JEMIMA WILSON N0365411 JEMIMA WILSON N0365411 FASH30001
TAILORED TO THE FUTURE
THE FUTURE OF LUXURY TAILORING FOR THE NEXT GENERATION CONSUMER WORD COUNT: 8,346
Fig 1, Contents, 2014
4. CASE STUDY: BERLUTI
6. WHAT IS DIFFERENT IN 2014?
7. CASE STUDY: SAVILE ROW
8. MIXED MESSAGES
9. THE MILLENNIALS
10. HERITAGE AND YOUTH
11. TELLING A STORY
12. THE CONSUMER
13. STRATEGIC OUTCOME
14. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
1. INTRODUCTION 2. METHODOLOGY
A DY I NG A R T ? The old idea of tailoring is dying out (Bennet 2013: online) and, as many brands in the luxury sector struggle to engage younger customers with their tailoring products and services, the demand for traditionally tailored garments is in decline. The tailoring industry has remained largely unchanged for over two-hundred years, yet, whilst tailoring itself remains a manâ€™s wardrobe staple, how it is communicated to modern consumers of 2014 is in need of an update.
â€˜Everything you do going forward, you canâ€™t do anything the traditional way.â€™ (Ahrendts, 2013)
Establishing a strong connection between heritage and youth is a challenge that many traditional brands in the luxury sector are actively seeking to surmount, and, as the traditional values previously placed on tailoring are less relevant to younger consumers, it is increasingly important for brands to adapt their overarching strategies with an emphasis on reaching the next generation of customers. Millennial consumers are more connected to brands that take them forward instead of back (Stylus 2013: Online), therefore, brands must find ways of communicating to a modern consumer that, whilst tradition is important, there is more to tailoring than provenance and the past.
Capturing the momentum of this consumer is vital, yet, so often luxury brands comfortably target and reach their existing customer base in the over thirty-five age bracket, and risk losing the next generation of consumers by communicating messages, which are not resonant TO younger men (Danziger (2013) in Sherman: Online). The digital landscape has revolutionized the way that consumers research and interact with brands in the twenty-first century (Robb, 2013) and modern consumers expect a higher level of engagement from brands, whether it is on the Web, on their Smartphone or in a physical store. Whilst heritage and history are highly valued by luxury tailoring brands and their consumers, this report deciphers consumer culture to explore opportunities to enhance and evolve core brand values across different platforms, to find new and innovative ways of communicating traditional tailoring to the modern world.
Fuelled by the global phenomenon of luxury menswear, forward-thinking brands such as Thom Sweeney and Berluti are actively seeking to tap into this younger end of the market, pursuing exciting new business opportunities in the luxury tailoring sector to meet the desire for affluent, mediasavvy young men to look smart, sophisticated and solvent despite uncertain economic times (Conti: 2013).
Fig 2, Hackett London, 2010
The fundamental question that this report addresses is: How can brands in the luxury sector engage younger consumers with their tailoring offer, to justify why is worth the greater investment?
Whilst no marketing metaphysics has the power to undo significant societal shifts in male dressing behaviour, rather than seeking to instigate unrealistic levels of sale increases, this report aims to identify how tailoring brands can use communication more effectively to engage a broader consumer base, more inclusive of younger customers, whilst not alienating long-standing, existing clients. Due to the exclusive and expensive nature of the luxury tailoring industry, this report does not address the average millennial male consumer, but analyses the needs and wants of the affluent, modern young professionals and entrepreneurs who have increasingly high expectations of brands operating in the luxury fashion market.
The key issue that this report addresses is that in the luxury sector, tailoring is not a youth driven market, because the client that understands the product and appreciates the product is older, and consequently there is not a younger generation coming through and adopting it in the same way (Gill, 2013). As tailored garments from luxury brands are made to last, men purchasing tailored pieces as an investment find little need to replenish their wardrobe seasonally, so if younger customers do not form a stronger affinity with tailoring, brands risk running out of customers to make tailored garments for (Alas, 2013). In order to stay relevant and profitable, brands must identify where their messages do not resonate with younger customers, and new business opportunities must be sought to engage the younger market more.
T H O D O L OG Y In order to gain exhaustive consumer and industry insight, this report has been informed by thorough and creative research methods utilizing both primary and secondary sources.
EXPLORATORY STAGE Whilst clarifying and developing ideas in the initial stages of this report, an exploratory stage was carried out. A number of subject experts were engaged in lightly structured conversation to help inform draft questions for structured interviews, to pinpoint the most relevant topics within my subject area and to test my proposed methodology. This exploratory stage confirmed that many tailoring brands are currently struggling to connect with younger consumers and are actively seeking ways to engage the younger market more. Initial discussions concluded that conducting interviews with experts in the industry would be the most valuable form of research, and that indepth consumer research was necessary to find out what tailoring means to the millennial man and where tailoring overlaps most meaningfully with his preoccupations.
SECONDARY RESEARCH Secondary research was sourced from a range of books, journals, magazines, websites, newspaper articles, online articles, trend and market reports and online databases in order to gain access to established and emerging arguments, theories, trends and industry movements, as well as statistical data and historical information. Setting up Google Alerts ensured daily updates on the latest online news and discussions around the subject matter. Fig 3: Handcrafted, 2012.
INFORMAL CONVERSATIONS CARRIED OUT DURING THE EXPORATORY STAGE: Flannels Nottingham: Discussion with store manager about younger customer’s attitudes to tailoring and customer observation in the men’s tailoring department. Tom Ford, Sloane Street, London: Discussion with sales assistant about young men’s purchasing habits and conversation with a customer in the men’s tailoring department about why he shopped at Tom Ford and which other brands he purchases from regularly and why. Zegna, Sloane Street, London: Discussion with men’s tailoring specialist about the Zegna made-to-measure service and the average age of clientele. Dolce & Gabanna, Sloane Street, London: Discussion with sales assistant assisting a young customer searching for a tailored jacket and trying on numerous styles. Gucci, Sloane Street, London: Discussion with men’s tailoring specialist about the luxury tailoring market and consumer engagement with the bespoke and mademeasure suiting service. Louis Vuitton, Sloane Street, London: Discussion with sales assistant about young men’s purchasing habits around tailoring. Dior Homme, Harrods, London: Discussion with sales assistant about the Dior Homme Autumn/Winter 2013/2014 campaign film collaboration with Fantastic Man magazine and its impact on engagement of younger consumers.
‘It is impossible to write about a subject unless you are immersed in it.’ (West, 2014) 15
Image: Oliver Sprencer
Store Manager at REISS
WHEN: 22nd October 2013 HOW: Face-to-face interview WHERE: Reiss Store, Nottingham WHY: Positioned at the top end of the high-street, Reiss are a competitor for luxury brands and have recently launched a personal tailoring service in some of their stores. OUTCOME: Interviewing Adam provided a lot of insight into Reiss’s new personal tailoring service and the purchasing habits of male consumers at mid-market level. (See Appendix One, p113)
WHEN: 8th November 2013 HOW: Face-to-face interview WHERE: Berluti Conduit Street Store, London. WHY: Berluti is considered the ultimate luxury menswear brand and its recently launched bespoke service is the first luxury label to provide a fully bespoke, head-to-toe menswear experience. INSIGHT: Interviewing Joshua provided insight into Berluti’s new bespoke tailoring service, as well as the current purchasing habits and motivations of young men buying tailoring from luxury brands. (See Appendix Two, p116)
Fig 4, Industry Interviews 1, 2014
MOM Agency WHEN: 2nd December 2013 HOW: Face-to-face interview WHERE: Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham WHY: Working with menswear brands including Oliver Spencer, Martin has vast expertise in wholesale within the menswear market. INSIGHT: Speaking to Martin offered invaluable insight into younger consumer’s changing attitudes to tailoring over time and current issues facing the tailoring market. (See Appendix Three, p121)
Image: Hormazd Narielwalla
Image: James Sleater
Image: Traditional Cutter
The Artist Revitalising Savile Row Tailoring Patterns
Founder of Cad and The Dandy
Head Cutter at Norton and Sonâ€™s
WHEN: 3rd December 2013 HOW: Studio Visit WHERE: ASC Studios, London
WHEN: 13th December 2013 HOW: Face-to-face interview WHERE: Cad and The Dandy, 13 Savile Row, London
WHEN: 13th December 2013 HOW: Face-to-face interview WHERE: Norton and Sons, 16 Savile Row, London
WHY: Cad and The Dandy target a younger demographic than most Savile Row tailors, offering more accessible bespoke tailoring for younger consumers. INSIGHT: Interviewing James gave great insight into the world of bespoke tailoring the potential for younger consumers to be targeted.
WHY: Steven has over twenty years of experience working in the tailoring industry and working a Norton and Sons he has a range of clients INSIGHT: Speaking to Stephen revealed much about the current performance of the tailoring market and how customers of different ages interact with the bespoke tailoring process.
WHY: Hormazd Narielwalla is a collage maker working with bespoke Savile Row tailoring patterns as his source materials. INSIGHT: Visiting Hormazd to view the work in his studio offered a contemporary interpretation of tailoring from an artistic perspective. (See Appendix Four, p125)
(See Appendix Five, p126)
Fig 5, Industry Interviews 2, 2014
(See Appendix Six, p129)
Attending London Collections: Men and speaking to industry experts and consumers about their views on Autumn/Winter 2014/15 menswear collections provided a valuable look at the key brands and trends that will be dominating the British menswear market for 2014 and 2015.
Fig 6: RAKE Finale, 2013
DESIGN METHODOLOGY Discovering the vibrant and modern work of Hormadz Narielwalla was the initial inspiration for the design of this report. In order to convey a modern interpretation of traditional tailoring, a clean, contemporary and minimal look has been created with accents of colour selected from Spring/Summer 2014 menswear trends. (See Appendix Eighteen, p154)
CONSUMER RESEARCH Visiting Henry Herbert tailors to attend bespoke suit fittings, a consumer was interviewed during the process, giving great insight into young menâ€™s perceptions of the bespoke tailoring experience. (See appendix Seven, p131) Using a purposive sampling method, an online survey consisting of both closed and open questions was sent to men within the consumer demographic of young professionals aged 18 â€“ 35 and was completed by 40 respondents. Due to the selective nature of the survey, collecting a large amount of responses proved difficult; however, targeting a typical sample provided results which are truly representative of the target consumer group. (See Appendix Ten, p136)
COLLABORATION Fig 7: Pitti Uomo Street Style, 2014
A collaboration with London-based street style photographer Silviu Doroftei, owner and founder of London Streetstyle, captured a current overview of how young men are wearing tailoring on the streets of London, England. Silviu also captured men wearing tailoring in Italy , Florence, during Pitti Uomo in order to compare the British consumer and his relationship to tailoring against that of his Italian counterparts.(See Appendix Eight, p133)
3. CONTEXT 4. CASE STUDY: BERLUTI 5. HISTORY 6. WHAT IS DIFFERENT IN 2014? 7. CASE STUDY: SAVILE ROW 21
C N T
‘Menswear is the new womenswear’ Defining menswear as the ‘new womenswear’, Toby Bateman (2013) describes the renaissance of menswear, which is seeing men in developed and emerging economies around the world spend more time and money on enhancing their looks and curating their wardrobes. The fast-growing yet underserved luxury menswear market is currently outperforming the women’s market (Anaya 2013: online) and men’s upward expenditure and increasing interest in luxury fashion offers significant opportunities for brands to profit from the spending power of emerging, younger consumers. Bain & Co (2011) report that the luxury menswear market is growing twice as fast as womenswear, and as affluent next generation consumers begin to reach their peak earning years, global luxury menswear sales are expected to reach $18,036 billion dollars by 2016 (MINTEL, 2012).
In a discussion with Imran Ahmed, Editor in Chief of The Business of Fashion, Ahmed identified three key driving forces behind the phenomenal rise of luxury menswear in recent years; brands are becoming increasingly globalized, more men are discovering innovative technology and luxury apparel products from the point of view of materials and design, and online media and E-commerce is playing a significant role in connecting men to the world of luxury fashion, providing a preponderance of style information, inspiration and choice (Ahmed (2013) in discussion at GFW 2013). It is more legitimate for men to be interested in fashion now, and as the industry has realised that it hadn’t really marketed to men for the last century, brands are currently trying to bring men back into fashion, to make menswear as important as womenswear (Gill, 2013). 23
In response to this cultural shift, many major brands in the luxury sector have sought to capture men’s appetite for luxury by pursuing development of men’s only stores both in mature and emerging markets around the world, and the focus does not stop with retailing. Just as haute couture is experiencing a resurgence in the womenswear sector, made to measure and bespoke tailoring programs are gaining traction for men (Petcu 2013: online), and in London, Alexander McQueen, Dolce and Gabbana and Berluti are using tailoring to expand their menswear business. Sales of men’s tailoring at Burberry grew by nearly seventy percent year-on-year between 2009 and 2013, and the first Burberry Men’s store was opened in Knightsbridge on the strength of tailoring sales alone (Burberry PLC 2013: online). Savile Row tailors and many other traditional tailors have quietly provided bespoke and made-tomeasure services for centuries, but now face growing criticism for lack of innovation and failure to respond to twenty-first century consumer and cultural shifts. That the behemoth of luxury fashion brands, including recent acquisitions by PPR and LVMH are investing heavily in expanding their tailoring offerings, from billboard advertising campaigns to elaborate retail environments, indicates a growing interest in the luxury tailoring sector and potential to offer a new version of the traditional tailoring experience to a new generation of consumer. As most of these brands have a core client base aged over thirty five, there is now huge potential to tap into the younger end of the market more (Megha, 2013). Whilst it may seem that men are only just waking up to the beauty of being dressed well, fashion historian Anne Hollander (1994) suggests that men have never been disinterested in dress or averse to fashion, but rather it is an assurance in tailoring, which has enabled men to focus on adapting a style of garment that has always suited them well. Plotting the turbulent history of young men’s attitudes to tailoring over the last one hundred years somewhat contradicts Hollander’s theory, yet noticing millennial impulses toward disintegration, Hollander acknowledges that the traditional hegemony of tailoring is being challenged by the millennial generation. Whilst made-tomeasure and bespoke may be an attempt for some brands to claw back positioning credentials in the world of mass luxury, engaging younger consumers with the traditional values of tailoring is increasingly challenging.
CASE STUDY: BERLUTI No brand is more representative of the phenomenal growth of luxury menswear than Berluti; a company at the very apex of menswear and the first luxury label to provide a fully bespoke, head-to-toe menswear experience, with custom-madesuiting, outer and casual wear, accessories and its world-renowned hand-made shoes all under one roof (Farrar-Hockley 2013: p50). Identifying a gap in the market for the ultimate luxury menswear brand, Berluti was acquired by LVMH in 2009. Under the direction of designer Alessandro Sartori and CEO Antoine Arnault, it has taken less than two years for Berluti to recast itself from a traditional Parisian shoe maker, to become renowned as one of the finest menswear labels in the world, competing with the likes of international brands such as Tom Ford, Hermés and Brioni. Located just around the corner from Savile Row, Berluti’s London Conduit Street store has become one of the city’s most exquisite retail spaces, and over a four year period, all Berluti’s store sizes are set to double. The brand now aims to tell more of a story more than it used to, and enlarged stores stand as a key communication tool for the brand. The acquisition of Parisian tailor Arny’s and recent expansion into bespoke is described by Sartori as a ‘sartorial metamorphosis’; blending innovation and tradition as a way not to extinguish the species of tailors (Sartori (2013) in Roncato: 2013). Berluti can create a lifestyle from bespoke tailoring for its customers, and it is not just suits and formalwear being offered in bespoke now, but any garment can be tailored bespoke.
Fig 8, BerlutiSpring/Summer 2014, 2013 However, whilst Berluti continues to grow its status as a 360-degree global powerhouse brand, in an interview with CNN, Arnault discussed the changing face of luxury fashion and the challenge of harnessing heritage and modernity to gain new consumers without offending the current consumer base (Arnault (2012) in interview with Mann: online). He also stated in GQ that if he had to change something about the Berluti customer, he would just make them ten years younger (Arnault (2012) in Prince: online). Berluti has gained a loyal base of older clients, so the brand is now trying to nurture the younger customers more to give them something new (Al-Chamaa, 2013).
It is important to look at where and when tailoring and youth have been strongly connected in the past, to inform a new version for a new generation. The suit of the moment reflects the times and society, and the evolution of tailoring is not just a story of fashion, but a barometer of our social history. (The Perfect Suit, 2011)
Fig 9, Hardy Amies Spring/Summer 2013, 2012.
TAILORING IS ‘IN’ Post Second World War, social divisions broke down and Teddy Boy craze of early 1950s emerged, reviving an Edwardian Period look. Increasing numbers of young men in Britain were becoming interested in protecting their identity through their clothes.
30s CINEMA 20s
Young Edwardian men start to react against their fathers, expressing a fun approach to life through their clothes.
1900 Beau Brummell instigates the tradition of dandyism and the start of The Great Masculine Renunciation. Men turned to a form of dress characterised by its uniformity, simplicity and sobriety,
Despite the great Depression, the suit remains important to many men and British look was dictated by the classic tailoring ideals of Savile Row.
Post-war popular culture and fashion infiltrated world of suit.
Rapid growth of ‘multiple tailors’ led by Montague Burton ‘The Tailor of Taste’, clothing onefifth of British men with ready to wear or made-to-measure suits.
Tailoring became a by-word for mediocrity, conformity and blandness ; a symbol of boring British commuter drones.
WAR AND AUSTERITY The lounge suit reduced all men to a sea of grey flannel.
40s TAILORING IS ‘OUT’
Arrival of the youth market as a defined customer base. John Stephon opened first store on Carnaby Street and fashion became disposable. Peacock Revolution was starting.
Young men in swinging 60s kicking against establishment. Georgio Armani made suit cool again for young men. Instead of traditional tailors, the market was now driven by international fashion businesses offering regularly changing ideas.
Fashion globalisation began as movies, music and television brought different fashion styles to the attention of people around the world.
Young working class men into the Italian lifestyle; mopeds, coffe bars and sharp Italian suits.
The contrast between suits as a boring office uniform and a fashion choice was established.
‘The Decade that Taste Forgot’. Predominance of denim and casualware meant tailoring became boring and strictly for formal occasions.
Years of adopting sportswear and casualwear for everyday meant that many young men had no suits or tailoring at all in their wardrobe.
Silicon Valley ‘casual Friday’ and ‘business casual’ policy made formal suit and tailoring redundant and wearing suits was seen as something to be avoided.
Fig 10, The History of Tailoring and Youth, 2014
WHAT IS DIFFERENT IN 2014? British style for men is more dynamic now than at any time before, and today, Britain is genuinely cosmopolitan in terms of the people and cultures it embraces. In terms of menâ€™s style, there is interplay between the generations; between heritage and technology and between tailoring and casualwear.
THE ACCEPTANCE OF ‘SMASUAL’
‘But cutting across this talk of tailoring (and with every brand on the high street offering their take on the walkin, stride-out suit for all occasions, isn’t the term itself in need of a little rest?), will be the rise of “Smasual”.’ (Prince 2013: online) Fig 11: Baartman’s and Siegel London Collections: Men, 2014,
The media is full of style advice and glossy editorials for dapper gents and neo-dandies, taking cues from American TV shows such as Madmen and Suits and modern British style icons including David Gandy and Tinie Tempah (Smith 2013: online). However, the age of formality has passed, and whilst young men are gaining more exposure to luxury tailoring, in an article titled ‘The Great Menswear Misconception’, Editd analyses the market from a commercial perspective, concluding that the greater acceptance of casual wear as everyday apparel is dominating British menswear. Tailoring remains a strong theme for stylists working in the media, but it doesn’t necessarily translate through to the audience; James Bond is the ultimate modern style icon for luxury tailoring, yet from the most recent James Bond film ‘Skyfall’, it was the Barbour jacket, which became iconic, not the suit (Gill, 2013).
Speaking to Bloomberg TV following London: Collections Men Autumn/Winter 2014/15, Imran Ahmed (2014) stated that the resurgence of dapper dressing in Britain has dovetailed with the rise of London Collections: Men, as emerging designers and luxury fashion houses showcase alongside traditional Savile Row tailoring brands, demonstrating the ubiquity of tailoring in modern British menswear. However, Ahmed goes on to suggest that although Britain is renowned for its tailoring, we are beginning to see a shift back towards a more casual approach to male dress. Speaking to D. Thomas (2013), Toby Bateman has acknowledged a growing appetite for affluent young men to dress more sartorially, but deputy editor of GQ magazine Bill Prince (2013) suggests that many young consumers are tiring of the formality of conventional tailoring, and more casual tailoring styles will significantly influence on the way that younger men consume tailored garments in 2014 and beyond.
Fig 12, Casual Dress, 2012
“We have been the home of British business for over 100 years and have always been a forward looking organisation. Reflecting social changes and adapting to the needs of our membership is just a part of that philosophy.” (Spokesperson for Institute of Directors, 2013)
Whilst a number of industry experts believe that men are definitely choosing to dress smarter again, the definition of business attire has changed, and the adoption of a more casual approach to dress in the professional world reflects a growing trend among business leaders and politicians to dress down. World leaders were told to wear ‘smart casual’ at the 2013 G8 Summit in Northern Ireland to help foster an ‘intimate and informal’ atmosphere, and in June 2013, the Institute for Directors introduced a new ‘smart casual’ dress code, in an attempt to broaden its appeal to modern entrepreneurs and the directors of technology start-ups (Swinford 2013: Online).
The decision for The Institute of Directors to permit members to wear jeans, T-shirts and shorts instead of business suits is indicative of a cultural shift that smart tailoring is no longer required in the modern world, and signifies the increasingly blurred boundary between work and leisure (Wild 2013: online). To support this, sales of shirts and ties have fallen over the last five years, as men have cut back on buying new clothes for work and instead focus on those for leisure (MINTEL 2013). Even in Harrods tailoring department, menswear fashion director Jason Broderick revealed to Ian Wright of Drapers that the major growth in brands like Brioni, Stefano Ricci and Ermenegildo Zegna, is coming from premium casualwear within these brands (Broderick (2013) in Wright: online).
THE UNCERTAIN ECONOMY Demand for smartly tailored garments is largely affected by the economy. Whilst studies show that when the economy is uncertain people tend to invest more in their looks in order to convey a professional image, as employment fell during the economic recession in 2008, demand for tailoring also declined, with many potential consumers facing unemployment and lower levels of disposable income (Reportlinker 2013: online). In years of economic prosperity, the tailored suit can be a positive signifier of confidence and success, but in today’s testing economic climate, as in the eighties, the tailored suit risks becoming a sign of unashamed excess (Wild 2013: online), particularly amongst young professionals.
Fig 13, Tailoring by Dunhill, 2011
THE CHANGING CODES OF MASCULINITY In society, tailoring has been the staple of a man’s wardrobe for over two-hundred years and the traditional men’s suit, particularly the true bespoke version, has long been recognised as a powerful masculine status symbol. However, as the codes of masculinity are changing in response to the meteoric rise of women in twenty-first-century society, men are recontextualising and reconfiguring their masculinity through their work relationships and their fashion and lifestyle choices (The Future Laboratory, 2013). Millennial men are embracing the freedoms of greater parity and collaboration with women, and survey results reveal that wearing suiting and tailoring is now less about signifying masculinity, status and power for men, but instead is most positively associated with expressing style, professionalism and confidence (see appendix ten). Men’s shopping and style habits are changing at a phenomenal rate, as men are expressing themselves more through clothes and grooming, and increasingly shopping like women do, as a leisure activity.
Fig 14, Masculinity, 2013
THE RISE OF THE MEDIA MASS INTEREST
Digital platforms are contributing to the rise of menswear, and luxury fashion is now exposed more to the younger consumer. Even in low culture, luxury tailoring is emerging in mass media, prompted by films such as The Great Gatsby and celebrities on the red carpet, as well as music artists becoming fashion icons and luxury fashion brands collaborating in the world of sport.
FILM&TV -The Great Gatsby -Madmen -Suits -Downton Abbey -Wolf of Wall Street -The X Factor
CELEBRITY -Ryan Gosling -David Beckham -Bradley Cooper -Justin Timberlake -David Gandy -Tinie Tempah
MUSIC -Rock ‘n’ Roll Savile Row GQ editorial -Jay-Z Tom Ford song
-Lanvin is official tailor to Arsenal Fottbal team -Chester Barry is official tailor to Leicester Tigers
LOW CULTURE 36
In high culture, London Collections: Men plays a key role in raising the profile of British luxury tailoring, and luxury blogs and E-Commerce have opened up the world of luxury tailoring to a wider audience. Reaching out to the younger generation means that even if young customers are not actually spending, they are interested for when they do have the funds,
EXHIBITIONS -The Anatomy of the Suit at Museum of London -Henry Poole Savile Row at The Bowes Museum
MENâ€™S FASHION WEEK BLOGS -The Sartorialist -The Geek Chic
LUXURY E-COMMERCE -Mr PORTER
LUXURY LIFESTYLE -Savile Row collaboration with Chivas whiskey.
Fig 15, Media Influences, 2014
THE AGE OF
‘In a world where everything is available, a truly handmade and bespoke product is very hard to find. A bespoke service places customers at the centre – their desires are handmade for them.’ (Tsaria, 2013) Customers are demanding everhigher levels of customized products and services, which are tailored to their individual needs. From Netflix’s customized media streaming and Levi’s made-to-order jeans to Vertu’s personalised editorial content and Rolls Royce’s recent move towards bespoke, brands across all industries are aware of the millennial generation consumer philosophy that in the modern world of luxury, it is now not only enough for something to be well made, it needs to be well made just for ‘me’ (Sims 2013: online). In the article ‘The Power of Premium in Monocle magazine, Tim Brown (2013) states that the biggest shift he has seen within the premium sector is that instead of the idea that everything is curated on behalf of the consumer, now it has to be a dialogue, and the consumer has to be able to design at least a part of the experience for themselves, as that is what they do every day when using their digital devices.
The very nature of bespoke tailoring has always represented the ultimate in personalisation; enabling an individual to choose the fabric, cut and personal details of their garment, and taking into account everything from proportion to balance and posture of the wearer. However, tailoring brands in the luxury sector face growing competition and must find new ways to differentiate the superiority of their services and products, as high-street ‘bespoke’ suiting is part of a consumer and industry movement towards ‘mass-customisation’ (Hall 2013: online). Catering to the young professional demographic, chains such as Moss Bros and Reiss offer personal tailoring services in store, and websites such as A Suit That Fits enable consumers to design their own custom suits online, with a turnaround time of within one month, and at a fraction of the price of tailored pieces from bespoke luxury brands.
Fig 16, Bespoke, 2013
The Autumn 2013 issue of Protein magazine discusses the future of personal body scanning, predicting that customers will eventually be able to have their bodies scanned on arrival at any store, and once vital statistics have been collected, either pointed in the right direction of garments that will fit perfectly or have fully bespoke garments made from these scans (Rowe, 2013). As the customization of garments and experiences becomes more technologically advanced and more mainstream, tailors using traditional methods must emphasize more than ever why their products and services are still worth a greater investment.
Even the traditional tape measure has now been superseded by 3D body scanning techniques, as a modern method to address the problems of garment fit. In the USA, Arden Reed have launched a â€œThe Tailor Truckâ€? service; a unique travelling tailor service with a precise 3D body scanner, where customers can be accurately measured before choosing from the fabric selection and designing their own custom suit (Goraya 2013: online).
CASE STUDY: SAVILE ROW Fig 17, Savile Row, 2012
In 2013, the backward communication of traditional Savile Row brands was highlighted in the press when Savile Row tailor Anderson and Shepherd made headlines for breaking with tradition and sending emails to customers for the first time. Although the average age of customer for brands such as Gieves and Hawkes and Norton and Sons has decreased from around sixty years of age to forty in the space of ten to fifteen years (Parker (2012) in O’ Ceallaigh: online), engaging consumers below the age of thirty-five is the next challenge for these brands. Whereas in the past Savile Row brands relied on gaining new customers from traditional loyalty to the tailor their father and grandfather went to, young men of 2014 do not want to look like their father (Sleater, 2013).
Mapping brand positioning on a perceptual map (See Appendix Thirteen, P146) and considering the performance of brands at different market levels (See Appendix Twelve, P144) highlights that traditional Savile Row brands must evolve communications in order to survive in the future.
‘a bad English comedy, a melodrama lost in the past. It’s so old it should be in black and white...They don’t research or develop something or innovate. There is no room in their head to expand into something new.’
This is not a new predicament; over the last fifty years there have been numerous attempts to regenerate the image of tailoring on Savile Row and make it more relevant for a younger audience. In the 1960s the legendary Tommy Nutter opened up the world of bespoke tailoring to a wider, fashion-conscious audience looking beyond the traditional business suit, and the ‘New Bespoke Movement’ of the 1990s, saw more of a designer mindset brought to the traditional values of Savile Row by a wave of ‘new establishment’ tailors Timothy Everest, Ozwald Boateng and Richard James (Bignell and Lipkin 2013: online) Whilst these tailors evolved the cut and style of tailored suits to pioneer a more contemporary look, they also realised that communications must be evolved in order to reach a younger, contemporary audience. Tommy Nutter was a brilliant communicator and much of his success came from his skill in articulating to a new audience what bespoke was all about by making classic tailoring available to rock stars and celebrities such as Mick Jagger, Hardy Amies and The Beatles, helping them stamp their individuality on the suits they had designed. Following in Nutter’s pioneering footsteps, the ‘New Bespoke Movement’ of the nineties received much public and press interest at the time, and the new establishment tailors came into their own when they appeared in the now much-lauded “Cool Britannia” issue of Vanity Fair, portraying a surprisingly young, fresh and relevant image; everything that Savile Row was not traditionally thought to be (Sherwood, 2009). For 2014, Savile Row is currently experiencing another contemporary push, as Carlo Brandelli returns to Kilgour as creative director to ‘finish off what he left off’. During his time as creative director of Kilgour between 2003 and 2009, Brandelli is praised with having modernised the idea of the suit and instilled at Kilgour the air of an international brand (Porter 2013: online). To mark the brands relaunch and to signify a new chapter in the brands history, Brandelli has created a new website and conceived a film shot by Nick Knight to be released on Showstudio.com that expresses a new direction for this cornerstone of Savile Row and modern British menswear. With a new bespoke studio to open in Autumn 2014 as well as an exclusive collection to be launched on Mr Porter in March, it will be interesting to see how Brandelli’s contemporary approach to marketing will influence young consumer’s attitude to tailoring on Savile Row. In an interview with Charlie Porter of The Financial Times, Brandelli expresses his desire to push both the product and communication aspects of Savile Row tailoring forward:
Fig 18, Kilgour, The Relaunch, 2013
I want to maintain the craftsmanship but also present a relevant, contemporary face of tailoring. I just don’t think anyone else is doing it. It’s like: why not? In every other sector, there’s contemporary. On Savile Row, it doesn’t exist. People just keep re-spinning these traditional pastiches. It makes no sense. We aren’t still using phones where you stick your finger in and the dial goes round. This is 2014. (Carlo Brandell (2013) in interview with Porter: 2013)
8. MIXED MESSAGES
IN ORDER TO ADAPT STRATEGY TO ENGAGE YOUNGER CONSUMERS MORE, BRANDS MUST IDENTIFY WHERE THEIR MESSSAGES HAVE BECOME OUT OF SYNC WITH THE YOUNGER GENERATION.
Research by Pam Danziger of Unity Marketing shows that an increasing number of younger consumers think that products from luxury brands are overpriced and arenâ€™t worth the expense (Lutz, 2013). As the standard of the best of high-street tailoring has never been higher, consumers are considering their purchases a lot more, and Sleater (2013) suggests that a certain element of mystique can help brand building, but secrecy around the price and service is unlikely to attract a new type of customer.
72% of survey participants stated that highprice point is an alienating factor for them (see appendix ten), and tailoring in the luxury sector has always been beyond the budget of many, particularly younger, customers who have less of a disposable income than those of an older generation (Hall, 2010). Speaking to a young consumer during his final fitting for a bespoke suit, he stated that because you are paying a lot more for a suit than you would otherwise, that cuts off a raft of society and creates a perception about the sort people who make up the clientele, which is not appealing to younger customers, even if they have the funds (Barnett, 2013).
A hand-tailored garment is a marvel of geometry, engineering, craft and technical skill, but most men who wear it know little of its construction or how and why it fits so well. Most modern consumers have known only ready-made suits, bought ‘off the peg’ (Musgrave 2009: p36), yet between the 1920s and 1970s bespoke and madeto-measure tailoring was widely available to everyone; Burton’s and other fashion chain stores offered affordable made-to-measure services and even school uniforms were more tailored in preparation for wearing formal work wear in later life. As younger consumers are less educated about tailoring than previous generations, and tailoring as a type of garment has been eroded to the degree that just to construct a garment in the traditional way seems less relevant now than it did in the past (Gill 2013). Many brands do not clearly communicate the options available to customers or explain what the trade jargon means. On Savile Row, the law [around bespoke] changed five years ago and as more brands from high-street to high end are promoting their products as ‘bespoke’ and Savile Row still hold on to the word themselves, it’s true meaning has become confusing for both the tailoring trade and to customers (Sleater, 2013).
One of the key cultural and generational shifts with which traditional tailoring is in conflict, is the â€˜have nowâ€™ culture and trend-led society that has become a part of the lives of a new generation of consumer in the age of impatience. A traditionally tailored garment can take up to three or four months to be completed, yet with the mainstreaming of the on-demand economy and the always-on culture, consumer expectations for speed and ease are rising (See Appendix Fourteen, P147).
‘I expected to come into some smelly old mahogany room; it’s slightly unnerving when you haven’t done this before.’ (Barnett 2013) In an interview with a young consumer during his final bespoke suit fitting, he revealed that there is a big taboo about getting a tailored suit, and that he had to temper how he talked about it with friends. Another participant consumer stated that he often feels that the more traditional tailors have a tendency to judge younger customers. Whilst there are younger bespoke tailoring brands such as Henry Herbert, aiming to provide a more personable, convenient and less intimidating experience, consumer responses show that negative perceptions around the exclusive nature of the tailoring experience are very much instilled in the mindset of many younger men.
Fig 19, Ozwald Boateng, 2012
9. THE MILLENNIALS 10. HERITAGE AND YOUTH 11. TELLING A STORY
THE MILLENNIALS â€˜Every brand and retailer had better be re-positioning their offerings and shopping experience to cater for the generational onslaught of the luxury millennials, soon to put to shame the once vaunted purchasing power of the boomers.â€™ (Robin Lewis, CEO of Robin Report, 2013)
It is important to forecast where consumers are moving and to be in front of them. 57
There are times when the concepts of status, success and money change due to a generational shift. This last happened in the 1960s, when the Baby Boomer generation came of age and the marketing assumptions of the 1950s were replaced by a fresh kind of advertising and a new take on the meaning of luxury (Stevens 2013: online). The twenty-five to thirty-four age group is expected to rise in number by eleven percent between 2012 and 2017 (MINTEL 2013), and a study by Unity Marketing suggests that another generational sea-change is imminent; younger consumers are spending more money than ever across luxury categories, but their motivations are very different to those of their predecessors (See Appendix Sixteen, P150).
The millennial consumer was born between 1978 and 1994, and the impending Millennial surge presents an opportunity for luxury tailoring brands to target sales amongst increasingly fashion-conscious men in this age category, who are keen shoppers, preferring to buy fewer but better quality items and invest in quality. An article by Suleman Anaya (2013) for The Business of Fashion identifies a promising new market fuelled by the emergence of a new global consumer; young men in their twenties and early thirties, many of whom work in creative professions, who were not previously able to afford, or were not particularly interested in, highend custom tailoring, but who now want to invest in quality.
Fig 20, Bespoke HQ Tailoring, 2013
The young clientele...are all thinkers, whether they are from the creative sector, finance or culture. They donâ€™t want vacuous, stylistic images repeated over and over again: model + location = aspirational material possessions. Those messages are irrelevant to them. (Carlo Brandelli (2013) in
conversation with unknown author: online)
Consumers of the millennial generation are the most highly educated and elusive generation, and, as they are the most challenging to keep engaged, brands must become a lifestyle choice rather than a product only one. Unity marketing suggests that affluent Millennials are savvy to marketing, and rather than looking for luxury or status as traditionally defined, they perceive the term â€œluxuryâ€? as another marketing tool to entice them to buy, rather than a descriptive adjective that conveys something important about the product or service.
Driven forward by the millennial generation, the luxury landscape is changing, and one of the most significant challenges facing traditional tailoring in the luxury sector in 2014 is how to connect heritage and youth to make 19th and 20th century brands and traditions relevant and engaging to 21st century consumers (Ben 2013: online). Many luxury heritage brands operate on the misconception that heritage is interchangeable with history; however, the idea of heritage as static history inhibits innovation, prevents dynamic renewal and impedes a brands ability to redefine and strengthen their brand strategies to appeal to contemporary consumers (Memic and Minhas, 2011).
H E R I T A G E AN D Y O U T H
The emergence of New Wave luxury signifies an increasing level of personal communication and collaboration between consumer and brand, which makes the old-world attributes of tradition, heritage and craftsmanship central to the brand and product experience, but creates a story around these core values in a contemporary and innovative way (Ben 2013: online). Although communication does not have to be purely about digital alone, it is imperative for luxury brands to find ways to expand their target segment and engage the digitally savvy younger generation in intelligent ways (Selling British Luxury, 2013). Speaking to the Guardian, Justin Cooke acknowledges that many heritage luxury brands are still wary of digital communication and marketing, but likes to think of digital opportunities as â€˜providing a sprinkling of magic to the traditional customer experienceâ€™(Cooke (2013) in Sedghi: online). 60
Fig 21, Extreme Refinement in Lâ€™Officiel Hommes Germany, 2012
Fig 22, Rolex DeepSea Challenge Watch, 2013
Like many tailors, luxury Swiss watchmakers face an ageing target market and difficulties in attracting a younger consumer base, so many are seeking ways to adapt their marketing strategies to meet the next generation of luxury consumers. As an example, Rolex has long managed to maintain its position as a luxury market leader by implementing a successful segmentation and target marketing strategy. However, it now faces the difficult task of becoming the watch choice of a younger generation, as the brand has become associated with an older status symbol among younger consumers (Onofrei 2012: online).
Until recently many traditional watchmaking brands and other luxury brands have been reluctant to embrace digital for fear of denigrating brand image and losing their exclusive allure. However, young, educated and tech-savvy consumers have forced brands to embrace the digital sphere with innovative new social media, e-commerce and m-commerce platforms, and brands such as IWC, Hubolt and indeed Rolex are finding great success in communicating a fusion of traditional craftsmanship and technical innovation for a modern consumer. By sharing engaging digital content via websites and social media, including pictures and stories about the creation of new products, the heritage of haute horlogerie and information about renowned individuals, collaborations and events they endorse, brands define themselves as more than just purveyors of fine goods, but as educators and cultural leaders.
TELLING A STORY Forward-thinking brands are harnessing the power of storytelling to communicate resonant and engaging messages, which promote their tailoring offerings to younger consumers. A study conducted by iProspect revealed that young affluent male respondents have a particular preference for video and interactive campaigns (iProspect: 2013) and Burberry CEO Angela Ahrendts advises that to target the millennial consumer you have to speak in their language, and their language is rapidly becoming digital (Ahrendts 2013: online).
Survey results show that 69% of survey participants prefer to connect with brands online, therefore using film as an online digital platform enables brands to tell a story about their tailoring collection in motion. By bringing tailoring more into the modern world, embracing the flexibility of everyday life and highlighting the performance element of garments, the message conveyed is that tailoring is anything but a dull daily uniform or stuffy historical costume worn only for special occasions (See Appendix Fifteen, P148).
Fig 23, Zegna Spring Summer 2014
12. THE CONSUMER
Tailoring means many different things to many different men, and it is important to engage consumers by focussing on their lifestyles; analysing what value tailoring brings to their lives and where it overlaps most meaningfully with their preoccupations. Considering the different roles of the suit for fashion and the suit for work, two key young consumer groups have been identified, with great potential to be targeted more effectively by luxury tailoring brands.
THE SUIT IS MY
‘I quite often wear a suit jacket, with dark denim jeans...The tailoring is the back-bone, if you like to work the look around.’ (Consumer quote, see appendix 10.4)
MOTIVATION FOR WEARING TAILORING: Style and trends. As a fashion choice and to look stylish for work. Likes to be ‘on trend’ and embraces the flexibility of working different looks.
SHOPS AT: A mixture of high-street and luxury brands including Paul Smith, Prada, Reiss, Marc Jacobs, Alexander McQueen, Richard James, Zara and Rake. MOST INSPIRED BY: Fashion blogs, online shopping edits, brand specific campaigns and promotional videos. WILLING TO INVEST IN TAILORING OVER OTHER ITEMS IN WARDROBE? Yes, if versatile and on-trend. ALIENATED FACTORS? High price point, slow process, not relevant to lifestyle. CONNECTS TO BRANDS VIA: Websites, social media and mobile apps.
Fig 24: Consumer Profile 1, 2014
THE SUIT IS MY
‘I wear [tailored pieces] for work and see them as an investment in my career.’ (Consumer quote, see appendix 10.4) MOTIVATION FOR WEARING TAILORING: Professionalism and confidence. It is a uniform for work and reflects competence and authority over every day wear.
SHOPS AT: Suits from Thom Sweeney, Whitcombe and Shatfesbury and Gieves and Hawkes, shirts from Austin Reed, TM Lewin and Burberry, shoes from Churches. Mr Porter is a favourite online shopping destination. INSPIRED BY: How friends and colleagues dress, online shopping edits and men’s fashion and lifestyle publications such as GQ. INVESTS IN TAILORING OVER seen as investment in career.
ALIENATING FACTORS? Older clientele, long waiting time for product, lack of knowledge of process. CONNECTS TO BRANDS VIA: Websites, receiving emails and visiting in-store.
Fig 25: Consumer Profile 2, 2014
How does the British consumer compare to his Italian counterparts? The British luxury consumer is influenced by global fashion trends, yet the UK market is somewhat of an an anomaly; sitting somewhere between the minimalism of the scandanavians and the sprezzatura of the Italians, men are interested in style, but generally style is conservative. Although founded in Paris, luxury brand Berluti has Italian roots, and like many other Italian and European luxury brands, Berluti are trying to hit the British market and learn more about the young British consumer (Al-Chamaa, 2013). Young Italian men historically have more of an affinity with tailoring than British men, and the Italians tend to place more importance on fit, cut and fabrication, and know more about the subtle ways of accessorizing tailored looks. 1960s Mod culture saw young British men adopt an Italian inspired lifestyle and form a greater affinity with tailoring, however, in 2014, compared to the Italian ‘school of style’, Chesterfield (2013) believes that the British ‘school of perfection’ seems more about brushing off wrinkle-free suits and following ancient rules; not appealing associations for younger men.
THE BRITISH MALE Street style shots by Silviu Doroftei in London between December 1st 2013 and January 8th 2014
TAILORING IS SMART, CONSERVATIVE, DARK COLOURS, CLASSIC, CONVENTIONAL Fig 26, British Street Style, 2014
THE ITALIAN MALE Shots by Silviu Doroftei in Florence during Pitti Uomo between January 8th and January 10th 2014
TAILORING IS RELAXED, CASUAL , COLOURFUL, MIX AND MATCH, EXPERIMENTAL Fig 27, Italian Street Style, 2014
CONSUMER SURVEY RESULTS 40 men answered 10 questions on the topic of tailoring in an online survey. A selection of results are show below and further results are listed in Appendix Ten (P136).
Do tailored garments form an integral part of your wardrobe?
46.2% 48.8% 53.9% 21.3% What factors or brand values are most important to you when purchasing products from luxury brands?
Which of the following concepts do you associate most positively with wearing a suit?
= 10 MEN
STYLE SUCCESS PROFESSIONALISM MASCULINITY
Are you interested in knowing about the technical element of what you are wearing? E.g. the process of how it has been made?
TRADITION INDIVIDUALITY ARMOUR UNIFORM FUNCTIONALITY
Are you willing to invest in suits and tailoring over other items in your wardrobe?
13. STRATEGIC OUTCOME
R O M I
E N A O
1) UPDATE THE CONSUMER -
Fig 28, The Traditional Tailor, 2012
ON THE PROCESS Research has highlighted that as traditional values previously associated with tailoring are much less resonant with younger consumers, there is a need for both traditional tailoring brands and luxury fashion brands to educate or re-educate their consumer, so that they form a greater understanding of the brand, the tailoring process and the options that are available to them as part of the tailoring process. It is also important that the consumer recognizes why a luxury tailored garment is worth significantly more than an offthe-rack or custom high-street option, and how it is relevant to their lifestyle, in order to justify the higher price. In Brand Rejuvenation (2006), Jean-Marc Lehu discusses the delicate manor in which brands should approach educating their consumer, and to avoid falling into the trap of boring academic sermons, he suggests the approach must be founded on a rigorous study of target consumer motivations.
From the survey conducted with forty male participants, quality emerged as the most important motivation to consumers when buying any products from luxury brands (see appendix ten), and whilst luxury tailoring brands employ the highest levels of quality and craftsmanship in every tailor-made garment, the process of how this quality is reached is rarely communicated to the consumer. Brands may believe that the quality of the finished product speaks for itself, but younger consumers increasingly value experiences over material products and they like to play more of a collaborative role in the creative process of their purchases (Hurren (2013) in Paravini: online). As many luxury brands are perceived as being very elusive and closed down, consumers are increasingly keen to take a look behind the scenes and have a glimpse of what they are paying for.
Talking to both consumers and industry experts, it has been identified that most men, and particularly younger customers, are genuinely fascinated by the tailoring process. Survey results revealed that 67 % of young men are interested to know how their clothes have been made, and this interest could be harnessed more effectively by tailoring brands to connect with the consumer more during the time the garment is being made. It takes between sixty and eighty hours on average for a suit to be made by hand, and the human element is particularly important to promote, as all the man hours that have gone in to making the garment reflect the skill, knowledge and training, which make a garment more than just a piece of fabric.
Allen (2013) revealed that many customers like to watch their tailor make their garment:
‘They love that type of thing, the same with cutting the patterns; they like to see all that sort of stuff. But that’s always been the way… We have one gentleman who kept coming in, and he was following his jacket being made.’
Fig 29, The Tailoring Process, 2011.
Allen suggests that men have always had an interest in following the progress of their tailored garments as they are being made, however, other than fitting appointments, brands still have very little communication with consumers during the weeks and months it takes for garments to be created; consumers are likely to only receive a date when they need to come back for another fitting or to collect the finished product. For younger consumers, who are accustomed to living in a world of instant gratification and digital communication, this long waiting time and lack of contact seems outdated and unappealling.
As customers are actively seeking to track the progress of their tailored garments being made by visiting their tailor throughout the process, a natural progression for brands should be to keep the customer updated digitally. Sending updates of images or moving image sequences and descriptions at significant points of the garments production journey would fill the ‘deadtime’ in which the consumer has little contact with the brand or knowledge of the process. This would not only educate the consumer, but would also build and prolong excitement during the creation process; highlighting the craftsmanship and quality of the product and enabling customers to feel more involved in the making of their individual garment. Communicating with consumers via digital platforms such as email or a mobile app will engage younger customers, who are time-short but tech-savvy and always ‘switched-on’, yet it would not alienate older, existing customers, as the service would be optional. According to research by Deloitte, seven in ten people in the UK and 1 in 5 people in the world now own a smartphone (Styles 2013: online), and as customers love the whole picture on how a garment is going to fit them and why it is going to fit them better, articulating this with pictures and a story throughout the process would bring the garment to life. By hybridizing strategy and responding to technological developments, connecting to the younger generation in an approach which is relevant to their lifestyle, brands can bring forward-thinking innovation to the traditional tailoring experience, communicating heritage and tradition in a contemporary way for a modern consumer (See Appendix Seventeen, P152).
BRANDS WHICH COULD STRATEGIZE:
THOM SWEENEY Currently re-evaluating its brand and communication strategy more in tune with modern consumers.
BERLUTI Has recently launched a new head-to-toe bespoke service, with the financial backing of the LVMH group.
NORTON AND SONS Savile Row brand, which recognises the importance of building engagement with a modern generation of customers with an appreciation of fine British tailoring.
Fig 30 , Thom Sweeney Suits, 2012
2) CONNECT TO THE CONSUMER Keeping consumers updated on the progress of their tailored garment is a way of maintaining engagement once the consumer has decided to make a purchase from the brand. However, brands first need to form an initial connection with the customer in order to gain their immediate or latent custom, and evolving branding and recognition for younger consumers is crucial to increase customer growth and brand awareness. Traditional tailors, particularly those on Savile Row have long been sceptical of any sort of marketing and advertising, so traditional tailoring still gets most of its advertising through word of mouth (Sleater, 2013). However, the reality of modern retail commerce is driven by competition and marketing, and word of mouth alone is no longer a sufficient tool to support expensive and labour intensive luxury tailoring (Cvetcovic 2013: online). The high price point of tailoring in the luxury sector is an alienating factor for much of the younger demographic, yet whilst the price point itself is not unreachable for my target consumer group, research highlights that even those younger consumers who can afford to shop in the luxury market are particularly careful about where and how they spend their money. Cheapening the price is not recommended, as this suggests that quality is compromised, however, as tailoring is a considered purchase, the modern customer needs to hear about it more than once; this consumer does his research before purchasing, so communicating to him on different channels is essential. Whilst the traditional notion of advertising may conflict with the exclusive philosophy of some tailoring brands, in order to interest younger consumers in their tailored products and services, tailoring brands need to build a resonant story around their brand and products via multi-channel platforms. 69% of survey respondents stated that they prefer to be connected with brands by viewing brand websites online, and as PC and mobile technology has changed the way consumers research, buy from and interact with brands, engaging online content, which can be accessed on mobile, is as important for connecting with future customers and keeping existing customers engaged as the store environment and experience itself.
ON THEIR LEVEL â€˜FASHION IS FUELLED BY PASSIONS ELSEWHEREâ€™ (Gandy (2013) in conversation with Alexander)
Fig 31, Hardy Amies Spring/Summer 2014, 2013
Hardy Amies has recently launched a new website offering compelling content from leading writers and thinkers, which brings Sir Hardy Amies’ original concept to life with everything the gentleman of today requires for modern city living, communicated through films and pictures and articles by leading journalists. Many brands convey messages of luxury, exclusivity, heritage and provenance, but whilst these messages appeal to existing clients, service and product offers have to be relevant and meaningful to the lifestyles of younger consumers, and tailoring brands must reach out to young consumers with messages that have meraning to them.
As style, functionality and performance elements of tailoring are the most valued factors for younger consumers when considering tailoring, clever product placement offers much potential to demonstrate these aspects in an engaging way and brands must look outside of fashion in order to relate their products more to the everyday lives of young consumers. In a film titled ‘The Commute’ Mr Porter livens up a monotonous morning routine, as 22-year-old award-winning free runner Mr Pip Andersen demonstrates how the office commute needn’t involve sitting in front of a wheel or standing in a queue. Wearing a Richard James suit paired with Valentino sneakers and merging sartorial tradition with street culture, the product placement of the Richard James suit suggests that far from being boring and conventional, it is the embodiment of cool.
Whilst most young consumers do not need a suit to withstand the rigours of free-running, it is important that brands bring their tailoring into the modern world. Film provides the perfect platform on which to demonstrate the performance element of tailoring, and menswear at this level is not about fashion per se, as beyond this, people understand that influences on brands are varied. Excellent design, style, quality and performance are ideas that can be applied to any good project, and if the correct messages are communicated that relate to a brand, the brand does not always have to build a story around what it is traditionally known for. (Carlo Brandelli (2013) in conversation with unknown author: online).
3) ENGAGE THE CONSUMER -
WITH THE OPTIONS
The suit is undoubtedly the most iconic piece of tailoring in a manâ€™s wardrobe; however, tailoring is more than just a suit. The modern world no longer requires a man to wear a suit, and as Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg have demonstrated that people do not need a â€˜business suitâ€™ to do a billion-pound deal, many customers are now rejecting suits in favour of tailored separates (Darby (2013) in Conti for WWD: online). Exploiting this recent shift in consumer behaviour provides a substantial opportunity for luxury tailoring brands to re-evaluate the way that tailored garments are offered to a younger consumer, and this report identifies a growing market for tailored separates, as younger customers seek to bridge the gap between formal tailoring and casual wear, but still want to look stylish and smart.
High-end tailors and luxury Italian fashion brands such as Ermenegildo Zegna and Loro Piana now offer more informal tailoring alongside their classic designs, yet whether modern dressing is set to take more formal or informal turns in the future, what is important for tailors is that young men care more than ever about how they look, and they will still want a jacket, a trouser and a shirt (Sleater, 2013). Tailoring brands have always offered tailored separates to consumers, however, in response to consumer shifts away from formal tailoring, separates could be promoted more as an entry point to attract younger consumers, as a more flexible and versatile option to a suit, and at a more affordable price.
Fig 32: J.Hilburn, 2012.
Consumer research identifies that young men are much more likely to spend more on tailoring that they know they will wear a lot, and whilst a manâ€™s wardrobe goes much further with separates, many men are unsure of how to mix and match. Modern men are very motivated by style and survey responses show that style features and videos on blogs and contemporary menswear websites are the most popular source of style inspiration for the consumer. In order to justify that tailoring is worth the investment, brands must demonstrate how their tailoring offer is relevant to the consumerâ€™s lifestyle, and this could be done by offering personal style advice based on the consumerâ€™s purchase, suggesting how individual consumers can mix and match their tailored garments to maximum effect.
In response to consumer preference towards customized styling and product curation, USA online custom tailor J.Hilburn has built a successful social commerce retail model, in which style advisors visit customers and use a point-of sale I-pad application to present product offerings, mix and match looks and submit orders for clients. Unlike pure e-commerce, a direct-to-consumer, social selling model enables J.Hilburn to elevate the custom tailoring experience by delivering a higher quality custom product and personal experience. Whilst apparel remains a tactile and personal purchase, J. Hilburn has seen an increase in customers calling and emailing style advisors with their needs, rather than booking an appointment for a stylist to visit. As digital platforms are contributing to the rise in menswear sales, over time J.Hilburn predict that customers will become more comfortable ordering their tailoring online, without the presence of the stylist (Bhatti 2013: online).
â€˜I use my smartphone to keep updated, rather than whenever I choose to go to a tailor, which could be months apartâ€™ (Consumer quote, see appendix ten)
Fig 33, Mobile Future, 2013
Surveying customer’s confident use of technology and increasing online engagement with brands, there is potential for more solutions to be developed around this imput, and connecting to consumers via mobile app could enable brands to offer a service in which consumers can quickly request style advice and new products from the brand. Although survey results show that only a small percentage of men currently connect to brands via mobile apps, it is important to discover consumers’ latent needs and fulfill them through various channels. For example, if a customer buys a suit from the brand, without going back into the store, they may wish to browse shirts to match their new suit, or receive suggestions of what to wear it with and how to wear it for different occasions. This particular strategy could be credibly adopted by luxury brands to connect consumers to their tailoring offering, and other product categories from the brand could be featured, in order to curate whole outfits. Brands offering bespoke services could use a similar platform to enable customers to access the choices available to them as part of the bespoke process. It is often meant to be assumed that customers can choose their own fabrics, buttons, thread or lining, but the extensive options are not always clearly communicated to the consumer, and the consumer is unable to view the options unless they visit the store. The extra details are an added value, and as that is why consumers are willing to pay more, brands should make the options more easily accessible to young customers who are interested in their services, taking the ‘stuffiness’ out of the tailoring experience and bringing it in to the twenty-first century.
THE BIG IDEA A mobile app, which connects the consumer to a brand for the duration of the bespoke tailoring process, providing a platform for customers to be a part of the process. This app will cultivate relationships with existing customers, and generate interest from new customers.
UPDATES OF THE PROCESS â€“ TO BUILD AND MAINTAIN ENGAGEMENT Customers have the option of receiving updates, which document their garments creation process via regular images or moving image sequences and short descriptions to the customer at significant stages of the process. These updates can be shared on social media platforms by the customer, and, at the end of the process, the full creation journey can be traced. The consumer can also give their imput at certain stages, making choices as the garment is made.
INITIAL STAGE TO GENERATE INTEREST A series of initial questions are asked about what the consumer wants from their new suit or tailored garment including occasion, style and fabric.
WEAR IT WITH AND HOW TO STYLE TO PROLONG ENGAGEMENT Suggestions of what to wear with your particular suit or tailored garment and how to wear it, M-Commerce element could be introduced.
AFTER CARE TO PROVIDE SERVICE AFTER PURCHASE Tips and help on how to care for the suit or tailored garment after initial purchase.
NOTIFICATIONS TO MAINTAIN AND TRACK SATISFACTION Brand keeps track on whether consumer is satisfied with and still wearing their tailored garment.
LOOKING TO THE FUTURE... Analysing modern men’s attitudes to tailoring and identifying where brand messages are not resonant with younger consumers, this report suggests how tailoring brands can evolve their service, strategy and conceptual thinking to connect more successfully with the next generation of consumers, to justify why their product offer is worth the greater investment. As the luxury menswear market is set to continue rapid growth and there is currently an increasing demand for customization, there has never been a better time for brands to invest in new means of communication to engage younger consumers with their tailored products and services. Many tailoring brands have long and valued histories, yet brands that intend to preserve their tailoring heritage for the next generation must evolve their products, services and strategies to match the aspirations and innovations of the millennial generation in a way that is relevant to their lifestyles. In order to meet and surpass consumer’s rising expectations of brands, key initiatives for brands should be to tailor customer experience through technology, and as mobile is the future of retail and communication, connecting to consumers via a mobile app enables brands to open up the world of tailoring to a broader, younger consumer base. Tailoring remains the cornerstone of a man’s wardrobe, and to prevent the traditional art of tailoring dying out, the communication of luxury tailoring must be as tailored to young consumers’ lifestyles as the tailored product itself.
Fig 34, Yiorgos Karavas, 2013
Fig 40, Singlke Breasted Classic Waistcoat Sketch, 2013
14. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 15. REFERENCES 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY 17. APPENDIX
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1: Jemima Wilson, (2014), Contents. Figure 2: Tang, G, 2010. Hackett London Fall/Winter 2010 [digital image]. High-toned.fr. Available at: http:// www.high-toned.fr/en/2010/09/hackett-london-fall-2010-campaign/ [Accessed 02/12/13] Figure 3: Unknown, 2012. Handcrafted [digital image]. Available at: http://25.media.tumblr.com/9ba5cc44ceb2268d4d01991aa936afe1/tumblr_mjtryzdDV41qcf1bio1_1280.jpg [Accessed 05/01/14] Figure 4: Jemima Wilson, (2014), Industry Interviews 1. Figure 5: Jemima Wilson, (2014), Industry Interviews 2. Figure 6: Gomes, N, 2014. RAKE Finale [digital image]. Fashion156.com. Available at: http://www.fashion156. com/collection/london-collections-men-aw14-menswear [Accessed 11/01/13]. Figure 7: Doroftei, S, 2014. Pitti Uomo Street Style [photograph]. Figure 8: Unknown, 2013. Berluti Spring/Summer 2014 [digital image]. http://en.vogue.fr/defiles/spring-summer-2014-paris-berluti/8927/diaporama/berluti/12559/pag [Accessed 03/10/13] Figure 9: George, B., 2012. Hardy Amies Spring/Summer 2013 [digital image]. Attire.com. Available at: http:// atttire.com/hardy-amies-spring-summer-2013-campaign/ [Accessed 12/11/13] Figure 10: Jemima Wilson, (2014) The History of Tailoring and Youth Figure 11: Cheong, P., 2014. Baartmanâ€™s and Siegel London Collections: Men2014 [digital image]. Fashion156. com. Available at: http://www.fashion156.com/collection/london-collections-men-aw14-menswear [Accessed 10/01/14] Figure 12: Unknown, 2012. Casual Dress [digital image]. Male-Mode.com. Available at: http://male-mode. com/category/nyc/ [Accessed 12/01/13] Figure 13: Sims, D. 2011. Tailoring by Dunhill [digital image]. AQrt8amby. Available at: http://art8amby.wordpress.com/2011/07/21/page/2/ [Accessed 10/12/13] Figure 14: Zerbini, P. 2013. Masculinity [digital image]. Paulo Zerbini. Available via : http://www.paolozerbini. com/index.php?/the-work/ [Accessed 15/12/13] Figure 15: Jemima Wilson (2014), Media Influences. Figure 16: Hargrave, L, 2013. Bespoke [digital image]. Signature Magazine. Available via: http://www.signaturemagazine.com.au/savile-row-style/ [Accessed 02/01/14] Figure 17: Unknown, 2012. Savile Row [digital image]. Available via: http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/281052832969073364/ [Accessed 02/01/13] Figure 18: Knight, N., 2013. Kilgour, The Relaunch [digital image]. Showstudio.com. Available via: http://showstudio.com/project/kilgour_the_relaunch [Accessed 05/01/13] Figure 19: Unknown, 2012. Ozwald Boateng [digital image]. Available at: http://vimandvigour.tumblr.com/ post/38989592957/ozwald-boateng [Accessed 15/01/14] 101
Figure 20: Unknown, 2013. Bespoke HQ Tailoring Autumn/Winter 2013 [digital image]. BespokeHQ.com. Available at: http://www.bespokehq.com/blog/ [Accessed 23/12/13] Figure 21: Dal Buoni, A., 2012. Extreme Refinement in Lâ€™Officiel Hommes Germany [digital image]. The Fashionisto. Available at: http://www.thefashionisto.com/thorben-gartner-embraces-a-dandyish-attitude-for-lofficiel-hommes-germany/[Accessed 15/01/14] Figure 22: Unknown, 2013. Rolex DeepSea Challenge Watch [digital image]. Rolex.com. Available at: http://www. rolex.com/magazine/sports-and-culture/exploration/rolex-deepsea-challenge.html [Accessed 28/12/13] Figure23 : Inez and Vinoodh, 2013. Zegna Spring/Summer 2014 Campaign [digital image]. Zegna.com. Available at: http://www.zegna.com/us/ermenegildo-zegna/couture.html [Accessed 12/01/13] Figure 24 : Jemima Wilson, (2014), Consumer Profile 1. Figure 25 : Jemima Wilson, (2014), Consumer Profile 2. Figure 26 : Jemima Wilson, (2014), British Street Style Figure 27: Jemima Wilson, (2014), Italian Street Style Figure 28: Unknown, 2012. The Traditional Tailor [digital image]. Design-Milk.com. Available at: www.design-milk.comfriday-five-with-psla [Accessed 18/01/14] Figure 29: Unknown. 2011. The Tailoring Process [digital image]. Tailor Made London. Available at: http://www. tailormadelondon.com/visiting-tailor/ [Accessed 03/01/14] Figure 30: Jaqomet, H., 2012. Thom Sweeney Suits [digital image]. ParisianGentleman.co.uk. Available at: http:// parisiangentleman.co.uk/2012/02/10/thom-sweeney-londons-new-bespoke-generation/ [Accessed 03/01/14] Figure 31: Unknown, 2013. Hardy Amies Spring/Summer 2014 [digital image]. HardyAmies.com. Available at: http://hardyamies.com/collections/#ss14-collection. [Accessed 02/01/14] Figure 32: Unknown, 2013. J.Hilburn [digital image]. J.Hilburn Style blog. Available at: http://jhilburn.tumblr.com/ post/37279235160/what-my-shirt-says-about-me [Accessed 20/01/14] Figure 33: Unknown, 2013. Mobile Future [digital image]. Available at: http://www.pinterest.com/ pin/268949408970914857/ [Accessed 15/01/14] Figure 34: Unknown, 2013. Yiorgos Karavas [digital image]. Available at: http://thegiftsoflife.tumblr.com/ post/37117913139 [Accessed 20/01/14] Appendix: Figure 35 : Jemima Wilson, (2014), Dior Homme X Fantastic Man, 2014 Figure 36 : Jemima Wilson, (2014), Burberry Travel Tailoring. Figure 37: Mezibov, G.B., 2011. Gentlemen in Schon Magazine [digital image]. The Fashionisto. Available at: http://www.thefashionisto.com/david-gant-james-cooper-by-blair-getz-mezibov-for-schon/ [Accessed 05/01/13] Figure 38: Unknown, 2013. Dominoes Pizza Tracker [digital image]. Bubble News. Available at: http://www.bubblews.com/news/27224-dominos-pizza-tracker-is-the-best-thing-ever [Accessed 15/01/13] Figure 39: Jemima Wilson (2014), Burberry Smart Personalisation. Figure 40: Field, W, (2013). Singlke Breasted Classic Waistcoat [Sketch]. Henry Herbert Tailors. 102
REFERENCES AHMED, I. 2013. Imran Amed in Conversation with Colin McDowell. Graduate Fashion Week, 2013. 3 June 2013. London: Earls Court. AHRENDTS, A. SPEAKING DIGITAL: AUTHENTIC BRANDING FOR A GLOBAL AUDIENCE [ONLINE]. The Future of Storytelling. Available at: http://futureofstorytelling.org/video/speaking-digital/ [Accessed 15/11/13] AL-CHAMAA, Joshua, 2013. Sales Representative Berluti: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 8 November. ALLEN, Steven, 2013. Head Cutter Norton and Son’s: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 13 December. ANAYA, S., 2013. A Wave of Men’s Only Flagships [online]. The Business of Fashion Ltd. Available at: http:// www.businessoffashion.com/2013/06/the-rise-of-the-mens-only-flagship.html [Accessed 27/06/13] APICELLA, L., CHO, WONHONG., and BROWN, T. , 2013. The Power of Premium. MONOCLE Magazine, Issue 67, p72 BAIN & COMPANY. 2011. Worldwide luxury goods market poised to surge 10 percent in 2011 as growth in China and mature markets increases, according to newly-released 10th edition of Bain & Company's luxury goods worldwide market study [online]. Bain & Company. Available at: http://www.bain.com/about/press/press-releases/worldwide-luxury-goods-market-poised-to-surge-ten-percent-in-2011.aspx [Accessed 18/11/13] BARBAT, F. 2013. A Digitized Burberry Personalizes Pieces Straight Off the Runway [online]. Branding Magazine. Available at: http://www.brandingmagazine.com/2013/02/20/burberry-smart-personalisation/ [Accessed 16/12/13] BEN. 2013. New Wave Luxury [online]. Path Limited. Available at: http://www.path-designs.com/new-wave-luxury/#sthash.IoGBI2tg.dpbs [Accessed 23/12/13] BURBERRY PLC. 2013. Leverage The Franchise [online]. Available at: http://www.burberryplc.com/about_burberry/our_strategy/leverage-the-franchise [Accessed 01/01/2013] BURRETT, Sam AND FIELD, William, 2013. Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 13 December. CONTI, S., 2013. Dapper Dressing Fuels London’s Menswear Business [online]. WWD Condé Nast. Available at: http://www.wwd.com/menswear-news/retail-business/london-mens-business-fueled-by-dapper-dressingtrend-6958427?src=search_links [Accessed: 12/11/13] CVETKOVIK, A. 2014. Some Closing Notes on the ‘Savile Row’ Brand [Online]. Men’s Flair. Available at: http:// www.mensflair.com/news/closing-notes-savile-row-brand.php [Accessed 15/01/13] CVETKOVIK, A. 2013. What Has Tom Ford Got That Savile Row Hasn’t? [Online]. Men’s Flair. Available at: http:// www.mensflair.com/news/what-has-tom-ford-got-that-savile-row-hasnt.php [Accessed 15/01/13] DORAN, S., 2013. It’s All About Made-To-Measure for Luxury Menswear [online]. Luxury Society. Available at: http://luxurysociety.com/articles/2013/07/its-all-about-made-to-measure-for-luxury-menswear. [Accessed 20/08/13] FARRAR-HOCKLEY, H., 2013. A Tailor of Two Cities. Man About Town Magazine. Autumn/Winter 2013-14, p 50. GANDY, D. 2013. David Gandy in Conversation with Hilary Alexander. 24 July. CNC College London GILL, MARTIN, 2013. Wholesaler MOM Agency: Interview with Jemima Wilson, Nottingham Trent University, 2 December. 103
GORAYA, K., 2013. THE TAILOR TRUCK: THE FUTURE OF CUSTOM SUITING? [Online.] Ties.com. Available at: http://www.ties.com/blog/the-tailor-truck-the-future-of-custom-suiting [Accessed 02/01/13] HALL, J., 2013. Can Custom Made Suits Ever Be Cut Price? [online]. The Telegraph Media Group Limited. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/8132580/Can-custom-madesuits-ever-be-cut-price.html [Accessed 01/01/14] HOLLANDER, A., 1994. Sex and Suits: The Evolution of Modern Dress. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p10 IPROSPECT , 2013. Luxury Marketing: The Digital Anatomy of the Affluent Male [online]. Iprospect. Available at: http://www.iprospect.com/digital-affluent-male [Accessed 14/10/13] James Sherwood on the New Generation, Date Unknown. [Video] BBC TWO [online]. JOGYA, J., 2013. Fantastic Man x Dior Homme. For Fashion’s Sake [Online]. 9 November. Available at: http://forfashionsake.blogspot.co.uk/2013/11/fantastic-man-x-dior-homme-aw-13-14.html [Accessed 12/11/13] LONG, T., 2013. Why London is home of the three-piece suit [online]. The Telegraph Media Group Limited. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/fashion-and-style/10528578/Why-London-is-home-of-the-threepiece-suit.html [Accessed 21/12/13] MANN, J. 2012. The Changing Face of Luxury Fashion [online]. CNN. Available at: http://edition.cnn. com/2012/02/16/business/antoine-arnault/index.html [Accessed: 14/10/13] MEMIC, M. AND MINHAS, N. F., 2011. The fast fashion phenomenon: Luxury fashion brands responding to fast fashion. M.A Thesis. The Swedish School of Textiles. MINTEL, 2013,. Menswear – UK – March 2013 [online]. Available via: Mintel [Accessed 12/09/13] MINTEL, 2012. Luxury Goods Retailing – International – August 2012 [online]. Available via: Mintel. [Accessed 10/12/13] MUSGRAVE, E., 2009. Sharp Suits. London: PAVILION Books O’ CEALLAIGH, J., 2012. London: the tailors of Savile Row [online]. The Telegraph Media Group Limited. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/europe/uk/london/9333705/London-the-tailors-of-SavileRow.html [Accessed 02/10/13] ONOFREI, I., 2013. How Rolex Could Become A Prisoner Of Its Own Strategy [online]. Brandit Marketing Magazine. Available at: http://www.branditmagazine.co.uk/rolex/ [Accessed 29/12/13] PERRY, S. 2013. Once upon a time...there was a luxury brand [online]. Walk Digital LTD. Available at: http:// www.walkdigital.com/once-upon-a-time-there-was-a-luxury-brand-2/ [Accessed: 07/10/13] PETCU, O., 2013., What should luxury brands learn from fashion? [online]. CPP Luxury. Available via: http:// www.cpp-luxury.com/what-should-luxury-brands-learn-from-fast-fashion/ [Accessed: 05/10/13] PORTER, C. 2014. Tailor Carlo Brandelli brings his distinctive style back to London’s Savile Row [online]. The Financial Times Limited. Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/923dc9b0-633b-11e3-a87d-00144feabdc0. html#axzz2pSy9e2eg [Accessed 04/01/14] PRINCE, B., 2013. Berluti’s big step forward [online]. GQ. Available at: http://www.gq-magazine.co.uk/style/articles/2012-09/14/berluti-menswear/viewall [Accessed 11/11/13] 104
PRINCE, B., 2013. Menswear trends in 2014: How to dress for the year ahead [online]. The Telegraph Media Group Limited. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/luxury/mens-style/19611/menswear-trends-2014-howto-dress-in-the-year-ahead.html [Accessed 30/12/13] REPORTLINKER, 2013., Men’s Clothing Industry: Market Research Reports, Statistics and Analysis [online]. Available via: http://www.reportlinker.com/ci02122/Men-s-Clothing.html. [Accessed 20/12/13] ROBB, N., 2013. British shoppers continue to aspire towards luxury. Drapers, 16 November. RONCATO, S. 2013. Sartorial Metamorphasis by Berluti [online]. MF Fashion. Available at: http://www.mffashion.com/en/coverstory/2013/01/19/sartorial-metamorphosis-by-berluti [Accessed 12/11/13] ROWE, W., 2013. The Future of Retail. PROTEIN magazine, Number 10, p 63. SCOLLINS, Adam, 2013. Store Manager Reiss: Interview with Jemima Wilson, Nottingham, 22 October. SEDGHI, A., 2013. ‘Fashion too scared to innovate’, says ex topshop marketing chief [online]. Guardian News and Media Limited. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/sep/16/london-fashion-week-technology-justin-cooke [Accessed 04/11/13] ‘Selling British Luxury’, 2013. Selling British Luxury [radio] BBC Radio 4, 14 October 2013. [Presented by Laurence Llewelyn Bowen] SHERMAN, E., [No Date]. Luxury Brands Losing Next Generation of Customers [online]. Inc.. Available at: http:// www.inc.com/erik-sherman/luxury-brands-losing-next-generation-customers.html [Accessed: 03/12/13] SIMS, J., 2013. Optional Extras: Zegna [online]. Brummell Magazine, Show Media. Available at: http://www. brummellmagazine.net/style/2013/10/10/optional-extras-zegna.html [Accessed 12/10/13] SLEATER, James, 2013. Founder and Owner Cad and The Dandy: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 13 December. SMITH, K., 2013. The Great Menswear Misconception. EDITD Journal [online blog]. 10 January. Available at: http://editd.com/blog/2013/01/menswear-trends-aw1314/ [Accessed: 12/12/13] STEEL, E. 2013. Luxury Brands Experiment with Social Media [online]. The Financial Times LTD. Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/b3658eb0-2f6b-11e3-8b7e-00144feab7de.html#axzz2pC4LW7qg [Accessed: 15/11/13] STEVENS, P. A., 2013. “The Coming Affluent Millennial Generation: Will You Be Ready for 2020?” Pam Danziger of Unity Marketing Asks [online]. PR Web. Available at: http://www.prweb.com/releases/2013/8/prweb11056164.htm [Accessed: 24/09/13] STYLES, K. 2013. 7 in 10 people in the UK now own a smartphone [online]. Mobile Marketing Magazine. Available at: http://mobilemarketingmagazine.com/7-10-people-uk-now-own-smartphone/#fVjX8GqSFelAjbt0.99 [Accessed 14/02/13] Stylus., 2013. The Millennial’s Viewpoint [online]. Available at: http://www.stylus.com [Accessed 13th December 2013]. SWINFORD, S., 2013. The End of The Suit? Business leaders told they can wear jeans [online]. The Telegraph Media Group Limited. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/politics/conservative/10243151/End-ofthe-suit-Business-leaders-told-they-can-wear-jeans.html [Accessed: 03/10/13]
THE FUTURE LABORATORY. XXvXY LSN: GLOBAL Student Trend Briefing Autumn/Winter 2013. 23 October 2013. Nottingham: Broadway Cinema. The Perfect Suit, 2011. [TV] BBC FOUR, 6 July 2011. THOMAS, D,. 2013. Turning Point | At Berluti, Antoine Arnault Puts Business Before Pleasure [online]. The New York Times Company. Available at: http://tmagazine.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/12/turning-point-at-berluti-antoine-arnault-puts-business-before-pleasure/?_r=2 [Accessed 13/09/13] UNKNOWN AUTHOR. 2013. In Conversation: Carlo Brandelli and Nick Night Discuss the Kilgour Film [online]. Kilgour.com. Available at: http://kilgour.com/essays/smoke-and-mirrors/ [Accessed 04/01/13] WALKER, H. 2012. The art of bespoke: how fashionable shoppers are investing in individuality [online]. The Independent. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/fashion/features/the-art-of-bespoke-how-fashionable-shoppers-are-investing-in-individuality-8229654.html [Accessed 04/01/13] WEST, Chris, 2014.The Power of Words. [Lecture to Fashion Communication and Promotion, Nottingham].6 January. WILD, L. 2013. The Suit is Dead! Long Live the Suit! [online]. linleywild. Available at: http://linleywild. com/2013/02/26/the-suit-is-dead-long-live-the-suit/ [Accessed 14/11/13]
BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AMIES, H., 1994. The Englishman’s Suit. London: Quartet Books Ltd CICOLINI, A., 2005. The New English Dandy. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd CLOUGH, P., and NUTBROWN, C., 2007. A Student’s Guide To Methodology. 2nd ed. London: SAGE Publications Ltd D’AUREVILLY, J. B., 2002. Who’s a Dandy? London: Gibson Square Books Ltd FLUSSER, A.J., 2002. Dressing the man. New York: HarperCollins HOLLANDER, A., 1994. Sex and Suits: The Evolution of Modern Dress. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p10 KAPFERER J.N., and BASTION, V., 2012. The Luxury Strategy. 2nd Edition. London: Kogan Page LEHU, J-M., 2006. Brand Rejuvenation. London: Koran Page Limited MCNEIL, P. and KARAMINAS, V., 2009. Men’s Fashion Reader. New York: Berg MUSGRAVE, E. 2009. Sharp Suit. London: PAVILION Books SALZMAN, M., MATATHIA, I., O’REILLY, A., 2006. The Future Of Men: The Rise of the Ubersexual and What He Means for Marketing Today. US: Palgrave Macmillan SHERWOOD, J., 2007. The London Cut Savile Row Bespoke Tailoring. 1st ed. Venice: Marsilio Editori WALKER, R., 1988. The Savile Row Story. An Illustrated History. London: PRION
JOURNALS AND REPORTS ANDERSON, F., 2000. Fashioning the Gentleman: A Study of Henry Poole and Co., Savile Row Tailors 1861– 1900. Fashion: Theory The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture [online]. Volume 4, Issue 4, pp.405–426. Available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bloomsbury/jdbc/2000/00000004/00000004/art00003?token=004b1772f8b3bc739412f415d763f3444702e2b4224317b4225304829552c4b49266d656c94 [Accessed 15/12/13] BAIN & COMPANY. 2011. Worldwide luxury goods market poised to surge 10 percent in 2011 as growth in China and mature markets increases, according to newly-released 10th edition of Bain & Company’s luxury goods worldwide market study [online]. Bain & Company. Available at: http://www.bain.com/about/press/press-releases/worldwide-luxury-goods-market-poised-to-surge-ten-percent-in-2011.aspx [Accessed 18/11/13] JOBLING, P., 20. “Virility in Design”: Advertising Austin Reed and the “New Tailoring” during the Interwar Period in Britain. Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture [online]. Volume 9, Number 1, March 2005 , pp. 57-84(28). Available at: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bloomsbury/jdbc/2005/00000009/00000001/ art00005?token=00511827014edda9437a63736a6f386b41213e662a705c2a766f644a46543f266d3f4e4b3405ec736. [Accessed 15/12/13] KANG, M., SKLAR, M., and JOHNSON, K.K.P., 2011. Men at work: using dress to communicate identities. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management [online]. Vol. 15 No. 4, 2011, pp. 412107
MINTEL, 2013,. Menswear – UK – March 2013 [online]. Available via: Mintel [Accessed 12/09/13] MINTEL, 2012. Luxury Goods Retailing – International – August 2012 [online]. Available via: Mintel. [Accessed 10/12/13] POTVIN. J, 2004. Exhibition Review: Clothes Make the Man. Exhibition Review[online]. Volume 8 (Issue 1), p 8388. Available via: Ebsco Host [online]. [Accessed 15/12/13].
THESIS MEMIC, M. AND MINHAS, N. F., 2011. The fast fashion phenomenon: Luxury fashion brands responding to fast fashion. M.A Thesis. The Swedish School of Textiles.
LECTURES THE FUTURE LABORATORY. XXvXY LSN: GLOBAL Student Trend Briefing Autumn/Winter 2013. 23 October 2013. Nottingham: Broadway Cinema. WEST, Chris, 2014.The Power of Words. [Lecture to Fashion Communication and Promotion, Nottingham].6 January.
INTERVIEWS AND DISCUSSIONS AHMED, I. 2013. Imran Amed in Conversation with Colin McDowell. Graduate Fashion Week, 2013. 3 June 2013. London: Earls Court. AL-CHAMAA, Joshua, 2013. Sales Representative Berluti: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 8 November. ALLEN, Steven, 2013. Head Cutter Norton and Son’s: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 13 December. BURRETT, Sam AND FIELD, William, 2013. Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 13 December. GANDY, D. 2013. David Gandy in Conversation with Hilary Alexander. 24 July. CNC College London GILL, MARTIN, 2013. Wholesaler MOM Agency: Interview with Jemima Wilson, Nottingham Trent University, 2 December. NARIELWALLA, H. 2013. Contemporary Artist: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 3 December. SCOLLINS, Adam, 2013. Store Manager Reiss: Interview with Jemima Wilson, Nottingham, 22 October. SLEATER, James, 2013. Founder and Owner Cad and The Dandy: Interview with Jemima Wilson, London, 13 December.
TV AND RADIO PROGRAMS James Sherwood on the New Generation, Date Unknown. [Video] BBC TWO [online]. ‘Selling British Luxury’, 2013. Selling British Luxury [radio] BBC Radio 4, 14 October 2013. [Presented by Laurence Llewelyn Bowen] The Perfect Suit, 2011. [TV] BBC FOUR, 6 July 2011. 108
MAGAZINE ARTICLES APICELLA, L., CHO, WONHONG., and BROWN, T. , 2013. The Power of Premium. MONOCLE Magazine, Issue 67, p72 FARRAR-HOCKLEY, H., 2013. A Tailor of Two Cities. Man About Town Magazine. Autumn/Winter 2013-14, p 50. ROBB, N., 2013. British shoppers continue to aspire towards luxury. Drapers, 16 November. ROWE, W., 2013. The Future of Retail. PROTEIN magazine, Number 10, p 63.
ONLINE ARTICLES AHRENDTS, A. SPEAKING DIGITAL: AUTHENTIC BRANDING FOR A GLOBAL AUDIENCE [ONLINE]. The Future of Storytelling. Available at: http://futureofstorytelling.org/video/speaking-digital/ [Accessed 15/11/13] ANAYA, S., 2013. A Wave of Men’s Only Flagships [online]. The Business of Fashion Ltd. Available at: http:// www.businessoffashion.com/2013/06/the-rise-of-the-mens-only-flagship.html [Accessed 27/06/13] BARBAT, F. 2013. A Digitized Burberry Personalizes Pieces Straight Off the Runway [online]. Branding Magazine. Available at: http://www.brandingmagazine.com/2013/02/20/burberry-smart-personalisation/ [Accessed 16/12/13] BEN. 2013. New Wave Luxury [online]. Path Limited. Available at: http://www.path-designs.com/new-wave-luxury/#sthash.IoGBI2tg.dpbs [Accessed 23/12/13] BURBERRY PLC. 2013. Leverage The Franchise [online]. Available at: http://www.burberryplc.com/about_burberry/our_strategy/leverage-the-franchise [Accessed 01/01/2013] CONTI, S., 2013. Dapper Dressing Fuels London’s Menswear Business [online]. WWD Condé Nast. Available at: http://www.wwd.com/menswear-news/retail-business/london-mens-business-fueled-by-dapper-dressingtrend-6958427?src=search_links [Accessed: 12/11/13] CVETKOVIK, A. 2014. Some Closing Notes on the ‘Savile Row’ Brand [Online]. Men’s Flair. Available at: http:// www.mensflair.com/news/closing-notes-savile-row-brand.php [Accessed 15/01/13] CVETKOVIK, A. 2013. What Has Tom Ford Got That Savile Row Hasn’t? [Online]. Men’s Flair. Available at: http:// www.mensflair.com/news/what-has-tom-ford-got-that-savile-row-hasnt.php [Accessed 15/01/13] DORAN, S., 2013. It’s All About Made-To-Measure for Luxury Menswear [online]. Luxury Society. Available at: http://luxurysociety.com/articles/2013/07/its-all-about-made-to-measure-for-luxury-menswear. [Accessed 20/08/13] GORAYA, K., 2013. THE TAILOR TRUCK: THE FUTURE OF CUSTOM SUITING? [Online.] Ties.com. Available at: http://www.ties.com/blog/the-tailor-truck-the-future-of-custom-suiting [Accessed 02/01/13] HALL, J., 2013. Can Custom Made Suits Ever Be Cut Price? [online]. The Telegraph Media Group Limited. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/retailandconsumer/8132580/Can-custom-madesuits-ever-be-cut-price.html [Accessed 01/01/14] IPROSPECT , 2013. Luxury Marketing: The Digital Anatomy of the Affluent Male [online]. Iprospect. Available at: http://www.iprospect.com/digital-affluent-male [Accessed 14/10/13] 109
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