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February

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CLONING

Erin Jessica Jacob

THE HISTORY OF CLONING

cloning humans? Is is even possible?

Cloning has been going on in the Natural World for thousands of years

ADVANTAGES VS. DISADVANTAGES

USES, FUNCTIONS, GOALS Medical Research, Bringing back Exstinct animals, and even

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Are there enough Disadvantages to weigh out the Advantages that cloning has for society?

Light Micrograph of a sheep egg and udder cell during the cloning of “Dolly” See pg. 7

Extra Feature: The Creation of Dolly


CLONING February 2012

Overview and Background of Cloning: A clone is simply one living thing made from another, that results in two seperate organisms with the same set of genes.

Plant cloning has been known and practiced for centuries

THE HISTORY OF CLONING: HOW IT ALL BEGAN Depending on the cell, whether it is “differentiated� or not, allows scientists to manipulate the cell in such a way that a new organism is developed from the original cell According to the University of Utah

plants, through aeroponic prorogation for

Genetic Science Learning Center, cloning is

example, allows gardeners to replicate a

the creation of an organism that is an exact

genetically identical plant from the parent

genetic copy of another. A clone is simply

plant. The cloned plant will hold the exact

one living thing made from another, leading

same characteristics as the original.

to two organisms with the same set of

Everything from growth habit, disease

genes. Since the 30s, experiments have

resistance, fruit shape, flower color and yield

been made in producing identical individuals

potential will be exactly the same.

by artificial twin splitting, a procedure which

The first cloned animals were created

can be referred to as cloning. Advances in

by Hans Dreisch in the late 1800's. Dreich's

knowledge and related developments in the

original goal was not to create identical

procedures of molecular biology, genetics

animals, but to prove that genetic material is

and artificial fertilization have made it

not lost during cell division. Dreich's

possible to experiment with and

experiments involved sea urchins, which he

successfully achieve the cloning of plants

picked because they have large embryo

and animals.

cells, and grow independently of their

Plant cloning has been known and

mothers.

practiced for centuries. The cloning of

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Petri Dish A shallow glass or plastic cylindrical lidded dish that biologists use to culture cells or small moss plants


GOALS

Looking at Cloning: Uses, Functions and Goals. WHY CLONE?

although all of the genes are in fact identical, there is no guarantee that the beloved pet will have the same personality as it had before.

Research advances over the past decade have told us that, with a little work, we as humans can clone just about anything we want, from frogs to monkey and eventually even ourselves! So, we can clone things, but the real question is WHY? 1. Cloning for Medical Purposes: Of all the

4. Cloning Humans: To clone or not to clone: that is the question. The prospect of cloning humans is highly controversial and raises a number of ethical, legal and social challenges that need to be considered. Reasons for wanting to clone a human would be; to help infertile couples have children or to replace a deceased

reasons, cloning for medical purposes has the

child

most potential to benefit large numbers of

GOALS:

people. Cloning animal models of disease: Much of what

1. Organ and Tissue Reserve: Human

researchers learn about human disease comes

cloning research might provide insights that

from studying animal models such as mice.

could be valuable in the field of organ

Cloning technologies might reduce the time

transplantation. National Institutes of Health

needed to make a transgenic animal model, and

director Dr. Harold Varmus stated that possibly

the result would be a population of genetically

one area of cloning research might provide

identical animals for study.

methods of growing skin, which could then be

Cloning stem cells for research: Stem cells are

used in grafting for burn victims and patients with

the body's building blocks, responsible for

skin-destroying diseases. He explained that

developing, maintaining and repairing the body

nuclear transplantation cloning technology, by

throughout life. As a result, they might be used to

enhancing an “understanding of how genes are

repair damaged or diseased organs and tissues.

turned off and on and how we can make different

“Pharming” for drug production: Farm animals

kinds of cell types, not whole human beings, but

such as cows, sheep and goats are currently

different kinds of human tissues for

being genetically engineered to produce drugs or

transplantation and for treatment of disease,

proteins that are useful in medicine. Just like

offers tremendous prospects.”

creating animal models of disease, cloning might

2. Reproductive Technology: Cloning

be a faster way to produce large herds of

research may lead to greater insights into the

genetically engineered animals.

mechanisms of human reproduction— for

2. Reviving Endangered or Extinct

example, by enhancing understanding of the high

Species: Could we really clone dinosaurs? In

rate of spontaneous abortions in natural

theory? Yes. What would you need to do this? A

situations. Such research could lead to infertility

well-preserved source of DNA from the extinct

treatments.

dinosaur, and A closely related species, currently

3. Disease Research and Treatment:

living, that could serve as a surrogate mother. In

Cloning research technology could help increase

reality? Probably not. It's not likely that dinosaur

understanding of how genes turn on and off and

DNA could survive undamaged for such a long

why cells divide, leading to potential treatments

time. However, scientists have tried to clone

for genetic diseases, cancer, and neurological

species that became extinct more recently, using

traumas. It could also help researchers to

DNA from well-preserved tissue samples.

understand, and potentially reverse, the aging

3. Reproducing a Deceased Pet: If you had enough money, you could clone your beloved family cat. At least one biotechnology company in the United States offers cat cloning services for the privileged and bereaved, and they are now working to clone dogs. The issue with this is that

Medical Cloning Reproducing Exstinct Animals Cloning animals

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process.


Genetic Cloning To Bring Back Lost Organisms. Genetic Cloning can help us bring back older animals that have been extinct for many years. We want to try and clone these

so someone can see trees that they have never seen before, as long with the fact that they bring a whole new species to a place where the species has never been before. This is bad because it can bring all bad diseases into this area as well as all of the animals that the trees

organisms to help us find out many new things

need to live. These can be bad because the

that have not been discovered about a certain

people in this area can might not be able to fight

species. Michael Taylor – A big tree hunter –

off the diseases that the native people are able

wants to remake some trees that have already

to fight off the diseases that are live with these

been cut down that have little of their species

trees. The goals of cloning animals and plants

left. He thinks that their stump has potential to

are both high, but the goals for plants are a lot

create a whole new tree that was there before,

higher, because it is a lot easier and not as

or to take those cells from those stumps to

sophisticated as cloning plants. Plants are a lot

create a totally new tree somewhere else. There

harder to do and would not live as long because

is also the goal to create a place where there

they would not be as genetically diverse. In the

are all different types of exotic trees that have

future the scientists want to be able make the

never been in some parts of the country or even

species in animals more genetically diverse.

the continent. This brings forth both good

CLONED

outcomes and bad consequences. It makes it

Depending on how complex an organism’s DNA is determines how difficult it will be to clone. scientists were able to clone a sheep much easier than they were able to clone a dog because of the complexity that a dog’s DNA contains

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IN THE MEDIA

Cloning in Jurassic Park Live dinosaurs cloned from the DNA extracted from dinosaur blood preserved inside mosquitos that had been fossilized in tree sap. Whether this is possible or not is not the main question. What would happen if dinosaurs once again roamed the world?

Cloning in the Media: Body doubles, Storm Troupers, Tyrannosaurus Rex DNA cloning has occurred in many different media sources but because there are going to be new ways to make genetic cloning easier, the one that has been most commonly and widely viewed is by far and a lot more likely to happen. This in turn can make the ideas for new Jurassic Park. In this movie the cloned dinosaurs escape from an exhibit movies or new ways to give more insight to the public on cloning, so they and run wild. This movie faces what most movies face; they can either be will learn more about it. The media is by far the most viewed subject in insightful and most likely boring, or made with false facts to make them today society, so if we can make the media have more knowledgeable Clones more entertaining to viewers. This movie falls more under the category of aspects to it the common public will have more correct information on the entertainment. But with all of that being said it has some truth to the were made current topics that they would not necessarily have from other places. movie as well. This is good because this movie was watched by famous numerous people worldwide and for 4 years was the most successful film up to that time making 900 million dollars. This is good because the through more the people that see it the more people can learn about cloning, and even media while it was not fully true it had some insight to the movie. This is also good because it can make it so some people may want to learn more about cloning and look more into it because of this movie. This is not the only movie that does this but this movie is the most seen and most successful, This can also occur in technology

CLONING IN OTHER MOVIES

THE ISLAND

THE 6TH DAY

SPY KIDS 2

A.I.

A man goes on the run after he discovers that he is actually a "harvestable being", and is being kept as a source of replacement parts, along with others, in a Utopian facility.

Futuristic action about a man who meets a clone of himself and stumbles into a grand conspiracy about clones taking over the world.

The Cortez siblings set out for a mysterious island, where they encounter a genetic scientist and a set of rival cloned spy kids.

Artificial Intelligence

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A highly advanced robotic boy longs to become "real" so that he can regain the love of his human mother.


ADVANTAGES VS. DISADVANTAGES Could Scientists go too far? Cloning could cause the use of materials foreign

sheep another cloning disadvantage became

to the human body to no longer be necessary.

apparent. The genetic material used in the

Through Cloning doctors would be able to

cloning of Dolly the sheep was taken from a 6

manufacture human bone and fat tissue so that

year old sheep. When Dolly was cloned the

these foreign materials that may cause

sheep began to show symptoms only an older

many reasons, but despite the negatives that

problems in the human body will no longer be

sheep should get, this caused an inclination that

have shown their face in cloning the positives

used. Through cloning the human race would

because Dolly had the genes of a 6 year old

are quite spectacular. Cloning allows science to

gain all these advantages and many more that

sheep she was 6 years old on the day she was

take the next step in many different situations.

have yet to be discovered.

Cloning Produces Advantages for Mankind: Cloning is a very controversial subject for

From helping infertile couples to helping dying or sick people cloning allows diverse and abundant positives for science.

Cloning

allows for vast advances in the medical world. Through cloning scientists are able to work with diseases to find what causes them and how you can possibly fix them. Scientists are able to clone a healthy animal multiple times then insert a disease into the clones. This allows them to see what is genetically different between the healthy original and the sickly clone which points out what causes that disease and allows them to pin point what they need to cure to stop this disease. The main point of this cloning is to allow scientists to find a cure for human diseases through testing on animals rather then on humans. Cloning is necessary for this research to occur because the testing must be done on a population of animals with the same genetic makeup in order for them to get accurate research. Another way cloning effects the medical world is by pairing cloning with stem cell research. Research with stem cells has shown that stem cells can be grown to produce organs or tissues to either repair or replace damaged ones. The down fall of stem cell research is that stem cells can often be rejected from the human body. Pairing this research with cloning may show to be the way around rejection from the human body/immune systems. This would be a remarkable discovery for the medical community because it would mean there was a cure for many diseases. Diseases such as Alzhelmers, Parkinsons, and heart failure would all be cured by this discovery.

Cloning allows for these

positive outcomes and many more. Cloning also allows for infertile couples to be able to have children of their own and create a family with their genetic background and also could allow for a very large change in cosmetic surgery.

Advantage? born. This meant she was going to die at a or Cloning: Hindering the Human Kind younger age because she was being effected by problems that only occur in old age. Another Disadvanta Cloning offers many possible problem found from cloning animals is that the opportunities for humans but these come withge? many other disadvantages. The subject on cloning can be as controversial as abortion, not only are there problems with the actual science behind cloning but many people also have problems with the morality of cloning. There are many problems that go along with cloning wether it be the uncertainty of the technology or wether humans should be able to create another human life unnaturally these problems may be enough to stop the cloning research all together. One of the main problems with cloning is the uncertainty of the technology. The questions that go along with cloning are indefinite. One main question involved with cloning is wether we will even be able to control the results of cloning. Even scientists say they cannot answer. This causes a huge problem in the advancement of cloning research, what happens if we create something we cannot control and it ends up hindering human kind rather then helping it. Wether this is an unnatural “Frankenstein monster” or wether it is a new disease produced by some flaw in the cloning system the effects on humans could be grave. Another worry that comes from cloning is that cloning can lead to an extinction of mankind. If humans were cloned it would create mass amounts of people with the same genetic makeup, this could allow for one disease to wipe out the entire human race due to an inability to fight this disease off. This is not the only way cloning could cause the extinction of human kind, cloning also causes problems with inbreeding. Because all clones would have the same genotypes the trail of human life would eventually led to extinction. Through the cloning of Dolly the

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personality of the clone can greatly differ from

the animal the genetic material was taken from, this is just another problem added onto the list. The morality of cloning is just another problem involved with cloning. Many religions believe God is the only one that should have control over human life. These people believe that the people involved with cloning are “playing god”. These are just some of the many problems and disadvantages that come along with cloning and without a guarantee cloning will not end up hindering human kind it is likely that cloning research will have to be stopped all together.


ADVANTAGES VS. DISADVANTAGES CONTINUED...

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Bio Newspaper Project  

This project was created by biology students at Kentucky Country Day School.

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