schinz]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4400 m Critoniopsis Sch.Bip. C. huairacajana (Rieron.) H.Rob. (syn.: Vernonia huairacajana Rieron.); EC, PE; 2900-3450 m Cronquistianthus R.M.King & R.Rob. C. celendensis R.M.King & R.Rob. [syn.: Eupatorium celendensis (R.M.King & R.Rob.) B.L.Turner]; PE; 2100-3100m C. desmophyllus (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & R.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium desmophyllus B.L.Rob.); PE; 3100-3200 m C. lavandulaefolia (DC.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium lavandulaefolium DC.); PE; 3200-3400 m C. pseudoriganoides (Rieron.) R.M.King & R.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium pseudoriganoides Rieron.); EC; 3200-3700 m

1


88

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Ct<afrecasasie/la H.Rob. C. isernii (Cuatrec.) H.Rob. (syn.: Luci/iopsis isernii Cuatrec.); EC; 3700-4700 m Cu/citium Bonpl. (see also synonyms under Lasiocephalus and Senecio) Dendrophorbium (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey (see also synonyms under Pentacalia and Senecio) Diplostephium Kunth Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1943, 1969. D. abietinum S.F.B1ake; PE; 4000 m D. alveo/atum Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-4450 m D. anactinotum Wedd.; CO; 3600-4430 m D. apiculatum S:F.Blake; CO; 3500-4200 m D. asp/undii Cuatrec.; EC; 3500 m D. azureum Cuatrec.; PE; 4000 m D. barclayanum Cuatrec.; EC; 3700 m D. bicolor S.F.Blake (syn.: D. tabanense Cuatrec.); CO; 3350-3700 m D. cajamarquillensis Cuatrec.; PE; 3925 m D. ca/laense Cuatrec.; PE; 3300-4000 m D. cayambense Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3250-3800 m D. cinerascens Cuatrec. subsp. puracense (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: D. vio/aceum Cuatrec. var. puracensis Cuatrec., D. cinerascens var. centra/e Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 32004200 m D. co/ombianum (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3700-4500 m D. coriaceum Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3400 m D. costaricense S.F.Blake; CR, PA; 3300-3800 m D. crassifolium Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3000-3600 m D. crypteriophyllum Cuatrec.; EC; 3000-3400 m D. cyparissias Wedd.; CO; 3500-4000 m D. empetrifolium S.F.Blake; EC; 2800-3400 m D. ericoides (Lam.) Cabrera (syn.: D. antisanense Hieron., D. lavandu/ifolius Kunth, D. pycnophyllum S.F.Blake); EC; 3000-4500 m D. eriophorum Wedd.; CO; 3300-4600 m D. espinosae Cuatrec.; EC; 2700-3800 m D.farallonense (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-4000 m D..fernandez-a/onsoi S.Díaz; CO; 3250-3300 m D. jloribundum (Benth.) Wedd.; CO, EC; 3400-3700 m; includes subsp. aequatoriense Cuatrec., s~bsp. cundinamarcense Cuatrec., subsp. jloribundum, and subsp. putumayense Cuatrec. D.foliosissimum S.F.Blake·; EC, PE; 2900-4000 m D. friedbergii Cuatrec.; PE; 3250-3400 m D.ji·ontinense Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3450 m D. glandu/osum Hieron. (syn.: D. cicatricosu.m S.F.Biake); CO, EC; 3400-4100 m D. glutinosum S.F.Blake (syn.: D. subspathu/atum Cuatrec.); CO, VE; 3700-4200 m; includes f. glutinosum, f. microphyllum Cuatrec., and f. subspathu/atum (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. D. grantii Cuatrec.; CO; 2550-? m D. hartwegii Hieron. (syn.: D. adenachaenium S.F.Blake); CO, EC; 3250-4200 m D. heterophyllum Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3800 m

[VOL. 84

D. inesianum Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-4500 m D.je/skii Hieron.; EC; 3350-3450 m D. juajibioyi Cuatrec.; CO; 3550-3900 m; includes subsp. juajibioyi and subsp. leucopappum Cuatrec. D. /acunosum Cuatrec.; CO; 3800-4300 m D. /eiocladum S.F.Blake; CO; 3300-3500 m D. macrocephalum S.F.B1ake; EC; 3200-3800 m D. meyenii (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) S.F.Blake; PE; 3200-3700 m D. micradenium S.F.Blake; CO; 3300-3500 m D. nevadense Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-4700 m D. oblanceolatum S.F.Blake; EC; 3000-3950 m D. ob/ongifolium Cuatrec.; CO; 2770 m D. obtusum S.F.Blake; VE; ~200-3400 m D. ochraceum (Kunth) N e es (syn.: D. denticulatum .· S.F.Blake); CO, EC; 3000-3500 m D. pachyphyllum Cuatrec.; PE; 3300-3600 m D. parvifolium S.F.Blake (syn.: D. microphyllum Wedd.); CO; 3000-4500 m D. phylicoides (Kunth) Wedd.; CO; 2800-4050 m D. pittieri Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3600 m D. rangelii Cuatrec.; CO; 3850 m D. revolutum S.F.Blake (syn.: D. revolutum var. rubrum Cuatrec., D. revolutum f. macrocephala Cuatrec.); CO; 3000-4200 m D. rhododendroides Hieron.; CO, EC; 3500-4000 m D. rhomboidale Cuatrec. [syn.: D. cochense Cuatrec., D. lehmannianum (Hieron.) Hieron.]; CO, EC; 3400-4400 m; includes var. paucijlorum Cuatrec. and var. rhomboidale D. ritterbushii Cuatrec.; CO; 4200-4300 m D. rosmarinifolium (Benth.) Wedd. (syn.: D. baccharideum S.F.Blake); CO, VE; 2500-3300 m D. rupestre (Kunth) Wedd.; CO, EC; 3600-4500 m D. sagasteguii Cuatrec.; PE; 3800-4000 m D. santamartae Cuatrec.; CO; 3450 m D. saxati/e Cuatrec.; CO; 3850-4050 m D. schultzii Wedd. (syn.: D. pleistogynum S.F.Blake); CO, VE, EC; 3100-4400 m; includes var. lehmannianum Hieron., var. orienta/e (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., and var. sch'ultzii D. spinulosum Wedd.; CO, EC; 3300-4000 m D. stuebelii (Hieron.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Aster stuebelii Hieron.); PE; 3200-3450 m (Note: Perhaps this species is better placed in Noticastrum.] D. tenuifolium Cuatrec.; CO; 2600-3900 rn D. tergocanum Cuatrec.; CO; 3750-3800 111 D. tolimense Cuatrec. (syn.: D. boyacense Cuatrec.); CO; 3200-4000 m D. venezue/ense Cuatrec.; VE; 3300-3800 m D. weddellii S.F.Blake (syn.: D. sessiliflorum Wedd.); CO; 3400-4400 m D. wurdackii Cuatrec.; PE; 3200-3450 m D. yahuarcochense Cuatrec.; PE; 3600 m Dorobaea Cass. Ref.: Nordenstam & Pruski, 1995. D. ca/lacal/ensis (Cllatrec.) B.Nord. & Pruski (syn.: Senecio ca/laca/lensis Cuatrec.); PE; 2800-3100 m


1999]

PARAMOS

D. pimpinelifolia (Kunth) B.Nord. (syn.: Senecio pimpinelifolius Kunth, S. nubigenus Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 34004200 m

89

E. estanis/ana Cua(rec.; CO; 3400-4100 m E.ji-ontinoensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3500 m E. grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl. (syn.: E. grandiflora var. subnivalis Cuatrec.); CO; 3200-4100 m; inc1udes var. Erígeron L. attenuata Cuatrec., var. boyacana Cuatrec., and var. Ref.: Solbrig, 1962. grandiflora E. guascensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3300 m [Note: This speE. chionophilus Wedd. var. chionophilus; CO, EC, PE; 3500-4700 m cies may be a hybrid, according to Cuatrecasas E. ecuadoriensis Hieron: (syn.: E. weddellianus Hieron.); (unpubl.).] E. hartwegiana Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-4500 m; includes subsp. CO, EC, PE; 3600-4600 m • E. gnaphalioides Kunth; EC; 3500 m barragansis Cuatrec., subsp. centroandina Cuatrec., and E. irazuensis Greenm.; CR; 1500-3500 m [Note: This spesubsp._hartwegiana var. hartwegiana, var. morarum cies may equa1 E. karwinskianus DC. (J. Sánchez G., Cuatrec., and var. vegasana Cuatrec. pers. comm.).] E. idroboi Cuatrec.; CO; 3100 m E. lanceolatus Wedd. var. subacaulis Wedd.; PE; 2900-3150 m E. incana Cuatrec.; CO; 2900-3900 m E. paramensis Aristeg. & Cuatrec. [syn.: Oritrophium E.jajoensis Aristeg. [syn.: Espeletiopsisjajoensis (Aristeg.) paramense (Aristeg. & Cuatrec.) Aristeg.]; CO, VE; Cuatrec.]; VE; 2600-3600 m 3500-4500 m E.jaramilloi S.Díaz; CO; 3500-3750 m E. raphaelis Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3100-3650 m E. killipii Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-4000 m; inc1udes var. E. turczaninowii Wedd.; EC; 3100-4400 m (E. pi~natus chisacana Cuatrec. and var. killipii Turcz. auct., nom. illeg.) E. lopezii Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-4500 m; in eludes fo. alticola E. uliginosum Benth.; EC; 3400-3500 m Cuatrec., var. escobalensis Cuatrec., var. /opezii, and var. • E. variifolius S.F.B1ake; EC; 3500-4500 m majar Cuatrec. E. marthae Cuatrec.; VE; 3000-3500 m Espeletia Mutis ex Humb. & Bonpl. (see a1so synonyms E. miradorensis Cuatrec. (syn.: E. grandiflora Humb. & · ·under Coespeletia, Espeletiopsis, Libanothamnus, and Bonpl. var. miradorensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3550 m Ruilopezia) E. murilloi Cuatrec.; CO; 2700-3600 m Ref.: Smith & Koch, 1935. E. nana Cuatrec.; VE; 3000-4000 m E. algodonosa Aristeg.; VE; 3000 m [Note: This species is E. nemenkenii Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3550 m a hybrid between E. schultzii andE. nana (Cuatrecasas, E. accidenta lis A.C.Sm.; CO; 2600-3000 m; includes subsp. antioquiensis Cuatrec. and subsp. occidentalis unpuql.).] E. annemariana Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-4000 m E. oswaldiana S.Díaz; CO; 2900-3000 m E. perijaensis Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 2700-3300 m E. arbelaezii Cuatrec.; CO; 3300 m E. pescana (S.Díaz) Cuatrec. (syn.: E. brachyaxiantha E. argentea Humb. & Bonpl. [syn.: E. phaneractis S.Díaz subsp. pescana S.Díaz); CO; 3750 m (S.F.B1ake) A.C.Sm.]; CO; 3200-3550 m E. aristeguietana Cuatrec.; VE; 2500-2850 m E. praeji-ontina Cuatrec.; CO; 3450-3500 m E. pycnophy/la Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3000-4000 m; inc1udes E. aurantia Aristeg.; VE; 4000-4100 m [Note: This speCies subsp. angelensis Cuatrec. and subsp. pycnophy/la var. is a hybrid with Coespeletia sp. (Cuatrecasas, unpubl.).] /acinulata Cuatrec. and var. galerana Cuatrec. E. azucarina Cuatrec.; CO; 4000 m E. robertii Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3900 m E. barclayana Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-3700 m E. rosita e Cuatrec. (syn.: E. rositae Cuatrec. var. E. batata Cuatrec.; VE; 3600-4300 m macrocephala Cuatrec.); CO; 3300-4050 m E. boyacensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3900 m E. schultesiana Cuatrec.; CO; 2500-3200 m E. brachyaxiantha S.Díaz; CO; 3800-3900 m E. schultzii Wedd.; VE; 2600-4200 m E. brassicoidea Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 2500-3600 m; includes E. semiglobulata Cuatrec. (syn.: E. rufescens Cuatrec.); VE; subsp. angustata Cuatrec., subsp. brassicoidea, and 3400-3900 m subsp. constricta Cuatrec. E. standleyana A.C.Sm.; CO; 2900-3920 m; includes subsp. E. cabrerensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3200 m ampla (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. and subsp. luxior Cuatrec. _ E. canescens A.C.Sm.; CO; ? m E. steyermarkii Cuatrec.; VE; 2800-3300 m E. cayetana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: E. grandiflora Humb. E. subnerifolia Cuatrec.; CO; 3700-3950 m & Bonpl. var. cayetana Cuatrec.); CO; 3500-3650 m E. summapacis Cuatrec.; CO; 3650-4000 m E. chocontana Cuatrec.; CO; 3650-3700 m . E. tapirophila Cuatrec.; CO; 3400 m E. cleefii Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-4300 m E. tenore Aristeg.; VE; 3300-3500 m E. congestiflora Cuatrec.; CO; 3150-3900 m E. ti/lettii Cuatrec.; VE; 3100 m E. conglomerata A.C.Sm.; CO; 3400-3900 m E. tunjana Cuatrec.; CO; 2900--3100 m E. cuniculorum Cuatrec.; VE; 33.50 m E. ulotricha Cuatrec.; VE; 3100-3550 m E. curialensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3500 m E. uribei Cuatrec.; CO; 3250-3500 m E. discoidea Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3800 m E. weddellii Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.; VE; 3100-4000 m E. dugandii Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3400 m


90

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Espeletiopsis Cuatrec. Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1996. E. almorzana Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3800 m E. angustifolia (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2600-3500 m E. bogotensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2500-3600 m E. caldasii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia caldasii Cuatrec.); CO; 3200-3400 m E. colombiana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec . (syn.: Espeletia colombiana Cuatrec.); CO; 4250-4500 m E. corymbosa (Humb. &. Bonpl.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia corymbosd Humb. & Bonpl.); CO; 3150-4000 m; ineludes subsp. corymbosa and subsp. zipaquirana Cuatrec. E. cristalinensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2400-3100 m E.funckii (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-3800 m E. garciae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2600-2900 m E. insignis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2800-3300 m E.jimenez-quesadae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3850 m; includes var. guacharaca (S.Díaz) Cuatrec. E. meridensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2900-3200 m E. muiska (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3800 m E. pannosa (Standl.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3200-4150 m E. petiolata (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3650 m E. pleiochasia (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2950-3350 m; ineludes var. pleiochasia and var. socotana Cuatrec. E. pozoensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2700-3400 m E. purpurascens (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 2800--3500 m E. santanderensis (A.C.Sm.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2600-4300 m E. sclerophyl!a (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3700 m E. trianae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia trianae Cuatrec.); CO; 3000 m Eupatorium L. (see Ageratina) Facelis Cass. F. lasiocarpa (Griseb.) Cabrera; PE; 2200-3500 m Flosca/dasia Cuatrec. F. hypsophila Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 4100-4550 m Flosmutisia Cuatrec. Re f.: Cuatrecasas, 1985b. F. paramicola Cuatrec.; CO; 3480 m Freya V.M.Badillo F. alba V.M.Badillo; VE; ca. 3200 m Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav. G. mandonii Sch.Bip.; PE; 2900--3800 m G. parviflora Cav.; CO, EC, PE; 1400-3100 m Gamochaeta Wedd. Ref.: Dillon & Sagástegui, 1986b. G. americana (Mil l.) Wedd. [syn.: Gnaphalium americanum Mill., Gn. spicatum Lam.; Gamochaeta spicata (Lam.) Cabrera]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2300-4100 m G. badi/lana (Aristeg.) A.Anderb.; VE; 3000 m G. filaginea (DC.) Cabrera (syn.: Gnaphalium filagineum DC.); EC?, PE; 3800 m

[VOL. 84

humi/is Wedd.; EC?, PE; 3600 m meridensis V.M.Badillo; VE; 3500 m oreophi/a M.O.Dillon & Sagást.; PE; 3100-4870 m paramora (S.F.Blake) A.Anderb. [syn.: Gnapha/ium paramorum S.F.Blakef Lucilia paramorum (S.F.Blake) V.M.Badillo]; CO, VE; 2900-4000 m G. pennsylvanica (Willd.) Cabrera; VE, PE; 3050-4100 m G. purpurea (L.) Cabrera (syn.: Gnaphalium columbianum Hieron.); CO, VE, EC; 3000-4300 m G. sphace/ata (Kunth) Cabrera (syn.: Gnaphalium / sphacelatum Kunth); VE, EC, PE; 3500-3600 m / G. stachydifolia (Lam.) Cabr. (syn.: Gnaphalium stachydifolia Lam.); VE; ? m G. G. G. G.

Gnaphaliothamnus Kirp. · Ref.: Nesom, 1990a, 1990b, 1994a. G. /avendulaceum G.L.Nesom (DC.) [syn.: Gnaphalium lavandulaceum DC., G. lavandulifolium (Kunth) S.F.Blake; Chionolaena /avandulifo/ia (Kunth) S.F.Blake]; CR; 3100·-3800 m Gnapha/ium L. (see also synonyms under Achyrocline, Be/loa, Chionolaena, Gamochaeta, Lucilia) G. antennarioides DC.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3400-4300 m G. attenuatum DC.; CR, PA; 2900-3200 m G. cheiranthifolia Lam.; CO, VE, EC; 3200-4200 m G. chimborazense Hieron.; EC; 4000-4300 m G. dombeyanum DC. [syn.: Pseudognaphalium dombeyanum (DC.) A.Anderb.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4400 m G. dysodes Spreng.; EC; 3000-3550 m G. e/egans Kunth [syn.: Pseudognaphalium elegans (Kunth) A.Anderb.; G. poeppigianum DC.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3450 m G. gnaphalioides (Less.) P.Beauv.; CO; 3650-3900 m G. lanuginosum Kunth; CO?, PE; 3500 m G. liebmannii Sch.Bip. ex Klatt.; CR; 3000-3500 m; includes var. monticola (McVaugh) D.Nash G. linearum Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3500 m G. meridanum Aristeg. [syn.: Pseudognaphalium meridanum (Aristeg.) A.Anderb.]; CO, VE, EC; 3500-4500 m G. polium Wedd.; PE; 3600-3800 m G. rhodarum S.F.Blake; CR, PA; 2700-3800 m G. roseum Kunth; CR; 2000-3500 m G. rosulatum S.Moore; CO; 3100-4900 m G. schlimii Briq.; CO; 2450-3050 m G. subsericeum S.F.B!ake; CR, CO, PE; 2800 m G. tenue Kunth; CO, EC; 2300-3500 m Grosvenoria R.M.King & H.Rob. G. hypargyra (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 30003800m G. rimbachii (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 35003700 m Gy1wxys Cass. [Note: Many trees of this genus are found in protected habitats with Polylepis.] Ref.: Herrera A. de Loja, 1980.


1~9]

PARAMOS

G. acostae Cuatrec.; EC; 3200-4000 m G. albivestita Cuatrec.; CO; 3450-4300 m G. apollinaris Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-3700 m G. arnicae Cuatrec. var. scandens Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3600 m G. baccharoides (Kunth) Cass.; EC; 3900-4100 m G. bracteolatr; Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-4400 m G. buxifolia (Kunth) Cass.; CO, EC, PE; 3000-4100 m G. calyculisolvens Rieron.; EC, PE; 3100-3550 m G. caracensis Muschl.; PE; 3400-4000 m G. chingualensis R.Rob. & Cuatrec.; EC; 3400-3600 m G. colanensis M.O.Dillon & Sagást.; PE; 3000-3450 m G. columbiana (K1att) Rieron.; CO; ? m J G. costihirsuta Cuatrec.; PE; 3200-3450 m G. cuicochensis Cuatrec.; EC; 3100-3500 m G. dilloniana Sagást. & Tellez; PE; 3300-4100 m G.ferreyrae B.Rerrera; PE; 3400-3850 m 1 G. jlexopedes Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3500 m G.jlorulenta Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3500 m G. hallii Rieron.; EC; 3300-3900 m .G. hirsuta Wedd.; CO; 3450-4000 m G. hutchisonii R.Rob. & Cuatrec.; PE; 3400-3550 m G. hypoleucophy/la Cuatrec.; PE; 3200-3450 m G. induta Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3550 m G. laurata Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3500 m G. lehmannii Rieron.; CO; 3300-3600 m G. lindenii Sch.Bip.; CO; 3700 m G. meridana Cuatrec.; VE, EC; 3050-4100 m G. miniphylla Cuatrec.; EC; 3100-3950 m G. moritziana Sch.Bip.; VE; 3100-3800 m G. nítida Muschl.; PE; 3500-3850 m G. paramuna Cuatrec.; CO; 3750-4100 m • G. parvifolia Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3000-4100 m _ G. pendula Sch.Bip. ex·Wedd.; CO, EC; 3600-4200 m .G. perbracteata Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3400 m G. rugulosa Muschl.; PE; 3700-4100 m G. sancti-antonii Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3200-4200 m G. sodiroi Rieron.; EC, PE; 3400-3800 m G. soukupii ~uatrec.; PE; 2800-3550 m G. subcinerá Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-4200 m G. subhirsuta Cuatrec.; CO; 3650-3800 m G. tolimensis Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3350-4300 m G. tomentosissima Cuatrec.; PE; 3000-3500 m G. trianae Rieron.; CO; 3400-4000 m G. validifolia Cuatrec.; EC; 31 00-3'450 m G. violacea Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.; VE; 2500-3850 m G. visoensis Cuatrec.; PE; 3800 m

91

'Hieracium L. H. avilae Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 3100-4050 m H. eriadenium S1eumer; PE; 2000-4000 m H. erianthum Kunth; CO, VE; 3600-3800 m H.frigidum Wedd.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3250-4900 m H. irasuense Benth. (syn.: H. maxonii S.F.Blake, H. standleyi S.F.Blake); CR, PA; 1500-3800 m

H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H.

lagopus D.Don; EC, PE; 3100-3250 m lehmannii Zahn; CO; 3550-3700 m mapirense Britton; PE; 2800-3500 m paletaranum S1eumer; CO; 3100-3250 m sodiroanum Zahn; EC; 2800-3400 m tal/enganum Zahn; PE; 1900-3750 m tolimense Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-4200 m venezuelanum Arv.-Touv.; VE; 3600 m

Hiliterhubera Sch.Bip. ex Wedd. Ref.: Cuatrecasas & Aristeguieta, 1956.

H. H. H. H. H. H. H. H.

adenopetala Cuatrec. & Aristeg.; VE; 3200-4200 m columbica Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.; CO, VE; 3800-4900 m ericoides Wedd.; VE; 3500-4300 m harrietae Cuatrec.; CO; 4500-4900 m imbrica/a Cuatrec. & Aristeg.; VE; 3900-4000 m lanuginosa Cuatrec. & Aristeg.; VE; 3500-4300 m laseguei Wedd.; VE; 3700-4800 m nevadensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-4850 m

Hymenostephium Benth. (see Viguiera) Hypochaeris L. (not "Rypochoeris") H. barbato (Sch.Bip.) Reiche; CO, EC, PE; 3750-4450 m H. elata Griseb.; EC, PE; 2600-3150 m H. eriolaena (Sch.Bip.) Reiche; PE; 3200-3850 m H. gramínea Rieron.; PE; 2400-3500 m H. hohenackeri Sch.Bip.; PE; 3500-3750 m H. meyeriana (Wa1p.) Griseb.; EC, PE; 2500-3500 m H. radica/a L.; CR, CO, EC; 1800-4000 m H. sessilijlora Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3450-4900 m; ineludes var. albiflora Rieron. and var. sessilijlora H. setosa (Wedd.) Rusby; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-4100 m H. sonchoides Kunth; EC; 3500-4 700 m H. taraxacoides (Walp.) Benth. & Rook.f.; CO, PE; 30004300m

Iltisia S.F.Blake l echandiensis R.M.King & R.Rob.; CR, PA; 3000-3550 m l repens S.F.Blake; CR; 3100-3500 m

Haplopappus Cass. (see Llerasia)

Jalcophila M.O.Dillon & Sagásteg.

Helianthopsis R.Rob. (see Pappobolus)

Ref.: Díllon & Sagástegui, 1986a. J. ecuadoriensis M.O.Dillon & Sagásteg.; EC; 3750-4000 m J. peruviana M.O.Dillon & Sagásteg.; PE; 3250-3800 m

Helianthus L. (see Pappolobus) Heliopsis Pers. H. decumbens S.F.B1ake; PE; 3100 m H. lanceo/ata S.F.B1ake; CO; 2800-3450 m

Jaramil/oa R.M.King & R.Rob. J. hylibates (B.L.Rob.)R.M.King & R.Rob.; CO; 2700-3750 m Jungia L.f. Ref.: Rar1ing, 1991.

Helogyne Nutt. H. calocephala Mattf.; PE; 3300-3400 m

J. coarctata Rieron. (syn.: J. lehmannii Rieron.); CO, EC; 2800-3600 m


92

.MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

J.jerruginea L.f.; CO, VE, EC; 2500-3650 m J. karstenii Sch.Bip. ex Cuatrec.; CO; 4000 m , J. panicu/ata (DC.) A.Gray subsp. stipu/ifera (Cuatrec.) Har1ing; CO; 2500-3300 m J. rugosa Less.; EC, PE; 2800-3700 m J. stuebe/ii (Hieron.) Crisci; PE; 2200-3500 m Laestadia Kunth ex Less. L. costaricensis S.F.B1ake; CR, PA; 3000-3500 m L. muscico/a Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 32004050m L. pinifolia Kunth ex Less.; CO; 3150-3900 m L. rupestris Benth.; CO; 3400-3800 m

[VOL. 84

L. neriifo/ius (Sch.Bip./ex Wedd.) Emst.; CO, VE; 20003600 m; inc1udes var. neriifolius and var. turmalensis Cuatree, L. occultus (S.F.Blake) Cuatrec. [syn.: L. glossophyllus (Mattf.) Cuatrec., 'L. humbertii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.]; CO, VE; 2700-4000 m; includes var. occultus and var. salomonii Cuatrec. & López-Fig. L. parvulus Cuatrec.; VE; 3100-3400 m L. spectabilis Cuatrec.; VE; 2900-3250 m L. tam~nus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia tamanus Cuatrec.); CO; 2900-3300 m

Llerasia Triana [Note: Mostly a forest genus, but sorne species are found . in disturbed páramo.] Lagenifera Cass. (see Myriactis) . ·L. caucana (S.F.B1ake) Cuatrec.; CO; 2500-3600 m L. hypoleuca (Turcz.) Cuatrec. var. serrata Cuatrec. (syn.: HapLagenophora Cass. (syn.: Lagenifera Cass.) (seeMyriactis) p/opapus hypoleucus Turcz.); CO, EC; 1580-3700 m Lasiocepha/us Willd. ex Sch1tdl. (syn.: Aetheolaena Cass ..) L.lindeniiTriana var. subcalva (S.F.B1ake) Cuatrec. (syn.: Happ/opapus lehmannii S.F.B1ake); CO, EC; 2700-3600 m Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1978. L. cuencanus (Hieran.) Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC; 2950-3600 m L. doryphyllus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3850-4400 m Loricaria Wedd. Re f.: Cuatrecasas, 1954. L. gargantanus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3800-4600 m L. heterophyllus (Turcz.) Cuatrec.; EC; 2900-3300 m L. antisanensis Cuatrec.; EC; 3950-4200 m L. involucratus (Kunth) Cuatrec.; CO, EC, PE; 3200-4150 m L. azuayensis Cuatrec.; EC; 3800-3950 m L. co/umbiana Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-5000 m L. lingulatus Schltdl. [syn.: Senecio lingulatus (Schltdl.) L. complanata (Sch.Bip.) Wedd. subsp. occidentalis Cuatrec.]; EC; 3450-4200 m Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3350-4500 m; inc1udes var. occiL. /oeseneri (Hieron.) Cuatrec.; PE; 2400-3450 m dentalis Cuatrec. and var. tatamensis Cuatrec. L. longepenicillatus (Sch.Bip. ex Sandwith) Cuatrec. (syn.: L.ferruginea (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.; EC, PE; 3100-4800 m Senecio /ongepenicil/atus Sch.Bip. ex Sandwith, S. pittierii Cuatrec.); VE; 2900-4400 m L. ilinissae (Benth.) Cuatrec.; EC; 3500-4450 m L. lagunillensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3800 m L. mojandensis (Hieron.) Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3200-4400 m L. otophorus (Wedd.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio otephorus L. leptothamna (Mattf.) Cuatrec.; PE; 3400-4000 m L. lycopodjnea Cuatrec.; PE; 4000-4100 m Wedd.); CO, EC; 3350-4400 m L. macbridei Cuatrec.; PE; 4000 m L. ovatus Sch1tdl. [syn.: Culcitium ovatum (Schltdl.) S.F.Blake, C. reflexum Kunth, C. uniflorum (Lam.) L. oel/gaardii M.O.Dillon & Sagást.; EC; 3350-3450 m Hieron.; Senecio superandinus Cuatrec.]; CO, EC; 3200L. pauciflora Cuatrec.; PE; 3350 m 4500m L. puracensis Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3500-3600 m L. patens (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Gynoxys auriculata L. sco/opendra (Hook.) Kuntze; EC; 3050-4200 m Turcz.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3600-4300 m L. thuyoides (Lam.) Sch.Bip.; CO, EC, PE; 3300-4500 m; L. puracensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Culcitium pura cense inc1udes var. stuebelii (Hieron.) Cuatrec. and var. Cuatrec.); CO; 3800-4500 m thuyoides L. sodiroi (Hieran.) Cuatrec.; EC; 3200-4300 m Lourteigia R.M.King & H.Rob. Liabum Adans. (see Munnozia senecioides) L. bal/otaefo/ia (Kunth) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 27003750m L. humilis (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Rob. [syn.: Eupatorium Libanothamnus Ernst humile (Benth.) Hieron.]; CO; 3150-3700 m [Note: A forest genus that reaches into páramo under disL. lanulata (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 2800-3600 m turbance or edaphic factors.] L. arboreus (Aristeg.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3100-3350 m L. microphylla (L. f.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 3150-3600 m L. banksiaefolius (Sch.Bip. & Ettingsj. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec.; L. ornatiloba (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupa. torium ornatilobum B.L.Rob.); CO; 2800-3800 m VE; 2700-3300 m; includes var. banksiaefolius and var. L. scandens V .M.Badillo; VE; 3100 m granatensis Cuatrec. L. divisoriensis Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3200-3650 m L. stoechadifo/ia (L. f.) R.M.King & H.Rob. (syn.: Eupatorium stoechadifolium L.f.); CO, VE; 2900-4100 m L. griffinii (Ruiz-Terán & López-Fig.) Cuatrec.; VE; 26003100m Lucilia Cass. L. liscanoanus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2900-:-3550 m L. kunthiana (DC.) Zardini [syn.: Gnaphalium kunthianum L. lucidus (Aristeg.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3300-3500 m


1999]

PARAMOS

(DC.) Kuntze, L. lehniannii Hieran., L. pusilla Hieran., . L. venezuelensis Steyerm.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 36504500 m L. saxatilis V.M.Badillo; VE; 3000-3100 m Luciliopsis Wedd. (see Cuatrecasasiella) Matricaria L. [Note: This genus is cu1tivated as an herbal and rare1y escapes into páramo.] M chamomilla L. [syn.: M recutita L.; Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert]; CO; 3500-3600 m Mikania Willd. [Note: Most1y a forest genus, but reaching páramo in disturbed situations.] M aristei B.L.Rob.; CO; 2300-3100 m M caldasana B.L.Rob.; CO; 3000-3500 m M harlingii R.M.King & H.Rob.; EC; 2700-3000 m M iltisii R.M.King & H.Rob.; CR; 1900-3300 m M miconoides B.L.Rob.; VE; 2700-3300 m M. stuebelii Hieran.; CO, EC; 2700-3700 m M violascens (B.L.Rob.) R.M.King & H.Rob.; CO; 29003250 m Mniodes (A.Gray) A.Gray ex Benth. & Hook.f. M pulvinata Cuatrec.; PE; 3900-4900 m Monactis Kunth M macbridei H.Rob.; PE; 2800-3600 m Monticalia C.Jefftey (see species in synonymy of Pentacalia) Munnozia Ruiz & Pav. M acostae (I Chung) H.Rob. & Brettell; EC; 3200-4000 m Mjussieui (Cass.) H.Rob. & Brettell (syn.: Liabum nonoense Hieran., L. tabanense Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 25003800m M lyrata (A.Gray) H.Rob. & Brettell; PE; 2800-3800 m M. nívea (Hieran.) H.Rob. & Brettell; CO, EC, PE; 26003500m M peruensis (Cuatrec.) H.Rob. & Brettell; PE; 1800-3500 m M. sagittata (Sch.Bip.) H.Rob. & Brettell (syn.: Liabum sagittatum Sch.Bip.); CO; 2850 m M. senecionidis Benth. (syn.: Liabum megacephalum Sch.Bip.); CO, V~ 3200-3550 m Mutisia L. f. Ref.: Cabrera, 1965. M afata Hieran.; EC; 2900-3900 m M. andersonii Sodira ex Hieran.; EC; 3000-3500 m M clematis L. f.; CO, EC; 2600-3900 m M intermedia Hieran.; EC; 2000-3400 m [Note: Incorrect1y cited by Harling (1991) as M. grandiflora Humb. & Bonpl. (Ulloa U. & Jorgensen, 1996).] M. lehmannii Hieran.; EC; 3500-3700 m M microcephala Sodira ex Cabrera; EC; 3300-3800 m M. microphylla Willd. ex DC.; EC; 2850-4180 m

93

M. ochroleucá Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3500 m M. sodiroi Hieran.; CO, EC; 2750-3650 m M. viridis Cuatrec.; CO; 3450-3500 m Myriactis Less. [syn.: Lagenophora Cass. (= Lagenifera Cass.)] M. andina (V.M.Badillo) M.C.Vélez (syn.: Lagenophora andina V.M.Badillo); CR, VE; 3600-4400 m M. minuscula (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Lagenophora minuscu.la Cuatrec.); PA; 3150-3335 m M. panamensis (S.F.B1ake) Cuatrec. (syn.: Lagenophora panamensis S.F.B1ake); CR, PA; 2800-3400 m M. sakirana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Lagenifera sakirana Cuatrec.); CR; 3000-3500 m M westonii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Lagenifera westonii Cuatrec.); CR; 3200-3500 m Noticastrum DC. N. marginatum (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Aster marginatus Kunth); CO, VE, PE; 3550-4200 m Novenia S.E.Freire N. acaulis (Wedd. ex Benth.) S.E.Freire & Hellweg; PE; 3100-4600 m Oritrophium (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Ce/misia Cass.) Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1961, 1969, 1997. O. blepharophyllum (S.F.Blake) Cuatrec. (syn.: Erigeron blepharophyllum S.F.Blake); VE; 3000-3600 m O. cocuyense (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Erigeron cocuyensis Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 3350-4400 m O. crocifolium (Kunth) Cuatrec. [syn.: Ce/misia crocifolia (Kunth) Sch.Bip.]; EC; 3400-4300 m O.figueirasii Cuatrec.; VE; 3300 m O. granatum Cuatrec.; VE; 3400-3750 m O. hieracioides (Wedd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: O. ferrugineum (Wedd.) Cuatrec.]; PE; 2700-3700 m O. hirtopilosum (Hieran.) Cuatrec.; PE; 2900-3650 m O. limnophilum (Sch.Bip.) Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 34004 700 m; in eludes subsp. limnophilum, subsp. mutisianum (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., subsp. nevadanum Cuatrec., and subsp. punae Cuatrec. O. mucidum Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3200 m O. nevadense (Wedd.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Erigeron nevadensis Wedd.); VE; 3500-4100 m O. oellgaardii Cuatrec.; EC; 3550-4000 m O. peruvianum (Lam.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Ce/misia peruviana (Lam.); Erigeron peruvianus (Lam.) Cuatrec.; Aster pellitus Kunth]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4600 m; includes subsp. lineatum (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec., subsp. perijaense Cuatrec., subsp. peruvianum fo. peruvianum Cuatrec. and fo. intermedium Cuatrec. O. repens (Kunth) Cuatrec.; EC, PE; 3100-3400 m O. tergoalbum (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Erigeron tergoalbus Cuatrec.); EC; 3050-3400 m O. venezuelense (Steyerm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Erigeron venezuelense Steyerm.); VE; 3250-3700 m


94

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

O:zy/obus (Moc. ex DC.) A.Gray Ref.: Tumer & Kerr, 1985. O. glandu/iferus (Sch.Bip. ex Benth. & Hook.f.) A.Gray (syn.: Ageratum sordtdum S.F.B1ake); CO, VE; 30504070m Pappobolus S.F.B1ake (syn.: Helianthopsts H.Rob.) Ref.: Panero, 1989. P. decumbens Panero; PE; 2850-3350 m P. dtsco/or (S.F.B1ake) Panero; PE; 2900-350Cl m P.je/sktt (Hieran.) Panero; PE; 3050-3500 m P. lodtcatus (Cuatrec.) Panero (syn.: Helianthus lodtcatus Cuatrec.); PE; 3000-3700 m P. mtcrophyllus (Kunth) Panero var. dillontt Panero; PE; 2600-3400 m P. smtthti (Ferreyra) Panero; PE; 3300-3500 m P. stuebelli (Hieran.) Panero; PE; 3000-3600 m P. subniveus (S.F.Blake) Panero (syn.: Heltanthus subntveus S.F.B1ake); PE; 2800-3700 m Paramiflos Cuatrec. Re f.: Cuatrecasas, 199 5. P. glandulosus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Espe/etiopsis glandu/osus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.]; CO; 3000-3500 m Paranephelius Poepp. P.ferreyrti H.Rob.; PE; 3100-3 750 m P.je/skii (Hieran.) H.Rob. & Brettell; PE; 2200-3750 m P. ovatus Wedd.; PE; 3300-4000 m P. unijlorus Poepp. & Endl.; PE; 3200-3800 m P. wurdackii H.Rob.; PE; 3500-3750 m Pentacalia Cass. (syn.: Monticalia C.Jeffrey) Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1981; Robinson & Cuatrecasas, 1993. P. abietina (Willd. ex w·edd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia abtetina (Willd. ex Wedd.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio aciculatus Cuatrec.]; CO, VE; 3100-4200 m; includes var. abietina and var. acicula/a (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. P. aclydtphylla (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecto ac/ydiphyllus Cuatrec.); PE; 3400-3750 m P. albi-panquei S.Díaz & Cuatrec.; CO; 3140-3400 m P. albotecta (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio albotectus Cuatrec.); CO; 3000-3600 m P. americana (L.f.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2600-4100 m P. amplexicaulis (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio amplexicau/is Kunth; Dendrophorbium amp/exicaulis (Kunth) B.Nord.); EC; 2400-3100 m P. andico/a (Turcz.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Montica/ia andico/a (Turcz.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio andicolus Turcz.]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900-4400 m P. antioqutensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 1500-3100 m P. apiculata (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia apiculata (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio apiculatus Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.]; VE; 3300-3500 m P. arborea (Kunth) H.Rob. & Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 27003400 m P. arbutifolia (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio arbutifolius Kunth, S. pichtnchensis Greenm.); CO, EC; 3600-4500 m P. batallonensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia

, [VOL. 84

batallonensis (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; ;Jenecio batallonensis Cuatrec.]; VE; 3400 m ~ P. befariotdes (Cuatrec.)Cuatrec. [syn.: Senecio befariotd s Cuatrec.; Monticalia befariotdes (Cuatrec.) B:Nord. ; EC; 3400-4500 m P. breviligu/ata (Hieran.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3390 m P. cacaosensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio cacaosensis Cuatrec.); CO; 3100-3450 m P. cachacoensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia cachacoensis (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio cachacoensis Cuatrec.]; CO, VE; 3200-3700 m P. campii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; EC; 3100-3550 m P. carrikeri (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio carrikeri Cuatrec.); CO; 3200-3700 m P. chaquiroensis (Greenm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio chaquiroensis Greenm.); CO; 3100-3600 m P. cleefit (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecto cleefii Cuatrec.); CO; 4200-4400 m P. colombiana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio co/ombtanus Cuatrec.); CO, VE; 3200-3900 m P. corazonensts (Hieran.) Cuatrec.; EC; 2800-3550 m P. corymbosa (Benth.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio corymbosus ~enth.; S. microchaete Wedd., nom. illeg.); CO; 28503350m P. dtamantensts (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec,; CO; 3000-3600 m P. elatoides (Wedd.) Cuatrec.; CO;? m P. el/tpticifolta (Hieran.) Cuatrec.; CO; 1750-3200 m P. empetroides (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio empetrotdes Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 3100-3500 m P. firmipes (Greenm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio firmipes Greenm.); CR, PA; 3200-3500 m P.j/occultdens (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticaliaj/occulidens (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio jlocculidens Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.]; VE; 2800-3300 m P. flosfragrans (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio j/osfragrans Cuatrec.); CO; 3500-4425 m P. gelida (Wedd.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio geltdus Wedd.); CO; 4200-4700 m P. greenmaniana (Hieran.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia greenmaniana (Hieran.) C.Jeffrey; Senecto greenmantanus Hieran.]; VE; 3000-4100 m P. guadalupe (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecto guadalupe Cuatrec.); CO; 3350-4000 m P. guicanensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio gutcanensts Cuatrec.); CO; 4000-4400 m P. harrietae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3350 m P. tmbricatifolia (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Montica/ia imbrtcatzfolia (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) C.Jeffrey]; VE; 4265-3900 m P. karstenti (Hieran.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio karstenii Hieran.); CO; ? m P. kleinioides (Kunth) Cuatrec.; CO; 1900-3300 m P. /anceolifolia (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; EC; 3400 m P. ledifolta (Kunth) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monttcalia ledzfolia (Kunth) C.Jeffrey; Senecto ledifoltus (Kunth) DC.]; CO, VE; 3200-3850 m; inc1udes subsp. ledzfolia, subsp. lehmannii (Rieron.) Cuatrec., and subsp. schlimti {Wedd.) Cuatrec.


;.·

1999]

PARAMOS

P. leioclada (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio leioclados Cuatrec.); CO; 3200-3400 m P. lindenii (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2900--3800 m P. magnicalycu/ata (V.M.Badillo) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia magnicalyculata (V.M.Badillo) C.Jeffrey; Senecio magnicalyculatus V.M.Badillo]; VE; 3300-3650 m P. masonhalei (Ruiz-Terán & López-Fig.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia masonhalei (Ruiz-Terán & López-Fig.) C.Jeffrey]; VE;? m P. microdon (Wedd.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Senecio microdon Wedd.; Monticalia microdon (Wedd.) B.Nord.]; EC; 4100--4800 m P. micropachyphylla (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia micropachyphylla (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey]; VE; 3200--3930 m . P. mutisii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio mutisii Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 3300-4200 m P. myrsinites (Turcz.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio ecuadoriensis Rieron.); EC; 3600-3900 m P. nigrosÍagnosa (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia nigrostagnosa (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio nigrostagnosus Cuatrec.]; VE; 3600-4300 m P. nítida (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio nitidus Kunth); CO, EC?; 3200_:_3600 m P. novola¡;¡,ata (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio novolanatus Cuatrec.); CO; 3050-3450 m P. onae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; EC; 2950-3050 m · P. pachypus (Greenm.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia pachypus (Greenm.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio pachypus Greenm.]; VE; 3800-4130 m P. perijaensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Montica/ia perijaensis (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio perijaensis Cuatrec.]; CO, VE; 3000-3100 m P. peruviana (Pers.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio peruvianus Pers.); CO, EC, PE; 3300-4400 m P. phanerandra R.Rob. & Cuatrec.; PA; 3100-3300 m P. polymera (K1att) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia polymera (K1att) C.Jeffrey]; CO, VE; 2400-3600 m P. popayanensis (Rieron.) Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 2800-3500 m P. pulchella (Kunth) Cuatrec. [syn.: Senecio pulchellus (Kunth) DC., S. pungens (Kunth) DC., S. guantivanus Cuatrec.]; CO; 3100-3700 m; inc1udes subsp. guantivanus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. with var. pungens (Kunth) Cuatrec. and subsp. pulchella P. quirorana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia quirorana (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio quiroranus Cuatrec.]; VE; 3200-3650 m P. ramentosa (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia ramentosa (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio ramentosus Cuatrec.]; CO, VE; 3200--3900 m P. reissiana (Rieron.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio reissianus Rieron.); CO; 3400-3900 m P. rex (Sandwith) Cuatrec. [syn.: Culcitium rex Sandwith; Monticalia rex (Sandwith) C.Jeffrey]; VE; 3800-4100 m P. ricoensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3600 m P. rigidifo/ia (V.M.Badillo) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia rigidifolia (V.M.Badillo) C.Jeffrey]; VE; 2900-3400 m P. rosmarinifolia (Benth.) Cuatrec.; EC; 3400-3800 m P. ruiteranii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia ruiteranii (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio ruiteranii Cuatrec.]; VE; 3100-3400 m

95

P. scaphiformis (Oreenm.) Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-3730 m P. schultzei Cuatrec. subsp. sevillana Cuatrec.; CO; 32253450 m P. sc/erosa (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia sc/erosa (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio sclerosus Cuatrec.]; VE; 4000-4400 m P. stuebelii (Rieron.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio stuebe/ii Rieron.); CO, EC; 3100-4150 m P. subarachnoidea (Wedd.) Cuatrec.; CO; 2400-4300 m P. summapacis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio summapacis Cuatrec.); CO; 4000-4200 m P. sylvico/a (Greenm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio sylvico/us Greenm.); CO; 3700-4200 m P. taironae S.Díaz & Cuatrec.; CO; 3545-4270 m P. teretifolia (Kunth) Cuatrec. [syn.: Senecio teretifolius (Kunth) DC.; Montica/ia teretifolia (Kunth) B.Nord.]; EC, PE; 2800-3590 m P. theifolia (Benth.) Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC; 2500-3500 m P. tolimensis (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec.; CO; 30003700 m P. trichopus (Benth.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio trichopus Benth.); CO; 3400-3600 m P. tunamensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia tunamensis (Cuatrec.) C.Jeffrey; Senecio tunamensis Cuatrec.]; VE; 3250-3600 m P. vaccinioides (Kunth) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia vaccinioides (Kunth) C.Jeffrey; Senecio vaccinioides Kunth var. microdentatus Cuatrec.]; CO, VE, EC; 2900-4300 m; includes var. microdentatus Cuatrec. and var. vaccinioides P. venezuelensis (Sandwith) Cuatrec. [syn.: Monticalia venezue/ensis (Sandwith) C.Jeffrey; Senecio venezue/ensis Sandwith, S. mucuyanus Cuatrec.]; VE; 3500-4100 m P. vernicifolia (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; PE; 3100 m P. vernicosa (Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio vernicosus Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.); CO, EC; 3800-4150 m P. verticillata (K1att) Cuatrec.; EC, PE; 2900-3500 m P. vicel/iptica (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3300-4100 m P. viridi-alba (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio viridi-albus Cuatrec.); CO; 3500-3800 m P. weinmann(fo/ia (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio weinmannifolius Cuatrec. and fo. quindiensis Cuatrec.); CO; 3250-3500 m P. wurdackii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Senecio wurdackii Cuatrec.); PE; 3200-3500 m Perezia Lag. Ref.: Vuilleumier, 1969. P.fosbergii Tovar; PE; 3500 m [Note: Found in limestone sink ho1es.] P. multiflora (Rumb. & Bonpl.) Less.; CO, EC, PE; 32004300m P. pungens (Rumb. & Bonpl.) Less.; EC, PE; 3200-4800 m Philoglossa DC. P. mimuloides (Rieron.) R.Rob. & Cuatrec.; PE; 23003200 m [Note: This species is sometimes cultivated and escapes.]


96

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL OARDEN

Pfagiocheilus Am. ex DC. P.frigidus Poepp.; EC, PE; 3350--4050 m P. peduncularis (Kunth) Wedd.; EC; 3700--4300 m P. solivaeformis DC. subsp. multiflorus Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3400--4300 m Podocoma Cass. (see Blakiella) Pseudognaphalium Kirp. (see Gnaphalium)

[VOL. 84

S. acama (S.F.B1ake) Longpre; CO; 2800-3700 m S. densa Longpre; CR; 3350-3600 m S. sarmentosa Less. var. papposa (S.F.B1ake) Longpre (syn.: S. triangularis var.papposa S.F.B1ake); CR; 28003300m trianae (Hieron.) Longpre (syn.: Ca/ea longipes . S.F.B1ake); CO; 3500--4100 m

s:

Scrobicaria Cass. S. aquifolia (Cuatrec.) B.Nord. (syn.: Gynoxys aquifolia

Psi/a Phi l. (see Baccharis)

Cuatrec.); VE; 2500-3200 m S. ilicifo/ia (L.f.) B.l~ord.; CO; 3550-3900 m

Raouliopsis S.F.B1ake R. pachymorpha (Wedd.) S.F.B1ake (syn.: 0/igandra pachymorpha Wedd.); VE;? m R. seifrizii S.F.B1ake; CO; 4500--4900 m Ruilopezia Cuatrec. [Note: In this genus, species followed by "(1]" are naturally found in forest, but disturbance allows them to enter páramo, according to Cuatrecasas (unpubl.).] Re f.: Cuatrecasas, 198 7. R. atropurpurea (A.C.Sm.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia afropurpurea A.C.Sm.); VE; 2600-3700 m [1] R. bracteosa (Stand!.) Cuatrec. [syn.: Espeletia bracteosa Stand!., E.frailejonota Aristeg.; R.ji·ailejonota (Aristeg.) Cuatrec.]; VE; 2600-3500 m (1] R. bromelioides (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2600-2900 m [1] R. cardonae (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia cardonae Cuatrec.); VE; 3000-3300 m [1] R. coloradarum (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2700-2950 m [1] R. cuatrecasasii (Ruiz-Terán & López-Fig.) Cuatreé.; VE; 2500-3000 m R. emmanuelis Cuatrec.; VE; 2900-3000 m R.figueirasii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2600-3200 m [1] R. floccosa (Stand!.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia floccosa Stand!.); VE; 3000-3800 m R. grisea (Stand!.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia grisea Stand!.); VE; 3000--4000 m R. hanburiana (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3100-3500 m [1] R.jabonensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2500-3400 m R. jahnii (Stand!.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3000,--3400 m R.josephensis (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2800-3300 m [1] R. leucactina (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3000-3300 m R. lindenii (Sch,Bip. ex Wedd.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia lindenii Sch.Bip. ex Wedd.); VE; 2400-3400 m (1] R. lopez-palacii (Ruiz-Terán & López-Fig.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2600-3100m[1] R. marcescens (S.F.B1ake) Cuatrec. (syn.: Espeletia marcescens S.F.B1ake); VE; 2800-3200 m (1] R. margarita (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 3300-3400 m R. paltonioides (Stand!.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2600-3200 m [1] R. ruizii (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2750-2800 m [1] R. usubillagae Cuatrec.; VE; 3000 m R. vergarae Cuatrec. & López-Fig.; VE; 2000-3200 m R. viridis (Aristeg.) Cuatrec.; VE; 2200-3600 m [1] Sabazia Cass. Ref.: Longpre, 1970.

Se/loa Kunth Ref.: Longpre, 1970; Robinson, 1997; Tumer, 1'1980. S. breviligulata Longpre [syn.: Aphanactis breviligulata · (Longpre) B.L.Turner]; CR; 3450-3800 m S. ligulata (Cuatrec.) H.Rob. (syn.: Aphanactis ligulata Cuatrec.); CO; 3600-4500 m Senecio L. (see a1so synonyms under Lasiocephalus and Pentacalia) Ref.: Vision & Dillon, 1996. S. acarinus Cabrera; PE; 2900-3600 m S. adglacialis Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-4500 m S. alberti-smithii Cuatrec.; ca·; 3950-4150 m S. almorzaderonis Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-3900 m; includes var. almorzaderonis and var. boyacensis Cuatrec. S. aridus Greenm.; CO; 3800-4300 m S. aristeguietae Cuatrec.; VE; 3200--4400 m S. ayapatensis Sch.Bip.; PE; 3350-3800 m S. canescens (Humb. & Bonpl.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Culcitium canescens Humb. & Bonpl.); CO, EC, PE; 3550-4700 m; includes var. canescens, var. macrocephalus Cuatrec., var. ecuadoriensis Cuatrec., var. elongatus Cuatrec., var. boyacensis Cuatrec., and var. magnificus Cuatrec. S. chionogeton Wedd.; CO, EC; 3200--4400 m S. chiquianensis Cabrera; PE; 2500-3800 m S. cineraria DC. (syn.: S. ginesii Cuatrec.); VE; 3500--4000 m S. coccineus K1att; CO; 3550-4000 m S. cocuyanus (Cuatrec.) Cuatrec. (syn.: Culcitium cocuyanus Cuatrec.); CO; 3800-4350 m S. collinus DC.; PE; 3300--4000 m S. comosus Sch.Bip.; PE; 4000 m S. costaricensis R.M.King; CR; 2500-3500 m S. coymolachensis Cabrera; PE; 3500-3900 m S. culcitioides Sch.Bip.; EC, PE; 3900--4600 m S. dolichodoryius Cuatrec.; PE; 3100-3400 m S.ferrugineus (K1att) Cuatrec.; EC; 3600-4500 m S. jlaccidifolius Wedd.; PE; 3200-4000 m S.folidentatus Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-3850 m S.formosissimus Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3650 m S. formosoides Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC; 3200--4425 m S.formósus Kunth (syn.: S. tabacon Turcz.); CO, VE, EC; 3000-4350 m S.funckii Sch.Bip.; CO, VE; 3000-4100 m S. garcibarrigae Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-4000 m S. guascensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3450 m


1999]

PARAMOS

97

S. hallii Rieron.; EC; 4200-4900 m [Note: This name is a Son chus L. nom. illeg. non Britton and seeming1y has not been re[Note: A genus of European weeds now natura1ized in p1aced (P. Jorgensen, pers~ comm.).] the N eotropics.] . S. hansweberi Cuatrec.; CR; 3400-3850 m S. asper (L.) Rill; VE, PE; 3100-4100 m S. hastatifolius Cabrera; PE; 3600-3950 m S. oleraceus L.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3800 m S. hohenackeri Sch.Bip.; PE; 3750 m S. hypsobates Wedd.; CO, EC; 3300-4400 m; inc1udes var. Stevia Cav. hypsobates and var. parvulus Cuatrec. S. cajabambensis Rieron.; PE; 2250-3750 m S. isabelis S.Díaz; CO; 4400-4800 m S. elatior Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 3200-3600 m S. ishcaivilcanus Cuatrec.; PE; 3800-3900 m S. incognita Grashoff; CO, VE; 3100-3400 m S. kingbishopii Cuatrec.; PE; 3300-4000 m S. lucida Lag.; CR, PA, CO, VE; 3050-4900 m S. kuhbieri Cuatrec.; CR; 3400-3800 m S. macbridei B.L.Rob.; PE; 2200-3500 m S. laricifolius Kunth; PE; 2400-3750 m S. mandonii Sch.Bip.; PE; 3500 m S. latijlorus Wedd. v·ar.lacunosus Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3200S. ovala Willd. (syn.: S. rhombifolia Kunth); CO, VE, EC; 4800 m 2200-3600 m S. leucanthemoides Cuatrec.; CO; 2800-4400 m S.pallida (Sch.Bip.) Rieron.; CO, VE; 3200-3700 m S. lopez-mirandae Cabrera; PE; 3200 m S. triflora DC.; VE; 1100-4100 m S. minesinus Cuatrec.; PE; 3150-4500 m S. weberbaueri B.L.Rob.; PE; 3250-3800 m S. miniauritis Sagást. & M.O.Dillon; PE; 2650-3100 n\ S. westonii R.M.King & R.Rob.; CR; 3350 m s.· mitonis Cuatrec.; PE; 3600-3800 m S. multivenius Benth.; CR; 1000-3800 m Stuckertiella Beauverd S. nivalis (Kunth) Cuatrec. (syn.: Culcitium nivale Kunth); S. capitata (Wedd.) Beauverd; EC, PE; 3100-3500 m EC; 3600-4600 m S. niveoaureus Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-4300 m "'-. S. nubigenus Kunth var. pimpinelifolia (see Dorobaea) Tagetes L. '-.___S. oerstedianus Benth.; CR, PA; 2000-3800 m [Note: Many species ofthis genus are cu1tivated and/or S. pascuiandinus Cuatrec.; CO; 4000-4300 m have now escaped into páramo.] S. pleniauritus Cuatrec.; PE; 3200-3450 m T. elliptica Smith; PE; 2200-3400 m [Note: Cu1tivated.] S. pseudoformosus Cuatrec.; CO; 3550-3900 m T.filifolia Lag. (syn.: T. pusilla Kunth); VE, EC, PE; 3200S. punasessilis Cuatrec.; PE; 3600-3900 m 3500m S. rhizocephalus Turcz. [S. repens DC. auct., nom. illeg. non T. ternijlora Kunth; PE; 3200-3450 m [Note: Cultivated.] Stokes (1812)]; CO, EC, PE; 3550-4800 m S. rhizomatus Rusby; PE; 4000 m Talamancalia H.Rob. & Cuatrec. S. romeroi Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3550 in T. westonii R.Rob. & Cuatrec. [syn.: Pseudogynoxys S. rubrilacunae Cuatrec.; CO; 3600-4200 m westonii (R.Rob. & Cuatrec.) B.L.Tumer]; CR; 3100 m S. santanderensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3_600-4100 m S. scrobicarioides DC.; PE; 4000 m Taraxacum F.R.Wigg. S. silphioides Rieron.; CO; 2500-3900 m [Note: A genus ofintroduced roadside weeds.] S. subruncinnatus Greenm.; CO, VE; 3350-3700 m T. craspedotoides Richards; VE; 3400-4900 m S. summus Cuatrec. (syn.: Culcitium longifolium Turcz.); T. officinale G.Weber; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1700-4200 m CO, EC; 3800-4400 m; includes var.longifolius (Turcz.) T. vulgare (Lam.) Schrank; CO, EC; 2200-4400 m [Note: Cuatrec. and var. summus Perhaps this species is equa1 to T. officinale.] S. supremus Cuatrec.; CO; 4300-4600 m S. tephrosioides Turcz.; CO, EC, PE; 3250-4200 m S. tergolanatus Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3800 m Trichocline Cass. S. tingoensis Cabrera & Zardini; PE; 3200-3800 m Ref.: Ransen, 1990; Zardini, 1975. S. usgoroensis Cuatrec.; PE; 2250-3750 m T. hieracioides (Kunth) Ferreyra [syn.: Gerbera hieracioides S. vulgaris L.; VE, EC; 2200-3500 m (Kunth) Zardini; T. beckeri B.L.Rob., T. peruviana S. yauyensis Cabrera; PE; 3200 m Rieron.]; EC, PE; 2600-3500 m Sigesbeckia L. S. bogotensis D.L.Schu1z; CO, EC; 2500-3300 m 'S.jorullensis Kunth (syn.: S. cordifolia Kunth); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3800 m S. orientalis L.; CO, VE; 3000-:-3500 m

Tridax L. T. angustifolius Spruce ex Benth. & Rook.f. (syn.: T. sodiroi Rieron., T. stuebelii Rieron.); EC, PE; 2700-3500 m T. tambensis Rieron.; PE; 3200 m

Smal/anthus Mack. S. pyramidalis (Triana) R.Rob. (syn.: Polymnia pyramidalis Triana, P. eurylepis S.F.B1ake); EC; 3650-4600 m [Note: Often cu1tivated near bornes.]

Vasquezia Phi!. V. anemonifolia (Kunth) S.F.B1ake (syn.: Villanova anemonifolia Less.); CO, VE; 1800-3500 m V. titicacensis (Meyen & Wa1p.) S.F.Biake; CO, EC, PE; ? m


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN ·

Viguiera Kunth [Note: Doubtfully a páramo genus.) V. goebellii (Klatt) H.Rob. [syn.: Hymenostephium goebel/ii (Klatt) H.Rob.); VE; 2600-3500 m V. sodiroi (Hieron.) S.F,Blake; EC; 2800-3950 m Vil/anova Lag. (see Vasquezia) Werneria Kunth (see also synonyms under Xenophyl/um) Ref.: Fu~k, 1997a, 1997b. W. caespitosa Wedd.; PE; 3500-3900 m W. nubigena Kunth (sy-n.: W. distichia Kunth, W. stuebelii Hieron.); CR, CO, EC, PE; 3500-4400 m W. pumila Kunth; CO, EC; 3700--4800 m W. pygmaea Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. (syn.: W. apiculata Sch.Bip.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3600-4400 m W. villosa A.Gray; PE; 3300-4000 m Westoniel/a Cuatrec. Re f.:. Cuatrecasas, 1977. W. barqueroana Cuatrec.; CR; 3350-3800 m W. chirripoensis Cuatrec.; CR; 3400-3800 m W. eriocephala (Klatt) Cuatrec.; CR; 3100-3800 m W. kohkemperi Cuatrec.; CR; 3400-3800 m W. lanuginosa Cuatrec.; CR, PA; 3200-3350 m W. triunguifolia Cuatrec.; CR; 3350-3800 m Xenophyllum V.A.Funk Ref.: Funk, 1997a, 1997b. X crasswn (S.F.Biake) V.A.Funk (syn.: Werneria crassa S.F.Blake); CO, EC; 3650-4500 m X. fontii (Cuatrec.) V.A.Funk (syn.: Werneria fontii Cuatrec.); CO; 4200--4800 m X. humile (Kunth) V.A.Funk (syn.: Werneria articulata S.F.Biake, W. humilis Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 2800--4600 m X rigidum (Kunth) V.A.Funk (syn.: Werneria rígida Kunth); CO, EC; 4000--4800 m X. roseum (Hieron.) V.A.Funk (syn.: Werneria rosea Hieron.); EC; 3600--4300 m X sotarense (Hieron.) V.A.Funk (syn.: Werneria leucobryoides S.F.Biake, W. sotarensis Hieron.); CO, EC; 3800-4400 m

BALANOPHORACEAE Corynaea Hook.f. C. crassa Hook.f. var. sprucei (Eichl.) B.Hansen; CR, PE; 3350 m

BASELLACEAE Tournonia Moq. T. hookeriana Moq.; EC; 3500-3600 m

BEGONIACEAE Begonia L. [Note: Mainly a forest genus, but sorne species are found in subpáramo forest patches.J

[VOL. 84

B. difji1sa L.B.Sm. & B.G.Schub.; CO; 3500-3700 m B.ferruginea L.f.; CO; 2900--3300 m B. microphylla A.DC.; VE; 3100-3350 m B. montana (A.DC.) Warb.; VE; 3100-3400 m B. umbellata Kunth; CO; 3300-3600 m B. urticae L.f.; CO, EC, PE; 3100-3800 m; includes var. retusa L.B.Sm. & B.G.Schub. and-var. urticae

BERBERIDACEAE Berberis L. B. acutinervia L.A.Camargo; CO; 3250-3850 m B. aristeguietae L.A.Camargo; VE; 3600 m B. chimboensis C.K.Schneid.; CO; 3700-3900 m B. cretata L.A.Camargo; CO; 3000-3450 m B. cuatrecasasii L.A.Camargo; CO; 3450-3500 m B. densa Triana & Planch.; CO; 3200--4100 m B. discolor Turcz.; VE; 3200-3400 m B. dumaniana L.A.Camargo; CO; 3150-3200 m B.farinosa Benoist; EC; 3800 m B. goudotii Triana & Planch.; CO; 3000-3900 m B. grandiflora Turcz.; Cb, EC; 3000--4000 m B. cf. huertasii L.A.Camargo; CO; 2750-3900 m B. hyperythra Diels; EC; 3350-3450 m B.jamesonii Lindl.; EC; 3000--4000 m B. lutea Ruiz & Pav. var.lutea (syn.: B. conferta Kunth var. conferta and var. supranervata L.A.Camargo ); CO, EC, PE; 3050-3850 m B. meol/acensis L.A.Camargo; CO; 3250-3300 m B. minzaensis L.A.Camargo; EC; 3800 m B. nevadensis L.A.Camargo; CO; 3000-3100 m B. petriruizii L.A.Camargo; CO; 35SO m B. pichinchensis Turcz.; EC; 3000--4000 m B. prolifica Pittier; VE; 3100-3900 m B. psi/apoda Turcz.; CO?, VE; 3050-3475 m [Note: A species of limestone outcrops.) B. quinduensis Kunth; CO, EC; 3000-3650 m B. rigida Hieron.; CO, EC; 3300-3900 m B. rigidifolia Kunth; CO; 3025-3700 m B. stuebelii Hieron.; CO; 3050-3500 m B. sumapazana L.A.Camargo; CO; 3500-3800 m B. truxil/ensis Turcz.; VE; 3000-3900 m B. val/ensis L.A.Camargo; CO; 3450-3500 m B. verticillata Turcz.; CO; 3400-3750 m B. vitellina Hieron.; VE; 4100 m Mahonia Nutt. M. va/canica Stand!. & Steyer.; CR; 3100-3800 m

BIGNONlACEAE Eccremocarpus Ruiz & Pav. E. longiflorus Ruiz & Pav.; CO; 2700-3500 m

BORAGINACEAE Cynoglossum L. C. amabile Stapf & J.R.Drumm.; CR, EC; 3300-3500 m C. trianaeum Wedd.; CO; 3200 m

\


PARAMOS

1999]

)

Hackelia Opiz H. mexicana (Schltdl. & Cham.) l.M.Johnst.; CR; 20003500m H. revoluta (Ruiz & Pav.) I.M.Johnst. [syn.: H. cdstaricensis (Brand.) I.M.Johnst.]; CO, VE, EC; 3200-4400 m H. skutchii I.M.Johnst.; CR; 3500-3820 m Lappula Moench L. echinata Gi1ib.; CO; 3680 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] Lithospermum L. L. columbianum Brandegee; VE; 2100-3000 m Moritzia DC. ex Meisn. M. lindenii (A.DC.) Benth. ex Gürke; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE?; 3250-4000 m Myosotis L. M. azorica R.C.Watson; VE; 2600-3300 m Plagiobothrys Fisch. & C.A.Mey. P. linifolius (Willd. ex Lehm.) I.M.Johnst.; CO, EC; 32003600 m . P. pygmaeus (Kunth) I.M.Johnst.; EC; 3200-3900 m Tournefortia L. T.fuliginosa Kunth; CO, EC; 3300-3550 m T. tarmensis (K.Krause) J.F.Macbr.; PE; 3100-3600 m

BRASSICACEAE Brassica L. B. integrifolia (West) O.E.Schulz; CO; 3700-3800 m Brayopsis Gilg & Muschl. B. colombiana AI-Shehbaz; CO, EC; 4300-4600 m; including subsp. colombiana and subsp. ecuadoriana Capsel/a Medik. C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.; CO, EC, VE, PE; 2800-4000 m [Note: Introduced from Europe and cultivated.] Cardamine L. C. africana L.; CO; 3500-3700 m [l\ote: Introduced from Africa?] C. a/berti O.E.Schulz; CO; 3200-4100 m C. bonariensis Pers. (syn.: C. jlaccida Cham. & Schltdl.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4500 m C. ecuadorensis Rieron.; EC; 3400 m C. hirsuta L.; CO, EC; 3550 m C.jamesonii Rook.; CO, EC; 3250-4200 m C. killipii O.E.Schulz; CO, VE; 3300-3800 m C. lehmannii Rieron.; CO, EC; 3450-3900 m C. lojanensis A 1-Shehbaz; EC; 3000-3450 m C. obliqua Rochst. ex A.Rich. (syn.: C. rhizomata Rollins); EC; ?m C. ovala Benth.; CR, CO; 2800-3350 m Cremolobus (Lam.) DC. C. peruvianus (Lam.) DC.; EC, PE; 2400-3600 m

99

Descurainia Webb & Berthel. D. myriophylla (Willd. ex DC.) R.E.Fries (syn.: Sisymbrium myriophyllum Willd. ex DC.); CO, EC, PE; 3500-4350 m Draba L. Ref.: Rangel Ch. & Santana C., 1989; Santana Castañeda, 1994. D. alyssoides Rumb. & Bonpl.; VE, EC, PE; 3700-4600 m D. arauquensis Santana; CO; 4360 m D. arbuscu/a Rook.f.; VE; 4000-4800 m D. aretioides Kunth (syn.: D. benthamiana Gilg); EC; 42004700 m D. barclayana AI-Shehbaz; CO; 4250-4400 m D. bellardii S.F.Biake; VE; 3500-4780 m D. boyacana AI-Shehbaz; CO; 4300-4550 m D. cheiranthoides Rook.f.; CO; 3400-5250 m D. chionophila S.F.Biake; VE; 4230-4750 m D. cocuyana AI-Shehbaz; CO; 3600-4050 m D. cryophila Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 4000-4500 m D. cuatrecasana Rangel & Santana; CO; 4000 m D. cuzcoensis O.E.Shultz; PE; ? m D. depressa Rook.f.; CO, EC, PE; 4200-4800 m D. extensa Wedd.; EC; 4500-4600 m D. farsetioides Linden & Planch.; VE; 4000-5200 m D.funckiana Linden & Planch.; VE; 4150-4500 m D.funckii (Turcz.) AI-Shehbaz; VE; 3100 m D. grandiflora Rook. & Arn.; EC; 3600-3800 m D. hallii Rook.f.; CO, EC; 3700-4800 m D. hammenii Cuatrec. & Cleef; CO; 4300-4600 m D. hookeri Walp.; EC; 3800-4300 m D.jorullensis Kunth; CR; 3500-3820 m D. lindenii (Rook.) Planch.; VE; 3500-4300 m D. litamo L.Uribe; CO; 4300-4800 m; includes subsp. glabra Santana and subsp. litamo D. matthioloides Gilg & O.E.Schulz subsp. saundersii AIShehbaz; PE; 4400 m D. obovata Benth.; EC; 3900-5000 m D. pachythyrsa Triana & Planch.; CO; 4300-4350 m D. pamplonensis Planch. & Linden; CO, VE; 4000-4300 m D. pennell-hazenii O.E.Schulz; CO; 4100-4350 m D. pseudocheiranthoides AI-Shehbaz; CO; 3470-4270 m D. pulvinata Turcz. (syn.: D. empetroides Gilg & O.E.Schulz); VE; 3600-4780 m; includes subsp. berryi and subsp. pulvinata D. pycnophylla Turcz.; CO, EC; 2415-4000 m D. rangelii Santana, ined.; CO; 3500-4300 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] D. ritacuvana Al-Shehbaz (syn.: D. cocuyensis Santana & Rangel); CO; 4300-4350 m D. rositae Santana & Rangel; CO; 3700-4450 m; includes subsp. boyacensis Santana & Rangel, subsp. rosita e, and subsp. sumapaensis Santana & Rangel D. sanctae-martae O.E.Schulz; CO; 3850-4300 m; includes var. leiocarpa O.E.Schulz and var. sanctae-martae D. schultzeii O.E.Schulz; CO; 4200 m D. schusteri O.E.Schulz; PE; 3400-3650 m D. sericea Santana & Rangel; CO; 3650-3900 m D. splendens Gilg; EC; 3600-4250 m D. spruceana Wedd.; EC; 4100-4300 m


1

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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

[VOL. 84

D. steyermarkii Al-Shehbaz (syn.: D. violacea DC. var. .féh,¡naniana O.E.Schulz); EC; 2700-4400 m D. venezuelana Al-Shehbaz; VE; 3000-3400 m D. wurdackii Al-Shehbaz; PE; 3350-3900 m

G. G. G. G.

Erysimum L. E. ghiesbreghtii Donn.Sm.; CR; 3200-3820 m

Pitcairnia L'Hér. [Note: This genus is found mostly in forest, but sorne species are in subpáramo forest patches.] P. meridensis Klotzsch ex Mez; VE; 2500-2800 m P. petraea L.B.Sm.; CO; 2300-3350 m P. pungens Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 2700-3800 m P. tympani L.B.Sm.; VE; 2800-2900 m

Eudema Humb. & Bonpl. E. colombiana Al-Shehbaz; CO, EC; 4250-4300 m; in eludes subsp. ecuadoriana Al-Shehbaz E. nubigena Humb. & Bonpl.; EC; 3800-4800 m; includes subsp. nubigena and subsp.'remyana (Wedd.) A1-Shehbaz E. rupestris Humb. & Bonpl.; EC; 4250-4550 m Halimolobos Tausch H. hispidula (DC.) O.E.Schulz var. hispidula; CO, EC;

2250-3300 m Lepidium L. L. abrotanifolium Turcz. (syn.: L.fraseri The11.); EC; 35004500m L. bipinnatifidum Desv.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100-3800 m L. ecuadoriense Thell.; EC; 2800-4400 m Nasturtium R.Br. (see Rorippa) . Romanschulzia O.E.Schulz R. apetala Rollins; CR; 3000-3500 m Rorippa Scop. R. nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek (syn.: Nasturtium officinale R.Br.); CO, EC, PE; 3050-3400 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.]

BROMELIACEAE Ref.: Gilmartin, 1972; Luther & Sieff, 1994; L. B. Smith & Downs, 1974, 1977, 1979. Greigia Regel [Note: This genus is mostly found in forest, but in páramo it may occur in open, boggy si tes.] G. columbiana L.B.Sm. var. columbiana: CO; 3800-4200 m G. danielii L.B.Sm.; CO; 2800-3500 m G. exserta L.B.Sm.; CO; 3200-3300 m G. mulfordii L.B.Sm.; CO; 3450-4050 m; includes var. macrantha L.B.Sm. and var. mulfordii G. nubigena L.B.Sm.; CO; 3350 m G. racinae L.B.Sm.; CO; 3300 m G. stenolepis L.B.Sm.; CO; 3000-3600 m G. vulcanica André; CO, EC; 3100-3750 m Guzmania Ruiz & Pav. [Note: This genus is found mostly in forest, but sorne species are in subpáramo forest patches.] G. candelabrum (André) André ex Mez; CO; 3100-3300 m G. conjinis L.B.Sm.; CO, VE; 2700-3600 m [Note: This species is found in calcareous areas.] G. danielii L.B.Sm.; CO; 2700-3100 m

lychnis L.B.Sm.; CO, EC; 3100-3400 m mosquerae (Wittm.) Mez; CO, EC; 3000-3600 m palustris (Wittm.) Mez; CO; 3500 m cf. variegata L.B.Sm.; PE; 3800 m

PuyaMolina P. adscendens L.B.Sm.; PE; 2800 m P. á/picola L.B.Sm.; CO; 3)50-3900 m P. ángulonis L.B.Sm.; PE; 3200-3950 m P ..angusta L.B.Sm.; PE; 3450 m P. antioquensis L.B.Sm. & Read; CO; 3100-3450 m P. aristiguietae L.B.Sm.; CO, VE; 3000-3550 m P. bicolor Mez; CO; 2850-3000 m P. boyacana Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3550 m P. brachystachya (Bak.) Mez; CO; 3160 m P. cardonae L.B.Sm.; VE; 3100-3300 m P. clava-hercules Mez & Sodiro; CO, EC; 3350-4500 m P. cleefii L.B.Sm. & Read; CO; 3700 m P. compacta L.B.Sm.; EC; 2800-3800 m P. coriacea L.B.Sm.; PE; 3650 m P. cryptantha Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3400 m P. cuatrecasasii L.B.Sm.; CO; 3400-3800 m P. dasylirioides Stand!.; CR; 3200-3600 m P. dichroa L.B.Sm. & Read; CO; 3750 m P. exuta L.B.Sm. & Read; CO; 3000 m P. fastuosa Mez; EC, PE; 3350-3900 m P. gigas André; CO; 3050 m q P. glaucovirens Mez; PE; 2400-3400 m P. glomerifera Mez & Sodiro; EC; 3600-4000 m P. goudotiana Mez; CO; 2600-3550 m P. grantii L.B.Sm.; CO, VE; 3000 m P. hamata L.B.Sm.; CO, EC, PE; 2850-4100 m P. horrida L.B.Sm. & Read; CO; 3450 m P. killipii Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3000-3250 m P. linea/a Mez; CO; 2800-3700 m P. maculata L.B.Sm.; EC; 3200-3400 m P. medica L.B.Sm.; PE; 3800 m P. nítida Mez (syn.: P. killipii Cuatrec., P. nítida var. glabrior L.B.Sm. & Read); CO, VE; 2800-4000 m P. nivalis Baker; CO; 3250 m P. nutans L.B.Sm.; EC; 3000-4200 m P. occidentalis L.B.Sm.; CO; 3500-3600 m P. ochroleuca Betancur & Callejas; CO; 2700-3240 m P. pratensis L.B.Sm.; PE; 3200 m P. pygmaea L.B.Sm.; EC; 3150-3550 m P. ramonii L.B.Sm.; PE; 3700-4000 m P. ramosa L.B.Sm.; PE; 3200-3800 m "/ P. retrorsa Gilmartin; EC; 3200-3700 m P. roldanii Betancur & Callejas; CO; 2700-31 50 m 1 P. santanderensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3500 m


101

PARAMOS

1999]

P. santosii Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3600 m; includes var. santosii and var. verdensis Cuatrec. P. trianae Baker; CO, VE; 3400-4100 m; includes var. ampliar L.B.Sm. & Read and var. trianae P. venezuelana L.B.Sm.; CO, VE; 3200-3950 m P. vestita André; CO, EC; 2750-3600 m P. westii L.B.Sm.; PE; 3400-3450 m Racinaea M.A.Spencer & L.B.Sm. R. tetrantha (Ruiz & Pav.) M.A.Spencer & L.B.Sm. (syn.: Tillandsia tetrantha Ruiz & Pav.)· CO VE· 300()....3800 m· includes var. aurantiaca (Griseb.),M.A.Spe~cer& L.B.Sm: and var. minia/a (André) M.A.Spencer & L.B.Sm. Tillandsia L. T. biflora Ruiz & Pav.; CO; 2730-3300 m T. clavigera Mez; CO; 3300 m T. compacta Griseb.; CO; 3000-3600 m T. complanata Benth.; CO, VE, EC; 3100-3600 m T. cuatrecasasii L.B.Sm.; CO; 3400-3550 m T. ionochroma André ex Mez; PE; 3200-3600 m T. orbicularis L.B.Sm.; CO, EC; 3300--4100 m T. riocreuxii André; CO; 2900-3300 m T. stenoura Harms; PE; 3500 m T. tetrantha (see Racinaea tetrantha) T. turneri Bak. var. turneri; CO, VE; 2950-3650 m

CALLITRICHACEAE Callitriche L. C. heteropoda Enge1m. ex Hegelm.; PE; 4100 m C. nubigena Fassett; CO, VE; 3500--4000 m C. cf. stagnalis Scop.; CO, VE; 3500--4100 m C. terrestris Raf. subsp. subsessilis (Fassett) Bacigalupo; CO; 4100m

CAMPANULACEAE Ref.: Jeppesen, 1981; Wimmer, 1957, 1968.

Centropogon C.Pres1 C. australis (E.Wimm.) Gleason; VE; 3000-3300 m C.je(Jtherstonei Gleason; PE; 3200-3400 m C.ferrugineus (L.f.) Gleason; CO, VE, EC; PE; 3100-3800 m C. intonsus Gleason; EC; 3200-3300 m C. e f. preslii E.Wimm.; EC; 2800-3500 m C. wil/denowianus (C.Presl) E.Wimm. subsp. cylindricus (G1eason) McVaugh; CO; 3400-3500 m

Hypsela C.Pres1 H. reniformis (Kunth) C.Pres1; CO, EC; 3500--4300 m Lobe/ia L. L. irasuensis Planch. & Oerst.; CR, PA; 3400-3900 m L. modesta Wedd.; CO, VE; 3250-3950 m L. tenera Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200--4000 m

BRUNELLIACEAE Ref.: Cuatrecasas, 1970, 1985a.

Brunel/ia Ruiz & Pav. [Note: This genus of shrubs to small trees is mostly found in subpáramo forest patches and in the high Andean forest.] B. colombiana Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3350 m B.faral/onensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3500--4000 m B. glabra Cuatrec.; CO; 2500-3000 m B. integrifolia Szyszyl.; CO, VE; 2400-2800 m B. pallida Cuatrec.; CO; 2800 m B. cf. putumayense Cuatrec.; CO; 2400-3100 m B. stuebelii Rieron.; CO; 2700-3100 m B. cf. trianae Cuatrec.; CO; 2700-3100 m

BUDDLEJACEAE Ref.: Norman, 1982, and in press.

Buddleja L. B. bu/lata Kunth (syn.: B. lindenii Benth.); CO, VE; 29003700 m

B. incana Ruiz & Pav.; CO, EC, PE; 2700--4500 m B.jamesonii Benth.; EC; 3000--4000 m B. nitida Benth. (syn.: B. alpina Oerst.); CR; 2500-3800 m B. pichinchensis Kunth; CO, EC; 3300--4300 m

CACTACEAE Opuntia Mili. O.jloccosa Salm-Dyck; PE; 4000 m [Note: See Sagástegui Alva, 1989).]

Lysipomia Kunth [Note: This genus is almost totally endemic to páramo.] Ref.: Ayers, 1997; Jeppesen, 1981; McVaugh, 1955; Van der Hammen & Cleef, 1978. L. acaulis Kunth; EC; 3900--4500 m L. aretioides Kunth; EC; 2900--4000 m L. bilineata McVaugh; EC; 3700-3800 m L. bourgoini Emst; VE; 3200--4300 m L. cae~pitosa T.J.Ayers; EC; 3000-3400 m L. crassomarginata (E.Wimm.) Jeppesen; EC; 3000-3400 m L. cuspidata McVaugh; EC: 3300-3800 m L. cylindrocarpa T.J.Ayers; EC; 3000-3400 m L. globularis E.Wimm.; PE; 3300-3500 m L. gracilis (E.Wimm.) E.Wimm.; PE; 3300-3400 m L. hirta E.Wimm.; PE;? m L. hutchisonii McVaugh; PE; 3000-3100 m L. laciniata A.DC.; CO, VE; 3350--4250 m; includes subsp. fissicalyx McVaugh, subsp. meridensis McVaugh, and subsp. microsperma McVaugh; not subsp. lacinia/a which is a puna taxon L. laricina E.Wimm.; EC; 3300-3400 m L. lehmannii Hieran. ex Zahlbr.; EC; 3000-3500 m L. montioides Kunth; CO, EC; 3800--4650 m L. multiflora McVaugh; EC, PE; 4000--4100 m L. muscoides Hook.f.; CO, EC; 3200-4200 m; inc1udes subsp. muscoides and subsp. simulans McVaugh L. oellgaardii Jeppesen; EC; 2850--4000 m L. rhizomata McVaugh; EC; 3400-3550 m L. sparrei Jeppesen; EC; 3100-3800 m L. speciosa T.J.Ayers; EC; 3000-3500 m


102

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

L. sphagnophila Griseb. ex Wedd.; CO, EC; 350b-4450 m; iD"cludes subsp. angelensis Jeppesen, subsp. minar McVaugh, and subsp. variabilis McVaugh L. subpeltata McVaugh; PE; 3100-3250 m L. tubulosa McVaugh; EC; 3700-4100 m L. vitreola McVaugh; EC; 3810-4500 m L. wurdackii McVaugh; PE; 2850-2900 m Rhizocephalum Wedd. (see Lysipomia) Siphocampylus Pohl S. benthamianus Wa1p.; CO; 3300-3900 m S. columnae (L.f.) G.Don; coi 3150-4100 m S. ellipticus (Willd.) Vatke (syn.: S. funckeanus P1anch.); CO; 2900-3600 m; includes var.funckeanus (P1anch.) E.Wimm. and var. peritornus (E.Wimm.) E. Wimm. S. giganteus (Cav.) G.Don; CO, EC; 3400-3700 m S.jelskii Zah1br.; EC, PE; 3400-3750 m S. cf. macropodoides Zahlbr.; PE; 3400 m S. cf. mirabilis E.Wimm.; CO; 3400 m S. odontosepalus Vatke; EC; 3400 m S. paramicola McVaugh; CO; 3500-3600 m S. retrorsus. (Willd.) Vatke; CO; 3300-3500 m S. sceptrum Decne.; VE; 3800-3900 m

CAPRIFOLIACEAE Viburnum L. V. triphyllum Benth.; CO; 3300-3700 m V. venustum C.V.Morton; PA; 3100-3300 m

CARYOPHYLLACEAE Arenaría L. A. dicranoides Kunth; VE, EC'; 3600-4600 m A.jamesoniana Rohrb.; EC; 4700 m A. lanuginosa (Michx.) Rohrb.; CR, PA?, CO, VE, EC; 1300-4100 m; includes subsp. lanuginosa and subsp. saxosa (A.Gray) Maguire A. moritziana Pax; VE; 3700 m A. musciformis P1anch. & Triana; CO, VE; 2900-4150 m A. muscoides Kunth; EC; 4600 m A. nítida (Bartl.) Rohrb.; PE; 4000 m A. parvifolia Benth.; EC, PE; 3550-4600 m A. quirosii Standl.; CR; 3500-3800 m A. radians Benth.; EC; 4000+ m A. reptans Hemsl.; CR; 3500-3800 m A. serpens Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 3550-4300 m A. cf. soratensis Rohrb.; CO, EC; 3000-4500 m A. tetragyna Willd. ex Schltdl.; EC; 3700-4500 m A. venezuelana Briq. (syn.: A. jahnii S.F.Blake); CO, VE; 3000-4500 m Cerastium L. C. alpinum L.; CO; 4400 m C. andinum Benth.; EC; 4600 m [Note: This species is perhaps equa1 to C. mollisimum.] C. arvense L.; CO, EC, PE; 3200-4100 m; includes var. arvense and var. arvensiforme (Wedd.) Rohrb. [Note: This species is native to Europe.]

[VQL. 84

C. candicans Wedd.; EC; 3800-450.0 m C. cephalanthum S.F.Blake; CO, VE; 3500-4300 m C. danguyi J.F.Macbr.; EC, PE; 3400-4300 m C.jloccosum Benth.; CO, EC; 4000-4800 m C. guatemalense Standl.; CR; 3500-3800 m C. imbricatum Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 3800-4500 m C. kunthii Brig. (syn.: C. glutinosum Kunth); CO, VE, EC; 3400-4500 m C. meridense Linden & Planch.; CO?, VE; 3250-3600 m C. mollisimum Poir.; CO, EC, PE; 3200-4600 m C. subspicatum Wedd.; CO, PE; 3400-4500 m C. trianae Briq.; CO, EC, PE; 3600-4500 m C. triviale Link (syn.: C. caespitosum Gilib.); CR, PA ?, CO, EC; 3450-4500 m C. cf.. tucumanense Pax; CO; 36.00-4050 m C. yiscosum L. (syn.: C. glomerata Thuill.); CR, PA, CO, VE; · 3500-4300 m [Note: This species is native to Europe.] C. vulgatum L.; CO, EC, PE; 3000-4000 m C. willdenowii Kunth; CO, EC; 3000-4000 m Colobanthus Bartl. C. quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.; CO, EC; 3850-4600 m Drymaria Wil!d. ex Roem. & Schult. D. cordata (L.) Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.; CO; 3400-3700 m, D. engleriana (Muschl.) Baehni & J.F.Macbr.; PE; 35003900m D.frutescens Mattf.; PE; 3650 m D. ovala Willd. ex Roem. &. Schult.; VE, EC; 3600-3900 m D. paramorum S.F.Blake; CO, VE; 2900-3700 m D. vi/losa Cham. & Schltdl. subsp. palustris (Cham. & Schltdl.) Duke; CO, VE; 2300-4000 m Paronychia Mili. P. bogotensis Triana & Planch.; CO; 2600-3800 m P. libertadiana Chaudhri; PE; 3200-3800 m

1

Sagina L. S. procumbens L.; CR, CO, EC; 3200-3800 m Scleranthus L. S. annuus L.; EC; 3400-3800 m [Note: This species is cosmopolitan weed.]

cy.

Si/ene L. S. gallica L.; EC; 3400-3800 m [Note: This species is native to Europe.] S. thysanodes Fenzl (syn.: Lychnis thysanodes Hook.f.); EC; 3500-4500 m Spergularia (Pers.) J.Presl & C.Presl S. spruceana R.Rossbach; EC; 3600 m Stellaria L. S. ciliata Vahl ex Pers.; CR, EC; 3000-3800 m S. cuspidata Willd. ex Schltdl.; CR, PA?, CO, EC, PE; 504200 m S. leptopetala Benth.; CO, EC; 2700-4750 m S. media (L.) Cirillo; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3800 m


PARAMOS

1999]

S. recurvata Willd. ex Schltdl.; EC; 3250-4400 m S. serpyllifolia Willd. ex Schltdl.; CO, EC, PE; 2350-4000 m

CELASTRACEAE Maytenus Molina [Note: This genus is mostly found in forest, but the fol1owing species may occur in subpáramo forest patches.] M. novogranatensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3550 m M. cf. prunifolia C.Presl; CO; ? m M. cf. trianae Briq.; CO;? m M. woodsonii Lundell (syn.: M. vulcanicola Stand!.); CR, PA; 2500-3820 m

CHLORANTHACEAE Hedyosmum Sw. [Note: Most species are found in forest, but sorne are found at the páramo/hum id 1ow forest ecotone (C1eef, pers. comm.).] Ref.: Todzia, 1988. H. colombiana Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3500 m H. crenatum Occhioni; CO?, VE; 2850-3500 m H. cumbalense H.Karst. (syn.: H. granizo Cuatrec.); CO, EC; 2500-4300 m H. luteynii Todzia; CO; 3000-3550 m H. scabrum (Ruiz & Pav.) Solms (syn.: H. hirsutum H.B.K.); PE; 2800-3650 m H. toxicum Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3450 m

CLETHRACEAE Clethra L. C.fagifolia Kunth; CO; 3350 m C. fimbriata Kunth; CO, EC; 3100-4000 m C. gelida Stand!.; CR; 3000-3500 m C. ovalifolia Turcz.; CO, EC; 2800-3600 m C. revoluta (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.; PE; 2850-3600 m

CLUSIACEAE Clusia L. [Note: Most species are found in forest, but sorne may occur in subpáramo thickets or at the páramo/humid 1ow forest ecotone (Cleef, pers. comm.).] C. alafa Triana & Planch.; CO; 3500-3700 m C. multiflora Kunth; CO; 3500-3900 m Hypericum L. Ref.: Robson 1987, 1990. H. aciculare Kunth; EC, PE; 3600-4000 m H. andinum G1eason; PE; 2400-4200 m H. baccharoides Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 2700-3350 m H. brathys (see H.juniperinum) H. brevistylum Choisy; EC, PE; 2400-4200 m H. bryoides G1eason; CO; 3300-4200 m H. ca/lacallanum N.Robson; PE; 3000-3750 m H. caracasanum Willd.; CR, VE; 3800-4100 m

103

H. cardonae Cuatrec.; CR, CO, VE; 2500-4250 m H. carinosum R.KeJler (syn.: H. stenoclados Cuatrec.); CO, VE; 2600-4500 m H. costaricensis N.Robson; CR, PA, CO; 2440-3700 m H. cymobrathys N.Robson; CO; 2970,.-3500 m H. decandrum Turcz.; EC; 3500-4200 m H. garciae Pierce; CO; 3100-3950 m H. gleasonii N.Robson; CO; 3200-4000 m H. gnidioides Seem.; CR, EC; 3200-3950 m H. goyanesii Cuatrec.; CO; 3000-3600 m H. horizontale N.Robson; CO; 2800-4500 m H. humboldtianum Steud. (syn.: H.jussiaei P1anch. & Linden); CO; 3000-3900 m H. irazuense Kuntze; CR, PA; 2700-3800 m H.jahnii (see H.juniperinum) H. jaramilloi N.Robson; CR, CO; 2600-3950 m H.juniperinum Kunth (syn.: H. brathys Sm., H.jahnii R.Keller, H. pseudobrathys Turcz.); CO, VE; 3100-3800 m H. lancifolium G1eason; CO, VE, PE; 2600-3900 m H. lancioides Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC; 3100-4500 m; includes subsp. congestiflorum (Triana & P1anch.) N.Robson and subsp. lancioides H. laricifolium Juss. (syn.: H. laricoides G1eason); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4300 m H. llanganatecium N.Robson; EC; 3250-4200 m H. loxense Benth.; EC, PE; 2350~3800 m; inc1udes subsp. aequatoriale (R.Keller) N.Robson and subsp. loxense H. lycopodioides Triana & Planch.; CO; 3350-4100 m H. magdalenicum N.Robson; CO; 2400-4875 m H. magniflorum Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3100-3800 m H. marahuacanum N.Robson subsp. strictissimum N.Robson; CO, VE; 3000-3050 m H. martense N.Robson; CO; 3000-3900 m H. matangense N.Robson; EC; 3300 m H. mexicanum L.f.; CO, VE; 3100-4200 m H. myricariifolium Hieran.; CO; 3000-4100 m H. papillosum N.Robson; CO; 3550-3900 m H. parallelum N.Robson; CO; 3700-3950 m H. paramitanum N.Robson; VE; 2800-3150 m H. phellos G1eason (syn.: H. platyphyllum Gleason, H. tamanum Cuatrec.); CO, VE; 2500-4200 m; includes subsp. oroqueanum N.Robson, subsp. phellos, and subsp. platyphyllum (G1eason) N.Robson H. pimeleoides P1anch. & Linden ex Triana & P1anch. (syn.: H. caracasanum Willd. var. ocanense R.Keller); CO; 3100-3950 m . H. prostratum Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-4200 m H. quítense R.Keller; EC; 2600-3800 m H. recurvum N.Robson; PE; 2700-3300 m H. ruscoides Cuatrec.; CO, EC; 3300-3800 m H. sabiniforme Trevis.; CO; 3870 m H. selaginoides N.Robson; CO; 3300-4350 m H. simonsii N.Robson; CO; 3250-4100 m H. sprucei N.Robson; EC; 3500-4300 m H. stenopetalum Turcz. (syn.: H. meridense Steyerm.); CO, VE; 3050-4200 m H. strictum Kunth; CR, PA, CO, EC; 3100-4150 m; includes subsp. compactum (Triana & Planch.) N.Robson and subsp. strictum


104

H. H. H. H. H.

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

stue/;Jelii Hieron.; PE; 2400-3300 m tetrastichum Cuatrec.; CO, VE; 3700--4850 m thesiifolium Kunth; VE; 3900 m thuyoides Kunth; CO; 2500-3600 m va/leanum N.Robson; CO; 3750 m

Tillaea L. (see Crassula) Tillaeastrum Britton (see Crassula) Villadia Rose V. imbrica/a Rose; PE; 4000 m

COLUMELLIACEAE Columellia Ruiz & Pav. [Note: A forest genus that may occur at the forestpáramo ecotone.] C. lucida Danguy & Cherm.; EC; 390U m C. oblonga Ruiz & Pav. subsp. sericea (Kunth) Brizicky; CO; 3200-3600 m '

CONVOLVULACEAE Cuscuta L. C. grandijlora Kunth; CO, EC; 2700-3700 m Dichondra J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. D. microcalyx (Hallier f.) Fabris; PE; ? m

CORIARIACEAE Ref.: Skog, 1987.

Coriaria L. C. ruscifolia L. subsp. microphylla (Poir.) L.E.Skog (syn.: C. thymifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-3500 m

CRASSULACEAE Crassula L. (syn.: Tillaea L.; Tillaeastrum Britton) Ref.: Bywater & Wickens, 1984. C. connata (Ruiz & Pav.) A.Berger; PE;? m [Note: det. A. Sagástegui A. Although the type is from Chancay (Peru), Bywater and Wickens (1984) say that it does not occur 1 in the Andes.] C. peduncularis (Sm.) Meigen [syn.: C. bonariensis (DC.) Cambess., C. paludosa (Schltdl.) Reiche, Tillaea paludosa S m., T. peduncularis Sch1tdl.]; CO, VE; 36004250 m C. venezuelensis (Steyerm.) M.Bywater & Wickens (syn.: Tilla ea venezuelensis Steyerm.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 28003950m C. viridis (S.Watson) M.Bywater & Wickens [syn.: Tillaea viridis S.Watson, Tillaeastrum viride (S.Watson) Britton] [Note: det. auct. Does not occur in Andes, according to Bywater and Wickens (1984).]

Echeveria DC. E. bicolor (Kunth) E.Wa1ther [syn.: E. bracteolata Link, K1otzsch & Otto, E. subspicata (Baker) A.Berger]; CO, VE, EC; 3200--4300 m

E. peruviana Meyen; PE; 2000-3500 m E. quitensis (Kunth) Lindl. [syn.: E. columbiana Poelln., E. sprucei (Baker) E.Morris]; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3900 m E. venezuelensis Rose; CO, VE; 3800--4100 m

[VOL. 84

CUNONIACEAE Weinmannia L. (Note: Primari1y a forest genus, but a1so found in shrub is1ands in páramo.] W. auriculata D.Don.; CO; 3100 m W. brachystachya Willd. ex Engl.; CO; 3000-3450 m W. elliptica Kunth; CO, EC; 3200-3600 m W. fagaroides Kunth; CR, CO, EC; 2700-4200 m (Note: ·This species is perhaps equa1 to W. microphylla.] W. glabra L.f. (syn.: W. caripensis Kunth); CR?, CO, VE, EC; 2000-3200 m [Note: This species is perhaps equa1 to W. pinnata L.] W. lansbergiana Engl.; CO; 3700-3900 m W. lopezana Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3350 m W. mariquitae Szyszyl. (syn.: W. guanacasana Hieron., W. engleriana Hieron.); CO; 3200--4000 m W. microphylla Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: W. cochensis Hieron.); CO, EC, PE; 2800--4000 m; inc1udes var. microphylla and var. parvifolia Pamp. W. sibundoya Cuatrec.; CO; 2800 m W. silvatica Engl. (syn.: W. rollotii Killip); CO, PE; 31503200 m; inc1udes var. occidentalis Cuatrec. and var. rollotii (Killip) Cuatrec. W. cf. tamana Cuatrec.; CO; 2900 m W. tolimensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3500 m W. tomentosa L. f.; CO; 2800--4000 m

CYPERACEAE Bulbostylis Kunth B. cf. glaziovii (Boeck.) C.B.C1arke; CO; 3000-3980 m [Note: Cleef 2236 (U) and other sheets at COL from 3000-3900 m are identified as B. tropicales (C.B.C1arke) Britton, a name that has apparent1y never been va1id1y pub1ished and that is not mean! to be va1idated herein.]

Carex L. (syn.: Vesicarex Steyerm.) C. acutata BÓott; CO, VE, EC; 3200--4000 m C. amicta Boott; CO, VE; 3000-3475 m C. cf. anisostachys Liebm.; CO, PE; 3300-3700 m C. azuayae Steyerm.; EC; 3800-3900 m C. boliviensis Van Heurck & Mü11.Arg.; PE; 3350--4100 m C. bonplandii Kunth s.l.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2700--4300 m C. brachyca!ama Boeck.; EC, PE; 3800--4100 m C. brehmeri Boeck.; CO; 3800--4100 m C. chordalis Liebm.; CR; 3100-3550 m C. co!lumanthus (Steyerm.) G.A.Whee1er (syn.: Vesicarex collumanthus Steyerm.); CO, VE; 3400--4300 m [Note: Mora's ( 1982) combination in Carex was inva1id; therefore, the combination mus! date from Wheeler' s (1989) paper, even though he rnade it inadvertent1y (T. Reznicek, pers. cornm.).]


1999]

PARAMOS

C. crinalis Boott; CO, EC, PE; 2950-4300 m C. decidua Boott s.l.; CO, VE, PE; 3400-4000 m C. donnell-smithii L.H.Bailey; CR; 2700-3800 m C. ecuadorica Kük.; EC; 3960 m C. fecunda Steud. s.l.; CO?, PE; 3700 m C.jamesonii Boott; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4100 m C. lemanniana Boott; CR, PA, CO, EC; 2600-4000 m C. livida (Wah1enb.) Willd. (syn.: C. confertospicata Boeck.); CO, EC; 2500-4000 m C. luridiformis Mack. ex Reznicek & S.González; CO; 27003800m C. mandoniana Boeck.; EC, PE; 3000-4400 m C. microglochin Wahlenb. (syn.: C. oligantha Steud.); CO, EC, PE; 3500-4200 m C. aff. peucophila Ho!m; CO; 4050 m [Note: A close re1ative of C. mandoniana (T. Reznicek, pers. comm.).] C. phalaroides Kunth var. phalaroides; VE; 3050 m C. pichinchensis Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 3300-4350 m C. purdiei Boott; CR?, CO; 2700-3400 m C. pygmaea Boeck. (syn.: C. tristicha Spruce ex Boott non Boeck.); CR, PA, CO, EC; 3300-4500 m [Note: The o1dest name for C. tristicha may be C. tamana Steyerm. (T. Reznicek, pers. comm.), but the group needs more work.] i C. santae-marthae L.E.Mora & Rangel; CO; 3650 m C. setigluma Reznicek & S.González; CO, EC; 2800-3500 m C. tachirensis Steyerm.; VE; 3050-3450 m C. tamana Steyerm.; CR, CO, VE; 2700-4300 m C. toreadora Steyerm.; EC; 3800-4100 m Cyperus L. C. aggregatus (Willd.) ~ndl. [syn.: C. cayennensis (Lam.) Britton, C.jlavus (Vahl) Nees]; CO; 100-3950 m C. niger Ruiz & Pav.; EC; 3660 m C. rufus Kunth; CO; 2600-3500 m Eleocharis R.Br. E. acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult. (syn.: E. nervata Svenson); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 2850-3800 m E. bonariensis Nees; EC; 3700 m E. capillacea Kunth; EC; 3300-3450 m E. dombeyana Kunth; CO, PE; 2800-4000 m E. exigua (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.; CO, VE; 3200-3750 m E. filiculmis Kunth; CO; 3580 m E. macrostachya Britton; CO; 2700-3850 m E. maculosa (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.; CO, PE; 3800-4300 m E. sellowiana Kunth; CO; 3800 m E. stenocarpa Svenson; CO, EC; 2800-4100 m

105

cleefii L.E.Mora; CO; 3600-4300 m ecuadorensis T.Koyama; CO, EC, PE; 3500-3800 m goeppingeri Suess.; CR, PA, CO, EC; 3000-4200 m obtusangulus Gaudich.; CO, EC, PE; 3300-4400 m; ineludes subsp. rubrovaginatus (Kük.) T.Koyama and subsp. unispicus Seberg O. venezuelensis Steyerm.; CR, PA, CO, EC; 2700-3800 m O. O. O. O.

Rhynchospora Vahl R. kunthii Nees ex Kunth; CR, CO, VE; 3200-3600 m R. macrochaeta Steud. ex Boeck.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 30004200m R. marisculus Nees ex Lindley & Nees; CO; 3000-3500 m R. oreoboloidea Gómez-Laur. (syn.: R. paramorum L.E.Mora non Steyerm.); CR, PA, CO; 3000-3550 m R. cf. paramora Steyerm.; VE; 2750-2950 m R. ruiziana Boeck.; CO, EC, PE; 3400-3800 m R. talamancensis Gómez-Laur. & W.W.Thomas; CR, PA, CO; 3000-3300 m R. tamana Steyerm.; VE; 3050-3450 m [Note: Species found on limestone outcrops.] R. tomentosa Steyerm.; VE; 3050-3450 m [Note: Species found on limestone outcrops.] R. vulcani Boeck.; CR, PA; 1200-3800 m Scirpus L. (see Jsolepis) Uncinia Pers. Ref.: Wheeler & Goetghebeur, 1997. U. ecuadorensis G.A.Whee1er; EC; 3900-4100 m U. koyamae Gómez-Laur.; CR; 3500-3820 m [Note: This species is perhaps equa1 to U. phleoides (Cav.) Pers. (G. A. Wheeler, pers. comm.).] U. lacustris G.A.Whee1er; EC; 3900-4100 m U. macrolepis Decne. (syn.: U. meridensis Steyerm.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 4000-4600 m U. paludosa G.A.Wheeler & Goetgh.; CO, EC, PE; 35004200m U. phleoides (Cav.) Pers.; CO, VE, EC; 3400-3950 m [Note: A species found primarily in montane forest (G. A. Wheeler, pers. comm.).] U. subsacculata G.A.Wheeler & Goetgh.; EC;3800 m [Note: A species found on1y in Polylepis forest (G. A. Wheeler, pers. comm.).] Vesicarex Steyerm. (see Carex)

DESFONTAINIACEAE

Jso/epis R.Br. (syn.: Scirpus L. p.p.) J. cernuua (Vahl) Roem. & Schu1t. (syn.: Scirpus cernuus Vahl); CO, EC, PE; 3600-4100 m l inundata R.Br. [syn.: Scirpus inundatus (R.Br.) Poir.]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4200 m J. rígida Steud. [syn.: Scirpus rigidus (Steud.) Boeck.]; EC, PE; 3400-4100 m

Desfontainia Ruiz & Pav. Ref.: Leeuwenberg, 1969~ D. plowmanii R.E.Schu1t.; CO; 3500 m D. spinosa Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: D. parvifolia D.Don); CR, PA, CO, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m

Oreobolus R.Br. Ref.: Seberg, 1988.

Dioscorea L. D. larecajensis Uline ex R.Knuth; CO, PE; 2900-3600 m

DIOSCOREACEAE


106

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

DROSERACEAE Drosera L. D. cendeensis Tamayo & Croizat; VE; 2000-3000 m

ELAEOCARPACEAE Val/ea Mutis ex L. f.

[Note: A genus found mostly in forest, but sometimes also in distutbed páramo.] V. stipularis Mutis ex L. f.; CO, VE?, EC, PE; 3200-3800 m

ELATINACEAE Elatine L. E. chi/ensis Gay; CO; 3400'-4250 m E. ecuadoriensis Molau; CO, EC, PE; 2900'-4300 m E.fassetiana Steyerm.; CO, VE; 3500'-4000 m E. paramoana Schmidt-Mumm & R.Berna1; CO; 3000-

3700 m E. peruviana Baehni & J.F.Macbr.; PE;? m E. triandra Schkuhr; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m

EREMOLEPIDACEAE Antidaphne Poepp. & Endl. A. andina Kuijt; CO, EC; 1100-3350 m

ERICACEAE Ref.: Luteyn, 1995, 1996. Arctostaphylos Adans. (see Comarostaphylis) Bejaria Mutis ex L. ("Befaría")

Ref.: Clemants, 1995. B. aestuans L. [syn.: B. coarctata Bonpl., B. glauca Bonpl., B. oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2600-

B. B. B.

B.

4000 m [Note: See Clemants, 1995, for a more extensive synonymy.] mathewsii Fielding & Gardner; CO, PE; 3100-3900 m nana A.C.Sm. & Ewan; CO, VE; 2900-3350 m resinosa Mutis ex L.f. (syn.: B. grandiflora Bonpl., B. weberbaueriana Mansf. & S1eumer); CO, VE, EC; 32004000 m [Note: See C1emants, 1995, for a more extensive synonymy.] tachirensis A.C.Sm.; CO, VE; 2900-3600 m

Cavendishia Lindl. C. bracteata (Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil.) Hoerold [syn.: C. cordifolia (Kunth) Hoerold, C. crassifolia (Benth.) Hemsl., C. splendens (Klotzsch) Hoerold, C. strobilifera

(Kunth) Hoero1d]; CR, PA, CO?, VE, EC; 3100-4100 m [Note: See Luteyn, 1983, for a more extensive synonymy.] C. calycina A.C.Sm.; PA; 3100-3300 m C. ruiz-teranii Luteyn; VE; 3200-3300 .m Ceratostema Juss. C. a/atum (Hoero1d) S1eumer; CO, EC; 3250-4000 m

[VOL. 84

C. reginaldii (S1eumer) A.C.Sm.; EC; 2800-3340 m Comarostaphylis Zucc. C. arbutoides Lindl. subsp. arbutoides [syn.: Arctostaphy/os arbutoides (Lindl.) Hemsl.]; CR, PA; 2000-3820 m; inc1udes var. costaricensis (Small) Diggs Demosthenesia A.C.Sm. D. aff. microphyl/a (Hoero1d) A.C.Sm.; PE; 3600-3900 m

D. sp. 1; PE; 2800-3500 m [Note: An undescribed new species.] Disterigma (K1otzsch) Nied. D. acumina,tum (Kunth) Nied.; CO, EC; 2900-3800 m D. qlaterndides (Kunth) Nied.; CR, CO, VE, EC?, PE; 2500-

3800

rrl

D. codonanthum S.F.B1ake; EC; 3400-3800 m D. cuspidatum (P1anch. ex Wedd.) Nied.; CO; 2800 m D. empetrifolium (Kunth) Drude; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3150-

4300 m D. humboldtii (K1otzsch) Nied.; CR, PA, CO; 3100-3800 m D. microphyllum (G.Don) Luteyn; EC; 1800-3500 m D. staphelioides (P1anch.) Nied.; CO; 3100-3250 m Gau/theria L.

Ref.: Luteyn, 1995. G. amoena A.C.Sm.; CO, EC; 3050-4000 m G. anastomosans (L. f.) Kunth (syn.: G. pubiflora S.F.B1ake, G. ramosissima Benth.); CO, VE; 2800-4100 m G. bracteata (Cav.) G.Don; PE; 2650-3400 m G. buxifolia Willd. var. buxifolia; CO; VE; 2800-3300 m G. erecta Ven!. (syn.: G. cordifolia Kunth, G. loxensis Benth., G. meridensis A.C.Sm., G. odorata Kunth, G. ornata A.C.Sm., G. scabra Willd.); CR, PA?, CO, VE,

EC, PE; 3000-4000 m [Note: See Luteyn, 1995, for a more extensive synonymy.] G.fo/iolosa Benth.; CO, EC, PE; 3000-3800 m G. glomerata (Cav.) S1eumer; CO, VE, EC, PE; 33504150 m G. graci/is Small; CR; 1500-3100 m G. hapalotricha A.C.Sm.; CO, VE; 3200-4000 m G. insípida Benth.; CO, EC; 3300 m G. lanigera Hook.f. (syn.: G. rufo/anata S1eumer); CO, EC; 3200-3715 m; includes var.lanigera and var. rufo/anata (S1eumer) Luteyn G. megalodonta A.C.Sm.; EC; 3350-3700 m G. oreogena A.C.Sm.; CO, VE?, EC?; 3550-4300 m G. reticulata Kunth; EC; 3400-3900 m G. rígida Kunth (syn.: G. psilantha A.C.Sm.); CO, VE; 2900-3600 m G. santanderensis A.C.Sm.; CO; 3000-4100 m G. sclerophylla Cuatrec.; CO, VE, EC; 3300-4000 m; ineludes var. hirsuta Luteyn and var. sclerophylla G. strigosa Benth. (syn.: G. arachnoidea A.C.Sm.); CO, VE, EC; 2800-3950 m; inc1udes var. revoluta (A.C.Sm.) Luteyn and var. strigosa G. vaccinioides Wedd.; PE; 3000-3380 m

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1999]

107

PARAMOS

Gaylussacia Kunth G. buxifolia Kunth; CO, VE; 2500-3500 m Mac/eania Hook. M. hirtijlora (Benth.) A.C.Sm.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3715 m M. rupestris (Kunth) A.C.Sm.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 3250--4100 m [Note: See Luteyn, 1997, for extensive synonymy.] Pernettya Gaudich. Ref.: Luteyn, 1995. P. hirta (Willd.) Sleumer (syn.: Gaultheria purpurascens Kunth); CO; 3150-3700 m P. prostrata (Cav.) DC. [syn.: P. coriacea K1otzsch, P. myrsinoides (Kunth) Zucc. ex Steud., P. parvifolia Benth., Gau/theria myrsinoides Kunth]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300--4650 m [Note: See Luteyn, 1995, for a more extensive synonymy.] Plutarchia A.C.Sm. P. angula/a A.C.Sm.; CO, EC; 3150-3300 m P. coronaria (Lindl.) A.C.Sm.; CO; 2850-3750 m P. dasyphylla A.C.Sm.; CO; 2800-3600 m ¡P. ecuadorensis Luteyn; EC; 2960-3600 m P. guascense (Cuatrec.) A.C.Sm.; CO; 3400-3600 m P. minar A.C.Sm.; CO; 3400-3700 m ¡ P. miranda A.C.Sm.; CO; 2160-3400 m P. cf. monantha A.C.Sm.; CO; 3350 m P. pubijlora A.C.Sm.; CO; 3600-3700 m P. rigida (Benth.) A.C.Sm.; CO; 3300-3700 m Psammisia Klotzsch P. graebneriana Hoerold; CO; 3300 m P. hookeriana Klotzsch; VE; 3200 m P. /ehmannii Hoerold; CO; 3200-3300 m P. pendulijlora (Dunal) Klotzsch; VE; 900-3750 m Semiramisia Klotzsch S. pulcherrima A.C.Sm.; CO; 2890-3400 m

S. speciosa (Benth.) Klotzsch; CO; 1900-3140 m Themistoclesia Klotzsch T anfracta (A.C.Sm.) Sleumer; CO; 3200-3450 m T. campii A.C.Sm.; EC; 3200-3300 m T compta A.C.Sm.; CO; 3500-3600 m T. dependens ()3enth.) A.C.Sm. (syn.: T pendula K1otzsch); CO, VE; 1500-3400 m T dryanderae Sleumer; CO; 3500-3600 m T epiphytica A.C.Sm.; CO, EC; 3150-3500 m T mucronata (Benth.) Sleumer; CO; 3050-3800 m T vegasana A.C.Sm.; CO; 2900-3400 m

V. corymbodendron Dunal; CO, VE; 2000-3500 m V. crenatum (G.Don) Sleumer; EC; 2500-3700 m V.jloribundum Kunth (syn.: V. mortinia Benth.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4350 m; includes var. marginatum (Dunal) Sleumer and var. ramosissimum (Duna!) S1eumer V. meridionale Swartz (syn.: V. caracasanum Kunth); CO, VE; 2000-3500 m V. poasanum Donn.Sm.; CR; 2000-3100 m

ERIOCAULACEAE Eriocaulon L. E. microcephalum Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 3350--4100 m Paepalanthus Kunth P. a/pinus Kiirn.; CO; 3200-3500 m P. andicola Kiim.; CO, VE; 3050-3750 m; includes var. andico/a and var. villosus Moldenke P. columbiensis Ruhland; CO, VE; 2500-3500 m P. costaricensis Moldenke; CR; 3000-3500 m P. crassicaulis Kiirn.; CO; 3000-3400 m P. diffisus Mo1denke; VE; 3200-3600 m P. ensifolius (Kunth) Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 3100-3300 m P. espinosianus Moldenke; EC, PE; 3450 m P. granatensis Kiirn.; CO; 2800 m P. karstenii Ruhland; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100-4300 m; ineludes var. corei Moldenke, var. minimus Moldenke, and var. subsessilis (Moldenke) Moldenke P. kupperi Suess.; CR, PA; 3300-3600 m P. linde~ii Ruhland; CO; 2700-3600 m P. lodiculoides Moldenke (syn.: P. po/ytrichoides Kunth var. densus Moldenke; Syngonanthus steyermarkii Moldenke); CO, VE; 3700--4400 m; includes var.jloccosus Moldenke and var. lodiculoidr:s P. /oxensis Moldenke; EC; 2500-3500 m P. macarenensis Moldenke; CO; 3000-3100 m P. meridensis Klotzsch; CO, VE; 2900-3300 m P. muscosus Kiirn.; CO, VE; 2900-3400 m; includes var. muscosus and var. tachirensis Moldenke P. o/igocephalus Kiirn.; CO; 3250 m P. paramensis Moldenke; CO, PE; 3100-3600 m P. petraeus Kiirn.; CO; 3200-3400 m P. pi/osus (Kunth) Kunth; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000--4000 m P. planifolius (Bong.) Kiirn. var. a/pestris Kiirn.; CO; 26003650 m P. schlimii Kiirn.; CO; 2800-3200 m P. shultesii Moldenke; CO; 3000-3500 m P. stuebelianus Ruhland; PE; 2900-3250 m P. truxi/lensis Kiirn.; VE; 2500-3500 m [Note: This species is found on 1imestone outcrops.]

Thibaudia Ruiz & Pav. ex J.St.-Hil. T.fallax A.C.Sm.; CO; 3400-3500 m Tfloribunda Kunth; CO, EC?; 3000-3600 m T. grantii A.C.Sm.; CO; 3350 m T parvifolia (Benth.) Hoerold; CO, EC; 3000-3750 m

S. peruvianus Ruhland; PE; 2800-3100 m

Vaccinium L. V. consanguineum Klotzsch; CR, PA; 3100-3500 m

Chamaesyce Raf. C. ovalifolia Engelmann; CO; 3700 m

Syngonanthus Ruh1and

EUPHORBIACEAE


108

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Dysopsis Baill. D. glechomoides (A.Rich.) Müll.Arg.; CR, CO?, EC; 36003750m Euphorbia L. E. coarctata (Ruiz & Pav.) Baker; CO, VE?, PE; 28003450 m

FABACEAE Astragalus L. A. garbanzillo Cav.; PE; 3000--4000 m A. geminiflorus Humb. & Bonpl.; EC; 4000-5000 m A. weberbaueri U1br.; PE; 2400-3700 m Cologania Kunth C. broussonetii (Ba1b.) DC.; CO; 2800 m Da lea L. [Note: These three species of Da/ea are from very weedy sites and are probab1y not true páramo species.] D. coerulea (L.f.) Schinz & Thell.; CO, EC; 1000--4000 m D. exilis DC.; PE; 2500-3700 m D. humifusa Benth.; EC; 1300-3100 m Lathyrus L. L. magellanicus Lam. (syn.: L. longipes Phi!.); CO, EC, PE; 3100--4000 m L. meridensis Pittier; CO, VE; 3000-3350 m Lupinus L. [Note: The genus Lupinus is current1y under study by Rupert Bameby (NY), who thinks that most determinations are uncertain and that there may only be about 15 true Andean species (pers. comm.).] L. alibicolor C.P.Sm.; PE; 3465 m L. alirevolutus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3150-3450 m L. alopecuroides Desr.; CO, VE, EC, PE?; 3450--4700 m L. argurocalyx C.P.Sm.; CO; 3200-3250 m L. arvensis Benth.; EC; 2900 m L. asymbepus C.P.Sm.; PE; 2900-3600 m L. austrohumifusus C.P.Sm. (syn.: L. humifusus Benth. non Sessé & Mo~.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300--4500 m L. bogotensis Benth. (syn.: L. amandus C.P.Sm., L. bogotensis var. parvior C.P.Sm.); CO, EC; 2800--4000 m L. boyacensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3400-3500 m L. brevecuneus C.P.Sm.; EC; 3500 m L. carrikeri C.P.Sm.; CO; 3850 m L. chipaquensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3150 m L. chrysocalyx C.P.Sm.; CO; 3950--4150 m L. co/ombiensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 4100--4400 m L. cotopaxiensis C.P.Sm.; EC; 3660 m L. eremonomus C.P.Sm.; VE; 4000 m L.falsorevolutus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3500 m L.famelicus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3800--4200 m L.fieldii Rose ex J.F.Macbr.; PE; 3500-3700 m L.foliolosus Benth.; EC; 3600--4500 m L. guascensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3300-3700 m

[VOL. 84

L. interruptus Benth.; CO; 3900--4100 m L.jahnii Rose ex C.P.Sm.; VE; 3800--4000 m L. kunthii J.Agardh.; EC; 3400--4000 m L. lagunae-negrae C.P.Sm.; CO; 3700-3850 m L. lespedezioides C.P.Sm.; CO; 3400-3700 m L. cf. lindenianus C.P.Sm.; VE; 3600--4400 m L. lindleyanus J .Agardh; EC, PE; 2100--4000 m L. magdalenensis C.P.Sm. var. seifrizianus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3400 m 'L. meridanus Moritz ex C.P.Sm.; VE; 2000--4000 m L. michelianus C.P.Sm.; EC; 3500--4000 m L. microphyllus Desv.; CO, EC; 37~0--4600 m L. mirabilis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3400 m L. monserratensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3000-3300 m L. mutabilis Sweet; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3800--4000 m [Note: .This species is often cultivated as a crop.] L. ~ubigenus Kunth; EC; 4100--4 700 m L. pachanoanus C.P.Sm.; EC; 3700 m L. panicu/atus Desr.; VE, EC; 3600 m L. patulus C.P.Sm.; EC; 3800--4200 m L. penlandianús C.P.Sm.; EC; 4200 m L. peruvi~nus Ulbr. (syn.: L. decemplex C.P.Sm., L. spragueanus C.P.Sm.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100--4150 m; includes var. spragueianus C.P.Sm. L. pseudotsugoides C.P.Sm.; EC; 4200 m L. puracensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3500 m L. revolutus C.P.Sm.; EC; 4000 m L. ruizensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3900--4200 m L. rupestris Kunth (syn.: L. caespitosus Benth. non Nuttall ex Torr. & A.Gray, 1840); EC; 4080--4100 m L. smithianus Kunth; EC; 4500 m L. subcuneatus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3200 m L. subhamatus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3820 m L. tamayoanus C.P.Sm.; VE; 4000 m L. tauris Benth.; EC; 3350-3450 m L. tolimensis C.P.Sm.; CO; 3100-3500 m L. trianus C.P.Sm.; CO; 3400 m L. varicaulis C.P.Sm.: CO; 3500--4200 m L. venezuelensis C.P.Sm.; VE; 3800--4200 m L. weberbaueri Ulbr.; PE; 3800-3900 m Medicago L. [Note: Species ofthis genus are native to Europe, introduced, and often cultivated in páramo regions as forage.] M. arabica (L.) Huds.; CO; 3300-3400 m M. polymorpha L.; VE; 2900-3400 m Otholobium C.H.Stirt. (syn.: Psoralea L. p.p.) O. caliginis J.W.Grimes; CO; 3300 m O. mexicanum (L. f.) J.W.Grimes [syn.: Psora/ea mexicana (L.f.) Vai1]; CO, EC, PE; 2800-3250 m

O. pubescens (Poir.) J.W.Grimes; PE; 3300 m Psoralea L. (see Otholobium) Trifolium L. T. amabile Kunth; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3220-3800 m [Note: Native weed used as forage.]

1


1999]

PARAMOS

T. dubium Sibth.; CR, CO; 3000-3200 m [Note: Native weed used as forage.] T. filiforme L.; CO, EC; 3450 m [Note: Native weed used as forage.] T. repens L.; CR, CO, EC; 3450-3800 m [Note: Native to Europe, introduced and cultivated as forage.]

Vicia L. [Note: Species of this genus are used as forage.] V. andicola Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4100 m V. gramínea Sm.; CO, EC, PE; 3150-3500 m

GARRYACEAE Gan·ya Douglas ex Lindl. G. laurifolia Hartweg ex Benth. subsp. quichensis Donn.Sm.; CR; 3250-3800 m

GENTIANACEAE Ref.: Ba1slev & Briones, 1982; Pringle, 1995.

Gentiana L. G. arbelaezii Cuatrec.; CO; 3200 m G. cocuyana Cuatrec.; CO; 3350-4300 m G. sedifo/ia Kunth (syn.: G. pros trata Haenke); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4 700 m Gentianella Moench [Note: Essentially a páramo genus.] Ref.: Fabris, 1958, 1960. G. amoena (Wedd.) Fabris; PE; 3500-3820 m G. androsacea J.S.Pringle; EC; 3100-3600 m ' G. atroviolacea (Gilg) J.S.Pringle (syn.:. Gentiana atroviolacea Gi1g); CO; 3500 m G. bicolor (Wedd.) J.S.Pringle; PE; 3400-3550 m G. brunneotincta (Gi1g) J.S.Pringle (syn.: Gentiana brunneotincta Gilg); PE; 3800-4100 m G. cerastioides (Kunth) Fabris; CO, EC, PE; 2800-4700 m G. cernua (Kunth) Fabris; EC; 3300-5000 m G, chamuchui (Reimers) Fabris; PE; 3700-4100 m G. corallina (Gi1g) Zarucchi; PE; 3500-3700 m G., cor)mzbosa (Kunth) Weaver & Rüdenberg; CO, VE; 3200-3900 m G. crassicaulis (Gilg) J.S.Pringle (syn.: Gentiana crassicaulis Gilg); PE; 3750 m G. crassulifolia (Griseb.) Fabris [syn.: Gentiana crassulifolia Griseb., Gentianella lehmannii (Gilg) Fabris]; EC; 32004100m G. dacrydioides (Gilg) Weaver & Rüdenberg [syn.: Gentiana dacrydioides Gilg; Gentianella eng/eri (Gilg) Fabris]; CO, EC; 3250-3600 m G. dasyantha (Gilg) Fabris; CO; 3700-4400 m G. dianthoides (Kunth) Fabris ex J.S.Pringle (syn.: Gen liana dianthoides Kunth); CO, PE; 3750-4200 m G.fastigiata Fabris; EC; 3000-3800 m G.flaviflora (Gi1g) Fabris (syn.: Gentianajlaviflora Gilg); EC; 4500-4550 m G.foliosa (Kunth) Fabris (syn.: Gen liana androti"icha Gilg);

109

EC; 3200-4800m G.fuscicaulis Fabris; EC; 3100-3650 m G. gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S.Pringle (syn.: Gentiana gilgiana Reimers); PE; 4000-4700 m G. gilioides (Gi1g) Fabris; EC; 2700-3500 m G. gracilis (Kunth) Fabris; EC; 3000-3300 m G. gramínea (Kunth) Fabris (syn.: Gentiana gramínea Kunth); PE; 3200-3750 m G. hirculus (Griseb.) Fabris; EC; 3650-4400 m G. hypericoides (Gilg) Fabris; EC; 3000-3500 m G. hyssopifolia (Kunth) Fabris; EC; 2700-3800 m G.jamesonii (Hook.) Fabris; EC; 2850-4150 m G. limoselloides (Kunth) Fabris; EC; 2700-4700 m G. longibarbata (Gilg) Fabris; EC; 3300-4400 m G. nevadensis (Gilg) Weaver & Rüdenberg (syn.: Gen tia na nevadensis Giig); CO, VE, EC; 3300-4250 m G. nummulariifolia (Griseb.) Fabris; CO, EC; 3300--4650 m G. oelgaardii J.S.Pringle; EC; 3000-3700 m G. oreosilene (Gilg) J.S.Pringle; PE; 3400-3750 m G. pernettyoides (Reimers) Fabris; PE; 3450--4000 m G. rapunculoides (Willd. ex Schult.) J.S.Pringle [syn.: G. diffusa (Kunth) Fabris, G. hookeri (Griseb.) Fabris]; CO, EC; 3200-4300 m G. rubra J.S.Pringle, ined.; PE; 3900 m [Note: This species is not mean! to be published herein.] G. rugicalyx J.S.Pringle, ined.; PE; 4000 m [Note: This species is not mean! to be published herein.] G. rupicola (Kunth) Holub (syn.: Gen liana rupicola Kunth); EC; 3750-4600 m G. sagasteguii J.S.Pringle, ined.; PE; 3600-4000 m [Note: This species is not meant lo be published herein.] G. saxifragoides (Kunth) Fabris; EC; 2700-3600 m G. selaginifolia (Gilg) Fabris (syn.: Gentiana solidagoides Reimers); CO; 3400--4500 m G. stellarioides (Griseb.) Fabris; CO; 3300-3850 m G. sulphurea (Gilg) Fabris; EC; 4000--4500 m G. thyrsoidea (Hook.) Fabris; PE; 4000 m G. tristicha (Gilg) J.S.Pringle; PE; 3900 m G. uberula J.S.Pring1e, ined.; PE; 3300--4000 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] G. vaginalis (Griseb.) J.S.Pringle; PE; 3900 m G. viridis (Griseb.) Weaver & Rüdenberg (syn.: Gentiana viridis Griseb.); VE; ? m

Halenia Borkh. Ref.: Allen, 1933. H. adpressa C.K.Allen; CO; 3150-3900 m H. aquilegiella Stand!.; CR; 3000-3800 m H. asclepiadea (Kunth) G.Don; CO; 3300-3750 m H. campanulata Cuatrec.; CO; 4000 m H. cuatrecasasii C.K.Allen; CO; 2800-3300 m H. dasyantha Gilg; CO; 4000-4875 m H. elegans C.K.Allen; CO; 3800-4100 m H. foliosa Gilg; CO; 2800--4000 m H. garcia-barrigae C.K.Allen; CO; 3200 m H. gentianoides Wedd.; CO, VE; 3500--4350 m H. gigantea C.K.Allen; CO, VE; 3500--4150 m H. gracilis (Kunth) G.Don; CO; 3500-3900 m


\ 110

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL O ARDEN

H .h<Jppii Reimers; CO; 3800-4300 m H hygrophila Gi1g; CO; 3000-4300 m H hypericoides (Kunth) G.Don; CO; 3050 m H inaequalis Wedd.; VE; 3000-4300 m H insignis C.K.Allen; CO; 3800-4500 m H kalbreyeri Gilg; CO, EC; 2900-4100 m H karstenii Gi1g; CO; 3600-3700 m H. longicaulis J.S.Pring1e; EC; 2400-3800 m H macrantha Gi1g; CO; 3550-3700 m H. majar Wedd.; CO; 3300-4000 m H mínima C.K.Allen; EC; 2500-3900 m H pauana Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-4050 m H. phy/lophora C.K.Allen; CO; 2900-3250 m H pu/chella Gi!g; EC; 3300-4400 m H. purdieana Wedd. var. congesta C.K.Allen; CO; 3000-c 4300m H rhyacophila C.K.Allen; CR; 2500-3800 m H schultzei Gilg ex C.K.Allen; CO; 3300-3850 m H serpyl/ifolia J.S.Pring1e; EC; 3000-4100 m H. stellarioides Gi1g; CO; ? m H. subinvolucrata Gi1g; VE; 1300-4900 m H. taruga-gasso Gi1g; EC; 2800-4200 m . H. tolimae Gi1g; CO; 3900-4500 m H. umbellata (Ruiz & Pav.) Gilg; PE; 3600 m H. venezue/ensis C.K.Allen; VE; 3300-4000 m H. verticil/ata Gi!g; CO; 3500-3700 m H. viridis (Griseb.) Gilg; VE; 3300-4300 m H. weddelliana Gi1g (syn.: H. meyer-johannis Gilg); CO, EC; 3300-5000 m Macrocarpaea (Griseb.) Gi1g M. glabra (L. f.) Gilg; CO; 2800-4000 m M pachyphylla Gilg; CO, EC; 3250-3800 m M. stenophylla Gi!g; PE; 2850-3300 m

GERANIACEAE Erodium L'Hér. ex Aiton E. cicutarium (L'Hér.) ex Aiton; CR, VE, EC; 3300-3700 m [Note: Intraduced fram Europe and used medicinally.] E. moschatum (L'Hér.) ex Aiton; CO, VE; 3000-3900 m [Note: Introduced fram Europe.] Geranium L. Ref.: Ha1fdan-Nielsen, 1995. G. agavacense Willd.; EC; 2400-3250 m [Note: Based on the Bonpland collection, type photo F neg. 35705.] G. ange/ense Halfdan-Niels.; CO, EC; 3700-4500 m (5, antisanae R.Knuth; EC; 4050-4200 m G. azorel/oides Sandwith (syn.: G. guanacosense R.Knuth); CO, EC; 3200-3450 m G. campii H.E.Moore; EC, PE; 3000-3650 m G. chilloense Willd. ex Kunth (syn.: G. schimpffii R.Knuth); CO, EC, PE; 2230-3600 m G. chimborazense R.Knuth; EC; 3580-4300 m G. co/umbianum R.Knuth; CO; 3200-3500 m G. costaricense H.E.Moore (syn.: G. cucul/atum Kunth var. multifidum Suess., G. bolivarianum W.A.Dayton); CR, PA; 2950-3800 m

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G. diffusum Kunth (syn.: G. quinque/obum Wedd., G. imbaburae R.Knuth); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2300-4000 m G. dissectum L.; CO; 3500 m [Note: This species is native to Europe and Asia, now naturalized in páramo regions.] G. ecuadoriense Hieran.; EC; 4100-4650 m G. exal/um H.E.Moore (syn.: G. jahnii Stand!.); VE, 'Eé; 3050-3400 m G. guamanense Halfdan-Nie1s.; EC; 3950-4100 m G. hirtum Willd. ex Spreng.; CO, VE; 2850-3700 m G. holm-nielsenii Halfdan-Niels.; EC; 4-200 m G. humboldtii Willd. ex Spreng. (syn.: G. acau/e Willd. ex Kunth); EC; 3600-4500 m G. /axicaule R.Knuth; CO, EC, PE; 2500-3800 m G. lignosum R.Knuth; CO; 3200 m G. lindenianum Turcz.; CO; 3650 m G.. 'loxense Halfdan-Niels.; EC; 2500-3450 m G. maniculatum H.E.Moore; CO, EC; 3300-5000 m G.. meridense Pittier; VE; 3100 m G. mogotocorense R.Knutll; CO; 3700--:3800 m G. multiceps Turcz.; CO, VE; 3300-4200 m G. multipartitum Benth. (syn.: G. heinrichsae R.Knuth); CO, EC, PE; 3250-4700 m; includes var. glabrescens Hieran. ex R.Knuth, var. multipartitum, and var. velutinum R.Knuth G. paramicola R.Knuth; CO; 3850-3900 m G. pavonianum Briq.; PE; 3500 m G. peruvianum Hieran.; PE; 3300-4000 m G. repens H.E.Moore; CR, PA; 3000-3400 m G. reptans R.Knuth (syn.: G. caucense R.Knuth); CO, EC, PE; 2900-4600 m G. santanderiensis R.Knuth; CO; 3300-4100 m G. schimpfii Kunth; CO; 3000-3300 m G. schultzei R.Knuth; CO; 3000-3900 m G. sebosum S.F.Blake; VE; 4000 m G. sericeum Willd. ex Spreng.; EC; 3900-4600 m G. sibbaldioides Benth. (syn.: G. cucul/atum Kunth, G. igualatense R.Knuth); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2950-4400 m; includes var. e/ongatum Wedd. and var. sibbaldioides G. stoloniferum Stand!.; VE; 3000 m G. stramineum Triana & Planch. (syn.: G. confertum Stand!.); CO, EC; 3000-4100 m G. subnudicau/e Turcz.; CO, VE; 3750 m G. tracyi Sandwith; VE; 2900 m G. velutinum Turcz.; CO, VE; 2860-3900 m G. venezue/ae R.Knuth; VE; 3300-3750 m

GESNERIACEAE

1

·1

Al/oplectus Mart. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo forest patches.] A. ichthyoderma Hanst.; CO, VE; 2300-3750 m A. peruvianus (Zahlb.) L.P.Kvist &· L.E.Skog; CO; 33003350 m Co/umnea L. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo forest patches.] C. strigosa Benth.; CO, VE; 3200-3600 m


1999]

111

PARAMOS

Heppiella Rege1 H. ulmifolia (Kunth) Hanst.; CO, EC; 2400-3800 m

GROSSULARIACEAE Escallonia Mutis ex L. f. E. myrtilloides L. f. [syn.: E. cmymbosa (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers., E. poasana Donn.Sm., E. tortuosa Kunth]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1700-4100 m; in eludes var. myrtilloides and var. patens (Ruiz & Pav.) S1eumer Ribes L. R. andicola Jancz.; CO, EC; 3100-4300 m R. bogotanum Jancz.; CO; 3200-3350 m R. canescens Pittier; VE; 3600-3650 m R. ciliatum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schu1t.; CO; 3600 m R. columbianum Cuatrec.; CO; 3100-4200 m R. ecuadorense Jancz.; EC; 3300-4200 m R. hirtum Willd. ex Roem. & Schu1t.; CO, EC; 3350-4400 m R. lehmannii Jancz.; EC; 3500-4350 m R. leptostachyum Benth.; CR?, CO; 3100-4200 m R. peruviana Jancz.; PE; 3400-4050 m R. weberbaueri Jancz.; PE; 3400-3800 m R. weddeliana Jancz. (syn.: R. parvijlorum Wedd.); EC; 3950 m

HALORAGACEAE Gunnera L. Ref.: Mora 0., 1984. G. cf. annae Schind1er; PE; 3300-3450 m G. bogotana L.E.Mora; CO; 2700-3000 m G. caucana L.E.Mora; CO; 2900-3500 m G. garciae-barrigae L.E.Mora; CO; 3700-3900 m G. magellanica Lam.; CO, EC, PE; 3200-4300 m G. pilosa Kunth; CO, EC; 3600-3700 m G. scabra Ruiz & Pav.; CO; 3500-3600 m G. schultesii L.E.Mora; CO; 2800-3400 m G. tacueyana L.E.Mora; CO; 3500 m G. talamancana H. Weber & L.E.Mora; CR; 3100-3400 m G. tamanensis L.E.Mora; CO; 3700 m Myriophyllum L. Ref.: Orchard, 1981. M. aquaticum (Ve!!.) Verde.; CO; 3350 m M. quítense Kunth (syn.: M. elatinoides Gaudich.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3450-4100 m

HYDROCHARITACEAE Ref.: Cook, 1985.

Elodea Michx. E. matthewsii (Planch.) H.St.John; EC; 3950 m E. potamogeton (Bertero) Espín.; EC; 3900-4100 m

HYDROPHYLLACEAE Phacelia Juss. P. secunda J.F.Gmel.; PE; 3500-4000 m

HYPOXIDACEAE Hypoxis L. H. decumbens L.; CO?, VE, PE; 3000-4000 m H. humilis Kunth; CO; 3250-3350 m

IRIDACEAE Orthrosanthus Sweet O. acorifolius (Kunth) Ravenna; VE; 3400-3700 m O. chimboracensis (Kunth) Baker var. chimboracensis; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4900 m O. monadelphus Ravenna; PA; 3475 m O. occissapungens (Ruiz ex K1att) Die1s; PE; 3200-3900 m Sisyrinchium L. S. alatum Hook.; CO; 2900-3700 m S. brevipes Baker; EC, PE; 4060-4300 m S. chilensis Hook.; EC; 2900-3600 m S. convolutum Nocca; CO, PE; 3200-3900 m S. jamesonii Baker; CO, VE, EC; 3300-4300 m S. micranthum Cav. (syn.: S. iridifolium Kunth); CO, VE, EC; 3000-3600 m S. pusillum Kunth; CO, EC; 3200-4300 m S. subalpinum Henrich & Go1db1att; CR; 1600-3500 m S. tinctorum Kunth (syn.: S. bogotense Kunth); CO, VE, EC; 3300-4100 m S. trinerve Baker; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3000-4300 m S. unispatheum K1att; CO; 3000-3200 m

JUNCACEAE Ref.: Ba1slev, 1996.

Distichia Nees & Meyen D. acicularis Ba1s1ev & Lregaa¡;d; EC; 3200-4200 m D. muscoides Nees & Meyen [syn.: D. tolimensis (Decne.) Buchenau]; CO, EC, PE; 3600-4600 m Juncus L. J. arcticus Willd. var. andicola (Hook.) Balslev; CO, EC, PE; 2700-4200 m J. arequipensis Ba1s1ev; CO; 2700 m J. breviculmis Ba1s1ev; CO, VE; 3500-4100 m J. bufonius L.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] J. capillaceus Lam.; CO, VE, EC; 3450-3500 m J. cyperoides Laharpe; CO, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m J. echinocephalus Ba1s1ev; CO, VE, EC; 3100-4200 m J. ecuadoriensis Ba1slev; CO, VE, EC; 3350-4000 m J. effusus L.; CO, EC; 2700-4000 m J. imbricatus Laharpe; EC; 2500-3600 m J. liebmannii J.F.Macbr. var. quitensis (Buchenau) Bals1ev; CO, EC; 2800-3500 m J. microcephalus Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 1400-3400 m J. pallescens Lam. (syn.: J. dombeyanus J.Gay ex Laharpe); EC, PE; 1900-3600 m J. ramboi Barros subsp. colombianus Ba1s1ev; CO; 26503300m J. stipulatus Nees & Meyen; CO, EC; 2900-4500 m


112

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

J. flimÍds Willd. var. platycaulos (Kunth) Buchenau (syn.: J. andreanus Weath.); CO, EC; 2600-3900 m Luzula DC. L. den ticulata Liebm.; CR, PA; 3100-3500 m L. ecuadoriensis Balslev; EC, PE; 3300-3900 m L. gigantea Desv.; CR?, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2700-4500 m L. racemosa Desv. (syn.: L. peruviana Desv.); CR?, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100-4875 m L. vulcanica Liebm.; CO, EC; 3400-4800 m Rostkovia Desv. R. magellanica (Lam.) Hook.f.; EC; 3350-4200 m

JUNCAGINACEAE Lilaea Bonpl. L. scilloides (Poir.) Hauman (syn.: L. subulata Humb. & Bonpl.); CO, EC, PE; 3700-4300 m

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S. styphelus Epling; PE; 3450-4000 m S. tolimensis Kunth; CO; 3400.-3500 m S. xanthophylla Epling & Játiva; PE; 3900 m Satureja L. (syn.: Gardoquia Ruiz & Pav.; Micromeria Benth.) Ref.: Epling & Játiva, 1964. S. caerulescens (Benth.) Epling (syn.: S. lindeniana Briq.); CO; 3300-4800 m S. discolor (Kunth) Briq.; CO; 3050-3100 m S. grisea Epling; CO; 3400-3550 m S.jamesonii (Benth.) Briq.; EC; 3000-4000 m S. nubigena (Kunth) Briq. (syn.: Micromeria nubigena Kunth); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3500-4500 m; includes var. glabrescens Benth. and var. nubigena S. cf. revoluta{Ruiz & Pav.) Briq.; PE; 3600 m s.' sericea (C.Presl ex Benth.) Briq.; PE; 3300-3800 m S. tenella Epling; EC; 3600-4300 m s.·cf. weberbaueri Mansf. (syn.: S. loeseneriana Mansf., S. lopezii Epling); PE; 3400-3500 m

LAMIACEAE Gardoquia Ruiz & Pav. (see Satureja) Lepechinia Willd. L. bullata (Kunth) Epling; CO, VE; 2300-3300 m L. conferta (Benth.) Epling; CO; 3600-3900 m L. salviifolia (Kunth) Epling; CO; 3100-3300 m L. schiedeana (Schltdl.) Vatke [syn.: L. alpina (Oerst.) Stand!., L. hirsuta Epling, L. procumbens Benth.]; CR, CO; 3000-3750 m Micromeria Benth. (see Satureja) Minthostachys (Benth.) Spach M. mollis Griseb.; CO, EC, PE; 3250-3450 m Prunella L. P. vulgaris L.; EC; 2500-4000 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] Salvia L. Ref.: Wood & Harley, 1989. S. amethystina Sm. subsp. amethystina; CO; 3600 m S. carnea Kunth var. carnea (syn.: S. killipiana Epling); CO, VE, EC; 3300-4100 m S. cocuyana Fern.Alonso; CO; 3000-3750 m S. corrugata Vah!; EC, PE; 2900-3800 m S. cuatrecasana Epling; CO; 3050 m S. hirtella V ah!; PE; 3400-3500 m S. lanicaulis Epling & Játiva; PE; 3500-4000 m S. cf. lobbii Epling; PE; 3400-3550 m S. melaleuca Epling; CO; 3000-3400 m; includes subsp. melaleuca and subsp. totensis J.R.I.Wood & Harley S. nubigena J.R.I.Wood & Harley; CO; 3500-3800 m ' S. palifolia Kunth; CO; 2600-3600 m S. ¡-ubescéns Kunth subsp. truxillensis (Briq.) J.R.I.Wood & Harley; VE; 3200-3400 m

Stachys L. S. bogotensis Kunth; CO; 3100-3 700 m S. elliptica Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 3500-4000 m S. eriantha Benth.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4200 m S. lamioides Benth.; CO, EC?; 3450 m S. pusilla (Wedd.) Briq.; CO, EC; 3750 m S. repens M.Martens & Galeotti; CO, EC; 3600-4200 m S. venezuelana Briq.; VE; 3000-3600 m

LAURACEAE Perseo Mili. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo forest patches.] P.ferruginea Kunth; CO, EC; 3048-39.00 m P. mutisii Kunth; CO, VE; 2800-3550 m

LEMNACEAE Lemna L. L. minar L.; CO; 3300 m

LENTIBULARIACEAE Pinguicula L. P. calyptrata Kunth; CO, EC; 3100-4100 m P. diversifolia Cuatrec.; CO; 3300-3500 m P. elongata Benj.; CO, VE; 3100-4450 m P. huilensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3400-3500 m P. involuta Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3400-3650 m Utricularia L. U. gibba L. (syn.: U. obtusa Sw.); CO; 3650-3900 m

LILIACEAE Eccremis Willd. ex Baker (see Excremis)

:¡.


1999]

PARAMOS

Echeandia Ortega E. ciliata (Kunth) Cruden; CO, VE; 2800-3550 m Excremis Willd. ex Schult.f. E. coarctata (Ruiz & Pav.) Baker; CO; 3250 m Jsidrogalvia Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: Tofie/dia Huds.)

113

Notanthera (DC.) G.Don (see Tristerix longebracteatus) Tristerix Mart. T.longebracteatus (Desr.) Barlow & Wiens [syn.: Notanthera longebracteata (Desr.) G.Don; Phrygilanthus /ongebracteatus (Desr.) J.F.Macbr.]; CO, EC, PE; 2900-4400 m T. secundus (Benth.) Kuijt; CO; 2800-3450 m

Ref.: Cruden, 1991. J. fa/cata Ruiz & Pav. [syn.: Tofie/diafalcata (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers., T. flexuosa Willd., T.frigida Kunth]; CO, EC, PE;

2300-3450 m J. robustior (Steyerm.) Cruden (syn.: Tofieldia sessi/ijlora Hook. var. robustior Steyerm.); VE; 2800-3700 m l. sessilijlora (Hook.) Cruden [syn.: Tofieldia sessi/ijlora Hook.,' T. moritziana (Klotzsch ex Baker) Schulze]; CO,

VE; 2100-4200 m

LYTHRACEAE Cuphaea P.Browne C. ciliata Ruiz & Pav.; CO, PE; 2700-3200 m C. serpyllifo/ia Kunth; CO; 3100 m

MALVACEAE

c.

Acaulimalva Krapov. Tofieldia Huds. (see Jsidrogalvia)

LOASACEAE [Note: The family is not typical to open pรกramo, but is infrequently encountered growing next to large rocks or in the protection of taller vegetation. It is more common to disturbed subpรกramo.] Ref.: Weigend, 1996. Caiophora C.Presl (1831) (not Cajophora Endl., 1839) C. sepiaria (G.Don) J.F.Macbr.; PEยก 4300 m [Note: Weigend

(pers. comm.) believes that thls name is dubious and probably has to be rejected as ~~ synonym. The proper name for this taxon is still in doupt, but may lie near C. carduifolia C.Piesi or C. tenuis Kl(llip.] Loasa Adans. \ L. ranunculifolia Kunth vel aff.; PE; 3\50-4300 m [Note: W,eigend (pers. comm.) believes tha~ollections identified as this taxon in N Peru represen\ a new species and that there are another 2-3 new species yet to be nam~d from this area. Furthermore, he states that L. lindeniana Urb. & Gilg (from VE), L. argemonoides Juss. (from CO), L. karsteniana Urb. & Gilg (from CO), and L. perijensis Weigend (from CO) may also occur occasionally in sheltered subpรกramo si tes.]

LORANTHACEAE [Note: See also Eremolepidaceae and Viscaceae fortaxa formerly placed in Loranthaceae sensu lato.] Ref.: Kuijt, 1986. Aetanthus (Eichler) Engl. A. colombianus A.C.Sm.; CO, VE; 2400-4000 m A. dichotomus (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuijt; CO; 2400-3400 m A. mutisii (Kunth) Engl. [syn.: Psittacanthus holtonii Eichler; A. holtonii (Eichler) Engl. & Prantl]; CO; ? m Gaiadendron G.Don G. punctatum (Ruiz & Pav.) G.Don [syn.: G. lanceolatum (Ruiz & Pav.) Baehni ex J.F.Macbr., G. tagua (Kunth)

G.Don]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4000 m

Ref.: S. R. Hill, 1982; Krapovickas, 1974. A. acaulis (Dombey ex Cav.) Krapov.; VE; 3700-4100 m A. alismatifolia (K.Schum. & Hieron.) Krapov. (syn.: Malvastrum alismatifolium K.Schum. & Hieron.); PE;

3000-3700 m A. crenata (A.W.Hill) Krapov. (syn.: Malvastrum crenatum

A.W.Hill); PE; 3800-4100 m A. eng/eriana (Ulbr.) Krapov. (syn.: Ma/vastrum eng/erianum Ulbr.); PE; 3200-4100 m A. parnassiaefolia (Hook.) Krapov. [syn.: Malvastrum parnassiaefolium (Hook.) A.Gray]; EC, PE; 3300-4100 m A. purdiaei (A.Gray) Krapov. (syn.: Ma/vastrum purdiaei A.Gray, M. meridae A.W.Hill); CO, VE; 3100-4100 m A. purpurea (A.W.Hill) Krapov. (syn.: Malvastrum purpureum A.W.Hill); CO, VE; 3600-4500 m A. rauhii (Hochr.) Krapov.; PE; 3500-4800 m A. stuebelii (Hieron.) Krapov. (syn.: Malvastrum stuebelii

Hieron.); PE; 3100-3500 m A. sulphurea Krapov.; PE; 3200-3500 m Ma/vastrum A.Gray (see Acaulimalva) Nototriche Turcz.

Ref.: A. W. Hill, 1909. N. artemisioides A.W.Hill; PE; 3900-4000 m N. chimborazoensis Hochr.; EC; 4150 m N. ecuadoriensis Fryxell; EC; 3950-4400 m N. jamesonii A.W.Hill; EC; 4000-4800 m N. cf. longissima A.W.Hill; PE; 4000 m N. lopezii Krapov.; PE; 3800-4000 m N. phyl/anthos (Cav.) A.W.Hill [syn.: N. pichinchensis (Humb. & Bonpl.) A.W.Hill]; EC; 4000-4900 m

MELASTOMATACEAE Ref.: Wurdack, 1973, 1978, 1980. Axinaea Ruiz & Pav. A. macrophylla (Naudin) Triana [syn.: A. affinis (Naudin)

Cogn.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3500 m A. merianiae (DC.) Triana [syn.: A. /epidota (Benth.)

Triana]; EC; 2600-3400 m


114

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Brachyotum (DC.) Triana Ref.: Wurdack, 1953. B. alpinum Cogn.; EC; 3200-4500 m B. andreanum Cogn.; EC, PE; 2700-3400 m B. angustifolium Wurdack; PE; 3300-3500 m B. barbeyanum Cogn.; PE; 2800-3450 m B. campii Wurdack; EC; 3350-3500 m B. cern'uum (Bonpl.) Triana; CO; 3200-3700 m B. cogniauxii Wurdack; PE; 2900-3750 m B. confertum (Bonpl.) Triana; EC; 3100-3500 m B.fictum Wurdack; EC; 3000-3600 m B.figueroae J.F.Macbr.; PE; 3600 m B.fraternum Wurdack; EC; 3400-3500 m B. harlingii Wurdack; EC; 3300-3400 m B. jamesonii Triana; EC; 3000-4000 m B. ledifolium (Desr.) Triana; CO, EC; 2600-4200 m B. lindenii Cogn.; CO, EC; 3200-4200 m B. /ongisepa/um Wurdack; PE; 3300-4000 m B. lymphatum Wurdack; CO; 3300-3800 m B. naudiiJii Triana; PE; 3100-3550 m B. raduĂ­a Triana; PE; 3000-3700 m B. rostratum (Naudin) Triana (syn.: B. seorsum Wurdack); EC, PE; 3250-4100 m B. rotundifoiium Cogn.; EC; 2840-3800 m B. strigosum (L. f.) Triana; CO; 3050-3900 m Bucquetia DC. B. glutinosa (L.f.) DC.; CO; 2800-3600 m B. vernicosa G1eason; CO, VE; 2900-3000 m Castrate/la Naudin C. pilose/loides (Bonpl.) Naudin; CO, VE; 3050-4200 m C. rosea G1eason; CO, VE; 3100-3700 m Chaeto/epis (DC.) Miq. C. alpina Naudin; CO, VE; 3350-4100 m C. cufodontisii Standl.; CR; 2000-3820 m C. lindeniana (Naudin) Triana [syn.: C. a/pestris (H.Karst.) Triana]; CO, VE; 3200-4900 m C. loricare/la Triana; CO; ? m C. microphy/la (Bonpl.) Miq.; CO, VE; 2700-3700 m C. perijensis Wurdack; CO, VE; 3100-3600 m C. santamartensis Wurdack; CO; 3050-3100 m C. thymifolia Triana; CO; 2800-3000 m Meriania Sw. M tetragona (Cogn.) Wurdack; EC; 2800-3400 m [Note: A marginally subpĂĄramo species at 3400 m.] Miconia Ruiz & Pav. M arbutifolia Naudin; VE; 2800-3300 m M aspergillaris (Bonpl.) Naudin; EC, PE; 3000-3700 m M avia Wurdack; VE; 2900 m M. barclayana Wurdack; EC; 3400-3900 M. biappendiculata (Naudin) L.Uribe; CO; 3200-3400 m M bu/lata (Turcz.) Triana; EC, PE; 3550-3650 m M. buxifolia Naudin; CO, VE; 3300-4100 m M. castillensis Wurdack; EC; 3300-3500 m

m

[VOL. 84

M. cataractae Triana; CO, VE; 2400-2850 m M. chionophila Naudin; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 35004300 m M. chlorocarpa Cogn.; CO, EC; 2800-3700 m M. cladonia Gleason; EC; 3200-3350 m M cleefii L.Uribe; CO; 3450-3750 m M cundinamarcensis Wurdack; CO; 3000-3200 m M elaeoides Naudin; CO, VE; 2900-3600 m M. elvirae Wurdack; VE; 2900 m M gleasoniana Wurdack; CO; 3200-3500 m M. griffisii J.F.Macbr.; PE; 3550 m M. harlingii Wurdack; CO, EC; 3400-3650 m M hexamera Wurdack; EC; 3100-3450 m M.jahnii Pittier; CO, VE; 2900-3300 m M. jentaculorum Wurdack; CO; 3100-3200 m M /atifolia (D.Don) Naudin (syn.: M. andina Naudin, M. epiphytica Cogn.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4050 m M /edifolia (DC.) Naudin; EC; 2850-3600 m M ligustrina (Sm.) Triana var. setulinodis Wurdack; CO, EC; 3300-3700 m M limitaris Wurdack; CO, VE; 3000-3100 m M. media (D.Don) Naudin subsp. borealis Wurdack; PE; 2800-3500 m M. mesmeana G1eason; CO, VE; 3100-3600 m; ineludes subsp.jabonensis Wurdack and subsp. mesmeana M. myrtil/ifolia Naudin; CO, VE; 3000-3200 m M nitidissima Cogn.; VE;.2720-2900 m M. nodosa Cogn.; CO; 3000-3250 m M. orcheotoma Naudin; CO; 3000-3600 m M. oreogena Wurdack; CO; 3250-3350 m M. paZ/ida Gleason; CO; 3220-3900 m M. paludigena Wurdack; PE; 3500-3750 m M. parvifolia Cogn.; CO; 3250-3500 m M. pernettifolia Triana; EC; 3400-3500 m M polyneura Triana; CO; 3300-3350 m M puracensis Wurdack; CO; 3500-3700 m M. radula Cogn.; PE; 2900 m M. rigens Naudin; CO; 3200-3300 m M rotundifolia (D.Don) Naudin; EC, PE; 3400-3750 m M. salicifolia (Bonpl. ex Naudin) Naudin; CO, EC, PE; 2950-4150 m M. schnellii Wurdack; CR; 3050-3200 m M. spinulidentata Cogn. & Gleason ex G1eason; CO; 38004000m M squamulosa (Sm.) Triana; CO; 2800-3000 m M stipularis Naudin; CO; 2400-3400 m M. summa Cuatrec.; CO; 3200-3700 m M tephrodes Wurdack; EC; 3350-3450 m M. tinifolia Naudin; CO, VE, EC; 2500-4100 m; inc1udes var. parviflora Cogn. and var. tinifolia M. tricaudata Wurdack; CO; 3250-3350 m M. ulmarioides Naudin; VE; 2800-3300 m M. vaccinioides (Bonpl.) Naudin; PE; 3400 m M. verrucosa Cogn.; CO; 3200 m Monochaetum (DC.) Naudin M. amistadense Almeda; CR; 2400-3300 m M.bonplandii (Kunth) Naudin; CO, VE; 2300-3800 m


1999]

M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M. M.

PARAMOS

coronatum Gleason; CO; 2800-3100 m discolor H.Karst.; VE; 2900-3100 m glanduliferum Triana; CO; 2900-3100 m gleasonianuin Wurdack; VE; 2700-3300 m mariae Wurdack; VE; 3100-3200 m myrtoideum (Bonpl.) Naudin; CO; 2900-3650 m paucijlorum Triana; CO, EC; 3200-3300 m rodriguezii W urdack; VE; 2100-2900 m stellulatum Naudin; CO; 3000-3100 m uberrimum Sandwith; CO; 3000 m

Tibouchina Aubl. T andreana Cogn.; CO; 3200-3650 m T. grossa (L.f.) Cogn. [syn.: Melas/ama grossa L.f.; T. reticulata (Bonpl.) Cogn.]; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4100 m T mollis (Bonpl.) Cogn.; CO; 2300-3700 m; includes var. glandltlifera Wurdack and var. mollis T. stricta Wurdack; CO; 3300-3800 m

MYRICACEAE Myrica L. M..funckii Chev.; CO, VE; 3200-3300 m M. parvifolia Benth.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3700 m M. pubescens Humb .. & Bonpl ex Willd.; CO, EC; 18003600m

MYRSINACEAE Conomorpha DC. (see Cybianthus) Cybianthus Mart. (syn.: Conomorpha DC., Grammadenia Benth.) Ref.: Pipoly, 1987. C. baruana (see Comarostaphylos arbutoides in the Ericaceae) C. iteoides (Benth.) G.Agostini subsp. nevadensis (Mez) Pipoly; VE; 2950 m C. marginatus (Benth.) Pipoly (syn.: Grammadenia alpina Mez); CO, VE, EC; 2800-4000 m C. perseoides (Mez) G.Agostini; CO; 3300-3400 m C. stapfii (Mez) G.Agostini; CO; 2700-3500 m Geissanthus Hook.f. G. andinus Mez; CO, VE; 2800-3700 m G. quindiensis Mez; CO, EC; 2800-3600 m Grammadenia Benth. (see Cybianthus) Myrsine L. (syn.: Rapanea Aubl.) Ref.: Pipoly, 1992. M. andina (Mez) Pipoly; CO, EC; 2800-4000 m M. cm'iacea (Sw.) R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (syn.: M.jelskii , Zahlbr.); CO; 2800-3200 m M. dependens (Ruiz & Pav.) A.Spreng. [syn.: Rapanea pittieri Mez; Myrsine pittieri (Mez) Lundell]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2750-4100 m M. umbellata Mart.; EC; 3200-3300 m

115

Rapanea Aubl. (see Myrsine)

MYRTACEAE Eugenia L. E. triquetra O.Berg (syn.: E. weberbaueri Diels); CO, VE, PE; 3200-3350 m; disturbed areas Myrcianthes O.Berg M. leucoxyla (Ortega) McVaugh; CO; 2700-3100 m M. rhopaloides (Kunth) McVaugh [syn.: Eugenia rhopaloides (Kunth) DC.]; VE; 2500-3400 m Myrteola O.Berg Ref.: Landrum, 1988. M. acerosa (O.Berg) Burret; PE; 2900-3700 m M. hummularia (Poir.) O.Berg [syn.: M. oxycoccoides (Benth.) O.Berg, M. vaccinioides (Kunth) O.Berg]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4200 m M. phylicoides (Benth.) Landrum var. glabrata (O.Berg) Landrum [syn.: M. microphylla (Humb. & Bonpl.) O.Berg var. glabra/a O.Berg]; PE; 2800-38\:J~ Ugni Turcz. U. myricoides (Kunth) O.Berg [syn.: U. angustifolia Burret, U. montana (Benth.) O.Berg, U. oerstedii (O.Berg) Hemsl., U. warscewiczii O.Berg]; CR, PA, CO, VE; 3100-3700m

NYCTAGINACEAE Colignonia Endl. Ref.: Bohlin, 1988. C. ovalifolia Heimerl; CO; 3300-3600 m C. parvijlora (Kunth) Choisy subsp. biumbellata (Ball) Bohlin; PE; 3300-4000 m

ONAGRACEAE Epilobium L. Ref.: Solomon, 1982. E. denticulatum Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: E. aequinoctiale Sam., E. meridense Hausskn.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 32004650 m Fuchsia L. [Note: A forest genus, but frequently getting into disturbed weedy situations in subpรกramo.] Ref.: Berry, 1985. F. ampliata Benth.; EC; 2900-3475 m F. ayavacensis Kunth; EC; 3500 m F. canPscens Benth.; CO; 3260 m F. cf. caucana P.E.Berry; CO; 2950-3300 m F. colombiana Munz; CO; 3500-3600 m F. con.fertifolia Fielding & Gardner; PE; 3100-3300 m F. corollata Benth.; CO, EC; 2900-3450 m F. dependens Hook.; CO; 2900-3400 m F..fontinalis J.F.Macbr.; PE; 2900-3400 m


116

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTAN! CAL GARDEN

' gehrigeri Munz; CO, VE; 2200-3400 m /oxensis Kunth; EC; 3250-3800 m magdalenae Munz; CO; 3000-3350 m mathewsii J.F.Macbr.; PE; 280-3400 m membranacea Hemsl.; VE; 2800-3400 m cf. osgoodii J.F.Macbr.; PE;? m petiolaris Kunth; CO; 2750-4100 m sanmartina P.E.Berry; PE; 3100-3650 m sessilifolia Benth.; CO, EC; 2500-3500 m splendens Zucc.; CR; 3000-3800 m F. summa P.E.Berry; EC; 3100-3450 m F. venusta Kunth (syn.: F. killipii I.M.Johnst.); CO; 28004000 m F. vu!canica André; CO, EC; 3100-3500 m F. F. F. F. F. F. F. F. F. F.

Oenolhera L. O. epilobiifolia Kunth (syn.: O. cuprea Schlecht.); CR, CO, VE, EC; 2900-3950 m; inc!uding subsp. cuprea (Schlecht.)P.H.Raven & J.Parn. and subsp. epilobiifolia O. mullicaulis Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: O. larquensis Kunth); CR, VE, EC, PE; 2900-3800 m O. seifrizii Munz; CO, VE; 2800-4500 m O. versicolor Lehm.; PE; 3300-4000 m

ORCHIDACEAE Aa Rchb.f. [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) lists Aa riobambae Schltr. from EC at 3 800 m, but 1 have not seen any voucher nor do l have !abe] information about exact localities.] A. argyrolepis Rchb.f.; CO, EC; 4100-4500 m A. colombiana Schltr. [syn.: Allensleinia colombiana (Schltr.) Garay]; CO, EC; 3800-4300 m A. denticulata Schltr.; CO, EC; 2900-3900 m A. hartwegii Garay; VE, EC; 3800-4100 m A. leucantha (Rchb.f.) Schltr.; CO, VE, EC; 3500-4200 m A. maderoi Schltr. (syn.: A/tensteiniafragosa Lojtnant); CO, EC; 3300-4300 m A. paleacea (Kunth) Rchb.f. [syn.: Altensleinia pa/aceae (Kunth) Kunth]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-3900 m A. rhynchocarpa Schltr.; CO; 4400 m A. rostrata (Rchb.f.) Schltr. [syn.: Myrosmodes rostratum (Rchb.f.) Garay]; CO, VE; 3800-4400 m Altensteinia Kunth [Note: Many older Altensteinia names have now been transferred to Aa or Myrosmoides.] A.fimbriata Kunth; CO, VE, PE; 2600-3500 m A. lemantha H.B.K.; CO; 3400-3500 m A. virescens Lindl.; EC; 2800-3550 m Barbosella Schltr. B. cucullata (Lindl.) Schltr.; CO; 3500 m Brachionidium Lindl. [Notes: The species of Brachionidium are often found on road embankments in páramo. Luteyn el al. 12837 (Brachionidium sp., COL, NY) is determined only

[VOL. 84

to genus by E. Christenson, but would be the first record ofthis genus noted from Colombia.] B. tetrapetalum (F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.) Schltr.; EC; 37003850m B. tuberculatum Lindl.; EC; 3750 m Cranichis Sw. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo., Dodson (pers. comm.) lists Jorgl!nsen el al. 92261 (C. sp., MO) from EC at 3460 m as occurring in páramo.] C. cf. cucullata Schltr.; CO; 3200 m C. diphylla Sw.; CO; 3150 m Elleanlhus C.Presl E. auranliacus (Lindl.) Rchb.f. [syn.:? E.jlavescens (Lindl.) Rchb.f.]; CO, VE, EC; 2500-3700 m E. ensatus (Lindl.) Rchb.f.; CO; 2800-4000 m E. gracilis (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.; EC; 3400-3900 m E. scopulus Schltr.; EC; 2900-3700 m E. ventricosus Schltr.; EC; 3300--4100 m E. vinosus Schltr.; CO; 3300-3500 m E. virgatus (Rchb.f.) C.Schweinf.; EC; 4100 m E. wercklei Schltr.; PA; 3100-3300 m Epidendrum L. E. acuminatum Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3100-3250 m. E. aquaticoides C.Schweinf.; EC; 3000-3420 m E. brevivenium Lindl.; EC; 2800-3400 m E. chioneum Lindl.; CO, VE; 3100-3500 m E. chortophyllum Schltr.; EC; 3400-3800 m E. cuniculatum Schltr.; EC; 3800 m E. dermatanthum Kraenzl.; EC; 4100 m E. elleanthoides Schltr.; CO, EC; 3000-3750 m E. erosum Ames & C.Schweinf.; CO; 3000-3600 m E. fimbriatum Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m E.frigidum Linden ex Lindl.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-4450 m E.frutex Rchb.f.; CO, VE; 2950-4000 m E. gaslropodium Rchb.f.; EC; 2000-3500 m [Note: A species found along road embankments in páramo.] E. globiflorum F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.; VE, EC; 2750-3500 m E. gramineum Lindl.; PE; 3300-3500 m E. inornatum Schltr.; EC; 3650-3750 m [Note: A species found along road embankments in páramo.] E. loxense F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.; EC; 2900-3150 m E. macrostachyum Lindl.; EC; 2000-3700 m E. microdendron Rchb.f.; CR; 3100-3400 m E. moronense Dodson & Hágsater; EC; 3500 m E. paucifolium Schltr.; CR; 3100-3400 m E.pichinchae Schltr.; EC; 2500-3800 m E. rhombochilum L.O.Williams; EC; 3300-3850 m E. scabrum Ruiz & Pav.; EC; 1900-3700 m E. serpens Lindl.; CO, EC?; 3000-3530 m E. torquatum Lindl.; CO; 2800-3400 m E. vesicicau/e L.O.Williams; EC; 3600-3800 m Gomphichis Lindl. G. bogolensis Renz; CO, VE; 3000-3700 m


'/

1

1999]

PARAMOS

G. brachystachys Schltr.; CO; 3150 m G. caucana Schltr.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3500 m G. crassilabia Garay; EC; 3450-3500 m G. cundinamarcae Renz; CO; 3000-3500 m G.foliosa Ames; CO, VE; 3000-3500 m G. goodyeroides Lindl.; EC; 2900-3650 m G. hetaerioides Schltr.; EC; 1800-4000 m G. macbridei C.Schweinf.; EC; 3600-3700 m G. montana L.O.Williams; VE; 3100-3300 m G. traceyae Rolfe; CO, VE, EC; 2900-4000 m G. valida Rchb.f.; EC; 2600-4000 m G. viscosa (Rchb.f.) Schltr.; VE, PE; 2800-3700 m Habenaria Willd. H. gollmeri Schltr.; CO, EC; 2500-3700 m Lepanthes Sw. [Notes: Severa! species of Lepanthes-e.g., L. amplisepala Luer & R.Escobar, L. deliciasensis Luer & R. Escobar, L. guanacasensis Luer & R.Escobar, and L. os iris Luer & R.Escobar-have been reported (in lit.) as occurring in the scrub forestofvarious páramos in central Colombia at 3150-3380 m; however, I have not seen voucher specimens, nor is exact !abe! information available. Dodson (pers. comm.) also lists L. biloba Lindl., L. chimaera Luer & R.Escobar, L. decurva Luer & Hirtz, L. de/phax Luer, L. frigida Luer & Hirtz, L. golbasto Luer & Hirtz, L. il/ex Luer, L. mastix Luer, L. metaxy Luer & Hirtz, L. monitor Luer, L. monr.¡ptera Lindl., L. muscula Luer & R. Escobar, L. otostalyx Rchb.f., and L. oxypetala Luer & Hirtz from EC at 3400-3600(-3700) m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact !abe! information; these are probably epiphytes in high montane forest, not in páramo.] L. aberrans Schltdl.; EC; 3500-3850 m L. altico/a Schweinf.; EC; 3600 m L. deliqua Luer; EC; 3600 m L. dolichopus Schltr.; CO, EC; 3450-3600 m L. gargantua Rchb.f.; CO; 3200-3400 m L. mesochlora Rchb.f.; CO; 3000-3200 m L. mucronata Lindl.; EC; 3450-3600 m L. rhombipetala Schltr.; EC; 3450 m L. tachirensis Foldats; CO; 3650-4290 m L. trachysepala Schltr.; EC; 3800-3850 m L. tricuspis Schltr.; CO; 3300-3350 m Ma/axis Sol. ex Sw. [Notes: A forest genus, but also found in shrub páramo. Dodson (pers. comm.) does list M. andico/a (Ridl.) Kuntze, M. caracasana (Klotzsch ex Ridl.) Kuntze, M. excavata (Lindl.) Kuntze, and M. hoppii (Schltr.) Lojtnant from EC at 3400-3600 m and M. sodiroi (Schltr.) Dodson from 3850 m, but I have not seen any voucher material not do I have exact !abe! information; these are proba! y epiphytes in high montane forest, not in páramo.] M. soulei L.O.Williams; CR, VE; 1000-3500 m

117

Masdevallia Ruiz & Pav. [Notes: A forest genus, but sometimes found on rocks or as a terrestrial amongst mosses in páramo. Dodson (pers. comm.) does list M. ajjinis Lindl., M. anachaeta Rchb.f., M. pardina Rchb.f., and M. uncifera Rchb.f. from EC at 3400-3600 m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact !abe! information; these are probably epiphytes in high montane forest, notin páramo.] M. amabilis Rchb.f. & Warsw.; PE; 2900-3750 m M. corderoana F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.; CO, EC; 3100-3400 m M. coriacea Lindl.; CO, EC; 3100-3900 m; includes var. bonplandii (Rchb.f.) Luer and var. coriacea [Note: Often growing on rocks.] M. ignea Rchb.f.; CO; 3550-3800 m M. semiteres Luer & R.Escobar; PE; 3100-3800 m [Note: Growing on rocks.] Maxil/aria Ruiz & Pav. [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) does list M. alticola C.Schweinf. from EC at 3500 m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact !abe! information; this is probably an epiphyte in high montane forest, not in páramo.] M. aurea (Poepp. & Endl.) L.O.Williams; CO, PE; 28003500 m M. /epidota Lindl.; EC; 4100-4500 m M. pleuranthoides (Schltr.) Garay: CO; ? m M. pulla Linden & Rchb.f.; PE; 3100-3250 m Myrosmodes Rchb.f. M. brevis (Schltr.) Garay; EC; 3450-3900 m M. coch/eare Garay; VE, EC; 3200-4400 m M. nubigenum Rchb.f. [syn.: Altensteinia nubigena (Rchb.f.) Rchb.f.]; VE, EC; 3000-4500 m M. paludosa (Rchb.f.) Garay (syn.: Aa pa/udosa Schltr.; Altensteinia paludosa Rchb.f.); CO, VE, PE; 3625-4600 m M. rhynchocarpum (Schltr.) Garay; EC; 3200-4000 m M. ustulatum (Schltr.) Garay; EC; 3000-4100 m Odontoglossum Kunth [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) does listO. auropurpureum Rchb.f. from EC at 3400-3500 m, but I ha ve not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact labe1 information.] O. angustatum Lindl.; PE; 3100-3500 m O. aureum (Lindl.) Rchb.f.; EC; 3500 m O. cristatum Lindl.; EC; 4100 m O. lindenii Lindl.; CO, VE; 3100-3650 m O. oerstedii Rchb.f. (see Ticog/ossum) O. pardinum Lindl.; CO, EC; 3350-4000 m O. prasinum Linden & Rchb.f.; CO; 3200-3300 m O. mmosissimum Lindl.; CO, EC; 3000-3800 m O. retusum Lindl.; EC; 3000-3150 m O. revolutum Lindl.; CO; 3200-3750 m Oncidium Sw. O. aureum Lindl.; EC; 3400 m O. cucul/atum Lindl.; EC; 3400-3750 m


118

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTAN! CAL GARDEN

Pa~h;phyllum Kunth [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) does 1ist P. peperomoides Kraenzl. from EC at 3400-3500 m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact label information.] P. crystallinum Lindl.; EC; 3200-4000 m P. distichum Kunth; PE; 2750-3600 m P. hartwegii Rchb.f.; EC; 2800-3450 m P. lycopodioides Schltr.; PE; 3600 m P. cf. nubivagun; L.O.Williams; CO; 3800-4100 m P. pastii Rchb.f.; CO, EC; 3400-4200 m P. squarrosum Lindl.; CO; 3300-3750 m Platystele Schltr. [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) does 1ist P. piscifera (Lindl.) Luer and P. stonyx Luer from EC at 34003600 m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact 1abel information.] Pleurothallis R.Br. [Notes: Dodson (pers. comm.) dóes list P. adonis Luer, P. apopsis Luer, P. atacasana Luer, P. avirostra Luer & Hirtz, P. nivalis Luer, and P. patula Schltr. from EC at 3400-3600 m and P. praealta Luer & Hirtz from 3 800 m, but I have not se en any voucher material nor do I ha ve exact !abe! information.] P. acuminata Lindl.; VE; 2200-3200 m P. aurea Lindl.; VE; 3050-3475 m [Note: A species found on limestone outcrops.] P. cassidis Lindl.; CO; 3300-3350 m P. declivis Lindl.; EC; 3600-3800 m P.jamesonii Lindl.; CO; 3300-3350 m P. laevigata Lindl.; EC; 3100-3600 m P. ligulata Lindl.; EC; 1800-3600 m P. litotes Luer; EC; 3400 m [Note: A species found on road embankments in páramo.] P. lloensis Schltr.; EC; 3800 m P. pilifera Lindl.; EC; 3400 m [Note: A species found on road embankments in páramo.] P. ramificans Luer; EC; 3400 m [Note: A species found on road embankments in páramo.] P. secunda Poepp. & Endl.; CO; 3000-3400 m P. simplex Ames & C.Schweinf.; CR; 3100-3400 m P. spiralis (Ruiz & Pav.) Lindl.; EC; 2600-3500 m P. talpinaria Rchb.f.; CO; 3200-3500 m Pterichis Lindl. Ref.: Morales L, 1986. P. colombiana G.A.Morales; CO; 3800 m P. 'galeata Lindl. var. galeata [syn.: P. acuminata Schltr.,? P. barbifrons (Kraenzl.) Schltr.]; CO, EC, PE; 31503850 m P. habenarioides (F.Lehm. & Kraenzl.) Schltr. (syn.: P. costaricensis Ames & C.Schweinf.); CR, CO, EC; 22003900m P. leo L.D.Gómez & Gómez-Laur.; CR; 3000-3500 m P. multiflora (Lindl.) Schltr.; CO, VE, EC; 3000-3850 m P. parvifolia (Lindl.) Schltr.; CO; 3150-3350 m

[VOL. 84

P. pauciflora Schltr.; CO; 3300-3700 m P. triloba (Lindl.) Schltr.; CO, EC; 3200-3700 m

Salpistele Dressler S. pensilis (Schltr.) Luer;· EC; 3350-3450 m Spiranthes Rich. (see Stenorrhynchos) Stelis Sw. [Notes: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo forest patches. Dodson (pers. comm.) does list S. polycldda Lindl. and S. purpurea (Ruiz & Pav.) Willd. from EC at 3500 m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I ha ve exact label information.] S. apiculata Lindl.; EC; 3500 m S. dialissa (Lindl.) Rchb.f.; CO; 3250 m S.furfuracea Lehm. & Kraenzl.; CO; 3200 m S. humilis Lindl.; VE; 2000-3200 m [Note: A.sQecies found on limestone outcrops.] ~ S. lanceo/ata (Ruiz & Pav.) Willd.; VE; 2700-3200 m S. muscosa Lindl.; EC; 3600 m S. pusilla Kunth; CO, EC; 2000-3900 m S. sirio/ata Lindl.; VE; 3000-3150 m Stenorrhynchos Rich. ex Spreng. (syn.: Coccineorchis Schltr.; Spiranthes p.p.) S. vaginatum (Kunth) Spreng. [syn.: Spiranthes vagina/a (Kunth) Lindl. ex B.D.Jackson]; CO, VE; 2750-3550 m Telipogon Mutis ex Kunth [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) does list T. vollesii Dodson & R.Escobar and one other collection (Hirtz & Hirtz 5117, RPSC) from EC at 3400 m, but I have not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact !abe! information.] T nervosus (L.) Druce; CO; 3200 m T semipictus Rchb.f. ex Kraenzl.; PE; 3100-3250 m T storkii Ames & C.Schweinf.; CR; 3100-3400 m T tessellatus Lindl.; PE; 3250 m Ticoglossum Lucas Rodr. ex Halb. T oerstedii (Rchb.f.) Lucas Rodr. ex Halb. (syn.: Odontoglossum oerstedii Rchb.f.); PA; 2300-3450 m Trichosalpinx Luer [Note: Dodson (pers. comm.) does líst T brevispicata C.Schweinf. and T chaemaelepanthes (Rchb.f.) Luer from EC at 3600 m, but I ha ve not seen any voucher material nor do I have exact !abe! information.] T. microcharis (Schltr.) Luer; EC; 3800 m T pusilla (Kunth) Luer [syn.: Pleurothallis pusilla (Kunth) Lindl.]; CO, VE; 3000-3400 m T quitensis (Rchb.f.) Luer; EC; 4000 m

OXALIDACEAE Oxalis L. O. fendleri Lourteig; CO, PE; 3100-3600 m


1999]

PARAMOS

O. filiformis R.Knuth; CR, CO, EC; 3600--4000 m O. /otoides K.unth; CO, EC, PE; 3000-3750 m O. medicaginea R.Knuth; CO, VE, EC; 3100--4000 m O. pennelliana R.K.nuth; CO; 3600-3700 m O~ phaeotricha Die1s; CO; 3500--4200 m O. rufescens Turcz.; EC; 3600--4200 m O. spiralis Ruiz & Pav. ex G.Don; CR, CO, VE; 3100-3700 m; inc1udes subsp.-rlpiralis and subsp. vulcanicola (Donn.Sm.) Lourteig O. tabaconasensis R.Knuth; CO; 3200-3700 m O. teneriensis R.Knuth; EC; 4300 m

119

P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P.

mandonii C.DC.; CO; 3300-3700 m microphylla Kunth; CO, VE, EC; 2950-3900 m mo!lis Kunth; VE; 3100-3500 m parasítica C.DC.; CO, EC; 3300-3350 m peruviana (Miq.) Dahlst.; CO, VE, PE; 3300-3700 m quadrangifolia (L.) Kunth; CO; 2700-3000 m quadrifolia (L.) Kunth; CR; 3100-3400 m quindioensis Trel. & Yunck.; CO; 3150-3200 m rotundata Kunth; CO; 3300-3790 m sa/igna Kunth (syn.: P. bistortaefolia Trel., P. alagotacta C.DC.); CR, PA, CO, VE; 2800--4000 m P. tequendamana Trel.; CO, VE; 2800--4000 m

PASSIFLORACEAE Ref.: Escobar, 1988; Holm-Nie1sen et al., 1988.

Passijlora L. [Note: A genus found mostly in forest and disturbed are as in subpáramo forest patches.] .f. adulterina L.f.; CO; 3300-3500 m P. bicuspidata (H.Karst.) Mast.; CO; 3000-3200 m P. colombiana L.K.Escobar; CO; 3150-3600 m P. crispo/anata L.Uribe (syn.: P. boyacana Killip); CO; 2600-3100 m P. cuatrecasasii K.illip; CO; 2200-3400 m P. cumbalensis (H.Karst.) Harms; CO, EC; 1800--4100 m; inc1udes var. caucana L.K.Escobar, var. cumbalensis, 1 and var. goudotiana (Triana & P1anch.) L. K. Escobar P.jamesonii (Mast.) Bailey; EC; 2800-3750 m P. cf. /anata (Juss.) Poir.; CO; 2200-3500 m P. toxensis Killip & Cuatrec.; EC; 2200-3400 m P. mathewsii (Mast.) K.illip; EC, PE; 2850-3550 m 1 P. mixta L. f.; CO, EC; 1700-3900 m; includes var. eriantha (Benth.) Killip and var. mixta P. parvifolia (DC.) Harms; PE; 2700-3600 m P. schlimiana Triana & Planch.; CO; 2400-3900 m P. sierra e L.K.Escobar; CO; 3100 m P. trianae Killip; CO; 3000-3300 m P. trinervia (Juss.) Pers.; CO; ca. 3500 m

PHYTOLACCACEAE Phyto/acca L. P. australis Phi!.; VE; 3800--4100 m P. bogotensis Kunth; CO, EC; 3500-3800 m P. rugosa Braun & Bouché; CR, PA, CO; 2000-3500 m P. sanguínea H.Walter; CO; 3000-3600 m

PIPERACEAE Peperomia Ruiz & Pav. P. alibacophylla Trel. & Yunck.; CO; 3300-3400 m P. galioides Kunth (syn.: P. jamesonii Regel., P. fiagelliformis Hook.f. ex Miq.); CR, CO, EC; 3100--4000 m P. hartwegiana Miq. (syn.: P. cinerea Sodiro, P. dolichostachya Sodiro, P. kunthiana C.DC.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300--4300 m P. hispidula (Sw.) A.Dietr.; CO, EC; 3200-3500 m P. ioeides Trel. & Yunck.; CO; 3250 m

PiperL. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely in subpáramo forest patches.] P. barbatum Kunth; EC; 2300-3260 m P. nubigenum Kunth var. brevifolium Trel. & Yunck.; CO; 2800-3300 m P. ramosense Yunck.; CO; 3150-3200 m

PLANTAGINACEAE Plan lago L. P. alopecuris Decne.; CO; 3600-3700 m P. australis Lam.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800--4200 m; ineludes subsp. ecuadorensis (~ilg.) Rahn, subsp. hirtella (Kunth) Rahn, subsp. orea des (Decnc.) Rahn, and subsp. sodiroana (Pi1g.) Rahn P. caridna Decne.; CO; 2800-3900 m P. linearis Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 2500-4500 m; includes var. agrostophylla (Decne.) Pi1g., var. leptotricha Pilg., and var. linearis P. monticola Decne. subsp. angusta Pi1g.; CO; 3500--4150 m P. nubigena K.unth; CO, EC; 3500--4600 m P. rigida Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300--4500 m P. sericea Ruiz & Pav.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300--4250 m; includes subsp. argyrophylla (Decne.) Rahn and subsp. perrymondii (Barnd.) Rahn P. tarattothrix Pi1g.; PE; 4000--4100 m P. tubulosa Decne.; CO, EC, PE; 3450--4450 m

POACEAE Ref.: Barkworth, 1990; Hitchcock, 1927; Nicora & Rúgo1o de Agrasar, 1987; Poh1, 1977; Tovar, 1993.

Aciachne Benth. Ref.: Lregaard, 1987. A. acicularis Lregaard; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3500--4150 m A.jlagellifera Lregaard; CO, EC; 3850--4400 m A. pulvinata Benth.; CR, VE, EC, PE; 3500--4400 m Aegopogon Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. A. cenchroides Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.; CO, VE; 25004200m Agropyron Gaertn. (Andean taxa now mostly under Elymus)


120

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

'

Agrostis L. A. araucana Phi!.; CO, EC; 3800-4200 m A. bacillata Hack.; CR; 3050-3800 m A. boyacensis Swallen & García-Barr.; CO, EC; 3700-4500 m A. brevicu/mis Hitchc.; CO;VE, EC, PE; 3300-4650 m A. fascicu/ata (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. [syn.: A. humboldtiana Steud., A. perennans (Walt.) Tuck]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4000 m ' A. fo/iata Hook.f. (syn.: A. nigritel/a Pilg.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4800 m A. ge/ida Trin.; Có; 3200 m A. gracilis Pilg.; CO; 4300 m A. haenkeana Hitchc.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3350-4200 m A.jahnii Luces; VE; 3000-3150 m A.jamesoniana Steud.; EC; 4600 m A. /ehmannii Swallen; CO; 3500 m A. meridensis Luces; VE; 3500-3600 m A. mertensii Trin. (syn.: A. boliviana Mez); EC, PE;? m A. pittieri Hack.; VE; 4000 m A. scabrifolia Swallen; CO; 3100-3200 m A. sodiroana Hack.; EC; 3600-3800 m A. stolonifera L.; EC, VE; 3250 m A. subpatens Hitchc.; CR, VE; 3000-4000 m A. tenuis Sibth.; VE; 3300 m A. tolucensis Kunth (syn.: A. virescens Kunth); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-4800 m A. trichodes (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. (syn.: A. bogotensis Hack.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3100-4000 m A. turrialbae Mez; CR, CO; 2950-3500 m A. venezuelana Mez; VE; 3250-3600 m

[VOL. 84

Brachypodium P.Beauv. B. mexicanum (Roem. & Schult.) Link; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3150-3800 m Eriza L. ( B. minar L.,; CO; 3000-3200 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] Bromus L. Ref.: Pinto-Escobar, 1981. B. carinatus Hook. & Arn.; CR; 1500-3500 m B. catharticus Vahl (syn.: B. unio/oides Kunth, B. wil/denowii Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 3200-4400 m [Note: This species is also cultivated as forage.] B. co/oratus Steud.; CO; 2750-3300 m 8,. exaltatus Bemh.; CR; 3000-3500 m .B. /anatus Kunth [syn.: B. oliganthus Pilg., B. pitensis Kunth (fide S. Renvoize, pers. comm.)]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4750 m [Note: This species is native but is sometimes cultivated as forage.] B. segetum Kunth; CO, PE; 3400-3520 m

Ca/amagrostis Adans. (syn.: Deyeuxia Clarion ex P.Beauv.) Ref.: Escalona, 1988; Lregaard, 1998; Tovar, 1960. C. aurea (Munro ex W edd.) Hack. ex Sodiro (syn.: Deyeuxia aurea Munro ex Wedd.); EC; 4200-4800 m C. bogotensis (Pilg.) Pilg. (syn.: Deyeuxia bogotensis Pilg.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4350 m C. boyacensis Swallen & García-Barr.; CO; 4000-4300 m C. carchiensis Lregaard; EC; 3200-3900 m C. chasei Luces; VE; 3470-4000 m C. c/eefii Escalona; CO; 4100 m A/opecurus L. C. coarctata (Kunth) Steud. (syn.: Deyeuxia coarctata A. aequa/is Sobo!.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-4500 m Kunth, D.fuscata C.Presl); CO, VE, EC; 3650-4700 m C. divergens Swallen; CO; 3100-3200 m Andropogon L. (see Bothriochloa saccharoides) C. ecuadoriensis Lregaard; EC; 3450-4500 m C. effusa (Kunth) Steud. (syn.: Deyeuxia araeantha Pilg., Anthoxanthum L. D. effusa Kunth; C.fimckii Steud.); CO, VE, EC; 3000A. odoratum L.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2500-4000 m [Note: 4500m Native lo Europe, but introduced and naturalized in C. eminens (J.Presl) Steud. var. eminens (syn.: Deyeuxia páramo regions.] eminens J.Presl); CO, PE; 3600-3800 m C.fibrovaginata Lregaard [syn.: C. coarctata (Kunth) Steud. Aphanelytrum Hack. ( 1840) non Torre y ex Ea ton ( 1829); Deyeuxia coarctata A. procumbens Hack.; CO; 3000-4050 m Kunth, D.fuscata C.Presl]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3650-4700 m C. guamanensis Escalona; EC; 4000-4400 m Aristida L. · C. heterophylla (Wedd.) Pilg. (syn.: Deyeuxia heterophyl/a A. enodis Hack.; PE; 2750-3100 m Wedd.; C. mül/eri Luces); VE, EC, PE; 3100-4650 m C. hirta (Sodiro ex Mille) Lregaard; EC; 2900-3900 m Arthrostylidium Rupr. C. intermedia (J.Presl) Steud. (syn.: C. humboldtiana Steud.; A. ecuadorense Judz. & L.G.Clark; CO; 2900-3100 m Deyeuxia secunda Pilg.); CR, PA, CO, EC, PE; 31004700m Au/onemia Goudot C. involuta Swallen; CO; 3700-3800 m A. bogotensis L.G.Clark, Londoño & Kobayashi; CO; 3100C. jamesonii Steud. [syn.: Deyeuxia janzesonii (Steud.) 3750m Munro ex Wedd.]; CO, EC, PE; 3600-4850 m A. pumi/a L.G.Clark & Londoño; CO; 2900-3250 m C. killipii Swallen; CO, VE; 3550-4150 m A. robusta L.G.Clark & Londoño; CO, VE; 2800-3200 m C. 1/anganatensis Lregaard; EC; 3500-4000 m A. trianae (Munro) McClure; CO; 3050-3600 m C. ligulata (Kunth) Hitchc. [syn.: C. podoplzora (Pilg.) Pilg.; Bothrioch/oa Kuntze Deyeuxia ligulata Kunth]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3700-4850 B. saccharoides (sw:) Rydb. var. saccharoides (syn.: Androm [Note: These two species are sometimes considered pogon saccharoides Sw.); CO, PE?; 2900-3300 m distinct.]


1999]

PARAMOS

C. maaophylla (Pilg.) Pilg. (syn.: Deyeuxia macrophylla Pilg.); CO EC, PE?; 3800-4000 m G. mo/lis Pilg. [syn.: Deyeuxia setiflora Wedd.; C. setiflora (Wedd.) Pilg.]; EC; 3700-4600 m C. nuda (Pilg.) Pilg.; CR, PA, CO, EC; 2800-4250 m C. pisinna Swallen; CO, VE; 4000-4300 m C. pittieri Hack.; CR; 3100-3550 m C. planifolia (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (syn.: Deyeuxia p/anifolia Kunth); CO, VE, EC; 3000-4400 m 1 C. ramonae Escalona; VE; 3950 m C. recta (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (syn.: Deyeuxia recta Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 2900-4850 m C. rigescens (C.Presl) Scribn. [syn.: Deyeuxia rigescens (C.Presl) Türpe]; EC, PE; 3800-4500 m C. rígida (Kunth) Trin. ex Steud. (syn.: Deyeuxia rígida Kunth); CR, EC, PE; 3800-3900 m C. spicigera (J.Presl) Steud. (syn.: Deyeuxia spicigera J.Presl); PE; 4200 m C. steyermarkii Swallen; EC; 3450-4150 m C. tarmensis Pilg. [syn.: Deyeuxia tarmensis (Pi1g.) Sodiro]; EC?, PE; 2600-4100 m C. teretifoliaLa:gaard; EC; 4300-4850 m C. vicunarum (Wedd.) Pilg. (syn.: Deyeuxia vicunarum Wedd.); PE; 3300-4100 m . C. weberbaueri Tovar [syn.: Deyeuxia weberbaueri (Tovar) Rúgo1o]; CO, EC; 4000-4500 m

Chusquea Kunth (syn.: Swallenoch/oa McC1ure) Ref.: Clark, 1989; Soderstrom & Calderón, 1978. C. amistadensis L.G.Clark, Davidse & R.P.EIIis; CR, PA; 3050-3500 m C. angustifolia (Soderstr. & C.E.Calderón) L.G.C1ark; CO, VE; 2900-3500 m C. /atifolia L.G.Clark; CO; 2950-3380 m C. lehmannii Pilg.; CO, EC; 3100-3600 m; includes subsp. farinosa L.G.Ciark & Londoño and subsp. /ehmannii C. neurophyl/a L.G.Ciark; PE; 3200 m C. scandens Kunth; CO, EC?; 3300-3600 m C. spencei Ernst; CO, VE; 2900-3900 m C. subtessellata Hitchc.; CR, PA; 3000-3800 m C. tessellata Munro (syn.: C. weberbaueri Pilg.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2750-4350 m C. vulcanalis (Soderstr. & C.E.Calderón) L.G.Ciark; CR; 3270-3350 m

Cinna L. C. poiformis (Kunth) Scribn. & Merr.; CR, CO, VE; 34003950m

Cortaderia Stapf C. bífida Pilg. (syn.: C. aristata Pilg.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2300-4100 m C. co/umbiana (Pilg.) Pilg.; CO, VE; 2800-3800 m C. hapalotricha (Pilg.) Conert (syn.: C. scabriflora Swallen, C. pungens Swallen); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 29004900 m C. nítida (Kunth) Pilg. (syn.: C. sodiroana Hack.); CO, VE, EC; 2400-4200 m C. sericantha (Steud.) Hitchc.; CO, EC, PE; 3300-4500 m

121

Dactylis L. D. glomerata L.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-3800 m [Note: Native to Europe, but introduced, cultivated, and naturalized in páramo regions; in sorne places it is used as forage.]

Danthonia DC. D. secundiflora J.Presl; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2500-4200 m Deyeuxia Clarion ex P.Beauv. (see Calamagrostis) Dissanthelium Trin. D. calycinum (J.Presl) Hitchc. [syn.: D. mathewsii (Ba11) R.C.Foster & L.B.Sm.]; PE; 3700-4000 m

Elymus L. E. cordilleranus Davidse & R.W.Pohl [syn.: Agropyron attenuatum (Kunth) Roem. & Schult.]; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3200-4000 m

Festuca L. Re f.: Alexeev, 1986; Briceño & Morillo, 1994; Tovar, 1972.

F. amplissima Rupr. ex Fourn.; CR; 3000-3500 m F. andicola Kunth; CO, EC; 3300-4500 m F. arundinacea Schreb.; VE; 3300 m [Note: Introduced and escaped in páramo regions; it is sometimes cultivated as forage.] F. asplundii E.B.Aiexeev; CO, EC; 3600-4600 m F. azucarica E.B.A1exeev; CO; 3700 m F. breviaristata Pi1g.; CO, EC, PE; 3450-5000 m F. cajamarcae Pi1g.; PE; 3400-4100 m F. chimborazensis E.B.A1exeev; EC; 3900-4200 m F. cleefiana E.B.A1exeev; CO; 3600 m F. colombiana E.B.Aiexeev; CO; 3750-3800 m F. coromotensis B.Briceño; VE; 3300 m F. cundinamarcae E.B.Alexeev; CO; 3550 m F. densipaniculata E.B.Aiexeev; EC; 4600 m F. divergens Tovar; PE; 3600 m F. dolichophylla J.Presl; CR, CO, EC; 3400-4500 m F. elviae B.Briceño; VE; 3100-3550 m F.ferreyrae Tovar; PE; 3400-3500 m F.fragilis (Luces) B.Briceño (syn.: Helleriafragilis Luces); VE; 3600-4500 m F. glumosa Hack. ex E.B.A1exeev; EC; 3600-4700 m F. glyceriantha Pilg.; PE; 3600-4200 m F. herrerae Davidse; CR, PA; 2000-3300 m F. horridula Pilg.; PE; 3300-4000 m F. inarticulata Pilg.; PE; 3600 m F.jamesonii E.B.Alexeev; EC; 4350-4700 m F. loricata (Griseb.) Pilg.; PE; 3600-3900 m F. megalura Nutt.; EC; 3700 m F. parciflora Swallen; EC; 4100 m F. peruviana Infantes; EC, PE; 4000-4100 m F. procera Kunth; CO, EC; 3300-4000 m F. reclina/a Swa11en; CO; 3500-4000 m F. rigescens (J.Presl.) Kunth; EC; 3500-3800 m F. rigidifolia Tovar; PE; 3350-3900 m F. sublimis Pilg.; CO, EC; 2900-4300 m F. subulifolia Benth.; CO, EC; 3350-4300 m


122

F. F. F. F.

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

.' lálamancensis Davidse; CR; 3200~3400 m tarmensis Pilg.; PE; 3400~3800 m tolucensis Kunth; CR, CO, VE; 2900-4400 m vaginalis (Benth.) La;gaard (syn.: Poa vaginalis Benth.); CO, EC; 3500-4700 m

Helleria E.Fourn. (see Festucafragilis) Hierochloe R.Br. H. davidsei R.W.Poh1; CR, VE; 3100~3500 m H. redolens (Vah1) Roem. & Schu1t.; EC, PE; 3200~3800 m Holcus L. H. lanatus L.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 2900~3600 m [Note: Native to Euro pe, but introduced and escaped in páramo regions.]

[VOL. 84

N. arista/a (Munro) Hitchc. (syn.: Planotia steubelii Pilg.); CO, EC, PE; 3250-4300 m N. asymmetrica L.G.C1ark; EC; 3Q00~3400 m N. elata (Kunth) Pilg. [syn.: N. nobilis (Munro) Pi1g.; Planotia nobilis Munro); CO, EC; .3400~3600 m Njimbri/igulata L.G.Ciark subsp.jimbriligulata; EC; 31003850 m [Note: This species is found in Polylepis forest.] N. laegaardii L.G.Clark; EC; 3200~3500 m N nana L.G.Ciark; EC; 3150-4100 m N. rígida L.G.Clark; EC; 3200-4300 m N. vi/losa L.G.Ciark; EC; 3750-4200 m Ortachne Nees ex Steud. O. erectifolia (Swallen) Clayton [syn.: Muhlenbergia erectifolia Swallen; Lorenzochloa erectifo!ia (Swallen) Reeder & C.Reeder; Parodie/la erectifolia (Swallen) Reeder & C.Reeder]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4350 m

Lorenzochloa Reeder & C.Reeder (see Ortachne erectifolia) Parodiel/a Reeder & C.Reeder (see Ortachne erectifolia) Melica L. M. scabra Kunth; CO, EC, PE;

2600~3500

m

Muhlenbergia Schreb. M. angustata (J.Pres1) Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 2800-4000 m M. cajamarcensis La;gaard & Sánchez Vega; PE; 3000~ 3600 m M. calcicola Swallen; CR; 3400~3820 m . M. cleefii La;gaard; CO; 3500-4300 m Mjlabel/ata Mez; CR; 3300~3800 m M ligularis (Hack.) Hitchc.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3350-4200 m [Note: This species is cultivated as forage.] M. nigra Hitchc.; CR; 2300~3500 m M. palmirensis Grignon & La;gaard; EC; 3200~3400 m M. peruviana (P.Beauv.) Steud.; EC, PE; 3500-4200 m M. rígida (Kunth) Trin.; EC, PE; 2300~3600 m M venezuelae Luces; VE; 3000-3600 m Nassel/a Desv. Ref.: Barkworth, 1990. N. brachyphyl/a (Hitchc.) Barkworth (syn.: S tipa brachyphylla Hitchc.); CO, EC, PE; 3300~3800 m N depaupera/a (Pilg.) Barkworth (syn.: Stipa depaupera/a Pilg.); CO, VE, EC; 3000-4200 m N. ibarrensis (Kunth) La;gaard (syn.: Stipa ibarrensis Kunth); EC; 2400~3200 m N. mexicana (Hitchc.) R. W.Poh1 (syn.: S tipa mexicana Hitchc.); CO, VE, PE; 3000-4100 m N mucronata (Kunth) R.W.Poh1 (syn.: Stipa mucronata Kunth); EC, VE, PE; 2900-4200 m N pubijlora (Trin. & Rupr.) Desv.; CO;EC, PE; 3000-3760 m Neurolepis Meisn. (syn.: Planotia Munro, nom. illeg.; ?latania Kunth, nom. illeg.) Ref.: Clark, 1996. N acuminatissima (Munro) Pi1g. (syn.: Planotia acuminatissima Munro); CO, EC; 2750~3300 m N aperta (Munro) Pi1g. (syn.: Planotia aperta Munro); CO, EC?; 3200~3600 m

Paspalum L. P. bonplandianum Flüggé; CO, VE, EC, PE; P. hirtum Kunth; CO; 3200~3800 m P. pilgerianum Chase; EC; 3400~3600 m P. prostratum Scribn. & Merr.; VE; 4000 m P. pygmaeum Hack.; VE; 3000~3600 m P. trianae Pilg.; CO; 2750-4000 m P. tuberosum Mez; EC, PE; 3000~3700 m

3000~3900

m

Phalaris L. P. aquatica L. (syn.: P. stenoptera Hack.); EC; 3400~3600 m [Note: Introduced and escaped in disturbed aquatic si tes in páramo regions; it is sometimes used as forage.] P. arundinacea L.; EC; 3240 m [Note: Introduced and escaped in páramo regions.] Piptochaetium J.Presl Ref.: Sánchez Vega, 1991. P. panicoides (Lam.) Desv.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900-4000 m P. sagasteguii Sánchez Vega; PE; 2750~3750 m P. tovarii Sánchez Vega; PE; 2800~3450 m; includes subsp. pilosa Sánchez Vega and subsp. tovarii P. tuberculatum Desv.; EC; 3400 m Poa L. P. annua L.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3500~4600 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] P. boxiana Luces; VE; 2650~3600 m P. candamoana Pilg.; CO, EC; 3600-4300 m P. chamaeclinos Pilg.; EC, PE; 4000-4600 m P. chirripoensis R.W.Pohl; CR; 3500~3820 m P. cucullata Hack.; EC; 4200-4800 m P. horridula Pilg.; CO, EC, PE; 3600-4000 m P. leioclada Hack.; EC; 3100~3700 m P. mucuchachensis Luces; VE; 3400-3600 m P. orthophylla Pilg.; CO, VE; 3500-4600 m P. paramoensis La;gaard; EC; 3300-4500 m P. pardoana Pilg.; CO, EC, PE; 3550-4200 m


1999]

PARAMOS

P. paucijlora Roem. & Schult.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3600-4800 m [Note: Sorne consider P. pardoana and P. paucijlora the same species.] P. petrosa Swallen; VE; 3350-4300 m P. pratensis L.; CR, CO, EC; 2500-3300 m [Note: Introduced from Europe, cultivated as forage, and sometimes escaped in páramo regions.] P. spicigera Tovar; PE; 3600 m P. slfbspicata (J.Presl) Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4700 m P. talamancae R.W.Pohl; CR; 3300-3500 m P. trachyphylla Pilg.; CO, VE; 3300-4400 m P. trivialis L.; CO, EC; 4100-4500 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] Poidium Nees P. monandrum (Hack.) Matthei [syn.: Briza monandra (Hack.) Pilg., B. mandoniana (Griseb.) Henr.]; EC, PE; 2900-3800 m Polypogon Desf. P. elongatus Kunth; CO, VE; 2500-4000 m P. interruptus Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 3500-4100 m Schizachyrium Nees S. hirtijlorum Nees; PE; 2700-3100 m Sporobolus R.Br. S. bogotensis Swallen & García-Barr.; CO; 2900-3100 m , S. lasiophyllus Pilg.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900-3700 m

123

V. myuros (L.) C.C.Gmel. [syn.: Festuca myuros L.; V. mega/ura (Nutt.) Rydb.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-4600 m; includes var. hirsuta Hack. and var. myuros

POLYGALACEAE Monnina Ruiz & Pav. M. aestuans (L.f.) DC.; CO; 3150-3550 m M. andreana Chodat; CO; 2800 m M. arborescens Ferreyra; CO; 3075-3600 m M. cf. bracteata Chodat; CO, VE; 3500-3650 m M. conferta Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 2800-4500 m M. confusa Ferreyra; PE; 3400-3550 m M crassifolia (Bonpl.) Kunth; CO, EC; 3500-4100 m M. densa Planch. & Lind.; CO, VE; 3200-3900 m [Note: This species is sometimes found growing on limestone outcrops.] M. e/ongata Planch. & Lind. ex Triana & Planch.; CO; 3300 m M involuta Ferreyra; CO; 3750 m M meridensis Planch. & Lind. ex Wedd.; VE; 2200-4000 m M. myrtilloides (Bonpl.) DC.; PE; 3500 m M. obtusifolia Kunth; CO, EC; 2750-3600 m M. pseudoaestuans Ferreyra & Wurdack; EC; 3350-3500 m M. revoluta Kunth; CO, EC; 3400-4200 m M sa/icifo/ia Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: M. nemorosa Kunth); CO, EC, PE; 3200-3750 m M. sandemanii Ferreyra; PE; 2900-3500 m

POLYGONACEAE

Swallenochloa McClure (see Chusquea)

Ref.: Brandbyge, 1989. Mueh/enbeckia Meisn. M. andina Brandbyge; EC; 2000-3950 m M. nummularia H.Gross.; PE; 3100-3400 m M. tamnifo/ia (Kunth) Meisn.; CR?, CO, VE, EC, PE; 33004000 m M. va/canica (Benth.) Endl.; CR?, CO, VE, EC, PE; 34004500m

Triniochloa Hitchc. T. andina Luces; CO, VE; 3520-3600 m T. stipoides (Kunth) Hitchc.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2800-3600 m

Polygonum L. P. nepalense Meisn.; CO; 2800-4000 m [Note: This species is native to Asia and tropical Africa.]

Trisetum Pers. T.foliosum Swallen; CO, VE; 3500-3900 m T. irazuense (Kuntze) Hitchc.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 19004200m T. oreophilum Louis-Marie; EC; 3600 m T. pringlei (Scribn. ex Beal) Hitchc.; CR; 2800-3800 m T. spicatum (L.) K.Richt. (syn.: T. andinum Benth.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3900-4700m [Note: This species is introduced.] T. tonduzii Hitchc.; CR; 3100-3500 m

RumexL. R. acetosel/a L.; CR?, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4550 m [Note: This species is native to Europe.] R. andinus Rech.f.; EC; 2700-3800 m R. /eptocau/is Brandbyge & Rech.f.; EC; 3500-3600 m R. obtusifo/ius L.; EC; 2250-3750 m [Note: This species is native to Europe.] R. peruanus Rech.f.; PE; 3400-3900 m R. tolimensis Wedd.; CO, EC; 3000-4500 m

Vulpia C.C.Gmel. V. australis (Nees ex Steud.) C.H.Blom (syn.: Festuca australis Nees ex Steud.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 3300-4100 m V bromoides (L.) Gray; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3250-4000 m V dertonensis (All.) Gola [syn.: Festuca dertonensis (All.) Asch. & Graebn.]; EC; 3300-4700 m

Calandrinia Kunth C. acau/is Kunth; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3400-4700 m C. ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. (syn.: C. caulescens Kunth); CO, VE, EC; 2750-3600 m C. megarhiza Hemsl.; CR; 3500-3800 m

Stipa L. (see also synorryms under Nassel/a) S. hans-meyeri Pilg.; CR, EC, PE; 3400-4800 m S. ichu (Ruiz & Pav.) Kunth; CR, VE, EC, PE; 2500-4050 m S. inconspicua J.Presl; EC; 3500 m . S. mucronata Kunth; PE; 2700-3100 m

PORTULACACEAE


124

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Mona O.Nilss. (see Montia meridensis) Montia L. (syn.: Mona O.Nilss.) Re f.: Lourteig, 1991. M. biapiculata Lourteig; CO; 3550--4150 m M. fontana L. (syn.: M. minar C.C.Gmei., M. pentandra Willd. ex Cham.); CO, EC, PE; 3150--4700 m M. meridensis Friedrich [syn.: Mona meridensis (Friedrich) O.Nilss.]; CO, VE; 3300--4850 m [Note: Steyermark & Rabe 97167 (US!) was misdetermined as Montia andina Rydb., a species ofMexico.]

POTAMOGETONACEAE Ref.: Haynes & Holm-Nielsen, in press.

Potamogeton L. P. illinoensis Morong; CO, EC, PE; 3375--4000 m P. paramoanus R.R.Haynes & Holm-Niels.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3550--4100 m P. pusil/us L.; VE; 3550--4200 m Stuckenia Borner [syn.: Coleogeton (Rchb.) Les & R.R.Haynes] S. filiformis (Pers.) R.R.Haynes subsp. alpinus (Blytt) R.R.Haynes [syn.: Coleogetonjiliformis (Pers.) Les & R.R.Haynes subsp. alpinus (Blytt) Les & R.R.Haynes]; EC; 3200-3500 m

[VOL. 84

Ranunculus L. (syn.: Krapfia DC.; Rhopa/opodium O.E.Ulbr.) R. bonariensis Poir.; CO, VE; 3560--400qm R. crassirostratus Duncan var. cuchumatanensis Duncan; CR; 3500-3820 m R. cymba/aria Pursh; VE, EC; 4100--4200 m R.jlagel/iformis Sm.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1980--4300 m R. geranioides Kunth ex DC.; CO, VE, EC; ? m R. gigas Lourteig; PE; 4300--4800 m R. gusmanni Humb. ex Caldas [syn.: Krapfia gusmanni (Humb. ex Caldas) Stand!. & J.F.Macbr.; Rhopalopodium gusmanni (Humb. ex Caldas) O.E.Ulbr.]; CO, EC; 3900--4500 m R. krapfia DC. ex Deless. var. krapfia [syn.: Krapfia ranunculina DC.; Rhopalopodium ranunculinum (DC.) O.E.Ulbr.]; EC, PE; 3300--4300 m R. /ambayequensis T.Duncan & Ságast.; PE; 3300 m R. limosel/oides Turcz.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3400--4300 m R. nubigenus Kunth ex DC.; CO, VE, EC; 2300--4200 m R. peruvianus Pers.; CR, PA, CO, EC, PE;3000--4400 m R. praemorsus Kunth ex DC. (syn.: R. argemonifolius Griseb.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900--4500 m; includes var. amel!us (Briq.) T.Duncan, var. praemorsus, and var. sibbaldioides (Kunth ex DC.) Lourteig R. psychrophilus Wedd.; EC; 3450 m R. sandwithii Lourteig; CO; 3300-3350 m R. spaniophy!lus Lourteig; CO, VE; 3400--4400 m

PRIMULACEAE Lysimachia L. L. andina Sandwith; EC, PE; 2450-3700 m

PROTEACEAE

Rhopalopodium O.E.Ulbr. (see Ranunculus) Thalictrum L. T. podocarpum Kunth ex DC.; CO, VE; 3100-3400 m

Embothrium J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. (see Oreoca/lis)

RHAMNACEAE Oreocallis R.Br. (syn.: Embothrium J.R.Forst. & G.Forst.) O. grandiflora (Lam.) R.Br. (syn.: Embothrium grandiflorum Lam.); EC, PE; 2400-3900 m Roupala Aubl. R. pseudocordata Pittier; CO; 3050-3100 m

RANUNCULACEAE Ref.: Lourteig, 1956.

Anemone L. A.jamesonii Hook.; EC; 3250--4000 m Caltha L. C. sagittata Cav.; EC; 3400-5000 m Krapfia DC. (see Ranunculus) Laccopetalum Ulbr. L. giganteum (Wedd.) Ulbr. (Ranuncu/us giganteus Wedd.); PE; 4000--4500 m Oreithales Schltdl. O. integrifo/ia (DC.) Schltdl.; EC, PE; 3300--4300 m

Rhamnus L. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo forest patches.] R. goudotiana Triana & Planch.; CO; 2800-3300 m R. oreodendron L.O.Williams; CR, PA; 2400-3500 m

ROSACEAE Ref.: Romoleroux, 1992, 1994, 1996.

Acaena Mutis ex L. .. A. m·gentea Ruiz & Pav.; EC, PE; 3100--4300 m A. cylindristachya Ruiz & Pav.; CR, CO, VE; 3200--4300 m A. e/ongata L.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2000--4200 m A. ova/ifolia Ruiz & Pav.; CO, EC, PE; 2200-3900 m A. subincisa Wedd.; CO, EC; 3300--4550 m A. cf. torilicarpa Bitter; PE; 3200 m Alchemil/a L. (see Lachemilla) Aphanes L. A. cotopaxiensis Romoleroux & Frost-Olsen; EC; 38504100 m


1999]

PARAMOS

Fragaria L. F. vesca L.; CO, EC; 2800-3300 m [Note: Introduced from the Northern Hemisphere, cu1tivated and naturalized in páramo regions.] Geum L. G. peruvianum Focke; CO, EC, PE; 2500--4000 m Hesperomeles Lindl. (syn.: Osteomeles Lindl. as to Neotropics) H. cf. chiriquensis Woodson; PA; 2500-3400 m H. ferruginea (Pers.) Benth. (syn.: H. lanuginosa Ruiz & Pav. ex Hook., H. oblonga Lindl.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-3900 m \H. goudotiana (Decnc.) Killip; CO; 2800--4000 m H. nítida Killip; CO; 3000 m H. obtusifolia (Pers.) Lindl. var. microphylla Wedd. (syn.: H. pernettyoides Wedd. var. microphylla Wedd.) in CO, EC at 3200--4200 m and var. obtusifolia [syn.: H. cuneata Lindl., H. glabrata Kunth, H.heterophylla (Ruiz & Pav. ex Lind.) Hook., H. obovata (Pittier) Standl.] in CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE at 2000--4000 m H. pachyphylla (Pittier) Killip (syn.: Osteomeles pachyphylla Pittier); CO; 2750-3600 m H. resinoso-punctata (Pittier) Pittier (syn.: Osteomeles resinoso-punctata Pittier); VE; 3800 m Holodiscus (K.Koch) Maxim. (see Sericotheca) Lachemilla (Focke) Rydb. Ref.: Gaviria, 1997; Perry, 1929; Rothmaler, 1935, 1937 L. andina (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla procumbens Rose var. andina L.M.Perry); CO, EC, PE; 3500--4500 m L. angustata Romoleroux; EC; 2850-3800 m L. aphanoides (Mutis ex L.f.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla aphanoides Mutis ex L.f.); CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2000--4500 m L. diplophylla (Diels) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla diplophylla Diels); EC; 4000--4180 m L. equisetiformis (Trev.) Rothm.; CO, VE; 3000--4600 m L. erodiifolia (Wedd.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla erÓdiifolia Wedd.); EC; 4020 m L.fidvescens (L.M.Perry) Rothm. [syn.: Alchemilla venusta Schltdl. & Cham. var.fitlvescens L.M.Perry; L. venusta {Schltdl. & Cham.) Rydb.]; CO, VE, EC; 2250--4000 m L. galioides (Benth.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla galioides Benth., A. radicans Rothm.); CO, EC, PE; 3000--4400 m L. hirta (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla procumbens Rose var. hirta L.M.Perry); CO, VE, EC; 2600--4400 m L. hispidula (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla hispidula L.M.Perry); CO, EC; 3000-5000 m L. holosericea (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla holosericea L.M.Perry); CO, EC; 3950--4400 m L. involucra/a Gaviria; VE; 3000-3200 m L.jamesonii (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemil/ajamesonii L.M.Perry); EC; 3350--4300 m L. killipii (Rothm.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla killipii Rothm.); CO; 3100-3800 m L. loki-schmidtii Gaviria; VE; 3000-3200 m

125

L. mandoniana (Wedd.) Rothm. [syn.: Alchemilla mandoniana Wedd., A. paludicola Rothm.; L. paludicola (Rothm.) Rothm.]; CO, VE, EC; 2900--4600 m L. moritziana Damm. [syn.: Alchemilla moritziana (Damm.) L.M.Perry]; CO, VE; 2800-3950 m L. nivalis (Kunth) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla nivalis Kunth); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2900--4700 m L. orbiculata (Ruiz & Pav.) Rydb. (syn.: Alchemilla orbiculata Ruiz & Pav.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 1600--4800 m L. pectina/a (Kunth) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla pectinata Kunth; L. pectinata subsp. caucana Rothm.); CR, PA, CO, EC; 2300--4000 m L. pelusa e Gaviria; VE; 4000--4600 m L. pinnata (Ruiz & Pav.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla pinnata Ruiz & Pav.); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3500--4300 m L. polylepis (Wedd.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla polylepis Wedd.); CR, CO, VE; 3400--4300 m L. ramosissima (Rothm.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla ramosissima Rothm.); VE; 3700--4300 m L. rivulorum (Rothm.) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla rivulorum Rothm., A. holmgrenii Rothm.); EC; 3800--4650 m L. rupestris (Kunth) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla rupestris Kunth); EC; 4000--4600 m L. sprucei (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla sprucei L.M.Perry); VE, EC; 3500--4100 m L. standleyi (L.M.Perry) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla standleyi L.M.Perry); CR; 2500-3800 m L. tanacetifolia Rothm.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 4000--4700 m L. trevirani Rothm. (syn.: L. lycopodioides Maguire); VE; 3150--4000 m L. tripartita (Ruiz & Pav.) Rydberg (syn.: Alchemilla tripartita Ruiz & Pav.); VE; 1500-3500 m L. unijlora Maguire; CO, EC; 3000--4400 m L. verticillata (Fielding & Gardner) Rothm. (syn.: Alchemilla verticillata Fielding & Gardner, A. resupinata Rothm.; L. arborescens Rothm.); CR, CO, VE, PE; 3000--4300 m L. vulcanica (Schltdl. & Cham.) Rydb. (syn.: Alchemilla vulcanica Schltdl. & Cham.); CO, EC, PE; 3200--4400 m Osteomeles Lindl. (see Hesperomeles) Polylepis Ruiz & Pav. Ref.: Simpson, 1979. P. incana Kunth; EC; 3000--4300 m P. lanuginosa Kunth; EC; 2700-3700 m P. microphylla (Wedd.) Bitter; EC; 3400-3650 m P. pauta Hieron.; EC; 3500--4200 m P. quadrijuga Bitter (syn.: P. boyacensis Cuatrec.); CO; 3300--4100 m P. quindiensis Cuatrec.; CO; 3500-3600 m P. racemosa Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 2900-3800 m P. retículata Hieron.; EC; 3200--4300 m P. sericea Wedd.; CO, VE, EC; 3200--4400 m P. weberbaueri Pilg.; EC, PE; 3000-3 700 m Poten tilla L. P. dombeyi Nestl. (syn.: P. andicola Benth.); EC; 3750--4500 m; includes var. andicola (Benth.) Lehm. and var. dombeyi P. heterosepala Fritsch; CR, CO, VE; 3000--4100 m


126

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

.' Rubits L. R. acanthophyllos Focke; CO, EC, PE; 3000-4000 m R. adenothallus Focke; EC, PE; 3000-3750 m , R. bogotensis Kunth (syn.: R. bogotensis subsp. eglandulosus Killip); CO, VE, EC; 2400-4100 m R. choachiensis Berger; CO; 3000-3600 m R. coriaceus Poir.; CO, EC; 3000-4300 m R. eriocarpus Liebm.; CR; 1000-3500 m R. gachetensis Berger; CO; 3100 m R. glabra tus Kurith; EC; 2400-4000 m R. /aegaardii Romoleroux; EC; 2700-3475 m R. loxensis Benth.; EC; 2600-3500 m R. macrocarpus Benth.; CO; 3300-3800 m R. megalococcus Focke; CO, EC, PE; 3000-3600 m R. nubigenus Kunth; CO, EC, PE; 2500-4200 m R. weberbaueri Focke; PE; 3400-3550 m Sericotheca Raf. [syn.: Ho/odiscus (K.Koch) Maxim.] S. argentea (L. f.) Rydb. [syn.: Spiraea argentea L.f.; Holodiscus argenteus (L.f) Maxim.]; CR, CO; 3000-4100

m

[VOL. 84

G. hypocarpium (L.) Endl. ex Griseb. subsp. hypocarpium [syn.: Relbunium hypocarpium (L.) Hemsl., R. croceum (Ruiz & Pav.) K.Schum., R. nitidum (Kunth) K.Schum.]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4000 m G. obovatum Kunth; EC; 2450-3750 m G. pseudotriflorum Dempster & Ehrend.; CO, EC, PE; 32003500 m G. pumilio Standl.; EC; 4200-4500 m G. uncinulatum DC.; CR; 3100-3800 m G. wedermanii Stand!.; EC; 3850 m. Manettia Mutis ex L. M. pichinchensis Wernham; EC; 3000-4200 m M. cf. trianae Wernham; CO; 2600-3350 m Nertera Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn. N granadensis (Mutis ex L. f.) Druce (syn.: N depressa Banks & Sol. ex Gaertn.); CR, CO, EC, PE; 3200-4350 m N tetrasperma Kunth; CO; 3200 m Relbunium (Endl.) Hook.f. (see Galium)

RUBIACEAE Arcytophyllum Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f. Ref.: Mena V., 1990. A. aristatum Stand!.; CO, EC; 3500-4200 m A. cachirense (H.Karst.) K.Schum.; CO; 2800 m A. capitatum (Benth.) K.Schum.; CO, EC; 3300-3750 m A. ci/iolatum Stand!.; EC, PE; 3900 m A. ericoides (Willd. exRoem. & Schult.) Stand!.; PE; 30003400 m A. filiforme (Ruiz & Pav.) Stand!. [syn.: A. confertum (Ruiz & Pav.) var. bryoides (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Stand!.]; CO, EC, PE; 3500-4300 m A. /avarum K.Schum. ex Stand!.; CR, PA; 3300-3800 m A. muticum (Wedd.) Stand!.; CR, CO, VE; 3000-4100 m A. nitidum (Kunth) Schltdl. [syn.: A. caracasanum (Kunth) Stand!.]; CO, VE; 3000-4200 m A. rivetii Danguy & Cherm.; EC, PE; 3400-3600 m A. setosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Schltdl.; CO, EC, PE; 3200-4300 m A. thymifo/ium (Ruiz & Pav.) Stand!.; EC, PE; 3200-3900 m A. venezue/anum Steyerm.; VE; 3000-3200 m A. vernicosum Stand!.; EC; 3400-3800 m Borreria G.Mey. B. anthospermoides DC.; CO; 2600-3350 m Ga/ium L. [syn.: Relbunium (Endl.) Hook.f.] Ref.: Dempster, 1981, 1982, 1990. G. aparine L.; CO; 3250-3300 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.] G. ascendens Willd. ex Spreng. (syn.: G. cuat¡·ecasasii Stand!.); CO; 3200-4000 m G. canescens Kunth (syn.: G. trianae Wernham); CR, CO, VE, EC; 3300-4100 m G. corymbosum Ruiz & Pav. [syn.: Relbunium ci/iatum (Ruiz & Pav.) Hemsl., R. hirsutum (Ruiz & Pav.) K.Schum.]; CO, EC, PE; 3400-4500 m

Sherardia L. S. arvensis L.; CO, EC, PE; 2800-3600 m [Note: Introduced from Europe.]

SAXIFRAGACEAE Saxífraga L. S. magellanica Poir.; EC, PE; 3500-4600 m; includes var. magellanica and var. peruviana (Sternb.) J.F.Macbr.

SCROPHULARIACEAE Ref.: Díaz Miranda, 1988; Holmgren & Molau, 1984. Alonsoa Ruiz & Pav. A. angustifo/ia Astholm, ined.; EC; ca. 3600 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] A. integrifolia Edwin; PE; ? m A. /actea (Diels) Astholm, ined.; CR, CO, EC; 2700-3900 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] A. linariifolia (Kunth) Steud.; PE; 2700-3900 m A. meridionalis (L.f.) Kuntze; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 6003950m A. procumbens Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3400-3600 m A. pubescens Astholm, ined.; PE; 2800 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] A. trichanthera Astholm, ined.; PE; 3000 m [Note: This species is not meant to be published herein.] Aragoa Kunth Ref.: Fernández Alonso, 1993, 1995. A. abietina Kunth; CO; 3200-3800 m A. abscondita Fern.Alonso; CO; 3400-4200 m A. castroviejoi Fern.Alonso; VE; 3300-4000 m A. cleefii Fern.Alonso; CO; 3300-4000 m A. corrugatifolia Fern.Aionso; CO; 3300-3700 m


1999)

PARAMOS

A. A. A. A. A.

cundinamarcensis Fern.Alonso; CO; 3100-3400 m cupressina Kunth; CO, VE; 2900-4000 m dugandii Romero; CO; 3000-3550 m hammenii Fern.A1onso; CO; 3400 m kogiorum Romero; CO; 3000-4000 m; includes subsp. kogiorum and subsp. sevi/lae Fern.Alonso A. lucidula S.F.Biake; VE; 3100-3900 m; includes subsp. !anata Fern.Alonso and subsp. lucidula A. lycopodioides Benth.; CO, VE; 2800-4100 m A. occidentalis Pennell; CO; 3000-3500 m; in eludes subsp. occidentalis and subsp. refracta Fern.Alonso A. parvijlora Fern.Aionso; CO; 3700-4000 m A. pĂŠrez-arbelaeziana Romero; CO; 3500-3750 m A. romeroi Fern.Alonso; CO; 2400-3000 m A. tamana Fern.Aionso; CO, VE; 3100-3300 m Bartsia L. Ref.: Molau, 1990. B. alba Molau; EC; 3800-4250 m B. crisafullii N.H.Holmgren subsp. crisafiillii; EC, PE; 33003900m B. dijfi1sa Benth.; PE; 3770-3900 m B.jlava Molau; EC, PE; 3300-3600 m; includes subsp.jlava and subsp. minar Molau B. glandulifera Molau; CO, VE; 3200-4400 m B. inaequalis Benth.; EC; 2300-4100 m; includes subsp. inaequa/is B. /anijlora Benth.; CO, VE, EC; 2500-4400 m B. laticrenata Benth.; CO, EC; 3600-4500 m B. melampyroides (Kunth) Benth.; EC, PE; 3200-4600 m B. mutica (Kunth) Benth. (syn.: B. patriciae N.H.Holmgren); EC, PE; 3100-3800 m B. orthocarpijlora Benth.; CO, EC; 3250-4300 m; includes subsp. orthocarpijlora and subsp. vi/losa Mola u B. patens Benth.; PE; 3350-4900 m B. pedicularioides Benth.; CO, VE, EC; 2800-4500 m B. pumila Benth.; EC; 3800-4400 m B. ramosa Molau; CO, EC, PE; 3250-4100 m B. santolinifolia (Kunth) Benth.; CO, VE; 3000-4100 m B. sericea Molau; PE; 3000-3900 m B. stricta (Kunth) Benth.; CO, VE, EC; 3500-4700 m B. tenuis Molau; PE; 3150-3700 m B. tomentosa Molau; PE; 3400-4600 m B. trichophylla Wedd.; PE; 3500-3800 m B. weberbaueri Diels; EC, PE; 3600-3900 m Ca/ceo/aria L. Ref.: Molau, 1988. C. adenanthera Molau subsp. adenanthera; EC; 3600-3800 m C. adenocalyx Molau; CO; 3000-3100 m C. argentea Kunth; EC, PE; 2950-3900 m C. austra/is (Molau) Molau; EC; 3300-3400 m C. ballotifolia Kraenzl.; PE; 3150-3700 m C. barbato Molau; PE; 3400-4200 m C. bicrenata Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3'500-4250 m C. caespitosa Molau; PE; 3350-3600 m C. cajabambae Kraenzl.; PE; 3300-4300 m C. calycina Benth.; EC, PE; 3300-3700 m

127

C. colombiana Pennell; CO, EC; 3500-3850 m C. commutata Molau; EC;3900-4000 m C. comosa Pennell; EC, PE; 3350-4500 m; includes subsp. comosa and subsp. elegans Molau C. concava Molau; PE; 3650-3900 m C. connatifolia Pennell; PE; 3400 m C. crenata Lam.; CO, EC; 3400-4000 m C. cumbemayensis Molau; PE; 3450-3600 m C. dejlexa Ruiz & Pav. subsp. cunea/a Molau; PE; 23004000m C. ericoides Vahl; EC, PE; 3400-4400 m; includes subsp. ericoides and subsp. peruviana Molau C.ferruginea Cav.; EC; 3500-4300 m C. frondosa Molau; EC; 3350 m C.fitsca Pennell; CO, EC, PE; 3450-3500 m C. gaultherioides M()lau; PE; 3000-3500 m C. gossypina Benth.; EC; 3300-4750 m C. helianthemoides Kunth; EC; 3400-3750 m C. hirtiflora Pennell; CO; 3000-3900 m C. hispida Benth. subsp. acaulis Molau; PE; 3300-3750 m C. hyssopifo/ia Kunth; EC; 4000-4300 m C. incarum Kraenzl. subsp .. sanchezii Molau; PE; 31503800 m C. injlexa Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 2800-3500 m C. irazuensis Donn.Sm.; CR, PA; 2500-3550 m C. laevis Molau; PE; 3200-3550 m C. /amiifo/ia Kunth; CO, EC; 3500-4200 m C. leucanthera Edwin; CO, VE; 3250-4300 m C. linearis Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3500-4350 m C. /ojensis Pennell: EC; 2900 m C. macula/a Edwin; PE; 1700-3600 m C. melissifolia Benth. subsp. melissifo/ia; PE; 3500-4000 m C. mexicana Benth. (syn.: C. palustris Sodiro ex Kraenzl.); CR?, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1200-4100 m; includes subsp. mexicana and subsp. perijensis (Pennell) Molau C. micans Molau; PE; 3200-3900 m C. microbefaria Kraenzl.; CR, CO, VE, EC; 2500-4300 m; includes subsp.fruticosa (Pennell) Molau, subsp. microbefarĂ­a, and subsp. tatamana (Pennell) Molau C. moyobambae Kraenzl.; PE; 3400-3600 m C. nevadensis (Pennell) Stand!. subsp. meridensis (Pennell) Molau; VE; 3000-4000 m C. nivalis Kunth subsp. cerasifo/ia (Benth.) Molau; EC, PE; 3300-3900 m C. obtusa Molau; EC; 3300 m C. penlandii Pennell; CO, EC; 3700-3750 m; includes subsp. penlandii and subsp. puraceensis (Pennell) Molau C. percaespitosa Wooden; PE; 3500-4300 m C. perfoliata L. f.; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC; 2400-3800 m C. phaceliifolia Edwin; PE; 3350-3 750 m C. phaeotricha Molau; EC; 3300-3700 m C. pilosa Molau; PE; 3350 m C. pumila Edwin; PE; 3150-3550 m C. reichlinii Edwin; PE; 3000-3900 m C. rhododendroides Kraenzl.; PE; 3400-3700 m C. rosmarinifolia Lam.; EC; 3400-3800 m C. salicifolia Ruiz & Pav. subsp. nigricans Molau; PE; 35003750 m


128

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

C. sibthorpioides Kunth; PE; 3850 m C. tetragona Benth.; PE; 3450-3900 m; inc1udes subsp. endopogon (Kraenzl.) Mo1au and subsp. tetragona C. !rilaba Edwin; PE; 3350--4300 m C. tri/abata Hemsl. (syn.: C. aequi/ateralis Edwin); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2100-4100 m; includes subsp. aequilateralis (Edwin) Mo1au and subsp. tri/abata C. tripartita Ruiz & Pav.; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 1600--3650 m C. utricularioides Benth.; PE; 3400-4000 m C. virgata Ruiz & Pav.; EC, PE; 3500-4300 m C. viscosa Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3700 m C. weberbaueriana Kraenzl.; PE; 3600-4300 m Castil/eja Mutis ex L.f. (syn.: Orthocarpus Nutt.) C. alpicola T.I.Chuang & Heckard; PE; 4000 m C. arvensis Sch1tdl. & Cham.; CO, VE?, EC; 2000-3800 m C. breviflora Benth.; CO, VE; 3800-4300 m C. cerroana Edwin; EC, PE; 3550-3900 m C. ecuadorensis N.H.Ho1mgren; EC; 3400-4400 m C.fissifolia L.f. [syn.: C.fissifolia subsp. divaricata (Benth.) Wedd., subsp.fi'uticosa Wedd. ex Melch., subsp. integrifo/ia (L. f.) Wedd.]; CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4600 m C. irazuensis Oerst.; CR, PA; 1800-3820 m C. meridensis Pennell; VE; 4100-4400 m C. nubigena Kunth; EC, PE; 3600-4750 m C. profunda T.I.Chuang & Heckard; PE; 3300-3350 m C. pumila (Benth.) Wedd.; CO, EC, PE; 3600-4500 m C. quirosii Standl.; CR, PA; 3500-3800 m C. talamancensis N.H.Ho1mgren; CR, PA; 3100-3820 rn C. vadosa T.l.Chuang & Heckard (syn.: C. peruviana T.I.Chuang & Heckard); PE; 3400-4000 rn C. virgata (Wedd.) Edwin; CO, EC, PE; 2500-4650 m Digitalis L. D. purpurea L.; CO, EC; 2800-4000 m [Note: Introduced frorn Europe, cu1tivated in páramo regions asan herba1 and escaped.] Gratio/a L. G. bogotensis Cortés; CO?, EC; 2000-3500 m Lamourouxia Kunth L. sylvatica Benth.; EC, PE; 2800-4500 rn L. virgata Kunth; CO, EC; 3400-3600 rn Limase/la L. L. americana G!ück; CR?, VE; 3000-4000 m L. aquatica L.; CR, VE, EC; 4100 m L. australis R.Br.; CR, CO; 3500-4250 rn L. subulata E.Ives; VE, EC; 3700-4450 m Mimulus L. M. glabratus Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1800-4200 m Orthocarpus Nutt. (see Casti/leja) Ourisia Comm. ex Juss. O. chamaedrifo/ia Benth.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3500-4300 m.

[VOL. 84

O. muscosa Benth. (syn.: O. nana Benth.); CO, EC, 3900-4600 m

PE~·

Pedicularis L. P. incurva Benth.; CO, EC; 3400-4300 m Sibthorpia L. S. repens (L.) Kuntze (syn.: S. pichinchensis Kunth); CR, CO, VE, EC, PE; 2200-4300 rn Veronica L.

V. arvensis L.; CR, CO, EC, PE; 3200-4200 m [Note: This species is native to Europe.]' V. peregrina L.; CO, EC, PE; 3350-4200 m; includes var. peregrina and var. xalapensis (Kunth)'St.John & Warren V. persica Poir.; CO, VE, EC, PE; 1700-3650 m [Note: This species is native to SW Asia.] V. serpyl/ifolia L.; CR, CO, VE; EC, PE; 2900-4300 m; ineludes var. humifitsa (Dickson) Vah! and var. selpyl/ifo/ia

SOLANACEAE Acnistus Schott (see Saracha) Cestrum L. C. buxifolium Kunth (syn.: C. melanochloranthum Duna!); CO, VE; 3000-4100 m C. microphyl/um Linden ex Duna!; CO; 2200-3400 m C. petiolare Kunth; VE; 2000-3830 m C. rigidifolium Francey; CO; 3500-4000 m Deprea Raf. D. paneroi Benitez & M.Martínez; VE; 2650-2900 m Hebecladus Miers (see Jaltomata viridiflora) Jaltomata Schltdl. J. paneroi Mione & S.Leiva; PE; 3200-3550 m J. viridiflora (Kunth) M.Nee & Mione [syn.: Hebecladus viridiflorus (Kunth) Miers]; CO, VE, EC; 2400-3400 m Nicotiana L. N. thyrsiflora Goodspeed; PE; 3300-4000 m Nierembergia Ruiz & Pav. N. repens Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3650 rn N. spathulata Kunth; CO, EC; 2700-3050 m Salpichroa Miers S. diffusa Miers; CO, EC; 3100-4200 m S. glandulosa (Hook.) Miers; PE; 3050-4700 m S. tristis Miers var. tristis; CO, VE; 2800-3600 m Saracha Ruiz & Pav. S. punctata Ruiz & Pav. [syn.: Acnistus /indenianus (Miers) Hunz.; S. ovala (Miers) Hunz.]; CO, VE, EC; 3050--3800 m S. quitensis (Hook.) Miers [syn.: Acnistus quitensis (Hook.) Hunz.]; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000-4000 m


1999]

PARAMOS

Solanum L. S. albicans (Ochoa) Ochoa (syn.: S. acaule Bitter var. a/bicans Ochoa); PE; 3500 m S andreanum Baker (syn.: S. sujfrutescens Correll); CO, EC; 2800-3800 m S. barbulatum Zah1br. (syn.: S. ecuadorense Bitter); CO, EC, PE; 2500-4000 m S. callianthum C.V.Morton; CO; 2000-3500 m S. chíquidenum Ochoa; PE; 2800-3700 m; inc1udes var. chiquidenum and var. porconense Ochoa S. chomatophilum Bitter; EC, PE; 3350-4000 m; includes var. angustifolium Correll and var. chomatophilum S. clivorum S.Knapp; PE; 3000-3200 m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. co/ombianum Duna! (syn.: S. do/ichocarpum Bitter, S. filamentum Correll); CO, VE?; 3000-3600 m S. cornifo/ium Duna!; CO, VE, EC; 2300-3000 m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. cutervanum Zahlbr. (syn.: S. pu/veru/entum Pers.); PE; 2600-3600 m S. deflexiflorum Bitter; CO;? m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. donachui (Ochoa) Ochoa; CO; 3200-3260 m S.jlahaultii Bitter; CO, VE; 3300-3700 m S. foetens S.Knapp; VE; ? m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S.fragi/e Wedd.; PE; 3400-3600 m S. garcia-barrigae Ochoa; CO; 3900 m S. goniocaulon S.Knapp; EC, PE; 2000-3000 m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. hypa/eurotrichum Bitter; EC; 2000-3500 m S.ja/cae Ochoa; PE; 3100-3500 m; includes var.jalcae and var. pubescens Correll S. /aurifrons Bitter; CO; 2800-3000 m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. /eiophyllum Benth. (syn.: S. benthamii Duna!); EC; 34003650 m S. matureca/vans Bitter; EC, PE; 2000-3000 m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. moscopanum Hawkes; CO; 2900-3400 m [Note: This species is found in cultivated fields and páramo pasturelands.] S. nigrescens M.Martens & Galeotti; CR?, CO; 1800---3400 m S. nitidum Ruiz & Pav.; EC, PE; 3500-4300 m S. nutans Ruiz & Pav.; CO, EC, PE; 2000-3500 m S. oblongifo/ium Duna] (syn.: S. jamesonii Bitter, S. hypomalacophylum Bitter); CO, VE, EC; 2950-3700 m S. ochranthum Duna]; CO; 3300 m S. paramoense Bitter; VE; 3300 m S. paucijugum Bitter; EC; 3200-4100 m S. psychotrioides Duna]; CO; 3150-3450 m S. solisii Hawkes; EC; 3500-4000 m S. stellatig/andulosum Bitter; CO; 2700-3700 m S. stenophyllum Duna] (syn.: S. bogotense Duna!, S. neriifolium Bitter, S. toliménse Wedd.); CO, EC; 27004000m S. storkii C.V.Morton & Standl.; CR; 2800-3500 m S. subpanduratum Ochoa; VE; 3400-3600 m

129

S. tuberosum L. (syn.: S. andigena Juz. & Bukasov); CO; 3300-3 700 m; includes subsp. andigena (Juz. & Bukasov) Hawkes and subsp. tuberosum [Note: Introduced as a crop p Jant.] S. tuquerrense Hawkes; EC; 3000-3600 m S. vacciniiflorum Standl. & L.O.Williams; CR; ? m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. validinervium Benitez & S.Knapp; VE; 2000-3000 m [Note: Weedy species found along páramo margins.] S. venosum Duna!; CO, EC; 2000-3500 m S. youngii S.Knapp; PE; 2800-3500 m S. zah/bruckneri Bitter; EC; 3400-3 800 m

SYMPLOCACEAE Symplocos Jacq. Ref.: Stahl, 1991, 1993. S. fimbria/a B.Stahl; EC, PE; 3400-3700 m S. incahuasensis Sagást. & M.O.Dillon; PE; 3300-3900 m S. nana Brand; EC, PE; 3200-4000 m S. niva/is Linden ex Brand; CO; 3600-3700 m S. oreophila Almeda; CR; 3150 m S. quitensis Brand; EC; 2900-4000 m S. rejlexa A.DC.; EC, PE; 2700-3550 m S. scabra J.F.Macbr.; PE; 3350-3600 m S. tamana Steyerrn.; VE; 3300-3500 m S. theiformis (L. f.) Oken; CO; 3000-3450 m

THEACEAE Ternstroemia Mutis ex L.f. T. camel/iaefolia Lind. & Planch.; CO; 2800 m T. meridionalis Mutis ex L. f.; CO; 2600-3575 m

TROPAEOLACEAE Tropaeolum L. T. tuberosum Ruiz & Pav. subsp. silvestre Sparre; CO; 35003650 m [Note: The subsp. tuberosum is cultivated as a tuber plant.]

URTICACEAE Parietaria L. P. debilis G.Forst.; CO; 3750 m Pi/ea Lindl. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in isolated páramo forest patches.] P.fal/ax Wedd.; CO; 1900-3700 m P. pulegifolia (Poir.) Wedd.; PE; 3100-3600 m P. serpyllacea (Kunth) Liebm.; EC; 1800-3700 m Urtica L. U ballotifolia Wedd.; CO, VE; 3600-3900 m; perhaps equal to U leptophylla Kunth U echinata Benth.; EC; 4050-4150 m U jlabellata Kunth; EC; 4000-4050 m U /eptophylla Kunth; CO, VE; 3300-4100 m


130_

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

VALERIANACEAE Re f.: Eriksen, 1989a, 1989b; Xen a de Enrech; 1992. Belonanthus Graebn. B. longitubulosus Schmale; PE; 4000-4100 m [Note: Belonanthus was placed within Valeriana as a section within sub gen. Phyl!actis (Eriksen, 1989a); however, the combinations at the species leve! have not yet been made in Valeriana and Ido not intend todo it here.] Valeriana L. [syn.: Aretiastrum (DC.) Spach., Belonanthus Graebn., Phy!lactis Pers., Stangea Graebn.; but see also Belonanthus longitubulosus] V. adscendens Turcz.; CO, EC, PE; 3250-4500 m V. alypifolia Kunth (syn.: V. hartwegiana Briq.); EC; 3800:-' 4900 m; includes subsp. alypifo/ia and subsp. argen(e¿marginata B.Eriksen V. arborea Killip & Cuatrec.; CO; 3650-4350 m V. aretioides Kunth; EC; 3700-4600 m V. bracteata Benth. ( syn.: V. ligulifolia Killip ); CO; EC, PE; 3250-4400 m V. bractescens (Hook.) Hóck (syn.: V. meridana Briq.); VE; 3100-4100 m V. buxifolia F.G.Mey.; EC; 3500-3800 m V. cernua B.Eriksen; EC; 3800-3900 m V. cerosifolia Xena; VE; 2850--3300 m V. clematitis Kunth (syn.: V. flexuosa Graebn.); CO, EC; 3300-4000 m V. comosa B.Eriksen; PE; 3900 m V. connata Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 4000-4200 m V. convallarioides (Schmale) B.B.Larsen; EC, PE; 34003500m V. crassifolia Kunth; CO; 3400-4150 m V. cuatrecasasii F.G.Mey.; CO; 2800 m V. cumbemayensis B.Eriksen; PE; 3500-3600 m V. decussata Ruiz & Pav. subsp. po/emonioides (Kunth) B.Eriksen (syn.: V. polemonoides Kunth, V. clematoides Graebn.); CO, EC, PE; 2650-3600 m V. engleriana Hóck; CO; 3850 m V. granataea Xena; VE; 3300-3600 m V. henrici (Graebn.) B.Erjksen; EC; 4200-4400 m V. hirte/la Kunth; EC; 2900-3700 m V. humboldtii Hook. & Arn.; PE; 3400-3560 m V. imbricata Killip; EC, PE; 3200-3450 m V. interrupto Ruiz & Pav.; PE; 3150-3600 m V. karstenii Briq.; CO; 3400-4300 m V. microphylla Kunth (syn.: V. amphi/ophis Graebn., V. alophis Graebn., V. bonplandiana Wedd., V. hieronymii Graebn., V. revoluta Diels.); CO, EC, PE; 2700-4700 m V. niphobia Briq.; EC, PE; 3300-4650 m V. parviflora (Trevir.) Hóck; VE; 3000-4400 m V. phylicoides (Turcz.) Briq.; VE; 3100-4300 m V. pilosa Ruiz & Pav. (syn.: V. longifolia Kunth); CR, CO, EC, PE; 3100-4500 m V. plantaginea Kunth; CO, VE, EC, PE; 3200-4600 m V. prionophylla Stand!.; CR, PA; 3300-3800 m V. pulchella M.Martens & Galeotti; CR, PA; 3350-3800 m V. pyramidalis Kunth; EC; 2000-4000 m

[VOL. 84

V. quindiensis Killip; CO; 3400-4000 m V. qu{rorana Xena (!>yn.: V. foliosa Pittier & ~illip non Phi!.); VE; 3200 m V. rigida Ruiz & Pav. [syn.: Phyllactis rigida (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.]; CO, EC, PE; 3300-4700 m V. robertanifolia Briq.; VE; 4000 m V. rosaliana F.G.Mey.; VE; 3000-3400 m V. rumicoides Wedd.; CO, EC; 3350-4100 m V. secunda B.Eriksen; EC; 3800-4400 m V. smithii Killip; CO; 3750-3850 m V. spatulata Ruiz & Pav. [syn.: Belonanthus spatulatus (Ruiz & Pav.) Schmale]; PE; 4650 m V. spicata (Turcz.) Briq.; VE; 3300-4400 m V. spirojlora B.B.Larsen; CO; 3600-3800 m V. stenophylla Killip; CO; 3300-3800 m V. tachirensis Xena; VE; 3000-3300 m V. tatamana Killip; CO, EC; 2900-4100 ni. V. thalictroides Graebn.; PE; 3600 m V. triphyl/a Kunth [syn.: V. mutisiana (Wedd.) Hóck]; CO, VE; 2800-4100 m V. triplinervis (Turcz.) Briq.; VE; 3000-3500 m V. venezuelana Briq.; VE; 2500-3600 m V. vetasana Killip; CO; 3450-3900 m V. weberbaueri Graebn.; PE; 3650 m

VERBENACEAE Hierobotana Briq. H. injlata (Kunth) Briq.; EC; 2450-3700 m Lippia L. L. schlimii Turcz. var. glabrescens Moldenke; CO; 1650-

3300m Verbena L. V. glabrata Kunth; EC; 3450 m V. microphylla Kunth; EC; 3700 m V. occulta Moldenke; PE; 4000 m

VIOLACEAE Hybanthus Jacq. H. parvijlorus (Mutis ex L.f.) Baill. (syn.: Viola venezuelensis Steyerm.); CO, VE, EC, PE; 2800-3600 m Viola L. V. adenophylla Killip; EC; 3400 m V. arguta Kunth var. meridionalis (W.Becker) L.B.Sm. &

A.Fernández; CO, EC, PE; 3100-3450 m V. bangii Rusby (syn.: V. nivalis Benth. non Roem. &

Schult.); EC, PE; 3900-4600 m V. glandulifera Hook.; EC, PE; 3300-4350 m V. humboldtii Triana & Planch.; CO, EC; 2400-3350 m V. humi!is Kunth; CO; 3200-3800 m V. membranacea W.Becker; PE; 3300-4000 m V. nannei Polakowsky; CR; 1500-3500 m V. polycephala H.E.Ballard & P.J0rg.; EC; 3800-4700 m [Note: New name for V. parvifolia Benth. (nom. illeg.), see Novon 7: 13. 1997.]


1999]

.1

~· \

! r 1

PARAMOS

131

Badillo, V. M. 1994 [1995]. Enumeración de las Compuestas (Asteraceae) de Venezuela. Revista Fac. Agron. (Univ. Central Venez.) 45: 1-191. - - - . 1997. Los géneros d~ la~ Compositae (Asteraceae) de Venezuela: Clave artificml para su determinación · Ernstia 6: 51-168. Balslev, H. 1996. Juncaceae. Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 68: 1-168. ---.&R. Briones: 1982. Las Gentianáceas del Parque Nacwnal Cotopaxi, Ecuador. Pub!. Mus. Ci. Nat. Ecuador, Ser. Revista 3(3): 12-19. Barkworth, M. E. 1990. Nassella (Gramineae, Stipeae): Revised interpretation and nomenclatura! changes. Taxon 39: 597-614. Berry, P. E. 1985. The systematics ofthe apefalous fuchsias VlSCACEAE of South America, Fuchsia sect. Hemsleyella (OnaRef.: Kuijt, 1986. graceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 72: 213-251. Bishop, L. E. 1978. Revision of the genus Cochlidium Dendrophthora Eichler (Grammitidaceae). Amer. Fem J. 68: 76-94. D. ambigua Kuijt; CR, CO, EC; 3250-3400 m - - - . 1988. Ceradenia, a new genus ofGrammltidaceae. D. chrysostachya (J.Presl) Urb.; CO; 2650-3600 m Amer. Fem J. 78: 1-5. D. clavata (Benth.) Urb.; CO, VE, EC; 3100-3700 m - - - . 1989. Zygophlebia, a new genus of GrammiD. costaricensis Urb.; CR; 3100-3500 m tidaceae. Amer. Fem J. 79: 103-118. D. densifolia Kuijt; PE; 3450 m - - - & A. R. Smith. 1992. Revision of the fem genus D. lindeniana Tiegh.; CO, VE, EC; 2850-3300 m Enterosora (Grammitidaceae) in the New World. Syst. D. longepedunculata Rizzini; VE; 2600-3400 m Bot. 17: 345-362. D. paucifolia (Rusby) Kuijt; CO; 3100-3200 m Bohlin, J.-E. 1988. A monograph ofthe genus Colignonia D. pearcei (Rus by) Kuijt; CO; 2700-3000 m (Nyctaginaceae). Nordic J. Bot. 8:231-252. D. squamigera (Benth.) Kuntze (syn.: D. biserrula Eichler); Brako, L. & J. Zarucchi (eds.). 1993. Catalogue ofthe flowering plants and gymnosperms of Peru [Catálogo de las CR, P A, CO, VE, EC; 2800~000 m angiospermas y gimnospermas del Perú]. Mono gr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45: i-xl, 1-1286. WINTERACEAE Brandbyge, J. 1989. Polygonaceae. Fl. Ecuador 38: 1-62. Bremer, K. (ed.). 1994. Asteraceae: Cladistics and classifiDrimys J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. cation. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. [Note: A forest genus, but rarely found in subpáramo Briceño, B. & G. Morillo. 1994. El género Festuca L. forest patches.] (Poaceae) en los páramos de Mérida. Emstia 4: 73-88. D. granadensis L.f. var. grandijlora Hieran.; CR, PA, CO; Bywater, M. & G. E. Wickens. 1984. New World species of 3100-3700 m the genus Crassula. Kew Bull. 39: 699-728. Cabrera, A. L. 1965. Revisión del género Mutisia (Compositae). Opera Lilloana 13: 1-227. XYRIDACEAE Chung, I. 1965. Revision of Barnadesia (CompositaeMutisieae). Privately published, Chicago. Xyris L. Clark, L. G. 1989. Systematics ofChusquea, sect. SwallenoX subulata Ruiz & Pav. [syn.: X acutifolia (Heimerl) chloa, sect. Verticillata, sect. Serpentes and sect. LongiMalme]; CR, PA, CO, VE, EC, PE; 3000~250 m; infolia (Poaceae, Bambusoideae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 27: eludes var. acutifolia Heimerl, var. breviscapa Idrobo & 1-127. L.B.Sm., and var. subulata - - - . 1996. Six new species of Neurolepis (Poaceae: Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) from Ecuador and Peru. Novan 6: 335-350. Cleef, A. M. 1981. The vegetation of the páramos of the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. Diss. Bot. 61: 1-320. J. Cramer, Vaduz Literature Cited in Checklist ofVascular Plants Clemants, S. E. 1995. Be)aria. Pp. 54-106. In: Luteyn (ed.), Alexeev, E. B. 1986. Festuca L. (Poaceae) in Venezuela, 1995. Colombia et Ecuador. Novosti Sistematiki Vyschnij Cook, C. D. K. ·1985. A revision of the genus Efod ea Rastenii 23: 5-23. (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Bot. 21: 111-156. Allen, C. K. 1933. A monograph ofthe American species of Crane, E. H. 1997 [1998]. A revised circumscription ofthe the genus Halenia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 119-222. genera of the fern family Vittariaceae. Syst. Bot. 22: Anderberg, A. A. 1991. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the 509-518. tribe Gnaphalieae (Asteraceae). Opera Bot. 104: 1-195. Cronquist, A. 1981. An integrated system of classification of Aristeguieta, L. 1964. Compositae. Fl. Venezuela 10(1, 2): flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York. 1-941. Cruden, R. 1991. A revision of Jsidrogalvia (Liliaceae): Ayers, T. J. 1997. Three new speceis of Lysipomia (LobeliRecognition for Ruiz and Pavón's genus. Syst. Bot. 16: aceae) endemic to the páramos of southern Ecuador. 270-282. Brittonia 49: 433~40.

V. pusillima Wedd.; PE; 3550-3800 m V. pygmaea Juss. ex Poir.; EO, PE; 3600~400 m V. stipularis Sw. (syn.: V. obliquifolia Turcz.); VE; 24002837 m V. tricolor L.; EC; 2500-3500 m [Note: Introduced from Europe, cultivated, and sometimes escapes in páramo regions.] V. veronicifolia Planch. & Lindl. ex Triana & Planch.; CO; 2950-3700 m V. weberbaueri W.Becker; PE; 3150-3200 m


132

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

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OF

PARAMO

The following list of páramo localities (gazetteer) is organized first by country. Within each country (listed from north to south, except Costa Rica and Panama, which are given together) the locality names are given in strict alphabetical order omitting al! Spanish articles such as El, La, Las, and Los. The articles are given after the proper name, and when placed within parentheses their use is optional or variable. Localities with the same name are then designated as (1), (2), etc. The most commonly used name is detailed, while less-used names are cross-referenced to the primary name. The highest known altitude is given next, followed by latitude and longitude (rounded off to the nearest minute). The next two headings are called "Division 1" (i.e., primary political divisions such as department in Colombia and Peru, state in Venezuela, and province in Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) and "Division 2" (i.e., secondary political divisions such as municipality in Colombia, district in Venezuela, canton in Costa Rica and Ecuador, and province in Peru), when these are known (Division 2 was not used at all for Ecuador). Ifthe páramo locality covers two or more political divisions within Division 1, these divisions are separated by a slash (/). If the páramo locality covers two or more political divisions within Division 2, the Division 2 divisions are separated by an ampersand (&) and the Division 1 by a slash (/). [Example 1: In Colombia, Cerro Agua Blanca overlaps the Municipality Puracé of the Departament Cauca and the Municipality La Argentina of the Department Huila; therefore, Di vis ion 1 reads "Cauca/Huila" and Division 2 reads "Puracé/La Argentina." Example 2: In Colombia, Cerro Animas overlaps the Municipalities ofLa Cruz andEl Tablón of the Department Nariño and the Municipality of Santa Rosa of the Department Cauca; therefore, Division 1 reads "Nariño/Cauca" and Division 2 reads "La Cruz & El Tablón/Santa Rosa."] The last entry, "Notes," usually gives more details about the geo-

LOCALITIES

graphical location, direction from a large or wellknown city, connection with other nearby páramos, other spellings for the primary name, cross-references to other names, and comments. The primary sources oflocality information for the páramo gazetteer (i.e., the names, elevations, latitude and longitude, reference points in "Notes," etc.) were individual country maps ( topographical, geopolitical, road maps, tourist maps, etc.), individual country gazetteers, label data from herbarium specimens, and literature references. The complete database includes detailed references for each individual entry, which are not included in this book but are available upon request. The main sources of data for each country are listed at the end of this chapter; the generalliterature references cited in the text are found in the bibliography at the end of the book. It was not always easy to determine the exact name, geographical position, or political division of a particular páramo. In severa! cases, especially in older maps, elevations, latitude/longitude readings, and sometimes Division 2 names were, for the same páramo, different on different maps. Therefore, it must be remembered that sorne of the entries are approximate, although I ha ve tried to keep political divisions current. I have used only proper names and not vague localities such as "shrub páramo between Loja and Zamora." When a páramo name could not be located ( on a map) or confirmed (by literature or other sources), it is simply listed without further comment and the entry is incomplete. Finally, in the "Notes" entry it was not always possible to give precise páramo localities that included reference to a well-known city or cities found on all maps; therefore, whenever possible, one or more cities are given in the entry and these, used together with the geographical coordinates, should help to pinpoint the locality in q~estion. Undoubtedly there are many more local names that I have missed, and I very much welcome additions and corrections to the gazetteer.

137


138

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

[VOL. 84

Costa Rica and Panama James L. Luteyn

The páramos of Costa Rica and Pan ama are located in the Cordillera de Talamanca, the backbone of eastern Costa Rica and adjacent western Panama. About 60 km2 of páramo occur in the massive Cerro Chirripó region (Cleef & Chaverri, 1992), with a scattered few others toward the border with Panama. There the páramo is found between 3300 and 3819 m elevation and is dominated by the dwarfbamboo Chusquea subtessellata, which may forrn a ground cover of up to 60% (Kappelle, 1990). The páramo-like vegetation along the Panamerican Highway, in the region known as Cerro de La Muerte, at about 3100 m, is manmade (fire-induced), with numerous characteristic páramo plants found in exposed boggy sites, locally called "paramillo," "ciénagas," or "tuberas." The peaks of Volcán Irazú (3432 m) and Volcán Turrialba (3339 m) are páramo-like in appearance but are not true páramos. Hunter (1959) estimated that about 1000 ha (ca. 10 km2), or 0.02% ofthe totalland area, ofCosta Rica was páramo.

In Panama, the very summit ofVolcán Barú (also lrnown as Cerro Chiriquí), at 3475 m, has páramo-like vegetation, although it is now impossible to say what the original vegetation was like since the top has been bulldozed for communication towers. True undisturbed páramo do es seem to occur in Pan ama near the border with Costa Rica in areas such as Cerro Echandi (3160 m) and Cerro Fábrega (3335 m) (fide G. Davidse collection labels). Costa Rican and Panamanian national parks that inelude páramo are Chirripó (in Costa Rica) and Vulcán Barú (in Panama), both units ofthe larger Parque Internacional de la Amistad shared by the two countries. For further information about Costa Rican and Panamanian páramo vegetation see Chaverri, unpubl. data; Chaverri et al., 1997; Cleef & Chaverri, 1992; Gómez P., 1986, 1994; Hooghiemstra et al., 1992; Horn, 1.990b; Janzen, 1983; Kappelle, 1991; Vargas Ulate & Sánchez G., unpubl. data; Weber, 1958, 1959; and Weston, 1981a, 1981b.


'D 'D

N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Aka, Cerro

3225

09°l5'N

83°l9'W

Puntarenas/Limón

Buenos Aires/Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca

Ami, Cerro

3295

09°24'N

83°30'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/ Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca, ENE of San Isidro del General

_Amo, Cerro

3460

09°26'N

83°29'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/ Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca; also spelled Amuo (fide L. D. Gómez, pers. comm.)

Apri,Cerro

3190

09°l5'N

83°03'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/ Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Kámuk massif

Asunción, Cerro

3396

09°35'N

83°45'W

San J osé/Cartago

Pérez Zeledón/Paraíso

Barú, Volcán

3475

08°48'N

82°32'W

Chiriquí

Boro, Cerro

3430

09°29'N

83°28'W

Limón

Talamanca

Brunka, Cerro

3030

09°2l'N

83°2l'W

Puntarenas/Limón

Buenos Aires/Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca

Buena Vista, Cerro (de)

3491

09°33'N

83°45'W

San José

Pérez Zeledon

See Cerro Amo

Amuo, Cerro

Cord. de Tal aman ca, part of Cerro Buena Vista massif, highest point along Interamerican Hwy. PANAMA, Cord. de Talamanca, NNW ofDavíd; also called Volcán Chiriquí Cord. de Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca, along Interamerican Hwy., W ofCerros Cuericí, Cerro Asunción is part ofthis massif; sometimes spelled Buenavista; also called Cerro de La Muerte, Cerro (Las) Buvis (Buvis is an abbreviation for BUena VISta), or Pico Páramo

Buvis, Cerro (Las)

See Cerro Buena Vista

Chiriquí, Volcán

See Vólcán Barú 3819

09°32'N

83°29'W

Cartago/San José/Limón Turrialba/Pérez Zeledón/ Cord. de Talamanca, SE of Cartago, NE of San Isidro, SE of Limón Cerro Cuericí, NW ofCerro Dúrika; also called Cerro Chirripó, Macizo de Chirripó Grande, or Monte Walker

3765

09°28'N

83°29'W

San José

Pérez Zeledón

3394

09°35'N

83°38'W

Cartago/San José

Paraíso/Pérez Zeledó!l

3280

09°2l'N

83 o 18'W

Limón/Puntarenas

Talamanca/Buenos Aires Cord. de Talamanca, SE ofCerro Chirripó, N ofBuenos Aires, WNW of Cerro Cruz del Obispo, E of Cerro Ena, W of Cerro Utyúm

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grandemassif, part ofFila Terbi system Cord. de Talamanca; also called Cerro Páramo; equals Cerro Chirripocillo See Pmo. Las Vueltas

Dos Amigos, Pmo. Dúrika, Cerro

~

oC/l

See Cerro Utyúm; notpáramo (fide L. D. Gómez, pers. comm.)

Cruz del Obispo, Cerro Cuericí, Cerro

~

>--

See Cerro Chirripó Grande

Chirripó, Cerro Crestón, Cerro

"'>--

See Cerro Cuericí

Chirripocillo, Cerro Chirripó Grande, Cerro

~

::;:; 'D


N ame Echandi, Cerro

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

3160

09°02'N

82°49'W

Puntarenas//Bocas del Toro (PA)

Coto Brus/?

COSTA RJCAIPANAMA border, Cord. de Talamanca

-

..,. o

Elí,Cerro

3097

09°23'N

83°20'W

Puntarenas/Limón

Talamanca/Buenos Aires

Ena, Cerro

3426

09°22'N

83°26'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/ Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca, E of San Isidro del General

Estaquero, Cerro

3270

09°37'N

83°46'W

San J osé/Cartago

Fábrega, Cerro

3335

09°07'N

82°52'W

Bocas del Toro

Frío, Cerro

3471

09°33'N

83°46'W

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Cord. de Talamanca; partofBuena Vistamassif; not certain ifpáramo

Irazú, Volcán (de)

3452

09°59'N

83°53'W

Cartago

Oreamuno

Cord. Central; páramo vegetation or paramillo (fide L. D. Gómez, 1986)

S.:: tr1 S.::

Jaboncillo, Pmo.

3177

09°36'N

83 °47'W

San J osé/Cartago

Cord. de Talamanca; al so caiied Cerro J abonciiio

Kámuk, Cerro

3549

09°l6'N

83 °02'W

Limón

Ta!amanca

Cord. de Talamanca

:;:;

Lagos, Cerro

3761

Limón

Limón

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirrípó Grande massif; may equal Cerro Laguna

Laguna, Cerro

3750

09°30'N

83°29'W

Limón

Limón

Cord. de Talamanca, part ofFila Norte system

Lohmann, Cerro

3290

09°24'N

83°3l'W

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Cord. de Talamanca

ztr1

Loma Larga, Pmo. de la

3741

09°30'N

83°30'W

Limón

Limón

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirrípó massif, a fila above Valle Ancho, N ofCerro Chirrípó

o-<

P ANAMA, Cord. de Talamanca

Macizo de Chirripó Grande

See ·cerro Chirrípó Grande

Muerte, Cerro de La

See Cerro Buena Vista

Noreste, Pico

3739

Nudo, Cerro

3762

Nuevo, Cerro

3700

09°28'N

09°29'N

83°29'W

83°29'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/Limón

Cartgo/San José

Turríalba/Pérez Zeledón Cord. Talamanca, Cerro Chirrípó massif, highest point along Fila de Urán, NW from Cerro Chirrípó

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Páramo, Cerro ( 1)

o'rj

...,

::e: tr1

~

~ tll o ..., >-z ñ >r Q

>;;o t:l

tr1

z

See El Páramo 3470

09°33'N

83°46'W

San José

Páramo, Pico Paso de los Indios

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirrípó Grande massif See Cerros Cuericí; perhaps not a real cerro just an indication of vegetation type; does not equal Cerro Cuericí (fide J. F. Morales, pers. comm.)

Páramo, Cerro (2) Páramo, El

Cord. de Talamanca

o

!Zl

Cord. de Talamanca; also cailed Cerro Páramo (2); Pittier coilecting locality; uncertain iftrue páramo See Cerro Buena Vista; perhaps not a place but an indication of vegetation type

3275

San José/Cartago

Pérez Zeledón/Turríalba Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirrípó Grande massif, a long rd. used by indigenous peoples, not a particular place (fide J. Sánchez G., pers. comm.)

<o !:"'

..,. 00


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e Division 1

Division 2

Notes

3800

09°29'N

83°29'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/Limón

Cord. de Tal aman ca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif; also ca11ed Pico Pirámide

Sabana de Los Leones

3250

09°25'N

83°3l'W

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif, SSW of Cerro Chirripó; also called Va11e de Los Leones or Sabana Chirripó

Sábila, Cerro

34ll

09°35'N

83°46'W

San J osé/Cartago

Sákira, Cerro

3417

09°36'N

83°46'W

Cartago

Siruska, Cerro

3408

Pirámide, Cerro Sabana Chirripó

See Sabana de Los Leones

Cord. de Talamanca Paraíso

Cord. de Talamanca, near Asunción Cord. de Talamanca, part ofBuena Vista massif; not sure if páramo

Sureste, Pico

3760

09°28'N

83°29'W

San José/Limón

Pérez Zeledón/Limón

Terbi, Cerro

3765

09°28'N

83 °30'W

San José/Limón

PérezZeledón/Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif, SSW of Cerro Chirripó

Truncado, Cerro

3685

09°29'N

83°29'W

Limón

Limón

Cartago San J osé/Cartago

Turrialba, Volcán (de)

3329

10°02'N

83°46'W

Urán,Cerro

3500

09°32'N

83°33'W

Cord. de Talamanca

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif Cord. Central; considered páramo by J. Sánchez G. and J. F. Morales (pers. coriun.)

Pérez Zeledón/Turrialba

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif, W of Cerro Chirripó Grande; also called Pico Urán or Cerro Chirripocillo (=Cerros Cuericí); 3620 m (fide J. F. Morales, pers. comm.); not equal to Cerro Chirripocillo (fide J. F. Morales, pers.comm.)

Utyúm, Cerro

3087

09°l9'N

83°10'W

Puntarenas/Limón

Buenos Aires/Talamanca Cord. de Talamanca; J. Sánchez G. (pers. comm.) says this is páramo and maybe includes Cerro Cruz del Obispo

Va11e de Las Morenas

3460

09°30'N

83 °29'W

Cartago/Limón

Turrialba/Limón

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif, NNE of Cerro Chirripó

Valle de Los Conejos

3600

09°27'N

83°28'W

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Cord. de Talamanca, Sto SW ofCerro Chirripó Grande; 3440 m (fide J. F. Morales, pers. comm.)

Valle de Los Lagos

3500

09°30'N

83°30

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif, W of Cerro Chirripó; sorne say this equals Valle de Las Morenas-not so (fide J. F. Morales, pers. comm.)

Ventisqueros, Cerro

3812

09°28'N

83°3l'W

San José

Pérez Zeledón

Cord. de Talamanca, Cerro Chirripó Grande massif, highest peak ofFila Cemeterio de la Máquina range; al so called Pico de Los Ventisqueros

Vueltas, Pmo. (de) Las

3156

09°37'N

83 °5l'W

San José

Dota

Cord. de Talamanca, SSE ofCartago, W ofCerro Buena Vista (incl. Pmo. Dos Amigos); also known as Cerro de Las Vueltas

3399

09°35'N

83°46'W

San José/Cartago

Valle de Los Leones

"O ~

~ o CZl

S::

See Sabana de Los Leones

Walker, Monte Zacatales, Cerro

"'

"' ..:S

See Cerro Chirripó Grande Al so called Cerro de la Muerte, according to Weber (1959)

:¡;:


142

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

[VOL. 84

Colombia James L. Luteyn and Mauricio R. Gavilanes A.

The Andes mountains ofColombia are essentially divided into three ranges (or cordilleras) that diverge to the north and are separated by deep valleys. The Cordillera Central runs up the center of Colombia and contains sorne of the highest snow-capped peaks in· the country with many extensive páramos. The Cordillera Oriental runs northeast-southwest and is the broadest and most massive of the three mountain ranges. It divides with a northem spur, the Sierra de · Perijá, which runs along the Colombia-Venezuela border and slowly slopes into the Caribbean, and an eastem spur, the Cordillera de Mérida, which runs northeast into westem Venezuela. The southem end ofthe Cordillera Oriental merges with the Cordillera Central in an area known as the Macizo Colombiano. The Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta is an isolated massif in northem Colombia, separated to the northwest of the Cordillera Oriental by the Magdalena-Cesar depression. It has many very high páramo regions that are poorly known (Cabot, 1939; Cleef & Rangel Ch., 1984; Rangel Ch. et al., 1982; Seifriz, 1934, 1937; Sievers, 1888; Van der Hammen & Ruiz, 1984). The Cordillera Occidental is a relatively low mountain range of recent origin. It has only a few páramos of limited size in the states of Antioquia (Páramos de Caramanta, Frontino, and Paramillo) and Valle del Cauca (the Farallones de Cali region). One small páramo in the southem part ofValle del Cauca was only recently discovered (M. Becking et al., 1997). In southem Colombia (Department of Nariño ), the three cordilleras join into a mass of high páramos

known as the Nudo de Los Pastos that extends into northem Ecuador (Páramos del Angel). The páramos of Colombia are centered in the northem half ofthe Cordillera Oriental, in the departments of Meta, Cundinamarca, Boyacá, and Santander, and in theCordillera Central, in the departments of Cauca, Valle del Cauca, and the Qüindío-Tolima-Caldas border regions. Cleef (in Cleef & Chaverri, 1992) estimated that the Cordillera Oriental alone has 100 km2 of páramo, although the overall area occupied by páramo in Colombia is unknown. Most páramos occur above 3000 m in Colombia, but the lowest páramos occur in azonal habitats such as boggy areas as low as 2380 m in the Cordillera Central (Huila: Turbera de La Candelaria, an open boggy vegetation with Espeletia; se e Rangel Ch. & Lozano C., 1986) and 2650 m in the Cordillera Occidental (Cauca: Paramillo Cerro California; see Becking et al., 1997). Colombian national parks that include páramo are Chingaza, El Cocuy, Los Farrallones de Cali, Las Hermosas, Nevado de Huila, Los Nevados, Paramillo, Pisba, Puracé, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Sumapaz, and Tamá (cf. Sánchez P. & HemándezCamacho, 1995). For additional discussions ofpáramo in Colombia, see Cleef, 1981b; Cuatrecasas, 1934, 1957, 1968; Guhl, 1982; Lozano C. & Schnetter, 1976; Rangel Ch., 1991a; Sturm & Rangel Ch., 1985; and van der Hammen and associates, various works including the ECOANDES books.


::0

'D

N ame Achupallas, Pmo. (de)

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

4050

01 o35'N

76°47'W

Nariño/Cauca

Aconta, Pmo.

Division2

Boyacá

Aquitania

Cundinamarca

D.F.

Boyacá

Tota

See Cerro Pan de Azúcar 3500

05°00'N

74°!4'W

Aguacatal, Pmo.

Cord. Oriental, NW ofBogotá See Pmo. de Herveo Cord. Oriental

Aguaná, Pmo.

3500

Agüero, Pmo. de

3950

05°59'N

73°05'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Virolín-Duitamard.; also calledPmo. de Avero; probably part of the larger Pmo. de La Rusia

Albarracín, Pmo.

3000

05°!6'N

73 °35'W

Cundinamarca/Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Bogotá-Tunja rd., S of Pmo. Rabanal and connected with ít

00°5l'N

77°13'W

Nariño

Alcalde, Cerro

3500

Alfombras, Pmo. (Las)

4000

Alfombras, Pmo. (de Las)

3800

05°20'N

73°05'W

Almaguer, Pmo. de

S ofPasto, S ofLaguna de La Cocha

Santander

Onzaga

Cord. Oriental

Boyacá

Aquitania

Cord. Oriental, SE ofTunja, NE ofMiraflores, SE ofPmo. de Sianchoqué and connected with it

Cauca

Macizo Colombiano; Bonpland locality

Almorzadero, Pmo. del (1)

2100

06°29'N

76°25'W

Antioquia

Urrao

Cord. Occidental, Parque Nacional de las Orquídeas

Almorzadero, Pmo. (de)! (2)

4475

06°57'N

72°4l'W

Santander

Cerrito

Cord. Oriental, 8 km ESE ofBucaramanga, NE of Guaca

Alpes, Pmo. (de Los)

3100

04°20'N

75°30'W

Tolima

!bagué & Cajamarca

Cord. Central, WSW oflbagué, E ofPmo. de Don Simón and connected with it

Altar, Cerro

3620

01 °IO'N

7r36'W

Nariño

Túquerres

WSW ofPasto, N ofTúquerres; also called Pmo. Quitasol

Boyacá (?)

Belén(?)

Cord. Oriental

Nariño

Pasto & Buesaco

Cord. Centro-Oriental, NE ofPasto

Alto Belén, Pmo. de 01 °l5'N

77°!2'W

Alto Las Animas

3500

Alto Pararnillo

3350

Caldas

Riosucio

Cord. Central

Alto Tetica

3700

Boyacá

Sativanorte

Cord. Oriental

Alto Tidaqui

3500

Boyacá

Socha

Cord. Oriental

Alto Tirapa

3600

Boyacá

Chita

Cord. Oriental

Alto Torrecillas

3800

N Santander

Mutiscua

Cord. Oriental

Alto Zapayurco

3500

Nariño

Pasto

01 °l2'N

77°08'W

Alto de Canutos

"ti

>~ ;$ o

(/)

Cord. Centro-Oriental, E ofPasto See Pmo. de Canutos

Alto de Sabanazos Alto de Socaca

~

Cord. Central, ENE of La Cruz, N of Pmo. Tajumbina and connected with it, incL Cerro Petacas and Cerro Alumbra!

Agua Blanca, Cerro Agua Blanca, Pmo. de

Notes

See Pmo. de Sabanazo 3850

Magdalena

Aracataca

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

_¡:,.

w


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude Division 1

Alto, Pmo.

3400

05°08'N

74°0l'W

Amarillo, Volcán

4500

N ame

Division 2

Notes

El Cocuy & Chita

Cord. Oriental

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, Zipaquirá-Pacho rd., N ofZipaquirá

Boyacá

Amiami, Cerro

4500

Magdalena

Santa Marta

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Anagá, Pmo. (de)

3700

06°53'N

72°39'W

N Santander

Cerrito

Cord. Oriental, NE ofCerrito

Andabobos, Pmo.

3700

04 °07'N

74°l5'W

Cundinamarca

San Bernardo

Cord. Oriental, W border ofPmo. de Sumapaz, ESE of Fusagasugá, incl. Alto Andabobos (4050 m)

Andes, Pmo. Los

3800

03°53'N

75°5l'W

Valle/Tolima

Angimalúa, Cerro

4000

Cord. Central, ESE of Santa Lucía, near Pmos. Rancho Largo and La Soledad

La Guajira

Riohacha

Angostura, Pmo. de

til

See map in Hettner, 1892; and Guhl, 1966: 69

o

4242

01 °30'N

76°48'W

Nariño/Cauca

LaCruz&El Tablón/Santa Rosa

Animas, Pmo. (de Las)

3700

04°05'N

74°ll'W

Cundinamarca

Gutiérrez

Cord. Oriental, part ofPmo. de Sumapaz

Apio, Pmo. El

3400

01 °56'N

76°43'W

Cauca

Vereda Florida

Macizo Colombiano, NE ofSan Sebastián, ENE of Almaguer

Cord. Central-Oriental, NE ofPasto, NE ofVolcán Doña Juana, continuation of Cerro Petacas

Arboleda, Pmo.

3350

05°30'N

75°!5'W

Antioquia

Arboledas, Pmo. de

4100

07"27'N

72°54'W

N Santander/Santander

Cord. Oriental, slopes of Cerro El Viejo, SW of Cúcuta, NE of Bucaramanga ·

Arbolito, Pmo. El

3700

02°08'N

76°36'W

Cauca

Nudo de Los Pastos, NW side ofVolcán de Sotará

Arcabuco, Pmo. de

3000

Arenales, Pmo. de

3500

07"08'N

72°55'W

Arnical, Pmo. de Arrabal, Pmo.

2380

02°!6'N

76°!5'W

Sonsón & N ariño

.

Santander

Tona

(/l

o'1:1 ..., ~

til

z

til

::;:: >-<:

Cord. Oriental, between Arcabuco and Tunja Cord. Oriental, SW ofBerlín

(")

Cord. Oriental, E ofChicamocha Valley

Huila

Cord:Central, W Volcán Purace, near Santa Leticia, Finca La Candelaria

2:;

>

t:"'

o

>

§ ztil

Locality unknown; given in the type description of Eryngium moritzii Wolff (Moritz 1146) 3500

04°20'N

73 °47'W

Cundinamarca/Meta

Quetame/El Calvario

Cord. Oriental, N ofPmo. (de) Las Burras and connected with it, SE ofBogotá, E ofCáqueza See Pmo. de Agüero

A vero, Pmo. de

See Pmo. Avión

Avión, Cerro (del) Avión, Pmo.

~

so

o ~ 1:0 ...,o >

Boyacá

Asucati, Pmo. de Atravesado, Pmo. (El)

Cord. Central, N bfPmo. SanFéliz and connected with it, W of La Dorada and Arboleda, S ofSonsón

Nariño

Asaltantes, Pmo. de Los

~

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Animas, Cerro (de Las)

Boyacá

:;;: .¡,.

3550

Magdalena

Border with Venezuela, Sierra de Perijá, E ofManaure; also called Cerro (del) Avión; called Monte Plano on Venezuelan side

<o r-'

00

.¡,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division l

Division2

Notes

Azuayo, Cerro

3600

00°50'N

77°24'W

Nariño

Córdoba

Cord. Centro-Oriental, NE ofipiales

Azufra!, Pmo.

4070

01 °04'N

77°4l'W

Nariño

Sapuyes, Mallama & Santa Cruz

W ofTúquerres, WSW ofPasto (Volcán Azufra! reaches 4070 m)

07"39'N

72°57'W

N Santander

Arboledas

Cord. Oriental, W of Arboledas; also spelled Bogueche

Bagueche, Pmo. de

3500

Balcón de Bellavista

3700

Barajas, Pmo. (de) Las

3500

04°44'N

Barbillas, Pmo. (de)

3400

Barragán, Pmo.(!) Barragán, Pmo. (2)

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, ca. 15 km NNE of San Sebastián

73°45'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, SE of Embalse de Tominé, W of Gama, NE of Bogotá

01 °59'N

76°43'W

Cauca

San Sebastián & Almaguer (La Vega?)

Macizo Colombiano, NNE of Almaguer, between Río Guachicono and Valle de Las Papas

3800

04°05'N

75°45'W

Valle/Tolima

Sevilla, Tuluá & Buga/Roncesvalles

Cord. Central, NNW ofChaparral, NE ofPmo. de Miraflores and connected with it,just N ofParque Nacional Natural Las Hermosas

3750

03 °57'N

75°55'W

Valle

Cord. Central, SW ofBarragán, NE ofSanta Lucía, S ofPmo. Santa Lucía

Bavaya, Pmo. de

3550

Valle

Cord. Central, W slopes, el ose to Bugalagrande

Belén, Pmo. de

3950

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, N ofBelén, incl. Alto de las Cruces

Bellones, Pmo. (de)

3100

02°05'N

76°39'W

Cauca

La Vega

Cord. Central

Belmira, Pmo. de

3100

06°35'N

75°32'W

Antioquia

Belmira

Cord. Central, 6-8 km from Belmira; incl. Alto de Sabanazos (or El Morro); sub páramo dominated by Espeletia and Puya

Beltrán, Pmo. de

2970

04°27'N

73°54'W

Cundinamarca

Berlín, Pmo. de

3800

07"ll'N

72°53'W

Santander

Betulia, Pmo. (de)

3900

03 °22'N

76°05'W

Valle

Bijagual, Pmo. (de)

3500

05°28'N

73°J]'W

Boyacá

Bijoacales, Pmo.

3600

04°!5'N

74°ll'W

Cundinamarca

Blanco, Pmo. (J)

3800

02°08'N

76°32'W

"O

Cord. Oriental, 27 km SE ofBogotá, E and above Fómeque; not true páramo Tona

~

;;o ~

$::

o

(/]

Cord. Oriental, between Pamplona and Bucaramanga, S ofBerlín Cord. Central, E ofCali, E ofPradera, S ofPmo. de Tinajas, N ofPico Horizonte

Tota & Pesca

Cord. Oriental, E of Tunja, W of Laguna de Tota; also called Pmo. Vijagual

Cauca

Sotará & Puracé

Macizo Colombiano, S ofPopayán, slopes ofCerro Canelo

Santander/Boyacá

Onzaga!?

Cord. Oriental, S ofBogotá, justE ofLaguna Chisacá

Blanco, Pmo. (2)

See Pmo. Mantilla

Bobos, Laguna Los

3800

Boca Grande, Pmo. de

3710

Boca del Mundo Nuevo, Pmo. de La Bocatoma, Valle de

ce

'-D

.'S

4100

04°l9'N

74°06'W

Cord. Oriental

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, small páramo and severa! lagoons at N edge of Pmo. de Sumapaz, 35 km S ofBogotá; also spelled Bocagrande

Nariño

On Volcán Cumbal

Arauca

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, W slope area of páramos

:¡;: V!


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Bogueche, Pmo.

3000

or3s'N

72°58'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, NNEofBucaramanga, SW ofCúcuta, S ofPmo. de Castro and connected with it

Boquerón, Pmo. El (de)

3500

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, S ofBogotá; Pmo. de Boquerón was the pass between Bogotá and Chipaque; name was used mainly before 1917

N ame

Division 2

Antioquia

Notes

Boquerón, Pmo. de

3100

Bordoncillo, Cerro El

3700

0! !4'N

7r08'W

Putumayo/Nariño

Colón/Pasto & Buesaco

20 km E ofPasto, extreme NW ofPmo. del Bordoncillo; also called Volcán Bordoncillo and Volcán Pataseos

Bordoncillo, Pmo. de(l)

3600

01 o 13'N

7r08'W

Nariño/Putumayo

Pasto/Santiago

Slopes ofVolcán Bordoncillo, 20 km E ofPasto

0

See Cerro El Bordoncillo

Bravo, Cerro

Cord. Central (?) 3800

03°28'N

76°00'W

Tolima/Valle

Cord. Central, E ofCali, ENE ofPradera, NE ofPmo. de Tinajas

Brujo, Pmo. del

Cord. Central, on Nevado del Huila

Buena Vista, Pmo. (de)

3600

Buey, Alto de

3600

Buey, Pmo. del (2)

Cau ca 75°34'W

Antioquia

4200

01 °58'N

76°37'W

Cauca/Huila

3800

or4l'N

72°57'W

Buey, Pmo. del (3) Bueyes, Pmo. Los

. Cord. Central, in Cord. Buena Vista

Valle 05°44'N

Buey, Pmo. del (l)

~

Cord. Central, subpáramo vegetation at top

Bordoncillo, Volcán Brillante, Pmo. El

...

Cord. Occidental, Los Farallones de Cali Sotará, Puracé/San Agustín

Macizo Colombiano, Parque Nacional Natural del Puracé, N of Pmo. de las Papas and connected with it, S ofPopayán

Nariño

25 km E ofPasto

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, SW of Salazar

3:: tn 3::

o ;;:; o"11 {/)

>-l

::e tn

ztn

::?2

o>< ~ trl o

>-l

p.

z

o p.

Buitre, Pmo.

3800

Santander

Cerrito

Cord. Oriental

Buncuabí, Cerro

4000

La Guajira

Riohacha

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Burgos, Pmo. Los

3400

Nariño

Ospina

Nudo de Los Pastos

op.

Burinchucua, Cerro

4400

Cesar

Valledupar

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

E3

Burras, Pmo. (de) Las

3500

04°23'N

73°48'W

Cundinamarca/Meta

Quetame/El Calvario

Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. Atravesado and connected with it, E of Cáqueza; al so called Pmo. Los Burros

3600

01 °55'N

77°l8'W

Nariño

Punes

Cord. Centro-Oriental, SW ofPasto

Burros, Pmo. Los Caballo Rucio, Cerro

t-

ti1

z

Se e Pmo. (de) Las Burras

Cabeicaca, Cerro

4050

Aracataca

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Cabrera, Cerro

3512

Ol 13'N

77°10l'W Nariño

Magdalena

Pasto & Buesaco

NE ofPasto

Cabrera, Pmo. La

3000

orl9'N

72°29'W

N Santander

Herrán & Toledo

Cord. Oriental

Cáchira, Pmo. de

3500

or50'N

73°00'W

N Santander

0

Cord. Oriental, N ofPmo. de Guerrero and connected with it; 60 km W ofCúcuta, 10 km S ofVillacaro, N ofCáchira

<o ~

... 00


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitud e

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Cachiri, Pmo. de

3-4000

07"28'N

73°0l'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, vicinity ofCerro El Viejo, ca. 45 km N ofBucaramanga and abo ve village ofCachirí; coordinates approximate

Cadillal, Pmo. de

3800

05°55'N

72°38'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, SSE ofSocha Viejo

Cajón, Pmo. El

3800

03°58'N

74o08'W

Meta

Cord. Oriental, E oflarger Pmo. de Sumapaz

Quin dí o

Cord. Central

Calarcá, Pmo. Calera, Pmo. de La

3000

Cundinamarca

California, Cerro

4100

Cau ca

Argelia

Cord. Oriental

California, Paramillo Cerro

3250

Cauca

Balboa/Argelia

Cord. Occidental, along Balboa-Argelia rd. at the crest ofthe cordíllera; páramo descends to 2650 m; southernmost páramo in Cord. Occidental

Calocribe, Pmos. de Laguna de

3700

Campanario, Cerro El

3700

Caña, Pmo. La

3400

02°IO'N

77"15'W

\0 \0

.::S

Cord. Oriental

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, E of Meo llaca Cord. Central, La Línea

06°06'N

72°28'W

Candelaria, Pmo. de La

Boyacá

Chita

Cord. Oriental, S ofChita Cord. Central

Huila

La Plata

Candor, Pico

4200

Boyacá

El Cocuy & Chita

Cord. Oriental

'ti

Canela, Cerro

4100

Cauca

Sotará & Puracé

Cord. Central

Canoas, Pmo.

4000

Boyacá

Chita

Cord. Oriental

S::;;:::

Cañutal, Pmo. del Alto del

3400

Boyacá

Canutos, Pmo. de

3700

06°04'N

72°55'W

Capilla, Pmo. Capuchino, Pmo. (de) El

3400

Caracas, Cerro

3900

01 °57'N

73°34'W

Cord. Oriental, between Soatá and Cocuy; also called Alto del Cañutal

Boyacá Socha

Cord. Oriental

Putumayo

Santiago

El Encano-Sibundoy rd.

La Guajira

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, N slope, SE ofSan Miguel; also called Cuchilla Caracas

Caramanta, Cerro

See Pmo. Caramanta See Pmo. Caramanta 3900

Carbonera, Cerro La

4000

05°30'N

76°00'W

Carcasí, Pmo. de

Risaralda!Antioquia! Chocó

Mistrató/Andes/Bagadó

Boyacá

Chita

Cundinamarca

Carbonera, Pmo. de La 3800

06°45'N

72°30'W

Santander

o

(/l

Cord. Oriental, W ofPmo. de Guantiva; also called Alto de Canutos

Boyacá

Caramanta, Cordillera Caramanta, Pmo.

>-

Cord. Occidental, Farallones de Citari, SW ofJardín; also caiied Cordiiiera or Cerro Caramanta Cord. Oriental See map in Hettner, 1892; and Guhl, 1966: 100; possibly the same as Pmo. de Guasca

Carcasí & Concepción

Cord. Oriental, N ofSierra Nevada del Cocuy, E ofMálaga, NE ofCarcasí

.¡:,..

-.¡


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Cardenillo y Ventura, Pmo. de

4400

06°30'N

72°2Ü'W

Boyacá

Cardón, Pmo. del

3590

Division 2

Notes

:¡;: 00

Cord. Oriental, SW ofNevado de Güicán

Santander

Cord .. Oriental, close to Casanare

Carmen, Pmo. del

See Pmo. Monte de Leona Santander

Onzaga

Cord. Oriental

Carnicerías de Sianogo, Pmo.

3800

Carrizales, Pmo.

3800

03 °56'N

75°39'W

Tolima

Cascabel, Pmo. de

3000

01 °40'N

76°34'W

Cau ca

Santa Rosa

Macizo Colombiano

Cascabelito, Pmo. de

3300

01 °40'N

76°34'W

Cauca

Santa Rosa

Macizo Colombiano

Casitas, Lagunilla de Las

3700

Cau ca

Casitas, Pmo. del Alto de Las

3800

Cau ca

Castillo, Pico El

5400

Boyacá

Güicán

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Castro, Pmo. de

3600

Or4l'N

72°55'W

N Santander

Salazar & Arboledas

Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. de Pringador and connected with it, WSW ofCúcuta, NW of Arboladas

Catanga, Pmo.

3000

0! 51'N

76°30'W

Cauca/Huila

Cazadero, Pmo.

3500

06°!0'N

72°42'W

Boyacá

Cedral, Pmo. El

3500

04°08'N

74°07'W

Cundinamarca

Centellón, Pmo. El

3600

Centro, Pmo.

3100

0

Cord. Central, SSW ofRoncesvalles

Cord. Central, between Quebradas de San Paulino and del López Cord. Central, W slopes, near del Río Palo

Macizo Colombiano, SE ofPmo. de las Papas and connected with it, N ofSanta Rosa · Cord. Oriental Gutiérrez

Cord. Oriental, S ofBogotá, SE ofFusagasugá, N ofPmo. de Sumapaz

Boyacá (?) 05°29'N

73°29'W

Cord. Oriental, SSW ofTunja, SE ofSamacá; village, probably notpáramo See Pmo. de Guantiva

Cerinza, Pmo. de 3500

Cundinamarca

Chaquiro, Pmo. de

3200

Bolívar/Antioquia

Charambud, Cerro

3400

00°58'N

77°36'W

Nariño

Chasques, Pmo. (de, Los)

3500

05° 13'N

73 °3l'W

Cundinamarca

Chía, Pmo. de

3600

06°59'N

72°38'W

Santander

Chicó, Pmo. del

3300

Chiles, Volcán

4748

00°48'N

7rss·w

Chilí, Pmo. (de)

3930

04°l5'N

75°38'W

o

~

(/)

o71

...,

::r: trl

ztrl

::E

o>-<

~

to

Boyacá

Chamizale, Pmo.

::;;: trl ::;;:

Fómeque

Pupiales

Cord. Oriental, 3.5 km SW ofLaguna de Chingaza

o..., > 2:1 ()

r>

Q

Cord. Occidental, Urrao-Antisales rd., probably currently the same as is called Paramillo (Antioquia)

>

Cord. Occidental

z

~

trl

Cord. Oriental, above Villapinzón, fuentes del Río Bogotá Cerrito

Cord. Oriental

Nariño (CO)/Carchi (EC)

Cumbal/Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, W of Ipiales; along Colombia/Ecuador border; also called Nevado del Chiles

Quindío/Tolima

Pijao/Roncesvalles

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. de Cumbarco and connected with it, E ofSevilla, SE ofCaicedonia

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, Macizo de Bogotá

<o ~

00

.¡:,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Nariño

Aldana, Sapuyes & Pupia1es

Cord. Occidental, Nudo de Los Pastos

73°33'W

La Guajira

Riohacha

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; not páramo

76°55'W

Nariño

San Bernardo

Cord. Centro-Oriental, N of San Bernardo

01 °08'N

77°13'W

Nariño

Pasto

SE of Pasto, W of Laguna de La Cocha, N of Pmo. de Guapuscal and connected with it; also called Pmo. de Siquitán or Serranía del Tábano

3800

03°24'N

76°00'W

Valle/Tolima

Palmira/Rioblanco

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. de Las Hermosas and connected with it, E ofPalmira

Chingaza, Pmo. (de)

3500

04°31'N

73°45'W

Cundinamarca

Fómeque

Cord. Oriental, NE of Choachí, S of Pmo. de las Barajas and connected with it, 25 km E ofBogotá; also spelled Chinguasa or Chingasa in early days

Chipaque, Pmo. de

3300

Chirigua, Pmo. de

4000

l0°56'N

73°21'W

La Guajira

Chirugua, Pmo. de

4570

10°51'N

73°41'W

Magdalena

3450

00°57'N

77"39'W

Chimalongo, Pmo.

2500

Chimayoy, Cerro

3700

l1°0l'N 01 o29'N

Chimbalán, Pmo.

3500

Chinche, Pmo. de

Chiltazón, Pmo. (de)

'D 'D

~

Cord. Oriental

Cundinamarca Riohacha

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, N slope; also called Alto de Chírua and Pmo. de Chirucua; páramo starts about 3000 m Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, at headwaters ofMacotama River; probab1y the same as Pmo. de Chirigua; also spelled Chiruqua in Todd & Carriker, 1922 See Pmo. de Chisacá

Chisacal, Pmo. Chisacá, Pmo. de

4120

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, also called Pmo. Chisacal, spur ofPmo. de Sumapaz, 45 km SW ofBogotá on rd. to Usme

Chitá, Pmo. de

3700

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, headwater ofRío Casanare; Nevado goes to 5400 m

Chitagá, Pmo. de

3600

07"11'N

72°36'W

N Santander

Chitagá

Cord. Oriental, NE ofChitagá

Choachí, Pmo.

3500

04°33'N

73°58'W

Cundinamarca

Choachí, Ubaque & Bogotá

Cord. Oriental, E ofPmo. Cruz Verde andconnected withit, 12 km SE ofBogotá

Chocontá, Pmo. de

2830

Chontales, Pmo. de

4000

05°50'N

-o

)> ;:<:1 )>

¡;;::

o

(/)

Cord. Oriental; probably not a Páramo

Cundinamarca 73°10'W

Santander/Boyacá

Charalá & Encino/Duitama& Paipa

Cord. Oriental, SW ofPmo. de la Rusia and connected with it, E ofMoniquirá

Chorrera, Cerro de La

3400

00°52'N

77°22'W

Nariño

Córdoba

Cord. Centro-Oriental, E oflpiales

Chunchullo, Pmo. del

3000

01 o43'N

76°45'W

Cau ca

San Sabastián, Santa Rosa & Bolívar

Cord. de Los Andes; also spelled Chunchulo; also called Pmo. de Granadillo

Chusca!, Pmo. El

3850

05°50'N.

72°45'W

Boyacá

Tasco

Cord. Oriental, NE ofGameza, SE ofTasco

Chusque, Pmo. El

4200

06°20'N

72°20'W

Arauca/Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, SW comer ofParq. Nac. Nat. El Cocuy, SE of El Cocuy

:¡;: 'D


Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Cinera, Pmo. de

3400

07"32'N

72°55'W

N Santander

Cisne, Nevado del

5200

04°49'N

75°23'W

Caldas

Citará, Pmo. de

3900

05°45'N

76°05'W

Antioquia!Chocó

Cord. Occidental, Farallones de Citará (also called Farallones de Chocó), W of Andes, incl. Cerro San Nicolás, Cerro San Fernando, and Cerro Caramanta (the highest peak in the Farallones is at ca. 3900 m)

Clarín, Pmo. El

3500

04°02'N

74°05'W

Meta/Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, NE of the larger Pmo. de Sumapaz

Coatí, Pmo. de

2870

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Tl!I\ia

Cobardes, Pmo. de Los

3500

06°35'N

73°27'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, SSW ofBucaramanga, W ofBarichara

Cobre, Pmo. del

3613

07"19'N

72°29'W

N Santander

Toledo

Cord. Oriental, within Parque Nacional Natural Tamá

Coconucos, Pmo. de

4500

02°16'N

76°22'W

Cauca!Huila

Puracé/La Plata

Cord. Central, SE of Popayán, part of Sierra Nevada de Los Coconucos (incl. Volcán Puracé, V. Coconucos, Pico de Paletará, Cerro Pan de Azúcar, Cerro Pelado)

N ame

Cocuy, Sierra Nevada del

5493

06°25'N

72°18'W

Boyacá

Division2

Notes

Villamaría

Güicán, Cocuy & Panqueba

Cord. Central, S ofNevado del Ruiz

Cord. Oriental, also called Sierra Nevada de Chita; highest point is Nevado del Cocuy See Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

10°5l'N

73°35'W

Magdalena

3400

01 °00'N

77°45'W

Nariño

Collagá, Pmo. de

3800

07°05'N

72°54'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, N of Santa Bárbara, SW of Berlín

Colombiano, Macizo

3500

01 °30'N

76°30'W

Cauca!Huila

Also called Gran Macizo Colombiano; S ofPopayán, connects and incl. Pmo. de Las Papas, Pmo. Catanga, Cerro Cusiyaco, and Alto de Puinchano

Coloradas, Pmo. de Las

3900

Santander

Cord. Oriental, above La Baja

Colorado, Pmo. de

3800

Colorados, Pmo. Los(!) Colorados, Pmo. Los (2) Cóncavo, Pmo. (El)

4400

06°23'N

4350

06°08'N

5150

Cogua, Pmo. de

3650

Colimba, Cerro de

s;: m s;: o ~ CJ:l

o

'Tj

::e: ""'

m

zm ~ >-<

Sierra Nev<;ida de Santa Marta, NW ofValledupar

o

Cord. Occidental, N extension ofPmo. de Cumbal, ca. 10 km W ofTúquerres

o

~

07"04'N

72°47'W

Guachucal

N Santander

Silos

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofBaraya

3600

Boyacá

Monguí

Cord. Oriental

3400

Boyacá

Susacón

Cord. Oriental

72°20'W

Boyacá

Güicán & El Cocuy

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, W of Laguna Grande (de los Verdes), NE ofMorro El Negro

Santander

Cord. Oriental

72°53'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Cord. de Consuelo, SW ofCordillera Guantivá and connected with it, NE ofCordillera Barrosas and connected with it, 20 km NE ofBelén

Concepción, Pmo. de Consuelo, Pmo. del

o

Cord. Oriental, W ofCucutilla

Cocuy, Nevado del Codazzi, Pico

V.

tJ:j

""' z>

ñ

> r o > (;§

zm

<o r'

00 ~


Name

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Contento, Pmo. de

Notes See Pmo. de Méndez

Coper, Pmo. de

Boyacá

Coper

Cord. Oriental, W ofTunja

3600

05°19'N

73 °02'W

Boyacá

Aquitania, Zetaquirá, San Eduardo & Tota

Cord. Oriental, SW ofLaguna de Tota, SE ofTunja

Corralitos, Pmo.

4600

06°26'N

72°20'W

Boyacá

Cortadera, Pmo. de La (1)

3800

05°32'N

73 °07'W

Boyacá

Cortadera, Pmo. de La (2)

3400

Crisol, Pmo. El

3200

Cristal, Pmo. El

3550

Cristóbal Colón, Pico

5775

Magdalena

Santa Marta & Aracataca Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NW ofValledupar

Cruces, Alto de Las (1)

3900

Boyacá

Gámeza

Cord. Oriental

Cruces, Alto de Las (2)

3850

Boyacá

Socha

Cord. Oriental

Cruces, Pmo. (de) Las

4000

Cruces, Pmo. Alto de las

3380

Cruz Colorada, Pmo. de

3700

06°25'N

72°35'W

Santander/Boyacá

Onzaga, Soatá/Susacón

Cord. Oriental, NE ofCordillera Guantivá and connected with it, ESE of Socorro

' 3500

04°34'N

74°02'W

Cundinamarca

Ubaque, Choachí & Bogotá

Cord. Oriental, ca. 10 km ESE ofBogotá, W ofPmo. Choachí and connected with it, SW of Tinjacá; probably the same as Pmo. El Ve¡jón

Coroneles, Pmo.

Cruz Verde, Pmo. (de)

Cord. Oriental, ESE ofGüicán, W ofNevado El Cóncavo Toca

Nariño 05°45'N

72°35'W

Boyacá

05°32'N

73°42'W

73°08'W

Cruz, Pmo. de La

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, NE ofPmo. de Sianchoque and connected with it, S ofPmo. de Tibamá and connected with it, E ofTunja

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, Macizo de Bogotá, between La Viga and Diego Largo

N Santander

""' > ~ 3::: o (/)

Cord. Oriental, near Ocaña See Pmo. de Cruz Verde

3400

Cuchero, Pmo. de Cuchijao, Pmo.

Cord. Oriental Cord. Oriental, 2 km W ofPmo. de Chingaza, S ofLaguna del Ami cal

Cruzverde, Pmo. de Cuaspud, Cerro

Cord. Oriental, W ofLaguna de Tota, E ofTunja Km 23-23 on lpiales-La Victoria rd.

Pisba

Cundinamarca 10°5l'N

'O 'O 'O

~

00°5l'N

7r43'W

Nariño

Cario sama

Santander!N Santander (?)

Cord. Occidental, W oflpiales Cord. Oriental

3900

Boyacá

Monguí, Mongua, Aqui- Cord. Oriental tania & Labranzagrande

Cueva, Pmo. Alto de la

4030

Boyacá

El Cocuy & Güicán

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Cuigueca, Pico

4100

Magdalena

Aracataca

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Cuchilla Caracas

See Cerro Caracas

::;;


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude Division 1

Division2

Notes

Cumbal, Pmo. de

3500+

00°57'N

1rs2w

Nariño

Cumbal, Guachucal & Mallama

Nudo de Los Pastos, slopes ofNevado (de) El Cumbal (4764 m), 18 km NE ofVolcán de Chiles

Cumbarco, Pmo. de

3700

04 °07'N

75°42'W

Tolima!Quindío

Roncesvalles/Génova

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. Barragán and connected with it, SE of Sevilla, SW oflbagué

Curiba, Pmo. (de)

4100

10°5l'N

73°3l'W

Cesar

Valledupar

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; also called Pmo. de Curigua; incl. Laguna Curigua; also spelled Curibia

Curies, Pmo. de Los

3500

05a32'N

72°52'W

Boyacá

Aquitania

Cord. Oriental, E ofLaguna de Tota

Cusirí, Cerro

4750

06°2l'N

72°2l'W

Boyacá!Arauca

Cusiyaco, Cerro

4000

Cutanga, Pmo. de

3600

Dagua, Pmo.

3800

Dantas, Pmo. Las

3300

N ame

See Pmo. de Curiba

Curigua, Pmo. de

01 °50'N

04 a07'N

76°28'W

74a04'W

Dedo de Dios, Cerro Delicias, Pmo. de Las

3800

02°38'N

76°l4'W

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Cauca!Huila

Santa Rosa & San Sebastián/San Agustín

Macizo Colombiano

Cauca!Huila

Santa Rosa/San Agustín

Macizo Colombiano, S ofPopayán, W ofSan Agustín, S tip of ParqueNaciona!Natura!Puracé;partofVolcánCutanga(4300m)

Boyacá

Monguí

Cord. Oriental

Cundinamarca

Diamante, Pmo.

3850

. Cord. Oriental, W ofVillavicencio, N ofPmo. La Leona

75°50'W

ztn

::E

Cau ca

Inzá & Silvia

Cord. Ceñtral;.S ofPmo. de Santo Domingo and connected with it; E ofSilvia; NE ofPopayán

::0

Close to Los Cudos; also called Pmo. Delirio Susacón

Cord. Oriental Cord. Central, ESE of Santa Lucía, near Pmos. Rancho Largo and La Soledad

Tolima!Valle

Diego Largo, Cerro

3540

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, Macizo de Bogotá

Dirincuve Sabana, Pmo.

3250

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, souce ofthe Río Donachuí

Dolores, Pmo.

Cord. Oriental, above Barbacoas

Domínguez, Pmo. de Las

3500

03a43'N

76°07'W

Cau ca

Cord. Central, NE of Palmira, incl. Cerro Pan de Azúcar and Laguna de Las Domínguez

Domínguez, Pmo. de Los

3900

03°42'N

76a06'W

Valle

Cord. Central, NNE ofPalmira, S ofPmo. Pan de Azucar

Cundinamarca

Don Benito, Pmo. de

-l

;:¡:: tn

Cerro in the Pmo. de Las Papas

Boyacá 03°54'N

o ;;:; o"Tl (/)

See Pmo. Delicio 3300

2: tn 2:

San Agustín

Delirio, Pmo. Desaguadero, Pmo. del

N

Huila

Cauca

Delicio, Pmo.

V.

o--< r;

ttJ

o-l

;J>

z

ñ ;J> r

Q ;J>

E3 tn

z

Cord. Oriental

Don Simón, Pmo. de

3869

04°40'N

75°35'W

Quindío/Tolima

Córdoba!Cajamarca

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. de Chilí, S of Armenia, W of Caicedonia

Doña Juana, Volcán

4250

01 °30'N

76°53'W

Nariño

El Tablón & La Cruz

Cord. de Los Andes, NE of Pasto, SW of Cerro Petacas, NE part ofPmo. de Tajumbina

<o r-'

00

_¡,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Cau ca

::0 \0 .::S Cord. Central, W slope, headwaters o fRío Palo, a stream off of

Notes

Duende, Alto del

3350

Duriameina, Pmo. de

3300

10°39'N

73°37'W

Magdalena

3250

04°45'N

74°00'W

Cundinamarca

Bogotá

Cord. Oriental, NE of Cerro Monserrate, near Bogotá

Encino, Cerro

3600

00°53'N

7r29'W

Nariño

Puerres

Cord. Centro-Oriental, E oflpiales

Eras, Pmo. (de Las)

4600

02°42'N

76°!2'W

Cauca

Silvia, Páez & Inzá

Cord. Central, el picacho Bujío is the point of 4600 m

Escoba!, Pmo. de

4200

Boyacá

La Uvita & El Cocuy

Cord. Oriental, between Soatá and Cocuy; also called Pmo. del Alto del Escoba!

Nariño

Sapuyes & Ospina

Nudo de Los Pastos

Río López . El Granizo, Pmo.

Escubilla, Pmo. La

3400

Esperanza, Pmo. La

3800

Estero, Pmo. de Los

2800

Estrella, Pmo. de La

3800

Felino, Cerro (El)

3500

03 °57'N

03°4l'N

75°49'W

75°57'W

3000

Fraile, Pmo. del

2800

or2I'N

72°39'W

Frailejón, El Pmo. del

Nariño

Macizo Colombiano, beside Pmo. de Santa Lucía, extreme S side ofLa Cocha; also called Pmo. del Estero and Pmo. de Los Esteros

Valle/Tolima

Cord. Central, SW ofPmo. de Las Hermosas and connected with it San Agustín

Part ofthe Pmo. de Las Papas

N Santander

Pamplona

Cord. Oriental, W ofPmo. de Tierra Negra and connected with it, ridge between Pamplona and Cúcuta

Putumayo

Sibundoy

Km. 82 along the Pasto-Mocoa rd.

Nariño

Between Pasto and Túquerres N ofVolcán Sotará, NE ofPmo. El Arbolito

3400

02°l2'N

76°35'W

Cauca

3600

00°45'N

77°28'W

Nariño

Potosí

Cord. Centro-Oriental, E of Ipiales

Boyacá

Labranzagrande

Cord. Oriental, Serranía el Bizcocho

Frailejonale, Pmo. de Francés, Cerro

Cord. Central, E ofSanta Lucía, SE ofBarragán, N ofPmo. La Soledad

Valle

Fontibón, Pmo. (de)

Frailejón, Pmo.

Valle/Tolima

Huila

Florida, Pmo. de

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, ca. 11.5 km NNE of San Sebastián

Santander

Franco, Pmo.

Cord. Oriental, near Las Vetas

Fresno, Pmo. de

Cord. Central, near Manizales

Frío, Pmo. del

Cord. Oriental, Cucutá area

Frontino, Pmo. (de) (1)

4080

Frontino, Pmo. (2)

3600

Quin dí o

Gachalá, Pmo. de

2600

Gachaneque, Pmo. (de)

3000

06°28'N

05°27'N

76°06'W

73°33'W

Antioquia

> "" ~ S:: orz¡

Urrao, Abriaquí & Caicedo

Cord. Occidental, 20 km WSW of Antioquia, above Llano Grande; incl. Picos de San José, La Horqueta, Ocaidó, Nicasio, Santana, and Alto Junco

Cundinamarca

Gacha! á

Also called Monte Batatas (Triana collection); doubtfully páramo

Boyacá

Tunja & Sáchica

Cord. Oriental, NE ofPmo. Rabanal and connected with it, SW ofPmo. de Runta and connected with it, E ofFúquene

Cord. Central, Quindío-Salento, above Guayaquil

V> (>.)


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

4200

01 °l2'N

77°20'W

06°l2'N

71 °23'W

Galeras, Pmo. del Galeras, Volcán (de)

Division2

Notes

Nariño

Pasto, Tangua & Yacuanquer

Nudo de Los Pastos, WNW ofPasto; also called Volcán Pastos and Volcán de Pasto

Canea

Totoró

Cord. Central

Boyacá

Labranzagrande

Cord. Oriental, SE ofChita, W ofLa Salina

Division 1 Nariño

Gallinazo, Pmo.

3000

Gallo, Pmo. (El) (1)

3400

V.

.p.

On Volcán Galeras, outside ofPasto

Gallo, Pmo. (El) (2)

3800

04°0l'N

74°08'W

Cundinamarca/Meta

Gutiérrez/Guamal

Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. El Cedral and connected with it

Golondrinas, Cerro

3400

00°58'W

78°04'W

Nariño

Cumbal

Cord. Occidental, Nudo de Los Pastos, on Pmo. de Cumbal, along rd. to San Martín

Gómez, Pmo. (de) Los

3500

04°l5'N

75°30'W

Tolima

Rovira & !bagué

Cord. Central, NE ofPmo. de Chilí and connected with it, SW ofibagué

Gorgonia, Pmo. de La

3600

Nariño

Gualmatán

Cord. Occidental, NE oflpiales

[/J

Gorgua, Pmo. de

3600

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, near to the Boquerón de Guargua, near to the Estación Transmisora de Televisión, above the Represa del Nuesa; also spelled Guargua

o ..., ::r: m

Gramotales, Pmo. de

3000

03°42'N

74°12'W

Meta

Cord. Oriental

Grande, Cerro

3672

05°08'N

74°0l'W

Cundinamarca

Gregoria, Pmo.

3600

04°00'N

75°48'W

Valle/Tolima

Griere, Cerro

4600

See Pmo. de Chontales and Pmo. de Chunchullo

Granadillo, Pmo. de

La Guajira

Guachaneque, Pmo. de

Tausa

Cord. Central, ENE ofSanta Lucía, SE ofBarragán, N ofPmo. La Esperanza Riohacha

Cundinamarca

Gualcalá, Cerro 01 °09'N

77°47'W

Nariño

Mallama & Santa Cruz

Nariño

Sapuyes

Gualcalla, Cerro

3950

Gualmatán, Pmo. de

3580

Guamués, Pmo. de

3400

00°50'N

77°20'W

Nariño

Guanacas, Pmo. de (Las)

3700

02°30'N

76°15'W

Cauca/Huila

Totoró/La Plata

Guanacos, Pmo. de

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

o

~

"rj

zm

~ >-<

o ~ ttl ...,o ;¡,.

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofBogotá, N ofPmo. de Chingaza

z

See Cerro Gualcalla

l'

Cord. Occidental, NW ofTúquerres, 18 km SE ofPiedrancha, NE ofMallama, SW ofSamaniego; also called Cerro Guacalá

ñ ;¡,. Cl ;¡,.

§ m z

Cord. Central, E ofPopayán; also called Alto de Guanacas and Pmo. de Guanacos See Pmo. de Guanacas See Pmo. (de) Guerrero (l)

Guandoque, Pmo. Guantiva, Pmo. (de)

Cord. Oriént;d, E ofPmo. de Guerrero, N of Zipaquirá

3:: m 3::

4326

06ol2'N

72°45'W

Boyacá/Santander

Susacón/Onzaga

Cord. Oriental, NE ofTunja, N ofDuitama, Belén-Soatá rd., N of Pmo. La Rusia and connected with it, SW ofPmo. Cruz Colorada and connected with it; incl. Pmo. Pan de Azúcar, Pmo. de La Rusia, and Alto de La Mata; forrnerly called Pmo. de Cerinza

<o r

00

.p.


Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Guapuscal, Pmo. de

3500

00°54'N

77°16'W

Nariño

Punes

NE oflpiales, S ofPasto, NE ofPmo. Las Juntas and connected with it, S ofPmo. Chimbalán and connected with it

Guardián, Pico El

5300

l0°47'N

73°38'W

Magdalena

Aracataca & Valledupar

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NW ofValledupar

Guasca, Pmo. de

3400

04°54'N

73 °47'W

Cundinamarca/Boyacá

Guata, Pmo. de

3650

Name

\0 \0

..::::;

See Pmo. de Gorgua

Guargua, Pmo. de

Cord. Oriental, ca. 40 km NE ofBogotá, ESE ofZipaquirá, S of Nemocón, E ofGuatavita and Guasca

Boyacá (?) Tibasosa

Cord. Oriental

Guerrero, Pmo. (de) (1)

3749

05°04'N

74°06'W

Cundinamarca

Tausa, Pacho, Zipaquirá & Cogua

Cord. Oriental, ca. 58 km N ofBogotá, NW of Zipaquirá, incl. Monte Grande; al so cal\ed Pmo. Guandoque

Guerrero, Pmo. de (2)

3400

07"47'N

72°58'W

N Santander

Salazar & Cáchira

Cord. Oriental, 1O km E of Cáchira; also called Ensillada de Guerrero

Güina, Pmo. de

3200

06°10'N

72°50'W

Boyacá

Belén

Cord. Oriental, between Belén and Susacón; also called Pmo. del Güina

Aracataca

Guática, Pmo.

Boyacá

Guircanapunanariga, Cerro

4500

Magdalena

Hatico, Pmo. de(!)

2900

N Santander

Hermosas, Pmo. (de) Las

4200

03°44'N

75°56'W

Valle/Tolima

Herveo, Pmo. de

4300

05°05'N

75°20'W

Caldas/Tolima

Hinchadero, Pmo. El

3700

Hirva, Pmo. de

3800

05°28'N

72°51'W

Hondón, Cerro

4000

Horqueta, La

5775

Hoya Hemando, Pmo.

3600

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta Cord. Oriental, between Toledo and Pamplona

Buga & El Cerrito/ Chaparral

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. de La Estrella, N ofPmo. El Chinche and connected with it, NE ofPalmira, E ofBuga

..,

>

~ ;.;:: o

(/J

Cord. Central; also called Pmo. Aguacatal Cord. Central, Volcán Puracé area

Cau ca Boyacá

Recetor

Cord. Oriental, SE ofLaguna de Tota

Nariño

Cumbal

Nudo de Los Pastos

Magdalena

Aracataca & Santa Marta Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, composed ofPico Cristóbal Colón and Pico Simón Bolívar

l0°50'N

73°41'W

Cundinamarca/Meta

Fómeque/El Calvario

Cord. Oriental, 1 km W ofLaguna Hoya Hernando

72°22'W

Boyacá

Aquitania (?)

Cord. Oriental; does this equal Hoya Verde?

Hoyevera, Pmo. de

4200

06°23'N

Huecas, Pmo. de

3400

06°10'N

72°25'W

Boyacá

Huila, Nevado del

5750

03°0l'N

76°00'W

Cauca/Huila/Tolima

Huila, Pmo. de

3500

04°56'N

73°45'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, NE ofBogotá, NE ofGuasca, E ofGuatavita

Huila, Pmo. del

3700

02 o59'N

75°59'W

Huila

Cord. Central, on Nevado del Huila (peak at 5750 m), W side along Belalcázar-Cali rd.

Huina, Pmo. de

Cord. Oriental, SE ofChita, E side ofLaguna Chucas Páez/Teruel/Planadas

Cord. Central, E ofSantanderde Quilichao, SW ofPlanadas, W ofNeiva

See Pmo. de Güina

v; V,


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitud e Division 1

Division2

Notes Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Icayamagaca, Alto de

4000

Magdalena

Aracataca

Iguaque, Pmo. de

3800

05°40'N

73°27'W

Boyacá

Tunja, Arcabuco & Villa Cord. Oriental, witbin Santuario Flora y Fauna Iguaque, S of de Leyva Arcabuco and NE ofVilla de Leyva

Imbula Chico

3400

00°56'N

77°37'W

Nariño

Pupiales

Imbula Grande, Pmo.

U> 0\

Cord. Occidental, N oflpiales See Pmo. Rucio

India, Pmo. La

3800

04°07'N

75°43'W

Tolima

Cord. Central, along border witb Quindío depto., NNW of Roncesvalles

Iraca, Pmo. de

4200

03 o 13'N

76°04'W

Cauca!V alle/Tolima

Cord. Central, SSE ofPalmira, E ofPuerto Tejada; also called Pico Iraca

Jerusalén, Cerro

4000

Boyacá

Chita

Cord. Oriental

Jordán, Pmo.

3400

Santander

Tona

Cord. Oriental

~ (/)

Juan Rodríguez, Pmo. de

3400

72°58'W

Santander

Tona & Piedecuesta

Cord. Oriental, SW ofBerlín

Juanoy, Cerro de

3600

76°48'W

Nariño/Putumayo

Sibundoy

Cord. Centro-Oriental, N ofSibundoy; incl. Cerro Cascabel

o ,.., ""

07"08'N 01 o24'N

Junguilla, Pmo. de

See Pmo. de Yunguilla

Juntas, Pmo. de

3300

Juntas, Pmo. de Las

3600

00°48'N

77°26'W

Nariño

Juradó, Pmo. de

3160

06°54'N

72°39'W

Santander

Jurisdicciones, Pmo. de Las

3800

07"50'N

73°l5'W

N Santander/Cesar

·cord. Central, an extension ofPmo. de Guanacas at Km 53

Cauca Potosí

Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. Almorzadero and connected witb it, N ofMálaga Abrego & Cáchira/Río de Oro

Antioquia

Laguna, Pmo. La Laguna, Pmo. de La

3750

Lajas, Pmo. Lajita, Pmo.. La

3400

05°59'W

72°34'N

3100 74°48'W

Cord. Oriental, SW ofOcaña; coordinates approximate Cord. Central, NW ofMedellín, part ofthe Belmira system

o

::r::

tr1

~

::.8 ~

o ~ ti:J o ,..,

z~

o ~

r

Caldas

Cord. Central, W slopes, on Nevado del Ruiz

o

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental; also called El Perro

ES

Boyacá 02°54'N

SW of Pmo: Guapuscal and connected witb it, E oflpiales, S of Pmo. El Palacio and connected witb it; also called Pmo. Las Juntas

2:: tr1 2::

Monguí

Cord. Oriental Cord. Oriental, E ofNeiva; also called Cord. de Los Picachos

Leiva, Cerro

3520

Meta

Granada

León, Cerro ( 1)

4000

Boyacá

Chita

Cord. Oriental

León, Cerro (2)

3900

La Guajira

Riohacha

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Leona, Pmo. La

3800

04°04'N

74°04'W

Cundinamarca/Meta

Cord. Oriental, W ofVillavicencio

Leona, Pmo. Monte de

3200

05°27'N

73 o lO'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, SE ofTunja, SW ofLaguna de Tota; also called Pmo. del Carmen

Leonera, Pmo. La

3800

03°46'N

75°49'W

Tolima

Cord. Central, SSE ofSanta Lucía, NNW ofRJo Blanco

Letras, Pmo. Las

3700

Caldas

Cord. Central

~

ztr1

<o r

00

.¡:.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Letrero, Pmo. (de)!

3688

Llano Grande, Pmo. de

Latitud e 01 °53'N

Longitude 76°32'W

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Huila/Cauca

San Agustín/San Sebastián

Macizo Colombiano, NW ofPmo. Cutanga and connected with it, S ofPmo. de Las Papas and connected with it; S ofPopayán

3750

Boyacá

Monguí

Cord. Oriental

. Llanos de Cuibá

2850

Antioquia

Santa Rosas de Osos

Cord. Central; also spelled Cuivá; subpáramo

Loma El Páramo

3200

01 °06'N

7r33'W

Nariño

Loma Grande, Pmo. de

3600

or29'N

72°57'W

N Santander

Loma Larga

3400

00°57'N

7r37'W

Nariño

Loma Paramillo

2600

01 °07'N

7r30'w

Nariño

Loma Puerta del Páramo

2900

01 °l8'N

7rl7'W

Nariño

Loriana, Pmo. de La

2750

00°57'N

7ro4'W

Nariño

Pasto

S ofLago Guamués

Lúcura, Pmo. de

3200

orJJ'N

72°57'W

Santander

Tona

Cord. Oriental, W ofBerlín

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, Usme-San Juan rd., near side rd. to Nazareth

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, near Pmo. de Chirugua

WNW ofTúquerres; probably not páramo Cord. Oriental, WSW ofCucutilla Pupiales

Cord. Occidental, N oflpiales WNW ofTúquerres, E of Guaitarilla; probably not páramo N ofPasto, along W si de of rd. to airport; probably not páramo

Lumapán, Pmo. de

3200

Macatama, Pmo. de

4570

10°5l'W

73°4l'N

Cundinamarca (?)

See map in Hettner, 1892; and Guhll966: 62, 100

Macotama, Pmo. de

3800

10°56'N

73 °37'W

La Guajira

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; probably the same as Pmo. de Macatama, and also spelled Macotoma

Mamapacha,Pmo. de

3200

Mamarongo, Pmo. (de)

3500

10°55'N

73 °20'W

La Guajira

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NE slopes, E ofMacotama

Mamito, Pmos. de Laguna

4300

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, below and SW of Picos Reina and Ojeda

Mamo, Pmos. de Laguna

4300

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, below and SW ofPicos Reina andOjeda

Machetá, Pmo. de

Boyacá

Garagoa Chinavita

Cord. Oriental, SE ofTunja

06°54'N

72°45'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental; also called Pmo. Blanco (2)

Marchán, Pmo. de

3424

05°40'N

73°42'W

Boyacá/Santander

Cord. Oriental, N ofLaguna de Fúquene, E ofChiquinquirá

Marruecos, Pmo.

3600

04°08'N

75°37'W

Tolima

Cord. Central, N ofRoncesvalles

Martino, Pmo.

3300

Santander

Cord. Oriental

Mata, Alto de La

4000

06°l2'N

72°5l'W

Santander/Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofDuitama, WSW ofCharalá

Matarredonda, Pmo.

3000

05°20'N

74°03'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, E ofLa Palma, SW ofLaguna de Fúneque

Méndez, Pmo. de

4400

06°36'N

72°22'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, NE ofLas Mercedes; also called Pmo. de Contento

Mercedes, Pmo. Las

3600

04°06'N

74°00'W

Cundinamarca/Meta

Cord. Oriental, W ofVillavicencio

Mantilla, Pmo.

Mesa Alta, Pmo. de

'D 'D

~

"" > ~ ;s:: o

C/)

See Pmo. de Mesalta

v; -..)


Name

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Mesalta, Pmo. de

3800

05°56'N

72°44'W

Tasco

Cord. Oriental, NE ofDuitama, NE ofTasco, S ofPaz de Río; also caiied Pmo. de Mesa Alta

Mina, Cerro

3750

08°l8'N

73o li'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, SE ofLa Convención, NE ofOcaña

Miraflores, Pmo. de (1)

3600

03 °55'N

75°56'W

Vaiie/Tolima

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. de Las Hermosas and connected with it, S of Pmo. Barragán and connected with it, ESE of Tuluá, NW of Chaparral

Miraflores, Pmo. de (2)

3300

Mirlas, Pmo. de Las Mogotocoro, Pmo. de

3800

Boyacá

Huila/Caquetá

Cord. Oriental, near Gigante

Chocó

Not true páramo

Santander

Cord. Oriental, near Las Vetas; sometimes speiied Mogorotoco

V> 00

s;: tTl s;: o

Monsalve, Pmo. de

3600

or25'N

72°54'W

Santander

Monserrate, Pmo. (de)

3250

04 °37'N

74°04'W

Cundinamarca

Monte de Leona, Pmo.

3200

05°27'N

73°l0'W

Boyacá

Monte de Luz, Pmo.

3000

Monterredondo, Pmo.

3500

Moras, Pmo. de (Las)

3800

Morro Frontino, Pmo. del

3900

Morro Paramillo

3000

01 °l5'N

77°34'W

Nariño

Morro, Pmo. El

3130

06°35'N

75°32'W

Antioquia

Morrobravo, Pmo. de

3400

07"05'N

72°55'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, N of Santa Bárbara, SW of Berlín

> z ñ > l'

Mortiño, Pmo. (del)

3700

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, between Cúcuta and Bucaramanga

Cl

Moscopán, Pmo. de

3400

Cauca

Cord. Central, 32 km from Puracé on rd. to Moscopán

Mosquito, Pmo. de Laguna del

3850

Caldas

§ zlTl

02°50'N

76°l2'W

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofCalifornia Bogotá

Cord. Oriental, ca. 7 km NE of Bogotá; also caiied Cerro Monserrate Cord. Oriental, SE ofTunja, SW ofLaguna de Tota; also cailed Pmo. del Carmen

Boyacá

Saboyá

Cord. Oriental

Cauca

Silvia & Paéz

Cord. Central

Cauca

Coid. Central, NNE ofPopayán, between Mozoco and Pitayó,

Antioquia

Cord. Occidental, N ofUrrao

SW ofPmo. de Santo Domingo and connected with it W ofPasto, NE ofTúquerres; not páramo Belmira

Cord. Central, part ofPmo. de Belmira, N ofMedeiiín

Cord. Central, source ofRío Otún, below Nevado de Santa Isabel

Mucute, Pmo. de

...:¡

::e:

tTl

ztTl

::E o"<

~ IJ:j o...:¡

>

Nariño

Mundo Nuevo, Pmo.

See Pmo. Nuevo Mundo

Mundonuevo, Pmo.

See Pmo. Nuevo Mundo 3850

Muzo, Pmo. de N aboba, Pmos. de Laguna

o'Tl

From type of Acrostichum calaguala (Moritz 315)

Muerte, Pmo. de la

Musinga, Alto

;;:;<Zl

06°39'N

76°40'W

Antioquia Boyacá

4300

Magdalena

Cord. Occidental, S ofFrontino, N ofUrrao; páramo ? Muzo

Cord. Oriental, W of Chiquinquirá Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, below and SW ofPicos Reina and Ojeda

<o r

00 .jo.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Nabulgalha, Pmo. de

3350

Nariz, Pmo. de La (1)

3300

Nariz, Pmo. de La (2)

Latitud e

Longitude Division 1

Division 2

Magdalena Boyacá 10°40'N

73°20'W

Cesar

Notes Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Santa Rosa Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, N ofValledupar

Negro, Cerro (1)

4470

00°5l'N

7r55'W

Nariño

Cumbal

Cord. Occidental, W oflpiales

Negro, Cerro (2)

4276

01 °44'N

7r36'W

Nariño

Ipiales & Potosí

Cord. Centro-Oriental, E oflpiales

Cundinamarca (?)

Neusa, Pmo. Nevaditos, Pico

5375

Nevado, Pmo. El

4000

03°56'N

74°!0'W

Meta

Cord. Oriental, part ofPmo. de Sumapaz (?), W ofCubarral, S ofPmo. El Gallo; also called Cerro El Nevado or Alto Nevado

Nieves, Pmo. Las

3900

03°48'N

75°49'W

Tolima

Cord. Central, SSE ofSanta Lucía, NNW ofRío Blanco, N of Pmo. La Leonera

Tolima

Roncesvalles

Cord. Central

04°!8'N

74°05'W

Cundinamarca

Une & Gutiérrez

Cord. Oriental, NE of Pmo. Sumapaz, SW of Cáqueza; al so called Pmo. Mundonuevo or Pmo. Mundo Nuevo

Norrnandía, Pmo. de

3200

Nuevo Mundo, Pmo.

3500

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Obelisco, Pmo. del

3200

Cundinamarca

Ocetá, Pmo.

3800

Boyacá

Ocungahla, Pmo. de

3690

Cord. Oriental, near Pacho Monguí

See Pmo. Ocusá Boyacá

3000

Paipa

'1:!

>~ ~ oCll

Cord. Oriental; also called Pmo. Ocusa de Blanco

Boyacá

Ogonta, Pmo. de Ojeda, Pico

Cord. Oriental; also spelled Osetá Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Ocusa de Blanco, Pmo. Ocusá, Pmo.

'-0 '-0

.::S

5490

Ojo, Pmo. de Olleta, Cráter (de) La

4750

10°50'N

73°38'W

Magdalena/Cesar

06°55'N

72°45'W

Santander

04°5l'N

75°23'W

Caldas/Tolima

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NW ofValledupar Cord. Central, NW ofNevado del Ruiz, SE ofManizales; also called Cerro O lleta

Orocué, Cerro de

3900

Oseras, Alto (de las)

3830

03°45'N

74°30'W

Cesar/N Santander

Cord. Oriental, S of Abrego; also spelled Oroque

Huila!Meta/Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, 50 km SE ofEspinal, S end ofPmo. de Sumapaz

Osos, Pmo. de Los

4000

06°!9'N

72°!9'W

Arauca

Otún, Laguna del

3800

04°47'N

75°26'W

Risaralda

Pereira

Ovejas, Pmo. de Las

3500

01 o IO'N

7rl4'W

Nariño

Pasto

Serranía to the ESE of Lago Guamués

Ovejeras, Pmo. (de las)

3000

Ü5°]]'N

73°46'W

Cundinamarca

Suesca

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofSuesca, E ofLaguna de Suesca

Páez, Pmo. de La Laguna de(!)

3450

Cauca

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy Cord. Central, 2 km W of summit ofNevado de Santa Isabel

Cord. Central, W slopes, headwaters ofRío Páez

:::;; '-0


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Paja Blanca, Pmo. de

3400

00°02'N

7r33'W

Nariño

Guachucal, Ipiales, Ospina & Pupiales

Nudo de Los Pastos, actually extends from 00 °02'N toO 1 o o 1'N and 77°33'W to 7r39'W; also spelled Pajablanca

Palacio, Pmo. (de El)

3700 00°38'N

1r2ow

Nariño

Ipiales & Potosí

Cord. Centro-Oriental, between La Victoria and Monogamba, SE of and running parallel to Pmo. de Las Juntas, continues with Cerro Palacio and Cerro San Francisco; also called Pmo. Palacios

N ame

3500

Paletará, Pico

4482

02o!O'N

76°26'W

Cauca!Huila

Palomas, Pmo. de Las

3290

05°45'N

75°20'W

Antioquia

Pamplona, Pmo. de

3500

Pan de Azúcar, Cerro

4670

Pan de Azúcar, Pmo. (1) Pan de Azúcar, Pmo. (2)

Cord. Central, SE ofPopayán, WSW ofLa Argentina Sonsón

3500

05°57'N

3600

03°48'N

76°19'W

73°02'W 76°05'W

Cauca/Huila

Boyacá

Cord. Central, Vereda San Francisco, near Sonsón Cord. Oriental, W ofMutiscua; refers to Pmo. de Santurbán

N de Santanter 02°13'N

Puracé!La Argentina

Cerinza!Duitama

Cord. Central, Sierra Nevada de Los Coconucos, SE ofPopayán, W ofLa Argentina; also called Volcán Pan de Azúcar and Cerro Agua Blanca Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. de la Rusia and connected with it Cord. Central, NNE ofPalmirá, N ofPmo. de Los Domínguez

Valle

See Cerro Pan de Azúcar

Pan de Azúcar, Volcán 4200

01 °55'N

76°36'W

Cauca

Paramillo (1)

3000

02°55'N

76°24'W

Cauca

Cord. CentraC ESE ofSantander de Quilichao; perhaps not true páramo

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental; a town not páramo

2200

06°00'N

73°05'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, WSW of Abrego; name for school and few houses, not páramo

Paramillo (3)

San Sebastián

Macizo Colombiano, S ofPopayán, 70 km W ofPitalito, 40 km W ofSari-Agustín

Papas, Pmo. (de) Las

Paramillo (2)

See Nudo de Paramillo

Paramillo del Sinú

o

Cord. Oriental, 30-40 km ENE ofBogotá, region ofChingaza

Cundinamarca

Palacio, Pmo. El

0\

Paramillo, Alto El

1500

08°37'N

73 °25'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental; not páramo

Paramillo, Cerro

3000

02°32'N

75°12'W

Huila/Caqueta

Cord. Oriental, SSE ofNeiva, E of Algeciras

Paramillo, Llano de

1800

06°0l'N

73°05'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, WSW of Abrego; not páramo

Paramillo, Loma (1)

2600

01 °07'N

7r3ow

Nariño

E of Guaitarilla and WNW ofTúquerres; probably not páramo

Paramillo, Loma (2)

3600

04°00'N

75°55'W

Valle

Cord. Central, SW ofBarragán, NE of Santa Lucía

Paramillo, Nudo de

3960

oro4'N

75°55'W

Antioquia

Cord. Central, NE ofDadeiba, W ofHuango; also called Cerro Paramillo or simply Paramillo

Paramito, Hacienda

1650

06°35'N

73°1l'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental; a hacienda NNW of San Gil; not páramo

Páramo (1)

1300

06°31 'N

73 °2Ü'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, N of Simacota; local name for a group of homes, not páramo

~ rrJ ~

o

~

m

o ..., "rj

;:¡::

rrJ

zrrJ

:E >-<: o

~ to o..., >~

(J

>1:"' o >-

ElrrJ z

< ~

00 ~


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Páramo (2)

1000

Nariño

A town, not páramo; old name for town ofRicaurte

Páramo (3)

3475

Santander

Cord. Oriental, Motocoro, 2 km S ofVetas

Páramo (4)

1400

06°25'N

73°10'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, town S ofSan Gil; not páramo

Páramo (El)

3000

05°!8'N

75°2l'W

Caldas

Cord. Central, SE ofPalamina, NE ofManizales

Páramo, Alto El

1600

05°38'N

72°25'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, 20 minutes (oflatitude) N ofYopa!; not páramo

Páramo, Cerro (1)

2000

08°24'N

73°14'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, S of San Calixto, NE of Ocaña; not páramo

Páramo, Cerro (2)

1600

06°25'N

73°23'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, WSW ofSimacota; not páramo

Páramo, Cerros del

1200

05°38'N

7Z025'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, 20 minutes (oflatitude) N ofY opa!; not páramo

Páramo, Cuchilla El

1900

05°40'N

72°25'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, mountain range N of Yopa!

Páramo, El (1)

3000

05°35'N

73°55'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental; town WSW of Chiquinquirá; not páramo

Páramo, El (2)

1700

08°24'N

73°l4'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental; name ofschool and group ofhomes; not páramo

Páramo, Loma El (1)

2000

or53'N

73°16'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, S of Abrego; not páramo

Páramo, Loma El (2)

3200

01 °06'N

7r33'W

Nariño

WNW ofTúquerres; probably not true páramo

Parroquia Vieja, Pmo. de

2900

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental

Pasea, Pmo. de

3800

Cundinamarca

From type specimen of Baccharis pascensii (Stuebel 133, F neg. 15025)

Pasquilla, Pmo.

3150

Cundinamarca

Pastora, Pmo. de La

3150

Nariño

Pastos, Nudo de los Patascoy de Santa Lucía, Cerro

4000

01 °00'N

7r3o'W

Nariño

00°57'N

7r04'W

N ariño/Putumayo

"<:!

> ~ S:: o tzl

15 km E ofPasto a!ongrd. to Mocoa; a!so cal!ed Pmo. de Tábano Incl. Volcán Chiles, Nevado del Cumbal, Cerro Alcalde, and Cerro Patascoy de Santa Lucía; also called Macizo de Pasto

Pasto/Santiago

SSE of Laguna de La Cocha, SE ofPasto; also called Cerro Patascoy and Volcán Patascoy See Cerro El Bordoncillo

Pataseos, Volcán Arauca

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy, E slopes, an area of páramos ranging 4200-4300 m

1r26'W

Nariño

SE Nariño, on Ecuador border

72°50'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. Puchicavo and connected with it, E of Laguna de Tota, SE of Sogamoso

Patio Bolos, Pmos. de

4300

Pax, Cerro

3350

00°23'N

Pedrisco, Pmo. del

3500

05°35'N

Pelao, Cerro (El)

4000

Boyacá

Pelao, Cerro El

4000

Boyacá Source ofRío Caqueta

Peña Alta, Pmo. de Peña Lisa, Pmo.

Cord. Oriental, vicinity of Cabras Pasto

'D 'D

.:S

3500

04°06'N

73°58'W

Cundinamarca!Meta

Cord. Oriental, W ofVillavicencio, E ofPmo. Las Mercedes; also spel!ed Peñalisa

0\


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude Division 1

Division 2

Notes

o,

N

Peña Negra, Pmo. de (1)

3600

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, continuation ofPmo. de Gachaneque

Peña Negra, Pmo. de (2)

3625

04°47'N

73°49'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, N ofCordillera Verde, NE ofBogotá, W side of high plain ofBogotá, near Subachoque

3800

03 °56'N

75°50'W

Valle

Peñas Blancas, Pmo. de

3600

04°42'N

75°25'W

Tolima

Peñitas, Pmo. (Las)

3700

Boyacá

Peñón, Pmo. del

3100

Cauca

Near Jambaló

Perijá, Sierra de

3350

Magdalena

Incl. Cerro Venado and Cerro Avión

o

See Pmo. Lajas

CZl

See Pmo. de Peña Negra(!)

Peñanegra,Pmo.de Peñas Blancas, Pmo.

Cord. Central, E of Santa Lucía, NW of Pmos, La Soledad, Diamante, and Rancho Largo Cord. Central, NW ofNevado del Tolima Monguí

Perro (El)

Cord. Oriental

~

m

~

~

Pesca, Pmo. (La)

3400

Boyacá

Tuta

Cord. Oriental

o'T1

Pescadero, Pmo. de

3400

07"12'N

72°54'W

Santander

Tona

Cord. Oriental, NW ofBerlín

::r::

Petacas, Pmo. de

4050

01 °34'N

76°46'W

Nariño/Cauca

La Cruz/Santa Rosa

NE ofPasto, ENE ofLa Cruz, on Volcán Petacas, continuation of Cerro A?imas; al so called Cerro Petacas

zm

Picacho, Cerro

4700

Pilar, Pmo. del Piñuela, Pmo. La

3000

Piranchón, Pmo.

3700

04°l2'N

74°16'W

Cundinamarca

02°05'N

74°10'W

Cundinamarca Boyacá

Pirineos, Pmo.

3600

04°l2'N

75°36'W

Tolima

Pisba, Pmo. de

3600

05°53'N

72°37'W

Boyacá

Piscicultura, Pmo. La

3400

01 °l0'N

77°05'W

Nariño

-3

m ~ >-<

o

Cord. Oriental, N of La Pradera, S of Pacho, NW edge of Sabana de Bogotá Zetaquira & Tota

Socotá

Cord. Oriental

z>-

Cord. Central, N ofRoncesvalles, N ofPmo. Marruecos, E of Geno va

ñ > r

Cord. Oriental, NE ofSogamoso, N ofPmo. de San Ignacio and connected with it; also spelled Pisva

>-

E of Pasto, NE of Laguna La Cocha; also called Pmo. del Quilinsayaco

Pisva, Pmo. de

~

to

o-3

o

1:1 ""'m z

See Pmo. de Pisba

Plan del Cóndor, Pmos. de

3970

Planos del Toldadero

3950

Caldas

Cord. Central, below del Nevado de Santa Isabel, headwaters of Río Otún

Boyacá

Plateado, Cerro

3250

02°20'N

Playón, Alto El

3500

06°l9'N

77°l5'W

Cauca

72°!9'W

Arau ca

Balboa/Argelia

Cord. Occidental, along Balboa-Argelia rd. at the crest ofthe cordillera and headwaters o fRío Plateado and Río Guaitara Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

<o !:"

00

.p.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Portachuelo, Cerro

4400

Potosí, Cerro

3800

Potrogaca, Pico

4350

Latitude

Longitud e

Division 1

Division 2

'D 'D

Notes

~

01 °27'N

76°50'W

00°53'N

7r24'W

Nariño

Córdoba & Puerres

Cord. Centro-Oriental, ENE oflpiales, near Las Juntas

Sal azar

Cord. Oriental, S of Pmo de Guerrero an connected with it, WSW of Cúcuta, SW of Salazar

Nariño/Putumayo

El Tablón!Sibundoy

N Santander

ENE ofPasto Cord. Oriental, around Ocaña; not true páramo

Pozo Alto, Pmo. de

1800

Precipicio, Pmo. del Cerro

3600

Pregonero, Alto (El)

4000

Pringador, Pmo. de

3400

or44'N

72°57'W

N Santander

Puchicavo, Pmo.

3500

05°40'N

72°45'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, E of Somagoso, S of Pmo San Ignacio and connected with it; also called Pmo. Puchicaro

Puentes, Pmo. (de) Los

3900

07°22'N

72°52'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, abo ve La Baja, NE of California, N of Vetas; probably same as Pmo. de Las Puentes

Puerta del Páramo, Loma

2900

Ol 0 !8'N

7rl7'W

Nariño

N ofPasto, along rd. to airport; probably not páramo

Puertas, Pmo. de La

3700

Púlpito del Diablo, Cerro

5187

06°22'N

Puchicaro, Pmo.

See Pmo. Puchicavo

72°20'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, close to La Baja

Boyacá/Arau ca

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Puracé, Pmo. de(!)

4400

02°24'N

76°23'W

Cauca!Huila

Quilinsayaco, Pmo. de

3200

01 °08'N

7ro7'w

Nariño/Putumayo

Quindío, Pmo.

4300

04°38'N

75°25'W

Caldas/Tolima

Rabanal, Pmo.

3590

05°25'N

73°35'W

Boyacá

Rabón, Pmo. del

3000

05°l4'N

74°08'W

Cundinamarca

Rabona, Alto (de)

4082

04°05'N

74°13'W

Cundinamarca

Ramal, Pmo.

2800

'"O

> > ;::::

;;¡;¡

Cord. Central, slopes ofVolcán Puracé (4800 m), ESE ofPopayán Pasto/Santiago

o

Pasto-Mocoa rd., Km 35 E of Pasto, between El Encano and Santiago; also known as Pmo. de La Piscicultura; also spelled Quilinchayaco (?)

C/)

Cord. Central, slopes ofNevado (del) Quindío (5150 m), ESE ofPereira, ENE ofSalento, NNW oflbagué

Quitasol, Pmo.

See Cerro Altar

Cundinamarca

V entaquemada Samacá

Cord. Oriental, ESE ofLaguna de Fúquene, SW ofTunja, N of Pmo. Albarracín and connected with it Cord. Oriental, SE ofLa Palma, N ofPacho Cord. Oriental, W border ofPmo. Sumapaz, E ofEspinal

Suesca

Cord. Oriental; probably not páramo

Ramírez, Alto (de)

3788

03°49'N

74°2l'W

Cundinamarca!Meta

Cord. Oriental, part ofPmo. de Sumapaz

Ramírez, Pmo.

3800

or29'N

7ZC54'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, E of Carchiri

Ramos, Cerro

4200

Rancho Largo, Pmo.

3800

03°55'N

75°50'W

Valle

Cord. Central, ESE ofSanta Lucía, W ofPmo. La Soledad and Pmo. Diamante

-"' w


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Rayo, Cerro El

3720

03°5l'N

74°20'W

Cundinamarca!Meta

Cord. Oriental, on Pmo. de Sumapaz

Rechíniga, Pmo. de

5223

06°l6'N

72°23'W

Arauca/Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, S part ofSierra Nevada del Cocuy, E ofSusaeón; also called Pico de Rechíniga and Farallones de Rechíniga

Reina, Pico La

5535

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Remedios, Alto de Los

Notes

0\

_¡,.

Macizo Colombiano, high point in Pmo. de Las Papas

Rico, Pmo.

4200

07° 18'N

72°55'W

Santander

Cord. Oriental, NE of Bucaramanga, E of Charta, SSW of Vetas, NW ofPmo. Santurbán and connected with it

Rincón, Pmo. El

4000

06°24'N

72°22'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental

Río Sevilla, Pmo. de

3410

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Riosucio, Pmo. de

3225

Cauca

Ritacuva, Alto (de)

5493

Inza

Cord. Central, along Totoró--Inza rd.

;;;:: tT1 ;;;::

o

;:a

06°30'N

72°19'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy; aiso spelled Ritacuba

03 °47'N

75°57'W

Valle

Cord. Central, ENE of Albania, N ofPmo. de Las Hermosas

.,o

Cord. Oriental; not páramo

::r:

(/J

Rocío, Pmo. (d)el

4000

Rodríguez, Pmo.

2400

Romeral, Pmo. de(!)

3800

06°40'N

72°l8'W

Boyacá

Romeral, Pmo. de (2)

3700

or23'N

72°52'W

Santander

Rosal, Pmo. del

3700

00°52'N

1r22'W

Nariño

Puerres

Rucio, Pmo.

3400

01 °58'N

7r34'w

Nariño

El Contadero, Gualrnatán, Córd. OcCidt;ntal; also called Pmo. Imbula Grande Ospina & Sapuyes

(';

Rucio, Pmo. (del)

2800

Huila/Meta

Colombia/Granada (Boca de Monte)

>-3

Ruiz, Pmo. de

3500

Bolívar

04 °54'N

75°l8'W

Jenesno

· Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada de Güicán

Caldas/Tolima

Ruiz, Nevado del Runta, Pmo. de

3278

05°30'N

73 °25'W

Boyacá

Rusia, Pmo. (de La)

4320

Ruso, Pmo.

3150

Santander

Sábana Rubia, Pmo. de (2)

3250

Magdalena

Sabanazo, Pmo. de

3280

05°59'N

73°05'W

Sábana Rubia, Pmo. de (1)

Santander/Boyacá

Paipa & Duitama/Santa Rosa de Viterbo

>-3 tT1

ztT1

Cord. Oriental, Hoya del Río Cucutilla, NE ofCalifornia, N ofV etas

::E

Cord. Centro-Oriental, E ofPuerres, rd. to Monopamba

o--<

Cord. Oriental; probably not páramo

"'o

to

z>-

Cord. Central, ón slopes ofNevado del Ruiz (5432 m), N of !bagué, SE ofManizales

ñ >r'

See Pmo. de Ruiz

>-

Cord. Oriental, SW of Tunja, NE of Pmo. Gachaneque and connected with it

E3

Cl

tT1

z

Cord. Oriental, N ofPmo. Pan de Azúcar and connected with it, 21 km NNW ofDuitama; may incL Pmo. de Agüero

Cesar/Magdalena

06°35'N

75°32'W

Antioquia

Sierra de Perijá, Colombia/Yenezuela border area, part of Cerro del Avión (Cerro Monte Plano in Venezuela) Belmira

Cord. Central, part of Altiplano de Santa Rosa de Osos, part of Pmo. de Belmira; also called Pmo. de Alto de Sabanazos

<o r-'

00

_¡,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitud e Division 1

Division 2

Sabanazos, Pmo. de Alto de

Notes See Pmo. de Sabanazo

05°45'N

Saboyá, Pmo. de

4003

73°5l'W

Salado, Pmo. (El)

3500

Salazar, Pmo.

3000

Salitre, Cerro El

3800

Salitres, Pmo. Las

3600

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, S ofBogotá, ESE ofEmbalse Chisacá

San Antonio del Bordoncillo, Pmo. de

3250

Putumayo

Between El Encano and Sibundoy; also called Pmo. de San Antonio

San Antonio, Pmo. (2)

3350

Cundinamarca

San Cayetano, Pmo. de

3750

oso 18'N

74°04'W

Cundinamarca

San Félix, Pmo.(!)

3650

05°25'N

75° 19'W

San Félix, Pmo. (2)

3100

San Fernando, Cerro

3810

San Fortunato, Pmo. de

3000

San Francisco, Cerro

3685

or48'N

72°52'W

04°l8'N

74°07'W

Boyacá/Santander

Cord. Oriental, N of Chiquinquirá; al so called Peña de Saboyá

Valle

Buga

Cord. Central

N Santander

Sal azar

Cord. Oriental, WSW ofCúcuta, NW ofSalazar, E ofPmo. de Cáchira and connected with it

Boyacá

San Antonio, Pmo. (1)

See Pmo. de San Antonio del Bordoncillo

San Cristóbal, Pmo. de

Cord. Oriental, 2 km NNW ofLaguna de Chingaza San Cayetano

Cord. Central; coordinates are for San Cayetano

Caldas

Pensilvania

Cord. Central, E ofRiosucio and Salamina, W of Cordillera de Miraflores, S ofPmo. Arboleda and connected with it

Antioquia

Bello

Cord. Central, 30-35 km NW ofMedellín along rd. toward San Pedro

Cundinamarca

05°35'N

00°48'N

76°03'W

7r29'W

San Francisco, Pmo. ( 1)

Antioquia/Chocó

Cord. Occidental, Farallones de Citará, SW of Andes, W of Jardín; also called Alto de San Fernando

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, near Bogotá, extreme S rim ofBogotá tabeland; old name used by Goudot and Hartweg in tbe mid-1800s

Nariño

Córdoba & Potosí

3200

Putumayo

San Francisco

San Francisco, Pmo. de (3)

3900

Cauca

San Sebastián

San Ignacio, Pmo. de

3400

San José, Pmo. (1)

3800

Cundinamarca

San José, Pmo. (2)

3600

Meta

05°47'N

72°42'W

San Miguel, Pmo.

San Pablín, Laguna de

"'> ~ 2:: o

(/)

E oflpiales, continuation ofCerro Palacio

Cundinamarca

San Francisco, Pmo. (2)

San Nicolás, Cerro (de)

\0 \0

::S

3780

05°40'N

76°05'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, NE of Somagoso, NE of Mongua, S and connected with Pmo. de Pisba Cord. Oriental, 3.5 km SE ofLaguna de Chingaza Calvario

Cord. Oriental

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, above Hacienda Los Arenillos

Antioquia/Chocó

Cord. Occidental, Farallones de Citará, W of Andes, SW of Betania; probably not páramo

Boy;tcá

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy o-,

'-"


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latimde

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Cau ca

Totoró

07"47'N

73°03'W

N Santander

Cord. Oriental, partofPmo. de Cáchira, E ofCáchira, between Las Ventanas and Pmo. de Guerrero

Cauca

Cord. Central, small part of Pmo. de Puracé on the E slopes, headwaters ofRío San José

San Pedro, Pmo. de (1)

3225

San Pedro, Pmo. de (2)

3000

San Rafael, Pmo. de

3350

San Salvador, Pmo.

3600

04°44'N

73°47'W

Cundinamarca

Santa Inés, Pmo.

3000

06°48'N

75°43'W

Antioquia

Santa Lucía, Pmo. Santa Lucía, Pmo. de

Cord. Central, along Totoró-Inza rd.

Cord. Central, 80 km NW ofMedellín, NNE of Antioquia, E of Rodadas and Fortuna, part ofthe Belmira system; al so spelled Santa Inéz See Pmo. Santa Inés

Santa Isabel, Pmo. (de) (!) 3800

3680

07"20'N

72°20'W

04°47'N

75°26'W

03 °58'N

75°55'W

3100

Santa Maria, Nevado

N Santander

Toledo

Risaralda!Tolima

Valle

Cord. Oriental, within Parque Nac. Nat. Tamá, E ofToledo; coordinates approximate Cord. Central, slopes Nevado de Santa Isabel (5100 m), SE of Nevado del Ruiz, N ofNevado del Quindío, E ofPereira, NNW oflbagué, incl. Laguna de Otún

Tuluá

Putumayo

Cord. Central, SW ofBarragán, NE ofSanta Lucía, S ofLoma Paramillo, N ofPmo. Barragán; may equal Paramillo Santa Lucía S side Laguna de La Cocha, source ofRío Alisales

04°48'N

75°22'W

Tolima

!0°50'N

73°40'W

Magdalena/Cesar/La Guajira

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NW of Valledupar, incl. Pico Cristóbal Colón, Pico Codazzi, Pico Simón Bolívar, Pico Simons, Pico Ojeda, and Pico El Guardián; equals Macizo de Santa Marta

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, between Santa Rosa de Viterbo and Cerinza

Risaralda

Cord. Central, W slopes Nevado del Ruiz, E ofSanta Rosa de Cabal, ENE ofPereira

Santa Marta, Sierra Nevada de

5800

Santa Rosa, Pmo. de (1)

3000

Santa Rosa, Pmo. de (2)

4600

Santa Rosita, Pmo. (de)

3400

Santo Domingo, Pmo. (de)

4000

03°00'N

Santo Ecce Horno, Pmo. de

3500

Santurbán, Pmo. de

4030

Sarna, Pmo. de La Sátiva, Pmo.

04°50'N

75°30'W

a, a,

Cord. Oriental, E ofBogotá, N ofPmo. Las Barajas, SE of Guasca Belmira & San Andrés

Santa Inéz, Pmo.

Santa Isabel, Pmo. de (2)

Notes

Boyacá

Susacón

76°05'W

Cauca!Tolima

Toribío, Crointo & Paéz/ Cord. Central, E ofSantander de Quilichao, SE ofToribio, NE Planadas & Río blanca ofPmo. de Las Moras, SW comer ofParque Nacional Natural Nevado del Huila, S ofthe Nevado

05°37'N

73°08'W

Boyacá

Tora& Tuta

Cord. Oriental, E ofTunja, E ofToca, W ofPesca

07"16'N

72°53'W

Santander

Tona

Cord. Oriental, SE of Pmo. Rico and connected with it, 6 km NE ofBucaramanga, E ofBerlín

3500

05°37'N

72°52'W

Boyacá

Aquitania (Puebloviejo)

Cord. Oriental, NE ofLaguna de Tota, between Somagoso and Vado Hondo, headwaters ofRío Cusiana

3000

06°07'N

72°48'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, above Córdoba, near Susacón

Cord. Oriental, E ofCord. de Consuelo, NE ofTutasá

s;: s;: o

(1j

¡;a [/)

o

"rj

>-l

::e (1j

z

(1j

::E

o-< ~ ttl o>-l >z ñ

>l' o >E3 (1j

z

<o ~

00

~


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude Division 1

Division 2

Savelillo, Pmo. de

Notes Cord. Central, N of Pmo. de Huila, due W of Neiva, SE of Jagual, S ofPmo. de Iraca

Seca, Pmo. de Laguna

3630

05°02'N

73°55'W

Cundinamarca

Tausa

Cord. Oriental, between Cagua and San Cayetano, E ofZipaquirá

Siachoque, Pmo. de

3500

05°27'N

73°ll'W

Boyacá

Siachoque, Viracachá & Rondón

Cord. Oriental, ESE of Tunja, W of Laguna de Tota, E of Ramiriquí, NW ofPmo. de las Alfombras and connected with it; also called Alto Siachoque

Sibaté, Pmo. de

3570

Cundinamarca

Siberia, Pmo. de (La)

3500

Cundinamarca

La Galera

Cord. Oriental

Siecha, Laguna de

3600

04°46'N

72°48'W

Cord. Oriental, ca. 23 km SE ofBogotá

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, in páramo

Siejo, Pmo.

See Cerro El Viejo

Simón Bolívar, Pico

5775

10°50'N

73°42'W

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NW ofValledupar, between municipalities of Aracataca and Santa Marta

Simons, Pico (El)

5660

!0°5l'N

73°43'W

Magdalena

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, NW ofValledupar, between municipalities of Aracataca and Santa Marta

Siquitán, Pmo. de Sirpes, Pmo.

See Pmo. Chimbalán 2200

Siscunsí, Pmo. de

3700

Sisga, Pmo. El

2850

Antioquia 05°22'N

72°50'W

Boyacá

San Rafael & Guatapé Sogamoso

;¡,.

Cord. Oriental, may be part ofPmo. de Toquilla

;¡,.

Cord. Oriental, near Chocontá

Socabón, Pmo. del

Cauca

Cord. Central

Socha, Pmos. de

Boyacá (?)

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Soledad, Pmo. La(!)

3600

Soledad, Pmo. La (2)

3600

Sonsón, Pmo. de

3340

03°55'N 05°43'N

74°49'W 75°!5'W

Sora, Pmo. de

Tolima!Valle

"O

Cord. Central; not true páramo

Cundinamarca

;;<!

3::

o

(ll

Cord. Central, E of Santa Lucía, SE ofBarragán

Huila

San Agustín

This may be Cauca, Mpio. Santa Rosa, 01 o40'N, 76°34'W

Antioquia

Sonsón, Argelia & Nariño

Cord. Central, N ofPmo. Arboleda, 65 km SE ofMedellín, NE of Aguadas, E of Sonsón; an isolated peak with subpáramo vegetation at top

Boyacá

Sora & Cucaita

Cord. Oriental, surrounds Laguna de Suesca; see Hettner, 1892; and Guhl, 1966: 62, 110 Macizo Colombiano; incl. Volcán Sotará (4850 m), S ofTimbío

Sotará, Pmo. de

4100

02°!2'N

76°3l'W

Cauca

Sotará (Paispamba) & La Vega

Soté, Pmo. de

3200

05°39'N

73°!9'W

Boyacá

Tunja & Cómbita

Sulibata, Pmo. de

5375

!0°40'N

73°30'W

Magdalena

Suma Paz, Pmo. de la

::0

\0

~

Cord. Oriental, páramos N and S of Soté, 15 km N ofTunja Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta See Pmo. de Sumapaz

:;: --._)


~

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude Division 1

Sumapaz, Pmo. de

4285

03°45'N

74°25'W

Cundinamarca/Meta/ Huila

Surivaca, Pmo. de

4000

l0°53'N

73°27'W

Cesar/La Guajira

Riohacha

Boyacá

Aquitania (Puebloviejo)

N ame

Division 2

Santander

Sutamarchán, Pmo. de

Cord. Oriental

~ m

Cord. Oriental, N ofVetas

o

See Pmo. de la Pastora

Tábano, Pmo. de Tábano, Pmo. de(!)

3300

01 °10'N

77o12'W

Putumayo/Nariño

Tablazo, Pmo. (de El)

3500

04°52'N

74°13'W

Cundinamarca

05°28'N

75°23'W

Caldas

Tacará, Pmo.

3000

Tacines, Pmo. de

3500

Nariño

15 km E ofPasto toward El Encano Subachoque

Cord. Oriental, ca. 43 km NNE ofBogotá, W ofSubachoque Cord. Central, E ofSalamina, SE ofPacora, NW ofPmo. San Félix and connected with it; may not be páramo

Pasto

Serranía del Morasurco

Tairona, Pico

5000

!0°47'N

73°39'W

Magdalena

Aracataca

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Tajumbina, Pmo. de

3600

01 °24'N

76°47'W

Nariño/Cauca

El Tablón & La Cruz

Cord. Central, NE of Pasto, S ofLa Cruz, slopes ofCerro Tajumbina and Cerro Potosí; incl. also parts ofVolcán Doña Juana and Cerro Animas

Tamá, Pmo. de

3329

07"25'N

72°26'W

N Santander

Toledo

Cord. Oriental, E ofPmo. de Tierra Negra and connected with it, SW ofCúcuta, E ofPamplona, shared with Venezuela

Tamaná, Cerro

4200

05°02'N

76°JJ'W

Risaralda/Chocó

Tambo, Pmo. del

3300

01 °0l'N

77°5l'W

Nariño

Macizo Colombiano, Km 16 along Cumbal-Miraflores rd.

Tambor, Pmo. El

3800

04°02'N

75°45'W

Tolima!Valle

Cord. Central, S ofPmo. Barragán, S ofGenova, E ofBarragán

Cord. Occidental, W ofSantuario, S ofPueblorrico

Taquina, Pmo.

2800

La Guajira

Riohacha

Tasajeras, Pmo. (!)

3800

07"27'N

72°55'W

Santander

Suratá

Tasajeras, Pmo. (2)

3800

04°03'N

74°16'W

Cundinamarca

05°00'N

76°05'W

Risaralda/Chocó

Tatamá, Cerro

3950

Tausa, Pmo.

3200

Tauso, Pmo. El

3500

01 °04'N

77°20'W

~

~

"' o""rj >-l

:r: m zm

:;e o--< ?::1

;>:: tJ:j

o>-l > z ()

> t-< Cl

>

§

Putumayo

Tambillo, Pmo. de

00

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; also called Pmo. de Sulibata or spelled Suliveta or Surlibáka; equals Pmo. Sulibata from Magdalena See Pmo. de Surivaca

3600

0\

Cord. Oriental, SE ofVi!larica, 25 km S ofBogotá; incl. Pmos. de Mundo Nuevo, de Las Animas, and de Nevado (4560 m) and the Altos de Andabobos, Rabona, Tortica (or Fraile) and Ramírez; also called Cerro Nevado de Sumapaz and Macizo de Sumapaz

Surlibáka, Pmo. de Suse, Pmo. (de)

Notes

~

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; not páramo Cord. Oriental, SE of Cachiri Cord. Oriental, S ofFusagasugá, S ofPmo. Andabobos, part of the larger Pmo. de Sumapaz Cord. Occidental, SW ofSantuario, NW of Ansermanuevo

Cundinamarca

Tausa

Cord. Oriental; a village, not páramo

Nariño

Tan gua

Cord. Centro-Oriental, SE ofPasto along rd. toLos Alisales

<o r-'

00

.¡,..


N ame Umbita, Pmo.

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e Division 1

3000

05°13'N

73°29'W

Division2

Antioquia

Cord. Central, possibly vicinity of Sonsón

Urrao, Pmo. de

3500

Usaquén, Pmo. de

3060

Cundinamarca

Usme, Pmo.

3200

Cundinamarca

Urrao

Cord. Oriental, 18 km S ofBogotá, SE ofUsme

Cord. Oriental, Macizo de Bogotá

Utanquer, Pmo.

3300

Nariño

Sapuyes

Nudo de Los Pastos

Uvita, Pmo. de La

4000

06° 18'N

72°3l'W

Boyacá

La Uvita

Cord. Oriental, E of Soatá, W ofPmo. de Rechíniga and connected with it, SW of Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Vado Ancho, Pmo. de

3700

06°55'N

72°40'W

Santander

Cerrito

Cord. Oriental, S ofPmo. del Almorzadero

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, E slopes, in the valley ofRío de Cusiana

Valencia, Pmo. de

4200

01 °55'N

76°32'W

Cauca!Huila

N ofPmo. de Las Papas (or is it the same locality?); elevation and coordinates approximate

Valle Bonita, Pmo. de

3800

03 °45'N

76°00'W

Valle

Cord. Central, NE ofPalmira, E ofPmo. de Los Domínguez

Valle Lagunillas, Pmo. de

4060

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, Sierra Nevada del Cocuy

Valledupar, Sierra de

3600

l0°35'N

72°48'W

o

Cord. Occidental

Antioquia

Vadohondo,Pmo.de

...¡

Cord. Oriental, NE ofChocontá, E ofVillapinzón

Cundinamarca!Boyacá

Unión, Pmo. de La

Notes

Magdalena (CO)/Zulia (VE)

. Cord. de Perijá, E of Villanueva, along Colombia/Y enezuela border Cord. Central, 45-50 km SE of Cajamarca, close to Río Anaime; also ·called Pmo. Los Valle

~

tri

~

o ?a Cll o "rl

..., ::r: tri

ztri

::E

Vegas, Pmo. de Las(!)

3800

Santander

Cord. Oriental

Vegas, Pmo. de Las (2)

3800

Valle

Cord. Central, above Tuluá and Bugalagrande

o--< ~ IJ:I ...,o >z ñ >l'

Risaralda

Cord. Central; bryophyte locality for Breutelía bríttoniae (Daniel & Ramón Guevara 6297)

§

Cord. Oriental

z

Valles, Pmo. de Los

3800

04°l5'N

75°3l'W

Tolima

Vasto, Pmo. del

3800

06°02'N

72°58'W

Boyacá

Cerinza

Santander

Suratá

Vega de Páramo

Vera Cruz, Pmo. de Verde, Pmo.

3100

06°06'N

72°34'W

Boyacá

Jericó

Cord. Oriental, NW ofBelén Cord. Oriental; a group ofhomes, nota páramo

Verde, Pmo. El

4200

06°22'N

72°22'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental

Verde, Pmo. de Laguna (1)

4200

06°34'N

72°24'W

Boyacá

Cord. Oriental, NE ofEl Cocuy, E ofLas Mercedes

Verde, Pmo. de Laguna (2)

3700

05°13'N

74°00'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, between Cogua and San Cayetano, ca. 60 km NNW ofBogotá

Vergara, Pmo. (de)

3400

05°37'N

73°06'W

Boyacá

Ve¡jón, Pmo. del

3600

04°32'N

74°04'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, Macizo de Bogotá, side nearest Choachi, SE of Bogotá

Vetas, Pmo. de (Las)

2800

Santander

Cord. Oriental; type locality of Espeletia santanderensis

Tuta

Cl

>-

tri

Cord. Oriental, NE ofTunja, NW ofLaguna de Tota

<o l' 00

-~'"


~

N ame Viejo, Cerro el

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude Division 1

4100

or27'N

72°54'W

Division2

N Santander/Santander

Cord. Oriental, SW ofCúcuta, NE ofBucaramanga; may be the same as Pmo. Viejo, which has been misspelled as Pmo. Siejo

'O 'O

~

See Cerro El Viejo

Viejo, Pmo.

See Pmo. Bijagual (de)

Vijagual, Pmo. de Villapinzón, Pmo. de

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental; may be spelled Villa Pinzón

Visitador, Pmo. del

Cord. Central

Yacuanquer, Pmo.

3400

Yechiquín, Cerro

3650

Yerbabuena, Pmo. de

3150

Yula, Pmo. de

3400

Yunguilla, Pmo de Zea, Cerro La

3800

Zipaquirá, Pmo. de

3200

Zumbador, Pmo.

Notes

Nariño

Ospina

Nudo de Los Pastos

Magdalena

Aracataca

Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

Tolima

Ronces valles

Cord. Central

04°57'N

73°44'W

Cundinamarca

01 °54'N

76°42'W

Cauca

San Sabastián

Cord. Central; also spelled Junguilla

Cauca

San Sabastián

Macizo Colombiano

05°02'N

74°00'W

Cundinamarca

Cord. Oriental, between Zipaquirá and Pacho

or57'N

72°45'W

-N Santander

Cord. Oriental

Cord. Oriental

"O

> ~ 3::: o (/)

-..)


172

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

[VOL. 84

Venezuela James L. Luteyn and Mauricio R. Gavilanes A.

The Cordillera Oriental ofColombia splits into two unequal spurs as it enters Venezuela: The smaller one goes directly north and is called the Sierra de Perijá, and the larger one goes in a northeast direction and is generally called the Cordillera de Mérida. The Cordillera de Mérida, in turn, transects the Venezuelan Andes in a southwest to northeast direction, ranging over 450 km, from the Táchira depression near San Cristóbal to the Barquisimeto~Carora depression in southwestern Lara. The páramos of Venezuela are centered in the states ofMérida, Táchira, and Trujillo, with smaller numbers in Barinas, Lara, Apure, and Portuguesa. The primary mountain ranges in the state ofMérida aré the Sierra del Norte (or also called the Sierra de La Culata), which is north of the city of Mérida, the Sierra Nevada de Mérida to the south of Mérida that includes the Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, and the Sierra de Santo Domingo, northeast of Mérida. The highest point in Venezuela is Pico Bolívar (Mérida state) at 5007 m. In the state of Trujillo, the eastern continuation ofthe Andes mountain range is called the Cordillera de Trujillo, which has severa! branches such as the Ramal de Calderas that continues into the state of Barinas, Ramal del Rosario east-northeast of Boconó, and the Sierra Morena de Trujillo that continues into the state of Lara. The primary ranges in Táchira are the Sierra del Batallón, Sierra La Cimarronera, Sierra de Callejón Colorado, and Sierra de Palo Grande. In the state of

Zulia, along the Colombian border, the extreme northern limit of the Cordillera Oriental of Colombia is known as the Sierra de Perijá, with its southern part krú:íwn as the Serranía de Los Motilones and the northetn part the Serranía de Valledupar. Jahn (1931) estimated that páramo occupied 4100 km 2 in Venezuela. According to many herbarium labeis, the Venezuelan páramos often seem to begin at lower elevations than those ofthe other countries, e.g., 2500~2800 m. This may be true in sorne rare cases since in general the páramos ofVenezuela are somewhat drier than those of Colombia and northern Ecuador. It is my (JLL) experience, however, that most ofthese areas are usually not páramo; rather, they are areas that have been severely disturbed by man and are now almost totally dominated by the fern Pteridium aquilinum, with scattered Monochaetum (Melastomataceae) and Dodonea viscosa (Sapindaceae). Ido not in this book consider these areas páramo (but see also Bono, 1996). Venezuelan national párks that include páramo are Sierra Nevada, Sierra de la Culata, Dinira, El Tamá, Perijá, Guaramacal, and Páramo Batallón~La Negra (cf. Gabaldón, 1992). For additional discussion ofVenezuelan páramo vegetation, see Bono, 1996; Fariñas & Monasterio, 1980; Goebel, 1891; Hitchcock, 1954; Jahn, 1931; Monasterio, various papers cited; Tamayo, 1958, 1975; Tillett, 1978; Vareschi, 1970; and Viloria P., 1993.


'D 'D

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

3900

08°22'N

71 o 14'W

Mérida

CampoElías & Arzobispo Chacón

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, 20 km SW ofMérida, Pueblos del Sur area, SE of Las Acequias, N of Pmo. Aricagua and connected with it; also ca1led Pmo. de Las Lajas or Pmo. de La Laja

Adobe, Pmo. El

3265

08°0l'N

72°00'W

Táchira

Cárdenas & Jáuregui

SE ofEI Cobre

Agrias, Pmo. Las

3362

or59'N

72°05'W

Táchira

Jáuregui/Sucre

S ofEl Cobre, NW ofQueniquea

Agua Blanca, Pmo. de

4600

08°48'N

71 °02'W

Mérida

Libertador, Justo Briceño & Andrés Be11o

Sierra de la Culata, 20 km NNE ofMérida, E ofPmo. Tucaní and connected with it, N ofPmo. El Escorial and connected with it

Agua Fría, Pmo. de

3121

09°!6'N

70°08'W

Trujillo

Boconó

Ramal del Rosario, ENE of Boconó, E ofMosquey, SW of Pmo. de Los Rosarios and connected with it; is it páramo?

Agua Linda, Pmo. de

1150?

10°ll'N

70o29'W

Lara

Torres

Agua de Obispo, Pmo. de

2500

Aguada, Pmo. Estación La

3450

08°34'N

AguiJa, Pmo. del

4126

Alcobé, Pmo. (El)

N ame Acequias, Pmo. de

See Pmo. Apure

Acure, Pmo.

Doubtfu11y páramo

Trujillo

Notpáramo

71 °06'W

Mérida

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, station along the Mérida Teleférico

08°5l'N

70°50'W

Mérida

Rangel & Miranda

NE ofMérida, 18 km SW ofTimotes, vicinity ofPico El AguiJa (highest part ofPmo. Mucuchíes); also ca1led Pmo. Pico AguiJa

3265

08°0l'N

72°05'W

Táchira

Grita & Uribante

SE ofEl Cobre

Almorzadero, Pmo. (1)

2843

ors9'N

72°06'W

Táchira

Jáuregui

Sierra de Palo Grande, dividing line between Ríos Torbes and Lobatera, E ofMichelena; also ca11ed Pmo. Zumbador

Almorzadero, Pmo. (2)

1598

Táchira

Ramal del Uribante; not true páramo

Almorzadero, Pmo. (3)

1378

Yaracuy

Macizo de Nirgua; not true páramo

Almorzadero, Pmo. de (4)

4200

Mérida

Altamira, Pmo. de

3320

08°03'N

71 °33'W

Mérida

Alto (de) Timotes

.., ~

~ 2'::: o IZl

NE ofMérida anda little NE ofPmo. Piedras Blancas area Rivas Dávila, Arzobispo 22 km E of Pregonero, N of Pmo. El Pabellón; incl. Pico de Chacón & Uribante Horma See Pmo. de Timotes

Alto El Morro

See Pmo. El Morro

Alto Páramo de La Negra

See Pmo. (de) La Negra

Alto de Arenales

See Pmo. Arenales

Alto de Arenas

See Pmo. Arenales

Alto de Tomón

See Pmo. de Tomón See Pico El Oso

Alto del Oso Alto del Páramo

.:S

1530

Monagas

Macizo de Caripe; not páramo

:; w


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Alto del Páramo del Morro

...., ~

See Pmo. El Morro

Angaraveca, Pmo.

2793

Táchira

Angaraveca, Pmo. de

2793

Táchira

Angustias, Pmo. Las

2350

Apartaderos, Pmo. (de)

3550

Aranguren, Pmo. (de, Los)

3000+

Árbol Redondo, Pmo.

2480

09°23'N

70°18'W

Arenales, Pmo.

3810

09°02'N

70°36'W

Aricagua, Pmo. de

3550

08°l5'N

71 °13'W

08°06'N

71 °27'W

Ayacucho Not true páramo

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

SSE ofLibertador (Canaguá)

Mérida

Miranda or Rangel

Sierra de Santo Domingo

Mérida

Asucati, Pmo. de Atajo, Pmo. El

Notes

Sierra de Santo Domingo (see López-Zent, 1993)

Trujillo

Trujillo & Boconó

Cord. de Trujillo, SW ofBurbusay; not true páramo

Mérida/Trujillo

Miranda!Urdaneta

Cord. de Trujillo; also called Alto (de) Arenas and Pico Arenas

Mérida

Libertador & Arzobispo Chacón

N of Aricagua, 41 km S ofMérida, S ofPmo. Buenos Aires, SE ofPmo. Don Pedro, 10 km E ofMocomboco

Trujillo & Boconó

WNW ofBoconó, N ofPmo. Los Pozos, SW ofPmo. La Cristalina

Jiménez & Morán

Sierra de Portuguesa, E ofGuarico; not true páramo

Mérida 3200

09°l6'N

70°22'W

Trujillo

Baho, Pmo. El

2800

08°52'N

70°4l'W

Mérida

Bajó, Pmo.

2176

09°38'N

69°4l'W

Lara

Balcón, Pmo. El

4200

Banco, Pmo. El

4200

08°48'N

70°57'W

Mérida

Rangel, Libertador & Justo Briceño

Sierra Neyada de Mérida, NE ofMérida

Bandera, Pmo.

3000?

or28'N

72°25'W

Táchira

Junín

N ofPmo. de Tamá and connected with it, due E ofVilla Páez

SW of Santo Domingo; not true páramo

Mérida

Barbacoas, Pmo. de

· Sierra de Santo Domingo?

Trujillo/Barinas

Barrial, Pmo. El

a::trJ a:: o

~ (/)

o'T1 ..., ::r: trJ

ztrJ

::E

o-< ~ td o...,

;¡,.

08°05'N

71 o33'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Ramal de Uribante, SW ofLibertad (Canaguá)

Bartola, Pmo.

3492

09°0l'N

70°28'W

Trujillo/Barinas

Boconó/Bolívar

Ramal de Calderas, SSW of Niquitao village, N of Calderas, NE of Pmo. Motumbo and connected with it, W of Pmo. de Rojas and connected with it, ESE ofPmo. Calderas

Batallón, Pmo. (de, del El, del, El)

3507

08°05'N

71 °55'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Uribante

Sierra del Batallón, NW ofPregonero, 7 km E ofLa Grita, 15 km SW ofBailadores, S ofPmo. Rosario and connected with it, N ofPmo. Sumusica and connected with it

Biriguaca, Pmo.

3421

Mérida

Blanca, Pmo. La

3810

Táchira

Blanco, Pmo. de El

3450

Mérida

Misspelling for Pmo. El Banco?

Boconó, Pmo.

2600

Trujillo

Probably a general name for páramos around Boconó, but seems too low for true páramo

z

ñ ;¡,. r

~ ~ trJ

z

Sierra La Cimarronera, S of Pmo. La Ciénega and connected with it

<o r-'

00

~


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Bolívar, Pico

5007

08°33'N

71 °03'W

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida (highest point), 10 km SE ofMérida; also called Pmo. La Columna; páramo surrounds it Sierra Nevada de Mérida

Bonpland. Pico

4883

08°33'N

71 aoo·w

Mérida

Libertador

Boquerón, Pmo.

2600

08°04'N

71 °28'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

E ofPmo. Altamira, SW ofPmo. Botalón; true páramo?

Botalón, Pmo.

2600

08°05'N

71 °25'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

NE ofPmo. Boquerón and connected with it; true páramo?

08°19'N

7lo1l'W

Mérida

Campo Elías, Arzobispo N ofPmo. de Aricagua and connected with it Chacón & Libertador

08°5l'N

70°54'W

Mérida

Rangel & Justo Briceño

08°47'N

70°51'W

Mérida

09°07'N

70°26'W

Trujillo

Boconó & Urdaneta

Trujillo

Urdaneta & Boconó

09°03'N

70°25'W

Trujillo/Barinas

Boconó/Bolívar & Obispos

Ramal de Calderas, S of Niquitao, W of Masparrito, ENE of Pmo. Bartolo and connected with it, N of Pmo. de Rojas and connected with it, SW ofPmo. Ortiz and connected with it Sierra de Callejón Colorado, WNW ofQueniquea

Buenos Aires, Pmo. de Buitre, Pmo. El

4400

Cabimbú, Pmo. de

4000

Cachaco, Pmo. de

3700

Calderas, Pmo. de (las)

3642

Callejón Colorado, Pmo. (de)

3350

Camello, Pmo. Campanario, Pmo. (El)

4325

Cañada, Pmo. de La

2700 2740

Canaveral, Pmo. El Caracoles, Pmo. de Los

4736

Carbonera, Pmo. La (1)

4000

Carbonera, Pmo. La (2) Cardenillo, Pmo. El Caricuena, Pico

Part ofPmo. de Mucuchíes, SE ofChachopo; also called Pmo. Los Buitres See Pmo. El Buitre

Buitres, Pmo. Los Caballo, Pmo. Mesa del

Canaguá, Pmo. (de)

\0 \0

.:3

4480

Also called Mesa de Los Pozos W of Niquitao, lower slopes on E side ofTeta de Niquitao, below Pmo. La Vieja

07"56'N

72°04'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Cárdenas

07"27'N

72°ll'W

Táchira/COLOMBIA

San Cristóbal/N Santander

08°40'N

71 °!6'W

Mérida

Campo Elías & Andrés Bello

Sierra de La Culata, NW of Mérida, incl. Pico Campanario (4299 m), W ofPmo. La Pedregosa and connected with it, SW ofPmo. Los Conejos and connected with it

Trujillo

Boconó

Part ofPmo. de La Cristalina

08°13'N

71 °30'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Close to Pmo. Pozo Negro and Pmo. El Cupís, S ofPmo. Las Nieves; not true páramo; also called Latalito; may equal Pmo. El Molino (1) (B. Briceño, pers. comm.)

Mérida

El Aracay-La Quebrada del Padre area

Mérida

Cord. del Norte (or de La Culata); incl. Pico Caracoles (4736 m)

Mérida

Sierra de Santo Domingo

Mérida

Cord. del Norte (or de La Culata), Mérida-La Azulita rd., above town ofLa Carbonera; true páramo?

Mérida

Sierra Nevada de Mérida

>;j

> ~ ~ o<Zl

See Pmo. Caricuena --.¡ Vl


Name Caricuena, Pmo.

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

3000

or53'N

71 °50'W

Táchira

Cárdenas & Jáuregui

ESE ofSan José de Bolívar, NW ofLa Fundación; also called Pico Caricuena

Carimbú, Pmo.

3000

Trujillo

Urdaneta

See Pmo. de La Teta de Niquitao

Carreros, Pmo. de Los

3224

08°13'N

71 °47'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávi1a

ESE ofBailadores, N ofPmo. Las Tapias and connectd with it, N of Pmo. San Pedro and connected with it, SW of Pmo. Guaraque and connectd with it; is this part ofPmo. Las Tapias?

Castillejo, Pmo.

3558

09°03'N

70°23'W

Trujillo/Barinas

Boconó/Obispos

Ramal de Calderas, S of Niquitao, W of Pmo. Masparro and connected with it, NE ofPmo. Ortiz and connected with it

Cedro, Pmo. El

3600

08°04'N

71 °53'W

Táchira

Uribante

NW ofPregonero

Cendé, Pmo. (de)

3583

09°34'N

70°07'W

Trujillo/Lara

Boconó & Carache/Morán

Sierra Morena de Trujillo, NW, N and NE slopes of Pico Cendé, S ofPmo. Jabón, W ofEl Jabón, 40 km NE ofTrujillo, SW ofHumocaro Alto; sorne place Pico Jabón to the N ofPmo. (de) Cendé and Pmo. Jabón toS ofPmo. (de) Cendé

Chacantá, Pmo. de

Mérida

2000

Not true páramo See Pmo. de Chachopo

Chachapos, Pmo. de Chachopo, Pmo. de

3200

08°56'N

71°46'W

Mérida

Miranda

Part ofPmo, de Timotes; also called Pmo. de Chachapos

Chegué, Pmo.

3894

09°04'N

70°49'W

Mérida!Trujillo

Miranda & Justo Briceño/Escuque

NE ofPiñango, N ofPmo. Malpica; also called Pmo. Cheque

Cheque, Pmo.

See Pmo. CIÍ.egué

China, Pmo. La

See Pmo. (de) SanTelmo Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Pueblos del Sur area

Mérida

Chirivital, Pmo. de Chono, Pmo.

2800

Chorote, Pico

3452

Chorrerón, Pmo. de

2750

Chorro Blanco, Pmo.

3680

Chorro, Pmo. de El (del)

2800

09°0I'N

70°32'W

Mérida

Rangel

Mérida/Trujillo

Miranda/Boconó & Urdaneta

09°06'N

70°3I'W

Trujillo

0\

s;: til s;: o ¡;:;

en

o

"rj

>-j

::r: til

ztil

:E o--<

::0 :;<: tD

o>-j z> ñ > r-" Cl

>

E3

Mérida

Chorrotes, Pmo. de los

til

Urdaneta & Boconó

18 km S ofSantiago de Trujillo, 15 km E of Jajó, W slopes of Teta de Niquitao, E ofPmo. del Tostado and connected with it

Mérida

Near Mucurubá

Trujillo

NE of Jajó; possibly the same as Pico Chorote

Ciénega, Pico La Ciénega, Pmo. La

Near Mucurubá, near Hacienda de Cacúte; páramo?

.....,

z

See Pmo. La Ciénega 3868

or56'N

71 °59'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Uribante

Sierra La Cimarronera, part ofPmo. La Cimarronera, N of San José de Bolívar; also called Pico La Ciénega

<o ¡-'

00

.¡o,.


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

3795

or5s'N

71 °55'W

Táchira

Uribante, Jáuregui & Cárdenas

15 km SSE ofLa Grita, 16 km W ofPregonero, NNE ofSan José de Bolívar, E ofPmo. El Rosal and connected with it, S of Pmo. Sumusica and connected with it; incl. Pmo. La Ciénega, Pmo. El Molino, and Pmo. El Lajón (1)

Cobre, Pmo. (El)

3675

or2s'N

Táchira

Junín

E ofPmo. de Tamá; Pico El Cobre located at 3613 m

Cocuy, Pmo. El

4400

08°30'N

7r22'w 71 o07'W

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, S of Mérida; also caiied Pmo. El Paramito and equal to Pmo. del Morro (B. Briceño, pers. comm.)

Colorada, Pmo. La

3624

Táchira

Jáuregui

Coloradas, Pmo. (de) Las

3635

08°19'N

71 °20'W

Mérida

Campo Elías & Arzobispo Chacón

SW of Mérida, SW of Pmo. San José and connected with it; incl. Pico El Rejo (3635 m)

Colorado, Pmo. (de) El

3300

or55'N

72°05'W

Táchira

J áuregui/Sucre

E ofQueniquea, connected with Pmo. El Zumbador and Pmo. El Portachuelo; also cailed Pmo. de Los Colorados and sometimes considered a sector ofPmo. Zumbador

N ame Cimarronera, Pmo. La

'O 'O

c::s

See Pmo. (El) Cobre

Cobre, Pico El

See Pmo. (de) El Colorado

Colorados, Pmo. de Los

See Pico Bolívar

"O

Concha, Pico La

4922

08°34'N

71 o03'W

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, W ofMérida, N ofPico Bolívar; also caiied Pico La Garza

S:;;::

Conejos, Pmo. (de) Los

4000

08°44'N

71 °!3'W

Mérida

Andrés Belio, Campo Elías & Libertador

Sierra de La Culata, 15 km NW ofMérida, near San Isidro, N ofPmo. Campanario and connected with it

Corazón, Pmo. El

3000

09°12'N

70°24'W

Trujiiio

Trujiiio & Boconó

W ofTostos, WSW ofBoconó, N ofNiquitao, S ofPmo. Los Pozos and connected with it

Corcovada, Pmo. de La

3650

08°07'N

70°44'W

Mérida

Rangel

Sierra de Santo Domingo, SE of Apartaderos; incl. lagunas Mucubají and La Negra

3000

09°l9'N

70°20'W

Trujillo

Trujiiio & Boconó

Cord. de Trujillo, SE ofTrujillo, NW ofBoconó, NE ofPmo. El Atajo

or25'N

72°25'W

Táchira

Cruces, Pmo. (de) Las

4200

08°52'N

70°52'W

Mérida

Cuchicuchi, Pmo.

2147

Táchira

Cucuchica, Pmo.

3234

Mérida

Cueva Negra, Pmo. de

2400

Columna, Pmo. La

>

o

IZl

Cordero, Pmo. de Los Cristalina, Pmo. (de) La Cristo, Pmo. de

08°10'N

71 °38'W

Mérida

Colombia/Venezuela border, close to Pmo. de Tamá Rangel

W ofMucuchíes, N ofSan Isidro, forms the SE end ofPmo. de Mucuchíes Not true páramo

Rivas Dávila & Arzobispo Chacón

23 km SE ofTovar, 23 km NE ofPregonero, 7 km N ofMesa de Quintero; not true páramo

::::; -.)


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Culata, Pmo. (de La)

4530

08°50'N

71 °03'W

Mérida

Libertador & Andrés Bello

Cord. de La Culata, 15 km N ofMérida, N ofTabay, W and S slopes ofCerro La Torre, SW ofPmo. Tucaní and connected with it, NE ofPmo. Los Leones and connected with it, ENE ofPmo. Los Conejos and connected with it [incl. Pico La Culata (4620 m)]

Cupís, Pmo. (de El, El)

3200

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Between San José and Veguilla (La Be guilla), part ofthe larger Pmo. de San José, close to Pmo. Canaguá and Pmo. Pozo Negro

Curas, Pmo. Los

4400

08°42'N

71 °JO'W

-...)

00

Mérida See Pmo. Guirigay

Curiguay, Pmo. Destierro, Pmo. del Don Alfonso, Pmo.

3600

Don Pedro, Pmo. (de) (1)

3790

08°2l'N

71 °04'W

Don Pedro, Pmo. (2) Duque, Pmo. de (El)

3260

Durí, Pmo. de

3000

09°02'N

70°41'W

Escorial, Pmo. (El, del)

3500

08°46'N

71 °06'W

Esdorá, Pmo.

3245

Espejo, Pmo.

4550

Estrella, Pmo. (La)

3798

Fortuna, Pmo. La

2230

Fría, Pmo. (La)

4000

Mérida

Sierra del Norte, near Campanario

Mérida

Sierra Nevada de Mérida

Mérida!Barinas

Libertador/Pedraza

Mérida

Justo Briceño & Miranda Sierra de La Culata

Táchira

Jáuregui

La Grita-Pueblo Hondo rd., ca. 5 km S ofEl Cedrillo

Trujillo/Mérida

Urdaneta!Miranda

N ofPueblo Llano

Mérida

Rangel & Libertador

E ofSierra.de La Culata, ENE ofMérida Between Alto ~de Pampanito and Pmo. de Tuñame, NE of Val era

Trujillo 08°32'N

08°57'N

08°36'N

71 °03'W

70°41'W

71 °02'W

Mérida

Mérida/Trujillo

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Pueblos del Sur area, NNE of Aricagua, SSE ofMérida, 20 km SE ofEl Morro

Libertador

Miranda/?

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, SW of Pico Bolívar, station along the Teleférico de Mérida; incl. Laguna El Espejo at 4000 m and Pico Espejo at 4550 m Cord. de Trujillo, NE of Chachopo, SE of Timotes, S of La Mesa de Esnujaque (Trujillo)

Táchira

Not true páramo

Mérida

N part of Sierra Nevada, SE ofTabay; incl. Laguna La Fría at 3000 m; also called Pmo. de Frías; elevation doubtful, most likely lower

Frías, Pmo. de

3:: tTJ 3::

o ;;:; IZl o.., ....J ~

tTJ

ztTJ

::E --<: o

~

ttl

o

....J

:>

z

ñ

:> t-'

o :> ES tTJ

z

See Pmo. (La) Fría

Gallo, Sierra del

See Pmo. Los Nevados

Garza, Pico La

See Pico La Concha

Gavidia, Pmo.

3800

08°38'N

70°58'W

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, separation point with Sierra de Santo Domingo; elevation not certain, most likely lower

Gavilán, Pmo. (del)

4000

08°5l'N

70°48'W

Mérida

Libertador & Miranda

E ofPmo. de Mucuchíes, NE of Apartaderos; Pico Gavilán rises to4248 m

Gaviria, Pmo.

4402

Mérida

Sierra Nevada de Mérida to Santo Domingo

<o r

00

~


N ame Gonzáles, Pmo. de Las

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

4300

Division 1

Division 2

Mérida

Notes Sierra del Norte, headwaters o fRío La Gonzáles, community of Valle del Campanario is located here; also spelled González

Gordo, Cerro

See Pmo. (del, El) Salvaje

Granates, Pmo. (de Los)

3900

08°47'N

70°4l'W

Mérida/Barinas

Rangel/Bolívar

Sierra de Santo Domingo, S of Santo Domingo, between El Hato and Alto del Morato; also spelled Granate

Guache, Pmo. (de, El)

3060

09°38'N

70°07'W

Trujillo/Lara

Morán & Carache/?

Cord. de Trujillo (N part), E ofCarache, N ofPmo. Las Rosas

08°02'N

71 °32'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Cord. de Mérida, N of Guaimaral

3666

08°05'N

71 °58'W

Táchira

Cárdenas

S ofLa Grita; also called Pmo. (del) Guama! or Pmo. El Guama!

Guaramacal, Pmo. (de, del)

3200

09°l2'N

70° 13'W

Trujillo

Boconó

6 km SE ofBoconó, 6 km W ofGuaramacal; only a very small part at very top is subpáramo

Guaraque, Pmo. de

2873

08°l5'N

71 °44'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávila & Tovar

10 km S of Tovar, 10 km E ofBailadores, NE ofPmo. Los Carreros and connected with it, W ofPmo. de Jují and connected with it; also called Pmo. de San Francisco ( 1); not true páramo

Guaimaral, Pmo. Guama, Pmo. Guama!, Pmo. (del, El)

See Pmo. Guama

or50'N

72°07'W

Táchira

Libertad & Bolívar

Sierra La Maravilla, E of San Rafael

3600

08°56'N

70°30'W

Barinas/Trujillo

?/Boconó

Also spelled Pmo. Curiguay or Guirigay; Pico Guirigay (3860 m) is in Trujillo

Gutiérrez, Pmo.

3615

08°05'N

71 °58'W

Táchira

Hato Viejo, Pmo. (de)

4200

08°52'N

70°46'W

Mérida

Miranda & Rangel

N ofPmo. Mucuchíes and connected with it

Hemández, Cerro Las

4200

08°46'N

70°59'W

Mérida

Rangel

W ofMucuchíes

Horna, Pico

3220

08°03'N

71 °35'W

Mérida/Táchira

Arzobispo Chacón & Rivas Dávila!Uribante

SW ofLibertad (Canaguá), part ofPmo. Guaimaral

Guarin, Pmo. Guiriguay, Pmo. (de)

S ofLa Grita, SE ofPmo. Guama! and connected with it

08°14'N

71 °29'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Cord. de Mérida, E ofPmo. El Molino and connected with it

4942

08°34'N

70°59'W

Mérida/Barinas

Libertador/Pedraza

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, NE ofPico Bolívar

Jabón, Pmo. (del, de El)

3440

09°34'N

70°07'W

Trujillo/Lara

Carache/Morán

Cord. de Trujillo, NNW of Campo Elías, E ofLa Concepción, E and SE slopes ofPico El Turma!, E ofPmo. de (El) Turma! and connected with it; Pico Jabón (3530 m) is in Trujillo/Lara

Jirajara, Pmo.

2800

09°09'N

70°l5'W

Trujillo

Boconó

S ofBoconó

Huesos, Pmo. Los Humboldt, Pico Isidro, Pmo.

:» "" ~ 3:::: oCll

See Pmo. San Isidro

Jubiote, Pmo. de

See Pmo. Juviote

Judío, Pico El

See Pmo. de Pata de Judío

Judío, Pmo. (El) Juviote, Pmo. (de)

\0 \0

.:S

See Pmo. de Pata de Judío 2301

09°25'N

70°l9'W

Trujillo

Trujillo & Boconó

Cord. de Trujillo; also spelled Jubiote; not true páramo

::::; \0


~

N ame Laguna (de El) del Gallo Laguna Brava, Pmo. de La

Elev. (m) Latitude

Longitud e Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Mérida

Libertador

Between Pico Bolívar and Pico Espejo

3300

Mérida

Rangel

Sierra de Santo Domingo, part ofPmo. de Los Granates, between Rio Los Granates and Loma·de Paja

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, páramo surrounding this lake

4070

Laguna Coromoto

3400

Mérida

Laguna El Suero, Pmo.

4190

Mérida

Laguna Grande, Pmo. de

3700

08°50'N

70°54'W

Mérida

Rangel

Sierra de Santo Domingo, near Pmo. de Mucubají and Pmo. de Apartaderos

Laguna Negra, Pmo.

3500

08°47'N

70°48'W

Mérida

Rangel

Sierra de Santo Domingo, Mucubají area, near Pmo. de Mucubají and Pmo. de Apartaderos

Laguna Verde, Pmo.

4100

08°34'N

71 ooo·w

Laguna de Anteojos, Pmo. La

4000

08°30'N

Lagunq de Los Patos, Pmo. La

4200

Laguna las Canoas

3470

Laguna, Pmo. La

2800

Laja, Pmo. de La (2) Lajón, Pmo. El (1)

o>"Ij 5j

Mérida

Libertador

08°47'N

70°48'W

Mérida

Sierra de Santo Domingo, S ofLaguna Negra

08°48'N

70°48'W

Mérida

Sierra Nevada

08°18'N

71 °34'W

Mérida

Sucre & Tovar

15 km ESE ofTovar, S ofPmo. Monte Frío and connected with it, N ofPmo. Molino and connected with it; not true páramo

72°18'W

Táchira

Capacho

N ot páramo ( cloud forest)

71 °57'W

Táchira

Jáuregui

Sierra La Cimarronera, part ofPmo. La Cimarronera, NE of San José de Bolívar; also called Pmo. La Colorada

See Pmo. de Acequias

Lajas, Pmo. de Las 3620

or55'N

i0°56'N

Lajón, Pmo. El (2)

66°44'W

Not páramo (fide G. Morillo, pers. comm.)

Miranda

See Pmo. (de) Canaguá

Latalito, Pmo. 09°07'N

70°42'W

Trujillo

Valera

S ofLa Puerta

León, Pico El

4743

08°32'N

71 °06'W

Mérida

Libertador

SW part ofSierra Nevada de Mérida, NW ofLos Nevados

Leones, Pmo. (de) Los

4400

08°42'N

71 °10'W

Mérida

Andrés Bello & Libertador

Cord. del Norte (or de La Culata), N ofMérida, W ofMurucubá, E of Pmo. La Pedregosa and connected with it, SE of Pmo. El Salado and connnected with it, SW of Pmo. La Culata and connected with it (incl. La Lagunita and La Cañada Grande) NE ofLas Piedras

Laureles, Pmo. de Los

Linares, Pmo.

Trujillo

Llano Corredor, Pmo.

Mérida

Rangel

Mérida

Miranda & Justo Briceño W ofTimotes; incl. Pico El Fraile

Llano Grande, Pmo.

4200

09°00'N

70°49'W

~

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, toward Pico Bolívar

71 °06'W

or4S'N

~

til

o

Libertador

See Pmo. de. Acequias 1750

o

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, around Laguna Verde at the foot of Pico Humboldt

Mérida

Laja, Pmo. de La(!)

00

¡;¡;; IZl

til

ztil

::E ~ o

~ o

to

:;; ~

n

>

l'

C)

> ~ til

z

SSW ofPmo. de la Cristalina

<o r

00

_¡,..


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Llano del Trigo, Pmo. de

4000

08°40'N

70°52'W

Mérida/Barinas

Rangel/Bolívar

Sierra de Santo Domingo, N ofPmo. Los Pozones, NE ofPmo. Santo Cristo; incl. lagunas El Montón and Las Torres

Loma Negra, Pmo.

3000

08°09'N

71 °49'W

Mérida!Táchira

Rivas Dávila/Uribante

Loma Redonda, Pmo. Estación

4045

08°33'N

71 a04'W

Mérida

Libertador

Loro, Pmo. (de, del, El) (1)

4500

08°40'N

70°55'W

Mérida

Loro, Pmo. El (2) ·

4000

08°35'N

70°5l'W

Barinas

Pedraza

Táchira

Ayacucho

Táchira

Jáuregui

Sierra del Bata11ón, SE ofLa Grita, between Las Porqueras and Los Mutas, rd. to Queniquea

Mérida!Truji11o

Miranda & Justo Briceño/Escuque

NW ofTimotes; also ca1led Pmo. Alto Paramito

N ame

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, station on the Mérida Teleférico

SSE ofPmo. Los Pozones and connected with it See Pmo. (de, del, El) Loro (1)

Machado, Pmo. 3878

Malpica, Pmo. Manatará, Pico

· 1O km S of Bailadores, 18 km NNW of Pregonero, S part of Pmo. Las Tapias, E ofPmo. de Viriguaca and connected with it

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, 22 km E ofMérida; also ca1led Pmo. de Los Loros, Pmo. Loros, and Pmo. del Oro

Loros, Pmo. (de Los) Malpaso, Pmo.

\0 \0

.':S

09°04'N

70°49'W

3630

Manga, Pmo. La Maravilla, Pmo. (La)

2855

Mariño, Pmo. (de)

3517

08°!9'N

Masparro, Pmo.

3372

09°03'N

Media Luna, Pmo. de (la)

4230

Zulia

Colombia/Venezuela border

Trujillo

N ofValera

Táchira

Torbes & Uribante

Sierra LaMaraviUa; not true páramo

71 a49'W

Mérida/Táchira

Tovar & Rivas Dávila

Sierra del Bata11ón, 6 km W ofTovar, 10 km N ofBailadores, N ofPmo. La Negra

70°2l'W

Trujillo/Barinas

Boconó/Obispos

Ramal de Calderas

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada, near Pico Bolívar, near the Teleférico Estación Loma Redonda

Mérida, Pmo. (de)

> "'

S:

:::::

o

(/)

Sierra Nevada de Mérida; probably a general terrn for many páramos near Mérida

Mérida

Mesa de Los Pozos

See Pmo. Mesa del Caba11o

Mesa, Pmo. de la

Truji11o 08°47'N

71°03

Carache

From Mesa de Carache on rd. toward Pmo. del Jabón

Mesallo, Pmo.

4672

Mesitas, Pmo. de Las

3300

Trujillo

Mérida

Micarache, Pmo. de

3000+

Mérida

Sierra de Santo Domingo?

Mifafi, Pmo. de

4500

Mérida

Sierra de la Culata, upper Mifafi Va11ey, part ofthe larger Pmo. de Piedras Blancas, south part ofPmo. de Mucuchíes

Mifés, Pico

4630

Mérida

Sierra de Santo Domingo

Above Niquitao Colinda with Pmo. El Rosario

;;;


Name

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

;;;; N

Mijará, Pmo. de

3300

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

15 km NNE ofChacantá

Minanón, Pmo.

3665

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Between San José andEl Cupís; may egua! Pmo. de San José; sometimes spelled Minamón

Minugú, Pmo. de

3400

Mérida

Rangel

lO km SE ofSan Rafael de Mucuchíes, Quebrada Las Escaleras watershed

Miranda, Pmo. (de)

3600

08°57'N

70°49'W

Mérida

Miranda & Justo Briceño W ofChachopo, N ofPmo. Mucuchíes; part ofthe larger Pmo. Piedras Blancas

Misinta, Pmo. (de)

4000

08°47'N

70°55'W

Mérida

Sierra del Norte (orCulata), NE ofLa Culata

09°20'N

70°20'W

Trujillo

E ofTrujillo (not shown on maps)

t:Il

o ¡;:; ¡z¡ o"rl

Misisí, Pmo. (de) Mitisús, Pmo.

3724

Mérida

Rangel

Ramal de Sierra de Los Granates

Mocáz, Pmo. de

3100

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, 15 km NE ofEI Morro, 3 km S of Pico El Léon

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Also spelled Macomboco

Mocosóz, Pmo.

3647

Mérida

Molino, Pmo. (del) El(!)

3270

Arzobispo Chacón, Sucre, Tovar & Campo Elías

25 km ESE ofTovar, S ofChiguara, E ofPmo. Río Negro and connected with it by Cerro Picacho, S of Pmo. La Laguna and connected.\Vith it, W ofPmo. El Serrucho

Mocomboco, Pmo. 08°l5'N

71 °33'W

Mérida

3859

Táchira

Uribante

Sierra La Cimarronera

Monigote, Pmo.

3670

08°57'N

70°41'W

Mérida

Miranda

Cord. de Trujillo, E ofTimotes

Monsalves, Pmo. de Oos)

3900

08°42'N

71 °08'W

Mérida

Montaña, Pmo. La

2840

08°12'N

71 °35'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávila & Arzobispo Chacón

22 km SE ofTovar, 30 km NE ofPregonero; true páramo?

Mérida?

Montañas del Morro 2840

Monte Plano, Cerro

3688

Monte Redondo, Pmo. de

2650

08°l9'N

71 °34'W

Mérida

70°ll'W

Trujillo

Monte de Palmar

Mérida

Moral, Pmo. El

Trujillo

Moraleño, Pmo. de

1973

Tovar & Sucre

Zulia 09°30'N

07°47'N

72°09'W

Táchira

...,

::e:

zt:Il

< o--<

~

t:O

o..., >z ñ >r Cl

See Pmo. del Morro

Monte Frío, Pmo.

~

t:Il

Molino, Pmo. El (2) Mono, Pmo. del

~

10 km E of Santa Cruz, 18 km E of Tovar, S ofPmo. Las Porqueras and connected with it, N of Pmo. La Laguna and connected with it; not páramo

>-

§ t:Il z

Colombia/Y enezuela border, Sierra de Perijá; called Cerro del Avión in Colombia Carache

Cord. de Trujillo, E of Santa Ana, NW ofCampo Elías; also spelled Monteredondo; not true páramo N ofValera

San Cristóbal

Sierra La Maravilla, E of San Cristóbal; not true páramo

<o r

00 -~'>-


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitud e

Longitude Division 1

Morita, Pmo. (de) La

3220

Trujillo

Morro, Pmo. (del)

2500

Mérida

Morro, Pmo. El

4037

08°33'N

71 °!2'W

Mérida

Division2

Notes

Boconó & Urdaneta

21 km from Jajó, 5 km before Tuñarne Near Mérida; also called Montañas del Morro; perhaps egua! to Pmo. El Cocuy (B. Briceño, pers. comm.)

CampoElías & Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, S of La Punta, SE of Ejido; also called Alto El Morro or Alto del Pmo. del Morro; does this egua! Pmos. (del) Morro? N ofPmo. El Volcán and connected with it; incl. Pico Guirigay (highest elevation)

Sierra de Palo Grande

Mortiño, Pmo. Cerro

2801

Motumbo,Pmo.de

3869

08°58'N

70°32'W

Trujillo/Barinas/Mérida

Boconó/Bolívar/Rangel

Mucamabás, Pmo. (de)

3975

08°56'N

70°44'W

Mérida

Miranda & Justo Briceño Rd. out of Trujillo, W of Chachopo; al so called Pmo. Mucumbás or Pmo. Mucumubás

Mucubají, Pmo. de

3700

08°47'N

70°48'W

Mérida

Rangel

Mucuchache, Pmo. La

3000+

08°47'N

70°50'W

Mérida

Mucuchachí, Pmo. de

2900

08°40'N

71 °20'W

Mérida

Mucuchíes, Pmo. (de)

3940

08°52'N

70°49'W

Mérida

Táchira

Sierra de Santo Domingo, 13 km NE of Mucuchíes, 25 km SSW ofTimotes Sierra de Santo Domingo

Miranda & Rangel

Union ofCord. de La Culata and Sierra Nevada de Mérida, 20 km SW of Timotes, 30 km NE of Mérida; incl. Pmo. de Las Cruces, Pmo. de Chachapos, Pmo. de Hato Viejo & Alto de Timotes, and Pmo. (Picacho El) Gavilán

"O

>~ ~ o IZl

See Pmo. (de) Mucamabás

Mucumbás, Pmo. Mucumpiche, Pmo.

4420

Mucumpisito, Pmo.

4539

08°54'N

70°53'W

Mérida

Sierra de Santo Domingo

Mérida

Justo Briceño & Miranda NW ofPico El AguiJa; misspelled as Mucumposito

Mucumposito, Pmo.

See Pmo. Mucumpisito

Mucumubás, Pmo.

See Pmo. (de) Mucamabás See Pmo. de Mucuñugue

Mucuñugue, Pico Mucuñugue,Pmo.de

4672

Mucuguí, Pmo.

3000

Mucurubá,Pmo.de

4100

08°18'N

71 °24'W

Mérida!Barinas

Rangel/?

Sierra de Santo Domingo; also called Pico Mucuñugue (fide G. Morillo, pers. comm.)

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón & Campo Elías

W ofPmo. Las Coloradas and connected with it Sierra del Norte, NE ofMérida; not páramo (fide G. Morillo, pers. comm.)

Mérida

See Pmo. Mucutisís

Mucutusí, Pmo. Mucutisís, Pmo.

"' "'

~

4653

08°53'N

70°54'W

Mérida

Rangel & Justo Briceño

Sierra de La Culata, N of Apartaderos, NW ofPico El AguiJa; also called Pmo. Mucutusí

:;; V-l


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

Mucuy, Pmo.

4470

Muerto, Pmo. El

3000

08°21'N

71 o 12'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón & Campo Elías

26 km SSW ofMérida

Muertos, Pmo. Los

3112

or5TN

72°06'W

Táchira

Grita & Uribante

Sierra de Callejón Colorado, N ofPmo. Callejón Colorado and connected with it, NW of Queniquea

Mují, Pmo. de

3000

08°16'N

71 °42'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávila & Tovar

10 km SSE of Tovar, W part of Pmo. Río Negro, E ofPmo. Guaraque and connected with it, W of Pmo. La Zorra and separated from it by Río Agua Caliente

Mérida

~

tri

Muruti, Pmo. de

~

Mérida 2765

!0°34'N

66°50'W

o

Miranda/D.F.

V areschi (1954-1955) refers to the very top as páramo, but I have not included it as such

Nariz, Pmo. La

2962

09°40'N

70°07'W

Trujillo/Lara

Carache/Morán

Al so called Portachuelo de La Nariz

Negra, Pmo. (de) La

3400

08°15'N

71 °52'W

Mérida/Táchira

Rivas Dávila/Jáuregui

Sierra del Batallón, near Bailadores, between Tovar and La Grita, 30 km ofPregonero; also called Alto Pmo. de La Negra; sorne say 3080 mor 3658 m

Negro, Pmo.

!0°27'N

69°27'W

Lara

See Pmo. (de) Los Ñepes

Ñepes Alto, Cerro

See Pmo. (de) Los Ñepes

Ñepes, Pmo. (de) Los

3130

09°44'N

70°06'W

Lara/Trujillo

Morán/Carache

S ofSerranía Curarigua-Barbacoas; not páramo although maps say páramo; incL Pmo. del Ñepe Pequeño and Cerro Alto Ñepes

Nevados, Pmo. Los(!)

3500

08°30'N

71 °03'W

Mérida

Libertador

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, S slopes of Pico Espejo and Pico Bolívar; also called Sierra del Gallo

08°45'N

69°50'W

Mérida

Nevados, Pmo. de Los (2) 2500

Mérida

Niquitao, Pmo. de

SW part ofSierra Nevada de Mérida, connected with Pmo. Don Pedro, 25 km ENE ofMérida Sucre

Trujillo

48 km S ofEstánques, N ofPmo. (de) Canaguá

3240

08°l4'N

71 °57'W

Táchira

Panamericano & Jáuregui

1Okm N ofLa Grita, NE ofPmo. Los Pinos and connected with it, S ofPmo. de SanTelmo and connected with it

Novillo, Pmo. El

3320

08°55'N

71 °05'W

Mérida

Justo Briceño & Andrés Bello

30 km NE ofMérida, N ofPmo. Tucaní and connected with it

Oca, Pmo. de La

3500

09°34'N

70°06'W

Trujillo/Lara

Carache/Morán

Ongaravecoc, Pmo. de

Mérida 2400

Táchira

[/l

..,o >-3

;:¡: tri

ztri

:;E

o ~ to o

;:z

o>l'

Cl

>-

§ ztri

See Pmo. de La Teta de Niquitao

Nirgua, Pmo. de

Ocucuquí, Pmo.

:;!

~

Iribarren

Ñepe Pequeño, Pmo. del

Nieves, Pmo. Las

.¡o.

Sierra de Santo Domingo; 401 Om?

Munucuchimá, Pmo. de Naiguatá, Pico de

00

SW ofHumocaro Alto, connected with Pmo. Jabón Near Pueblo Nuevo

<o ¡---' 00

.¡o.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Oro, Pmo. (del) El (1)

Notes See Pmo. (de, del, El) Loro(!) See Pmo. (de, del, El) Loro (1)

Oro, Pmo. del (2) Ortiz, Pmo.

3481

09°03'N

70°24'W

Trujillo/Barinas

Boconó/Obispos

Ramal de Calderas, S ofNiquitao, N ofCalderas, NE ofPmo. de Calderas and connected with it, SW ofPmo. Castillejo and connected with it

Oso, Pico El

4566

08°46'N

71 °20'W

Mérida

Libertador & Andres Bello

Cord. de La Culata (or del Norte), W of Mucuchíes, N of Tabay; also called Alto del Oso

Oso, Pmo. El

2200

or47'N

72°08'W

Táchira

Cárdenas & San Cristóbal

Sierra La Maravilla, connected with Pmo. Moraleño and Pmo. El Pino; not true páramo

Oso, Pmo. del

2944

or52'N

71 °56'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Sucre

Osorio, Pmo. de

3658

Táchira

Otlata, Pmo.

5 km SE of San José de Bolívar; does not equal Pmo. El Oso Along Tovar to La Grita rd.

Mérida

Pabellón, Pmo.

2300

or58'N

71 °33'W

Mérida!Táchira

Arzobispo Chacón/Uribante

Paiva, Pmo. de

2000

08°2l'N

71 °40'W

Mérida

Tovar

Pajarito, Pmo. El Pajarito, Pmo. de Los

SE ofMesa de Quintero, S ofGuaimaral (incl. Pico Pabellón), S ofPmo. de Altamira SW of Santa Cruz; not true páramo See Pmo. de Los Pajarito

3450

Palmas, Pmo. Las Palmira, Pmo. de

3300

Pan de Azúcar, Pmo.(!)

4710

Pan de Azúcar, Pmo. (2)

4000

Paramillo, Cerro El

09°04'N

70°33'W

Trujillo

09°42'N

70°08'W

Trujillo

Carache

Mérida

Miranda

Cerro Caracacho, between La Palma and Las González

Mérida

Justo Briceño & Libertador

Sierra del Norte, headwaters ofRío Mucujún, below Pico Pan de Azúcar

Boconó & Urdaneta

18 km SW ofNiquitao, S ofPmo. del Tostado and connected with it; also called Pmo. El Pajarito

08°50'N

71 o03'W

2600

08°13'N

71 °12'W

Mérida

Libertador

N ofCampo Elías; true páramo?

Paramito

1600

08°01'N

72°13'W

Táchira

Ayacucho

Village; not páramo

Paramito, Alto El

3640

09°03'N

70°5l'W

Mérida

Justo Briceño & Miranda 15 km W ofLa Mesa, 18 km S ofMonte Carmelo

Paramito, Cerro

2400

08°!0'N

71 °58'W

Táchira

Jáuregui

Paramito, Cerro El

1920

09°12'N

70°43'W

Trujillo

Es cuque

WSW ofEscuque; not true páramo

Paramito, El (1)

3200

09°02'N

70°48'W

Mérida!Trujillo

Miranda

Town along the Jajá-La Morita rd., toward Tuñame; not páramo

Paramito, El (2)

2800

Táchira

Junín

SE ofBetania, at the foot ofPmo. de Tamá; subpáramo at best

Paramito, El (3)

920

Zulia

Trujillo

"O

> ~ s;: oen

Near Michuntuí

5 km N ofLa Grita; not true páramo

Sierra de Perijá, San José de los Altos; not true páramo

Paramito, Pmo. El Páramo, El (1)

\0 \0

.:::¡

See Pmo. El Cocuy 2250

09°27'N

70°!9'W

Trujillo

Trujillo

S of Santa Ana, 15 km NE ofTrujillo; not true páramo 00 V>


N ame Páramo, El (2)

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e Division 1

Division 2

Notes

1600

09°48'N

69°32'W

Lara

Jiménez

Locality SSE of Quibor, ENE of Gubiro; nota páramo Village W ofSanta Cruz; nota páramo

Páramo, El (3)

600

08°25'N

71 o42'W

Mérida

Bolívar

Páramo, El (4)

1600

or53'N

72°l4'W

Táchira

Lobatera

Páramo, Loma (del) El

1000+

10°!2'N

70°45'W

Zulia

Páramo, Montaña El

2200

09°38'N

69°44'W

Lara

Parros, Pmo. de Los

4400

Mérida

Pata de Judío, Pmo. de

3372

TáchiralApure

Pérez, Pmo. de

Village; not a páramo

Morán

NE ofGuarico, S ofEI Tocuyo, SSE ofEmba!se Dos Cerritos; not true páramo Sierra Nevada de Mérida, SE ofMérida, SW ofPmo. de los Loros

Cordoba!Páez

Colombia/Venezuela border, 30 km S (above) ofSan Vicente de la Revancha, E ofEI Cobre, SE ofPmo. de Tamá; same as Pmo. (El) Judío and Pico El Judío See Pmo. La Mucuchache

4240

2400

08°4l'N

08°04'N

71 o!3'W

71 °48'W

Mérida

Táchira

Campo Elías & Libertador

Sierra del Norte, N of Mérida, E of Pmo. Campanario and connected with it, S of Pmo. de Los Conejos and connected with it, SW of Pmo. El Salado and connected with it, W of Pmo. Los Leones imd connected with it

Uribante

5 km NW ofPregonero; not true páramo

Pico AguiJa, Pmo.

See'Pmo. i:lel.Aguila

Pico Bolívar, Pmo.

See Pico Bolívar

Pico La Garza

See Pico La Concha See Pmo. Piedras Blancas

Piedra Blanca, Pmo. Piedras Blancas, Pmo. (de)

4762

08°5l'N

70°56'W

Mérida

Justo Briceño & Miranda Sierra del Norte, 25 km NW ofTimotes, 10 km NNE of Mucuchíes, W ofPmo. Los Buitres and connected with it [incl. Pico Piedras Blancas (4778 m), Pico Los Nevados, Filo Los Nevados and Filo El Oso]; also called Pmo. Piedra Blanca; a biological reserve

Piedras, Pmo. de Las Piñango, Pmo. (de)

Probably equals Pmo. Piedras Blancas 4315

08°58'N

o,

Not true páramo

Pedregal, Pmo. de Pedregosa, Pmo. La

00

70°52'W

Mérida

Justo Briceño

Sierra de La Culata, S ofPiñango, N ofPmo. Las Tapias Sierra La Maravilla, N of Pico La Maravilla; not true páramo

Pino, Pmo. (d)el

2313

or4o'N

72°08'W

Táchira

Cárdenas

Pinos, Pmo. Los

2720

08°l2'N

71 °59'W

Táchira

Panamericano & Jáuregui 7 km N ofLa Grita, SW ofPmo. de Nirgua and connected with it

Pinos, Pmo. de Los

3000

08°25'N

71 °20'W

Mérida

Pintado, Cerro

3300

l0°30'N

72°50'W

Zulia

Piñuelas, Pmo. Las

3100

08°53'N

71 °23'W

Mérida

s;:: m s;::

o ;:a tZl ..,o ....,

::r: m

zm ::E o--< ~ b:l o ....,

;¡,.

2:1

n;¡,. r

Cl ;¡,.

Elm z

Sierra del Norte (near S end), N of Jají, 20 km W ofMérida Perijá

Sierra de Perijá, Serranía Valledupar (the northem part ofthe Sierra), the highest peak is Monte Plano (3688 m)

<o r

00

~


N ame Porqueras, Pmo. de Las

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

3070

08°10'N

71 °57'W

Táchira/Mérida

Jáuregui & Uribante/Rivas Dávila

NE ofLa Grita

Portachuelo, Pmo. (El) (1)

3070

08°22'N

71 °03'W

Mérida

Libertador & Campo Elías

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, SW ofPmo. El Toro and connected with it, between El Morro and Acequias

Portachuelo, Pmo. (de) El (2)

3070

08°09'N

71 °55'W

Táchira

Jáuregui

NW of Queniquea, connected with Pmo. Zumbador and Pmo. La Colorada; coordinates approximate

Portachuelo de La Nariz

See Pmo. La Nariz

Potrero Nuevo, Pmo.

3600

Mérida

Rangel

Pozo Negro, Pmo. ·(de, del)

3250

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón & Campo Elías

Between San José and La Beguilla, close to Pmo. Canaguá and Pmo. El Cupís, part ofthe larger Pmo. (de) San José (2)

Pozones, Pmo. Los

4200

08°37'N

70°53'W

Barinas

Bolívar or Pedraza

Sierra de Santo Domingo, NE of Mérida, E ofPmo. Santo Cristo and connected with it, S of Pmo. Llano del Trigo and connected with it

Pozos, Pmo. Los(!)

3800

08°41'N

70°56'W

Mérida

Pozos, Pmo. Los (2)

3500

08°37'N

70°37'W

Mérida

Pozos, Pmo. Los (3)

3250

09°15'N

70°23'W

Trujillo

Trujillo & Boconó

Táchira

Uribante

Pregonero, Pmo. de

In the Loma Los Monsalves (B. Briceño, pers. comm.) Does this equal Pmo. Los Pozos(!)? 1Okm W ofBoconó, S ofPmo. El Atajo, N of Pmo. El Corazón

09°03'N

70°33'W

Trujillo

Urdaneta & Boconó

SE ofTuñame

3800

08°55'N

71 °44'W

Mérida

Miranda

Cord. de Trujillo, E ofChachopo, NW ofPueblo Llano

Trujillo

Urdaneta

3596

09°l0'N

70°45'W

Trujillo

Escuque & Valera

Púlpito, Pmo. (de El)

3912

08°05'N

72°l8'W

Táchira

Jáuregui

Pumar,Pmo.

2800

09°l1'N

70°13'W

Trujillo

Boconó

Quebradita, Pmo. de La

4000

Providencia, Pmo. de Pueblo Llano, Pmo. Pueblo Nuevo, Pmo. Puerta, Pmo. (de) La

\0 \0

~

"">--

~ ;:::: o (/J

W ofLa Puerta See Pmo. (de El) Púlpito

Púlpito, Pico

08°l5'N

Quemado, Pmo. El

71 °44'W

Sierra del Batallón; SE ofLa Grita, WNW ofPregonero; ·incl. Pico El Púlpito

Mérida

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, between Loma Redonda and La Aguada

Mérida

Not true páramo?

Quinorá, Pmo. (del)

See Pmo. (de) Quirorá

Quirorá, Pmo. 08°20'N

71 °27'W

Trujillo

Boconó

Mérida

Sucre & Campo Elías

Quirorá, Pmo. (de)

3260

Rafael Urdaneta, Cerro

3426

Zulia

Recostón, Pico

3890

Táchira

Uribante

Reinosa, Pmo. La

3720

Trujillo/Mérida

Urdaneta/Miranda

08°57'N

70°40'W

NE ofPmo. El Molino, 1Okm S ofPueblo Nuevo, SE ofEstanques Sierra de Perijá; páramo? Cord. de Trujillo, E ofTimotes

:;;; __,


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitud e

Longitude Division 1

Division2

Notes

Rejo, Pmo. (de) El

3400

08°24'N

71°19'W

Mérida

Campo Elías

15 km SE ofSan José

Revancha, Pmo. (La)

3450

07"32'N

72°23'W

Táchira

Junín

Part of Pmo. de Tamá area, SE of Delicias, Pico Revancha is 3457 m; also called Pmo. Rovancha

Táchira

San Cristóbal

Notpáramo

Rincón, Pmo. El 2032

Río Negro, Pmo. (de, del)

3223

08°l7'N

71 °39'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávila & Tovar

10 km SE ofTovar, S ofSanta Cruz, W ofPmo. Molino and connected with it by Cerro Picacho, E ofPmo. Guaraque and connected with it; incl. Pmo. de Mují and Pmo. La Zorra

Rivas, Pmo. de Los

3330

09° lO'N

70°44'W

Tmjillo

Escuque & Valera

SW ofMendoza, ESE ofMonte Carmelo, N ofPmo. San Rafael and connected with it

Rojas, Pmo. de

3160

09°00'N

70°25'W

Barinas

Bolívar

N of Las Calderas, S of Niquitao, S of Pmo. Calderas and connected with it, E ofPmo. Bartolo and connected with it

Rollal,Pmo.

See Pmo. El Royal 3890

08°02'N

0

7l 58'W

Táchira

Uribante & Jáuregui

1Okm N ofSan José de Bolívar, S ofLa Grita, W ofPregonero (incl. Pico ,El Rosal), S of Pmo. Batallón, W of Pmo. Cimarronera and connected with it, E of Pmo. La Tigra and connected. with it

Rosario, Pmo.

3560

08°ll'N

71 °55'W

Táchira!Mérida

Jáuregui/Rivas Dávila

8 km NE ofLa Grita, 12 km SW ofBailadores, N ofPmo. del Batallón and connected with it, SW of Pmo. La Negra and connected with it

Rosario, Pmo. (El, Los)

2700

09°l9'N

70°06'W

.Trujillo/Portuguesa

Boconó/Sucre

SSE ofCampo Elías, W ofBiscucuy, W ofSan Rafael de Palo Alzado, NE of Pmo. de Agua Fría; also <::alled Pmo. Los Rosarios; not true páramo; coordinates approximate

Rosas, Pmo. (de) Las

3245

09°35'N

70°07'W

Trujillo/Lara

Carache/Morán

Cord. de Trujillo, 11 km N ofLa Concepción, W ofHumocaro, slopes ofPico Cajingó, N ofPmo. de Turma! (1)

Rovancha, Pmo. Royal, Pmo. El

00

See Pmo. de Timotes

Río Frio, Pmo.

Rosal, Pmo. (de) El

;;;

See Pmo. (La) Revancha 4170

Sabana, Pmo. de La

1784

Sal, Pmo. de La

3910

08°40'N

70°50'W

Táchira

Capacho

09°0l'N

70°49'W

Mérida

Miranda & Justo Bríceño E ofPiñango

Mérida

Sierra de Santo Domingo-Sierra Nevada de Mérída union; also called Pmo. Rolla!

S:: tJ:j S:: o ¡;a [j]

o

'rj

....;¡

::r: tJ:j

z

tJ:j

::E

o-< ~ ttl o....;¡

>-z

ñ

>-

t-< Cl

>-

§ tJ:j z

Notpáramo

Salado Negro, Pmo.

1800

07"48'N

72°2l'W

Táchira

Libertad & Bolívar

Salado, Pmo. (El)

4486

08°42'N

71 °ll'W

Mérida

Libertador, Campo Elías Cord. del Norte (or de La Culata), N ofMérida, S ofPmo. de & Andrés Bello Los Conejos, W ofPmo. Los Leones and connected with it, E ofPmo. La Pedregosa

SW oflndependencia; not true páramo

<o r

..,.

00


N ame Salvaje, Pmo. (del, El)

Elev. (m) 3795

San Antonio, Pico de

Latitude

Longitud e Division 1

Division 2

09°06'N

70°35'W

Trujillo

Urdaneta

E of Jajó; may be referred to as Cerro Gordo, Pico Pajarito, or Fila El Paramito

Boconó

N ofPmo. Guaramacal, E ofBoconó, S ofPmo. Agua Fría

Sucre

E ofLa Trampa; not true páramo?

09°14'N

70° IO'W

Trujillo

San Antonio, Pmo.

3658

08°40'N

Mérida

San Bailón, Pmo.

2400

08°33'N

71 °03'W 71 o25'W

Mérida

San Francisco, Pmo. (1)

'D 'D

~

See Pmo. de Guaraque

San Francisco, Pmo. (2)

3445

San Isidro, Pmo.

2873

Táchira 08°2l'N

71 °33'W

Mérida

Tovar & Sucre

San José de Acequias, Pmo. de

NW of Pmo. El Molino, SW ofEstanques; also called Pmo. Isidro; not páramo See Pmo. (de) San José (2)

San José del Páramo

See Pmo. San José (1)

San José, Pmo. (1)

1450

San José, Pmo. (de) (2)

3250

San Pedro, Pmo. San Rafael, Pmo.

Notes

3600

Táchira

Capacho

Above La Laja; also called San José del Páramo; not true páramo

08°20'N

71 °l6'W

Mérida

Campo Elías, Libertador E of San José, above Veguilla (La Beguilla); incl. Monte El & Arzobispo Chacón Cupís and Pmo. del Cupís; also called Pmo. de San José de Acequias; may equal Pmo. Minanón

08°ll'N

71 °46'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávila

SE ofBailadores; part ofPmo. La Tapias?

09°08'N

70°45'W

Trujillo

Escuque & Valera

SW of Val era, W of La Puerta, SE ofMonte Carmelo, N of Pmo. Torres and connected with it, S of Pmo. Los Rivas and connected with it

Jáuregui& Panamericano

"O

>-

~ s;: o (IJ

Sierra del Batallón, 15 km N ofLa Grita, W ofPueblo Hondo, on Pico San Telmo (3265 m), N of Pmo. de Nirgua and connected with it; also called Pmo. La China; true páramo?

SanTelmo, Pmo. (de)

3259

08°16'N

71 °57'W

Táchira

Santa Bárbara, Pmo.(!)

3000?

or27'N

72°20'W

Táchira

Santa Bárbara, Pmo. de (2)

4252

Mérida

Santa Cruz, Pmo.

1400

Táchira

Santa Rita, Pmo. de

2200

Trujillo

Santo Cristo, Pmo. (de, del)

4200

08°37'N

70°57'W

Mérida/Barinas

Libertador & Rangel/Pedraza

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, E ofMérida, 20 km S ofMucuchíes; incl. Laguna Santo Cristo

Santo Domingo, Pmo.(!)

3373

or34'N

72°05'W

Táchira

Junín & San Cristóbal

Pmo. de Tamá area, NE ofPico El Cobre; also called Pico Santo Domingo

Santo Domingo, Pmo. (2)

4672

08°46'N

70°47'W

Mérida

Rangel

Between Río Santo Domingo and Río Chama, S of Pmo. Mucuchíes; incl. Pico Sto. Domingo or Mucuñuque at 4609 m

Seco, Pmo.

3290

Lara

Between Buenos Aires and Pmo. de Las Rosas

Secreta, Pmo. de La

2900

Táchira

NearFátima

NNW ofPmo. de Judío Between Pmo. de Tuñame and Pmo. de Timotes (a long distan ce) Capacho

Above Tres Esquinas; not true páramo Above Santa Rita; not true páramo

;;;; 'D


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Notes

71 °29'W

Mérida

Sucre & Arzobispo Chacón

E ofPmo. El Molino; true páramo?

08°02'N

71 °59'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Cárdenas ?

Divisoria Grita-Uribante, SE ofEl Cobre

09°05'N

70°47'W

Trujillo

Escuque & Valera

SW de La Puerta, S ofMonte Carmelo (incl. Pico El Perol, Pico El Rematadero, Pico San Pedro, Pico Escalera, Laguna La Gata and S s1opes ofCerro Las Cruces), N ofPmo. Llano Grande, S ofPmo. de Torres

7! 0 31'W

Mérida

Arzobispo Chacón

Táchira

Uribante

Serruchos, Pmo. (El, Los)

3245

08° 16'N

Sierrita, Pmo. La

3325

Siete Lagunas, Pmo. de (Las)

3894

Sinfonía, Pmo. La

2920

Ü8°11'N

Sombrero, Pmo.

2945

Somosica, Pmo.

14 km NE ofMesa de Quintero, bounded by Río El Molino on W and Quebrada El Barro on E; true páramo?

3860

08°02'N

71 °56'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Uribante

12 km SSE ofLa Grita, E ofPmo. El Rosal and connected with it, N of Pmo. La Cimarronera and connected with it; also spelled Somosica

2850

Táchira

Jáuregui

Tabor, Pmo.

2847

Táchira

Junín

Nc;ar Colombia border; true páramo?

Tamá, Pmo. de

3500

or25'N

72°26'W

Táchira

JunínJApure

ColombiaNenezuela border

Tambor, Pmo. (de, del, El)

3054

08°36'N

71 °24'W

Mérida

Campo Elías, Sucre & Andrés Bello

Sierra de La Culata, NW of Jají, S ofLa Azulita, SW ofMérida

Tapias, Pmo. Las(!)

3517

08°12'N

71 o48'W

Mérida/Táchira

Rivas Dávila/Uribante

SE ofBailadores; incl. Pico Tapias at 3532 m

Tapias, Pmo. Las (2)

4200

08°58'N

70°53'W

Mérida

Justo Briceño

SW ofChachopo, W ofTimotes, N ofPmo. Mucumpisito

Tenegá, Pmo.

2972

or57'N

71 °56'W

Táchira

Jáuregui & Uribante?

Sierra La Cimarronera, E ofSan José de Bolívar

Tenerife, Pmo.

3202

Tenoca, Pmo.

Mérida

True páramo? ESE ofTrujillo

09°07'N

70°26'W

Trujillo

Urdaneta & Boconó & Ribas

Tetari, Pmo. del

3400

10°03'N

72°58'W

Zulia

Perijá

Tetas, Pmo. de las

4000

Tigra, Pmo. La

3600

08°0l'N

72°00'W

Tetari, Macizo de

o

tiJ

o

'Tj

--3

::e:

tTl

ztTl ~

Trujillo 4005

¡:;: tTl ¡:;: ~

See Pmo. Sumusica

Tablones, Pmo. Los

Teta de Niquitao, Pmo. de La

o

See Pico El Toro

Silla de El Toro

Sumusica, Pmo.

\0

Cord. de Trujillo, 29 km SSW of Trujillo; lower part is called Pmo. Carimbú

>-<;

o ~ to o--3

;¡,.

z

ñ ;¡,. t"'

a;¡,.

EltTl z

See Pmo. del Tetari

Trujillo Táchira

Sierra de Perijá, Serranía de Los Motilones (southem part of the Sierra), W of Machiques, along border with Colombia; incl. Pico Tetari at 3750 m; sometimes spelled Tetaria; also called Macizo de Tetarí SSW ofPmo. de la Cristalina

Jáuregui & Sucre

14 km S ofLa Grita, W ofPmo. El Rosal and connected with it

<o r

00

~


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

Timotes, Pmo. de

4286

08°52'N

70°50'W

Mérida

Miranda

Incl. Pmo. El Rincón (B. Briceño, pers. comm.) and Pmo. de Chachapos; also called Alto (de) Timotes; see also Pmo. de Mucuchíes

Tomón, Pmo. de

2400

09°13'N

70°43'W

Trujillo

Escuque & V aJera

Cord. de Trujillo, W ofMendoza; also called Alto de Tomón; not true páramo

Tonojó, Pmo.

2880

Trujillo

Trujillo & Boconó

EofTrujillo, alongTrujillo-Boconórd.; sometimes spelled Tonoso See Pmo. Tonojó

Tonoso, Pmo.

See Pmo. El Toro

Toro, Pico El Toro, Pmo. El

3600

08°25'N

71 °06'W

Mérida!Barinas

Libertador/Pedraza

Sierra Nevada de Mérida, S ofMérida, SW ofPico Bolívar; sometimes called Silla de El Toro or Pico El Toro?

Torotejopa, Cerro

3200

Zulia

Sierra de Perijá

Torrecita, Pmo. La

4547

Mérida

NNE of Sierra Nevada de Mérida toward Santo Domingo

Torres, Pmo. de (Los)

3680

09°07'N

70°45'W

Trujillo

Es cuque & V al era

W of La Puerta, N of Pmo. Las Siete Lagunas and connected with it, S ofPmo. San Rafael and connected with it

Tostado, Pmo. del

3800

09°06'N

70°33'W

Trujillo

Urdaneta & Boconó

20 km S ofSantiago de Trujillo, 12 km E ofJajó, N ofPmb. El Pajarito and connected with it, W ofPmo. Chorro Blanco and connected with it

Trampa, Pmo. La

2100

Tres Esquinas, Pmo.

2000

Mérida 08°2l'N

71 o52'W

Táchira

Not true páramo Panamericano

14 km WNW ofTovar; not true páramo See Pmo. El Trigo

Trigal, Pmo. El Trigo, Pmo. El

4170

09°00'N

70°49'W

Mérida

Miranda & Justo Briceño Sierra de La Culata, W ofTimotes; sometimes called Pmo. El Trigal?

Tucaní, Pmo.

4718

08°33'N

71 °40'W

Mérida

Andrés Bello, Libertador Cord. del Norte (or de La Culata), NNE ofMérida, NW ofPmo. & Justo Briceño Agua Blanca and connected with it, NE ofPmo. La Culata and connected with it, S ofPmo. El Novillo and connected with it; sometimes spelled Tucami ?

Tulata, Pmo. de la

'O

> > 2:::: o

::<!

(/)

Type of Stelis atra (Linden 687)

Mérida

Tunama, Pmo. de Tuñame, Pmo. (de)

\0 \0

::S

See Pmo. de Tuñame 3860

09°05'N

70°32'W

Trujillo

Urdaneta & Boconó

Cord. de Trujillo, W ofLas Mesitas, SE ofLa Quebrada; does this equal Pmo. El Salvaje?

Tuno, Pmo. del

3350

08°2l'N

71 °22'W

Mérida

Campo Elías

SW ofMérida, N ofPmo. Las Coloradas and connected with it

Turma!, Pmo. de

3600

09°30'N

70°08'W

Trujillo

Carache & Boconó

W and SW slopes, NW of Campo Elías, SE ofCarache, W of Pmo. Jabón and connected with it, E ofPmo. Monte Redondo and connected with it, SW ofPmo. Cendé; incl. Pico El Turma!

Turrnero, Pmo. El

4550

08°56'N

70°50'W

Mérida

Miranda & Justo Briceño Sierra de La Culata, W ofChachopo

::0


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Tusta, Pmo. de

2200

08°24'N

71 °33'W

Urbina, Pmo.

1760

N ame

Division 1

Division2

Mérida

Sucre

Trujillo

S ofChiguara, NE ofTovar, E ofPmo. Las Porqueras

Mpio. Trujillo

Uricagua, Pmo. de

2700

Mérida

Vagabunda, Pmo. de la

2850

Mérida

Libertador

Along the Filo de la Vagabunda, El Morro-Aricagua rd., near El Portachuelo

Vela, Pico

3000

Táchira

Junín

Next to Pmo. de Tamá

Vichú,Pmo.

09°22'N

70°24'W

Trujillo

Vieja, Pmo. La (1)

08°5l'N

70°59'W

Mérida

Rangel & Justo Briceño

Cord. del Norte (or de La Culata), S ofTorondoy

09°07'N

70°28'W

Trujillo

Urdaneta & Boconó

E side ofTeta de Niquitao

Vieja, Pmo. La (2)

4000

Vieja, Pmo. La (3)

2773

~

Viejo, Pmo.

1200

or55'N

72°21'W

Táchira

Libertad

Viriguaca, Pmo. (de)

3421

08°10'N

71°5l'W

Táchira!Mérida

Uribante/Rivas Dávila

70°33'W

Mérida!Barinas

ti:I

~

o

:;3 (/)

Táchira?

08°56'N

\0 N

Ramal del Uribante; not true páramo

Táchira

Urbina, Pmo. La

Notes

Rangei/Bolívar

Village; not páramo 10 km S ofBailadores, 15 km ENE ofLa Grita, N ofPmo. del Batallón, W ofPmo. Las Tapias and connected with it, W of ·Pmo. Loma Negra and connected with it Origin of!Uo Aracay, N ofSanto Domingo

Volcán, Pmo. (El)

3700

Zerpa, Pmo.

4411

Zorra, Pmo. La

3000

08°15'N

71 °39'W

Mérida

Rivas Dávila

E ofBailadores, 15 km SE ofTovar, E ofPmo. de Mují; part of Pmo. Rio Negro?

Zumbador, Pmo. (del, El)

3250

or59'N

72°04'W

Táchira

Jáuregui

45 km SW of Tovar, N of Pmo. Almorzadero and connected with it, S of El Cobre; also called Pmo. Almorzadero (1) or Pmo. de Los Colorados

Sierra de LÓs:Granates

Mérida

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1999]

PARAMOS

193

Ecuador James L. Luteyn and Mauricio R. Gavilanes A.

The "Sierra" or montane part of Ecuador has two major parallel ranges of the Andes mountains, the Cordillera Occidental and Cordillera Oriental, between which is a relatively high interandean plateau averaging 2650 m. Severa! transverse mountain chains known as "nudos" connect the cordilleras and divide the intermountain plateau into roughly 1O basins or "hoyas." The Nudo del Azuay, at 4500 m, divides the country into two subregions, a northem area of modero volcanism andan area ofmore ancient volcanism to the south. The mountains in the north are higher, wetter, and their vegetation (including the páramos) generally resembles that of Colombia; whereas the mountains ofthe south are lower, drier, and their vegetation resembles that of northem Peru. The Sierra has at least 22 peaks averaging over 4200 m and 30 peaks of volcanic origin (six still active), giving rise to the region's moniker, "Avenue of the Volcanos." Estimates of the area covered by páramo in Ecuador vary considerably, depending on how páramo is defined, and range from 4470 km2 (Cañadas Cruz, 1983) to 19,61 Okm2 (Bonifaz, 1981; using subpáramo between 3500 m and 4000 m= 13,310 km2 and páramo above 4000 m= 6,300 km2) to 20,000 km2 (Encalada, 1986) toa high of25,000-28,000 km 2 (Acosta-Solís, 1984), out of a totalland area of ca. 280,000 km2 • [The figure of "about 40,000 km 2" given in Balslev and de Vries, 1991, was a mistake and should read "about 20,000 km2" (Balslev, pers. comm.).]

Ecuadorean national parks that include páramo are Cotopaxi, Podocarpus, and Sangay. Ecological reserves that include páramo are: Cotacachi-Cayapas, CayambeCoca, El Angel, and Antisana (cf. Mena V., 1995). The Ecuadorean gazetteer was difficult to assemble, because non e of the maps and índices consulted used the word "páramo" (in sorne cases the word "loma" seemed to be the equivalent, but not always). Therefore, the gazetterwas constructed in two ways: 1) from herbarium labels, local knowledge, and literature references that specifically used the word "páramo"; and 2) by the inclusion of al! localities found in geographical dictionaries, índices, and so forth that were over 3500 m and used the word "cerro," "laguna," "nevado," or "vulcán." That opened the possibility that sorne localities might not actual!y be páramo, but that was the decision made for the purposes of this book. And finally, as was mentioned in the introduction to the gazetteer, no secondary political divisions were used for the Ecuador gazetteer, and therefore the column "Division 2" was omitted from this table. For addítional discussion about Ecuadorean páramo vegetation, see Acosta-Solís, 1984; Balslev & de Vries, 1982, 1991; Black, 1982; Cerón M., 1985, 1992; Diels, 1937; J0rgensen & Ulloa U., 1994; Keating, 1995; León Yánez, 1993; L0jtnant & Molau, 1982; Mena V., 1984; Muñoz et al., 1985; and Ramsay, 1992.


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

Achasipungu, Cerro

4120

01 °34'S

78°51'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 9 km NW of San Juan

Achayandi, Cerro

4000

00°57'S

78°55'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 8 km SE of Pi Jaló

Achilig, Cerro

4090

01 °35'S

78°49'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 7 km NW ofSan Juan

N ame

Achipungu, Cerro

4630

02° 14'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 15 km NE ofTotoras

Achupallas, Cerro

3840

01 °11'S

78°43'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 6 km NW ofQuisapincha

Achupallas, Pmo. de

3420

00°06'S

78°20'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, also called Quebrada AguiJa

Aera Cruz, Cerro

3980

00°55'S

78°27'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 7 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Aera, Cerro

3440

02°32'S

78°47'W

Cañar

1Okm NE oflngapirca

Ahuarongo, Cerro

4200

02° 19'S

78°45'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 6 km of Achupallas

Ajos Pamba, Cerro

3880

01 o 49'S

78°51'W

Chimborazo

18 km SW ofSicalpa

Alalanda Chico, Cerro

4000

01 °55'S

78°3l'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 15 km SE ofCebadas

Alalanda Grande, Cerro

4220

01 °55'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 16 km SE of Cebadas

\D

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~

tr1

~

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(/l

"rj

Alambre Pamba, Cerro

3960

02°26'S

78°53'W

Cañar

9 km NE of Juncal

Alao, Pmos. de

4000

01 °49'S

78°35'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, W slopes V?lcán Sangay, near Cebadas, along rd. from Pungalá to Huancabamba

...;¡

::r: tr1

ztri ~

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Allcuquiro, Pmos. de

3622

02°39'S

78°30'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Allcuquiro), NE of Azogues; also spelled Allcuquiru; coordinates approximate

o;:>;!

Alpachaca, Pmo. de

3760

03 °30'S

79° 15'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, SE of Chaucha; also spelled Allpachaca

Alpacorral, Cerro

3600

78°59'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 19 km NW ofVolcán Chimborazo

Altar Mayor, Cerro

3400

01 °25'S 03 o 32'S

o...;¡

79°22'W

Loja

4 km W of Selva Alegre

Altar, Cerro (El)

5319

01 o 41'S

78°24'W

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, highest peak is Capa-urcu (incl. Laguna Pintada)

ñ > r

Altares, Pmo. de Los

4000

Chimborazo

Collanes Valley

Cl

Amaluza, Pmo.

3420

04 o 43'S

79°26'W

Loja

Cord. de Las Lagunitas, W of Jimbura

§

Amanta Grande, Cerro

3650

00°44'S

78°57'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 8.6 km SW of Sigchos

z

Amina Chiquito, Cerro

3995

00°57'S

78°23'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 2 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos; also called Amina Chico

Amina Grande, Cerro

4188

00°58'S

78°23'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 1.5 km E ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Amopuñuna, Cerro

4200

01 °2l'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 11 km NE ofVolcán Chimborazo

Amorgeo, Pmo. de

3300

03 °09'S

78°5l'W

Azuay

Cord. Oriental; Sampedro (1 976) places it at 03 o !6'N/78 o 55'W on the Azuay/ Morona-Santiago border

Amoshayana, Cerro

4040

01 o 35'S

78°5l'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 15 km NE ofSan Simón

Añaguango, Cerro

4000

00°53'S

78°29'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 13 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

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N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude Division 1

Notes

Angahuana, Cerro

3800

01 °20'S

78°42'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 5 km SW ofTisaleo

Angamarca, Pmos. de

4000

78°50'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, NE of Angamarca

Angasamana, Cerro

3400

01 °06'S 01 o23'S

78°30'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 9 km NE of Salcedo

Angel, Pmos. del

4000

00°43'N

7r54'W

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, El Angel-Tulcán rd.; also called Pmo. de El Angel

Angochagua, Pmo. de

3800

78°01'W

Animullo, Cerro

4320

00°16'N 01 o 23'S

78°55'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 12 km NW ofVolcán Chimborazo

Ansa Urcu, Cerro

4160

02° 19'S

78°44'W

Chimborazo/Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 12 km SW ofTotoras, 20.5 km NW ofHuangra

Ansahuaico, Cerro

4200

02°25'S

78°49'W

Cañar

17 km NE of Juncal

Antisana, Pmo. del

5704

00°32'S

78° 12'W

Napo/Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, SW slopes ofVolcán Antisana, 13 km S ofPapallacta

Angoas, Pmos. de

Cotopaxi!Napo

Cord. Oriental

lmbabura

Cord. Oriental, SE ofVolcán Imbabura, NE ofvillage of Angochagua

'D 'D

~

Antzaran, Cerro

3880

02°47'S

78°47'W

Cañar

19 km E of Juncal

Apagua, Pmo. de

4200

00°54'S

78°56'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental (Cord. de Apagua), between Zumbagua and Pilaló

Apicocha, Cerro

3480

02°50'S

79° IO'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, NW ofLaguna Llaviucu

Arcos, Pmo. de

3552

03 °34'S

79°27'W

Loja

Cerro de Arcos, 16 km W of Selva Alegre

Arenal del Chimborazo

4000

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, NE side ofVolcán Chimborazo

:>

Arrayán, Cerro

3400

01 °28'S

78°32'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 9 k.rn S ofHuambalo

S::

Atacazo, Pmo. de

4570

00°2l'S

78°36'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, Volcán Atacazo (4570 m), 9.7 km NW ofTambillo and 12 km from San Juan, S of Quito; also spelled Atacaso

Atán, Cerro

4160

02° 18'S

78°44'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 10 km SW ofTotoras

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 17 km NE ofPallatanga

Atapo Huañuna, Cerro

4200

01 °53'S

78°50'W

Atapulo, Cerro

3902

00°5l'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 8 km NW ofSaquisilí

Atillo, Pmo. de

3460

02° ll'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, near Lagunas de Atillo, 17 km NE ofTotoras; sometimes misspelled Atilio

Atio, Cerro

4200

01 o 32'S

78°53'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 13.5 km NE ofGuaranda

Atocha, Pmos. de

4000

01 °08'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 9 km SSW ofCusubamba

Atugrumi, Cerro

3800

00°52'S

78°56'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 9.5 km NE ofPilaló

Auchi, Cerro

3800

78°5l'W

Cañar

20 km NE of Juncal

Ayaguacha, Cerro

3920

02°2l'S 01 o 47'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

12 km SW ofSicalpamba

Ayapunga, Cerro

4699

02°20'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago/ Cañar

Cord. Oriental, E of Chunchi, SE of Achupalla; also spelled Ayapungo and Ayapungu

Ayapungo, Cerro

See Cerro Ayapunga

Ayapungu, Cerro

See Cerro Ayapunga

.,

5::

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(/)

::0

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N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

01 °34'S

78°55'W

Azotado, Cerro El

4000

Azufra!, Pmo. del

3500

Division 1

Notes

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 7.6 km NE ofGuaranda

'-0 0\

Carchi

Azul Chico, Cerro

4000

02°l5'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 18 km E ofTotoras

Bacha, Cerro

4120

01 °39'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 6 km SW ofSan Juan

Bahuiña, Cerro

3647

02° 17'S

78°52'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 5 km SE ofChunchi

Baizan Mularumi, Cerro

3800

01 °35'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 4.7 km NW ofSan Juan

Balsas, Cerro

3951

03 °05'S

79° 17'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 8.3 km NW ofSan Fernando

Banderilla, Laguna La

3450

04°l6'S

79°06'W

Loja

12.3 km SE ofVilcabamba

Basancel, Cerro

4350

01 °43'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 9 km NE ofChambo

Berba Buenapata, Cerro

3800

01 °09'S

78°42'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 10 km S ofCusubamba

Bishipotrero, Cerro

3880

02°04'S

78°40'W

Chimborazo

6.7 km E ofPalmira

Bodoqueras, Cerro

3440

02°42'S

78°35'W

Azuay

Cord. Oriental, 5 km E ofLas Palmas

Boladero, Pmo.

4100

Carchi

Around Laguna de Carr

Boliche, Altos de

3800

00°42'N

77°45'W

Carchi!Nariño (CO)

Ecuador/Colombia border, at foot ofVolcán Chiles; also called Nudo de Boliche, Pmo. de Boliche, or Nudo de Huaca (Cerro Boliche)

Boliche, Cerro

3840

01 °l2'S

78°54'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 10.3 km NE of Simiatug

Boliche, Nudo de

See Altos de Boliche

Boliche, Pmo. de

See Altos de Boliche

Boquerón, Pmo. de

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, part ofthe Nevado del Cayambe area

3: t"rl 3:

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:z:t"rl

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Bosay, Cerro

3580

02°06'S

78°5l'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 7 km NW ofTixán

21n

Botijasacha, Cerro

4000

01 °26'S

78°58'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 15 km NW ofVolcán Chimborazo

l'

Buerán, Pmo.

3818

02°35'S

78°55'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 4.3 !c..m SE ofCañar, slopes ofCerro Buerán

o;p.

Buey Potrero, Cerro

3640

01 °09'S

78°27'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 6.8 km SE of San José de Poaló

Builpacana, Cerro

3800

01 °59'S

78°43'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 17 km E of Pallatanga

Elt"rl

Bulloc, Cerro

3760

01 °45'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 8 km NE afLicto

02°05'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 7.5 km NW ofTixán

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, E ofChunchi

Butoc Bailana, Cerro

3700

Cacheaco, Pmo. de

3800

Cagrin,Cerro

3836

01 °48'S

78°47'W

Chimborazo

12 km SW ofSicalpa

Cahuito, Cerro

4272

01 °07'S

78°43'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 7 km SSW ofCusubamba

Cailayacu, Cerro

3400

01 °5l'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

4 km SE ofSan Jorge

Cajas, Cerro

4280

01 °38'S

78°52'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 11 km SW ofSan Juan

;p.

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00

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N ame Cajas, Lagunas de

Elev. (m) 4020

Latitud e 00°39'S

Longitud e 78°2l'W

Division 1 Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, 14 km SE ofVolcán Sincholagua

~

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~

See Pmo. de Mojanda

Cajas, Nudo de Cajas, Pmo. (de, de Las, El Las, Las)

4100

Cajón de Quinuales, Cerro

4203

Calabozo, Cerro del

3760

Calacalí, Pmo. de

Notes

02°54'W

79°l7'S

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, ca. 30 km WNW of Cuenca and 3-10 km N of Soldados; possibly equals the Nudo del Azuay of Acosta-Solís (1984)

Ol 0 12'S

78°26'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 8 km NE ofSucre

02°54'S

79°ll'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 13 km W ofBaños

Pichincha

Doubtfully a true páramo (possibly a dry valley)

3680?

Calagüín, Cerro

See Cerro Calahuín

Calahuín, Cerro

3631

02°l2'S

78°54'W

Chimborazo

Calderón, Cerro

4240

01 °43'S

78°51'W

Chimborazo

10 km SE ofSicalpa

Calera Huaycu, Cerro

3600

01 o 40'S

78°55'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 8 km SE of San Lorenzo

Calera, Cerro La ( 1)

Cord. Occidental, W of Alausí; mispelled Calagüín

3800

01 o 43'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 6.8 km E of Chambo

Calera, Cerro La (2)

3600

01 °5l'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 16.6 km NE ofPallatanga

Callana Pucara, Cerro

4140

02° 17'S

78°47'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 3.5 km from Achupallas

Calubín, Cerro

3463

02°10'S

78°58'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 1O. 7 km NW of Sibambe

;¡,.

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 8.5 km NW of Saquisilí

S: ;;::

00°49'S

78°44'W

3530

03 °Ü5'S

78°45'W

Azuay

Cord. Oriental, 6.6 km SE of Sigsig

3271

00°13'N

78°27'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, NW ofSan José de Minas

Campamento, Cerro El

3548

00° 12'S

78°32'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 7.5 km NE ofChillogallo, E ofQuito

Campana Pungu, Cerro

3600

Ü2°ll'S

78°56'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 6.5 km NW ofSibambe

Campana Urcu, Cerro (1)

3400

00°37'S

78°47'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 7 km E of Santa Rosa

Campana Urcu, Cerro (2)

4360

01°l0'S

78°52'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 15.5 km NE ofSimiatug

Campana Urcu, Cerro (3)

4160

01 °04'S

78°54'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 5.5 km NE of Angamarca

Campana, Cerro

4200

01 o 41'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

7.5 km NW ofSicalpa

02°57'S

79°20'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental; may equal Quebrada Can Can (3600 m)

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, NE slopes Volcán Illiniza, NW ofPastocalle

Calvario,. Cerro

3540

Calvario, Cerro El Cambugán, Pmos. de

Cangan, Pmo. de Caniyalo, Pmo. de

3500

Cantzag, Cerro

4023

01 °l0'S

78°40'W

Cotopaxi/Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 11 km SSE ofCusubamba, 7 km NE ofQuinzapincha, W ofPillaro

Capadia Chico, Cerro

4320

01 o 25'S

78°56'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, E ofVolcán Chimborazo

Capadia Grande, Cerro

4280

01 °25'S

78°56'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 14 km NW ofVolcán Chimborazo

Caparina, Cerro ( 1)

3600

00°57'S

78°57'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 3.5 km SE ofPilaló

Caparina, Cerro (2)

3600

01 o 48'S

78°52'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 17 km SW of Sicalpa

""'

o

en

~ _,


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude Division 1

Notes

Caparina, Cerro (3)

4000

02°05'S

78°38'W

Chimborazo

10 km SE ofPalmira

Caparina, Cerro (4)

3800

02°22'S

78°52'W

Cañar

15.5 km NE of Juncal

Caparosa, Cerro

3405

01 o 45'S

78°58'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 8 km SE of Santiago

Carboncillo, Pmo. de

3000

03 °33'S

79°15'W

Azuay!Loja

Loma Carboncillo with highest point at 3067 m; not true páramo

Carboneria, Cerro

3800

01 °2l'S

78°43'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 6.7 km SW ofTisaleo

Carga Allichina, Cerro

3547

02°35'S

78°50'W

Cañar

\0 00

12 km SE ofCañar See Pmo. Carihuairazo

Cariguayrazo, Pmo. Carihuairazo, Pmo. (de)

5028

01 °24'S

78°45'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, NE of Volcán Chimborazo; also called Cerro and spelled Cariguayrazo (Spanish) or sometimes Caryhuayrazo

S:: m S::

Carnero Pungu, Cerro

4194

78°46'W

Tungurahua

Cord: Occidental, 22 km NE of Simiatug

Carniceria, Cerro

4320

01 °!0'S 01 o38'S

78°52'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 10 km SW ofSan-Juan

~ en

Carniceria, Pmo. de

3750

Chimborazo

W ofVolcán Sangay

o>r:l

Carshau, Cerro

3800

Cañar

8 km NE of Juncal

::r: m

02°25'S

78°55'W

o

-l

zm

Casaguala, El Cerro

See Cerro Casalahua

Casahuala, Cerro

see Cerro Casahihua

:;;::

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, NW of Amqato; sometimes misspelled Casahuala, El Casaguala or Cazaguala

o ~ tJ:j o >! z ñ

Casalahua, Cerro

4545

01 oIO'S

78°45'W

~

Cascajo, Cerro

3832

02°58'S

79°22'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 9 km SE of Chaucha

Cascarillas, Lagunas de

4000

79°!6'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 15.6 km NE ofChaucha

Cashisho, Cerro

3760

02°52'S 01 ooo·s

78°29'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 10.4 km NNW of San José de Poaló

Caspiasana, Cerro

3455 4120

03 °09'S

79°02'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 8.7 km SW ofCumbe

02°22'S

78°45'W

Cañar

5 km NE of Laguna Las Tres Cruces

Cl

Cord. Occidental, 9.4 km NW ofSan Juan

§ m z

Caspifitina, Cerro Caspigasí, Pmo. de

Pichincha 01 °33'S

Caspitotora, Cerro

4080

Castillo, Pmo. del

3400

Caucay, Cerro

3800

02°32'S

Cayambe, Pmo. de

3700

Cazaguala, Cerro

4100

78°50'W

Bolívar Azuay

Cord. Oriental, 6-8 km NNE of Sevilla de Oro

78°59'W

Cañar

6.7 km NW ofCañar

00°02'N

77°59'W

Pichincha/Imbabura/Sucumbíos Cord. Oriental, slopes ofVolcán or Nevado Cayambe (5789 m)

01 °09'S

78°45'W

Cotopaxi

Cazagua1a, Pmo. de

>-l' >--

Cord. Occidental, 19.3 km SE of Angamarca See Cerro Casalahua

Cazco Valenzuela, Pmo. de la comuna

3350

00°14'S

78°09'W

Imbabura

Cebadas, Cerro

3800

02°26'S

78°56'W

Cañar

5.2 km NE of Juncal

<o r

00

.¡,.


N ame Cenerón, Cerro

Elev. (m)

Latitude

4120

Chacana, Cerro

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

01 o 44'S

78°3I'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 8 km E of Chambo

00°26'S

78°14'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, 13 km SW ofPapallacta

Chagrapamba, Cerro

4000

01 °49'S

78°51'W

Chimborazo

17 km SW of Sicalpa

Cha1ata, Cerro

4200

01 °30'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 14.5 km NW ofSan Juan

Cha1úa, Pmos. de

3400

00°48'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 6 km W ofCanchagua Grande; páramo?

Chambi, Cerro

4240

01 °06'S

78°46'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 17 km NE of Angamarca

Chame, Cerro

3600

00°56'S

78°52'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12.6 km E ofPilaló

Chanchán, Cerro

3850

01 °49'S

78°47'W

Chimborazo

14 km S of Sicalpa

Chaning, Pmo. de

3500

Azuay

E of Azogues; a Lehmann collecting site; may equal Pmo. de Guairacaja Cord. Occidental, W ofGuamote, E ofPallatanga; also spelled Chanloor

\0 \0 \0

~

Chanlor, Cerro

4367

01 °52'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

Chaparumi, Cerro

4000

01 o 44'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 9.6 km SE ofChambo

Charonhuasi, Cerro

3840

03 °07'S

79°!9'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 8.5 km NW of San Fernando

Charopungu, Cerro

4200

02 °22'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

10 km SE ofCompud

Chaso Carapungu, Cerro

4283

01 °09'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12 km SE of Angamarca

Chasquí, Pmo. de

3658

Chauchavi, Cerro

4148

01 °27'S

78°56'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 4 km NW ofQuindihua Grande

> ~

Chaulor, Cerro

4367

01 °54'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, W ofGuamote

o

Chaupiata, Cerro

3640

01°17'S

78°49'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 15.3 km E ofSimiatug

Chaupirrumi, Cerro

3955

00°53'S

78°18'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 13 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos; also spelled Chaupirumi

Chaupiurcu, Cerro (1)

4400

01 °05'S

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 14 km NE of Angamarca, 6 km SE ofHuairapungo

Chaupiurcu, Cerro (2)

4240

02°22'S

78°47'W

Cañar

23 km NE of Juncal

Chaupiyacu, Cerro

4245

02°21'S

78°44'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 19 km NW ofHuangra

Chepe1, Pmo. de

2950

ElOro/Loja

Cord. Occidental (Cord. de Chillán), NE ofZaruma, between Payama and Tioloma

Chico Tunyal, Cerro

4200

Cañar

21 km NE ofJuncal

Chihuila-Sacha, Pmo.

3700

Cotopaxi/Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, part ofPmos. de Llanganati

Chilca, Pmo. de

4352

01 °03'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12 km NE of Angamarca (incL Cerro Taquirrumi)

Chiles, Pmo. de

4768

00°48'N

7r55'W

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, Volcán Chiles, 9.3 km NW ofTufiño, 34-3 6 km W of Tulcán

Chilindalo, Cerro

3400

00° 13'S

78°33'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 4.2 km NE ofLloa

Chiltazón, Pmo.

3967

00°41'N

78°01'W

Carchi

Cord. Occidental

Chimborazo, Cerro (1)

3508

01 °37'S

78°31'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 4 km NE of Quimiag

Pichincha (León ?)

02°24'S

78°47'W

"O

~

(/)

::0 \0


N

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

Chimborazo, Cerro (2)

3900

02°35'S

78°42'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 13 km NW ofHuangra

Chimborazo, Pmo.

6310

01 °27'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, NW ofRiobamba; also called Volcán Chimborazo and Nevado Chimborazo (at 6310 m)

Chimobrazo, Loma

4014

00°28'N

78°20'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, N ofNevado Cotacachi

Chinibano, Cerro

4180

00°56'S

78°28'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 8 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

N ame

Chique, Laguna

See Laguna Puruhanta

Chiquelín

May egua! Pmo. Llangagua

o o

See Laguna Puruhanta

;:;::

Chiqnicagna, Pmo. de

3800

01 °24'S

78°45'W

Tnngurahua

Cord. Occidental, NE slopes ofCarihuairazo, SW ofPilahuín; coordinates approximate

;:;::

Chiqningu, Cerro

3400

0! 0 49'S

78°45'W

Chimborazo

13.6 km S ofSicalpa

Chiquirignal, Cerro

4320

00°ll'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 7 km N ofLioa

Chiquita, Laguna

3800

00°07'S

78°!6'W

Pichincha

8 km NE ofTocachi

Chiqniurcn, Cerro

4000

01 °!3'S

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 18 km NE ofSimiatug

Chiripungu, Cerro

3440

02°25'S

78°56'W

Cañar

7.5 km NE of Juncal

Chiquí, Laguna de

t:Il

o

~

(/)

o'Tl

..., ::r: t:Il

zt:Il

:E '"< o

Chisag, Cerro

4320

01 °0l'S

78°52'W

Cotopaxi

Chitamachi, Cerro

4000

01 °36'S

78°5l'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 8 km NW of San Juan

Chivo, Cerro El

4080

01 °04'S

78°56'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 3 km NW ofAngamarca

~

Chocarcocha Chico, Laguna

4200

02° 15'S

78°3l'W

Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, 14-16.5 km SE ofTotoras

o..., ;¡...

Tnngurahua

Cord. Oriental, 4 km NE ofSan José de Poaló

ñ ;¡...

Chorrera de Panza, Cerro

4080

Chozones, Pmo. de

3000

Laja

Between Oña and Saraguro; probably not true páramo

Chugchilán, Pmo. de

3500

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, NW ofToacazo, NE slopes ofVolcán Illiniza

Pichincha

Coordinates estimated

Chnmillos, Pmo. de

3600

0

ÜÜ ]2'S

78°26'W

78°13'W

Chuquibanza, Cerro

May equal Pmo. Llangagua 02°32'S

78°59'W

Cañar

5.7 km NW ofCañar

4200

01 °!3'S

78°47'W

Tnngurahua

Cord. occidental, 19.3 km NE ofSimiatug

3800

00°37'S

78°32'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 1Okm SE of Chanpi

Chnrupucará, Cerro

3600

01 °l0'S

78°56'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12.7 km NE ofSimiatug

Chusalongo, Lagunas de

3900

02°55'S

79°!5'W

Azuay

NW ofSoldados

Chnspilli, Cerro

4000

0! 0 47'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

17.3 km SW of Sicalpa

Chusurrumi, Cerro

4000

01 °49'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

16 km SW ofSicalpa

Chuqnirahua, Cerro (1)

3800

Chuquirahna, Cerro (2) Churupinto, Pmo. de

tD

See Laguna Chocarcocha Chico

Chocarcocha Grande, Laguna 01 °05'S

Cord. Occidental, 12 km NE of Angamarca; latitude may be 00°45'S instead (?)

z

t-

Cl

;¡, ?O t:l t:Il

z

<o r ""' 00


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitud e

Longitud e Division 1

Notes

4189

02°06'S

78°37'W

Chimborazo

11.7 km SE ofPa1mira

Cipreses, Laguna de Los

4200

02°50'S

79°!7'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 14.3 km NE ofChaucha

Cisarán, Cerro

4360

02° !9'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 6. 7 km SW of Achupallas

Clavelillo, Cerro

3880

02°55'S

79°!2'W

Azuay

. Cintura Pi terina, Cerro

'O

'D

~

Cord. Occidental, 23.5 km SW ofCuenca See Pmo. de Corredores

Clavelillo, Pmo. Cochaloma, Cerro

4063

01 °58'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 17 km NE ofPallatanga

Cojitambo, Cerro

4120

02°25'S

78°47'W

Cañar

21.7 km NE of Juncal

Colacunde, Cerro

3600

00°45'S

78°47'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12 km SE ofSigchos

Cola!, Cerro

4686

02° 15'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, SE ofPalmira, E of Achupallas

Colay, Cerro

4685

02°!4'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, E of Alausí

Collapungu, Cerro

4240

or24's

78°48'W

Cañar

20.3 km NE of Juncal

Collincora, Cerro

3560

04 o28'S

79°19'W

Loja

15.2 km SE ofSan Antonio de Aradas

Común, Cerro

4400

01 °03'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 13.5 km NE of Angamarca

Conde, Cerro

4215

00°46'S

78°2l'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, 13.5 km SE ofVolcán Cotopaxi

Cóndor Amana, Cerro

4302

78°45'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 19 km SE of Angamarca

Cóndor Machay, Cerro

4080

01 °08'S 01 o31'S

78°49'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 13 km NW of San Juan

Cóndor Matzay, Cerro

4200

01 °07'S

78°45'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 19 km SE of Angamarca

Cóndor Samana, Cerro

3600

00°58'S

78°58'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 4.7 km SE ofPilaló

Cóndor, Cerro

3850

Chimborazo

6.7 km SE ofPalmira

3988

02°04'S 01 o20'S

78°40'W

Condorcaca, Cerro

78°44'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 7.3 km SW ofTisaleo

Condorrnatze, Cerro

4000

00°58'S

78°54'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 11 km SE ofPilaló; does this equal Cerro Cóndor Matzay?

Condorpalte, Cerro

4000

01 °34'S

78°50'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 9 km NW of San Juan

Condorpasana, Cerro

4240

01 °24'S

78°56'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 16 km NW ofVolcán Chimborazo

Condorpaso, Cerro

4197

00°57'S

78°25'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 4 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Condoructo, Cerro

4199

01 °39'S

78°52'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 11 km SW of San Juan

Conga, Cerro

4434

00°52'S

78°16'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, 2 km S ofLaguna Yanacocha (not to be confused with the Yanacocha on the N side ofVolcán Pichincha) Cord. Occidental, 20 km NW of San Fernando

Contrayerba, Cerro

4040

03°0l'S

79°23'W

Azuay

Copaloma, Cerro

3425

00°57'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 5 km W ofPujilí

Coparahuashicuna, Cerro

4200

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12.5 km NE of Angamarca

Corazón Urcu, Cerro

3690

01 °03'S 01 o31'S

78°45'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 12.6 km NE of San Juan

"O

> ~ s;: o (/]

N

o


N

N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitud e

Division 1

Notes

Corazón, Cerro

4320

00°3l'S

78°39'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 11 km SW ofMachachi

Cordaurcu, Cerro

4160

01 o 45'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

15.2 km SW ofSicalpa

Loja/Zamora-Chinchipe

Loja/Zamora-Chinchipe border, E ofSaraguro

Cordoncillo, Pmos. de Corral Pamba, Cerro

3800

00°43'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 7 km SE ofSigchos

Corral Viejo, Cerro

3720

ooo 19'S

78°35'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 6 km SW ofChillogallo

o

N

Corredores, Pmo. (de)

3260

03 o 33'S

79°35'W

El Oro

Cord. Occidental (Cord. de Chillán), N ofZaruma; also called Pmo. Clavelillo

Cotacachi, Pmo. de

3400

00°22'N

78°20'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, 15 km E ofPlaza Gutiérrez (incl. Laguna Cuicocha and Nevado Cotacachi at 4937 m); also called Volcán or Cerro Cotacachi

Coto Amina, Cerro

4155

00°5l'S

78o28'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 15 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Coto Juan, Cerro

4160

01 o 43'S

78°52'W

Chimborazo

11 km SW of Sicalpa

Cotopaxi, Volcán

5897

00°40'S

78°26'W

Cotopaxi/Pichincha/N apo

Cord. Oriental, 18 km NE ofMulaló, N ofLatacunga; also called Nevado Cotopaxi

Cresta de Gallo, Cerro

3520

04° 15'S

78o06'W

Loja

11.6 km ofVilcabamba

Criadero de Buitres, Cerro

3920

02°50'S

79°1l'W

Azuay

21 km NW of Cuenca

Cruz de Gula, Cerro

3690

03 °42'S

79°19'W

Loja

7.3 km NW ofSan Lucas

ztn

01 °0l'S

78°50'W

Cotopaxi

01 °17'S

78°26'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 6.4 km SE ofSucre

o>-<;:o

Cruz, Pmo. de La Cruzloma, Cerro (1)

3770

o % o'Tl (/l

-3

::r: tn

~

Cruzloma, Cerro (2)

3450

01 °20'S

78°4l'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 3.5 km W ~fTisaleo

Cruzloma, Pmo. de

3050

00° 15'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, slopes ofVolcán Pichincha, above Quito

Cruzmaqui, Cerro

3700

01 o 20'S

78°43'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 6.5 km W ofTisaleo

Cruzpungu, Cerro

4281

02°07'S

78°39'W

Chimborazo

9.2 km SE ofPalmira

Cuarteles, Cerro

3560

02°25'S

78°57'W

Cañar

7.6 km NE of Juncal

Cubijín Urcu, Cerro

3440

01 °02'S

78°29'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 0.6 km NE ofCashaloma

Cubilán, Cerro (1)

3880

03 °04'S

79° 18'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 10 km NW ofSan Fernando

Cubilán, Cerro (2)

3767

03°34'S

79°23'W

Loja

6.2 km SW ofSelva Alegre

Cubillán, Cerro

4300

00°39'S

78°l4'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, between Volcán Cotopaxi and Cerro Antisana, SE ofCerro Laurel

Cubillín, Pmo. de

3400

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, but also see Volcán Quilimás

;>:; tD

o-3 >31 n >r-' o >E3

ztn

See Volcán Quilimás

Cubullín, Volcán Cuchiguasi, Cerro

~ tn ~

4113

00°52'S

78°27'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 12 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Cuchihuasi, Cerro

4460

01 °04'S

78°50'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 11 km NE of Angamarca

Cuiquiloma, Cerro

4206

01 o 33'S

78°5l'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 12 km NW ofSan Juan

Culebrillas, Pmo.

3450

02°53'S

78°46'W

Azuay

Cord. Oriental, 23--40 km SE ofGualaceo

<o ¡:-' 00

.¡:.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Culebrillas, Pmo. de

3600

Cumbas, Pmos. de

3800

Cumbaya, Pmo.

3450

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes Cord. Oriental, in Parque Nacional Sangay

00° 19'N

78°22'W

Imbabura

-

\0 \0

~

Cord. Occidental, N ofLaguna de Cuicocha; may egua! Pmos. de Cungas

Pichincha Napo (?)

Cord. Oriental, E slopes, E of(San Miguel de) Salcedo

Cunambay, Cerro

4000

01 °39'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 5.2 km SW of San Juan; may egua! Cerro Cunumbay

Cungas, Pmo. de

4000

00°20'N

78°2l'W

Carchi

Cord. Occidental, SSW ofNevado Cotacachi, E ofPmos. de Tablachupa, W of Pmo. de Morochos; may egua] Pmo. de Cumbas

Cunumbay, Cerro

4085

01 o 40'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

5 km NW ofSicalpa; may egua! Cerro Cunambay

Cunupugro, Cerro

3840

00°54'S

78°28'W

Cotopaxi

Cumbijín, Pmo. de

Curiquinga, Pmo. de

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 10.5 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos See Pmo. de Curiquingue

Curiquingue Y anarrumi, Cerro

3800

00°5l'S

78°5l'W

Cotopaxi

Curiquingue, Cerro ( 1)

4405

01 °04'S

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 14.7 km NE of Angamarca

Curiquingue, Cerro (2)

4080

01 o 13'S

78°46'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 6.4 km NW ofHuilaló

Cañar

5 km S ofCañar, slopes ofCerro Buerán; also spelled Curiquinga

Cord. Occidental, 5.5 km E ofLaguna Quilotoa

Curiquingue, Pmo. de

3800

Cushiro, Cerro

3562

04 o 18'S

79°07'W

Loja

12.4 km SE ofVilcabamba

Cushorrumi, Cerro

3400

02°06'S

78°5l'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 8 km NW ofTixán

Cushquisurcuna, Cerro

4200

01 °40'S

78°52'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 11 km NW of Sicalpa

Cushuna, Cerro

3637

01 °34'S

78°56'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 6.6 km NE of Guaranda

Cusín, Cerro

3990

00° ll'N

78°07'W

Cusnopaccha, Pmo. de

3400

Cusumunllo, Cerro

4340

01 °24'S

Cutahua, Cerro

3400

Daldal, Pmo. de

Imbabura!Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, N ofCayambe, NW ofOlmedo

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, E of Alao; also spelled Cushnipaccha

77°54'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 11 km NW ofVolcán Chimborazo

01 °l3'S

78°57'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 6.2 km N of Simiatug

3600

01 o 48'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental; altitude and coordinates are for village of Daldal

Danas, Cerro

3778

02°09'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 9 km SW ofTixán

Danas, Cerro El

4200

01 o 48'S

78°55'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 14 km SE ofSantiago

Danta Sirina

3995

00°52'S

78°24'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), N ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Derrumbo, Cerro El

3720

01 °48'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

18 km SW ofSicalpa

Diablo Peña, Cerro

3840

01 o 41'S

78°53'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 11 km NE of Santiago

Diablo Sirina, Cerro

4520

02°16'S

78°32'W

Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, 15 km SE ofTotoras

Dolliurcu, Cerro

4160

01 o 12'S

78°48'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 19 km NE of Simiatug

Dudaloma, Cerro

3400

02°34'S

78°45'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 20 km SE of Cañar

""

~

~ s;:: o

[/)

N

ow


N

Name

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

o

.¡:,.

Dudas, Cerro

4031

02°24'S

78°37'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 7.7 km NW ofHuangra

Encantada, Laguna

3900

Cord. Oriental, 8.6 km S ofOyacachi

4100

78°03'W 78o30'W

Napo

Ensillada, Cerro

00°!5'S 01 o47'S

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 9 km NE ofLicto

Era Urcu, Cerro

4473

01 °0l'S

78o50'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 13 km NE of Angamarca

Escalera Grande, Cerro

3520

02°30'S

78°46'W

Cañar

17 km E ofTambo

Esmoquero, Cerro

4040

00°55'S

78°23'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 5 km N ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Esperanza, Cerro La

3800

01 °03'S

78°26'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 5 km NE of San José de Poaló

Estribo Grande, Cerro

4406

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 14.5 km NE of Angamarca

Eva, Cerro

3400

01 °04'S ooo 14'S

78°39'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 8 km NW ofLioa

Falto, Cerro

4210

ooo 57'S

78°27'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 7 Km W ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Fiachi, Laguna

3800

02°53'S

79°09'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 9 km NW ofBaños

o"rj

Fierro Urcu, Cerro

3788

03°4l'S

79°20'W

Loja/EI Oro

Cord. Occidental, WSW of Saraguro, 9 km NE of Gua! el

Fierroloma, Cerro

4137

03°02'S

79°22'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 18 km NW ofSan Fernando

5ti

Foyo Huasi, Cerro

4080

01 °07'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 8.5 km SW ofCusubamba

z

See Pmos. de Mojanda

><:

Fuya-Fuya, Cerro

2:: tJ:j 2::

8

:>:1

(/l

tJ:j tJ:j

~

o

Gaballushi, Cerro

3480

02°26'S

78°57'W

Cañar

4 km N of Juncal

Galápagos, Pmo. de

3600

02°42'S

78°35'W

Azuay/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, E ofEl Pan

Galgalán, Cerro El

4686

02°09'S

78°24'W

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, E ofPalmira, WNW ofMacas

Gallo Rumi, Cerro

4500

02°23'S

78°50'W

Cañar

17.7 kmNEofJuncal; [Prov. Chimborazo, Cord. Occidental (fide Acosta-Solís, 1984)]

Gallo Urcu, Cerro

4095

01 °08'S

78°43'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 9 km SW ofCusubamba

ñ

Gallocantana, Cerro

3840

00°l9'S

78°36'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 9 km SW ofChillogallo, SW ofQuito

1:"" Cl

Galo Cocha, Laguna

3800

01 °l9'S

78°57'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 3.5 km SW ofSimiatug

Ganquis, Cerro

4058

01 °35'S

78°5l'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 10 km NW ofSan Juan

Gapaguey, Cerro

3480

01 °34'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 6 km NE ofSan Juan

Garzaguachana, Cerro

3800

01 °54'S

78°54'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 9.5 km NE ofSan Simón

Chimborazo

SE ofSicalpa

0

Gavilán Huachana, Cerro

3909

Ol 48'S

78°47'W

Gavilán Paccha, Cerro

4160

02°20'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

19 km E ofCompud

Gigantones, Cerro

4040

03 °0l'S

79°24'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 22.3 km NW ofSan Fernando

00°45'S 01 o43'S

78°45'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, may equal Pmo. de Güintza (Nudo de Tiopullo)

4200

78°5l'W

Chimborazo

Gintza, Pmo. de Gorda Urcu, Cerro Gorda, Cerro

10-12 km SW ofSicalpa; also called Cerro Gorda See Cerro Gorda Urcu

~ 1:0 o...,

z>

>

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~

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z

<o r-'

00

.¡:,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e Division 1 Chimborazo

Notes Cord. Oriental, SE ofCebadas, W ofVolcán Sangay

Gosoy, Pmos. de

4190

01 °57'S

78°34'W

Grande de Mojanda, Laguna

3719

00°08'N

78° 15'W

Pichincha!lmbabura

1Okm NE ofTocachi; also called Laguna de Mojanda or Laguna de Mojanda Cajas

Grande, Laguna

3660

02° ll'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 7 km NE of Alausí

Grande, Pmo.(!)

4060

00°33'S

78°31'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, Cerro Rumiñahui, NW slopes, SE ofMachachi

00°29'S

78°39'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, N slopes ofCerro Corazón, SW of Aloag; may egua! Pmo. El Pongo

Chimborazo

Grande, Pmo. (2)

3800

Guabo, Pmo.

3400

Guagra Huma, Cerro

4000

01 °36'S 01 o IO'S

78°46'W 78°27'W

Tungurahua

Guagrahuma, Cerro

3550

03°43'S

79°19'W

Loja

Cord. Oriental, 10.2 km NE ofSucre 7 km NE of Gua! el; al so called Nudo de Guagrauma See Cerro Guagrahuma

Guagrauma, Nudo de Guagua Pichincha, Pmo. del

\0 \0 \0

~

4875

ooo IO'S

78°36'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, part ofVolcán Pichincha, W ofQuito, 8 km NW ofL!oa, 11.4 km SW ofNono; also spelled Huahua Pichincha

Guairacaja, Pmo. de

3500

Azuay

May egua! Pmo. de Chaning

Gualalí, Loma

4380

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, Volcán Cotacachi

Gualampuz, Pmo.

3865

Guamallo, Cerro

3640

02°32'S

78°49'W

Cañar

5 km E oflngapirca

Guamaní, Pmo. de

4200

00°20'S

78°33'W

Pichincha!Napo

Cord. Oriental, E ofPifo on rd. to Papallacta; also called Monte Guamaní, El Paso de Guamaní, and Pmo. de la Virgen

Guangotasín, Cerro

4000

00°57'S

78°29'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 10 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Guanguloma, Cerro

3750

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 5.7 km SW ofHuangra

3816

02°29'S 01 o 28'S

78°39'W

Guaslán, Cerro

78°35'W

Tungurahua

9.7 km SE ofMocha

Guasumpala, Cerro

4000

01 °45'S

78°3l'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 9 km SE ofChambo

Guingopana Grande, Cerro

4055

00°45'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

. Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, Volcán Chimborazo, E slopes "t!

;...

~ ;:::: o [/)

5 km E oflsinlivi See Tiopullo

Güintza, Pmo. Gulag, Cerro

38oo

01 °38'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 4.4 km SW of San Juan

Gulag, Pmos. de

4206

01 o 33'S

78°5l'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, ENE ofGuaranda, NW ofSan Juan

Habacota, Laguna

3800

03 °Ü5'S

79°19'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 9 km NW of San Fernando

Hermoso, Cerro

4571

01 o 13'S

78°17'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Los Llanganates), ca. 12 km SE of Pmo. de Jaramillo; also called Cerro Llanganati (M. Gavilanes, pers. comm.)

Hignug, Cerro

3400

01 o 41'S

78°42'W

Chimborazo

4.3 km W ofYaruguíes

Huacaguañuna, Cerro

3880

01 o 46'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 7 km NE of Juan de Velasco

Huachana Curiguingue, Cerro

4080

00°5l'S

78°26'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 13 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

See Altos de Boliche

Huaca, Nudo de

N

o

V>


Name

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

N

Longitude Division 1

Notes

Huacorrumi, Cerro

4022

00°52'S

78°28'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 12 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Huagra Huanuna, Cerro

3800

01 °49'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 6 km E of Juan de Velasco

Huagra Moyuna, Cerro

3490

02°34'S

78°45'W

Cañar

13 km SE oflngapirca

Huagra Urcu, Cerro

3600

01 °50'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

2.2 km E of San Jorge

Huagracorral, Cerro

3800

78°4l'W

Tungurahua

6.6 km NW ofQuisapincha

Huahua Pari, Cerro

4320

Ül 10'S 01 o 13'S

78°53'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 10-15 km NE ofSimiatug

Huahua Urcu, Cerro

3400

01 °5l'S

78°54'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 16.5 km NE ofPallatanga

Huahuayacu, Cerro

4153

01 °l4'S

78°48'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 16 km NE ofSimiatug; may equal Cerro Sombrero Urcu

0

Huahua Pichincha, Cerro

o

0\

See Pmo. del Guagua Pichincha

Huaico, Pmo.

See Pmo. Huayco

~

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~

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(/)

Huaicutambo, Cerro

3440

01 °ll'S

78°29'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 4 km N ofBaquerizo Moreno

Huailhuacer, Cerro

3800

01 o 36'S

78°47'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 2.6 km SW ofSan Juan

Huairacajana, Pmo. de

3000

Azuay

Near Pindilig; not true páramo

Huairaja, Cerro

4007

02°06'S

78°38'W

Chimborazo

9 km SE ofPalmira

Huairapamba, Cerro

3800

01 o 47'S

78o47'W

Chimborazo

1Okm SW of Sicalpa

Huairapata, Cerro

3800

01 °l0'S

78°44'W

Tungurahua

9.7 km NW ofQuisapincha

>-rj

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tTJ

ztTJ

::;::

o-<

::<!

Huairapungo, Cerros de

4272

01 °38'S

78°52'W

Bolívar/Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, W of San Juan, NW of Juan de Velasco; also spelled Huairapungu; coordinates approximate

?'

Huaitayug, Cerro

4160

01 °39'S

78°53'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 10.5 km SE ofSan Simón

:;¡,.

Hualicanga, Cerro

3960

02°25'S

78°55'W

Cañar

8.3 km NE of Juncal

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental

ñ:;¡,.

Huamboya, Pmos. de Huangu, Cerro El

3700

02°30'S

78°38'W

Cañar

17.4 km NW ofHuarainac

Huangupud, Pmos. de

4200

01 °45'S

78°5l'W

Chimborazo

SW ofSicalpa

Huapageo, Cerro

3495

03 °Ü8'S

79°03'W

Azuay

8.7 km SW ofCumbe

Huapungoto, Cerro

3520

01 °4l'S

78°56'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 7 km NE of Santiago

Huaquer, Pmos. de

3604

00°35'N

7r53'W

Carchi

Cord. Occidental, W of San Gabriel (incl. Loma de Huaquer)

Huarcorrumi, Cerro ( 1)

4000

01 °20'S

78°44'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 8 km W ofTisaleo

Huarcurrumi, Cerro (2)

3880

ÜÜ 50'S

78°22'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 15 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

0

Huarcurrumiloma, Cerro

3880

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 5 km SW of Cusubamba

3845

01 °06'S 00ol4'N

78°43'W

Huarrni Imbabura, Cerro

78°12'W

Imbabura

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofLago de San Pablo

Huatouiña, Laguna

3660

03 o 40'S

79°2l'W

Loja

11 km NE of Gua! el

o::J

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:;¡,.

~

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<o !"""" 00

_¡,.


Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Huaycu, Pmo.

4000

01 o55'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 12 km E ofGuamote; also spelled Huico

Huaytayuc, Cerro

3960

01 o40'S

78°54'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 10.5 km NE ofSan Lorenzo

Huerajachupa, Cerro

3840

02°05'S

78°39'W

Chimborazo

7.6 km E ofPa1mira

Huiñahuarta, Cerro

3600

78°39'W

Azuay

Cord. Oriental, 4 km SE ofTaday

Huiñatus, Cerro

4000

02°39'S 01 o39'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 5 km SW ofSan Juan

Huisla, Cerro

3762

01 °23'S

78°34'W

Tungurahua

4.7 km SE ofQuero

N ame

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

-

\0 \0

~

See Pmo. de Tiopullo

Huinsa, Pmo. Humanchi, Cerro

4080

or52'S

79°13'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 25.6 km W ofCuenca, 16 km W ofSayausí

Iglesia, Cerro

4360

01 °06'S

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 14 km E of Angamarca

Iglesia-Rumí, Cerro

3969

01 °36'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 5.5 km NW ofSan Juan

Ignillapungu, Cerro

3840

78°53'W

Cañar

8.6 km NE of Juncal

Igualata, Pmo. de

4000

02°28'S 01 o29'S

78°38'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 7.2 km SE of Yanayacu (incl. Cerro Igualata at 4330 m)

Iguila Pungu, Cerro

3665

02°32'S

78°50'W

Iguán, Cerro

4000

Probably equals Cerro Igua1ata in Tungurahua

Igualata-Sanancajas, Pmo. de . Cañar

4 km NE oflngapirca

Carchi

Iguán, Laguna

3625

02° 12'S

78°32'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 15.5 km NE ofTotoras

Iliniza Norte, Nevado

5600

00°38'S

78°43'W

Pichincha/Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 30 km W ofVolcán Cotopaxi, 1Okm SW ofChaupi, N ofLatacunga

Iliniza Sur, Nevado

5800

00°39'S

78°42'W

Pichincha/Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 30 km W ofVolcán Cotopaxi, 10.5 km SW ofChaupi, N ofLatacunga

Illahuas, Cerros

4230

01°10'S

78°45'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 25 km NE ofSimiatug

Imanante, Cerro

4200

01 °50'S

78°31'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 14 km NE of Cebadas

Imbabura, Cerro

4630

00°15'N

78°10'W

Imbabura

Cord. Oriental, E ofOtavalo, 7 km N ofSan Pablo

Inabuela, Laguna

4200

01 °21'S

78°44'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 8.7 km SW ofTisaleo

Inca Cocha, Lagunas

4000

or51'S

79°16'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 15.6 km NE ofChaucha

Inga Casa, Laguna

4000

02°5l'S

79° 16'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 16.6 km NE ofChaucha

Ingañán, Cerro

3730

02°29'S

78°45'W

Cañar

23.5 km E of Juncal

Inganilla, Pmo. de

3400

78°55'W

Cañar

Between Biblián and Cañar

Ingapirca, Cerro

4200

02°37'S 01 o44'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 10 km SE ofChambo

Irarrumi, Cerro

4000

02°05'S

78°37'W

Chimborazo

11 km SE ofPalmira

Ishcurrumi, Cerro

3600

01°43'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

6 km SW of Sicalpa

Ishquirrumi, Cerro

3860

01 °06'S

78°43'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 6 km SW ofCusubamba

lshunshico, Cerro

3400

01 °22'S

78°40'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 3 km S ofTisa1eo

"ti

> ~ $:: o (/)

N

o

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Name.

N

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitud e

Division 1

Notes

Isicsilli, Cerro

4000

00°54'S

78°24'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 6.5 km N ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Jaboncillo, Cerro

4120

02° 17'S

78°43'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 7.6 km SW ofTotoras

Jacsán, Laguna

4000

02° 17'S

78°35'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 10.3 km SE ofTotoras

Jalopamba, Cerro

3600

01°47'S

78°5l'W

Chimborazo

14 km SW ofSica1pa

Jalopungu, Cerro

3460

02°34'S

78°45'W

Cañar

13 km SE oflngapirca

Jaramillo, Pmo. de

4100

01 °l2'S

78°26'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Los Llanganates), ca. 12 km NW ofCerro Hermoso

Jatun,Muca, Cerro

4082

00°47'S

78°47'W

Cotopaxi

1O km SE oflsinlivi; also spelled Jatún Muea

J atunsamana, Cerro

3533

02°33'S

78°45'W

Cañar

14 km SE oflngapirca

Jichaisita, Cerro

4030

00°58'S

78°30'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 12.6 km SE ofLatacunga

Jigeno, Laguna

4000

02°54'S

79° 17'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 13.6 km E ofChaucha

Jilinqui, Cerro

4191

ÜÜ 0 58'S

78°28'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 7.5 km SE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

o

00

s;: tri s;: o

~ (/)

o ..., :r:tri "rj

Jora-Cruz, Pmo. de

See Pmo. de Y oracruz

Josefo Chiquito, Cerro

4112

01 °07'S

78°43'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 6.4 km SW ofCusubamba

Junacocha,Laguna

4040

02°23'S

78°36'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 9.4 km NW ofHuangra

Ladrillo, Cerro

4160

00° IO'S

78°33'W

Pichincha

8 km NE ofLloa, E ofQuito

Lagoa Toa, Cerro

4180

00°57'S

78°28'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 15.8 km SE·ofLatacunga

o

Lagunas, Pmo. de Las

ztri

~

>-<:

?::1

00°41'N

1rs2w

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, headwaters ofRío Bobo and Río Carchi

7'

o ...,

Laigua Tingo, Cerro

3880

01 °09'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 10 km SW ofCusubamba

Langasa, Cerro

3800

00°49'S

78°25'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 16.6 km S ofVolcán Cotopaxi

Langaya, Cerro

4080

01 o 41'S

78°55'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 8.8 km E of Santiago

Languachupa, Cerro

4000

ÜÜ 0 51'S

78°2Ü'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 13.5 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Languapungo,Cerro

4040

00°53'S

78°25'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 8 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Lanlaguso, Cerro

4295

Ol 0 57'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, SW ofGuamote

Lanza, Cerro La

4100

01 °25'S

78°48'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 4 km NE Nevado Chimborazo

Laurean, Cerro

3460

02°31'S

78°46'W

Cañar

11 km NE oflngapirca

Laurel, Cerro

4000

00°37'S

78°17'W

Napa/Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, between Volcán Cotopaxi and Cerro Antisana, SE ofCerro Sincholagua

León, Pmo. de

4000

Leonan, Cerro ( 1)

4416

01 o 43'S

78°3l'W

Chimborazo

Leonan, Cerro (2)

4000

02°06'S

78°38'W

Chimborazo

10 km SE ofPalmira

Liglepungo, Cerro

3680

02°30'S

78°45'W

Cañar

13 km NE oflngapirca

Limbo, Cerro El

3760

01 °27'S

78°58'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 17 km W ofVolcán Chimborazo

OJ

:> ~

(")

:>

l'

a

:>

§ ztri

Cotopaxi Cord. Oriental, 7.4 km E ofChambo

<o r-'

00

""'


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitud e

Division 1

Notes

Limoturo, Cerro

3600

01 °18'S

78°21'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 5 km ESE ofEl Triunfo

Limpiopungo, Pmos. de

3880

00°37'S

78°28'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, Volcán Cotopaxi, NW slopes, around Laguna de Limpiopungo; also called Laguna de Limpias

Lirio, Cerro

4200

01 o 38'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 12 km SW of San Juan

Lirio, Cerro El

3800

01 °57'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 20 km NE ofPallatanga

Llachapa, Loma

4560

01 °06'S

78°51'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, NE of Angamarca

Llactaquingre, Cerro

4000

02°27'S

78°48'W

Cañar

18.8 km NE of Juncal

Lladán, Cerro

3400

02°32'S

78°46'W

Cañar

11 km E oflngapirca

Tungurahua

Uncertain iftrue páramos

N ame

Llangagua, Pmos. de

'-0 '-0

..:::

See Cerro Hermoso

Llanganati, Cerro Llanganati, Pmos. de

3900

01 °09'S

78°18'W

Llano de Sambipamba

3400

00°14'S

78°00'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, near Oyacachi

Llifatán, Cerro

3800

Ol 0 13'S

78°44'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 4.2 km N ofSan Fernando; also spelled Ilifatán

Llilla Cruz, Cerro

4000

02°22'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

6 km SE ofCompud

Llillán Pungu, Cerro

3480

02°34'S

78°46'W

Cañar

18 km SE ofCañar

Llillín, Cerro

3640

01 °36'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 4.5 km NW ofSan Juan

Llimpi, Cerro

3700

01 °22'S

78°34'W

Tungurahua

3.7 km E ofQuero

Llipimachay, Cerro

4200

02°24'S

78°54'W

Chimborazo

11.7 km NE ofJuncal

Lloraquingue, Cerro

4160

02 o 19'S

78°45'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 4.6 km S of Achupallas

Lluchir, Cerro

3840

03 °04'S

79°16'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 8.6 km NW of San Fernando

L]ugllugpungu, Cerro

4157

Ol 0 15'S

78°48'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 17.7 km NE of Simiatug

Llullucha, Cerro

4025

01 o 35'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 5.5 km NW of San Juan

Llullín, Cerro

3622

02°35'S

78°49'W

Cañar

13.2 km SE Cañar

Lluragrumi, Cerro

3920

03 °04'S

79°17'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 9.2 km NW ofSan Fernando

Loca Huañuna, Cerro

4000

00°52'S

78°29'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 14 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Loma Gorda, Pmo. de

3850

00°37'S

78° IO'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, along Río Antisana below Micacocha

Loma Yanaurcu, Cerro

3800

00°08'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 8 km S ofNono

Luchaloma, Cerro

4320

01 °24'S

78°55'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 14 km NW ofNevado Chimborazo

Luspa, Pmo. de Laguna

4400

02°46'S

79°!0'W

Cuenca

Cord. Occidental, Cajas area, 44 km W ofCuenca

Lutococha, Laguna

3400

01 °29'S

78°59'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 20 km SW ofNevado Chimborazo

Machachi, Pmo.

3660

00°08'S

78°05'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, slopes ofVolcán Cotopaxi

Napo/Cotopaxi/Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Los Llanganates), SE of Chosa Aucacocha, between Aucacocha and Pan de Azúcar

"" > ~ ~ o (/)

N

o

'-0


N

N ame Macho Urcu, Cerro

Elev. (m) Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

78°48'W

Cañar

18 km NE of Juncal

4000

or26'S

Magtayán, Laguna

3800

02° 14'S

78°35'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 11 km E ofTotoras

Malenda Chica, Laguna

3760

01 °23'S

78°4l'W

Tungurahua

4.4 km NW ofMocha

Malenda Grande, Laguna

3763

01 o23'S

78°4l'W

Tungurahua

3.6 km NW ofMocha

Malpán, Cerro

3880

02°18'S

78°51'W

Chimborazo

5 km SW ofGonzol

Mama Tablón, Cerro

3640

02°5l'S

79°07'W

Azuay

5 km NW of Sayausí

Mamarumi, Cerro

4100

00°57'S

79°48'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 1O km W of Zumbagua

Mandana, Cerro

4000

OZ008'S

78°38'W

Chimborazo

12.6 km SE ofPalmira

Mangan, Cerro

3920

02°26'S

78°49'W

Cañar

16 km NE of Juncal

Mangan,Laguna(l)

4000

02°20'S

78°36'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 14.3 km NE ofHuangra

Mangan, Laguna (2)

3840

02°l4'S

78°34'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 11.4 km E of Totoras, near Laguna Magtayan

o

~ trJ ~

o ¡¡; o"rj (/)

Mangapungu, Cerro

4240

01 °24'S

78°56'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 15 km NW ofNevado Chimborazo

Mapahuina, Cerro

4366

02°22'S

78°47'W

Chimborazo/Cañar

Cord. Oriental, SE of Chunchi ·

Marco Quinroy, Laguna

3400

00°26'S

78°20'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, 8.2 km SE ofPintag

Marcos Cocha, Laguna

3600

01 oül'S

78°l7'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, 23 kni NE ofS~ José de Poaló

>-3

::r:: trJ

ztrJ

~

o--<

Margarita, Laguna

3440

04° 17'S

79°06'W

Loja

12.5 km SE ofVilcabamba

Mariano Acosta, Pmo. de

3650

00°20'N

78°00'W

Imbabura

Cord. Oriental, along Mariano Acosta-Yahuarcocha rd. (ca. km 20--26)

Mashuo, Cerro

4280

02°24'S

78°49'W

Cañar

17 km NE of Juncal

Matanga,Pmos. de

3500

03 °Ü8'S

78°40'W

Azuay/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, SSE ofCuenca, SE ofSigsig

Mechahuasca, Pmo. de

4260

01 o 24'S

78°49'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, N ofVolcán Chimborazo and SW ofCarihuairazo

ñ

Merced, Pmos. La

3100

ÜÜ 22'S

78°20'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, ENE ofBaños; not true páramo

"Cl

0

Mica, Laguna de La

See Laguna Micacocha 78° 12'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, in páramo on S slope of Cerro Antisana; also spelled Mica-cocha; also called Laguna de La Mica

ÜÜ 55'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 6.2 km NW ofPujilí

4180

01 o 33'S

78°53'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, Cerro Milín, 12 km NE ofGuaranda

Milín, Pmo. de (2)

4400

01 °Ül'S

78°54'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, Pujili-Quevedo rd., NE of Angamarca

Minas, Cerro (1)

4005

00°56'S

78°27'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 8 km NW ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Minas, Cerro (2)

4096

03 °05'S

79°23'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, SW of Cuenca, WNW of Girón

Minas, Cerro (3)

4415

02°23'S

78°5l'W

Chimborazo

10 km SE ofCompud

Minas, Cerro (4)

4120

02°10'S

78°39'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 9 km NE ofTotoras

Micacocha, Laguna

4100

00°33'S

Milín Chico, Cerro

3810

Milín, Pmo. de (1)

0

~ ttl o>-3

z~

~

~

§ ztrJ

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00

.¡:,.


N ame _ Minas, Pmo. de

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

3600

00° 13'S

78°!2'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, S ofCerro Puntas, NNW ofPapallacta; coordinates estimated

Mintanga, Cerro

3630

00°47'S

78°56'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 2 km W ofChugchilán

Mintza, Pmo. de

4000

O1o27'S

78°20'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, SE ofVolcán Tungurahua

Mirador, Cerro

3800

01 °05'S

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 5.5 km SW ofCusubamba

Mirador, Pmo.

4082

00°36'N

7r39'W

Carchi/Sucumbíos

Cord. Oriental, 25 km S ofTulcán, close to Playón de San Francisco; also called Cerro (El) Mirador

Miraflores, Cerro

3400

01 o51'S

78°44'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 3 km NW ofColumbe

Miranda, Cerro El

3600

02° li'S

78°55'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 5 km NW of Sibambe

Mishquipungincho, Cerro

4359

01 °02'S 01 o24'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 15 km NE of Angamarca

78°45'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, on Cerro Carihuairazo (5028 m)

00°07'N

78°15'W

Pichincha/Jmbabura

Cord. Occidental (Nudo de Mojanda), S Otavalo Cord. Occidental, 12.6 km NE ofSimiatug

Minza Chica, Pmo. de

May be part ofPmo. de Mintza; more properly spelled Mintza

Mocha Alto, Pmo. Mojanda, Pmos. de

'O 'O 'O

~

4275

Molino Cocha, Laguna

3800

01 °l4'S

78°5l'W

Tungurahua

Molobog Grande, Cerro

3848

02°37'S

78°5l'W

Cañar

11.6 km SE ofCañar

Molón, Cerro

3419

03 °08'S

78°47'W

Azuay

8.5 km S of Cuchil

Monjas, Pmo. de

3915

00°43'S

78°4l'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, NW ofToacazo

Montecashra, Cerro

4000

78°44'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 6.4 km SW ofCusubamba

Montero-Urcu, Pmo. de

3600

01 °06'S ooo 12'S

78°12'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, near San Francisco; also spelled Montera-urcu

03 o21'S

79°00'W

Azuay/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, E ofNabón, SW ofPmos. de Amorgeo

Morochos, Pmos. de

4000

00°20'N

78°20'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, Nevado Cotacachi, SSE slopes, E of Pmo. de Cungas; also spelled Morocho

Mortiños, Cerro

3720

01 o47'S

78°52'W

Chimborazo

15 km SW ofSicalpa

Motero, Pmo. de

3200

Muchanarumi, Pmo. de

3780

Muenala, Pmo. de

4115

00°18'N

78°26'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, W ofVolcán Cotacachi; possibly only 3631 m

Muerte Pungo, Laguna

4000

00°25'S

78°16'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, 12.7 km SW ofPintag

01 °5l'S 01 o16'S

78°52'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 17.3 km NE ofPallatanga

78°45'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 22.3 km NE ofSimiatug

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, part ofPmos. de Pisayambo

Morire, Pmo. de

..,;:t> ~

;;: o

[/J

Pichincha Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, Cerro Sincholagua, E slopes

Mulachimbana, Cerro

3800

Mulanleo, Cerro

3400

Mulatos, Pmo. de

4100

Mullos, Cerro

3856

01 °57'S

78°53'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 10 km NE ofPallatanga

Mulmul, Cerro

3800

01 °25'S

78°32'W

Tungurahua

4 km W ofCotaló

Muru Urcu, Pmo.

3950

00°47'S

78°24'W

Cotopaxi

N


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Naba, Pmo. de Nabón, Pmo. de

3600

Division 1

Notes

Chimborazo

Old name used by Spruce

Azuay

Old name used by Jameson; perhaps refers to the Tinajilla area since tbe town of Nabón is only at 2750 m

N

Ñ

Naranjito, Cerro

3800

01 a54'S

78°47'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 21.8 km NE ofPallatanga

Narhuiña, Cerro

3904

03 °09'S

79°32'W

Azuay

W ofGirón, NW ofPucará; also spelled Narihuiña

Nariz del Diablo, Cerro

3800

OOa 12'S

78°35'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 5.5 km NW ofL!oa, W ofQuito

Natosa, Laguna

3640

04°43'S

79°25'W

Loja

5 km SW ofLaguna Cox

Nauna, Cerro

3560

02°ll'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 3.6 km NE of Alausí

Naupán, Cerro

4280

78°5l'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 11 km SE ofCompud

Navag, Pmos. de

3900

02°23'S 01 a46'S

78°50'W

Chimborazo

SW ofSicalpa, W ofPmos. de Quillotoro, SE ofPmos. de Huangupud

Negra, Laguna(!)

4000

02°50'S

79° 12'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 15 km NW ofSayausí

Negra, Laguna (2)

3450

04 a45'S

79°25'W

Loja

7.5 km SW ofLaguna Cox

::r:

Negra, Laguna (3)

3800

00°08'S

78°l5'W

Pichincha

10.3 km NE ofTocachi

ztTJ

Negra, Laguna (4)

4480

01 °24'S

78°46'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 7.4 km NE ofNevado Chimborazo

Negra, Pmo. de la Laguna

4100

02° IO'S

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, 20.7 km NE-o.fTotoras, NE of Alao

Negro Puñona, Cerro

4000

01 °08'S

78°30'W 78a43'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 8.2 km SE o(Cusubamba

03°0l'S

79°22'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, 19 km NW ofSan Fernando

See Cerro Narhuiña

Narihuiña, Cerro

Negro, Cerro (1)

4080

Negro, Cerro (2)

4460

Negro, Cerro (3)

4200

Negro, Cerro (4) N egros, Cerros

~

o

~

(/J

o

'Tj

-l

tTJ

::;:: --<

o ~ to o-l

;¡,.

Carchi 0

~ tTJ

78°3l'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 7 km NE of Chambo

3786

Ol 42'S 03 a35'S

79°23'W

Loja

7 km W ofCelén

3520

04°3l'S

79°l8'W

Zamora-Chinchipe

14.3 km NE of Amaluza

Nignig, Cerro

3720

00°49'S

78°45'W

Cotopaxi

15 km SE oflsinliví

Ninaguilca Chico, Cerro

3600

00°22'S

78°38'W

Pichincha

11.2 km NW ofTambillo

Ninaguilca Grande, Cerro

3788

00°22'S

78°40'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 14 km NW of Alóag Cord. Oriental, 4. 7 km SW of San José de Poaló

Niño Urcu, Cerro

3425

00°53'S

78°42'W

Cotopaxi

Niñococha,Laguna

3600

02°23'S

78°33'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 10 km NE ofHuangra

Niñoloma, Cerro

3680

00° 19'S

78°35'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 7 km SW ofChillogallo, SW ofQuito

Novillo Pungu, Cerro(!)

4455

01 °06'S

78°49'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 12 km NE of Angamarca

Novillo Pungu, Cerro (2)

4018

01 °09'S

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 10 km S ofCusubamba

Ñuctushca, Cerro

3480

02°35'S

78°41'W 78a46'W

Cañar

18 km SE ofCañar

z

ñ ;¡,. r

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00

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N ame

Elev. (m) Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes Cord. Oriental, 18 km SW ofOyacachi; sometimes misspelled Numalviro

00° 15'S

78°12'W

Pichincha

Nutorrumi, Cerro

3820

03°0l'S

79°!0'W

Azuay

13 km NW ofVictoria del Portete

Oreja, Cerro La

4400

7r58'W

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, near Colombia border, W ofTufiño

. Nunalviro, Laguna

Orquetacocha, Laguna

4260

00°49'N 01 o2l'S

78°44'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 9.3 km SW ofTisaleo

Osobolsa, Cerro

3400

01 o43'S

78°57'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 6 km SE ofSantiago

Osogochi, Pmo.

3780

02°14'S

78°36'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 7 km NE ofTotoras

Osotambo, Cerro

3720

01 °04'S

78°l8'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, 18 km NE of San José de Poaló

Napo

Osthana, Pmo. Oyacachi, Pmos. de

Pichincha/Napa 00°42'S

Pachusala, Pmo. de

78°4l'W

Cord. Oriental, general name for páramos in vicinity of Oyacachi

Cotopaxi

Padre Encantado, Cerro

4600

00°09'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, part ofMacizo del Pichincha, SW ofQuito

Padre Rumi, Cerro

4330

00°49'S

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

SE of Isinlibí

Paja Blanca, Pmo. de

3300

Palama, Pmo.

Carchi

Cord. Oriental, interandean area

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, W slopes, E of(San Miguel de) Salcedo

Chimborazo

Between Guamote and Alausí

Palmira, Pmo. de

3229

02°05'S

78°45'W

Palmurco, Pmos. de

3200

03°l6'S

78°56'W

Azuay

17.2 km on Jima-San Miguel de Cuyes rd.

Pamba-Marca, Cerro

4075

00°07'S

78°l2'W

Pichincha

ESE ofGuayllabamba, ENE ofEl Quinche; also spelled Pambamarca

Pan de Azúcar, Cerro

4000

01 °08'S

78°18'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 20 km from San José de Poaló

"O

> ;;x:l > ;;: o (l:l

Chimborazo

Pangor, Pmo. de Pansache,Pmo. de Panza, Pmo. de

::0 \.0 ..::;

4275

Cotopaxi

Also spelled Panzache

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, Volcán Chimborazo, S slopes See Pmo. de Guamaní

Papallacta, Pmo. Páramo Chico, Loma

3800

Paredones, Pmo. de

4085

Pasa, Pmo. de

4000

Pasochoa, Pmos. del

4199

00°06'S

78°08'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, SE ofCangahua

Chimborazo

S ofRiobamba

Cotopaxi 00°25'S

78°29'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, slopes ofVolcán Pasochoa, SE ofTambillo, S of Amaguaña; also spelled Pasuchoa; name derived from Paso Ochoa (F. Sarmeinto, pers. comm.)

Azuay

Cord. Oriental, between Gualaceo and Limón

Patococha, Pmo.

3450

Patul, Cerro

4168

02°4l'S

79°04'W

Cañar

Cord. Occidental, NW of Azogues, W ofBiblián

Pedregal, Pmo. del

3600

00°30'S

78°29'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, NW of Sincholagua

Peila, Cerro

4473

02°26'S

78°47'W

Cañar

NE ofTambo N

w


N

N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

Pelado, Cerro El

4151

00°44'N

7r54'W

Carchi

25 km SW ofTulcán

Picachos, Cerro Los

3720

04 o 42'S

79°24'W

Loja

3 km SW ofLaguna Cox

Pichincha, Pmo. del

4000

00°10'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, slopes ofCerro Rucu Pichincha and Guagua Pichincha, W of Quito

Piedramagna, Cerro

4432

01 °30'S

78°38'W

Tungurahua!Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, E ofVolcán Chimborazo, N ofRiobamba Cf. Acosta-Solís, 1984

Pilis-urcu, Pmo.

See Pmo. de Piñán

Piñal, Pmo. de Piñán, Pmo. de

4536

00°30'N

78°35'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental (incl. Cerro Yana-Urcu), NW oflbarra, W ofTumbabiro, N of Volcán Cotacachi; also called Pmo. de Piñal

Pinlilligue, Pmo. de

3700

01 °52'S

78°27'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, between Alao and La Tranca See Pmo. de Pinlilligue

Pinllillic, Pmo. de Pisayambo, Pmos. de

3900

01 °06'S

78°22'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, ENE ofSan José de Poaló; incl. Laguna(de) Pisayambo, which is just across the border in Tungurahua

Plazuela, Cerro La

4320

00° lü'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 8 km N ofL!oa

01 °23'S

78°43'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, SW ofTisaleo, NW ofMocha

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, Cerro El Corazón, N slopes, close to Hacienda La Granja; possibly equals Pmo. Grande. (2)

79°16'W

Azuay

Nudo de Portete Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Llanganates), 8 km NE ofLaguna de Los Anteojos

Pocacocha, Cerro

4200

Pongo, Pmo. El

3450

Portete, Pmo.

3600

03 °05'S

Preñado, Cerro El

4043

00°53'S

78°23'W

Napo

Pucará, Pmo. de

3600

00° 17'S

78°17'W

Pichincha

Puebolo, Volcán

3950

Cord. Oriental, summit ofPucará is 3600 m Cord. Occidental, W ofVolcán Chimborazo, along Zanjapamba-Simiatug rd.; an extinct volcano (Acosta-Solís, 1984: 76) Cord. Occidental, W ofVo1cán Chimborazo, at base ofVolcán Puebo1o

Puenebata, Pmo. de Pujilí, Pmo. de

3800

00°54'S

78°43'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, W ofLatacunga toward Zumbahua

Púlpito, Cerro El (1)

3927

01°14'S

78°27'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 4 km NE of Sucre

Púlpito, Cerro El (2)

4200

02°17'S

78°34'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 12.5 km SE ofTotoras

Pumachaca, Cerro

4260

02 a 17'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

E ofChunchi, SE ofSibambe

S:: tn S::

o

~

Cll

o ..., ::r: tn "rj

ztn

:E

-< o ~ til o..., z> ñ > L'

o >

§ ztn

Chimborazo (?)

Pungapala, Pmo. de Puntas, Cerro

4452

00°l!'S

78°!2'W

Napo/Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, Estribuciones de Oyacachi, 33 km E of Quito

Puruhanta, Laguna

3750

00°12'N

77°57'W

lmbabura

Cord. Occidental, ENE ofVolcán Cayambe; also spelled Puruhanta; also called Laguna Chique or Laguna de Chiquí

4000

01 o 42'S

78°52'W

Putzalagua, Pmo. Puya!, Pmo. de

_¡,.

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, NE of (San Miguel de) Salcedo

Bolívar

Cord'. Occidental, slopes ofCerro Puya! (4373 m), W ofCajabamba, E ofGuaranda

<o r

00

_¡,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Qinualoma, Cerro Quilimás, Pmo.

Notes See Cerro Quinaloma

4710

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, slopes ofVolcán Quilimás, SE ofRiobamba; also called Cubillín and possibly Pmo. de Cubillín (Diels, 1937: 55); misspelled Cubullín

Quilindaña, Pmo.

4877

00°45'S

78°19'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, 18 km SE ofVolcán Cotopaxi (near Laguna Yurac Cocha)

Quillotoro, Pmos. de

4051

01 o46'S

78°49'W

Chimborzao

SW ofSicalpa, E ofPmos. de Navag

Quillu Urcu, Cerro

4572

01 °04'S

78°52'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, SW of Latacunga, NW of Angamarca

Quilotoa, Volcán

3981

78°55'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 32 km W ofLatacunga

Quimsacocha, Pmo. de

3969

00°52'S 03 ooo·s

79°l5'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, NW ofGirón, N ofSan Fernando

Quinaloma, Cerro

3934

02°29'S

78°40'W

Cañar/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, SE ofChunchi, ENE ofCañar; also spelled Qinualoma

Quingo, Cerro El

3680

01 °16'S

78°47'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, 19.3 km NE ofSimiatug

Quinoas, Pmo.

3600

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, W of Cuenca

QuinsaCruz

4445

Cañar

S ofCañar

Quispicacha, Cerro

4585

01 °07'S

78°46'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, SW of San Miguel de Salcedo

Redondo, Cerro El

3835

00°22'N

78°04'W

Imbabura

Cord. Oriental, SE of !barra, E of Caranqui

01 °35'S

78°46'W

Chimborazo

Resgón, Pmo. de Retanales, Pmo. de

3400

Reventador, Pmos. del

3483

00°03'S 01 °07'S

"'::!

;¡:..

Cotopaxi

Vicinity ofLatacunga and Laguna Salayambo

77°40'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, part ofVolcán Reventador

78°52'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, E of Angamarca

Ricuri, Cerro

4360

Romerillos, Pmo. de

3400

Cotopaxi

Romo, Pmo.

3700

Tungurahua/N apo

Rucu Pichincha, Pmo.

4500

00°10'S

78°34'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, NE side ofVolcán Rucu Pichincha

Rumiñahui, Cerro

4722

00°34'S

78°30'W

Pichincha!Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, 15 km NW ofVolcán Cotopaxi Cord. Oriental, slopes ofCerro Rumiñahui

~ s;:: oC/J

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Los Llanganates), E of San José de Poaló, between Sinchilibí and Río Potrero

Rumiñahui, Pmos. de

4719

Pichincha

Rumipungu, Pmo.

3610

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, slopes ofCerro Quilindaña

Sacraurcu, Cerro

4545

02°03'S

Chimborazo

ENE ofPalmira

78°33'W

'D 'D

~

Sagatoa, Cerro

4152

01°12'S

78°35'W

Cotopaxi/Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, W ofPíllaro; also spelled Sagoatoa

Salasacas, Pmo. de

3860

01 o24'S

78°45'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, on Cerro Pocacochas, 2 km from the E glacier ofVolcán Carihuairazo

Salayambo, Pmo. de Laguna

4100

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, E ofLatacunga; also spelled Salayampe

Salcedo, Pmos. de

3850

00°55'S

78°28'W

Cotopaxi/Napo

Cord. Oriental, páramos E ofSalcedo, collectively also known as the Langoa (F. Sarmiento, pers. comm.)

N V,


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitude

Salto, Cerro El

3800

Salto, El

4160

02°02'S

Longitud e Division 1 78°5l'W

N

Notes

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 13 km NW ofTixán

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, 0.5 km N ofCerro El Pelado

San Agustín, Pmo.

3400

00°41'S

78°32'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, Volcán Cotopaxi, SW slopes

San Antonio, Cerro

4000

04°45'S

78°23'W

Zamora-Chinchipe

S ofNudo de Sabanilla

San Elías, Pmos.

3300

00°45'S

78°32'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Oriental, NE ofMulaló

San Francisco, Cerro de

4685

San Juan, Pmo. de

Carchi

Cord. Oriental, also known as Playón de San Francisco

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, probably the area around San Juan de Chiriboga above Quito along old rd. before descent to Santo Domingo

San Marcos, Pmo. de

3360

00°07'N

77°52'W

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, N slopes of Volcán Cayambe; incL Laguna San Marcos more properly known as Pishcococha (F. Sarmiento, pers. comm.)

San Vicente, Cerro

3710

02°35'S

78°37'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, NNE ofRivera; páramo?

Sanancajal, Pmos.

3610

00° 10'S

78°55'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, Volcán Chimborazo, E slopes; spelled Sanancajas by Whymper (1882)

Sanancajas, Pmo. de

See Pmos. Sanancajal

Sangay, Volcán

5230

01 o58'S

78°22'W

Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental

Santa Rosa, Cerro

4000

01 °24'S

78°43'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Occidental, SSW ofT~saleo

Sara-Urcu, Cerro

4676

00007'S

77°55'W

Pichincha!Napo

Saraguro, Pmo. de

3300

Saratano, Cerro El

4100

Sebritana, Pmo. de

3400

Shinigually, Cerro

Cord. Oriental, NE ofVolcán Antisana, S ofVolcán Cayambe; also spelled Saraurcu Close to Oña

00°34'N

77°37'W

4198

02°05'S

78o38'W

Shorshay, Cerro

3962

02°23'S

78°40'W

Siguata, Pmos. de

4000

Silla, Cerro La

3980

02°27'S

Sillacajas, Cerro

4211

02°l2'S

Silván, Pmo. de

3200

Azuay

37 km S ofCuenca

Simiatug, Pmo. de

3500

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental

Sincholagua, Pmos. de

4900

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, slopes ofCerro Sincholagua, between Volcán Antisana and Volcán Cotopaxi

Carchi

Cord. Oriental (Cord. de Mirador), S ofEl Playón de San Francisco

Pichincha

Cord. Oriental, E slopes of Cotopaxi, near Volcán Sangay

Chimborazo

SE ofGuamote, E ofPalmira

Chimborazo/Cañar/MoronaSantiago

Cord. Oriental, ESE ofChunchi

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, Cerro Illiniza, N slopes

78°49'W

Cañar

15.8 km NE of Juncal

78°42'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, E of Alausí

00°32'S

78°23'W

Soguillas, Pmo. de

4000

01 °08'S

78° 15'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, near Las Torres de Llanganati

Soldados, Pmo. de

4138

02°54'S

79°20'W

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, Cerro Soldados, W ofCuenca

o;

~ tTJ

~

o

~

[/)

o'Tj >-3 ~

tTJ

ztTJ

:E --< o

~

to

o >-3 >z ñ >r

a >-

§ tTJ z

<o r-'

00

_¡:,.


N ame

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Notes

Sombrero Urcu, Cerro

4511

01 °!2'S

78°52'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 15 km NE ofSimiatug

Soroche, (Cerro ?)

4730

or2o·s

78°32'W

Cañar/MoronaSantiago

Cord. Oriental, W ofMacas, SE ofLaguna de Ozogoche, Laguna Aucacocha is on its N slopes

Sumaco, Volcán

4092

00°34'S

7r38'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental or sometimes called the Tercera Cordillera (Cord. de los Huacamayos)

Tablachupa, Pmos. de

4000

78°23'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, SW ofNevado Cotacachi, W ofPmo. de Cungas

Tablón, Cerro El (1)

3880

00°20'N 01 o 24'S

78°59'W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 20 km NW ofNevado Chimborazo

Tablón, Cerro El (2)

3800

00°23'N

78°20'W

lmbabura

Cord. Occidental, 17.4 km NW of Cotacachi

Tilila, Pmo. de

3500

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental

Tililac, Pmo. de

4000

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, above San Juan, along rd. to Guaranda; sometimes misspelled Tolallac

Tinajillas, Pmo. de

3500

Cord. Oriental, 30-50 km S ofCuenca

Tingo, Pmo. el Tioloma, Cerro (de)

4263

Tiopullo, Pmo. de

3500

03 o 13'S

79°04'W

Azuay

01 °0l'S

78°48'W

Cotopaxi

02°20'S

78°38'W

Tipococha, Pmo. de

Chimborazo

Nudo de Tiocajas, E ofChunchi

Pichincha/Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, near Lloa Chiquito, near Illiniza; also called Nudo de Tiopullo and Pmo. Güintza (Huinsa)

Chimborazo

Nudo de Azuay

Tiuguinal, Cerro

4097

01 o22'S

79°001W

Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, 4 km NNE of Salinas

Toldo, Cerro (1)

4402

01 °44'S

78°30'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, E ofRiobamba

Toldo, Cerro El (2)

4200

02° 16'S

78°37'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Oriental, 6.7 km SE ofTotoras

Toledo, Cerro

3200

04°23'N

79°07'W

Loja/Zamora

Nudo de Sabanilla, E ofVilcabamba

Toreadora, Pmo. (de la)

3930

Azuay

Cord. Occidental, vicinity ofLaguna Toreadora, between Molleturo and Quinoas

78°44'W

Cañar

Cord. Oriental, 20 km NW ofHuangra

Torre, Cerro La ( 1)

4253

02°20'S

Torre, Cerro La (2)

3720

01 °48'S

78°51'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, 3 km NE of Juan de Velasco

Totorilias, Pmo. de

4015

01 °30'S

78°49'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, on Volcán Chimborazo; sometimes misspelled Totovillas

Tres Cruces, Pmo. de Las

3500

Chimborazo/Morona-Santiago

Cord. Oriental, N of Alao

Trujillo, Pmo. de

3450

Pichincha/Cotopaxi

Between peaks Iliniza and Cotopaxi

Tufiño, Pmo. de

3500

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, W ofTulcán, part of greater Pmos. del Angel

Tuja, Pmo. de

3400

Carchi

Also called Pmo. de Tusa, Pmo, de Tunza, and Pmo. de Tuxa

"ti

;¡,. ?:1 ;¡,. ~

o

[/l

See Pmo. de Zumbagua

Tungua, Pmo. de Tungurahua, Volcán

'O 'O

.:S

5005

01 °27'S

78°26'W

Tungurahua

Cord. Oriental, 15 km SSW ofBaños

Tunza, Pmo. de

See Pmo. de Tuja

Tusa, Pmo. de

See Pmo. de Tuja

N

...,


N

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Division 1

Tzhigua, Cerro

4246

01 °04'S

78°56'W

Cotopaxi

Ungüi, Cerro

3584

Urbina, Pmo. de

4050

Vaquería, Pmo. de La

4200

N ame

Notes See Pmo. de Tuja; Tuxa is an old name

Tuxa, Pmo. de

Veracruz, Pmo. de

Cord. Occidental, NNW of Angamarca, S ofQuindigua

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, SW ofQuito

01 °26'S

78°43'W

Chimborazo

Cord. Occidental, Nudo de Igualata Sanancajas, SE ofVolcán Carihuairazo and E ofVolcán Chimborazo Cord. Occidental, NE ofPallatanga, E ofPmo. Huaico

01 a56'S

78°48'W

Chimborazo

00°25'W

78°00'N

Imbabura See Pmo. de Guamaní

Virgen, Pmo. de La Viudita, Cerro La

3786

00°25'S

78°39'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, SW ofQuito, NW ofMachachi

Voladero, Pmo. del

3815

00°4l'N

7r53'W

Carchi

Nudo de Los Pastos, part ofPmo. de El Angel along El Angel-Tulcán rd., actually this is the site of Laguna El Voladero

Volcán, Cerro El

3600

00°09'S

78°39'W

Pichincha

Cord. Occidental, 13.3 km SW ofNono

Yana-Ashpa

4185

01 a42'S

Chimborazo/Bolívar

Cord. Occidental, SE ofGuaranda, E ofSan José

Yana-Urcu, Cerro(!)

4536

00°28'N

78°50'W 78a20'W

Imbabura

Cord. Occidental, NW of !barra,. W of Tumbabiro (incl. Laguna Negra or Yanacocha); also called Cerro Yanahurcu de Piñan

Yana-Urcu, Cerro (2)

;;:;

4116

02°26'S

78°39'W

Cañar

NEofTambo See Cerro Yana-Urcu (!); Yanahurco comes from Quichua base Yana Urcu

Yanahurcu de Piñán, Cerro 01 a04'S

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, 20 km ENE of Angamarca, E ofPmo. de Chilca

Imbabura

Cord. Oriental, along rd. E from Ibarrá; also written as Jora-Cruz

78°05'W

Imbabura

10 km N oflbarra, on Hacienda Yura Cruz, highest point that separates Laguna Yaguarcocha with the Pimampiro drainage towards Río Chota; also as Yuracruz

00°47'S

78°2l'W

Napo

Cord. Oriental, 3 km E of Cerro Quilindaña; páramos around the Iake

03 ooo·s

78°35'W

Azuay

Cord. Oriental, near Gualaceo-Limón rd.

Loja

Between Oña and Saraguro; old name used by Lehmann

Yanaurcu, Pmo. de

4227

Yoracruz, Pmo. de

3000

Yura Cruz, Pmo.

3800

00°22'N

Yuragcocha, Laguna

4050

Zapote Naida, Pmo. de

3400

Zhozunes, Pmo. de

3300

78a46'W

See Pmos. de Zumbahua

Zumbagua, Pmos. de Zumbahua, Pmos. de

4200

Zuñiga, Pmo. de

4091

00°22'S

78°36'W

Cotopaxi

Cord. Occidental, Pilaló-Latacunga rd.; also misspelled as Zumbagua

Pichincha

Cerro Atacazo, S slopes, S ofQuito

::;: til ::;: o

¡;;; o"11 (/)

,.., :r: til

ztil

::E --< o;o;¡

r:

tJ:j

o,.., >z ñ >to >;o;¡ Cl

ztil

<o t""

00

.¡o.


1999]

PARAMOS

219

Peru James L. Luteyn

The páramos of Peru, locally called "jaleas," are located north of 8°S latitude in the northem portions ofthe Cordillera Occidental and the Cordillera Oriental, in the departments ofPiura, Cajamarca, Amazonas, Lambayeque, San Martín, and La Libertad. Peruvian páramos are very similar to those of southem Ecuador in vegetation and general physiognomy. They may begin at the low elevations of2900-31 00 m especial! y east ofthe Río Marañón, where the cordillera is lower in general and moister air from the Amazon basin predominates. The páramos ofPeru seem to be more grass-dominated and less shrubby overall, with many more rock outcrops. In the region north ofthe city of Cajamarca, the páramos are intensively cultivated up to about 3500 m with com and potatoes; between 3500

m and about 3800 m there are now many Pinus plantations. In the more eastem páramos, around the Jaleas de Calla Calla (Balsas-Leimebamba road), for example, there is less population pressure and the páramos may occur at elevations as low as 3000 m. In Peru, páramo (jalea) includes a total of 420,000 hectares (I. Sánchez Vega, pers. comm.) orca. 4200 km2 • The only Peruvian national park within our range that includes páramo is Río Abiseo, although Huascarán (just south of 8°S latitude in the Cordillera Blanca) may also have páramo (cf. D. N. Smith, 1988). For additional discussion about Peruvian páramo vegetation, see D. N. Smith, 1988; Weberbauer, 1911, 1936, 1945; Young & León, 1988, 1990; Young & Reynel, 1997; and Young et al., 1997.


N ame Alaska, Paso de

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

4000

Division 1

Division 2

Notes

La Libertad

Pataz

Paseo y-Tayabamba rd.

Algamarca Hualaco

3850

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

N ofRío Huacaday

Alturas de Huallamarca

3580

La Libertad

Pataz

Huaguil-Pallar rd.

3500

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Near Porcón; also spelled Atashaico

Amazonas

Chachapoyas

07°37'S

78°19'W

o

See Jalea de Atocsaicu

Atashaico, Jalea de Atocsaicu, Jalea de

N N

06°47'S

Barro Negro, Paso

3950

Baúl, Cerro

4140

Calla Calla, Jaleas de

3750

06°47'S

Camich

3400

or15'S

Campanario, Cerro (1)

3900

Campanario, Cerro (2)

3500

7r51'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

77°5l'W

Amazonas

Chachapoyas

1rss'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Amazonas

Chachapoyas Cajamarca

oro3'S

78°39'W

Cajamarca

Balsas-Leimebamba rd.; extensive area ofjalea ranging from ca. 3000 to 3750 m

o

NW ofCajamarca, along rd. to Porcón

3700

06°46'S

78°37'W

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

3 km W ofHualgayoc

4050

or59's

78°29'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

S ofLaguna,Yanacocha

Cascabamba, Jalea de

3600

or23'S

78°42'W

Cajamarca

Contumazá

15 km E of Contumazá, a1ong rd. to Saleot

Cerro Negro, Pampa de

4700

oroo·s

78°35'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Km 27 on Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

Cha1huayacu

3550

oro3'S

78°10'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

BetWeen Encañada and Celendín

Challuayaco, Jalea de

3150

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Chamis, Laguna

3300

oro7's

78°34'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Chimchim

3650

or34'S

78°20'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Chugur

3200

or33'S

78°20'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Chugurpata

3200

or32'S

7rs9'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Chuño, Jalea El

4500

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Also called Pozo Chuño

Cinchao, El

3750

06°43'S

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Along rd. to Chugur

Coechan

3550

78°00'W

Amazonas

Luya

Along Luya Viejo-Luya Chico rd.

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

See Jalea éle -~oymolache

78°39'W

Coimolache, Jalea de

2:: o

~

Carachugo Sur, Cerro

. 06°09'S

tn

(/l

Candela, Cerro

Caymolache

S:

NW of Cajamarca

"rl ~ """ tn

ztn

~

o-<

~

l:lJ

o ~ """ z ñ

~

r

o ~

~ ~

See Jalea de Coymolache

Coipín, Jalea de

4000

Co llana, Cerro

3814

oso 16'S

79o 18'W

Amazonas? (La Libertad)

Collpa Grande

3600

or3s's

1rs6'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Combayo

3200

oro1·s

78°25'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Distrito de Encañada

<o r

00

_¡,.


Name

Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitud e Division 1

Division2

Notes See Jalea de Kumulea

Comulca, Jalea de 05°05'S

79°4l'W

Piura

Morropón

3650

07"0l'S

78°23'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

3320

78°28'W

06°5l'S

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Coyma, Cerro

3350

05°56'S

79°26'W

Piura

Huancabamba

Coymolache, Jalea de

3900

06°42'S

78°40'W

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc Huamachuco

Confeccionado

3200

Conor Corral pampa

Km 18 along Cajamarca-Bambamarco rd., W ofHualgayoc; also spelled Coimolache and Caymolache

Cuchi Corral, Cerro

3800

07"52'S

78°02'W

La Libertad

Cuello del Indio

3200

05°20'S

79°32'W

Piura

Huancabamba

Near Surupite, along rd. to Huancabamba

Cueva Negra

3800

La Libertad

Pataz

Near Tuco, Tayabamba-Huancaspata

Culebra, Pampa de la

3200

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Between Cajamarca and La Encañada

Culquirumi

3300

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

oro8'S

78°23'W

Cumbe Mayo, Jalea de Cumbemayo, Jalea de

95 km along the Cajamarca-Bambamarca rd. See Jalea de Cumbemayo

3600

07"12'S

78°36'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Cumullka, Jalea de Empalme

'D 'D

2S

3600

06°50'S

78°4l'W

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

10 km WSW ofCajamarca, along rd. to Chetilla; also spelled Cumbe Mayo

;p.

See Jalea de Kumulca

S:

Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

o

Encajon, Quebrada

3850

07"0l'S

78°32'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

W of Minera Y anacocha

Espino, El

3550

07"37'S

78°22'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Near border with the Departamento de La Libertad

Estacas, Jalea de Las

2350

Cajamarca

San Miguel

Fraijaco (Huauui-Huni), Jalea de Cerro de

3450

Amazonas

Gavilán, Jalea de Cerro

3560

Huaguil, Jalea de

4000

Huahuiña, Cerro

3700

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Hualgayoc

3900

06°47'S

78°36'W

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Huancacarpa

3400

05°08'S

79°32'W

Piura

Huancabamba

07"12'S

78°3l'W

"" 2;:

(l:l

Quisuarpampa (El Tingo area) NE ofTambo de Ventilla

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Abra El Gavilán, S of Cajamarca, Cajamarca-Chilete rd.; also called El Gavilán

La Libertad

Sánchez Carrión or Huamachuco

Paliar-Molino Viejo rd.; also called Cerro Consuy?

Above Culquirrumi; sometimes spelled Gualgayoc

Huanico

3500

07"09'S

78°08'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

Cajamarca-Celendín rd., toward Huagal

Huayllidas, Señal

4733

07"53'S

78°02'W

La Libertad

Sánchez Carión

Above Lagunas de Huangagocha

J alampa, Jalea de

3800

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Km 35 on Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.; also spelled Jelampa N N


Elev. (m)

Latitude

Longitude

Jelig, Jalea de

3200

06°53'S

78°07'W

Julia, Pampas de La

3600

N ame

Division 1

Division2

Notes Balsas-Celendín rd.; also called Paso Gelig or spelled Jelic

Cajamarca

Celendín

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

Kahuish, Jalea de

3500

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Along rd. to Celendín

Kumulca, Jalea de

3850

07°05'S

78°20'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

Pass along the Cajamarca-Celendín rd.

Laguna Tembladera, Jalea de

3300

06°l4'S

79°l9'W

Lambayaque

Ferreñafe

Distrito Incahuasi, along Laguna Tembladera-Cerro Negro rd.

Laguna Yahuarcocha, Jalea de

3600

06° 15'S

79°l0'W

Cajamarca

Chota

Distrito Miracosta, above Incahuasi

Laguna Y anaco eha

4050

06°59'S

78°31'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

40 km N of Cajamarca, along rd. to Hualgayoc

Laguna de Culluna

3850

La Libertad

Pataz

Laguna de Santa Cruz Chiquita

4150

ors9'S

78°17'W

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

Near Shoreyo

Lagunas (Las)

4500

06°55'S

78°35'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Ca. Km 50 on Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

Lagunas Huarinjas, Pmo.

3800

05°02'S

79°29'W

Piura

Ayabaca

NWofSalalá

Lagunas Huaylillas

4000

orss·s

78°02'W

La Libertad

Huamachuco

N N N

See Jalea de Kumulea

Kumulka, Jalea de

2:':: tri

2:'::

o

~

(/l

o'Tl >-3

::r: tri

ztri

Lagunas de Las Compuertas, Jalea de

3750

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Cajamarca--:Hualgayoc rd.

Laja, Pampa de la

3425

06°22'S

79°1l'W

Cajamarca

Chota

Between La Granja and Licupis

Llalladén, Cerro

4200

06°53'S

78°37'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Ca. Km SI on Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.; possibly equals Las Lagunas

Llanacocha, Cerro

4225

or36'S

78°2l'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

o

Lluchubamba

4500

or3I'S

7r58'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Lorito, Pampa de

3350

orr7'S

78°25'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Luya Viejo

3300

06°08'S

7r59'W

Amazonas

Luya

Mahoma Chico, Cerro

3500

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

>-z ñ >1:-< o >-

Maqui Maqui, Jalea de

4120

06°57'S

78°28'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Masma,La

3540

orws

78°14'W

Cajamarca

·cajamarca

E ofNamora

Michiquillay

3200

oro3'S

78°20'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Encañada-Celendín rd.

Micuypampa

3600

oro2·s

78°14'W

Cajamarca

Migma

3600

or38°S

7r5r'W Cajamarca

Moneada

4900

or38'S

78°20'W

Morocha, La

3310

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc.

Motil, Jalea de

3500

La Libertad

Otuzco

Cajamarca

-< o

~

to

>-3

Above Huacraruco; also spelled Lirito

N of Cajamarca, along Shanta Alto rd.; includes a cerro and laguna by same name

Celendín

Km 62 on Cajamarca-Celendín rd.

Cajabamba

E ofCajabamba

Cajamarca

Minas (Las)

~

§ ztri

Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd., before Las Lagunas Cajabamba Between Hualgayoc and Culquirumi

<o r

00

.¡;.


N ame Muchucaira, Jalea de

Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

4100

N anrá, Jalea de

Division 1

Division2

La Libertad

Otuzco

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Notes Heda. Motil-Santiago de Chuco, 1O km from Campero

Negritos

4050

06°54'S

78°32'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

N egro, Cerro (1)

3650

oroo·s

78°34'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

27 km a1ong the Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

Negro, Cerro (2)

3650

05° IO'S

79°22'W

Cajamarca

San Ignacio

Near the border between Departamentos de Piura and Cajamarca

Ocumal

3370

06°27'S

78°06'W

Amazonas

Luya

Pajuela, La

3500

06°59'S

78°32'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Km 30 along the Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

Pampa Taguán

3500

06°56'S

78°13'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

Between Sorochuco and Agua Colorada

Paramillo, Cerro

3714

05°43'S

79°14'W

La Libertad

Paratón, Señal

3413

05°3l'S

79°28'W

Piura

'D 'D

::S

Km 35 along the Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

Huancabamba See Jalea de J elig

Paso Gelig Paso de Alaska

See Alaska, Paso de 06°44'S

78°29'W

Cajamarca

3300

06°32'S

78°0l'W

. Amazonas

3220

oros·s

78°l7'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Above Polloquito

3550

07°0l'S

78°38'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Km 30 on Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd., includes Porcón Alto

Piedras Gachas, Cerro

3900

Pisuquia Polloquito Porcón, Jaleas de

Cajamarca

Between Yanacocha and Llaucan

Luya

-o

See Jalea El Chuño

Pozo Chuño Pozo Kuán, Jalea del

4000

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Quesnada, Jalea de

4000

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

Quesquenda, Jalea de

4100

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

>~ 3:: o

[/)

Perhaps equals Jalea de Quesquenda

Quilimbach

3200

06°56'S

78°ll'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

Rd. to Celendín

Quilish

3500

oro2•s

78°34'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

N ofCajamarca, along rd. to Hualgayoc

Quinua, Cerro

3200

orm·s

78°13'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

Cajamarca--Celendín rd., toward Huagal

Quinuamayo

3520

oro3'S

78°l9'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Between Encañada and Jalea de Kumulea

Quinuas, Jalea de Las

3900

or24'S

78°40'W

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Contumazá-Asunción rd.

Quiruvilca, Jalea de

4200

08°00'S

78° 19'W

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

Quesquenda, Lago El Toro; also spelled Quirubilca

Ramada, Jalea de La

3500

La Libertad

Huamachuco

20 km W ofHuamacucho

Rangra, Quebrada de

3600

La Libertad

Pataz

Tayabamba-Huangaspata

Rejo

3600

orOl'S

78°25'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

N ofRío Grande

Rodacocha

3700

07°0l'S

78°2l'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Ruecas, Señal Cerro

4222

07"56'S

78°l5'W

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

N N

w


Elev. (m)

Latitud e

Longitude

Division 1

Division2

Rumi-Rumi

4496

or33'S

77°58'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Rumiguacha, Cerro

4090

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Sacsha

3850

07°01'S

78°29'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Sal, Pampa de la

3500

or24'S

78°43'W

Cajamarca

Contumazá

Along Salcot-Cascabamba rd.

05°30'S

79°00'W

Cajamarca

Jaen

In range ofmountains NW ofJaen and SSE ofHuancabamba; coordinates are approximate

N ame

Sallique, Pmo. de

Notes

N N

.¡,..

Rocky jalea

San Antonio

3200

06°38'8

78°35'W

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

13 km offthe Bambamarca-Chota rd.

San José, Jalea de Lagunas

3900

oroo·s

78°30'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

S ofLaguna Yanacocha

Sango, Cerro de

3900

La Libertad

Otuzco

Also spelled Cerro de Songo; Motil-Shorey rd., before Quiruvilca

Sansacocha,Laguna

3200

or47'S

7r59'W

La Libertad

Huamachuco

Sen dama!

3330

oroo·s

78° 12'W

Cajamarca

Celendín

Between Encañada and Celendín

[/)

Sexcemayo

3818

or12's

78°34'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

W ofCajamarca

...,

Shillas Negras, Cerro

3920

06°53'S

78°35'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

N ofLaguna Yanacocha

::r::

Shimbe, Cerro

3942

04 °58'S

79°27'W

Piura

Huancabamba

Near Laguna El Shimbe

ztT1

Shioglia

3700

06°57'S

78°36'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Cajamarca-Hualgayoc rd.

Shoglla, Jalea de La

4000

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Sitacocha

3050

Soldaditos

3850

Suro

3800

or37'S

Tactama

3500

Tal langa, Jalea de Tambillos

Cajamarca

Cajabamba Cajamarca

High part of the Pajuela, turnoff at Km 30

7r56'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Along rd. to Lluchubamba

78°14'W

06° 18'S

Amazonas

Luya

3600

or42'S

7r59'W

La Libertad

Sánchez Carrión

3850

or4o·s

78°20'W

Cajamarca

Cajabamba

Tambo

3650

oro9'S

78°07'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

Guanico-Guagal rd.

Tantahuatay, Cerro

3800

06°44'S

78°41'W

Turnoff along the Coymolache-Chugur rd.

Taulí, Jalea de

3900

Taulís Alto, Jalea

3100

Tingo, Cerro El

3350

Toro, Pampas del

06°44'S

7r58'W

78°40'W

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

La Libertad

Pataz

Cajamarca

San Miguel

o

~

Cajamarca

orz9'S

;;:: tT1 ;;::

6 km from Marcaba! rd.; also called Hacienda Tallanga

o"rj

tT1

~

o"< ~ r: ttl o..., >z ñ >r' Cl

>-

Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

NW ofHualgayoc, toward Chugur

3400

Cajamarca

Celendín

Cajamarca-Celendín rd.

Totoraconga

3250

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

10 km NW ofCajamarca, along Chamis rd.

Totorilla

3650

or15'S

78°04'W

Cajamarca

San Marcos

NE ofSan Marcos

Travesía Laplap

3600

07°06'S

7r47'W

La Libertad

Bolívar

Between Longotea and Bolívar

§ tT1 z

<o r

00

.¡,..


N ame

Elev. (m) Latitude

Division 1 Cajamarca

Hualgayoc

Near Perlamayo

Cajamarca

Celendín

Between El Encañada and Celendín Along Balsas-Leimebamba rd.

Tres Lagunas

3300

Triunfo, Jalea El

3280

06°58'S

78°ll'W

Uchurama, Cerro

4317

06°51 'S

77°53'W

Ullauchan, Jalea de

3400

Usnio, Cerro El

3300

Vervena Victoria, La

Division2

Notes

Longitude

Amazonas

Chachapoyas

La Libertad

Otuzco

Chota-Shorey Distrito de la Encañada

07"03'S

78°19'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

3700

07"0l'S

78°26'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

4000

07"54'S

78°l7'W

La Libertad

Santiago de Chuco

Vilaya

3400

06°22'S

78°09'W

Amazonas

Luya

Viscachas, Cerro

4010

06°57'S

78°45'W

Cajamarca

Cajamarca

N ofCajamarca, vicinity Yanacocha; also spelled Vizcacha

Yamoca, Pmo. de

2350

Cajamarca

Bracamora

Near San Felipe

Yanaguanaga,Prno.de

3100

Yerbabuena

3400

Cajamarca 07"3!'S

78°20'W

Cajamarca

'-0 '-0

..::;

Rd. to Conzuzo, area around the lake

Bonpland collection at Paris Cajabamba

.,:>

S:

~

o

(/)

N

N V1


226

MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

[VOL. 84

Bibliographic Sou.rces for Locations of Páramos General Hanson, E. P. & N. Raymond (eds.). 1945. Index to maps of Hispanic America. Maps of Hispanic America. 1:1,000,000. American Geographical Society, Publication No. 5. U.S. Govemment Printing Office, Washington, OC.

Costa Rica American Geographical Society ofNew York. 1937. L¡go de Nicaragua, Central America. 1:1,000,000. Map NC16. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. National Geographical Society. 1939. Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. 1:5,702,000. Cartographic Division, Washington, OC. - - - . 1986. Central America. 1:2,534,000. Cartographic Division, Washington, OC. Rand McNally & Co. 1969. Costa Rica. Mapa vial. Lithographed in U.S.A. Tosi, J. A., Jr. 1969. República de Costa Rica, mapa ecológico. Centro Científico Tropical. 1:750,000. Litografiado por Instituto Geográfico Nacional. San José, Costa Rica. Weber, H. 1959. Los páramos de Costa Rica y su concatenación fitogeográfica con los Andes suramericanos. Instituto Geográfico de Costa Rica, San José. - - - . 1963. Über die Vegetation der hochandinen Páramos. Pp. 2-16. Jahrbuch 1963 des Vereins zum Schutze der Alpenpflanzen und Tiere e. V. (Bd. 28), Munich.

Pan ama American Geographical Society of New York. 1928. Panama, Central America. 1:1,000,000. Map NC-1 7. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. Instituto Costaricense de Turismo. 1977. Panamá. Mapa vial. Litografia Trejos, Costa Rica. Instituto Geográfico Nacional "Tommy Guardia." Panamá. Plano de la ciudad de Panamá y mapas de carreteras. National Geographical Society. 1939. Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. 1:5,702,000. Cartograpic Division, Washington, DC. Rand McNally & Co. 1967. Panamá. Mapa vial. Lithographed in U.S.A.

Colombia American Geographical Society ofNew York. 1942. Cali. Map NA-18. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. - - - . 1944. South America. Series map ofthe Americas, Sheet lB. Second edition (copyright 1942). A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. - - - . 1945. Bogotá. Map NB-18. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. - - - . 1952. Barranquilla. Map NC-18. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore.

Anonymous. 1:100,000 topographic maps Colombia [Map No. 98, Durania; 110, Pamplona; 121, Cerrito; 137, El Cocuy; 153, Chita; 172, Paz del Río; 192, Laguna de Tota; 228, Bogotá d.e. Noreste; 280, Palmira; 300, Cali; 364, Timbío; 387, Bolívar; 429, Pasto]. Anonymous. Colombia maps [Map No. 2-060, Tunja]. Becking, M. L., A. J. Negret & R. G. M. Hofstede. 1997. Caracterización preliminar de un paramillo en la Cordillera Occidental del Departamento del Cauca. Noved. Colomb. (Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Cauca) 7: 33-44. Cleef, A. 1980. La vegetación del páramo neotropical y sus lazos Australo-Antárticos. Colombia Geogr. 7(2): 7-49. Corporación Autónoma Regional del Cauca - Oficina de Planeación. 1983. Recreación en la área del Alto Cauca. Recursos espaciales en el área rural. Elaboración, diseño, dibujo y diagramación por Unidad de Desarrollo Regional y Urbano, Oficina de Planeación, CVC, Cali. Cuatrecasas, J. 1969. Prima flora colombiana. 3. CompositaeAstereae. Webbia 24: 1-335. - - - . 1985. Brunelliaceae. Fl. Neotr. Mono gr. 2(Suppl.): 1-103. - - . 1989. Relación de las localidades y fechas correspondientes a las plantas colectadas y anotadas por José Cuatrecasas, al servicio del Instituto de Ciencais Naturales (Herbario Nacional Colombiano- COL) (V-1939IX-1942). Perez-Arbelaezia 2: 293-328. Epling, C. & Játiva, C. 1964. Revisión del género Satureja en América del Sur. Brittonia 16: 393-416. Hettner, A. 1892. Die Kordillere von Bogotá. Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen, Supp. 104 [Original pagaination unknown]. [Translated into Spanish by E. Guhl as: La Cordillera de Bogotá: Resultados de viajes y estudios. 351 pp. 1966. Banco de la República, Bogotá.] INDERENA. 1986. Puracé: Montaña de fuego, nieve, páramo y selva. Revista Parq. Nac. Colombia 1(9):1-16. Instituto Geográfico "Agustín Codazzi." 1963. Carta preliminar (blueprint) maps. 1:25,000 [Plancha 152-IIIB, C, andO]. - - - . 1968. República de Colombia." Mapa físicopolítico. 1:1,500,000. Edición preliminar. Instituto Geográfico "Agustín Codazzi," Bogotá. - - - . 1971. Diccionario geográfico de Colombia. Tomo I (Letras A-L) y II (Letras M-Z). Ministerio de Hacienda y Crédito Público. Edición patrocinada por el Banco de la República, Bogotá - - - . 1972. Carta general. Plancha N° 9. Carta preliminar. 1:500,000. Ministerio de Hacienda y Crédito Público, Bogotá. - - - . 1973. Mapa vial. Basado en el mapa de la República de Colombia a escala 1:1 ,500,000 del Instituto Geográfico "Agustín Codazzi." Ministerio de Hacienda y Crédito Público. Carvajal & Cia., Bogotá. - - - . 1976. Colombia departamentos, intendencias y comisarías: Información geográfica básica. Bogotá. - - - . 1977. Atlas de Colombia. Tercera edición. Litografia Arco, Bogotá.


1999]

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- - - . 1983. República de Colombia. Mapa fisico-político. 1:1,500,000. Edición duodécima. Instituto Geográfico "Agustín Codazzi," Bogotá. - - - . 1985. Mapa de la República de Colombia. Séptima edición. Carvajal S.A., Colombia. Killip, E. P. 1927. Report ofthe Killip-Smith botanical expedition to Colombia, 1926-27. J. New York Bot. Gard. 28: 205-220. Llano, M. del. 1990. Los páramos de los Andes. Montoya & Araújo Ltda., Bogotá. Mathias, M. E. & Constance, L. 1962. The Andean genus Niphogeton (Umbelliferae)revisited. Brittonia 14: 148-155. Meyer de Schauensee, R. 1948-1951. The birds ofthe Republic ofColombia. Pts. 1-4. Caldasia 5(22-26): 251-1112. Paynter, A. R., Jr. & Traylor, M. A. 1981. Omithological gazetteer of Colombia. Bird Department, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. Reyes Z., P., J. Molano B., F. G. A. Cortés Lombana, J. O. Rangel Ch., A. Flórez, P. Iriarte & E. Kraus (eds.). 1995. El páramo: Un ecosistema de alta montaña. Serie Montañas Tropoandinas, Vol. l. Fundación Ecosistemas Andinos (ECOAN), Santa Fé de Bogotá. Robson, N. K. R. 1987. Studies in the genus Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 7. Section 29. Brathys (Part 1). Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 16: 1-106. Sánchez P., H. & J. Hernández-Camacho. 1995. Labiodiversidad de los Andes de Colombia y su conservación en los parques nacionales. Pp. 619-626. In: S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero & J. L. Luteyn (eds.), Biodiversity and conservation of neotropical montane forests. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Smith, A. C. & M. F. Koch. 1935. The genus Espeletia: A study in phylogenetic taxonomy. Brittonia 1: 479-530. Sturm, H. & O. Rangel Ch. (eds.). 1985. Ecología de los páramos andinos: Una visión preliminar integrada. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bibliot. José Jerónimo Triana 9: 1-292. United States Board on Geographical Names. 1988. Gazetteer of Colombia. Third edition. Defense Mapping Agency, Washington, DC. Viloria P., A. L. 1993. Los páramos de Perija. Natura 93: 25-29. Revista de Divulgación Científica Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas. Wood, J. R. I. & Harley, R. M. 1988. The genus Salvia (Labiatae) in Colombia. Kew Bull. 44: 211-278.

Venezuela American Geographical Society ofNew York. 1945. Map CN-19, Caracas. Compiled and drawn by The American Geograpichal Society ofNew York. Aranguren B., A. & N. J. Márquez. 1995. Use, collection, commercialization, and vulnerability of two species of the genus Oritrophium (0. venezuelense and O. peruvianum) in the Venezuelan Andes. Final Report. Programa Andes Tropicales, Fundación BIOMA, Mérida, Venezuela. - - - , - - - , R . Prato & Y. Lesenfants. 1996. Use, collection, commercialization, and vulnerability oftwo species of the genus Oritrophiwn (O. venezuelense and O. peruvianum, Compositae) in the Venezuelan Andes. Acta Bot. Venez. 19: 16-38. Bono, G. 1996. Flora y vegetación del Estado Táchira, Venezuela. Monografie 20. Museo Regionale di Scienze Natrurali, Torino.

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Caribbean Petroleum Company. 1943. Mapas de las vías de comunicación de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela. 1:2,000,000. Proyección plicónica. Top. Dept. C.P.C., Maracaibo. Gabaldón, M. 1992. Parques nacionales de Venezuela. Serie Parques Nacionales y Conservación Ambiental, Caracas. Jahn, A. 1912. La cordillera venezolana de los Andes. Tipografía Comercio, Caracas. (Cited in Pérez, 1992a.] - - - . 1931. Los páramos venezolanos: Sus aspectos fisicos y su vegetación. Bol. Soc. Venez. Ci. Nat. 1(3): 93127. López del Pozo, E. 1993. El páramo: Diferentes visiones. Pp. 109-121. In: C. Schubert & L. Vivas (eds.), El Cuaternario de la Cordillera de Mérida (Andes venezolanos). Universidad de Los Andes/Fundación Polar, Mérida. López Figueiras, M. 1986. Censo de macrolíquenes venezolanos de los estados Falcón, Lani, Mérida, Táchira y Trujillo. Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida. Ministerio de Obras Públicas. 1969. Atlas de Venezuela. Dirección de Cartografia Nacional, Caracas. - - - . 1969-1977. Maps of Venezuela. Serie DCN. 1:25,000. Dirección de Cartografia Nacional, Caracas. [Hoja 5839, San José de Bolívar. 1976; Hoja 5840, La Grita. 1976; Hoja 5841, El Vigía. 1977; Hoja 5940, Libertad. 1976; Hoja 5941, Mérida. 1977; Hoja 5942, La Azulita. 1977; Hoja 6041, Ciudad de Bolivia. 1977; Hoja 6042, Timoles. 1976; Hoja 6142, Barinitas. 1975; Hoja 6143, Boconó. 1977; Hoja 6144, Trujillo. 1969; Hoja 6244, Biscucuy. 1976; Hoja 6245, El Tocuyo. 1975; Hoja 6043, Valera. 1976.] - - - . 1977. Mapa de las carreteras de Venezuela. 1:1,000,000. Octava edición. Dirección General de Vialidad. Gráficas Artimano C.A., [Caracas] Venezuela. - - - . [Without date.] Mapa de las carreteras de Venezuela, Región Norte de la República de Venezuela. 1:1,000,000. Dirección General de Vialidad. Gráficas Artimano C.A., [Caracas] Venezuela. Ministerio del Ambiente y de Los Recursos Naturales Renovables. 1978. Mérida. Map NC 19-13. 1:250,000. Dirección General de Información e Investigación del Ambiente, Dirección Nacional de Cartografia- MARNR. Caracas. - - - . 1983. Venezuela en mapas. Primera edición. Dirección General de Información e Investigación del Ambiente, Dirección de Cartografia- MARNR. Caracas. Monasterio, M. (ed.). 1980. Estudios ecológicos en los páramos andinos. Ediciones de la Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Paynter, A. R., Jr. 1982. Ornithological gazetteer o[ Venezuela. Bird Department, Museum ofComparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. Schubert, C. 1976. Evidence of former glaciation in the Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela. Erdkunde 30: 222--224. Sívoli G., A. [Date uncertain but 1976 or earlier]. Diccionario geográfico de Venezuela. Ediciones Eneva, C.A., Caracas. Unitcd States Board on Geographical Names. 1961. Venezuela. Gazetteer No. 56. Office of Geography, Department ofthe Interior, Washington, DC. Vila, M. A. 1976. Diccionario de tierras y aguas de Venezuela. Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Dirección de Cartografia Nacional, Caracas. Viloria P., A. L. 1993. Los páramos de Perijá. Natura 93: 25-29. Revista de Divulgación Científica Sociedad de Ciencias Naturales La Salle, Caracas.


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MEMOIRS OF THE NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN

Vuilleumier, F. & D. N. Ewert. 1978. The distribution of birds in Venezuelan páramos. Bull. American Mus. Nat. Hist. 162(2): 47-90. Xena de Enrech, N. 1992. Valerianaceae. Fl. Venezuela 5(1 ): 221-267.

Ecuador Acosta-Solís, M. 1980. Plantas indígenas para forrajicultura tropandina.' Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 15(56): 57-97. - - - . 1984. Los páramos andinos del Ecuador. Publicaciones Científicas MAS. Quito. American Geographical Society ofNew York. 1938. Quito. Map SA-17. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. - - - . 1938. Piura. Map SB-17. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. - - - . 1949. Río Mira-Islas Galápagos. Map NA-18, Southamerica. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. Andrade Marín, L. 1952. La desconocida región de Oyacachi: Rectificaciones geográficas, hallazgos etnológicos y de un precioso manuscrito inédito, en poder oculto de los indios. Anales Organo Univ. Central (Ecuador) 79(331-332): 5-63. Diels, L. 1937. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Vegetation und Flora von Ecuador. Biblioth. Bot. 116: 1-190. [Spanish translation as: Contribuciones al conocimiento de la vegetación y flora del Ecuador. Universidad Central, Quito. August, 1938.] Instituto Geográfico Militar. 1950. Mapa geográfico del Ecuador. 1:1,000,000. Quito. - - - . 1978. Indice toponímico de La República del Ecuador. Tomo I-VII. Quito.

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Mena V., P. 1995. Las áreas protegidas con bosque montano en el Ecuador. Pp. 627-635. In: S. P. Churchill, H. Balslev, E. Forero & J. L. Luteyn (eds.), Biodiversity and conservation of neo tropical montan e forests. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. Paynter, A. R., Jr. & M. A. Traylor. 1977. Ornithological gazetteer of Ecuador. Bird Department, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge. Sampedro F., Ing. Capt. 1950. Mapa del Ecuador. 1:1,000,000. United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. - - - . 1976. Atlas geográfico del Ecuador. Artes Gráficas, Quito. United States Board on Geographical Names. 1987. Gazetter of Ecuador. Ed. 2. Defense Mapping Agency, Washington, De.

Peru American Geographical Society of New York. 1949. !quitos. Map, SA-18. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. - - - . 1938. Piura. Map SB-17. 1:1,000,000. Provisional edition. A. Hoen & Co., Baltimore. CartaNacional. 1:100,000. Dillon, M. O. & A. Sagástegui A. 1986. Jalcophila, a new genus of an andean Inuleae (Asteraceae). Brittonia 38: 162-167. Herrera de Laja, B. 1980. Revisión de las especies peruanas del género Gynoxys. Bol. Soc. Peruana Bot. 8(1, 2): 3-74. Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Mapas fisico-político. [Piura 1:500,000; Lambayeque 1 :3,000,000; Cajamarca 1:480,000; La Libertad 1:420,000; Amazonas 1:600,000.] Smith, D. N. 1988. Flora and vegetation ofthe Huascarán National Park, Ancash, Peru, with preliminary taxonomic studies for a manual ofthe flora. Ph.D. dissertation. Iowa State University, Ames.


BOTANICAL LITERATURE REFERENCES TO PARAMO

This bibliography of páramo literature is primarily botanical in orientation. Also included are a few studies ofpuna or afro-alpine (and other Old World) regions for comparati ve purposes, anda few zoologically oriented páramo studies. Although literature searches for these latter subjects have not been exhaustive, I have tried to add relevant papers with extensive bibliographies whenever possible. I have also made an effort to include páramo-based unpublished theses for which I have looked diligently in the various libraries ofthe Universidad de Los Andes (Facultad de Ciencias, Mérida, Venezuela), Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Bogotá, and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Medellín), Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Departamento de Biología, Herbario QCA, Quito), and the University of Amsterdam (Rugo de Vries Laboratory, The Netherlands). I have not included in this bibliography strictly taxonomic revisions or monographs in which páramo species are a major element; they are, instead, included earlier in this book, in the "Checklist of Páramo Plants," and are cited with their respective families or genera. Although neither algae nor fungi (with the exception of lichenized fungi) are included in the abo ve checklist, literature references to them are included below. As

an additional help, at the end of most bibliographic entries, after the long dash (-), I have tried to note the main emphasis of the cited work, using the following list of subject categories.

Aagaard, E. M. J. 1982. Ecological distribution of mammals in the cloud forests and páramos of the Andes, Mérida, Venezuela. Ph.D. dissertation. Colorado State University. [Cited in J. F. Eisenberg, Mammals of the Neotropics: The northern Neotropics. VoL l. University ofChicago Press, Chicago.]-1, 4 Abadia, S. 1943. Cultivo de pastos de tierra fria. Bol. Ganadería 5: 333-373. (Cited in Roseveare, 1948.]-1, 10 Acosta de Obando, R. M. 1982. Estudio anátomo-foliar del género Carramboa Cuatr. Revista Fac. Farmacia (Universidad de Los Andes, Mérida, Venezuela) 22: 91129.-11 Acosta Saignes, M. 1952. El área cultural prehispánica de Jos Andes venezolanos. Archivos Venezolanos de Folklore 1(1): 45-80. [Cited in López del Pozo, 1993.]-5, JO, 14 Acosta-Solís, M. 1937. Excursión botánica al Páramo del Angel. Flora (Quito) 1(2): 103-118.-1, 5 - - - . 1942. El Quishuar u olivo del páramo: Olivo de Jos Incas. Flora (Quito) 2(5-6): 119-125.-1,2, 10

- - - . 1957. Clasificación geobotánica de los bosques y las otras formaciones vegetales del Ecuador. Ci. & Nat. 1(2): 62-77.-1 - - - . 1960. Los pastizales naturales del Ecuador: Conservación y aprovechamiento de los páramos y sabanas. Revista Geogr. (Rio de Janeiro) 53: 87-99. -1 - - - . 1962a. Terminología geográfica y ecológica para América Tropical Andina. Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 11(44): 351-358.-1, 5 - - - . 1962b. Fitogeografia y vegetación de la Provincia de Pichincha. Publicación 249: 1-13 5. Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia, México, D.F. -1,9 - - - . 1965. Los recursos naturales del Ecuador y su conservación. Parte 1' (Pub l. 254) y 2' (Tomo I) (Pub l. 255). Instituto Panamericano de Geografia e Historia, México, D.F. -1, 2, 5, 6 - - - . 1966. Las divisiones fitogeográficas y las formaciones geobotánicas del Ecuador. Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 12(48): 401-447. -1, 5, 9

229

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

ecology (including geoecology, reproductive biology, community ecology, phyto-sociology, population and vegetation dynamics, etc.) systematics physiology, ecophysiology zoology general (including natural history, travels, etc.) conservation geology (including soiis, geologic history, glaciation, etc.) palynology, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology biogeography ethnobiology (including agricultura! systems, land use and management) anatomy & morphology chemistry & pharmacology archeology anthropology (including sociology, human ecology) limnology present-day climatology (including microclimatology) algae fungi (including lichens) bryophytes


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México, y su posición en las montañas tropicales de ---·. 1968a. Protección y conservación de la naturaleza en Sudamérica. Vol. 1: 230-250. In: Fittkau et al. (eds.), América. Phytocoenologia 22: 391-436.-1, 5, 9 1968.-6 Alulima Gordillo, J. R. & J. Roberto. 1993. Formas ade- - - . 1968b. Divisiones fitográficas y formaciones geocuadas de propagación vegetativa y repoblación arborea de Alnusjorullensis, Buddleia in cana y Polylepis in cana botánicas del Ecuador. Casa de la Cultura Ecuatoriana, Quito. -1, 5, 9 para las comunidades rurales del Chimborazo. Tesis de - - - . 1969. Glumifloras del Ecuador: Catálogo fitogeoIngeniero Forestal. Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja. -1,6,14 gráfico de las Gramíneas, Ciperáceas y Juncáceas. Flora Al varado, L. 1945. Glosario del Bajo Español en Venezuela. (Quito) 13(47-50): l-216. -1,2 Primera parte-Acepciones especiales. Ministerio de - - - . 1973. El paisaje y la cubierta vegetal del Reino de Educación, Dirección de Cultura y Bellas Artes, Caracas. Quito al arribo de los conquistadores españoles. Bol. Inform. Ci. Ecuador 14(105-106): 1-17.-5, lO, 14 [Cited in López del Pozo, 1993.]-5, 14 - - - . 1977. Ecología y fitoecología. Casa de la Cultura Amat García, G. 1987. Influencia del uso del suelo sobre la Ecuatoriana, Quito. -1 mesofauna edáfica en el Páramo de Monserrate, - - - . 1980. Plantas indígenas para forrajicultura tropanCundinamarca. Tesis. Dpto. de Biología, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. -1, 4 dina. Revista Acad. Colomb. Ci. Exact. 15(56): 57-97. -10 ----. 1991 a. Artropofauna del Parque Nacional Natural - - - . 1982. Los pastizales naturales del Ecuador: Conser. · Chingaza. Cuad. Divulg. 14: 1-13.--4 vación y aprovechamiento de los páramos y sabanas. ·-·- - . 1991 b. Caracterización de microhábitats de la artroRevista Geogr. (Quito) 17:87-99.-1,6 pofauna en páramos del Parque Nacional Natural - - - . 1984. Los páramos andinos del Ecuador. Pub!. Chingaza, Cundinamarca, Colombia. Caldasia 16(79): Cient. MAS, Quito. -1, 2, 5, 6 539-550. (Contains good bibliography.]-1, 2, 4 - - - . 1985. El arenal del Chimborazo, ejemplo de puna Andrade, C., N. Aranguren, G. Cardenas, H. Florindo, W. en el Ecuador. Revista Geogr. (Quito) 22: 115-122.-1 López, G. Oquendo, P. Patiño & G. Rueda. 1992. Estudio - - - . 1994. Los pajonales de Chiquicagua y la protección limnológico de tres lagunas en el Páramo de Chisacá del Río Colorado. RevistaGeogr. (Quito) 33: 7-18.-1,6 (Cundinamarca). Tésis de grado. Universidad Pedagó- - - & S. T. Machado. l937a. Estudio botánico-químico gica Nacional, Bogotá, Colombia. [Cited in Gonz.ález del Espeletia grandijlora (frailejón del Páramo del AnGonzález, 1995.]-15 gel). Instituto Botánico de la Universidad Central, Quito, Andrade, G. I. (ed.). 1993. Carpanta: Selva nublada y Ecuador. -1, 2, 5, 10, 12 páramo. Fundación Natura Colombia, Bogotá. -5 - - - & - - - . 1937b. Espeletia grandijlora (E. hartAndrade Marín, L. 1936. Viaje a las misteriosas montañas wegiana), "Frailejón" del Páramo del Angel. Anales de Llanganati. Ecuadorian Institute ofNatural Sciences, Univ. Centr. Ecuador 59(301): 165-226.-1, 5 Quito. (Cited in Harling, 1979.]-5 Adams, M. J. 1973. Ecological zonation and the butterflies - - - . 1952. La desconocida región de Oyacachi: Rectiofthe Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. J. Nat. ficaciones geográficas, hallazgos etnológicos y de un Hist. 7:699-718.-1,4 precioso manuscrito inédito, en poder oculto de los Aguado, Fray Pedro de. 1581. Recopilación historial de indios. Anales Organo Univ. Central (Ecuador) 79(331Venezuela. Reprinted in 1963 as part of the series 332): 5-63.-5,14 Fuentes para la Historia Colonial de Venezuela, vols. Andressen, R. & Ponte, R. 1973. Estudio integral de las 62 and 63. Biblioteca de la Academia Nacional de la Hiscuencas de los ríos Chama y Capazón: Climatología e toria, Caracas. [Cited in López del Pozo, 1993.]-5, 14 hidrología. Sub-proyecto No. II, Instituto de Geografía Aguirre C., J., E. Linares, E. Santana & G. Castro. 1986 y Conservación de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de [Abstract]. La brioflora de los alrededores de Bogotá. P. Los Andes, Mérida. [Cited in Pérez, 1995b.]-16 194. Resúmenes IV Congr. Latinoamer. Bot. (Medellín, Andriessen, P. A. M., K. F. Helmens, H. Hooghiemstra, P. Colombia). -1, 2, 19 A. Riezebos & T. Van der Hammen. 1993. Absolute - - - & O. Rangel Ch. 1976. Contribución al estudio ecochronology of the Pliocene-Quatemary sediment selógico y fitosociológico de las comunidades acuáticas quence ofthe Bogotá area, Colombia. Quatem. Sci. Rev. macroscópicas y continentales del Lago de Tota (Boyacá) 12: 483-501. [Also published in: Hooghiemstra (ed.), y alrededores. Tesis de grado. Dpto. de Biología, UniThe Quaternary ofColombia, 22. 1996.]-8 versidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. -1, 3, 15 Anés, J. & O. Crescente. 1997 [Abstrae!]. 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