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The role of forest resources in non-farm activities for rural livelihood diversification in Ethiopia

JOSE LUIS VIVERO POL1 Agricultural Attaché, Delegation of European Commission to Ethiopia, P.O. Box 5570, Addis Ababa. Fax: 251 1 612877 E-mail: european.union@telecom.net.et

Paper presented at the Xith Annual Conference of the Biological Society of Ethiopia: “Imperative Problems associated with Forestry in Ethiopia” February, 1-3, 2001

Note: the term “Forest” will be applied in this paper in its broader sense, embracing close forest, open forest, woodland, shrubland, scrub, savannah and abandoned lands with high vegetation cover. Furthermore, for the sake of a better understanding, we will use the term “Non-Farm Activities” for all those not directly coming from the farm (either crop or livestock) and hence for all forestry products mentioned in the text.

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All views expressed in this document are those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of the European Commission.

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The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

The role of forest resources in non-farm activities for rural livelihood diversification in Ethiopia JOSE LUIS VIVERO POL

Introduction It is only in recent years that the role of forestry in food security has been receiving attention as a result of the increasing realization of the dependence of rural people on trees and forest to meet important needs like food or income. The clear concept of the diversification and its incorporation into the food security programmes have provided greater scope for trees and tree-related systems to be considered as a useful asset to fight against food insecurity. Based on the principles above mentioned, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the economic and social importance of different forest-based non-farm activities for the diversification of income sources of rural households in Ethiopia. This work has benefited from numerous bibliographic sources and discussions held with different government institutions and international donors and NGOs working in the country. Therefore, this concept paper draws together information on household foods and income which are actually derived from activities dependent on tree and forest products, focusing particularly on the impacts on the poor and women. We have intentionally restrict this report’s scope, by focusing only in the practical and direct contribution of forest products to household food security of the poor: forest products supplementing farm production, filling in seasonal shortfall in food and income, and providing a buffer during hardship periods. We will not therefore address in detail the importance of forest products for the national economy (exports) or the indirect impact of forests to food security in the long term2.

Food security and forests in sub-Saharan Africa Despite the variety, importance and richness of foods from forests in Africa, progress has been very slow in designing and implementing measures to increase the contribution of wild plants and animals to food production and food security, through bold application of science and technology. Among others, the steadily growing population pressure in most African countries will inevitably increase the forest resources utilization (wood, charcoal, animals, plants, etc) and hence different forms of forest unsustainable utilization will take place (fires, encroachment, logging, cultivation, urbanization) in coming decades, ultimately leading to the total forest depletion. However, there is still room for hope if we are able to assign an economic value to forests themselves, so people, governments and enterprises may have an strong interest in conserving and utilising forest areas in a sustainable way. This last decade much research has been undertaken to understand the importance of forest products for poor household economy and food security in Africa. Some works can be found with this topic: Falconer (1990), Falconer and Arnold (1991), Godoy et al. (1993), FAO (1995), Crafter et al. (1997). In six countries surveyed recently in southern and eastern Africa (Arnold et al. 1994), an estimated 763,000 persons were employed in small-scale production or trading in four types of 2

Forests and trees contribute indirectly to food security because they play a major role in the sustainability of agricultural production systems

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The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

forest product activity: grass, cane and bamboo products (42%), woodworking (27%), other wood products (11%), and forest products trade (20 %). It was found in Ghana that 10% of the rural population was gaining some income from forest product activities (Townson 1995) and that 38% of rural households had at least one person generating some income from forest products (carpentry, charcoal, honey, bamboo, etc). These results suggest that for Africa, south of the Sahara, about 15 million people could be engaged in such activities. The employment in forest-based small-scale enterprises has to be seen within the broader framework of non-farm activities for income diversification. Non-farm earnings to African farm households are substantial, and they range from 22% to 93% depending on the countries (cash and in-kind income). The sample average share over the 25 case studies is 45% (Reardon 1997). In Ethiopia for 1989-1990 was around 36-40%.

The importance of forests on poverty alleviation in Ethiopia Ethiopia is presently the poorest country in the world 3, one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, and the country has the lowest crop yields. These factors, among others, inevitably lead towards chronic food insecurity, exacerbated by the recurrence of severe drought periods in the last 20 years. An estimated 50% of the country’s population is food insecure, or below poverty line, and more than 40% of them survive with less than one dollar per day. Both chronic and transitory problems of food insecurity are quite severe in Ethiopia. Chronic food insecurity exists due to low productivity, low-level development of transport system and infrastructure and lack of purchasing power. On the other side, there is transitory food insecurity arising from drought, conflict, displacement of people and variations in food prices. The forests and woodlands of Ethiopia are being reduced at an alarming rate. The major reason for this is the increasingly intensive use of land for agricultural and livestock production, but tree cutting for fuelwood and construction materials also plays a role. More than 90% of nation’s total energy comes from biomass, with fuelwood being the highest component. Furthermore, it should be a mistake to overlook the importance that forest products (wood and non-wood) have in Ethiopia's industrial market. Some of the Ethiopia's minor forest products are exported, including honey and about half of the officially traded volumes of gums and incense. Hence, they are the cash forest products that can contribute in a major share to rural household economy. Much harvesting of forest products is undertaken by populations who combine this with some form of agriculture, and is taking place not in pristine forest, but in secondary forests, bush fallow or farm bush (as mostly happens in Ethiopia highlands and lowlands). In many situations, fallow vegetation, farm bush and even the forest itself are actively managed by local users to conserve or encourage species of value, and to make the resource easier to use.

The importance of forest-based non-farm activities for rural livelihood diversification Livelihood diversification is defined as the process by which rural families construct a diverse portfolio of activities and social support capabilities in order to survive and to improve their standards of living (Ellis 1998). A livelihood encompasses income, both cash and in-kind, as well as the social institutions (kin, family, compound, village and so on), gender relations, and property rights required to support and to sustain a given standard of living. Non-farm income refers to nonagricultural income sources, as all those coming from wild forest products. Several secondary 3

Based on a recently produced World Bank classification.

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The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

categories of non-farm income are commonly identified. These are (i) non-farm rural wage employment (i.e. forest micro-enterprise), (ii) non-farm rural self employment (i.e. handicraft workshop), (iii) property income, (iv) urban-to-rural remittances arising from within national boundaries, and (v) international remittances arising from abroad migration (Saith 1992). Rural non-farm activities represent a very high percentage of total income among poor rural households. In the absence of non-farm activities or income for poor rural households, the extent of poverty would be several times greater in most countries. These households resort to non-farm activities not only to increase total income, but also to offset the effects of sharp fluctuations in income flows during the year (Berdegue et al. 2000), which is one of the characteristics of rural poverty. There is a complex relationship between agricultural and non-agricultural income flows, and these complex relationships are essential for the poor to survive. The poorest agricultural regions strongly depend on non-farm income, not because of the high absolute levels, but rather because agricultural income is low. Poor or depressed agricultural areas have a greater need for sources of employment other than agriculture. In these areas, non-farm activities typically consist of low-quality, low-productivity jobs with very low development potential. Certainly for sub-Saharan Africa, there seems to be an informed consensus that diversity has been increasing in recent history. In rural Africa, rural populations have increasingly become more dependent on non-farm income-generating activities as well (Bry 2000). These estimations of non-farm contribution for the continents as a whole are much higher than the traditionally recognized by rural policy which has a predominantly agricultural bias. Data from ECLAC (2000) strongly suggest that non-farm activities have become dominant in the case of rural women’s employment, whereas agricultural employment is predominant for rural men. Moreover, many studies are consistent in showing that educational level is a powerful determining factor in access to non-farm employment and income; as well as infrastructure investment (roads, electrification, irrigation), usually being a prior determinant. In Ethiopia, non-farm incomes represent an important element in the livelihood of the poor. In several areas the population density and the natural resources depletion are such that agriculture cannot possibly remain the only source of income (RESAL 2000). Observations show that, in many areas, own crop production is no longer the main source of income of the poor rural households. Furthermore, the situation is unlikely to improve as pressure on the land increases with the population growth. It is therefore essential for rural households to look for non-farm activities to supplement cultivation. In South Wollo, non-farm activity contribution to income is around 15%, being petty trade, livestock trade, blacksmithing, basketry, pottery, embroidery and daily labour among others. However, in Ethiopia, there are gaps in public institutions that leave non-farm activities as a type of “no-man’s land”. The ministries responsible for industrial policies, housing, public works and education are clearly urban oriented. Ministry of Agriculture rarely looks beyond agricultural activities. None is fully responsible for those policies which are indispensable for promoting the development of these non-farm activities.

Income and employment in forest-based activities The international debate around sustainable forest management has yet to produce practical and concrete action at the field level. Nonetheless, it is likely to improve the way forests are being used. The major social dimension of forestry in this debate is the possibility of creating more jobs and 4


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

income at local level on a sustainable basis. Large numbers of rural households in Africa continue to generate some of their income from forest product activities. These households are often dependent upon forest products for food, fodder, fuel, fiber, fertilizer, timber, gums, resins and tannins. Thus, in recent years, there has been increasing interest in the contribution that forests make as a source of local rural employment and income (non-farm activities). This interest has been reinforced by the argument that, as much local forest use comprises non-wood products, it is likely to be less ecologically destructive than timber harvesting, and therefore a sounder basis for sustainable forest management. Research on non-farm rural employment and income as a whole has shown that small-scale production and trading activities in forest products constitute one of the largest parts of rural non-farm enterprise employment (Liedholm and Mead 1993). In coming years, expansion of forest product activities is likely to be concentrated on a limited number of products and services for which demand grows with rural and urban development. Most forest product activities are engaged in part-time, by farm households that cannot raise enough to be food self-sufficient year round. A forest product-based activity usually constitutes just one activity within an agricultural household. It wouldn't replace the main food supply (agriculture), but it would rather contribute to increase food supply and, thus, food security. The importance of forest income usually lies more in its timing than in its magnitude (Arnold and Townson 1998). It seldom accounts for a large share of a household’s total income, but is often important in filling seasonal or other cash flow gaps, and in helping it to cope with particular expenses, or to respond to unusual opportunities. The harvesting, commercialisation and transformation of certain Non-Wood Forest Products (NWFP hereinafter) by the rural poor can be a means of shifting efforts away from the unsustainable exploitation of ecologically sensitive forest products such as wildlife or hardwood. So researchers and conservationist consider that providing alternative cash-earning possibilities to village populations by means of NWFPs could contribute to a viable conservation approach. Experiences in many developing countries show the promise of NWFP activities. Many successes have resulted from NGOs, government agencies and the private sector helping to tailor activities to local conditions. International NGOs and agencies have provided marketing expertise for reaching international markets. Coalitions of these groups are forging essential links from upland producer through processing to consumer markets. For many Ethiopians, the money earned from collecting, selling or processing forest products provides an essential input to household income enabling them to buy food and invest in future food production (i.e. purchase of seeds, or tools). These forest-based activities follow the seasonal patterns of agricultural cycles, and may be particularly important in periods of hardship when cash is scarce because of failure of crops. The particular products involved vary from region to region depending on markets, local traditions and the types of forest resources available in the area. These activities, however, have a number of important characteristics in common: a) small in size and household- based; b) accessible to the poorer sectors of society; c) labour intensive; d) few capital inputs, and e) direct benefits to the local community. Small forest product enterprises are prominent where there are dispersed rural markets for simple, low cost products, and where high transport costs protect them against competition from urban supplies (Ethiopia perfectly suits to this scenario). They also occur where there are raw materials that can be effectively tapped on a small scale. A major obstacle to developing local microenterprises and cooperatives with forestry products (wood and NWFPs) has been the low return to the resource and to labour. An essential concept for better forest-based activities is adding value 5


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

locally (that is, near the source) often by processing or packaging (agro-processing enterprises). This distributes product revenue more evenly in the market chain and encourages re-investment in resource management. For such operations, rural producers need even better information on existing markets for their product and the best options for processing technology. However, rural forestbased micro-enterprises cannot overcome market disincentives. Many disincentives result from narrowly focused subsidies and unmonitored policies. Two-way communication is needed between policy makers and researchers. Policy makers need to receive clear information on the effects of policies. In turn, they need to clarify for researchers the relative priorities among objectives of economic growth, forest and woodland conservation and poverty alleviation. Recognition of NWFPs in national accounting systems and internalization of environmental costs (e.g. soil loss, species disappearance) are two key elements of policy reform that together can establish a policy context for sustainable forest management in the uplands. Contribution of wild animal resources to forest-based income The protected areas of Ethiopia face many pressures, including severe poaching, illegal logging and land clearing for agriculture. Also the pressure of livestock in some areas has serious consequences for the status of wildlife. New trends towards fully fledged, community-based natural resources management schemes are emerging and will help organize and modernise the wildlife sectors, allowing increased use of wildlife resources for food and income, thus contributing to diversification of food production and to sustainable food security and nutrition (Yaa Ntiamoa 1999). The Ethiopian climate and the extended flowering season are favourable for apiculture. The annual production of honey is some 24,000 MT, equal to about one third of the total honey production in Africa4. Of the total domestic production, around 20% is used as table honey in rural areas, 55-60% is used in the production of tech (a local beverage), and the remaining part is sold in the market of Addis Ababa. A considerable amount is also exported. The potential for honey and wax production has been seriously reduced by the destruction of the natural vegetation which provides the sources of nectar. Up to now, honey production in Ethiopia is mainly based on traditional methods using hives made from naturally occurring materials suspended in trees to attract swarms of local bees. Production from traditional hives is low. The use of modern box hives could yield about twice as much honey. Honey quality could also be improved through better transport and storage. There are good markets for honey, both locally and export. Control of landscape degradation, active planting of nectar-yielding vegetation, more efficient management, and the development of processing and marketing would therefore be means to increase the volume and value of honey and wax production. Among the efforts to promote apiculture-based income is the establishment of smallscale honey and wax processing and packaging cooperative. Almost 40% of households in Borena zone, Oromia have traditional beehives. For some, beekeeping and the collection and selling of honey and other bee products is a major economic activity. Yields vary with the rainfall, in good ones one hive can produce about 5-6 kg of honey. As a household with beehives typically owns 2-3 hives, then household money production reaches 10-20 liters per year. Price per liter is 6-8 ETB. Thus the potential annual income from honey can reach 100-150 ETB. In fact, not all the honey is sold and usually around half will be kept for household consumption (Bush & Alemayehu 2000).

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World trade in natural honey is of the order of 300,000 tonnes, valued at 300 million USD. Germany, USA, UK and Japan are the major world markets. At the world level, Ethiopia is fourth in beeswax and tenth in honey production (Fichtl & Adi, 1994).

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Although hunting still provides a part of meat consumption in some lowland areas of Ethiopia (SNNPR and Oromia, Borena), it is worth noting that, unlike many other African countries, most Ethiopians do not consume animals like ducks, pigs, donkeys, horses, snakes, rabbits, rats, cats and dogs. Orthodox Religion represents a major non-negligible constraint to the use and consumption of wild plants and animals (Guinand & Lemessa, 2000). Game hunting, commonly called safaris, despite being an activity not much developed in Ethiopia so far has considerable potential in some areas (mainly SNNPR) and for some bush species (big antelopes, gazelles and warthogs). There are just a few safari companies operating in the country and only one of them is running a controlled hunting area. Should those companies take into consideration local people’s interests and should they share some benefits with those communities, game hunting could be an interesting alternative income source for those rural people living in remote bushland and forest areas. Civet musk for the perfume industry has been produced in Ethiopia for many centuries. Nowadays Civet farming is a small traditional cottage industry mainly in the lower parts of the western highlands and Sidamo in SNNPR (Graham 1997). Musk is extracted from the male civet every 9-12 days with each animal producing up to 1 kg a year, worth 165 USD per kilo. The average number of civets per farm is about 15 making civet farming a profitable venture for a smallholder. Moreover, there is a pilot project of ostrich farming in Abiata-Shala National Patk in Oromia. Considering the interesting revenues to be raised from ostrich meat and feathers, joint ventures could be explored as an option to be developed between local authorities and private entrepreneurs. Finally, there seems to be an incipient fur business in Bale mountains, Borena zone, based on the great diversity of moles, rats and other rodents (some of them endemic species). In recent years, non-extractive activities, such as research and eco-tourism, have emerged as important sources of income that can encourage conservation. Research on biological resources (or biodiversity research), funded by international pharmaceutical firms or research agencies, is proceeding in a number of developing countries through agreements that provide the source countries with support for building their own research capacities. Tourism is a leading economic activity in much of Africa, especially in the east and south, and is centred around protected areas (IUCN 1999). Africa has the world’s most spectacular displays of wildlife but, according to the World Tourism Organization, receives only 1.8% of global tourism. Eco-tourism refers to lowimpact tourist services to sites of natural and cultural interest (i.e. birdwatching); it is the fastestgrowing sector in the tourism industry worldwide, and if carefully managed, can return income to local communities and motivate conservation. Like forest-based extractive enterprises, these nonextractive activities require policy support through enforceable forest tenure and access, development of people's skills and legal mechanisms for ensuring that benefits return to local communities.

Contribution of wood resources to income diversification Although Ethiopia is not characterized by its hardwood species, there some of them of relevant importance at national and international level (see annex 3). Small-diameter, short logs can be obtained from these trees and sawmill equipment can be used for production of hardwood pallets and other simple cheap equipment suitable for production of flooring, artisanal products (wood carvings) and furniture parts. Based on hardwood, several types of micro-enterprises could be established, being the commonest a sawmill so as to clean the trunks and increased the valued added of the logs. 7


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

Africa has the highest per capita annual fuelwood and charcoal consumption in the world (0.89 m3 per year). An estimated 623 million m3 are taken annually from forest and tree resources. The contribution of forest and tree resources to household energy supply is essential in Ethiopia and will remain so for the foreseeable future. Most Ethiopian households rely heavily on fuelwood from the forests to fulfill their energy requirements. Injera baking is the most energy intensive activity in Ethiopia, accounting for more than 50% of all primary energy consumption in the country and more than 75%of the total energy consumed in households (Mulugeta 2000). For many poor rural families in Ethiopia, charcoal and fuelwood trade constitutes a major income source, constant along the year and therefore non-dependant of climate fluctuations, season, access or political interest. This means that the supply of wood to meet household energy needs and income should be properly taken into account in forest policy formulation and planning. It should also be incorporated into agricultural diversification programmes. The woodcarving industry in Ethiopia, though not being very important, provide alternative income source for many households. But this sector may not be able to continue because it uses unsustainably-harvested indigenous hardwoods, which will not be able to carry on meeting demand (since they are also valued for construction, furniture and fuel purposes). Carvers depend on wood from local forests and farms; so far most of it comes from indigenous hardwood species which are not tapped on a sustainable basis. Selective harvesting has a severe impact on forest structure and species composition and makes populations vulnerable, as increasingly immature trees are being cut. For carvers to use environmentally sustainable wood, they must be made aware of the situation. The forests are the main sources of building materials in Ethiopia and with increase in population collection of building materials poses a substantial threat to the fragile forest ecosystems. The materials include poles, withies and traditional ropes. Withies are normally small trees of about 3 cm diameter at breast high. In the construction process withies are tied across the erected poles using either traditional ropes or other tying material to complete the framework structure before plastering the walls with mud. Generally most of the species used to provide building poles are also used as sources of withies. A wide range of items used at household level originate in the forests, namely beds, brooms, pancake discs, cooking spoons, toolhandles, mats, mostars, stools, trays, baskets, walking sticks and clubs. Normally, toolhandles form the largest portion, followed by trays and baskets. This reflects the main activities of the rural people as farmers making use of farming tools such hoes and axes. Customs, beliefs, lifestyle and ethnic group tend to influence the use of forest products. For example, these big Jimma chairs made of one-piece trunk, or those other less voluminous made in Gurage zone. It was observed that items that demand more wood from the forests such as mortars, beds, stools or chairs have quite long useful life, suggesting that the pressure they exert on the forests is a lesser threat to the ecosystem than other uses such as building materials (Kessy 1998). Contribution of non-wood forest products to household economy Bamboo is a fast growing and high yielding perennial plant with a considerable potential to the socio-economic development and environment protection of Ethiopia. Ethiopia is one of the richest countries in the world in bamboo resources, with about one million hectares of highland and lowland bamboos (Luso Consult 1997). This means that about 67% of the African bamboo resource and more than 7% of the world total is found in Ethiopia. Based on detailed studies carried out in 8


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

Ethiopia (Luso Consult 1997), there would be possible to harvest safely one third of the total stock every year on sustainable basis (3 million tones of oven-dry biomass). Bamboo is a source for food, fodder, furniture and building materials (scaffoldings), industrial inputs and medicinal plants, and could be also used to supply part of the particleboard, fiberboard, pulp and energy requirements of the nation. The present use of bamboo in Ethiopia is very low, mainly limited to tukul (hut) construction, fencing and to a lesser extent for the production of furniture, containers for water transport, baskets, walking sticks, agricultural tools, beehives and household utensils (Kassahun 2000). Bamboo shoots are also consumed in Ethiopia by the rural people living near the bamboo forest. The low level of utilization is due to the largely alleged susceptibility to deterioration. This has led to its neglect as a useful renewable resource. Its potential for industrial use has yet to be popularized, as it is presently undertaken in many tropical Asian countries (bamboo is widely used in large quantities for pulp and paper production in India and China). Gum olibanum, or frankincense, is the dried, gummy exudation obtained from various species trees (Boswellia spp), that form one of the most widespread vegetation types of the country (AcaciaCommiphora). There is also a related genus Commiphora reputed for their commercially valuable resins, named gum myrrh or gum oppoponex. Frankincense and myrrh have different applications as fumigation agent for religious purposes, fixatives for chewing gum and others, flavours and fragrances in perfumery, pharmaceutical uses (tooth paste, plasters). Raw material is used as chewing gum in Middle East. In Ethiopia, incense is mainly used in religious rituals and in traditional coffee ceremonies to produce aromatic smoke. Gums are used for making different beverages, medicines and water soluble glues. The degradation and cutting of the woodlands for charcoal and agriculture is severely affecting this resource at an alarming rate. Collection of gum olibanum from the species was found to be very important in that it generates income for the government and creates job opportunities for thousands of people. Furthermore, the growth of the species on wastelands is also of paramount importance since it is making an economic use of the wastelands in addition to protecting the soil from erosion (Gebre Markos 1998). One can find gum-bearing trees in Amhara (western part), Oromia (black incense of Borena), Somali region (gum olibanum-ogaden and gum myrrh), Afar region (gum myrrh and oppoponex) and Tigray (gum olibanum with the highest quality). Gum olibanum is directly tapped from wild populations. The trees are always in lowland areas (malaria-prone) and scattered in very steep and remote slopes, what makes their harvest very hard and difficult. The cleaning and grading processes are carried out by women. Gum drops are classified according to their size and purity in seven grades, with the first four for exportation and the rest for local market. The commercial product is available in different qualities from dust, siftings, to tears; and they get different prices depending on the quality, size and species origin (the most expensive is gum myrrh with 3.2 USD/kg, while the other gums range between 0.6–1.5 USD/kg). The gum olibanum international trade knows three principal origins, namely Aden/Somalia, Eritrea and India. The export revenues of these different natural gums should not be neglected considering the fact that Ethiopia is a country with a paramount dependency on coffee revenues to get foreign currency. In the period 1996-2000, the figure of exported gum reached 2714.5 MT, producing an equivalent of more than 28.7 million ETB in foreign currency. Moreover, the social importance of the sector is quite considerable in many areas. Most of people employed to harvest the gum come from the poorest and most destitute sectors of rural population, given their livelihood features: they live in remote and very often neglected areas (negligible food aid, no rural road network, no 9


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

governmental institutions), marginal areas with low soil fertility, high slopes and high erosion incidence. We cannot forget the interesting direct impact on rural women’s income of the cleaning process, since due to tradition, women are the only cleaners of raw gum. And last but least, as a consequence of this cleaning process, there is considerable room for agro-processing microenterprise development, since this offers the possibility of increasing the income sources, as well as modest gains in foreign exchange for the national economy. Gum arabic is an important non-wood product which is obtained from Acacia senegal. This tree occurs naturally on sandy soils, mainly in central Sudan, Nigeria, Mali and western Ethiopia. The traditional agroforestry system, in which natural or artificially regenerated A. senegal trees are managed, is considered one of the best examples of sustainable dryland agroforestry. Apart from gum, A. senegal also yields fuelwood, local construction timber and dry-season fodder from leaves and pods. The uses of gum arabic fall into three main areas: food (confectionery), pharmaceutical and technical (lithographic plates). The main producers (Sudan, Nigeria, Chad) are unstable countries what may benefit Ethiopia in the international market. The yield per ha per year ranges between 30 to 40 kg in case of open stands and as much as 100 kg in case of dense stands. The prices for the good quality gums ranges between 3-3.5 USD/kg. Areas in Ethiopia with relevant forest stands of Acacia senegal can be found in the western and southern part of the country: west Tigray and Amhara, Benshangul, Gambela, SNNPRS and Borena zone in Oromia. Acacia senegal has been widely planted in Sudan and some other countries as a means of combating the process of desertification. In the semi-arid areas where A. senegal is found, the local people are often pastoralist involved in herding activities. For these ethnic groups production of gum arabic either from an existing, wild resource of a suitable Acacia species or from A. senegal planted as part of an agroforestry system can generate much-needed cash. A further attraction of promoting gum arabic collection under the conditions described above is that the realization by the local people that an economic value can be placed on the trees is likely to encourage them to preserve the trees and not to cut them down so readily for use as fuelwood as happens at present. Wild spices harvesting and spice cultivation are widespread in many areas of Southern Ethiopia, namely SNNPR zones Sheka, Kaffa, Bench Maji, South Omo and Gamo Gofa (Jansen 1981). The total supply of spices from Shekicho-Keficho zones to the regional and national markets in 1999 was about 1,208 MT. There is no much control from government side, since the business is entirely carried out by private dealers. Commercial species such as Aframomum angustifolium (Korerima) and Piper capense (Timiz) are found as indigenous species in Shekicho-Keficho and Bench Maji forests and woodlands. See Annex 4 The forests are a good source of products with medicinal value (leaves, barks, roots, fruits, etc) and hence the linkages between forestry medicine and nutrition are extremely important. Forests provide the only medicines available to a large proportion of Ethiopia’s population. Many plants chosen for their traditional medicinal qualities have high concentrations of vitamins and minerals which can help counteract illnesses caused by dietary deficiencies. Traditional medicine collection takes place at two levels: by specialized healers and by households members. Knowledge on plants that treat most common diseases in the area is shared by most of the household members, making it necessary to consult a specialist only when the case is complicated. As examples, Moringa spp are used by women in Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia to clarify turbid water. The seeds of the tree contain natural coagulants which can clear water, thereby improving the health of rural communities. The fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca contain saponins. These are lethal both to the snails which act as the 10


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

intermediary host of bilharzias and to the water flea which harbours the guinea worm. Planting these species along irrigation banks could do much to prevent the occurrence of the diseases (Wickens 1986). A comprehensive list of forests species useful as medicines, parts used and diseases treated in Ethiopia is available from previous studies (Dawit and Ahadu 1993; Mesfin and Sebsebe 1993, Jansen 1981). See annex 2.

The role of women in forest-based income earning activities In many households of Ethiopia, women accounted for roughly half the proprietors and workers in forest product activities. Ease of entry, and being able to combine many of the activities with household tasks, mean that they are often an important source of the income that women need, and they can be more dependent on such income than men. Hence, the forest products have also a strong gender component, since many activities undertaken in the forest are women's duties. The most conspicuous difference between the roles of men and women was in the collection of fuelwood and building materials. Whereas fuelwood collection is almost entirely the responsibility of women, building materials are collected by men. It is their responsibility as men to build houses, so they have to find the materials anyway they can. Women collect these food plants when they are allowed to enter the forests for fuelwood collection and they have extra time. Women do not make deliberate trips to the forests for these food plants. At the same time a number of these plants have been domesticated in the farms. As a general trend, both men and women collect medicines from both the forests and their landplots, basketry is made by women whereas woodcarving, bamboo and reed utensils are men’s duties. Commercialization of forest products also has a gender dimension. One could generally conclude that women’s participation in commercialization of forest products is more centered in the villages while men participate in selling forest products in both rural and urban areas. A realistic intervention of stakeholder’s interest will have to take into consideration the different roles played by men and women in forest products collection and marketing. Some of these activities provide one of the means through which rural women generate income independent from their male counterparts. This not only improves household welfare but also contributes to the emancipation of women from social oppression which sometimes results from lack of economic independence from men. The involvement of women and women's groups is particularly important in rural areas, where men's migration for work and traditional roles combine to make women key resource managers and important catalysts for change. Forest-products programmes should have direct support for women (i.e. credit and training targeted for women’s groups in NWFP) as central components.

The pastoralists’ case: non-livestock activities from the bush Many pastoralists in African counries, and particularly in recent years, diversify their economic activities outside pastoralism and agriculture in order to spread the risks of natural and man-made disasters (Hazell 2000). In the long term it is essential that conditions be created whereby people have increasing access to employment opportunities outside agriculture (FAO 2000). The ingredients for this include a combination of improved education, better transport and communications, easier access to markets and financial services and, in some cases a reduction in the legal and bureaucratic barriers to entry into business. The importance of food security to most of the pastoralists and producers in the dry zones emphasizes the importance of seeking alternative foods from trees and forest areas. Bee products and edible fungi are examples. Other products, from 11


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

animals as well as plants that could be sold for cash or retained on farm as capital assets, such as timber, oil-producing plants, medicinal plants, etc, also need research both for domestic use and for sale (Bruns et al. 1995). For the poorer classes of pastoralists, these non-livestock sources of income (other than sales of livestock and their products) are in total more important than income from livestock. Amongst Somali pastoralists, the poorest households get up to 40% of total income from nonlivestock sources (SCF 1998), largerly consisting of migratory labour earnings, sales of charcoal or other bush products as frankincense and myhrr; and for Borana pastoralists this percentage is around 30%, mostly labour earnings and handicrafts (Webb & von Braun 1994). Collecting and selling of gum arabic and frankincense is another pastoral drought coping mechanisms to react to hard times (Ugas & Eggenberger, 1999). Actually, many pastoralists do not store and carry food over long distances, but rely on the seasonal products of forested areas. In Hararghe zone, Oromia, particularly in the remote lowlands of Daro Lebu and Fedis woredas, people are collecting and consuming available wild food plants to face the food shortage situations. Very often deprived of any relief assistance, people are consuming fruits from a widely spread cactus species Opuntia ficus-indica widely available all over the area. Children and women collect the ripe fruits with a long wooden stick with a large nail at the end (Guinand 2000).

Tree cultivation and agro-forestry: the case of Eucalyptus in the Highlands. The greatest contribution of trees to food production and food security is at the farm level. Indeed, tree under various forms, either as single trees or organized in lines or clusters (shelter belts, groves), have fundamental role to play in food production and food security. This is particularly true in Ethiopia, where agriculture is in transitional stages in many locations with low input levels and fragile soil systems. The development of new agro-forestry systems and/or improved management and conservation of traditional tree systems are essential to maintaining land productivity and buffering degradation processes and other constraints to sustainable farming systems. The assumption that trees prevent erosion underlies the reforestation strategy that currently prevails in Ethiopia. Reforestation is usually carried out on micro-terraces, and the construction of these provides opportunities for cash for work and employment generating schemes. In recent years, the planting of Eucalyptus trees in Ethiopia has expanded from state owned plantations to community woodlots and household compounds. In an environment suffering from severe woody biomass shortages, water scarcity, erosion and land degradation, fast growing and resilient Eucalyptus species perform better than most indigenous woodland and forest tree species (as well as most crops). Planting Eucalyptus trees yields high rates of return, well above 20% under most circumstances (Jagger & Pender 2000). With harvesting shifts of 7-8 years, the species pays off important revenues to the farmers in a short time. In addition to increasing biomass and providing ground cover, the sale of Eucalyptus poles and products has substantial potential to raise farm incomes, reduce poverty, increase food security and diversify smallholder-farming systems in low-fertile areas of the Ethiopian highlands. The species is also preferred by villagers for building purposes, being its use widely popularized. The policy option with the largest potential economic benefits appears to be increasing allocation of wastelands for private tree planting. This option could increase average household income and wealth substantially, and offers large potential direct benefits to landless and land poor households 12


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

who could be priority recipients of such land. The ecological risks are limited and the potential ecological benefits are large since this option would be implemented in degraded areas. However, one must say that Eucalyptus, which usually has poor grass cover underneath it due to an organic toxin, is particularly poor as a conservation crop.

Conclusions The contribution of forests and trees to food security in Ethiopia is significant, diversified and valuable. It ranges from direct production of food to provision of jobs and income. Also, most Ethiopian households, both rural and urban, depend on fuel wood for domestic energy supply. However, under current practices, these contributions are not sustainable. They can only be sustainable if the natural resources are managed in an appropriate manner and if substantive research and improved technology are invested in the forestry sector. Forest and woodland areas are now seriously threatened and need to be conserved. The challenges to their conservation are the following: a) increasing demand for fuel wood from poor rural populations which have no alternative sources of energy for cooking, as well as urban poor households which cannot access alternative sources of energy; b) biological constraints, when physical, ecological and climatic constraints are so strong (droughts and climate change) that the system is no longer renewed through natural regeneration and when assisted regeneration is inadequate; and c) lack of or inadequate policy framework and guidance for governing land and tree tenure, non forest tree resources management and when extension services fail to address the issue of rural land use sustainability. Very large numbers of households continue to generate some of their income from forest products activities. For many, entry into such activities occurs principally in situations where they are unable to obtain sufficient income from agriculture or wage employment, in what are called non farm activities. For such households, these activities comprise an important part of their survival strategy, forming part of their “safety net�. Therefore, the importance of these forest products in the food security net of poor, rural, vulnerable households should be further assess, in order to determine the magnitude of these support and, hence, to draw some guidelines to better address this aspect of food security in Ethiopia.

The degradation and loss of ecosystems and the gradual destruction of natural resources are the biggest threats to the development of the forest-based sector. The collection, processing and marketing of forest products can be improved through capital investments on a small scale. This could contribute to increased employment and income opportunities for the rural population. Once the importance of wood and non-wood forest products for the rural household economy has been assessed and valued, these topics should be enhanced for integration in coming integrated food security programmes, as a cross-cutting issue. Several examples are draft as follows: small forest products enterprises could be promoted through small credits, petty trade of bamboo baskets could be boosted in urban areas, mainly Addis Ababa; or the gum arabic and incense sector can be targeted as a joint initiative between food security programmes and private sector initiatives. Growth of forest product activities can come from creating new enterprises. Others, such as carving and some traditional medicines, are able to maintain market share because there are no modern sector equivalents. In short, much household and artisanal involvement in production and trading of 13


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

forest products is in labour-intensive, low-return, activities associated with poor, stagnant rural economic conditions. They form part of a larger body of rural non-farm activities that act as a sponge absorbing those unable to obtain employment, or sufficient employment, on their own farms or as labourers. Besides, they use the forest and tree resources as a reserve which can provide more income, and subsistence goods, in times of hardship. Clearly, the forest products are one of the main coping mechanisms that poor households have.

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Bibliography Arnold, M., Liedholm, C., Mead, D. and Towson, I.M. 1994. Structure and growth of small enterprises in the forest sector in southern and eastern Africa. OFI Occasional Papers n° 47. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford. Arnold, M. and Townson, I.M. 1998. Assessing the potential of forest product activities to contribute to rural incomes in Africa. Natural Resource Perspectives nº 37. Overseas Development Institute, London. Berdegue, J.A., Reardon, T., Escobar, G. and Echeverri, R. 2000. Policies to promote non-farm rural employment in Latin America. Natural Resource Perspectives nº 55. Overseas Development Institute, London. Bruns, S., Furberg, J., Luukkanen, O. and Wood, P. (eds.) 1995. Dryland forestry research. Proceedings of an IFS/IUFRO workshop, 31 July-4 August, Hyytiälä, Finland. Bry, D. 2000. Rural Africa at the crossroads. Livelihood practices and policies. Natural Resource Perspectives nº 52. Overseas Development Institute, London. Bush, J. and Alemayehu, K. 2000. Meda Welabu baseline profile. Household food economy field assessment. August, Christian Aid, Addis Ababa. Crafter, S.A., Awimbo, J. and Broekhoven, A.J. 1997. Non-Timber Forest Products: Value, use and management issues in Africa, including examples from Latin America. UICN, Gland, Switzerland. Dawit, A. and Ahadu, A. 1993. Medicinal plants and enigmatic health practices of northern Ethiopia. Printed by the authors, Addis Ababa. Ellis, F. 1998. Household strategies and rural livelihood diversification. Journal of Development Studies. Vol. 35, n° 1: 1-38. Falconer, J. and Arnold, J.E.M. 1991. Household food security and forestry. An analysis of socio-economic issues. Community Forestry Note n° 1. FAO, Rome. Falconer, J. 1990. The major significance of ‘minor’ forest products: The local use and value of forests in the west African humid forest zone. Community Forestry Note nº 6. FAO, Rome. FAO. 1995. Non-wood forest products for rural income and sustainable forestry. Non-Wood Forest Products n° 7. FAO, Rome. FAO. 2000. ACC inter-agency task force on the UN response to long term food security, agricultural development and related aspects in the Horn of Africa. Interim Report. July, Rome. Gebre Markos, W/S. 1998. Management guidelines for developing natural gum and olibanum resin bearing tree resources in Tigray. GTZ & Regional Bureau of Agriculture, Mekele. Godoy, R., Lubowski, R. and Markandaya, A. 1993. A method for economic valuation of non-timber tropical forest products. Economic Botany nº 47 (3): 220-223. Graham, J. 1997. National parks of Ethiopia’s Southern Region. Agricultural Bureau, SNNPRS, Awassa. Guinand, Y. 2000. Hararghe agro-pastoralists face an uncertain future. UN-Emergency Unit Ethiopia Report, 18 April, Addis Ababa. Guinand, Y. and Lemessa, D. 2000. Wild-food plants in Southern Ethiopia: reflections on the role of famine-foods at a time of drought. UN-Emergency Unit Ethiopia Report, 10 March, Addis Ababa.

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Hazell, P. 2000. Public policy and drought management in agro-pastoral systems. In: Property rights, risk and livestock development in Africa, (McCarthy, N., Swallow, B., Kirk, M. and Hazell, P., eds). ILRI and IFPRI, Nairobi and Washington. IUCN. 1999. Parks for biodiversity. Policy guidance based on experience in ACP countries. IUCN, Gland & EU, Brussels. Jagger, P. and Pender, J. 2000. The role of trees for sustainable management of less-favored lands: The case of Eucalyptus in Ethiopia. Environment and Production Technology Division Discussion Paper nº 65. IFPRI, Washington. Jansen, P.C.M. 1981. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance. Agricultural Research Reports n° 906. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen. Kassahun, E. 2000. The indigenous bamboos of Ethiopia: a call for attention and action. Walia 20: 3-8. Kessy, J.F. 1998. Natural resource management in Usamabara Forests, Tanzania. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen. Liedholm, C. and Mead, D.C. 1993. The structure and growth of microenterprises in southern and eastern Africa. GEMINI Working Paper n° 36. Bethesda, USA. Luso Consult. 1997. Study on sustainable bamboo management. Technical cooperation Ethiopia-Germany. Final report. Hamburg, Germany. Mesfin, T. and Sebsebe, D. 1992. Medicinal Ethiopian plants: inventory, identification, and classification. In NAPRECA. Botany 2000: East and Central Africa. NAPRECA Monograph n° 5: 1-19. Mulugeta, T. 2000. Promoting simple technologies to save our forests. Tefetro: the quarterly newsletter on the CSE project, vol. 2 n° 1: 4-6. Addis Ababa Reardon, T. 1997. Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the rural non-farm labor market in Africa. World Development vol. 25 n° 5: 735-747 RESAL (Food Security Network). 2000. Income diversification in Amhara: the need for a strategy. Report, March 2000. Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. SCF (Save the Children Fund). 1998. Household food economy analysis baseline report: Pastoralist food economy area, Harshin district, south-east Jijiga zone, Region 5. Save the Children Fund (UK), Nairobi. Townson, I.M. 1995. Patterns of non-timber forest products enterprise activity in the forest zone of southern Ghana. Report to the ODA forestry research programme. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford. Ugas, M. and Eggenberger, W. 1999. Drought and flood stress livelihoods and food security in the Ethiopian Somali Region. UNDP-Emergency Unit Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Webb, P. and Von Braun, J. 1994. Famine and food security in Ethiopia: Lessons for Africa. Wiley and Sons. Chichester, USA. Wickens, G.E. 1986. Alternative uses of Browse Species. In: Browse in Africa: the current state of knowledge, (L. Houerou, L., ed.), IBPGR, Rome and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. Yaa Ntiamoa, B. 1999. Wildlife and Food Security in Africa. FAO Conservation Guide nº 32. FAO, Rome. Falta aun por incluir Saith (1992) ECLAC (2000) FAO (1999) 16


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Annex 1 Table XX presents the main plant species reported as used to provide a variety of household foodstuffs and the reported uses for Ethiopia. Getahun (1974), Guinand & Lemessa (2000) Box 7. Wild and famine food plants Amaranthus spp Arisaema flavum Balanites aegyptiaca Balanites rotunda Cadaba spp Carissa edulis Dobera glabra Ficus spp Huernia spp,

Moringa oleifera Piliostigma thonningii Portulaca quadrifolia Solanum nigrum Solanum khasianum Sterculia africana Syzygium guineense Rosa abyssinica

Annex 2: Several medicinal plants in Ethiopia Adhatoda schimperiana Albizia antihilmitica Azadirachta indica Brucea antidysenterica Calpurnia aurea Casia sema Catha edulis Cordia africana Croton macrostachyus Croton macrostachys Embelia schimperi Euphorbia abyssinica

Hagenia abyssinica Juniperus procera Lepidium sativum Moringa stenopetala Myrsine africana Olea europea Oris abyssinica Phytolacca dodecandra Sesbania sesban Securidoca lanjupedaculata Tamarindus indica Warburgia ugandenris

Annex 3: Major Commercial hardwood Species in Natural High Forests Albizia schimperian Albiza gummifera Aningeria adolfi-friederici Apodytes dimidiata Blighia unyugata Bosquela phoberos Celtis africana Celtis kraussiana Cldorophora excelsa Cordia abyssinica Cordia africana Croton machrostachyus Dalbergia melanoxylon Disopyrus abyssinica Ekebergia capensis

Ekebergia rueppeliana Hagenia abyssinica Linociera glordanii Juniperus procera Manilkara butugi Ocotea kenyaensis Olea afficana Olea hochstetteri Olea welmtschii Podocarpus gracilior Polyscias fulva Polyscias ferruguinea Pygeum africanun Prunus africana Syzygiwn guineense

Annex 4: Some commonly used spices in Ethiopia. Aframomum corrorima Korerima Anethum foeniculum Anethum graveolens

Capsicum annuum Pepper Coriandrum sativum Coriander Cuminum cyminum Cumin 18


The role of forest resources in non-farm activities

Curcuma longa Turmeric Euquena caryophillata Cloves Elettaria cardamoum Cardamom Nigella sativa Ocimum basilicum Ocimum sanctum Scared-basil Piper nigrum Black pepper

Rhamnus prinoides Rosmarinus officinalis Rosemary Ruta chalepensis Rue Trigonella toenumgraecum Fenugreek Trachyspermum ammi Thymus vulgaris Thyme Zingiber officinale Ginger

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Bibliografia que no he incluido todavia Amare, G. 1992. Bamboo and reeds in Ethiopia, Ethiopian Forestry Action Plan. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection, Addis Ababa. Arnold, M. and Dewees, P. Rethinking approaches to tree management by farmers. Natural Resources Perspectives No. 26. ODI, London. Azene, B.T., Birnie, A. and Tengnäs, B. 1993. Useful trees and shrubs for Ethiopia. Identification, propagation and management for agricultural and pastoral communities. Technical handbook n° 5. Regional Soil Conservation Unit, SIDA, Nairobi. Blench, R. 1997. Neglected species, livelihoods and biodiversity in difficult areas: How should the public sector respond? Natural Resources Perspectives nº 23. Overseas Development Institute, London. Booth, F.E.M. and Wickens, G.E. 1988. Non-timber uses of selected arid zone trees and shrubs in Africa. FAO Conservation Guide nº 19. FAO, Rome. Brown, D. and Schreckenberg, K. Shifting cultivators as agents of deforestation: Assessing the evidence. Natural Resources Perspectivse nº 29. Overseas Development Institute, London. CGIAR. 1999. Enlarging the basis of Food Security: role of underutilized species. International Workshop, Chennai, India, 17-19 February 1999, IPGRI, Rome. Chweya, J.A. and Eyzaguirre, P.B., eds. 1999. The biodiversity of traditional leafy vegetables. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy. Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Flavours and fragances of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products n° 1. FAO, Rome Coppen, J.J.W. 1995. Gums, resins and latexes of plant origin. Non-Wood Forest Products n° 6. FAO, Rome ECO Consult. 1997. Savannah woodland management study project. Final report. Vols I-IV. Technical cooperation Federal Republic of Ethiopia-Federal Republic of Germany. Nov 1997, Oberaula, Germany. Eyasu, E. 1998. Is soil fertility declining? Perspectives on environmental change in Southern Ethiopia. Managing Africa's Soils n° 2. NUTNET network, IIED, London. FAO. 1989. Forestry and food security. FAO Forestry Paper n° 90. FAO, Rome. Fichtl, R. and Adi, A. 1994. Honeybee flora of Ethiopia. Margraf Verlag, Germany. Fransworth, N.R. 1988. Screening plants for new medicines. In: Biodiversity (Wilson, E.D., ed.). National Academy Press, Washington. Friis, Ib. 1992. Forests and forest trees of northeast tropical Africa. Their natural habitats and distribution patterns in Ethiopia, Djibouti and Somalia. Kew Bulletin Additional Series XV. Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, London. Getahun, A. 1974. The role of wild plants in the native diet in Ethiopia. Agro-Ecosystems n° 1: 45-56 Iqbal, M. 1993. International trade in non-wood forest products: an overview. Forestry Working Paper. FAO, Rome. Iqbal, M. 1995. Trade restrictions affecting international trade in non-wood forest products. Non-wood Forest Products nº 8. FAO, Rome. Irvine, F.R. 1952. Supplementary and emergency food plants of West Africa. Economic Botany 6 (1): 23-40.

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Leakey, R.R.B., Temu, A.B., Melnyk, M. and P. Vantomme. 1996. Domestication and commercialization of non-timber forest products in agroforestry systems. Proceedings of conference, Feb. 1996, Nairobi. Non-Wood Forest Products nº 9. FAO, Rome. Sandford, S. and Yohannes, H. 2000. Emergency response interventions in pastoral areas of Ethiopia. Report of the Pastoral Apparaisal Team, Addis Ababa. Seegeler, C.J.P. 1983. Oils plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance. Agricultural research report nº 921. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen. Taylor, D. 1996. Income generation from non-wood forest products in upland conservation. FAO Conservation Guide nº 30. FAO, Rome. Tripp, R. and Van der Heide, W. The erosion of crop genetic diversity: Challenges, strategies and uncertainties. Natural Resources Perspectives nº 7. Overseas Development Institute, London. UNDP-EUE. 1999. Underdeveloped, drought prone, food insecure: reflections on living conditions in parts of the Simien Mountains. EUE Field Mission Report, 29 Sept. 1999, Addis Ababa Webb, P., Von Braun, J. and Yohannes, Y. 1992. Famine in Ethiopia: policy implications of coping failure at national and household levels. Research report n° 92. IFPRI, Washington D.C. Wickens, G.E. 1979. The uses of the baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) in Africa. In: Taxonomic aspects of African economic botany. (Kunkel, G., ed.). Proceedings of the meeting AETFAT, Las Palmas, Spain, March 1978. Wickens, G.E., Seif el Din, A.G., Sita, G. and Nahal, I. 1995. Role of Acacia species in the rural economy of dry Africa and the Near East. FAO Conservation Guide nº 27. FAO, Rome.

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The role of forest resources in non-farm activities in Ethiopia  

Rural households in Ethiopia rely heavily in non-wood forest products to their livelihoods, and a great part of income-producing non-farm ac...

The role of forest resources in non-farm activities in Ethiopia  

Rural households in Ethiopia rely heavily in non-wood forest products to their livelihoods, and a great part of income-producing non-farm ac...

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