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content for innovation

1.1 introduction and experience 1.2 architecture as discourse 1.3 computational architecture 1.4 parametric modeling 1.5 design sketch and conclusion



About me : This is Elsie, I am from china and this is my third year major in architecture, I did design studios before so I understand a lot of design process and approaches. I love travel, movies, photography and design. Traveling always bring me new inspirations and thoughts. I am also a part-time lover of fashion design.

In my first studio Earth, I used RHINO to make 3d model to do the final presentation. RHINO is good software but I found sometimes it’s a bit hard to control the form. The design process was interststing, I tried many way of triangulat conection in my design, i try to use the facade to represent the spatial experience, thats important in that project, experience is created by space and also tranformed by lighting,I tried to create the transformation of experience with impressive facade design.

Virtual environment is the first time I engaged with digital design.I learned RHINO ,INDESIGN etc in that course and it is really helpful. In that subject I found inspirartion from natural process and build concept model.the process of producing digital model in rhinoceros make me experienced NURBS model making and the plug-in paneling tool .2D and 3D fabrication and manufication techniques in last step really teach me a lot. The fabrication with paneling tool PLUG IN creates both 2d and 3d pattern for my final design work. However, the insufficient knowledge of digital techniques and software use limited the design process,the result of using paneling tool is good but lacks of flexbility of form making . Digital design really attracted me because it brings many possibilities when design a form, the complex geometric form can be easily realized and I believe it bring me more inspiration. I am fascinated with parametric design and I expected to learn more in Studio Air.I believe grasshopper can give me more chances to experience parametric world.The course also relates to architecture as discourse since it generates various selections under reality.

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figure source: personal work Head space in Virtual Environmetn


How to define architecture? Architecture design is the way to combine multi-fields and creates spatial experience for users. Schumacher believes, “capture& reconstructing the rationality of the existing architectural discourse rather than indulging in the construction of supposedly radical, new idea. “It is manifest that architecture needs to produce a system that motivates the surrounding context& society."The only consideration of form and space is not adequate due to architecture as a discourse. "Its open to everyone, its not for professional fields but public."(Yehuda E.)Its not an art work to represents architect’s personal visual vision, its a design inspirited from culture and urban context. Exploration of the site is the basis of designing the building, then develop the idea connect to concept and functional design, architecture acts as an essential role in social life and impact the way how people understand about the building. I believe architecture is defined by space and light, the experience that created by a building is important for is also the information that architects try to express. Personally I prefer some buildings has simplistic form but with strong expression of space. People will be impressed if they can really feel. Therefore, Experience is another important aspect for architecture as discourse. Art is only an approach of architecture; architects are expected to create both dramatic form and space. Its spatial design, facade design, form making and experience etc. represented the aesthetic feeling of architecture design. Now time modern architecture is pursing the aesthetic on both facade and structure, they are interacted.

The approach of social and political required architecture should represent the local culture and history, the building need to fit the site and create the urban space for users. Like many monuments, they act as a symbol of a city or sight spot. The good example is Metropol Parasol, in Seville, Spain. this impressive structure convinced a successful way of intergrating innovative architecture form with functuonal urban space. Architecture design is logical and give people experience and visual impact. The allocation of form and functional use achieves its social status integrated with urban context. The parametric world will bring more opportunities and inspiration to architecture and this new type of design also arise discourse. Parametric design bring generation on both material and construction. This also connect to the brief of gateway project “The western gateway project should propose new, inspiring and brave ideas, to generate a new discourse.�

20 Bridges for Central Park_Aranda source:http://media-cache-ec7.

Iris Van Herpen: Crystallization.Source:http://www.dudecraft. com/2010/07/3d-printed-fashion.html

As a discourse, the trend of architecture influences the other designing fields. Since the digital technologies and parametric design became worldwide, scripting, geometrical and complexity issue are generated in architectural field, it also impact the evolution of fashion design such like the use of 3D printing, there are a number of architects corporate with fashion design to create parametric pattern and form with new materials recently. This influence may also cause more discourse on revolutionary digital design. In the modern society, people expect more on architecture. They want a functional and representative building with attractive and unique appearance. The continuous exploration of digital techniques employed to realize the more possibilities of architecture. It is the time that architecture as a universal language needs to adapt digital evolution.

PRECEDENTS Metropol Parasol, Seville, Spain "The Metropol Parasol scheme with its impressive timber structures offers an archaeological museum, a farmers market, an elevated plaza, multiple bars and restaurants underneath and inside the parasols, as well as a panorama terrace on the very top of the parasols" (www.jmayerh.


it is one of the most creative constructions made with timber. The form of parasols imates the growing process of the site into a landmark, it also demonstrates a innovation relationship between the historical and the contemporary city.

This project shows the Use of Structural innovation to create space. Creating aesthetic structure to represent the form in innotive way. Way back to architecture as a discourse, Metropol Parasol as a new icon of Seville attracted many people to plays a representational role in t h i s c i t y. I t a l s o b e c a m e a place of identification and to articulate Seville's role as one of the world´s most fascinating cultural destinations. This innovative and modern form brought generative power and shows vistors the beauty of digital architecture. This contemporary organic design to explore the potential that the Plaza de la Encarnacion becomes the new and modernday urban center.

source :

Organic-form urban space provides various activities and performances to public. I believe public architecture do influence the way of understanding a symbol of a city, it also brings innovative idea to this historical city. This impressive structure creates movement to the city center and transform the plaza become a place where both residents, visitors and tourists can gather under the ‘crown-like waffle’. This landmark architecture also indicted the trend of architectural design to all victors, digital design brings new energy to architecture. This new technology also impresses people . Mayer as architect of this project contains many art and sculpture elements in his architecture. He also deals with the human factor within a given space in each of his projects is very interesting; consideration of the function and user’s need is always a central point of this project, Mayer makes it successful and also shows computerized design and construction can produce the complex sculptural-like shapes, with non-repeating elements and includes the interaction between human and space. Architecture is a discourse and makes many possibilities in one project .the complex form with humane function; impressive space experience shows the ay of interacting with urban and context. As a public project, the way of demonstrates the local culture and history is also important, digital technology makes all could happen.this can benefit the Gatesway project because it make me to conside more odf digital form and function.

source :


Archi-Union Architects

Te a H o u s e i s l o c a t e d i n S h a n g h a i . i t i s constructed from the the origin of warehouse’s collapsed roof.the deign is fit the site’s n a t u ra l f e a t u r e s . “ T h e d e s i g n t r i e s t o embody harmony by integrating enclosure and openness, delightful space and logical construction and other complicated relations.” ( plan layout indicates t h e l o g i c o f q u a d r i l a t e ra l s h a p e t h a t maximizing the inner space. The simplistic form and space is my favorite part of the design. Linear space with sudden changes into an expressive form, then transform into a tranquil space. he twisting inner space was designed by scripting in Grasshopper.the alogirithm design representes the complex part of this building. The space was designed to bring a new experience to an ordinary functional space. In this part of design I learn that parametric design priciples with such an advantages of designing the complex form that can creates an intersting spcae for users. I thought algorithms always use for design a complex façade, but now I learend that the successful spatial design is also can depands on parametric techniques.

The other aspect I love of this building is combination of the advanced digital design with local low-tech construction techniques. This curved shape can be recalculated by abstracting the structural skeleton through interlacing straight lines. “these lines were then formed into ruled surfaces filling the void. The spacing was set to the dimension of timber, thus the digital ‘setting out’ could be easily translated into a manually constructible.”( combination of digital design and lowtech manual construction provided a great opportunity to study the possibilities of digital architecture.

According to architecture as discourse, this building brought new experience and discourse for users; they can enjoy this comfortable designed space. The simple material use also concludes the parametric design inside the building. The combine of using digital techniques with traditional manufacture is an innovation for people. The room is arranged by twisting shape. The experience of creating various Illogical shape in digital way results in best decision of final form.

This project also inspired me the way of using digital tools needs to consider about the construction in practice. Digital modeling as a new way of architectural design can use on both exterior and interior space, is not only about facade or structure. Is also can be essential on creating space and experience.


“When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.” - Yehuda E Computational architecture Computational architecture: logical way to solve problems accurately. It creates a very powerful symbiotic design system. computers will contribute their superb rational and search abilities to solve problems. Computation: performance with simulation. Its an important source of inspirations for architects. The recent development of digital design enables more possibilities in designing fields. Computational i n c l u d e s Pa r a m e t r i c m o d e l i n g and computational techniques, performance-driven design, and the communication and construction of complex geometry. Redefining the practice of between elements that constitute a specific computer they must be written in a language.

Computation: Integration with Art form Computational way reflects the designer’s intellect and allows
us to capture not only the complexity of how to build a project, but also the multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a building’s formation. Computation allows better communication of performance. Algorithm as the method of capturing the design details and finds solution of complex geometrical world. Computation can interacted with intuitive and natural way to design is the way of exploring new possibilities and ideas.

C o m p u t a t i o n : Fa b r i c a t i o n a n d construction Computation becomes more important not only in design process, but also construction. Complex from also require high techniques of structure system, computation as a significant innovation for construction bring more tools and ways to sole the structural issues.

digital art source:

As new design tools are developed to link the virtual design environment with the physical environment, architectural designers will increasingly have the capacity to explore building systems and building environments. Moreover, it also reflects changes in the building and its performance. Nowadays, I feel like architecture relies on Computational design techniques. The complexity of context condition and higher exception of architectural form requires accurate structural work are indicates this trend.Architecture needs better performance produced by computationl design. Gate way projects intent to design a project as an eye-catching symbol in public. Architectural form includes computational design with parametric techniques will be more attractive for people. This kind of form may cause discourse like: this innovative project is impressive and brings energy to Melbourne.

PRECEDENTS The Way Of Allowing For New Possibilities Of Building Form. The Museo Soumaya: The exterior form is a double-curved surface that represents the concept of the museum as a container for the work, it is also the elements of design responds to the nature. The surface was refined early in the design process through the use of study models, and the final physical model was laser scanned to create窶ィa digital model and defines the design surface. Through the surface design was refined early, the structural design, the way of how to physically making the faテァade in reality is time 窶田ostly. This projects use computational design on both surface and construction. the digital model also helps to ensure the structure could work to match the surface accurately. Simply speaking, computational design is a central part in construction design. The project is basis on computational design includes the design of the complex structure and also the parametric designing facades. The whole design process is critical. Computational design also helps to solve problems in design process to evaluate every elements fit the local surface conditions that requires the computational work to test and make decision.

Figure source:AD Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought .March/April 2013 Volume 83


Figure source:AD Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought .March/April 2013 Volume 83

The computations design also test for the faรงade frames .the complicated geometry of structure acquire appropriate faรงade panels to support .the algorithm is easier to work out the problems. The essential aspect of faรงade is composed of hexagonal aluminum panels. The way of designing faรงade with construction is a difficulty of design work. "Each node of structure hole gravity of panels and its need accurate results"(AD volume 83), It relies on computational design. Curvature of surface requires geometry solution to stretch each panels to maintain the spacing of gap. The surface panels rely on digital technologies. Connect to Gateway project, I think this project reminds me the way of using computational techniques to test different design possibilities to match the best result in reality, it can evaluate the physical condition of spiting the joints of panels and give solutions to overcome the problems, it is very powerful tool in design, moreover, the use of computational design also make the geometrical form more accurate with also benefits the structural aspect as well. The complex structure can be analyzed in an efficient way. Computer aided design is reliable to use in modern era, it is a important part of architecture discourse, more and more people accept it as a essential aspect of architectural world.

PRECEDENTS Mathematical basis

The free-flowing form of the Arc Table, designed by Foster + Partners for Italian furniture manufacturer Molteni & C, was inspired by tensile fabric structures and emerged through computational experimentation with digital simulations. There are two Fundamental concepts: ergonomics and material efficiency. The design group explored computational design processes for the Arc Table through software to testing ideas. The software was engineered to form find towards an equilibrium state within a tensile structure under a set of forces and constraints acting on the input geometry finds an efficient path to indicates the approach of ‘embedded’ rational’. The continuous surface was divided into mesh elements and connected with nodes to simulating a membrane surface. In thi s experi ecnce the testing force to form is obvious .The material effect of the mesh fabric are also can be indicated through simulating software.

Figure source:AD Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought .March/April 2013 Volume 83

In my point of view, The Arc Table design emerged through an intervention into how geometry behaves during simulation. It also can use in building design or installation design .The form finding process requires the visualization of geometry in various modes during real-time formation. Structural simulation can runs on initial geometry to test idea and generate mash work to reach equilibrium. "The level of complexity regards to material thicknesses, edge profiling and structural specifications requires the complex system to ensure accuracy"(AD volume 83). Computational techniques basis on mathematics is essential for architectural design. I think I will explore the way of using such simulation software in further works. The geometry can be controlled through adding, subtracting and manipulating forces to influence the simulation, rather than through direct manipulation. Forces and digital management of material dimension in computational design is efficient in design process . Moreover, Design intent and material logic are interacted in the digital model with the definition of mathematical rules. This level of accuracy is an important aspect of architecture discourse in computational design. computational design basis on mathmatic rule can solve many problems and as a simulating software to acheive a experiment .The structure of form can be influenced by this kind of simulation.

Figure source:AD Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought .March/April 2013 Volume 83

1.4 parametric modeling "Parametric design is dynamic and definite. “

It is hard to define parameter architecture. Generative, computational, digital, computer aided, associative. Simply speaking, the design is interacting computer. The use of algorithms is likely to programming the design process. Parametric design often refers to controlled population of one or more elements within a defined space. It is a method of linking dimensions and variables to geometry in such a way that when the values change, the part changes as well. So it is easy to make changes in parameter design process. moreover, the possibility of generation are more various. Sometimes unexpected result may be your final decision for your design. It also can connect to the Gateway Project to produce creativity.

Generation of solutions Current parametric design generates many possible solutions during modeling and design process, but in the final stage, only allows users to choose one solution to develop. This thesis demonstrates a design strategy for physical parametric design that embeds knowledge from simulation tools and helps parametric design still keep variations after final model. This thesis begins with an introduction of theory and practices of current parametric design and clarifies the connections between its methods and physical parametric design. Then a few new concepts and prototypes are proposed, and physical parametric designs are demonstrated. Woodbury said “Mathematic as basis of parametric design to provide strategies.” The system needs write algorithms to make design. Some software like “Simulation software” based on real mathematical formulas allows the user to observe an operation through simulation without actually performing that operation. Developments in computer programming and scripting to facilitate a wide range of detailed structural tiling and patterning sequences. Transformation of aesthetics. As architects clamed to adjust their aesthetic sensibilities to the qualities and sensations inherent to these newly emerging, computer-designed images and forms. Tessellated patterning systems soon became fundamental to structuring complex organic forms, and complementary aesthetic theories on ornament, decoration, and elegance began to dominate architectural discourses. An interesting word”simplexity” introduced by Burry. “simplexity i describes the emergency of simplicity out of intricate and complex sets of rules. The increasing trend in architecture to exploit the ability of algorithmic design to produce complex forms by implementing relatively simple and easy formulas.” Scripts can create varied ornamental structures or purely decorative, maybe “skin deep” motifs. Faulders Studio and CCA described, developed, and published these scripting procedures in their Tooling of screen façade for Studio M’s Airspace Tokyo of 2007 in history. The patterns of façade came from natural elements indicated new techniques in architecture and brought energy to locality.

Parametric design is not only about creating visual impression “Mathematical parametricism and algorithmic procedures most often have proven far too rigid to productively engage the complex cultural, societal, economic, and political projects facing architects today" (Woodbury, Robert). Designing buildings and cities using parametric and scripting design tools may often appear visually stunning, but for the most part these designs tend to incorporate far too many blind assumptions to be able to respond with nuance to real world situations. However, like Toyo Ito did in Taichung Metropolitan Opera House, parametric design should combine the urban context, experience and functions into design, architects need to define a space rather than creating visual impression. Though parametricism is a trend, architectures requires own identity, people don’t expect to see copy works everywhere. Toyo Ito states “Architecture has to follow the diversity of society, and has to reflect that a simple square or cube can't contain that diversity.” Architecture work should follow the urban identity to become distinctive. Parametric design as a useful tool will benefit every step of design to achieve an expected and accurate work. Summary In fact parametric design is in every part of our life. Parametric design and modeling can be considered as a process which starts with defining a boundary of similar models to compose a collection and to parameterize the parameters. however, parametric design only allow changes on the level of parameters and constraints to compose a family of design instances which are eventually similar, thus the limitations of transformation on the level of topology and geometry will be remained in parametric design.some problems such like Weisberg states the “front loading “ may happen, and one element may be able to cause the major change of the design.conversly, parametric design procedure provides architects a powerful and innovative method to immediately compose a parameterized schema uses for design explorations. parametricism as a new generation of architecture cause discourse . I would like to say that it is a progress of architecture, it’s a new design language and allows flexible transformation to overcome difficulties. The gateway design can be eye-attractive by using parametric technique.


PRECEDENTS Toyo Ito is the winner of the architecture competition for the Opera House to build in Taichung, Taiwan.The Irregular geometries give the structure a continuous fluidity and reflects the idea of theatrical arts. This project is an innovation for operas design. The space design uses parametric techniques. The spatial complexity is based on a few simple geometric rules. A membrane between two surfaces is divided into two zones. The repeated process creates two horizontally and vertically continuous spaces emerge between this one continuous membrane. We can see the fluidity of curvilinear form. This fluidity also follows in the interior space.

"The Taichung Metropolitan O p e r a b y To y o I t o i s a n architecture that is architecture that strives to be many thingsarchitecture being only one of these things. One surface is simultaneously floor, wall, ceiling, roof, structure..."

Toyo Ito Associates

SOURCE:Toyo Ito Associates website

I am impressed by the flexible spatial design, since the underlying geometric grid is locally transformed while maintaining its global integrity In order to accommodate the spatial and volumetric needs. Personally speaking, parametric design includes in every part of this building, the opens structure demonstrates the form is also a part of exterior surface, the void acts as access points or openings integrated nature surroundings with the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f a n d a c t i va t e u r b a n c o n t e x t . Pa r a m e t r i c design is a basis of the design ,a number of adjustments of curves were experienced to get a final form. The whole design still follows the brief to provide every functional space for performances. I really inspired by this kind of spatial design with flexibility. The form makes people feel the infinite possibilities of this project. SOURCE:Toyo Ito Associates website

Arc Wall Structure System requires innovative materials and construction techniques. The precise consideration of construction work is necessary. Way back to my future gateway project, the parametric modeling may helps to design a structure, but the manufacture of project needs more considerations. This flexible form also interacted perfectly with site. Taichung Metropolitan Opera House Located in a park, the interior connects seamlessly with the outside, merging with the surrounding park and creating a place of communication between people.
the networks of water and greenery continue in the park integrating the building of urban surroundings. This kind of networks are similar to a structural model of Taichung City itself. This ideal plan will make opera became cultural identity of the city. It not only represent the parametric world of architecture, it’s also a representation of culture and society. When we thinking of the form, surface and surrounding, we can feel more than architecture. Toyo Ito created something about new direction and exception in architecture.

PRECEDENTS Sagrada familia: parametric design as a part of analysis process

Sagrada familia is the most distinctive project in parametric term.the whole restoration works are based on parametric design to generate the complex orders and forms fromGaudi's work. This amazing building was designed by Gaudi between 1883 and 1926. But this building would not be finished in his lifetime. Actually I went to Barcelona this year and had a chance to see the real work. source by Elsie Zheng photography

This architecture really impressed me, every surface of the Sagrada Familia is telling a story. I’m grasping the enormity of his artistic vision which is capable of revealing the scaled references to internal connects within cells, the enormous vector of gravity, the relation of cells and the forms of columns all describes the marvelous geometry world. Gaudi spent two years to develop a strategy methodology for the generation of columns. He found unique language to generate a complex forms via a simple geometrical rule taking benefit from nature and most specifically organic growth of plants. That’s a unprecedented idea indicated the parametric elements has a further influence on future generations.

source by Elsie Zheng photography

The work of temple is still continuing and the work process concludes a large amounts of research to support design procedures and use parametric design to build models of original design. Parametric design procedure produces the order of two twisted columns interacted called “columns of four”. “This process was the same as a Boolean operation which is well known in a modern computing”(Gomez et al., 1996). Rectangular knot are also generated in parametric process. Parametric design shows the Powerful capability of this procedure to generate all kinds of columns in the Sagrada Familia utilizing topological and geometrical transformations of the initial shapes. Moreover, parametric design certainly can ensure a good result and faster than traditional methods. Digitalized models can be built and improved to seek a perfect match with Gaudi’s design. This brings a flexibility in the process of design exploration as well as a powerful ability of encapsulating which allows to integrate a complex design solution.

parametric procedue of clerestory windows and roof source: Window.php

Parametric design makes remaining work of Sagrada familia become possible, As for architecture discourse, Parametric models have the general purpose of providing a frame work for high-level manipulation of geometrical components that perform. Real time feedback also can be received essentially due to the change of conditions. People are expected to widely use this powerful tool in future design works.

Algorithm exploration After the weeks of learning grasshopper. I think I found a basic way to understand the whole process.I can use grasshopper to create various shapes and adjust the form by adjusting the sliding bar to controls the amounts ot points, I found the process is intersting . Design in Algorithm is new for me, though I just start modeling. I think it’s powerful. As a designing tool, the mathematic orders help to solve problems and provide random range of to make changes. Initial form is really important in parametric design, so I always design a form in mind then try to produce it in digital way. Sometimes digital ways can completely change the design such like when I use graphs section profiles, the change of graphs influence the whole design form, but it is the point of generating possibilities and potentials. I have learned the basic lofting, extruding, divide curves and surface to get complex forms, box morphing, dispatch, cull, Fields, voronoi, grid shells, image sampling, evaluating and produce simple patterns. I understand the parametric design practically and I look forward to learn more to generate distinctive geometries. The first work is the vase .I loft the basic form and use box morph and dispatch to produce the various façade. The Second is the work of chairs .I use the way from "loft" and "grid shell " tutorials to genrate the design.

sketch 2

sketch 1


sketch 2:A

sketch 2:B

I also generate 3 different forms in various algorithms basis on the initial loft surface.I use divide surface, circles and move to get the first form, the econd one use box mophor with faltern.The final one I generate the structure shell as a aprt of form . The concept of the chair is creating free-way seats for people.Both two side with curved surface procides users a comfortable angle to sit on.chilren can climb or sleep on the chair. The process relects the flexibility of GH use ,I can control the form by points and gernerate variety to create unexpected result.

sketch 2:C

If I learned parametric modeling before, it would be helpful in my previous studio work. I used rhino in my first studio EARTH. The design with 3D façade was difficulty to me since I want irregular triangles to influence the experience of space transformation. I used T-spline but for now, it is much easier to design with grasshopper. Parametric design is flexible and powerful in form –making. Though I have limited knowledge now, I will spend more time on this software.

After the weeks of learning grasshopper as modeling tool .I think I'll use it to design the gateway project .try to make a fluid form to follow the changes and act as a public attraction to represents the local culture.


Parametric architecture is an universal trend .an increasding number of designers use the techniques in their design process.based on coputational techniques, parametric modeling is powerful and accurate in both structure and design aspects. Innovative architecturees with impressive forms always cause discourse,more and more parametric projects bring energy and creation in local field and represents the distinctive cultural and social meanings like Metropol Parasol in Seville and Taichung Metropolitan Opera designed by Toyo Ito. They all have attractive form and innovative structure systems.Some projects shows the tellents of construction and material design .computational architetcure under the use of some softwares can evaluate the possible conditions in reality, moreover, algorithm based on mathmatic orders ensure the accuracy and give various solutions to the design. Computational design isa flexible tools for architects, they are non-deterministic in whole process,initial forms are form designers and genertate the result after analysis. Architecture should be identified; Parametric design procedure can overcome the geometrical and topological restrictions by allowing the changes of initial forms. Gateway project introduces the situationm briefly . Parametric and scripting system may used to generate a structure-efficient project with cultural identity in urban space. My possible design approach of Gateway project can be based on geometry,it can be innovative in future design bcause of the infinite possibilities in algorithms ,the imitation of urban morphplpgy can be represented graphly in grasshopper and create the attribution of basic shape. The form is flexible under the control of numbers and generate various forms,geometry is a basic element of form, the transformation of geometry can produce different patterns also space.the geometric relationship is better relates between its elements to create complex form. Gateway project should basis on parametric design process to use digital techniques. Form making should according to context exploration and surrounding. Computational Software can analyze the context and to link the information inside design. It is helpful to evaluate the environmental condition. Digital techniques also can be used on structural design and practical manufacture .it is important to solve the problems within the use of parametric design in our further design work. The control of the form will benefit the design process in Gateway project. My excepted design should indicate the ideas of form, function and aesthetics. I want to use Simple geometry based on some complex algorithm to create innovative form. The project can remarks the cultural or urban importance of the region .it supposed to interact the surrounding to an entirety and lead people to experience the way of belonging.


AD Special Issue: Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought .March/April 2013 Volume 83, Issue 2.Pages 1–152, i–iii Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71. Burry, M., "Gaudí, Teratology and Kinship", in Architectural Design: Hypersurface Architecture, Wiley-Academy, Chichester, United Kingdom, 1998, pp 38-43 Barrios, C Parametric Gaudi, in: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics SIGraDi. Sao Leopoldo,Brazil, November 2004 Gomez, J et al (1996) La Sagrada Familia: de Gaudi al CAD Edicions UPC, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona pp 166 Patrik Schumacher on parametricism - 'Let the style wars begin'http://www. Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005 Patrik Schumacher, 'Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System', in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp. 1 - 28. (pdf); Rajaa Issa, Essential Mathematics for Computational Design (Robert McNeel Associates, 2010) Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp. 7-48 Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25

PART B .EOI 2: Design



"Biomorphic design might take on a new signify if instead of ignorantly copying the shapes of animals and plants. We were to acknowledge that biomimetic teaches that shape is the most important parameters of all." --AD : PROTOCELL ARCHITECTURE

B1 .DESIGN APPROACH Biomimicry what is Biomimicry:

Biomimicry means the examination of nature. We take inspiration from nature's best ideas and then imitate these designs and processes to solve human problems. In fact our group's initial approach is Geometry , but when we get deeper understanding of parametric design, we changed our idea to Biomimicry ,the gateway project should be a comprehend idea to identify a network, biomimicry is a tool to shape this kind of complexity .Patterning, geometry and structure are basic element in a biomimicry project, this is a challange for our group.

How is our Gateway design benefited from Biomimicry: 1. Structural aspect Efficient structure comes form the idea of nature process. Nature selection can be an interesting aspect to consider due to the adaption, we want to use the adaption structure because it will be more stable due to the process of selection, moreover, it means the adaption of multi- culture of site 2.Performance of architecture: Advantages of using biomorphic mineralization: produce structural reassembly natural living organisms, inspired by bio-structure for mineralization.It is an efficient and ecological way for designing a city project. Eg: voussoir Cloud (mimicking cellular structures of self-organization).

3.Eye-catching and symbolic Build the connection with site; interacted with history and natural features of the site, we want to create the eye-catching project that can become a symbolic installation .the icon of wyndham city. 4.Experience: inspired by nature and create an atmosphere to people to feel that complexity , the unique system can provides special lighting & spatial experience by some hollows /gap imating directly from natural system.

"You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model that makes the existing Model obsolete." Richard BUCKMINSTER FULLER

fig: first exploration of difference & logic

the first attempt of my own parametric definition is to create the branches form follow the logic of nature,which can indicates the variey of possiblities & variety in orders

research of bio genational processes

Recursive architecture

self- similarity with random / various scales self-genration

fig: archive.html

Cellular architecture

generation system self-orgnization adaption complexity spatial lattice of frames efficient connectional joints


Automata architecture

efficiency self- generation complexity


Fractal architecture

fig: the_morning_line/

self- copy with gradual scales. self genration complexity

generation self - orgnization adaption an Interactive architecture Research based on Network system of biome

What we want to achieve: In our gateway project, we intend to design a form that can represent the local culture and society. The form can like “grow from the site “ –to give people the feeling of generation and also represents the surrounding natural features, moreover, not only the form the spatial relationship should provide the strong connection with site. An eye-catching gateway project in princess highway to atttract people, it will provide new feelings to people of the generating site, the increasing population, the culture identity, the dramatic natural features should be represented in our project. The project should use evolutionary form to indicate an idea of Interactive architecture that people can really be envolved in.


Fig: flowers at different stages of growth.(AD v74)

Self-organisation ďźš The process that internal organisation of a system adjusted automatically without being influenced by an external source. It is essencial for biological systems, from subcellular to ecosystems. Self-organising systems indicates the emergent properties and enable to form a number of complex behaviours in bio- system . "Emergent properties arise when a complex system reaches a combined threshold of diversity, organisation and connectivity." (AD magazine v74) in our Gateway design, we would like to design a system of "selforgnization" to show this flexibility and adaption in the project. it will allow some emergency propeties that imfluence our form , this is of the way we find variety of processes of formations to achieve a "living project" to a complex form.



fig :

The sea urchin’s plate skeleton morphology shows the use of modular system of polygonal plates, the joints are connected at the edges by finger-like calcite protrusions. The finger-joints as connection parts are really impressed our group, this connection seems fitted the whole structure. Plate edges always meet together at just one point, which enables the transmission of normal and shear forces without the bending moments between the joints. on the surface of pavilion, we can see the design of modular system. The geometric differentiation and fabricated finger joint provides a high degree of adaptability and performance.


generation adaption harmony

Site Identities Motion & Dynamic to show Speed Atmospheres for various time Spatial experience lighting & shadows



holo-tectonic system. infinitely self-scaling interactive system


FORM OUR CASE STUDY,WE LEARN THE BASIC SHAPE OF FRACTALS. Fractals can be an inspiration of our gateway design .not only the form, the basic structure frame can come directly from the shape. The repeat of self-similarity pieces with different scales can indicated the growth and development of local culture. The details can combine with various nat ural as pec t s like c ellul ar o r voronoi to create an eye-catching form. The form come from nature also can demonstrate the urban characteristic of “Growth. The culture content also can be indicated by the performance .the pattern design influence the lights and shadows. The reaction to environment also can be a innovative aspect can be considered, The whole design is not only an art piece to public, it is also a project integrate with nature and describe the beauty of surrounding nature.




Exploration with different forms

the intergration with changed angles to produce more possibilities


fig :

In this case study we choose ZA 11 as our precedent to make reverse engineering, it is a interesting project that parts definite some spaces for people the hexagonal form extrude to central point and split with a small scale boundary.

Function:public pavilion Attracting people to the event, provides sheltered space Integrate with historical context. Free form ring: subdivided into deep hexagons. shows the advanced use of parametric design, geometry generation to embody the spectacular form. Fabrication: logical & actual fabrication using CNC milling. Using extrude technique to form a faรงade while creating flexible space. The whole form based on hexagonal shapes with the generation into 3d form to be more functional.

fig :


reverse engineering


lines :change in numbers

2 layers of hexagonal structures think about the way of connection to generate the form

extrude to z direction

opposite-direction extrude to point

process of building forms








inner polygons subdivision





change in heights

Uďźš7 V: 14

U:3 V:11

U:2 V:80

U:7 V:68

U:10 V:80

U:5 V:27

U:4 V:19

U:4 V:80

U:8 V:80


U :30 V:30 S:0.6

U:5 V:30 S:0.6

U:7 V:30 S:0.6

U:3 V: 12 S: 0.6

U:3 V: 20 S:0.6

U:3 V:32 S:0.6

U: 3 V:40 S:0.6

U:3 V:50 S:0.6

U:3 V:32 S:0.3

U:3 V:32 S:0.5

U:3 V:32 S:0.7








experience with Kangaroo: tensile force


We a r e t r y i g t o f i g u r e out the difference that nature process of cells can create. the irrgular and random dividing and reunion process may happen , so we try this grasshopper definition to see what going on . the random arrangements are interesting but it cannot change the basic grid of hexagons, so we decide to make more work further.

Customer patterning on surface:

extruding to various height.


FABRICATION: connect :Joints angle: 120 size :1mm/ 2mm

thinking of joints

RESEARCH: JOINTS ILEK honeycomb MDF structure.


fig :


1st way: simply unroll

2nd way:scaled down with joints

fig : fablab file

FABRICATION PROCESS 1st way: simply unroll

2nd way:scaled down with joints

the fabrication experience make our group to think about the connection of structure .we try 2 different ways of fabrication and get various forms here. the fabrication variety also can be used in Gateway project .

further thinking: Extrude to central point: Fucus sights Extrude to many points -more possibilties -multi focus points



demonstrate the network of nature and society Inspired by cellular system to mimick a generating process

fig : cellular system




Voussoir Cloud

fig :

Voussoir Cloud is the project that exploring its forms and structure under the natural influence such as the expressing compression force through the vaulting shape. Adaptative form under natural force can be related back to our approaches of bimolecular system. Each elements of curvy triangular shape is sitting between for forming to produce the different profiles of the curve edges at various point to express its compressive forms. Visually, the different density of the groups creates the various combinations of geometries and structural effect. As for structyral aspect, the merging faces at the edges of curvy geometry creates smooth bending motion of the vault and vital effect of waving lines.

DESIGN DIAGRAM: cellULAR SYSTEM. -molecular-->structure -Aggregation-->form -adaption-->performance

CASE STUDY 1 Similarity->self-copy process -to show site Generation &Growth

CASE STUDY 2 Variety->Different particals generated due to control form and under additional forces. culture and nature identity





-Generation -Dynamic -Experience -Representation

complex system of growth



dense direction change divison

Aggregation analysis: Emergency system -> Random of cellular system. Potencial possibilities under different conditions. Aggregation process of creating forms with different angles and position


Density Direction Distance

SELF-ORGNIZATION & adaptve form

stable suspension

unstable suspensipn

attracting points test to show the changes

hexagonal basic shape

circular basic shpes

Design prototype: Creating a complex network or the society of bimolecular cells and how the system would be adaptor to the certain changes RESEARCH PROJECTS OF GH

DLA’s Project )

studio DLA’s explorations that use point attractor as a tool to create variations in three aspects, scale of base pattern and overall performance of the texture of design project.

firstly creating variation on hexagonal base plane by using the point attractor definition.

creating different height of extrusion on the surface again with the point attractor.


point change

graph mapper change

influence figure change


reflection on week 5 reading “Architecture needs mechanisms that allows it to become connected to cu lture.”. Moussavi& Farshid

THE FUNCTION OD ORNAMENTS Architecture needs to build Affect and sensation to public. The experience is extremely important of one project, in our gate way project, we want to design a installation that provides people special experience, they can feel the way of innovation and energetic of the gateway, ornaments also acts as a tool of communication in society “the way of how architecture express itself is essential doe contributes to urban setting”Moussavi& Farshid), the gateway project need to fit the site and can control the possible conditions. Our group focus on biomimicry and try to create a complex system to reflect the characteristic of the urban setting, the spatial experience and eye-catching- form, we intent to explore the relationship of these aspects and pick up the essence to form our basic shape visually. Surface: dynamic & adaptive idea to create experimental skin of performance of architecture, materialization can impact the crafted effect; the use of innovative material can also be an attraction. It is possible to realize materialization on complex geometric forms. “Mutability of materials is also recognized as a design opportunity. The capacity of materials to transform
and change over time.”(Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger) architecture tends to looking for inspiration from nature to discover new material can responds dynamically to changing environment. The mimicking of patterned or structural skin is not enough, the performance of skin is also important “forms follow performance” is an interesting idea and can refer to biomimicry. Material effect: can influence sensation of people also can evoke the meanings.



Grasshopper Definition:

basic hexagonal grid with attracting pts

more possibhilities with graph mapper

polylines on new pts

form changed by 2 attracting points (influenced by GRAVITY)

Meet at central pts. Like a meeting point, shows the tendency of generation and c o n n e c t i o n o f w y n d a m c i ty, shows the idea of the connection with the city to enhance the existing of the gateway project.

use the curve to imfluence and cause the every differnt heights of the extruding to points

final form

Surface extruding development:


polymerization A-B-A






Umbrella -shape Gateway -eye-attractive -generative form SIGHT






- spatial experience with moving speed -lighting effect (shadows) -feeling of generation -Expression -dynamic FORM

Light & shadow effect


1: paper model material : box card 2:hanging idea material :perspex

Failed joints design: every parts in diffenent angles so the 120 is not fiited.cannot connect with joints

3:structure: frame:

2nd way : perspex model

1st way of fabrication :card model

fig : category/digital-fabrication/

2nd way of fabrication: perspex model

1st way of fabrication :card model

B8: Learning objective and outcome

Feedback: Out tutors, guest and lecturer are there for our presentation, they got many useful ideas for our further design, the mimicking of natural is not that clear in our design, we tried to design living and self- organization system but we just represent the idea of polymerzation on surface .Our idea of cellular architecture includes many elements like polymerization, emergency system, aggregation.We should considered more carefully and go back to rethink our design process, maybe just pick up the most 2 essential one in our final design. Moreover, we should consider about the form of benefit, to what extent the bio- form can benefit our design.

Self-conclusion: We should go back to rethink our design process, Umbrella – structure may not the best idea for gateway design. We got a lot of exploration of our grasshopper modeling and testing, its not easy for us to control the software so we may be consider too much of what we can achieve before the design, we spend a lot of time on archiving a form, the more research and deep consideration of design ideas are needed. The most important thing is to consider about the selfsupport structure, the connection of the model is essential in our design since we want to achieve a self- origination and adaption, modular system and changes can show the generation. The idea of “ growing from the site� should be more persuasive . The most two important idea : "generation" & "adaption "should be demonstrated in a more clear way. further develop with 2-points attrator + extruding idea from case study 2 .

SITE CONDITION: Potential area of design :

Trim back to the characteristics of cellular generation process: -Points attrating : focus points on site. -Elongated form: more stable in structure,fit the site context -Molecular structure: joints is key points to maintain the inner –balance. -----> Basic shape can develop into 3D form & Form should follows cellular logic structure.

points from site : attracting pts

reform imfluenced by attracting points

exstruding influenced by curve (site border)

what kind of experience we want to achieve ? the feeling of generation : high speed site condition lighting growing form.

Visual effect

changes in scale : create different visual experience

potential development different layers -->find joints-- mimick cellular system in 3D way with visual fact.


basic shape extrude to brep

Voronoi in pop 3D to generate basic grid inner & outer mesh merge toghther new mesh in 3d way ---> shows the cellular generation in complex way , but edges of smooth surface is only achieved by 3D Printing,so more consideration of structural & connection aspect. Our design is better without smooth surface / edges

mesh reduced to polylines

Reference :

AD Magazine Volume 74 , accessed on 09/05/2013. AD Magazine ďźšPROTOCELL ARCHITECTURE, accessed on 09/05/2013.

Moussavi, Farshid and Michael Kubo, eds (2006). The Function of Ornament (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14

Kolarevic, Branko and Kevin R. Klinger, eds (2008). Manufacturing Material Effects: Rethinking Design and Making in Architecture (New York; London: Routledge), pp. 6-24 html )


-case for innovation