The Gesneriaceae of Ecuador - Skog & Kvist 1997

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Estud ios sobre ]" ·--··_.wersidad y

c.ologia .· .'_: de : I ntas

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ESTUDIOS SOBRE DIVERSIDAD Y ECOLOGIA DE PLANTAS Memorias del II Congreso Ecuatoriano de Botanica realizado en la Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito 16—20 Octubre 1995

editores Renato Valencia & Henrik B aislev

Publicado por PONTIFICIAUNiVERSIDADCATOLICADEL ECUADOR en colaboracidn con UNIVERSIDADDEAARHUS,DINAMARCA (PROYECTO ENRECA) Y PROGRAMADANESDEINVESTIGACIONDELMEDIOAMBIENTE (PROYECTO DIVA)

1997


CONTENIDO

p. Contenido Introduccion y presentacion Dedicatoria Agradecimientos Asesores cientfficos Florfstica y taxonomia 1. Cornelia Ott- Notes on the systematics and ecology of Menispermaceae of Ecuador 2. Laurence E. Skog & Lars Peter Kvist - The Gesneriaceae of Ecuador 3. Vicky A. Funk- Wemeria s.l. (Compositae: Senecioneae) in Ecuadof 4. Maximilian Weigend -Some aspects of the biogeography. morphology and systematics of Loasoideae in northern ~th~~a

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-vi viii

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5. Lynn G. Clark - Diversity and biogeography of Ecuadorean bamboos (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) and their ~~

6. J-:Iarold Robinson & Vicky A. Funk- Compositae of Ecuador I: Key to frequently collected genera 7. Vicky A. Funk - Compositae of Ecuador II: Diversity and distribution 8. Lars W. Chatrou, Paul J. M. Maas, Carola P. Repetur & H. Rainer - Preliminary list of Ecuadorean Annonaceae Descripcion de Ia vegetacion 9. John Littner Clark- Preliminary floristic inventory of the Bilsa Biological Station, Esmeraldas, Ecuador 10. Blanca Leon, Kenneth R. Young & Asuncion Cano - ¡ Fitogeografia y conservaci6n deJa Costa Central del Peru 11. Tamara Nunez- Inventario florfstico y zonificacion de Ia vegetacion en Isla La Plata, Parque Nacional Machalilla 12. Carlos E. Ceron & Consuela Montalvo A. - Composici6n y estructura de una hectarea de bosque en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana - con informacion etnobotanica de los Huaorani

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Ges11erinc.:nc of Ewndor

The Gesneriaceae of Ecuador Laurence E. Skog Department of Botany, NHB-166, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0001, USA, tel (+1) 202-357-2569, fax (+1) 202-786-2563, email skog.la rry@mllnh.si.cdu

Lars P. Kvist Unit of Forestry, Department of Economics and Natural Resources, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C., Copenhagen, Denmark, tel (+45) 35-282-292,fax (+45) 35-357-833 Abstract The flowering plant family Gcsneriaccae is represented in Ecuador by 29 genera and more than 200 species. Over 40% of the Ecuadorian species belong to genera that have been recently revised. Additional new species await description and study as revisions of the genera are com¡ pleted. Mos_t species of Gesneriai:eae are fou nd in montane rain or cloud forests, with few in the Amazon basin except along the foothills of the Andes. In Ecuador p lants may be shrubs, subshrubs, lianas, or herbs, and either terrestrial or epiphytic. A key to the genera is presented along with a brief discussion of each genus as known in Ecuador. Resumen La fami lia Gesneriaceae estii representada en el Ecuador por 29 generos y mas de 200 especies. Mas de 40% de las especies ecuatorianas pertenecen a generos q ue han sido revisad os recientemente. Sc espera Ia descri pcion y estudio de nuevas especies cuando se complete Ia revision de todos los. generos del Ecuador. La mayo ria de las especies d e Gesneriaceae se localizan en el bosque montano lluvioso o nublado, observandose pocas especies en Ia cuenca ama zonica, con excepci6n del pie de monte andino. En el Ecuador las Gesneriaceae pueden ser arbustivas, su b¡ arbustivas, lianas o hierbas terrestres como epifi tas. Se presen ta Ia clave de los generos cono cidos en el Ecuador con una breve discusi6n para cada genero.

Introduction Plants of the Gesneriaceae (Skog 1979, Wiehler 1983) make up a siz able and often colorful componen t of the Ecu adorian montane rain aqd cloud forests. In Ecuador, approximately 29 genera and 210 species of the family are known, second only to Colombia in the number of species resident in a South American country. Revisions of several genera of the Gesneriaceae that occur in Ecua'dor have recently been completed: Columnea, with 57 species of ca. 180 in the genus (Kvist & Skog 1993); Cremosperma, 10 of 23 species in th e genus (Kvist & Skog 1988); Heppiella, three of four species (Kvist 1990);

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Skog & /\vis/

Kohleria, with four of 17 species of the genus in Ecuador (Kvist & Skog 1992); Penrcea, 12 of 17 known species (Kvist & Skog 1996); and Re!dia, three of five species (Kvist & Skog- 1989). An examination of the distribution and variation of some of the genera (e.g., Cre111osperllln, Heppiel!a, Pcarcea, etc.) shows that the centers of distribution and variation may be in Eet:ador._ Many genera of Gesneriaceae consist of a single or a few widespread species, and a larger number of narrow endemics (e.g., Penrcea, .'~eldia). The narrow endemic species are, howeve1~ often common within their restricted distribution ranges. While the widespread species in a genus may be quite common and variable, the local endemics usually show little variation, and often occupy shaded, permanently humid ravines, along streams, or close to waterfalls. Because of the restricted distributions of many species, they are rarely collected and are extremely vulnerable to habitat destruction. For Gesneriaceae three habitats are especially notable: 1) the lower montane forest where most of the species of Gesneriaceae occur, and which has seen much deforestation res ulting in the disappearance of many species; 2) coastai Ecuador, where several endemic specir.s have been found in diverse forest types, and which has been nearly completely devastated (Dodson & Gentry 1991); and 3) northwest Carchi and adjacent Esmeraldas provinces at the border with Colombia, which appears to be the richest area in Ecuador for Gesneriaceae. This latter area is especially rich in species of Columnea and Cremosperma. There is an urgent need for concerted efforts in collecting, field and greenhouse observations, cultivation of rare or nearly extinct species, . and herbarium studies to facilitate revisionary studies of the remaining unstudied species of Gesneriaceae. Because some species or genera are difficult to identify and key, it is vital for ·collectors to try to make complete collections or observations when possible. Some genera are rhizomatous or tuberous, therefore underground parts should be collected or their presence or absence should be noted. In addition, some species of Codonanthe cannot be identified without flowers, therefore a fruiting specimen cannot be identified with certainty. Color of corollas and I or fruits is necessary in some cases for identification. Fruits in Gesneriaceae can be berries, as in Besleria or Colunmea, or capsules. The latter may be dry as in Anetanthus, or fleshy as in Drymonia or Gasteranthus. Thus, collection of fruits or noting the type of fruit is useful for identification. Key to genera (and some species) of Gesneriaceae in Ecuador 1. Leaves alternate; plants terrestrial. 2. Corollas bluish-purple, in pedunculate scorpioid cymes; stems watery or succulent

.................................................................................................................................. Rhynchoglossum

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Gt'Sileriaaae of Ecuador 2. Corollas white with yellow or reddish spots insid e, in modified cymes (lackin~..~~~.u~~~~~ stems not obviously succu lent .................... .................. :........................:.................. 1. Leaves op Posite, whorled, or in a rosette; pl <~n ts terreslnal or ep1phyhc. lit etantlms 3. Plants with cbractcate inflorescences. 4. Fruit a d ry capsule ..................,................................................................................. 1 . -4.-F-Fuit a fleshy capsule-{at-matur it¥) or berr y. . r: Calyx lobes connate for nearly half their length; plants low-growmg, rarely over 20 em .., ........................................ ..................................Cremosperma I' ' :.>. tall· 1eor ye11On coroIIasw h't 5. C~ly~ lobes nearly free; p lants subshrubs or shrubs, ~ften much more than 20. em ta •; . . corvllas usually orange or red, seldom yellow or wh1te. 6 Leaves with lower surface having stomata clustered; ncctanferous d1sc u su<~ llyre­ · a fles hy capsu 1e .......................:................Gasterantlllls ' . duced . to a dorsal gland; fnnt 6 Leaves with )ower surface having stomata scattered; nectan ferous d1sc annular ~ r . ·es ............ ........................... .. .. .......................................... Beslerza 1ar; fru1·1·s bCHI · · senuannu 3. Plants with bracteate inflorescences. . . ~ . . 7 Fruits eithe r fleshy capsules or bernes. · 8 Anthers sagittate and dehisdng by basal pores; plants usuaiiJ-eplph)"tiC-herb, or hana~, t · 1(g Drymonia turrialvae D. lli'CCCllala) .................................. Drymoma 1 . slits usually or port:s (apical n anoet. sa.,gl'ttate, d ehiscing by longitudinal rahre . ersy vanous, Ant 8. or . ores in Codoua11/l!e); p lants epiphytic or te rrestnal. Extra-floral ncctaries produced as red dots on upper a nd /or lower leaf surfaces, .al · tl~e n odes and at the sinuses of th e calyx lobes; plants epiphytic and often growmg Codouaut1te t ·anthers dehiscing by a pica l pores ..................................... t' ' f odes or t . rom an s nes s, 9. Extra-floral nectaries lacking from leaf s urfaces, b~t occas10na.11 y presen a 1• n sinuses of calyx lobes; plants epiphytic or terrestnal, not growmg from ant~ nests (except in Codounullwpsis, but then lea~es strong ly unequal and xeromorph1c); anthe rs usually dehiscing by longitudmal shts. 11 1 ' h 10 Fruits fleshy capsules. ·11 . Leaves extremely unequal in opposite leaf pairs or i.n ros~ttes, I e sma er ear . . often stipule-like or much reduced; p lants mostly ep1phyt1c. . 12. Leaves usually in a rosette and not particularly xeromorph1c, or 1f a hana . then leaves often clustered ,ill shortened nodes, not growing from ant's nest ................ ........................................... Paradrymoma 12 Leaves scattered along stem, extremely xeromorphic,and not usually clu:· f rom an t's nes ts ...........:.... .. Codonantlzopsrs .tered at the nodes; plants growmg . 11. Leaves opposite, equal to s ubequal; plants usual~y terrestn al or scandent. 13. Corolla more or less infundibular or cylindnc; stems watery or succulent, plants occasionally bearing tubers. 14 Calyx Jobes connate for at least 3 / 4 of their length; corolla deep

ter~es

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................................. Chnjsothemrs

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la~y~7ob·~~..f~~~..~~~~i;·;~. b~~~;·~~;~jj~"~sually white o r yellow, ~r r arely

~eddish ................................................................. ....................._. .......Nautrlocalyx 13. Corolla usually inflated at the middle or above,seldom cyhndnc; stem.s not watery. usually herbaceous to sometimes somewhat woody at the base, p lants Jacking tubers, rarely with any underground stem (occasional stolons . or rhizomes in Pearcea). 15. Corollas conspicuously bent downward from JUSI above the base; terrestrial herbs ................................................... :.................... Pearcea 15 Corollas usually curved upward well above the base, 1f at all; ~errestrial subshrubs or shrubs, or lianas, rarely herbs ................. Alloplectus

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Skog & Kvist

Cc;;llcriaccnc 1~{ Ecuador

10. Fruits berries.

like, lobed or of separate glands; leaves opposite, or sometimes whorled. 28. Disc of 5 separate glands, or some connate; corolla tube red, yellow; or orange ........................................................................................ l~ollleria 28. Disc annular, rarely lobed; corolla tube red. 29. Corolla funnelform with a broad limb ...... Acllimeues peduuculat-a 29. Corolla broadly tubular with a narrow limb. 30. Anthers free, the filaments not coiling after an thesis; corolia throat not glandular .......................................................... I-Ieppiella 30. Anthers coherent, the filaments coiling after an thesis; corolb throat glandular ............................................... Gloxinia sylvatica

16. Pbnts terrestrial; inflorescences pedunculate; fruits translurenl w:th black seeds 16. r:1a nts usually e~i~i";;;·i·~;··i·:~fi~-~~~~~~-~~~-~~~d~;;·~-~-~~;~;·f~;,i·;~-~~·;·;r;~~-h~~~;~c~:;s w:t11 w 1ute seeds. ' 17.Corollas urceolate or 1nfundibular; berries orange;stems thin . 17 and C pendent 11 b 1............................. . . . ............ . ............................................... Ne.Jmortoll/a · oro a tu u ar, bernes white, pmk, red, purple,or lavender; stems rarely thin, but pendent or erect '· Fruits dry capsu les. ···· ·············· ······ ················ ·· Colwwrea !8. P 1ants having no underground rhizomes or tubers ("fibrous:rooted"); plants terrestria'1 corollas usually wh:te; nectariferous disc absent. .. 19. Erect, tall, suffruticose herbs, with stems 0.6-2 m tall, and :nternodes elongated ........................ 19: Low-growing herbs, with stems rosulat~-;~-;~~~i;·;~·O-.S·-~~-;-~"Jj········· ··· ···· Auod:scus :nternodes short .................................... ..... ' N . 18. Pla~;s pro_duc;ng or arising from rhizom~~--~;·;~b~;~;..~j~·~;~·;~·,:;:~~;·;;~j-· " ~~;;~~:;;~ ~oro a vanous Y colored; nectariferous disc usually present. · ' _o_ Pl~nts tuberous; ovary nearly superior or superior; upper cowlla lobes much longer than the other three, limb distinctly . s· . . bllabiate ····················································· 20. Plants usually arising from scaly rhizo~~~~:··~~;··~b~;~~~:-~-~~-~;··j·i·2.·;;·2_ ;""; 11g1 a or; upper corolla lobes scarcely longer than the others, and li~b near] o, _en.~ lower lobes longer than the upper lobes. Y r,gu ai, 0 •

0

1 ;n

21. Leavles often in a rosette, silver- or white-sptStted; lower corolta lobes white and muc 1 longer than the upper reddish lobes . . 21 . Lea~~s widely spaced along the stem and ;~·~;··~~-~~ii;··;~-~--~~~~;·t~:··~~:::~i7~~~ or w ute-spotted; upper and lower corolla lobes not noticeably contrastin red ~~dr7h:te, and eg~almg,shorter than or only slightly longer than the upper l~bes

-w~,i~~ ~;h'~~~~~en~: ~~:~~n:;~:.~ ~~~-oi.Ia·~--r.~~:-~.:~.e~,--~~-~~~~-~-~~~:1 ~~e~:~l~

· . .t.o 22. Plants terrestnal; corollas white bluish-purple ed . · I · ea ted or not. , ' r , or orai~ge, v;:nously spot23. Nectariferous dis~ much reduced or lacking; corollas white or bluish-purple. 24. Leaf bases obhgue,the blades anisophyllous .............................. Mono :/e 24. Leaf bases cuneate,obtuse, or·cordate, the blades isophyllous. py 25. Plants robust, more than 20 em tall; corolla bluish-purple with a . ·' · pereums · 25, dark PI purple spot .inside at base .................................. Gloxm:a ·h ants low-grow:ng ca. IS em tall; corolla tube white, but yellow in t roat or at base of lobes. 26· Corolla limb ca. I.S em wide; leaves in a rosette ··························· 26 ................._.......................... :·····---................................ Gloxinia tlodso1tii · Corolla hmb ca. I em Wide; leaves widely spaced . along ~he stem ....................................................... Phinaea divaricata 23. Nectanferous di~c usually annular or of separate glands; corollas red, yellow or orange, occasionally white or blue (in Diastema). 27. Corolla :-vhite with p_urple spots at the base of the lobes, or rarely red (111 Diastema com1ferum); disc of 5 separate linear glands o~ rar~iy 2 or 3- com1ate; leaves opposite ...................................:... Diaste-ma 27 · oro a red, yellow, or orange, not white or purple spotted; disc ring-

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A summary of the genera of Gesneriaceae in Ecuador

Achimenes A genus of rhizomatous herbs with dry capsular fruits, Achimenes is mestly found in Mexico ancLCentraLAmerica,_where ca. 25 species occur.--A-single species, Achimenes pedunculata, has been collected once in Ecuador from Cotopaxi province. The plant may have escaped from cultivation, since the otherwise nearest known occurrence of Achimenes is northwestern Colombia, and many species, including A. pedunculata, are widely cultivated. The species is herbaceous with reddish flowers.

Alioplectus About 20 of the 60 species of Alloplectus occur in Ecuador. The genus is poorly known throughout its range from Central America to Bolivia. The species in Ecuador are all non-rhizomatous, and mostly erect, terrestrial or epiphytic shrubs (a few are climbing) or large herbs with red or yellow flowers. Alloplectus occurs from near sea level to above 3000 m. The fruits are bivalved, fleshy capsules.

Anetanthus This rarely collected, herbaceous, non-rhizomatous genus of two species is distributed from Peru to Colombia. The single species in Ecuador, A. gracilis, is only known from Morona-Santiago and Zamora-Chinchipe provinces. It has white flowers and dry capsular fruits.

Anodiscus A mainly Peruvian genus, Anodiscus has a single species, A. xanthophyllus, with two collections from Chimborazo and Morona-Santiago provinces in Ecuador. Plants are large, woody-based herbs with white flowers. There are no rhizomes, and dry capsules are found in this genus.

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Sku~

f1 .'{ vis!

Bcsleria The second fare-est gem.~s c~·! 1eotropi ca~ Cesn~ri?.ceae wi th over 150 species, Bcsleria,-is centered mainly in Colomb ia. About 20 species <~rc know~ from Ecuador, mainly on the Amazonian side cif the country. Plants are terrestri at non-rhiz omatous s hrubs o r s ubshrubs, with ebractea te in flo rescences, orange or yellow corollas, and berry fruits.

Capanea The genus Capanea has two species, both found in the montane forests of Ecuad~r. O_ne spe~ies, C. a[finis, has pink to red corollas that are probably hummm gb1rd pollmated . 1 he other species, C. grand if/ora, with purple-s potted g reenish flowers, is pmbabl y bat pollinat ed. Both species are mostly scandent and epiphyti c, and have dry, capsula r fruits. -

Chrysoth emis A genus of six species of succule nt, terrestri al- herbs,arising irom tube;s, Chrysothemis, is mai!lly ce11tered in VenE'zue la a::td the Guianas. The two mo:;t wi?espr ead species, C. friedrichsthaliana (with a 5 reen calyx) and C. pulchelia

(:V1th a red-oran ge calyx), occur in Ecuad01~ ofte!1 alon g roadsides. The calyx lobes are connate to above the middle and the corolla is yellow-o range.

Codonanthe A widespr ead genus of about 15 species,-from Mexico to Brazil and Bolivia, with two common species in Ecuado r. Codona11the is usually epiphyti c and grows from ant's nests. The leaves have extra-flo ral-necta ries on which the ants feed . The ants apparen tly carry the seeds iRto their nests, where the seeds germina te. The fruits can either be fl~shy capsules or berries. The Ec~adorian species, C. crassifolia (with corollas ca. 2 em lo11g) and C. ulcana (with corollas ca. 3 em long) are similar vegetati vely, so collectio n of fl owering m aterial is necessa ry for identification. ·

Codonanthopsis An epiphytic, ant-gard en genus of four or five species, similar and related to

Codonanthe, Codonanthopsis has two species in Ecuador , both in the lowland

Amazon forest. The leaves are strongly unequal in a pair at each node, and the fruits are fleshy capsule s.

Columnea Columnea is the largest neotrop ical genus of Gesneriaceae, with ca. 180

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Gcsrrcrincenc of £Cl!ndor

· and the largest genus of Gesneri aceae in E<;..uador, with ca. 60 species speCies, , . . · 1993, 1994). It has about th~ s ame number O•- s pwes m (KVlS t & Skog . . b . ~ dar as in all of Mexico and Central Amenca , ut .fewer than m r.cua . M f h . Colomb ia, where there are probabl y more than 80 sl?eCleS. ost o t e speoes are epiphytic herbs or shrubs with berry frui.ts. The m~st ab,~ndanLg.roup ~f Columnea species in Ecuador, Columnca secho!l Col.Ja.1d~~' Las d~rs1ventral sh oots, extremely anisoph yllous leaf pairs, .a nd mostly wtch conspi;u ous r:d patterns on the lo~er ~eaf surfaces. Columnea has probabl y co-evo.ved with pollinat ing hummmgb1rds.

Corytoplectus

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_

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A enus of about eight species from the Anaeancountrtes-orSm:rfl:t Amenca. Co~ytoplectus is represen ted by a s ingle specie£, ~speczos~n the east~rn -Andean slopes in 'Ecuada r:7lan s are no~rl'llzomafiills, eRc_t 1~, Vllth transluc ent, fleshy capsules and black seeds.

Cremosperma A genus probabl y centered on the Pacific coast of Colomb ia but extend~ng ~o Panama and Peru (Kvist & Skog 1988). Cremasptrma has 10 speoes m Ecuador of a total of ca. 23. Three species tha t in Ecuado r are only known from the same ridge at ca. 1000 m elevatio n in Carchi Province near ~he Colomb ian border, also occur northwa rd in Pacific Colombia. Cremosperm.a has peduncu late infloresc ences without bracts and the pl~nts nre non-rhizomatou s low growing h erbs growing in damp shady locations.

Diastema

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A poorly known genus, perhaps centered in Ecuado r, where more than five species m ay occur. Diastema is rhizoma tous, he rbaceou s, and has dry, capsular fruits. Populati ons of Diastema are often found near waterfalls.

Drymonia

. .

.

A commo n genus of ca. 100 species of m ainly lia~. D~nza JS w tdesprea d from Mexico to Bolivia and Brazit with ca. 20 speoes m Ecuador. The genus is characte rized by sagittate , basally- pored ardhers , and fleshy, capsular fruits. A.few Drymonia species are terrestri al her~ '!With ftf}' large and often purplish leaves, found in extreme ly humid plhmes on both slopes of the Andes. One lianoid species, Drymonia serrulata, ~y be the most common ly collected species of New World Gesneri aceae.

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Skog & Kvis:

G~s11diac~n~

of Ecunrlor

Gnsternnthus A genus often found in deep shade , Gnsternnthus is proba bly centered in Ecuad or where 15 of the ca. 30 specie~ have been found . Gnsternntlws plants ·9re usuall y terres trial herbs, resem bling Besleria, whose inflorescences also lack bracts. In contra st to Bes/erin, mos t specie s of Gaster nnthus are usuall y pedun culate and the showy corollas have conspicuou s spurs. The leaves of Gasteranthu s have stoma ta clustered in gr~up s rather than being scatte red. Fruits are fleshy capsules that can·be latera lly or apical ly compressed.

Gloxinia Three specie s of Gloxinia are know n in Ecuad or, from a total of 10 in the genus. One, G. perennis, is a wides pread specie s wi th bluish corollas and is pollin ated by euglo ssine bees. Gloxinia sylvatica, with red corollas, is ver~ comm on in Peru at upper elevat ions but rare in south ern Ecuad or, and is proba bly pollin ated by humm ingbir ds or butter flies. The third s12ecies,_ G. dodsonii, h as. whitis h flowe rs, is rarely collected, and the pollin ator is unkno wn. Plants of the genus are rhizom atou s, terres trial herbs.

Heppiella A rhizom atous genus of four species (Kvist 1990). Heppiella is center ed in Ecuad or, w here three specie s are know n. Plants are terrest rial and rhizom atous, and have dry capsu lar fruits. Heppiella differs from Gloxinia in havin g free, not coher ent anther s, filame nts that d o not coil after anthesis, and a nongland ular corolla throat. ·

Koellikeria A rhizom atous genus of a single, rarely collec ted, low-g rowin g herba ceou s sp ecie::;, Koellikeria may be recog nized by its white or silver y spots on the upper leaf surfaces and by the short coroll as with u pper side red and tlie lower side white. The single species, K. erinoides, has been collected from Nicar ag ua to Brazil.

Kohleria A genus of 17 specie s center ed in Colom bia, Kohleria has four that occur in Ecuad or (Kvist & Skog 1992). The genus is rhizom atous and terrestrial, and m ost species have dry capsu lar fruits. Kohleria spicata, comm only found along road sides, may be the most freque ntly collec ted specie s of Gesneriacea e in Ecuador. Kohleria differs from Heppiella in having coher ent anthers, coiling filame nts, five free nectar ial gland s, a bilobe d stigm a, and a gland ular corolla throat.

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Monopyle

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. . . A genus of terrestrial, rhizom atous plants, characten~e ~ by ~avmg o~hqu_e leaf-bases, anisop hyHous_Jeaves, a11d dry capsu les sphttm g w1th a long•tu~t­ nal slit. Monopyle is centered in Peru and Ecuad or. In Ecuad or four speoe s occm~ of a total of ca. 15 species that have beet'\ d escrib ed. All are poorly collected and poorl y known throug hout the Centr al Ameri ca to Peru range. Napeanthus

. Poorly know n and rarely collec ted, but wides pread . m. the neotro ~tcs, Napeanthus plants are low growing herbs with usuall y whtte , or ~ometm~e bluish coroll as and dry capsule frui ts. Napeanthus is usuall y presen t m hum1d and shady fo rested ravines. In Ecuad or, there m ay occur four species ot.!!_ of a total of ca. 16 in The genus. - Nautilocalyx

. A genus of proba bly- more than 40 specie s in the lo~l~ nd neotr~ptcs. Nautil ocalyx has three named specie s in Ecuad or, but add1honal spe~tmens have heen collected and await names. Tuber s m ay be produ ced occasiOnally. Stem s are usuall y erect and watery , and the corollas are often white, yellow ish, or rarely reddish . It is likely that the closely -relate d Episcia 9ccurs in e~s­ tern Ecuad or, since it is found in the Am azon region of Peru-a nd Eolom bta. Episcia differs from Nautilocalyx by havin g stolon s.

Neomortonia A genus of two species, both found in Ecuad or. Neomorto11ia is epiph ytic with thin, wiry s tems and orang e berrie s; N. nummularia has red urceel-ate corolla s and N. rosea has infund ib~liform, w hitish -rosea te .mroll as with purpl ish dots.

Paradrymonia A genus of more than 15 species of large, succu lent, epiphytic o~ terrestrial_ herbs, with unequ al often lanceo late leaves in a pair. Paradrymoma has been found from Centr al America to Brazil. At least six specie s occur in Ecuador.

Pearcea A genus originally described from and center ed in Ecuad or (Kvist & Skog 1996), that now has 12 species know n from this count ry. All species occur on or near the easter n slopes of the Ande s, mostl y in deep shade, but the most comm on species, P. sprucei, has been collec ted a few times on the weste rn slopes . Occas ional rhizomes or stolons are produ ced and the fruits are fleshy capsu les.

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Skng & Kvist

Phinaea~

A small, rh izomatous, herbaceous genu s of ca. six species. Phi11aea has a single spec ies fou nd in Ecuador, P. divaricnta , also know n frorr. Peru . In Ecuador, · Ph inner. has only been collected two times from Manabl provi nce, and may no long er be extant.

Reldia A genu s Gf terr~strial, alter nate-leav ed herbs with whi te coroll:=ts (Kv!st & Skog 1089). Reldia is dist ribu ted from Central America to Peru , with three of the five tota! species in Ecuador. Reld ia is rarely collected, but is fairly common in ravi nes on the east ern slop es of the Andes.

Gcsrrcriaccne of Ew ador KVIST, L. P. &. SKOG• L· E· 1994. New ~;tudies in the Gesncriaceac: The genus Colun mcn in Ecuador Gloxinimr 44(3): 16-24 . . . . KV!ST, L. P. & KOG,. I-- 1:.. 1996'· Rcvis.ir>n of :'careen (G(!sncriaccac). Smitlrsoman Collin 1lllf iOIIS to /Jotmry 84: 1-47. L. ~~ [1978 11979 . Fanu ly 175. Gesncri3.::eae, in Woodson, R. E. J.r., Scher.y, R· W: 'nn_a· ;,KOG, Co11abora t ors, l"lora the Mrssorm Botmucal Gardc11 . 65(3). 78.:> · · ' o '' P-nor " ,_ n"<•, Part · IX · A111rals or 'J 998. WJEHLBR, H. 1983. A synopsis of the neotro . G - . p1Cal esncnaceae. selbyarra 6·. 1-2]C~. '

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Rhynchoglossum An anom alou s genu s~ Rhynchoglossum, is the only New Wor ld repr esen tativ e of the 9ld World subf amily Cyrt andr oide ae. One of the 11 kno wn species, R azureu:m, has also been foun d in Mexico, Central Amt>rica, and Colombia. In Ecu ador the species ocr.urs on the east ern And ean slopes. The blue-purple flowers arc in a scorpioid cym e and the plan t has succulent, wate ry stem s, with alterna~ leaves.

Sinningia A terrestrial genu s, Sinningia is com mon ly foun d in Brazil, but kno wn from Mexico to Arg entina, with the two spec ies in Ecuador. Both spec ies are rebtively rare in Ecuador. Sinningia prod uces unde rgro und tube rs. Corollas are usua lly red and the fruits are dry caps ules. Ack now ledg men ts We are· grat eful to Ximena Lon don o for her help in translating the abstract, and to'the reviewe rs for imp rovi ng the pap er by their com men ts. Lite ratu re cite d DODSON, C. H. & GENTRY, A H. 1991. Biological extinction in western Ecuador. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 78: 273-295. KVIST, L. P. 1990. Revision of Heppiella (Gesn eriaceae). Systematic Botany 15: 720-735. KVIST, L. P. & SKOG, L. E. 1988. The genu s Cremosperma (Gesneriaceae) in Ecuador. Nordic Journal of Botany 8: 259-269. KVIST, L. P. & SKOG, L. E. 1989. Revision of Reldia (Gesneriaceae). Nordic ]oumal of Botany 8:601 611. KVIST, L. P. & SKOG, L. E.. 1992. Revision of Kohleria (Gesneriaceae). Smithsonian Contr ibutions to Botany 79: 1-83 . .KVIST, L. P. & SKOG, L. E. 1993. The genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae) in Ecuador. Allertonia 6: 327 400.

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