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TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

Nintl1 Annr,al Report From the Dean .................................... • 21 Case Reports .......... . .. . ..... ... .... . ........... . .. .................... 43

Payment with Subrogatio11

l111der

tl1e Ethiopian Civil Code

by Jonat/1an A. Eclcly .. .......... ............... ............. ........ •

106

The Substa tive Law Applied By Mt1sli1n Cot rts i11 Ethiopia n 1 by Zalci M1,1s•tfa ............. ...... ........ ........... ........ ...... . 138 '· The Fa l lacies Civi.l Code Ethiopian o. f 1960 the Fa111ily U11der Arbitratio11 b y. Aklili,, vVol de Al11(lilUe! .......................... · • • · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ' . 176 Quizzes in Eth· . . 101J1an Fa..m1l·v La\V · bY George K1·ez"c 1 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 204 •

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW

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Publisl1ed twice annt1ally at the Fact1lty of Law, Haile Sellassie I University, with the co-operation of tl1e Ministry of Jt1stice. (to be cited as 9 J. Eth. L.J

.EDITORIAL BOARD H. E. Ato Belachew Asrat, Chair1nan Dea11 H. E. H. E. Ho11.

Cliff F. TJ1011ipso11 Afeneg11s Teshome ·Haile Maria111 Ato Negussie Fitawake .Ato Negga Tesse111a

Hon. Ato Ama11uel Amde111ichael Mr. Jeremy T. Harrison Dr. Br·un-Otto Bryde

EDITORIAL STAFF Editor-i11-CJ1ief Brt111-0tto Bryde Case Editors Da11iel T-Iaile Andargacl1eo Tirunel1

Article Editors Fisseha Yimer Haile Kebede

1Vlanaging Editors

Fasil Nah11111 Gosht1 \Volde Junior Editors

Sahilu W. Giorgis

Kine Tibeb11

Fikre Selassie Gebre Michael '

RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE Jeremy T. I-Iarrison, Chairman Da11iel Haile Heinrich Scholler

George Krzeczt1nowicz Brun-Otto Bryd.e

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rto dj E e th to d se es dr ad be d L1l 10 sl . AIJ ed.i torial a11d bl1si11ess corresponde11ce in-Chief Jour11al of Ethiopian Law, P. 0. Box 1176., Addis Ababa, Etl1iopia. l •••

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HAILE SELL.ASSIE I UNIVERSITY ,

FACULTY OF LAW The FacL1lty of Law of Haile Sellassie I University, establisl1ed in 1964, offers co 11 rses in law leadi11g to tl1e LL. B. degree and to a D.iplof11a or Certificate it1 Law. For fL1rther infor1nation contact tl1e ·Fact11ty of Law , Haile SeJiass.ie I U 11iversity P. 0. Box . J 176, A.ddis Ababa.

FACULTY 1972-73 Cliff F. TJ101npson, A. B. , M . A., J. D., Dean Jon Ed.dy, B. A. , J. D., Assista11t Dea11 Bilillig11 M,111defro, LL. B. , LL. M. Brun - Otto Bryde, Dr. .Tt1r. Alai11 Chedal Da11iel Haile, LL. B. Fasil Naht1n1, LL. B., LL. !v1. Fikre 1\.1erid, B. A. , Lie. e11 Dr. Fisseha Yeirner, LL. B., LL. M. Girma \Volde Sellassie, LL. B. Hagos r.Iaile, LL. B. Jere1ny T. Harriso11, B. S., LL. B., LL. M. George Krzecz11not1ricz. B. A., LL. M. Lis. Se. Co1nn1., Lie. Sc. Polit. Franz Lang Dr. Jur. Hei11rich Scl1oller, Dr. JL1r. Selan111 Bekele , LL. B. Semereab .Michael, LL. B. Ronald Sklar, B. S., LL. B. , LL. M. B. J. Te1111ery, B. A. , NI. A. , J. D. Thierry G. Verl1elest, Dr. e11 Droit, M. C. L. Workt1 Tafara, LL. B., LL. 1\1. Zaki Mt1stafa, LL. B., LL. M., Ph. D.

PART-TIME FACULTY Abebe Gua 11goul, LI-. B. Abebe Worke, LL. B. Assefa Habte 1\1ariarn, Dr. JL1r I-Iizkias Assefa, J.JL, B. Legesse Wolde 1Viarian1, f.v.1. C. L., M. C. A. Tadesse A'bd.i, LL. B. LL. !vf. Worku Ferecle, LL. B. Yacob Haile Mariam, LL. B. M. C. L. Zegeye Asfa\v, LL. B., M. L. I. • \I

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PATRONS FOR TI-IE JOURNAL OF ETJ-IIOPIAN LA\V ,

The Jot1r11al of Etl1iopia11 La\v was in,1t1gL1rated by His l1nperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I i11 tl1e st1.111111er of 1964 as a11 i111porta11t step in tl1e developme11t of Etluopia's legal syste1n. St1bseqt1e11tly, tl1e Board of Editors of tl1e Jot1r11al l1as invited those wl10 ,tre interested ir1 tl1e co11ti11l1ation a11d expansion of the : La \V Jour11al's activities to ex1Jress tl1eir st11J11ort by beco1ni11g Patrons of tl1e 1·0L1r11al of Etl1iopia11 La,v. H.E. H.E. Hon. Hon. Ho11. Ho11. Hon. Hon. Ho11. Hon. Hon. Ho11. Hon. I-1011 Hon. Ho11. Hon. Ho11. Hon. Ho11. Ho11 . Ho11. Ho11. Ho11. Ho11. Hon. I-Ion. Hoi,.

Afe11egt1s Kita,v Yitatekt1 Afe11egus Tesl10111e Haile Maria111 Ato Abebe Al1gichevv Ato Adera Fra11cois V. Afenegus Assefa Libe11 Ato Al<lilt1 Atlabachew Ato Atsebeha Fa11ta Fitawrari Baissa Jem1110 Dejaz1natch Belcele Beye11e Ato Berha11e Kiflemaria111 V. Afe11egL1s Bekele H. Micl1,lel Ato Berl1e Soqt1ar Ato Eyassu G. Ha,variat V. Afenegus I-Iagos T. Medl1i11 Blatta Haile \V. Kida11 V. Afenegt1s Haile At11an. V. Afe11egL1s Kassa Beye11e \1 . Afe11egL1s I(ebecl.e Kelil V. Afenegus M.atias Hilete,vork A.to Mol1a111n1ecl N ur 1.:111ssein Ato SeifL1 Tadesse Ato Tadesse Bel<ele Ato ·Tadesse Jirre V. Afe11eg11s ri-'il,ebll Beye11e Ato Tibeb1L A bral1ain Ato Te1nesgei1 · 'lvorkt1 Fita\vrari Tseg[1ye ,.feferi Ato Wolde Berl1e

J-I.E. I-I.E. H.E. 1�1.E. H.E. I-I.E. H.E. H.E. H.B. f-I.E. H.E. H.E. H.E. H.E. H.E. H.E. H.E. I-f.E. I-1.E. f-1.E. H.E. I-I.E. 1-I.E. EI.E. H.E. }I.E.

IX

Tsel1a:fi Taez,1z Aklilt1 H.Wold Ato Abebe Retta Ato Aberra Jembere Ato Amanuel A111demicl1ael Bit\voded Asfeha W. Mich,1el Ato Belache\v Asrat Ato Bef,1kad11 Taclesse Dejaz111atch Berl1a11e Meskel\V.Sellassie Ato Bt1tlcha Demeksa Ato :De111essew Assaye Dejaz1natch Fikre Sellassie fl.Mariam Ato Getachew Kibret Lt. Girn1a Woldegiorgis Ato Goitom Petros Dr. f-Iaile Giorgis Workt1eh Dejaz1natch Kassa W.Mariam Ato Ketema Abebe Col. Legessa W.Hana A.to Mamn10 Tadesse Ato 1'Iol1ammed Abd11rl1111an Ato Nebiye-Leoul Kifle Ato Negt1ssie Fitawoke Dr. Seyo111n Haregot A.to Tesl10111e G. Mariani Ato Yil1na Hailu Ato Yol1an11es Tsege


d 1e ,11 m a h ' o M iz z A l u d b Ato A Kegn. Abebe Jirre Ato Abebe . Sebhatu Ato Abraham Hadgerobess Ato Abraham Petros Ato Ad111assie Gessesse Dr. Aelion, Mat1rice Africa11 Solidarity lnst1ra11ce Co. Col. AJm1ed Amenu Ato Aklilt1 Bete Marian1 Dr. Aklilt1 Ha'bte Ato Alene Aligaz Ato Amare Degefe Dr. Araclom Tedla Fitawrari Asseghegn Araya Ato Assefa Gere1new Ato Assefa Tsegaye Kegn Assefa Na· dew Ato Asfaw Seife Ato Asfeha Kahsai Mr. Ballance., Frank .Mr. Beckstrom, John Ato Bekele Demessie A.to Bekele Gebre A111lak Ato Bekele Nedi Ato Bekele Tesfaye Col. Belachew Jen1a11ej Ato Belatchew Nigeru Ato Belete Alen1u Ato Belete W.Sellassie Woizero Beliyu - Work W-Meskel Dr. Berha11e Ghebray Lt. Col. Berhane Woldeyes Ato Berhane Kiflem.ariam Dr. Be ·rl1e Beyene Mr. Berman, Russel .Dr. Bowles, Frank Dr. Bevilaqua, E. Ato Beyene Abdi Ato Binega Tsehay Hailu Mr, Bowyere Brain T. Dr. Bryde, Brun-Otto D �. Bt1hajiar, William G1razmach Chale y adetta �r. Clapha�, Christopher Mr. Cummings, Richard Lt. Col. Dama . Zeng-Egzier Ato Demeke Metaferia Blatt.a De�issie Workageng nehu Mr. Dunning, Jiarrison M r. Sddy, Jon -Aitr0 Iden Fasil �t(o iEn�al� WoldemichaeJ Mt. ltw11filtg, Wililiam

Capt. Eyast1 G·. Hawariat Gebre Eyob Christos or. :Ato Fasil :t�al1um Dr. Fassil Gebre Kiros Ato l::;-antaye Ta111re Nl.r. Fisl1er, Sta11ley Z. Ato Fissel1a Gebren1atios Fitawrari Tafesse Legal Firm Mr. Fr· a11k, Wi11ston D.

Ato Gebre Geb. regl1iorghis

Keg11-Getta Gebre Hana Kita�, Ato Gebrel1.i\vot Aregay Keg11azn1atcl� Gebrelu wot Mebral1tu Ato Gebreh1wet Woldel1a\:variat Ato Gebre :Luel G·ebre Ato Gebreyes11s ]{ai]e111aria1n :Bal. Gemeda Urgessa Ato · Getacl1ew Asfa\V Ato Getachew Tesse111a Ato Getaht111 Hunegnaw Dr. Gjancarlo, Pollera Ato Gir1na Tadesse Ato Gir111a Abebe Keg11. Gela Michael Ba11ta Ato Goito1n Beyene Mr. G·oldberg, Everett Dr. Gr. ave11, P]1illipe Dr. Habachy, Saba Ato Habte Mebral1atu Capt. I-I,tile1naria1n Abi:ty Ato I-Iaile W. Mariam ·Keg11. Haile Marian1 Debu11a Mr. Harriso11, Jeremy T. A.to Hailt1 AJe1na.yehtt Capt. Hailt1 Arsede Ato Hailt1 Tesfaye IBTE Legal Depart111e11t I1nperial .Etl1iopian Tobacco Mo11op oly ln1perial Inst1ra11ce Compa.r1y 11t n1e · t ar ep o IEG A1·med Force - Legal Dr. Jaco1n.) -Millette, Ar111e Marie Prof. Jol1nsto11e, Qt1i11tin Mr. J·uergensmeyer, Julia11 Capt. Ka11n,1 Gt1ma Dr. Kaypaghian, Fiamrneta Prota Ato Kebede G. Mariam Ato Kebadonal Wassie Ato Kebede At11afseged Ato Kebede Chekol Ato Kebede Habte Maria1n Ato Kebede Wa ga Mr. Kindered, Micl1ael Ato Kiros Nigatu · Mr.. Knowles,· Lawrence

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Fra11z , Lang Dt. 0 11 a tt a G , a ll ti a L Dr. 1 n a . r1 a .fy1 w_ se es eg L r jo a IV I Ato Lemt11a R�bl Ato ,Lem111a Wolde Sen1a1at Ato Leot1l iv1e11berL1 Dr. Lomb,1ri, Marcello Mr. Lo\ve11steit1, Steve Mr. L11d\vig, Meritt C. Dr. Makonne11 Kibret Ato Mako1111e11 \Volde'aria111 Mr. McCartl1y, PaL1l Ato Melake Teferra - (Legal Dept. 1V[i11. of Agriculture) Mr. Mea11s, Robert Brig. General MebratL1 Fesseha Lt. Col. Mel1ret Gebreselan1 Ato Me.kL1.ria Workt1 Mr. l'vleli11, Robert A. �1r. Messing, J oh11 Ato Micl1ael Fassil Mr. IV1ichael, PagLtlatos Ato Million Woldemeskel Kego. Misgi11t1 Gel1re Egziabl1er Ato 1'.1L1l11geta Beril1t1n Ato l'v1 Lll Ltget,1 Woldegiorgis Aro Negga Tessan1a �1rs. O'Do11ova11. Ka tl1erine Ato On1ar Yasi11 Dr. Os tine, re!ice Mr. 'Parad· s, Do11ald M,. Payk, Jan1es C.N. tvlr. Platter Zygn1u11t Mr. Redde11 KE-11neth Mr. Refd, w·11 = a111 Dr. Russini Ezio Ato Salah Kebire Dr. Sand, Peter Mr. Scott, Robert Mr. Sedler, F. �obert Ato Selamu Bekele Ato Seif LI \Volde Kida11 Ato Seifemichael Yetesh,1 \vork Ato SeyoL11n Tesse111a Mr. Singer, Norm,L11 ,i\to ShiberLI Seift1 Ato Shiferaw Workt! Major Sl1i111elis Metaferi�i

Mr. Sklar, Ronald Mr. Sogolon1bis, D.G. Ato Solomon Abebe Ato Solon1on Habteghiorghis Ato Solomo11 Kahasai Mr. Sto1·dian, Alfred O.C. Mr. Sta11ger, Rot1ald Mr. Strat1ss, Peter Dr. S' undstro1n, Zacharias Ato Tadesse Abebe Ato Tadesse Asfaw Ato Tadesse Tecleg'hiorgl1is Ato Tefera Sertze-Di11gil Ato Tefera Degueffe Ato Tefferi Berha11 Ato Tegeg11 Bite\v Ato Ten1esge11 Worku Prof. Te11nery, B.J. Ato Terefe Ghessesse Ato Tes.fa Ale1n Worku Ato Tesfamaria1n Sebl1at Ato Tesfaye Kebede Ato Tesfaye W.Maria111 Ato Tesho1ne Bahr11 Ato Tesse111a Diusa rvir. Tl10111pson, Cliff Ato Tibebt1 ·Tegegne Mr. T · oppi11g, J\1icl1ael Fit. Tsegaye Tef· eri Ato Tsegaye W. M,1r.i . a111 Dr. Va11derli11den, J Mr. Verhelst, Thierry Mr. Vercellino, Vittoria Mr. Vosikis, Nicolas C. Mr. \Vi11ship, Peter Mr. Winston, Fra11k Ato Woldt1 Berl1e Ato \Voldelet1l Seyo11111 Ato Workt1 Tefera Kegn. Wot1be Woldeyes Ato Wotibe Gebreyol1annes Ato Yesl1ewa Work HailL1 Dr. Y0J1a1111es ,Berha11e At() Zele le Dest a Capt. Zeria Habtesellassie ' assa Ato Ze\vde K Ato Ze\.vd11 Asfaw .

XI

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TABLE OF CASES REPORTED

Page

Aldo Talgliero Et Al V. Tu.rnesl1 Teferi Et AI {Civil Appeal No. 153/64) .... .......... _'_..... ....................... 43 Hiryt

angul (Heirs of Woz. Hiwot Asl1eber) v. Azalecl1 Zewelde Et A1. � (�·ivzf A ppeal No. 72/62) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .

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Tiume.zgi Beraki v. Annilo Rifo e (Civil Case No. 42/63) ... -� • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • J. & P. Coats Ltd. v. Ethiopjan Sew i i1g Thread Factory ( Civil Case No. 1425 62) . . . . . 1 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Abdttlr�.hma.n Idris v. Mohammed a Ad ni _ (C1vzl Appeal No. 37;63) . . . .. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

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f9°C9°C : 1'c;:,.c; : 'h;t-qu-:f :� ° 0 : : C = 1•qo C r'h: 9 c; .. :, �rc,· l ? '3 f } : to· : '/ t : l e l\,, f oioo ,f: qoo c : 'f o : n r : : : i',f.(111· �h�+�: : 9° h il.� ill\ O : .: n�.d\ tr� {lC {IIJ'} : : ll.4> .-t tiorz -��� : C -"' ftcT1 h r : f,.C ffff/ f,,f : :,• : , .. ll f 'lti : n .. f ti�tP/ n : 9':f : C� aot. : tiY.l7- :: -Ot,. . , : OlTl/'111:,. : OflJ?° : : h lj:irf• a ° : tLIJ9 { 'I l\h. �:1,t; o lool . 1 : r::f. f'? '? ! :, a, : 1 : :,WA:t, : P't. , 1PCT'l'A htLtJ 9'° : frf"'lr>f : f,tJ'}: ,f...'?llC: fi-i'l�: H1l': ��l -,:,-.: +01'..y,.:, .: f',{lllD·: ()lD·: ��'ffC{l,f:lD•"}: 1, 1#�o fl.:,,: .-1•1,,<:.._A :: o,,:rlf:r"f'}: 7if611> = f·t·t.,n�- = fFt-- = l-'1c::,. = 04?'rC = fflfi•C.- = n'¼_e�;f' = \'i•flf� = 'i:P�: }, '}�'}�' : o9':f : 'h'} F."'i.f il0·:1-- : tif,lf"}: i\11,U-c : «1,�--A : oo�:,,Ah: J:tf.,11/\,}9°:: .� tooc = 'I to1 = niltf!:r-- = tb1 f: = "'lnll 'Rt\ = A.oi:, !!.., = ;1c = fl(D-c6J,b = 1t1c: tt(lt..6Lb : f,lf'} = H1.f.•: 1dJ'1C = 9/.'l°l'Pt\ = h1'-�u,9° : fl11P'OD� : h01J.11ar : 1 (Lt : Crn : 7iT : ,:JC : 'l''r : '111 ''1:,- : t,.r:c1'Pt\ :: /l.'Jf.tL.U·9° : ll.Cti:rm-: P't.lD·•, : (l•f·fr>: f{\oo>;.. :,,.•}c;: fODi,11�:,-- : 7i.r'T' : j'ODllJTlJJ«l : -flit': Or'r1 :t,(lll- : IL,.f ilm"JJ;.. : f:J!it-T1 : ro/r: : t,,t\t = it '1V ri:,..qo"f : l?i1· : ht:C 1m· : +m� :: .,;1,c : "11 : /4-..ht!\•tlD· : P't,..OJ•"} : n'P!i" {D : ODI{1,f--1· : ft01f {l1•ij nc = nti9°1 ;r:,. = tif,lf"t = nrot..:i-- = f°t�mc : 1.1-1, = _e,�� n:rt\ :: f9°C9°C : '1''11:'i : 'h:t·'l°:i: : fillJ'J° : fOl/,,.fllF.14! : c;:t:lD" :: f}i.(''}�1�: 00 9°UC : TlT : fif,Ot\1' : hf\f, : f·f•·1l\iro• : 1fC1fC : t'l..;r.,e, : f,:J:I\A � fl,� : .fi'¼001: = f+hc;ro�:,, = iJf:-1,f,-:f : 1'"}..e..oih·l•i\•:,- : 'iTlD?'it-l·: 00Kil,�T: ;r:t-oolD' = OJ'l'rf"lD•: n-011:,...: 1,1f.1'i' : 1-fl.'lfirf•'PA X h� C(tc9°: ''f+m:J>t\tt-: fi',}lil: itO'l = ,"ft-)':.f.:'' (Oi'1..'1!1'""l, h.ll;J:��:,-C): ''n�,r\1' *': fih-):f: irf•:J>t..t'l:i• = ((b,.(!tt\C:) : 1,1.';,o--9u: b�: oox--,h�: ''f11.111·tk,e 1 ih1f"'1 : OD"}dJJP"1• : {)�•1,1-- :'' (;r Ac; : ti--9°) : r.:rm· :: 4-hAt(Dc = n-,..-,..:,. = .e,mn:,> = f}Olro•"} : e;;: : ou�'d1� = f''�:ttk!: /Jf:1T •" (;r/;\c; ' h/t'i,9") , ll"IP.C : lDC • (IJ<{l'J' ' "'If.A:

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r h�t-9' r ;,1ai : lJY:1"1" : S."C'f::1, :: f'}OD--f:: ,}·Acl?: oo'lf'il·t\: ''IL;,A: T(?(l{l: h>1Y: : ll: 1,1Jt'fi.�<rA :­ h�tl-t1 = Pell = tPJ,1·t.fAll'' = f 0'lA = oo:,.--,11ri: = no.c•tAo:,, = tt11;,�'1:'f· = fl1'1"llt.11'1'. : (l.{.l'}ti_e'1 : lllDlD·tJJ,J; : ',ro· :: ,t;fC : nC�A(l:'f, : r�c�:--1: : V..ft,t �OJ• : ,t&,r,,f"C :: tiODlft;';rlll•9° : /bft : r..;.q>1'?, : r/Jf:1,f;1.. : O'J{)t!\m'1 : °1 = it °1 tit = v- r:, w.. = h -1A c'l I\ A ==

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- 20 --


NINTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN 1964 E.C. (1971-1972) Cliff F. Thompson,

Professor and Dean

Faculty of Law Flaile Selassie I University summary of Some Transitional Highlights The report for tJlis year, 1964 E.C. (1971-72), suggests a number of important patterns ,vhich may.be emerging as the_ Law Facl1l ty . passes fro1n being a 11ew school with a \vho l ly fore1g11 staff to becom111g an established school \vith predominai1tly Ethiopia11 staff. Tl1e details of' the follo,vi11g points are provided in the body of the report. First, it was possible to attract first-rate Ethiopians to become members of tl1e Faculty, a11d it is hoped tl1at tl1is patter11 v1ill co11tun11e. A significant resul t of our recruitr11ent program for full-time Ethiopian teachers \vas five ne\v staff me111bers se l ected for tbe comj11g year-1965 E.C., so tl1at tl1ere \VOl1ld for tl1e first tin1e be a majority of Ethiopians on the staff. Seco11d, it also becan1e cl ear, however, tl1at the Fac·u.Ity wou l d Jose some of its Ethiopian teachers to the pri,1ate a11d pl1blic sectors of tl1e eco11omy, vvl1ere attiactive cl1allenges to talented l a\vyers are available. By the e11d of tl1 e year, two teachers had accepted jobs outside of tl1e Facu l ty. Tl1e primary attractio11 outside of the Facul ty did not appear to be salary. I11deed, during the year, the Etluopians of the Faculty did 11ot respo11d to my repeated reqltests 1�or a brief whicl1 woul d justify a higher pay scale for la\V teachers, 011 the basis tl1at a majority of ot1r teachers felt tl1at the salary levels shoul d be 11niform among different University facu l ties. Whether tl1is position ca11 re111 ain l1ncha11ged i11 vie\v of t l1e competing wages available outside tl1e university remai11s to be see11. B11t mt1cl1 of the appeal _to going to \vork for a ministry or private firm is not based on a financial ca.use: it must s11rely be difficult for a teacher, wl10 has 11ever kno\vn a professiona l career except teachi11g, to con1 1nit I1imself to a lifetime of teaching before he has tried sometl1ing else. Our hope is tb.at a teacher who goes to different v1ork will one day ret11rn to teaching, e11riched by bis practical experience. Third, we be l ieve tl1at we continued to mai11tain the higl1 sta11dards which contribute to tl1e fi11e reputatio11 of the La\v Facu l ty. The brlilliai1t performance of ou� student representatives who \Von seve1·al first place awards in the Jessup I11ter­ national 1v1oot Court Co111 petition in vVashingto11, D.C. Vias characteristic of the �ev� l of performance which we expect of our FacL11ty's efforts. I do not mean th�t � t 18 characteristic tl1at we will always be best in what we ltndertake, but that 1t . 18 characte ristic that to do the best is wl1at l-ve always seek. I believe tllis to be re.fleeted in tl1e otl1e1: activities of the Facl1lty. t• o F�t1.rt?, we are con.ti11l1ally impressed by the great an1ou!1t of work it tak� s maz,,tcizn as well as to i 1111 ovate law progran1s. A11 Olltstanding example of this 18 the business side of our 1uany research and publication progranis. Four years - 21 -


L. VO IX - No. I W LA . N IA OP I H ET OF JOURNAJ.,

er s ag es 11 an si d m bu ha a of re 1g 1 o m ri ved fr Jii . e th t la tl . d . 1e . s111a11 bus1n h om t · e m a ,· s s we 11 es ago i t was assun . as · an ,1 ac g in d be e 1c 1iist· of llr n . de b s u o r · 1tu. . did 110t prove to be tr11e. Th 1s year I an1 able F. acultu·v t he 011e t · s o J th , re ly rep t a 11 11 i-t 1o 0rt n . n tio so 1 ve to y d an .e d n1 ce "' oc pr · of 11 1e th tl e d' ffi d 11 a ed er ov sc t d· y ]t . 1 1cu1t1·es . , that the F:-ac11 1 r . 1e J)rogra1ns of the ot 1 ot 11 er tt pa r 1la 1n s1 a en be ' F 's ba • � acuity. • . • • . . . which arose. Tllere . 1 . . . . t ptOJec _ 1s rttnn1ng smo otlll a. at t11 ff sta by n 1o pt 111 u s· as and . . Y . a perhaps too-qtiick . . d e t e 1 abl e 11 c 1m a11 co d t 1 .. r e en ., y 11 rg L 1a t10 1za I a is re e ' th requ,red b) \. r d ve lo ol 1 • rout.111e y, .1, .r:r t JI en ce 1 ex e 1e l . f t_ ,.. or .. s es by cc s11 u s th ? e Editor-i u 1 t�1 · on c a t ec oj pr e tll n. e ak � nl to s! tl1e pa ar 1g ye r11 du 1s w La ot a11 n p1a her l11o Et of illustra_ l 11a 11r Jo the . of' . ief Ch v e \Vh ,lL• . 1 t 1 1as established. er es !)r t ·o e riv st 11 ca y 1lt c1 Fa e tioii of how th \v of es p 1 s tl1i 1 1 . a. are ate Ex l 1ov tl1 e i n e to s e ru · n11 nti co Fre nch Fifth ' the Fac11lty · · J · 1r1t111g 1Jrograi11 for se111or � tude11t� Y1/l11c 1 we r · e approved _v. ed v ro irnp an d a,1 . progranl ' 1ty s er_ tl1e 11v ty, a U1 c�1l s l-F ult ful rric Cu r 011 im Com­ e, tte u :m1 Co 1 u11 cul rri Cu by our e 1es tl1e 11ot of ser I 1!. 11:1c ups _Co gro ty ctil vvhicli inust F� y rs1t ive U11 e th and tee, mit , e , a11s ced bec odu I11tr IS 11 ,at10 man.y persons are 0 11111 ail ore bef al rov app !rive their lies een 11 atio betw a11t an idea and its u1n a1·g c rati 111oc e d le rab e sid con tl1at re �11 av,a in1pleme11tation. The proposal of a. n ew p1·oject mttst also u11dergo t11e ordeal of being tested by the opinio11 of 111any perso11s. A11 Illustratio11 of tl1is was the posi­ bility that 011r Fac11Ity Wl1Uld be able to take-over the A.fi�icc111 Laii' Digest, presently produced at Col11mbia U11iversity i11 New Yor1<:. J\1a11y lJl1dget,1ry a.11d policy ques­ tions bad to be considered by tl1e U11iversity Adnlinistratio11, the U111 versity Library officials, a11d members of 011r Fac111t)1 before the .idea could even begin to 1nove to\vard reality, which it did. Beca11se 111a11y as1Jects about the Digesi rer11ain to be settled 11ext year, it is also an example of l1ow the i11r1ovation of a 11e\v project exte11ds over co11siderable tin1e. General Information on the Faculty Organization of tl1e Faculty

The annual report from tl1e Law Fact1lty to tl1e Preside11t of the University cont_ain� i.nformat�on not 11orn1ally recorded in the re1Jort for tl1e Jour11al, but \v�ch I will include tl11s year because of a nu111ber of ou1· a]u111i1li l1a\,e asked questions

answered by this information. The Faculty is organized on f11�ctio11al rather tl1 a11 or1 depart1nental li1_ 1es: v\:� 1iave always been more conc erned with f11nctions s11cl1 ::ls '' Research and Publications rather than with departn1ental divisions s11cl1 as '' priv,1te law." · . . u te dLsp When I ar_rive 'd t l1_re_e Y �rs c:lgo. there was a11 ::11111c,1ble se 111tc11 but lty � re funct1011 . as to ·bo\v. maJor admirust. rat1, facu the s shot1ld be ,1llocated a.1no11g fe me ers. Suuply stat_ ed, there were those who a tha t on so cen tra fav liza ore ti d ; 1 : 1 ,¥it wo arry the 111;a 1n adininistrative on get co1 1ld res po est r1s ibi liti s a11 the 1 e d · t tha r esearci and teaching; and o s ion there \\'ere tl1ose who favore 1Iiz at dec ent r, d . . . . . n ear. l y everyone would hav n . u he r t ' ·e a respon Ill "' on s1 b participati 1l1ty ,tnd sc11se of ning of the pac11lty. tl1e In theory, either approac11 .18 . . . . ho \V on _ ds Jtls tifia ble. dep en 1t In J)ra . cttc e . n is staff is, because de1 a o a perso _11 who lacks ad111i11istrative effectiv} e:�ple eventually damag ing ;; ;t�nF! cu1 e ty. n11mb During a ' � �-tf and the years e e t11r past have shown tl1 emselves a t· P r � cularly_ capable of hand li11_g xtensi ve responsibt 1 ) ' e I have responded· b y de1 egati iig Jo ma r duties to tl1e1n . · , . When � staff member has ua1 ,j 1Y . , rt . . . h s . wn hi ms elf to be effective, I give hi°.1 fre e to fid a1t!l!llhor1ty in his area. The .� . 1 ea 18 that l1e and his group should fee1 4

- 22-


N'INTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN

not merely carry out direction from the Dean. s best, and . should seem hat . . t. thes peop1e, and I do w colll?1 w1t11 urucat 1on exp�ct close to be in.formed � keep _ do do not su?st1tute my Judgment for that of a person I ons. �perat1 ned plan ;s to delegated simply because I would have taken a different been has ity r autho oJn o wb � roac1 1 jf I �ad �and.led the issue p�rsonally. I would ca11 · a halt to a plan p felt the dec1s1on of the_�erson was clearly unreasonable. d1sc11ss1on � after if o� Y easily reserve f ?r . �ys�If tl1e h1r1ng of st11dent research workers co11ld I mple, exa for b11t that respons1�1l1ty 1s dele�ated to the Researcl1 and Publi­ many emplo � \Ve and cati ons Comn11ttee. Nevert�1ele�s I continue to . receive appeals for employment from many stude11ts, who find 1t diffic11]t to appreciate tl1at delegation of authority has truly o ccurred. The poi11t is tl1at I believe that whatever I lose in perso11al authority by delegation to otl1er persons will be n1ore t'ban regained by the i11creased effectiveness of tl1e Fac1tlty, because of the i11creased participation of our staff members. In the dealings by the Faculty witl1 ce11tral Administration of the ·university r belie,,e t1 1ere bas been tremendo11s in1provement d11ring tl1e past three years. This has n1ade it 111l1ch easier to carry forward the n1elding of our fac11lty's methods ,vith the met11ods of ce11tral ad111i1listration. I can. report that in two of the most difficult areas, tl1e Registrar's office and tl1e U11iversity's Extension Faculty, we have contin11ed this year to eli1ninate differe11ces in. practice which formerly ca11sed so much chaos and conflict, and that tl1ere is JlO\V no important proble1n i11 our coordination \Vith tl1e1n. Academic Commission Tl1e Com1nissio11 decides q11.estions of acaden1ic policy particl1lc1rly i11 regard to student performa11ce. In add.itio. n to the Dea11, tl1e elected members \\'ere Assistant Dean Eddy, Mebrabtu Yol1a1111es, Katberi11e O'Donovan, Salan1u Bekele, and Ronald Sklar. The e11tire full-time teacl1ing staff effectivelly served as the Academic Com­ mission until last );ear, a11d on major Fac11lty matters the e11tire fac11lty is still consulted. We believe ,ve ha. v e combined greater efficiency 111 rot1tine 1natters \Vith democratic participation 011 the greater iss11es. There is of co11rse a loss i11 speed by havi11g full-fac11Ity discussions b11t v.1e belie,1e tl1is is more than co111pe11sated by the long-term efficie11cy \Vbich res11]ts fron1 policy by co11sent. 1n additio11 to serving as secretary for tl1e Academic Commission, Assistani Dean Jon Eddy did excellent 1vvork i11 all areas related to adrni11istration of student affairs, classroom sched11les a11d the vast number of related activities. By the pre­ paration of detai]ed ha11douts on academic rules for the stt1de11ts, he helped to fill the gap created by the abse11ce of a University handbook for stt1dents. Students and Staff-Student Relations In 1964 E. C. (197 J-72) our stt1dent enrollment \:vas as follows: 2nd Semester Class 1st Semester Day Law I 4 40 Law II 20 45 Law III 16 45 EUS 51 54 Law IV 19 19 Eveni· ng Eve. I 65 110 Eve. III 36 38 211 341 Total - 23 -

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. IX - No. I L O V W A L N IA P IO H T E JOU.RNAL OP

l tly os is n1 t e result in 1 t e11 llm ro en r te s me e r s ou . nd co F e e th a . 10 T�e �r�a.r al ; % ty cui s nt e d wi stu llo fo ty rsi e ng v Uni the all b of oy 45 ott f aw c o of the _ w1t ear in a ro\v i11 whi ch a maio y nd seco · the w;s :J r b0 s 1 T� h c r a M ott Yo · classes 1n a te as in d t d' e I · y, at p e 1 e d ll th 1g a e1 us i n d ne er nc co the c one� 11 c ai ag d an e, ac I . took... p t. r o p re t s la y m f' o lusio11 . e o s _ tho d E. S a11 U. IV w o La wh h om (fr ad alread ts_ den stu � 37 re e w . There term gradu.ates) who id m o t as ll we as , ar ye c 11 en receive� � completed their final acad d em an th eased by the pl �f �d o1 pr e ar e W B. L. -L ws La rapidity . the Bachelor of r. o ct e . 1n se y tb 1l ar n 11 pr n ai ag , bs jo with which they found e Ev e�_11g La w I clas s was th of t no t due to e11 lm rol en the in se a re The dec ed att rit1011 rate of about 4?%- Although ct pe ex he t s i _ t bu s, e ss cla of a boycott 1le ed1 of tl1e s�h t rk tha �o 1s too difficult find ny ma d, lifie qua l wel are s ate did the cai1 . l life e ma Tl1 e 11or enc evid and rk wo continues to r 11Ia reg ir e th. h t wi e bin com to support the decision to le11g then t he eveni11g co�1rse fr_om fo11r to five �ears, because the lightened load in each year thas 1·esulted 1n a high er enrollment 1n the evening program, despite the greater le11g h of tl1e cou1·se. Staff-stud.ent Relations

One of the projects we 11nde1·took at the begi1m.i11g of the academic J'ear \Yas to h ave a series of f11ll-fac11lty disctrssions 011 issues related directl y to students, and then for me to meet with st11dents in groups no larger t han a class. year. The t opics the staff cove red were: Ethiopian-Unive rsity S ervice (EUS); the Honour Code; the Law Library; the Advisory System; no11-academic activities (sports, forums, etc); teacl1er evaluations by st11de.nts; Law House ; a11d the Uni,1ersity student legis lation (Title ,'). In my meetings with s tudents, a total of 77 separate issues were raised! This process ,vas co111pleted by mid-Decen1ber, c:lnd it ,vas hoped to continue the dialogue leading to actio11 early in tl1e second semes ter. The student withdrawal in the second sen1est er precl11ded the ft1ll effectiveness of this p lan. But a number of successful i tems may b e note d. � early problem was the do11ble assignmen t of s on1e of· our EUS stud�nts to. high school teachi11g and to law jobs (which ca1ne later due to budge t co11strains). With the help of the Academic Vice ·Presicle11t , Dr. Mt1l11geta . vVodajo assigOJllent ted to the governrn.e11 t legal offices got wan . nts stt1de the priority whic h is wl1at the !he Law II class wantecl l1elp in orga11izing a11d fina11cing a trip dtuiii� the ��d brea, k betw en semesters to g� to Expo 72 i11 mpl �s cco a Asmara, ai1d tl1is was � � i t d e!lts were very orgawzed t S ll ch l: e and funds were raised quickly. Su ��� ac tv l e u por ta 1 t- education al. pur pos e a : s e Probl m bo ��re a11d t1ra wil ged l be . e11c �� o �� Law • r · Y, which formed a large number , ezits stu d of the poi11ts raised by soIve d ' espec.1ally after the a riv . rian, a L br i . aI. tn t he second sen1ester of 011r L�,:v th : b o Mr. Akhi be. We d a ° evalua1;1on by 1ch wl � teach stude ers, nts 1 w�t a]so their of : er J encouragifg in it s a hconclus1ons a11d helpft1l to individ11al teacl1ers.d epa­ he.Iped me to ident'f �e er pr te�e who mple n e e� e d co we atten tion. Final ly, rations for nego ti�tfng �� ! ·�tr a tioll• 1 atus of Law Hous d1 a u� al_ cen tr e the wi h �I: ed for t This project involved sta;' stud en ts, a11d alumni, a11d the Com1ruttee a, 01 completion next year. year One difficult student probl l . fin a . . . e m 0 s a w_ as _the last-minute d ec1s1on of w stµ�entls to walk out on a fina a n1 l examination in a r equired cotirse. The t.. ile rn -24-

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NINTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN

not did ake t e s final exa. tuden m t in the . � requi red cours e If th�y would ! s. � iou obv _ � _ to graduate, but 1f the Faculty· sanct,oned their behavior 1t womd ed 11al1fi q be t u11d and would be an unfortunate precedent. After more than uns ally en1ic � acad . �� d1scuss1on, the full-Fac ulty of delegated_ to me the task of resolving rs n-hou _ roa . 200 1on _ \Vhich was accepted by both �tudents a�d staff included solu The � te. dispu the each for stude11t. exan11nation The solut1011 was fair but arduous, oral rous ricro not a precedent which wot1ld be eagerly sought by future classes. was efore l1er t t:, d !n Teaching Staff We had 18 ft1ll-time acade1nic staff members in·. residence this year: a graduate assistant; 8 lecturers; 2 assista11t professors; 2 associate professors; and 5 professors. Because of unexpected proced11ral diffic11lties e11.co11ntered in arranging the promotion of otir gr,1dt1ate assistant to assistant lecturer, for whicl1 he was more than qualified, we have agreed \Vith central adL11inistration to appoint new teachers at a level no 1 0,ver than assista11t lecturer. '

Staff Studying Abroad and New Ethiopian Staff

011ly Abiyi1 Ge/eta was sent abroad this past year, followin.g 2 years of teach­ ing on the Facttlty. He is at Harvard doi11g an LL.M. program, and he is doing well. In tl1e sumn1er of 1972 he participated jn the Law and Development Seminar at the Uni,,ersity of Wisconsi11. He is specializing in property and development law. He will replace an expatriate position i11 September of 1973. Three of our Ethiopia11 teachers completed their second year of study abroad, a11d were scheduled to return to the Faculty at the begi11ni11g of 1965 E.C. (September 1972). Each of these men l1as already taug·ht two years on the Faculty: (LL.M. Yale; replaces two expatriates · who end their teaching contracts at mid-year (Verhelst and Lang). Fasil Nahum

t r

Semereab Michael (advanced degree work, University of BrL1ssels; replaces Winship.) Worku Tafara (LL.M. Nortl1,vestern University La\v School; replaces Melin.) Three other Ethiopians studying abroad agreed to join the Faculty at the begin11ing of 1965 E.C.

Bilillign l\1andefro (LL.M. Yale; fills post originally allocated to Ethiopian who did not receive govern1nent release.) Fikre Merid (Lice11ce en Droit and D.E.S., Univesite d' Aix; fills post originally allocated to Ethiopian who did not receive government release.) leavis who ne, Berha es replac a; ylvani a Penns Fisseb of rsity Yim�r . Unive (LL.M . rng the Faculty.) In addition, two other Ethiopi21.ns agreed to join the Faculty: Girma Wolde Sel!assie (who replaces O'Donovan). 1-Iagos Haile (wl10 replaces Jaco1ny-Millette). Ethiopian Staff-Selection Methods The new teacl1ers are trt1ly exceptional both academically and ot�erwise. The recommendation of adJ:?inistrat1011 was the ity Univer these central tl1e to perso11s _ � result of a very first semester the long 111 beg111nmg selection Faculty tl1e i:n process of 1970.

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. L O IX - No. I W V A L . N IA P O I H T E F O JOURNAL

: ld lty ou cu sh Fa e th r c ou !rt y s r e v tea ro nt co a h er s ave as w In _the past th ere. c fo ng be e mi 1 co h ity o rs e to v ni · tea e U th h e id ut s o 1e ce e p e f r s ea y e som � f ; �he ·u niversity to b egin tl1e den1a11di11g profession 'or r should a 1 they. come d r ct y o . �ca 1 a a g a tic ti re ta eo en th r um l e th on e c viv r e on ere h i e _ t � i no I l i h w . r e s h . c a e ide dem10 t ses t re ea ge f I ·1 y st m ea ro ot nn tl 1 e gove rn er we ca tt a in al tic c ra a ent ecause as ?1 x to or n1en of e per 1970-71 � the n1en ..",�e want · Of the 3 offers n1ade f · tence 1or e d d .s 1 ea re esp1te s a w 1 e n o 1un n dreds of t, 11 e un r er v o g in g in rv se hours e e r w . d who an spent on negotiations. eter us, however, !r·om interviewing all pot d not did nts e m t oin app s enti al These di t y lies e da ear th s �f the law sch m o fr_ r s 1e otl or ff t a s by d e on nti e m te s ool candida eg an 1n 1970 an d were c a r�1ed on un til b s e rvi \v e int nd a s on ati tig es inv quit� . These recently, when a narrowed lis t w as further cu� until our Aca deilllc Coin.missio n and Recruitment Committee reacl1ed the final choice s. By the end of tl1e year, both Dr. Berl1ane Ghebray a11d Ato Mebra]1t11 Yohanne s decided to l eave the Fac ulty. Dr B er4ane will b e come the director of an insurance company, and Ato Mebrahtt1 will return full-ti1n e to the Ministry of Com.rniinity Development and So cial Wel fare. Altho ugh I anticipated in my December 1970 report to the Ford Found ation the loss o f some of our Ethiopian teachers to c hallenging jobs outside of the University, it wa s neverthele ss disappoi11ting to los e persons we had come to know and admire. In a large se11se, however, my basic feeling is not one of disappointment because I know they will make important contribt1tions \vbere they l1ave gone, and because tl1ey may in the future retur.n to the Faculty - for th e reasons I hopef ully note d in the i 11trodt1ction to tl1is report. Seven Year Staff Projection

The following chart indica tes tl1e proj ected staffing situation over the 11ext seven years, based 0 11 maximu,n staffing and upon stated policies ,vhich n1ay in fact be cha�ge d. F�ther, a11d apart from other consideratio11s , the possibility of continued fore1� fund1?g for the numb er of indicated expatriates is t1nlikely. lvf ost in1portant �her� is consi derable pressure µpan tl1e Law Faculty to reasse ss its need for teachers in light of the patt er11 of teach i11g loads e lsewhere i 11 the U11iversity. Tl1e chart does provi�e,_ however, a b asis for considering the staffing pattern at a 1uaxin1um level, and it 18 b ased on. �o ur (assumed) policjes : (i) tl1 ear!Y 1 1 y s Etl 1iop ia new ree �nd a !0�1 staff of 21; ( 11 ) a newly hired s taff ar�h rese do a11d tea me ch 11111 mb st er m Eth10P1a for a t least 2 years before \VIll he (iii) ; go ing ab s LL.M l1i roa for d then stay 2 ye ars abroa d \Vhile d oin . staff 1 pia 1 Eth io g his I L M . (iv) vvhe11 tl1e �each es 18 of 2 1 posts, there ough ts po s . 3 s, ye t ar to be re ser--ved' for at least a te\\' 1or mature and exper ues · ' · i· enc� d Iegal scholars from abroad. �tin co . sent tre.r1d pre tl1e rt· the Ethiop•1an faculty will be q · . . u . ·t 1 e good ' but it �111 be a fact1lty of reJauve wexperience, so that ul . usef th.e adniixture of 2 or 3 expe be ld rienced scholars cou Rej ection of this 01 0 1 1cy do o take account of J�n y o; uJ.d �ot much change the chart. The cl1art !�r oad her �ariables, such as req11ests for Pl1.D. study • th · in which will o ccur later e time scale.

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NINTH ANNUAL �PORT FROM THE DEAN

72-73 73-74 74-75 75- 76 76-77 77-78 78-7 9

.(65) (66) (67)* (68) (69) (70) (71)

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Ethiopian in Residence at ·HSIU

Expatriates or Others

Ethiopians Studying Abroad

11 12 13 13 12 15

10 9

I 3

18

3

8 8

9 6

'

5

6 3 0

*Tht1s, i 1 1 74-75 there wo11ld be 18 Ethiopians hired, and there are 21 total posts. l�owever, tl1e con1 i.ng and going of tl1e Ethiopia11s to stt1dy courses creates a patter11 ,vJ1ereb� fro111 1973 . to 1978 there wot1ld be the need for approximately .s qt1 aJified expatriates a year if the assumed figi.1res of 21 maximum teachers is accepted. There are three alter11atives to this: a) hiring 111ore f t1 11-time Etl1iopia11 s, \¥hich 'vVO ttld l1ave tl1 e effect of i 11creasi11g tl1e satff to an 11ntenable total; or (b) hiring part-ti1ne Ethiopia11 staff, wl1ich would mean that the part-ti1 ne teachers l1 ad eve11 less teacl1ing a11 d researcl1 background than tl1e relatively inexperienced f11ll-tin1e Et11iopia11 staff; or, (c) red11ci11g the total posts from 21 to some lesser nt1mber, ,vhich ,-vot1ld l1 ave seriot1s repercussio11s judged by prese11t Factulty ,1ctivities and standards. But tl1is will be tl1orot1gl1ly considered next year. 1-\ctivities of the Full-Time Teaching Staff In addition to talcin.g tl1 eir regi1lar teaching dtlties, n1en1bers of staff engaged in ma11 y important activities. Berhane GhellraJ' - Director of La\V .Fac11lty Extensio11 P1·ogram. Member of sever(l.l University groups: Fac11lty Co1111cil; Exte11sion Co1n:rnittee; Development and Finance Committee; Perso11nel Co1n1nittee; a11d Discipline Com111ittee. Additio11ally served as n1 en1ber of the follo\vi11 g Ad-Hoc Con1n1ittees; Com1nittee St11dyir1g tl1e Stat 11s of Ethiopian U11iversity teacl1ers; Comn1ittee st11dying tl1e stat11s of Asmara University; Committee Studyi11g tl1e Ac,tde111ic Eq11ivalence of Degrees, Diplomas, and Certifi­ cates; Co1nmittee I11vestigating tl1e Condition of Detained Stude11ts. Doing research i 1 1to property and tax law.

Brun-Otto Bryde - Articles Editor , J 011rnal of Etl1iopan La\V and member of Faculty's Rese arch a11d P11b]ications a11c l Library Com11littees. Publjshed a book in �erman 011 eco11or11ic advisory coL1ncil (I-Iamb·urg, 1972), two articles (on African 1nternatio11al relatio11s and Etl1iopia11 la\v) in Gern1an journals and a note !-or JEL. Prepared co11rse 1naterials for com111ercial law; started (together with Peter \Vins llip a case-col]ection on Ethiopian Co1nn1ercial La 'vV. 1-le prese11ted a p11blic lectttre on law and develop111ent a t tl1 e Gern1a11 C11lt11ral I11stit11te. Daniel I -Iaile - Case Editor of tl1e Jour11al of Ethio1Jian La\v; prepared a11cl had a;ppro,;ed detailed syllabus for Nat11ral Resources course, and preparing �eaclri11g ma�erials for the sa1ne co11rse. Member of tl1 e U11i,1ersity Faculty Cou11c1l , and ass1sted (with Jon Eddy) 11pdati11g of Co11soliclated Legislatio11 of Faculty Cotici.l. _ M_en1ber, Fac11lty Research a11cl Pttbljcations Comlilltte e, and severa� ad hoc �om­ mittees. Acting Chair111an La\v Ilous e Al11n1ni Assistance ColllITilttee. Publisl1ed note on Ethiopi a11 labour 'law i11 JEL. - 27 -


. IX - No. 1 L W O A V L N IA P IO H T E F JOURNAL O

v e av th lt L cu Fa of y ry a et cr Se ca A · m d de an n ea . D le . t t n a .· 1s s A s C y d d E o nJo.n . e y U b M l n e F ty , rs1 1 r n1ve . · 1 serv·ic· e as Actin g Dean.. ac ilt C o · u nc· m1ss1on 0ccas1ona 1 I 1· • o i C e o at d o f !-,e o s a ve _ � la _ gis , w i ne o n r d tion f , . Haile) prepare with

Daniel . · mp1ete d analytical n ote on ''subrogation 111 th e Etl11op. 1an Jaw of· contr the · act Coun(c.11. Co s f ce or an t, 1 d 1 aJe at m e f: e ur d , ce an to rm rfo pe be on . tes no r use a il 'm . s1 g d n ri a p pre in ( ' r s JE te 1o o L n r . o , a ls ri te a m g in ch a te l , a u n a M w a L Contract.s · d an rch Pu se Re � s cat ty' bl� �t1l F� s on n, ma �jr Co cJ1 _ mmittee. � on rris Ha T. Jeremy .. r, be e, e�n ur M ed l oc �1� Pr Uto Ec vil Ci r fo Boa rd of the ls a i ter ma ing ch Working 00 tea a gre at dea l of !1m_e r�orga ruz1ng the busi t sp�n He _ . aw L an iopi Eth ness Journal of 1 10 ut d rib an st 1. d1 s a le s , ns io at ic bl pu 's 1 lty ct Fa aw L of ns operatio �1p _ tio 's Jess 1·na ulty Inte Fac r, nal �cto Dir Law Moot lett Mil omy Jac ie ar Annem � Court Competition. Managing Editor . Journal ?f Et!31op1an Law. Completed three volumes of t eachi11g materials on African questions for the cot1rse on intern ational organizations; prepared m aterials on Treaty-Law i n Etl1iopia with a view to publish­ ing an article , including a List of Tre aties and International Agreements to which Ethiopia is a Party. Con tinued research in the field of the O n1buds1nan (article to be published in a Canadian Law Journal). Member, Faculty's Rese rch and Public-a­ tion.s Committee; contacts with OAU and EC,(.i\ a n d attendance at me etings and con.ferences organized by these Organizations. . and

George Krzeczunowicz - Published:!) ''The Un.iversity College Period in Ethiopian L e gal Education'' Journ al of Ethiopian L aw, vol. 8, No. I; 2) ''Quizzes in Ethiopian Family Law'' JEL, Vol. 8 No. 1 . 3) ''An Introdt1ctory Theory of Laws i.n the Cont. ext o·f the Ethiopian Legal Syste1n'', JEL Occasonal Pa.per No . 3. Started a manual 011 ''The Ethiopia n Law of Co1npensation for Damage." Membe r, Universit}' Staff D evelopm ent Com.mittee and Scholarships Committee; L aw Fact1lty Research Committe e ; Chairman, Hsru· S.D.P.C. ad 110c su·b-com1nittee 011 tern1s of reference for Scholarships Committee. Other activities inclt1 ded - contin l1ation of consultative meetings wit� former students now law yers; correspondent of International Academy of Comparative La\v in re program-pl an ning for 1974 Con gress. Fra!-12 Lang - Assembling i11structional material 011 Administrative La,,; and pre· paring b ackground paper for admi11istr ative law course on interdisciplinary model. ?f e� ber, L� w Fa�ulty Curriculum Com ent 111 rt Depa mitte for e; special exami11er � . ublic Admirust:ation; �n� arbiter, Ger1 nan S ohool associatio11, Delivered lect re u ,n Faculty of Arts interdisciplinary Se minar series . rebra;tu rohanne� Project Director of UNDP Law and Population pr ogram al e aw acu ty .. preliminary Woik te mit m Co S complete d· EU U Member 11iversity and· Law Faculty Resere· a · . . gu ge· ' n l h c an · d 1 ar P u a • • ns' Committee . P1·eparing An1l1 bl1catio . · ManuaIs o n Successio ar1c n1b ns and crmu t,vo · A · al Con1ple�ed ocedu r P· . w La e r articles fo r the 1� m as � ,, T e ve e to Judge e a te s : � c Cont1n� " nd _ ''Tl1e itness. � a Se cretaryGeneral If :� � i . o s t 1 0 , A � 1?1an Cbil� an.d F�1ruly Welf are Assoc 1at . 1 on several Secretary-Gene ral of the E�hio o p an . a . i f r the Co unc a il rr W of cl1 Soc n ial z o elfare, and of its consultative c O D tte s. Prepa e d rt a 1 . with another, reorga 1iization cl r Minstry of Communi·��eve� opmeiit and Social Affai r s, which \Vas accepted· .. . al R�b_ert A. Meli.n - Comp ll s1o . . ia (prov1 . leted thre e volume . . JO_ tex�, Evz�ence 1n Ethiop etli1t10111; plieparing final ecl. , � io Iet itio n of same text _wit� estimated _date of corn? Afric/J/1 " �®er 1972. Published S lkiw J,110, ir:,h@@l oF Q.:rienta u:illlary . of Ethiopian L�ws'� 1n Survey men1ber, l nd Africa� Studies, Un1vers1ty of London,� l'e_sB�J lllirte.mational J..aw Moo·t C ourt Com011ttee ..

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. NINTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN

in Pu�lished J�urnal _of Et�ioJ?ian Law, Vol 8, No. 2 an n O'D�nova e erin Kath Voidable Marriages 1n Ethiopian Law." Prepared teaching and ''Vo1d 00 articJe edition) (final Persons and Family Law (preliminary edition). of Law the on s terial a �epar ed note on the ''Statt1s. o� Women _under Ethiopian Civil Law'' for the Ethio­ Assoc�at!on. Cont1nued research on Family Law. Member; elfa�e W en's Wo1n pian he L aw Fact1lty Research and Publicat.ion Com­ t C om1U1s�1on, em1c d Aca y Facult w La mitte e and the Jess11p International Law Moot Court Committee. Selamu Bekele - Co-ordinator, Parlia111entarian Course Development program in co­ operation with the State University of Ne,v York, with Dr. Nt1nez. Member, Law factilty Academic Conunission a11d Law House Alumni Assistance Com1nittee. Com­ pleting L�,v Facul�y �chive inventory and re-organization. Research into aspects of Etl1iop1an co11stitut1011al law. Ronald Sklar - Pt1blisl1ed i11 Vol. 8, no. 2 of the Journal of Ethiopian Law: ''Desire 'Knowledge of Certai11ty ,' a11d Dolils Eventualis: Intention under the Ethiopian Penal Cocle.'' Preparing comment on High Cot1rt decision a11d series of comments on key articles of the Penal Code. Prepari11g supplementary teaching materials for Penal ]a\.v. Duri11g year, assisted Professor Anne1narie Jacomy-Millette in directing the Jessup I11ternational Moot Court Competition. Coordinated Faculty's brief-writ­ ing program. Men1ber, Law Fac11lty's Academic Commission, Library Committee, and Currict1lum Committee. B.J. Tennery - Chairman, Ct1rrict1lu1n Committee of the Faculty of Law and member of the U1Ji\1ersity Ct1rriculum Committee. Engaged in research and compilation of materials for Employment and Labour Law. Continued efforts to organize the relationship of the Fact1lty of law and the Mi11istry of Jt1stice on a formal basis, including the possibility of a11 Advisory Council; 1nember of informal committee of Faculty and Ministry of Justice personnel wllich is prepari11g a j oint progarm to review and clarify tl1e Codes of Ethiopia11 Law; assisted Central Personnel Agency in selection of legal advisor for one of the ministries. Member and informal Counsel of the Tournament Committee of tl1e Imperial Golf Club. Also devoted considerable time to family, dogs, horses, and landlord. Thierry G. Verhelst - Co-Director, Center for African Legal Development, and Editor of CALD publication, Legal Process and the Individual - African Source lvfaterials (in French and English); me1nber, Law Faculty Library Committee. Com­ pleted: - ''Les obstacles a11 development agricole en Ethiopie'' (in collaboration for a world-conference 011 agrarian reforms); introductory notes and bibliographies for Rwanda and for Bt1rundi, for ''The Constitutions of the Countries of the World'' (A. Blaustein, Ed.). Research - ''Political control on la11d in traditional African societies ," to becon1e a book by 1974. On leave second semester 1971-72, to Rwanda advisi11g the ''Centre national de forn1ationjudiciaire'' of the Supereme Court. Author of a book on Rwa11da's legal developn1ent (to be published in 1973), and of analy tical tables covering tl1e Jaws of Rwanda. Peter Winship - Editor-in- Cllief for volume 8 of tl1e Journal of Ethiopian Law;: completed supplementar y materials for i11troductory course on the Law of B11siness : Organizations; completed 1na11uscript 011 book, Bciclcg1·0it1id Docziments of the Ethiopian Co,nmercia/ Cocle, app1·oved for pt1blication by tl1e Fac11lty of Law subject to the c? nse�t of the l\1inistry of Justice. Prepared revised syllabt1s for course (created �y _ h. im) in Law & Economic Regi1lation; wrote note on industrial property r1ghts _in Ethi0Pia; collected court decisions interpreting Books I and II of the Commerc1al Cod e. Represe11ted Faculty at conference in Uganda 011 teaching materials t·or the - 29-


L. IX - No. 1 O V \ V A L N A I P O l H T E JOURNAL OF

1 y lt 1�, ac e b em M r � ib L y a. . � ar ic fr A . in o C . s n io . at •z 1 la� of business orga� bl'cations Committee, and Un1vers1ty ad h oc Conun �nuttee, & u te , e h a e s R 0n y lt u c Fa nt cla me Pro est Inv � � tio ma ed s vi n Re at the on th/ s aft � d r e a p e r . e qu Patent pohcy t i o in hi �oIDJllitte e of the Imperial Et oian M s ry of C o; e s1 , rce m of the lnv e stme�t ). e it th n1 m by ed Co pt ... ce tee ac s wa t f a. dr fi ( al n e Industry & T our1sm th . , the La.w Faculty ha d the benefit of tl1e services of Alai,i crze i· da/ In add.it ion v1'ded by �1he Fr enc h govern pro ers 1te lu1 Vo are o wh ment for _ and Domenic Pierson, d er re at ls m pa ia pr r ! fo da he C L e gal Fre . ts n e � ud st � w la to ch en Fr nch g teachin e. te it m m o C m lu u ic rr u C s y' lt u ac and served on the F I would like to add to the precedin g resume� a few perso�al words about fou.r m embers of our staff who this year complete d tb1er contracts with the Faculty. As the summer of 1972 came to an end, Robert Melin continued to work on the final version of bis teaching materials on the Ethiopia11 l aw of evidence. He used hi.s entire holiday period for his project, and continued to work after the end of his contract, receiving from the _International Legal Center only a small amount of expense mone y which was far short of his regular salary - it was Bo b's determina­ tion to complete something of use for bis colleagues and students which I will most remember about bi.m. Annemarie Jaco,ny Millette and Kathe rine O'Do11ovan departed at the end of the y e ar to ta.k e up teaching positions respectively, in Canadian and English univer­ sitie s. During 1969-70..and particularly during tl1e special summer session of 1970, there was no one who h elped more than Katherine to keep th e day-to-day adminis­ tration of th e Faculty in runnin g order, an d she ably se rved as Acting Dean. Later, as Chairma n of Research and Publications Committee, she selflessly spent n1any hours mana gin g the printing of the Faculty's publications. Because Ka tl1erine stayed with us for a third year, sh e also foun d time to publish scholarly work in this Jo�rnal and to create new teaching materials for the Faculty. Annemarie Jacomy­ b M1l lette ega n by �oncentratin g on her teaching and research, b11t soon den1onstrated _ that she was additional proof, if anyo11e needed it that adnur1istra tive skill can be comb�ned with graciousn.ess and charm. Of the �any responsibilities she ca�ed, she will undoubt e dly ?� best re member ed for the· we11-desigi1ed Jesstip Inter11ational Moo� Court <;ompe tition she managed so successfully. She too has left us ne\V t eaching materials, and completed important resear lavi . ty trea 11 Et llio pia ch int o Peter Winship was also ex�a?rdinary. He w t � • pia Eth io in yea rs ser fou ved r _ _ ea s as Legal Advisor in tl1 . i � e M1n1stry of Comme rce and tw o years on our Facult y a c:; can best express �y f eelings about h be d wo ul I tha im t by say ing te�t . !\ 1 J any teac?er who · to did yo e v e n u ha lf as much as he did . I ref er resume, ab ov e which is a refl . · e pl . 1 con e ted, but which' cannot begi. n ect·10n f the amaz111g volu1ne of proJects h f0r billl t� r e fle ct the tremendous respect we all fe l t and the excellent q · ua•uty of his work.

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Alumni and Outsid e Conta cts B At the end of 1963 E c . L . 1 r ( 7 u 71 5 o s e · · . �- ) we had more than 1 0 gradua t of pr ogram. Nearl y all of them are in key public se rvice postions. . I I b�l1eve strongly that na o ssi . ofe s thi � . ou p sho uld buil d upon the sense of P� rected e0:m,im ,um1tf whieh. was i d f eri ost ea · 1 1 � t-0�� aR effe=ctive n h shou l e la scho our w b which o and h c l, w i ·ation:a l eon, 1:r�i bu�ion. ere are also many ways 10 :aful)[Q j tfan h_e useful in, Th . . h· e1ping to lillprov e 1· oo sch the q 11ality o f. the law

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NINTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN

Several years _ ago a suc�essful banq11et of �11 Law graduates, degree and sub to 111aug order urat an alu:111111 group. But thereafter the organiza.. 1 n held, was � ee degr _ Base d 011 this experience, I felt a better chance might be . became mor· 1b11n d. · . tion . b egan wit zation l l LL t 1e 1 . B. graduates, and 1f a series of activities organi the if d 1 co11ld follow. !f this plan succee�ed, then a wider group could results ite defin ,�th upon the feel111gs of our alumru. based nized, orga be The initial orga.nizational meeti11g this year attracted 80 distinguished alumni. E,,eryo11e introduced himself, we talked about law school and we watched the film T•velve AngrJ1 Men. I �lso as �ecl for and got vo111nteers to help with various faculty projects. The first maJ ?r proJect was the ''LaJ11 H �use Assista11ce Colr!m ittee," com­ posed of staff, alu1nru, a11d st11dents. Many meetings of the committee and sub­ committees ,vere held, and by the end of tb.e year we had produced the drafts ,v hich ,vo11ld be tl1e basis for atte1npti11g to settle finally the 11nclear status of Law I-louse, both ad111inistratively and financially, before any serious problems could arise. 1v1y l1ope is tl1at by a series of such al11mni - faculty ventures tl1 at the Faculty can assist i11 b11ilding and al11mni organization which will be effective in even more importai1t areas - s11ch as tl1e control of professional standards and professional qua­ lifying exams. Bill Tennery and Jon Eddy had a series of meetings with the Ministry of Justice as a follo\¥-up of our s11ccessful co11ference of last year. The primary goal at tliis tin1e is to create a joint program to review and make clarifying changes in the various Codes of Ethiopia. The meetings proceeded, well, but near the end of the year it was unclear whether the changes sbot1ld begi11 with mostly techlnical am endme11ts or seek to include .1nore substantive cl1anges. A related activity was the annual banq11et of the Journal of Ethiopian Law, because tl1e editor in chief, Peter Winship, invited all former student editors. We thus had a.11 alumni meeting of the J.E.L. and used the banquet for some serious discussion as well as the us11al friendly exchanges.

Curriculum and Academic Standards Bill Tennery's Curric11lu111 Committee accomplished the innovation of three major steps during the year: I) a basic effort to improve tl1e French langi1age program in the F aculty; 2) a significa11 t change i n the senior ,vriting program and; 3) the creation of ''Senior Se1ninars." All of tl1ese changes were steered througl1- and altered by the - many groups 1n the Fac11Ity and University, ancl secured approval in the University Faculty Council at the end of the year. Several other less important changes - such as chang ing course names ai1d some credit hours - vvere also approved by the Fac u · lty Council. .

I) The C11rric11I11n1 selected the French program as being the highest priority for change because of the clemonstrated fact that fevv of our students learn enough French to be of any value despite two years of for1nal training. Opinions on the Faculty were widely varied - from those who belie,,ed Fre11ch sho11ld be aba�doned, to those who believed it could be improved. I will not here give _ the det�1ls, _ but the resol11tion \Vas that the program should be under the acadeilllc supervision of the French languages program of the u n · iversity's Department of Forei�n Language�, aotl the head of this department participated iI1 the accepted solution. The basis - 31 -


AW - VOL. IX - t-.fo. 1 L N IA P IO H T E F O JOURNAL

ch e en th Fr gu in lan ty e ili ag ab is at th . f lie . de be ,· e sir th as w a S ll or the re�SJO esearch 111aterials relevant to the codes. Bt1t tl1e Faculty also deterb]: 1n. m in e view of t e r d d te at e ua th al ev d en ly ul ef r of ca be n e ld ou xt sh Y am r g o r ea p w e r n e th to that lts ere resu ng bei ired des a c the h' · w , 1eve ce n a 1 'd u d. g 1 a n io s s fe o r p r e d n u , if e se r 1io se1 rs. pe o pa tw e th e Th . es lac rep in ma '' sis the aim r io en ''s . . 1s 2) The neW to t . d r p e d 1· il e 11 t a a to re . g In h rc a l�pro se re o ve d to y the quali it n tu r o p o p ts en d u st e ive th o als uld be wo s1s u1 the req e th . red of se · fen de In al or the pastty An g n J·ti· 'flM" vcy . • e1 r th gf o endat·_ions concerning the imp omD?rec I era sev �e ma s ha e itte mm Co ro. the Curriculum 1ng lud 111c , tl1e lty recom me ndati cu Fa the 111 ms gra pro g 1 i iti wr on· of . • vement Of the . . e th f o r t hesis requirem 1 o se11 1_ 1 t10_ nta eme 1 Imp T�e urse o c ing writ ent is an Amharic _. rit in g programs. w er tt be of n io ct re di e th in p ste g an encouragin la formu 11.�de r v1hlc� a teacher with le_ flexib a e l?rovid s'' r a Semin r ''Senio 3) The an in-depth interest in a particular legal subject �nd _,v1th sufficient number of inter· ested senior students, can proceed to explore 1t ,vitl1?ut the need to proceed thr ough all of the layers of approval 11ecessary to mak e basic changes in a curricu­ lum. We expect a number of inte resting pedagogical experiments with this formula in the Faculty. J.

Evaluation

of Teaching

While implementing new pr ograms, we conti11ue to ma.ke every effort to jmprove the qu.ality of existing teaching. 1) Early in the semester we required each teacher to prepare his reading assignments in detail and li11ked to periods of time no greater than two week.s. 2) We required ''course reports'' 011 each cot1rse, which include the teachers comme11ts on (i) how l1e orga11ized the co t1rse and the assigned rea d­ ings; (ij) tl1e method by which lie taught, incl11ding writi11g assignments; and (iii) his g.eneral comments . 3) We have c onfidential evaluations of tea.chers by students, reporting only to the Dean, who discusses them only witl1 the i11dividu al instructor, �nd only after the instructor has completed h.is marking of his exa·n1s. The eval�a­ tion sheet asks f or impressions on individual characteristics (suc'h as '' organizati?n of lectures':) as well as an overall rating of the lectur er . The Faculty agreed (,vit� one exception) t o tl1is evaluatio n, but also agreed that care \.Vould l1ave to be taken in ''evaluating the e�aluati ons." My personal feeling is that they are mo � �seful, but I do not consider them as conclusive about the sta.ff memb er, eve 1n regard to the single factor of teaching.

er s . W� have discussed t11e possibility of ''visits'' to ach w-te by fello clas ses teac hers ' and will attempt to add this approach , next year. n th rel area of "academic standad.rs" we ha ve had guided di�c�i :;g ' Prof�s � n \�Maudsley of sumu :ued Lo r U n. d on ticu la niv a r ers pa ity wa s, in , group f:ade� � ti w ,, stro ng � e and diff �re n�e � esu lted opi of nio r n _ co�1e dis· to talk ab out :�::�: � l o s . ong f basi after We his _ar ! the As v1s1t ended had cuss·ion , he had read rmany . • 1 i . sta y of b th _ e examination papers already mar.ked . es d discussed and did not ·a clu in h gree whi �po� the concept ''exte i nal exam ner'' c a ''second reader'' fior r examination scripts. .ng The Faculty did in trodu .ide by havi . n � � Dllld form of the '' second reader o s .a er a ll dBafrts .of 1lhe .final. p ,, 5 nation s r at �ad l�a with �ssio11' by .wQi:e:1 � n '1le - teoce.h�r, :: great care �� ote 18 as a pa rt of the Acaden1 1c wr •L · f e e"f'I r� . :a:.mr� · 1,e-1.l md auner isi ·.u.' 0 llli.e exams. ---- 32 -

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NINTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN

Moot Court Competition tional Interna ne Jessup ected the illette competition, with assistance from Ron Jacomy-M � � arie em Ann compet1t1on ]a�t year. That.our student �a� who won he directed . � who . . Sklar, n to w1° went ons the Interna 1 �nal Com�etition 1� now well competiti � : � ulty's fac the and te �� received considerable publ1c1ty and H1 s Imperial Majesty Faculty he T n. know rece1v1ng them at the Palace. by team the ored bon The Ethiopian team ,vas composed of Captain Gos·l1u Woldie, Ato Abdul Wassie a Chabo - . tl1ey went undefeated . against _ Argentin�, Liberia, Assef to A ,vith uf, J'us . _ Zan1b1a. 11 1 tl1e fi11al co1npet1t1on against the winner of the a11d m, Kingdo United the tea1n school s, our team came _witlJin two poi11ts of winning. law grad11ate _ ican Amer _ Our team was awarded tl1e tropb1es for best oral1st and best memorial in the international Competitio11, a11d Captain Gosbu won the award for the �est oralist of the final con1petition. Ato 1-Jaile Fisse/1a \vho was narro\vly eliminated in the final s electio11 process in tl1e Faculty dese1 ves credit as well for tl1e fi 11 al team results. Credit for Olll' success n1ust go to tl1e n1embers of staff \V.ho worked on the !vfoot Court Co1 nnuttee, a11d to all members of staff and a number of disting11ished persons from ol1tside the Faculty who helped i11 judgi11g tl1e compti­ tions. For those who thi11k of a moot col1rt co111petition as bei11g mainly a test of oral pers11asion, I want to en1phasize l1ow important the written ''memorials'' were, for they co1mted 111ore l1eavily in tl1e poi11t grading scale tha11 did tl1e element of oral legal argume11tation. I vividly recall meeting 011r team on their return from Washington D.C.; 011e of Ollr tea1 11 bad hardly stepped of tl1e steps from the airplane \\1he11 l 1e said, ''\Vl1en ,ve read tl1e British brief, we knew \Ve beat them!''

The Diploma Extension Program

Dr. Berha11e Gbebray directed this program, ,vliich presentl y has two classes­ one to gradllate in the summer of 1973, and the other one in the following year. During the year we agai11 had outstanding part-time teachers: Atfajor Abebe Gitangoul, Deputy Comnussioner of the Pensio11s Commissio11; Ato Abe be Worke, J'udge of the High Court; Dr. Assefa liable Maria1;z, Legal Advisor, Ministry of Co1nmerce, Industry, and Tol1rism; Ato Eden Passi!, Dep11ty Registrar, S11pre.me In1perial Court; Colo,zel Legesse Wolde111aria111, Abba Dina Police College; Major Shimelis Metaferia, Legal Advisor, Arn1ed Forces; Ato Shiberz, Seifi,1, Attorney; and Dr. Workz1 Fe,·ede, Attorney. There are now teacl1i11g materialis in Amharic for the following courses: Penal Law; Crimi11al Procedure; Property; Commercial Law; Consitutional Law and Extra-Contractual Liability. The most importru1t adminjstrative development was that Dr. Berbane v,as �ble to 1ovv1er the salaries for 011r part-time teachers to the level received by part­ m e � teache rs in the rest of the University, witho11t losing our qualified teachers. th e past the differential in favour of our teachers was based partl y on tl1e �� !�mpt_io1: tl 1at they wo11ld produce A.J.nh�ric teaching materials, ?ut the � eslts were ppo inting. Dr. Berhan _ extra provides which scheme e . 1ntrodt1ced inducement an coinpensation for teachers \vho J)roduce Amharic teaching 1naterials. This has suceeded so Well that it might well be a. model for other sub-degree courses. The basic quest.ions that t}1e Faculty raised abol1t the sub-degree prograins two years ago have 11ot, l1owever, bee11 ans,:vered altho11gl1 discussion co11tinues. Presently - 33 -


. L O W V A IX L o; N N IA 1 P IO H T E F O · JOURNAL .

1· ratl1e ses co11r than ' t' cialis '·spe gene rd rali-zed 1ow I er towa • . 0 ean111 . 1 . ts y tile Fact1lt . .es for exan1 ple, 1111gb.t b e t ak...e11 as a sp ec1al group. · eve! co u.rses. !1iu s� Jt�d ! creasing . demand f1·om tl1e p rovi11cial tow 11s for B ut this h d e l ett s n u. s · generalized :leave -courses:.· . . . er 111b 1 i11e 1a1 op of thi s E of tl1e er n1b nt1 l-ti ful eJlt fici strf me te ch'1n a are "' e th .1 Unt g · � og s n am age in g Ex lan ic r p1� ha t1 Am i 1· e tens · th in o t; : . , : , �est , it if. it lS Un , sta to aKv an. inte . . w · e e a c o p l S . I Id . e k a h t � 1 a v _c u e e 11 g a h c � th t e n _ _ a c essential : : � � ; li. kely that a11y sg111fi lt n e y t h t n e o year, s 11 1 t 18 hope 1a p h o I t E o f ty ri o J· a m a i f o d t h at t u e. , d 1ngre . . ce a 1 p e k ta to in eg b en th n ca s rea.l progres 1Je a n uld m� w� ·lia Pa1 rse cou _ list a�s progra m. cia spe tari a for lity sibi One pos . . y rztar la_1ne Parl a for Pro1�ct . with the State 1� ng11 a!ra 1n me ted assis Dr. Berhane t o n cos a at us _ 1ded prv l�g1slat1ye expe rt, Dr. ch whi k, Yor New of University n bega be 1972 vvork111g with Ato Selamu of er umm s the ing Dur nez. N Richard. u Bekele of our Faculty to prodl1ce teaching materials for suc h a course. •

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Research and Publications Jeremy Harriso n became Chairman of the Research and Publications Commit tee at the beginning of the year, and quickly began an i11tensive investigation of our business operations. He did a superlative job in discovering and cleari11g up problems which few academics would venture to u11dertake. 011e early result was that the employee who was supposed to be doj11g tl1e job was . forced to leave t he U11iversity. The business problen1s created by the sales of our publication.s are vast in number and complex in nature. There will be no easy solution, as some have wisl1fully desired. Professor Harrison began negotiations with Sweet and Maxwell Ltd. as a possible distributor abroad, and established a successfttl relationship with the City Book Shop in Asmara. He also employed a ne,v Publications Assista·n.t, Woz. Elleni Assaye who learned quickly and helped overcome the confttsion which has characterized the sale of ou.r bo-oks in the past. Nevertheless, it will be matter of mo11tl1s ra�er than weeks before the Faculty has an effective business s;1stem fully coordinated \\'Ith ! the central business offices. I The research and publications are tl1emselves impressive. The efl�orts of individual staff members m�y be seen best in U1e individual reports, above. Other important developments �ur1ng tl1e year were th e f olJowing. Th�ee books we11:t out o.f print and were repri11ted by o ff-set: Consilidated Law: t Addzs .A�aba (Ewi?g, Ed.); Conflicts o f Law in :EtllioJJia (Sedler); and Vo/urn . of Ethzopzan Constitutio nal Developme,it (Paul & Clapl1am). iall C 1� November of 1971 the Faculty began distrib·u ion t Volt11ne II of E !tiop t of onstituonal Development (Paul & Clapl1am), which had been e11gerly awaited. . . Professor K. indred'8 trans1 . e c,v il t h on .at1o ry n enta of Professor Davie/'s Coni11i · ]' ated Code oif Eth.iopza was sent d o ns C • t o to l tl ous e u1n1n pr1n t · ers, vo 1 as was the . Legislation o f Ethio. ia P e . Eth io ian , . . p ter Winship s book, Baclcgroi1nd Doci,111.ents of the t rs and Com,nercial Code, :as· a , o r d ve by the Committee , and by external evalua PP . was to be published lll 1 96 5 E.C. (71/72).

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'ffte Journal of Ethi.opian Law jh1 e fi nal report by 197 2 . . e 12 , . . . the . . Edi u tor1n-C date luef d , sle,tdt;t· fue: :refceooecl t o ey . Win Pete ship r , J �vers 01iutY , . edit rs f r it ma c use y , c a rs bec e yea � to OJJ e om h � m y, aabi alltetr i-ef- lfillt es pen t· t· e Journ . aI 1n its publication po licy.

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-------NINTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN .

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The 011e point I WOltld like to emphasize is that the editors did what I. feel is necess,1ry - to e11.gage the full-facutly in the process of tl1inki11g. aboltt and pi:o­ · , · · d11cing the J our11al, as the Editor-in-Cl1if states in l1is concl11sion: ''This year's editorial staff i11l1eri.ted an imposi11g rept1tation and an admmisttative mess. Starting afresh l1ad tl1e adva11tage of allowing the Facuty to review existing policies and procedt1res 'bt1t l1ad the disadva11tage of slowing up publica­ tion while the editoria.1 staft' gained experier1ce. Next year's staff vvill include at Jeast two of the prese11t editors an.d by then a pl1blications assistant sho11Id l1ave bee11 l1ired. Co11ti1111ity is esse11tial if tl1e Jo11r11al is to avoid -adrn.inistra­ tive chaos but contint1ity shot1ld not be an excuse for not co11tinui11g to re.. exami11e J 011rnal policies a.nd practices." This year's editorial staff distributed V0It1111e 7, Number 2i11 October, 1971, \Vhicl1 ,,·as prepared i11 tl1e precedi11g yea.r, an.d. publisl1ed Vol11me 8, Number 1, and sent Volt1.me 8, N·un1ber 2 to tl1e printers. 1I1 addition, the J ot1r11aI inaugt1rated its ''Occasional Papers'' series, wl1ich consist of mi1neographed pages bo1111d in a pri11ted cover. Tl1ese papers are not published u11less tl1ey are of a schola.rly sta11darcl eqt1ivalent to Jour11al articles. Tl1eir difference is f 01111d in factors such as a11 emphasis on empirical researcl1 not wholly related to la\,\' or a partict1larl:)' long le11gth. The Center for African :Legal Development The major develo1J111e11t of t .he year \Vas tl1e p1tblicatio11 of Legal Process ancl tlze i11cliritli1al - _,,.1fricarz Source 11,faterials (Verl1elst, Ed.) i11 French a11d Englisl1 editions. Co-Director Thierry Verl1elst also served as advisor for legislative a11d training developments i11 R wa11da. During his abse11ce for tl1is ,vorlc., I becan1e e11gaged in tl1e possibility of the tra11sfer of the African Laiv Digest fro111 CoiL1111l1ia U11iversity i11 New York to ot1r control and directio11. This reqtiirecl n1a11y prelimi11ary 111eeti11gs J partict1larly witl1 the central administratio11. Con11ectecl with these efforts, bt1t pote11tially separate, was tl1e possibility energetically p11rs11ed by Professor Vanderlinden that tl1e FacLtlty mjght receive another substa11tial grant from tl1e Belgian government. • The La,v Library .-:-.. ; Between tl1e first and second sen1ester vve bad the professional services of Professor BlaL1stein, of Rutgers University, t111der tl1e auspices of a regio11al ·usrs grant. He \ve11t tl1rougl1 tl1e library ,vith great e11ergy and regarcl for practical detail, a11d compiled f. or tis a for111idabie list of tasks. Fortt111ately, at tl1e begin11ing. of t : he seco11d se111ester 011r new Law Libraria11, Mr. Akhigbe, arrived, and he q1tickly . took cl1arge. He is tl1e first librarian vve have had in years \vho also has legal training, so we have higl1 expectatio11s for his worl<. Looking Ahead Two of the n1ost in1porta11t tasks for next year are: 1) preparation for th� visit of the Ford Fot111datio11 E•.;altiation Team; 2) the planning for the next five� year plan, includi11g the gt1estio11 of ID:)' s11ccessor. Tl1e re1nai11der of ot1r major actj­ vities are probably already determi11ed by the directions \Ve have take11 this and last year. I11 partict1lar, ho\vever, the efforts to create ties \vith our alu1nni coltld easily cease, and I an1 deternu11ed tl1at tl1ey clo 11ot. One area where a new I)rogram m.igl1t start is in the ''Legal Aid'' or '' La\v Cli1iic'' area. Botl1 Ato Work11 Tafara and Ato Fasil 1'Tal111m ha,,e. been visiti11g different 1<i11ds of clinics i11 tb.e U.S. to see if they ·believe anything is adaptable to Etlliopa.

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REPORTS

The follow!ng_ reports are cases decided by the St1preme Imperial and the High <;ourts of Eth1op1a. The Amharic judgment is officia an always preceds the Eng• d l lish. The Journ al of Ethiopian Law is a scholarl l al o t itse lf noadd res si p11 bli 1 cat io y 1 e ers. of t�e p�ofessio?· It s p11rpose in p11bl ow � k ; a. k n e to jt1 ish is dg in ts m g e� � : e pr t t _ ?fession I�teresting decisions which in the opinion o f the Bo rd aatl E dt· a aise �p r�ant issues of law. In selectin g a partict1lar jt1dgment for publication, tl�e � !r an �ditors do not wish 15 ent � dg m to convey tl1e impression that t l1e ju ; defi:Il�·t·i ve on any proposition e t ity o f h l it m u ay th e sta q ho nd ug a al h t dec1s1on i. s al ways an impo for which . . e . b . . uld n rta O inc!u ded in the Journal. Wh t _const derat�o� 1n determ1n111g wl1ether 1t. sh di or, E en, t 1� the or a er OJ?ll l1on m of b Me. a Boa rd a Judgment is of int�rest n o eas a t o believe that aspects f �d rais_e� an 1mp· ortant issue of la\V b11t tl1e re �15 rac ed o t h dec sult i is on se c re are the able test at con tl or_ 1 ?Y the c�urt is n ot clear!y �e only a supportable co11clus1on, a note. 0� t reted 1s often i ncl u ded. The ab nce o such a note is not l 1owever to � e . in�;pe cted as indicating complete fi �� _ f na that members of the rofi � on tlle issues raised in the case, as �t. 18 e h t � e s 1o11 o n a l s o o n merits of any judgmeni p �, b l� y hold differing op1n1 levels � ma u 18h ed herein .. d o a rd a B T h e Members of the o The Editors.

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f6J,.T- : mt--i\''f : (lo:J.:,i : '1-tftL : frf�mLJ,(l,,} : vfl;J! : (luotrt;far : 1'.P'P OJJ.?'l-: f(J}«C{I.: ou-0:,-: nil"}: 11i\OJ« : i\OD:f'W9°: 'itf,T/\--9°:: fUJ..f.: l1Uft'i': fhtJ.:,. : AJ!.l- : /loPlf'i¥ro•9° : 09°ilhC = °7ilt.�:,.C ' i',f,"l'11'lIJc9'1 : ll1A'i': r 1' = ttitar6';q(Dc: fllj:t. = �"l'r = ro•il 9° = 1-0+1 : '�"IP' = t� = 4>1 = I.iitt!! = q.. -'i!C� : ft:,. : 'l�l.-O�(Dc : & th-�: f+ht.hC1 : il1tr1 t i't(D«t,.�OJc: �C�: n,:,.: = OUl/llonoA = +:J>'POJJ.?''f , ro:i.:,5 , iu,f--'f'i = f1t.v:,. = l\� = i,,�rr-,. = f f(lmOJc : th+;t- :i flln.'?'111 : �OJc ='

"°· oo, =+

n(}•"}9°: ftlf1:f(Im �(D«: n"}J;1•9°: fh9°�,l--: :J> A=f fl UD'i4-, :P'POJt?J"f =t.� -Tllr : �f..9° : 111\a>•: fl+t.O·.rl-: x ,h-� : f6J..:,';'i : r;;: : f;J� : 'h'iT : htT'/lff,: c1n = ti.,, = _eQ1t1ti = (I.�= oo"Jtt1trCir1 = H1"1+0r = hcn�:r-, = f,,,�14-A = fltr f+ lfl-t-: K-dt-� :i 'h.'i:r-:f1: c;:,:OJ«: f°t�:f-ro•: h.lP/tr�: C"lfl: llvt 'ltf, 11''1- = h"711'_e: 'l°«l!C: li"f. : oofF'i¥ro•"} : lli\°t"IA.&-- : i',ll&..lt1.i : lf'f: tl11 = 'i:CJ.!": '1rh: f.1i1',.: 61J>9°C: n.ilJC-f--: 1t_"}Jtool9°CA1: h1il'J°'11l1' - Oft'PA J1

n+�"7t : .,...,,.,,w-: (ltJDcft• = ""·:,:: h� : x--dlt.,)--: f-t-�L: ftOI11f)-: fart! ill� = n�-r- = fl,: = r,,,-�.,, = n�cnw« ., �c�... = fLrf.: = n�:,--dt = 1lth»C = P'� =P'C = «i:T c = rxl!'i(r) ic; = ri�r; = oow1.:,., ,,,..tn,01i = 01ll1.� = n1:c1a= q..:,. = h1>t4'01t¥w- : ill\mf«l! ¼ 't:C� : fL,J:9° : rf--4>- :f'PA :: 0!I.,. 'h1>ttr 9° = O'i:-f-- : ll"C : firf•�"f.'i : ,)--h h A�1:9° : On.:t·V"'A·..e : ta,9°'1f't'i= n(Dc'ih = = °ttili:c9° = "''l:J"l(ll = r+1 n = v--ll·�� = '? Atl61b = = . (l (J;l.?Jl-- = h1U.c'1:fw- : n.Y:C"l'PA := heht-Tm-1 1 O"'I m....,. ii.A?" , f ou Al'l : (l a;iJP1" , ., "l lt."f: = Oh OJ<t-:lfoi- ' n.-l· = fm+(l.-l• ' ;,,.., = v-1t.- ' il.11.u = hchc = •t-"lfl.'1.-,.. = h'}f.ll,/l(J)• ,1A

�°'

1--�.e

tt{]Pttn

:;i;

h - m-9" = 11,h.�? ih1\ "I� oh-re 1 f

1!.��':

(I-..,.

ih f. :; ::i fi f_ 1 "I�� : 1"1_1 1 f. "14- A I l'l.ll- fill.,, ;,!;£1f!! 1 ;.!;f'.ii I urr I i.ifuii.i I ui(,11 h'i" 1 Ji'Ll/1 . � .,_"' .,.. .,_ .- .,.. � ... fl�

= : C� lD"1 m-lt� 'h J'.4'� : : f 0,:,. (lm 'i: ' . a, ,r ro-t. q'l'l;fOJ!' = m f.<f>'PA == hCh 1 T � • ou 11,t ij:./ s i r.t. oo� ft» "/'. : (\ : 9" m_ t. = o 'IT 'tf. lilm = Oo tr). I 1'J-Lu • 'l1- : +Y..°lp> :i 1'7>t 1i\X' ' hltllt.ft1r' -40-


t\lLIJ : tiChC: 9°tJ1fT :: ftr�a,. :: f"J.:ii: fho"71J;.fC: J!'iit : �A�c> : . . n'ln = = n:,-. = '1.f1Jil.f1 = tt1c = m°lc; = rti.:,-. it1�¥a, t..a, f. u , o:L _e'i?= : -,.tJ = = C ,n 0, l'C hTY-°7.L:t­ <k Dfr: tfit§(l!)= tx1%(6)1'c; ' °l h. r�,rth. Vk f = . = = 'J° +1 IDxtr °'·"°· 1 L(Dc'i n1to,, t,{\:,-. nn. f.lV' = 1,..l'b.i'I- m lb Ir; = r,n1111 = ro•A tt<r'P_e: n,1..- = nitY-� 1',Jt+oo'I' = (D• c noi11"m· tt = 1 = J t\U'/f:I,.;J:r(Ir f

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

,,1:9° = n�I\ = r,n1111 = ar A = tt'P'P_e= ro:i..:r: = rt,t-- = nooP..l- = q+t..o­ qu h :,- . : n �,),,h : -0 ,h.C: ,11 ,:J ':.f"} : ij reb : h lY.'i' OD{\ hrf' (De: : 'I',,C'ct : OD lPl noi11(l}c = r>i.:,-.rw f"J.:t:= �t,,i= 1'."}..tB'r = l\011..·t..;,¥(Dc :r nJ-1..flJAf"}= k.f : l'b9°'ltl'i : {laJ•6Ib : 1--P,_e = "'l.th,,.tC : rl,:J°l(O : f+ln : 01/{ll;( : llll O'J.f l..;J"J'r 1

":rm-

1.""ic-;

=

ttart--�0r tj:C � .. = fLT= _eu1 = o•lt-: noo�oof::: 'tt- ft1,(Dc: 1t_eB'i9°= fLA: f(lmar = ro•ti); = h� = ffl= r ,n°l = hu r:,-. = 7,1Pifln:,.. = +lf:'i''l'PA==

r:

r,e"1'1� : qr-:,:: '11l: L�: 't-Jftf,t&:: {l{IDcft-: fl°,l:µ: 1,l:: 7'mt,... f+ �.< .= l\ODtr� = t\l11/ot..Pr:,-. = o.1r = 1'.,Y-1'i = hit.11J1Lf,= 1.1c = 't-tl tl,lIJ«"} = nc::,r--= ti'C : h il 'I ll ,f-- w-c;: :,,ti tiA 'I i:1 : 1',l;, °Im lIJ« : ,t, �l11/ t : l1I/ {ll� : h. !:C"l (De :i illl'14'l..Cr:,-- 1 �Cf: : (1rf:9° : 0�'1--dt : •fl,-h.C: P''I : P'C'¼:,.. : m"J : <k' l'C: - :1 ff��(§)h1�rf,ovt\h,,.rro• : '1--hht\'1 : �Cf: : floo{lm:,- . : O.A : "1'4'-0flo;J-A oe,:..y..= l'l'C = f"l''lvtlIJ«= u--a,t,;;:= '1ACl�'J°= flODAil = oai.?J'f= h1Jt.. e..ctirlD4= '1f..'C1 q>A ::

.e.n(l)< =

n'Pc;m- = �Jt.lj: = ntj: ..f = fl'C = rr'lvt'J°= ;,.1s.,= 1�= n(1Dc1t-'J° = oo:i� = 116c = r,r�t .'i = r'l--&.t..ao= t\ODtr� = ht\,,l•t..;,1m 1t1Pr1-- :,,�;1-- = rui .&.'l'C: lf'a: h.il1·f',lD•9° :: i't"}. (';: 11.'r: OlCCllD•'J°: o,,{\,)•: UDJ-"'ODC: h'i' it.o:,-- = n:\i\ = r"r�t..on = naoir� = h 1� = ,-..,J.1..' = 1 g- = roi�mc = 'I (I}«

=

=

=�

fl ti. lJ : q.� �:,.. :; ,,.,,. If;J J!-"f" : fO"J.4>C-0 : l1IJ {ll�-'J° : or,.fr : h 'J° 'J"T 2 fOIJ..Y. 1..'? n"l..c; = ,,-ct,qy,,,:,-9'° = h1 �" OJ« = r�:,,.,h = -O,h,c 2 ;,1" = <I!'I' c = � n:I = "-c; = i71.:Ili= f"1--0Dflh,,turo• : flnl�A :: �19°: :h'}�: .R,�q� : Qf-;f:� fP'C: +:v'PCJIJ.?'1--: fi'tlIJ«�q:f"} : h.U1',:fc; f}\UT: A� : c;:,!014 : .,Onro� :: OdJA?i' : q_r9°�'J° : i't.{ILl\1. : lf'i : h.A,,-r1·f'J° : h1�: 001/fll]f: h1t�,, ��: fi�1.. l°1: rof,'J° f _e'?'l� : 'lf-1:• n11S'1':J"": h.9°'1lD': 1\ 1 Y..+<f>Cl!t, : fi.. �f-imC" OtHOD �: fw-Cil: tD4C{l: _e1'1.'i'A:: fOl/..fl•: fy,{l"f'�c;:: f�+f= Y-.l�= 1a9°f:'ii: hit\"t � ftPJ...lr= noulf'i:fro•i o:i..:t:= n�,rm= -O t11»C= ,nai= <!?TC: Uf'EY.(�) h!J!.TlWftbri-«f&> : (l1f9°:Jw f hOrC{l : J,'Jf.'J�J>�TlD- : {l(\°t ·<�me : rw,.c(l � 0011:r � lufl'l : 11/tro« : t\ODht--hC: tt_e'i•trsin :s

rlD"

,,f'A : 00 h : o &.:Pf: : ht\'i: :: n 1f: :,fl nlPl'l�9° :: 'il��ttt :: ij t\flJ;g,. : �'1C f,f,t;lf ,.,,10. ilt\tr�? ODAIJ g ft�91:li= ro:i..1'!= "H-•1 1-t = 1,,�?fc= .,r<1>t..o-,l-=nc hc=u•t\=· :O,n°1 : l..:l' � @"m:s_..... : ft\, ftID" :i «f � = !'1 clJ'aj ,1,'I 'I'A ::

=

- 41-


�-'!:�·= ;.

fh.P'OD&. : h rl•ll? � �lD•t ..jf fLT : ll<D•Cil'a_= ��•ilrJ,-<:.r..c: OD 4!1'C=·;f;:f;/:j;9.-1'C: .!i: 4>1= !!lf:?:"9. :: l}.9°. rnrnm•: ,7.. ,)�:,.. lj" •t)• .-. 1!111: : W hfljlfl]i 'I! : J1{L'i. : {'lDtlJ : lfc:» : ill\ 11., lD- -� (loo• It· = l'} : f u:J.:r: . • " . h,t1°1t;: • • • 1·•I1t : on�. ,;:,. : �1 fl'PA : -Ot\'iA 2: ;,. m-t-,rm- : �CJ': : 11.·l·?" : m-titro• , OD if,;.'} , '), '}.<;.fm•,pm• , I'JI IJ • "' • . '·�X·: °IA'l6J!> : h1J;.''lht\,r : n.tl'if.\ :: ll/t h...., t:-m- : 'l•�f, = (IJ<. ll Tff:,. : · 11:f. · = ll/th/t t;: � OJ• : U•l\ 1:9" , m f (l 1't.'1TlD• : fl. "it,. : �4!0D« : 1lt\ t:;/;\ :: · . 1<;'f : . • f,v , �cJ': = ., t. = OD:,n.:,. , z·i , 1> = 1 1ur:E·2 = '¼. 9". n h .,::r:;:m. . "' n,:,-. = (>.Foot,.) : fl°lt!\� : l-tr,:,. : +flm :: . l•C.l!·:

·n

.

I

I

I • •

-42-


.

,

I-IIGI-1 COURT Asn1ara

I •

)t1dges: I

Ato Haile A111an Ato Usman Arabi Ato Tes:fit Ze111ichael

. TAGLIERO ET AL vs. TURUNESH. 1�EFERI ET AL ALDO Civil AJ)peal No. 153/64

Successio11s-For111 of I--Vill-Riglzts of Collc1teral Relatives-ValiditJ' of Evide11ce adduced-Civil Code Arts. 884(1), 903, 939(1), 971, 2010� 2011-(Civ. Proc. C. ,4rt. 345(2). This is an appeal against tl1e decision of tl1e Awradja Court which l1eld the will invalid and made the present respondents (collateral relatives), additional legatees . .Held: A\vradja Court decision reversed. 1. \\1 ills n1ade in pursL1ance to botl1 tl1e law of the domicile of the testator (foreign land) and the la\v of Ethiopia are valid. 2. Second and third relationsl1ips a.re not endowed with a right to the property inherited unless appointed by universal title.

I. 2. 3.

·4.

5•

<i ·

J'UDG1\1ENT This is a case involving the qt1estion of succession of Co1nmandatore G·uovanni Tagliero, deceased. It has been ascertained that the deceased died on 1· u1y 5th 1971 G.C. i11 tl1e city of Tori110, Italy, \vl1ere he was residing. It has also been ascertained i11 tl1e course of tl1e arguments tl1at on Jt1ly I 5th, 1963 G.C. deceased \Vrote and sig11ed a will in accordance with tl1e provisions of Article 880(b) o.f tl1e Civil Code and deposited st1cl1 \Viii witl1 the notary public of Torino. S11ch notary pt1blic revealed the contents of the will to members of the fa1nily of tl1e dece�1sed at their request on July 12tl1, I 971 G.C. TI1e v.rill made public by tl1e 11otary disclosed that the entire i1nmovable property registered . i11 tbe nan1e o·f tl1e deceased and located in As111ara as well as tl1e t1npaid sl1ares i11 a Co111pany establisl1ecl in As111ara, na1ned A. and G. Tagliero and operati11g with a capital of E.$100,000 (one ht1ndred tl1ousand) devolved on I1is brother Aldo Tagliero. The obligation 'lll'as i1nposed 011 tl1e legatee to admi11ister the proceeds fron1 both movable a11d i111movable property as follows: t\vo-tl1irds of all proceeds to be give11 to deceased's wife, Mrs. Chesta L11igi t1ntil her death, the ren1ai11ing one tl1ird of tl1e proceeds to be give11 to the deceased's sisters Tagliero Virgi11ia Tagliero Ada, Tagliero Adel a11d Tagliero E111IDa t111til tl1eir death. The beneficia­ ries 11nder the \viII, represe11ted by tl1eir attor11eys, filed i11 the Asmara Av.1radja Cot1rt a probate a11d adn1inistration file (No. 68/64) asking tl1at the will left by the testator be validated and that tl1ey be allowed to receive tl1e proceeds arising fro1n tl1e successio11 pursua11t to tl1e provisio11s of Article 971 of the Civil Code. '"fl1e Awradja Court of Asn1ar�1 ordered tl1at a notice be publisl1ed to tl1e effect that persons who might wish to co11test tl1e clai1n of the applicants, if any, - 43 -


- VOL. D{ - J:�o. 1 W A L . N IA P O HI T E JOURNAL . OF

eir tl1 of tio jec ob ce tan ns bs su on e th the h . th wi t ou C he t e b�for a appear r1ng ec n p n p res nts e d. n o tio ap ca bli pu [ ear ed h suc i to . n a u p s r u . d e 1fi our date spec t � a e . . . ,.d t · h -1· th I ey 1m c h a y too e T s y e n wer r o tt . . e a . . ir e th si b ed t n . e s r e p r s s h o ; m K be ge er En th mo y �h I ' e a ass sam e J th t at : : e e {d born to r 1r the t�e n1� t tha and n; ow th e dece hls of en ldr chi n� :J ase d': ��c�a:ed � d a11 , 1n ult res ord a acc as . anc t tha e d an wi·th the ad e d th , o b e er w r . � e h t fa . . t h · 1ey, oo, t ave I · a e, d rig h Co 1l t C1v to shar the of (2) S44 -- e in. • Art f o ns prov1s1o . . h er t ro b d _ e as c e e d r ei th f o y ._ rt e p ro the p . ,.. �ed e th i..;ea d de ce die sin l e aving a t tha d e tt ID1 sub ts can pli ap public . Counsel for �e t _ will of u�d sho rs ose opp be rejected. In the by d e c odu intr m clai 7 will the s on of 1s1 ov l p1 tic Ar the e 82 d ote qu he · �t e ) ?f the 9(3 um arg his of _ rt suppo . Civil Code, wh1.ch prov1des that only those peop le who are mentioned 10 the will can inhe rit 8. Counsel for oppon ents submitted in his reply that: . . (a) The instrument presented by the _applicants as const1tut1ng th� will of the deceased does not meet the requirements of form of a public will under the provisions of Art. 881 of the Civil Code in that it is nowhere stated that such instrument \Vas written, read and signed in the presence of four witnesses. (b) Half of the will was hand-written, while the other half was typewritten; it can therefore be said that the whole of the will was not written by the deceased in accordance witl1 the provisions of Art. 884(1) of the Civil Code. (c) Eve11 if the will was written by the deceased, it is open to invalidation wher e it is not d eposit ed with a notary or in a court registry within seven years after it has been made . On tl1e ha.sis of the above reasons, oppo11ents claimed that it be considered as though their deceased brother had left no will, a11d that they be allowed to participate in the succession und er the provisions of Art. 844(2) a11d 853 of the Civil Code. 9 • Counsel for applicants, in his counter-argument, said that the .facts as stated by their opponents were untrue and that they seen1ed desig11ed to pervert tht truth (a) that the will l eft by the deceased which was put in evidence was hand-wntten by t�e . testator in accordance wjtl1 the provisio11s of Arts. 880(b} and 9�3 of the c1v1l Code and was immediately deposited with a notary; �} . that since th� wil l was presented after it had bee11 .proved t.h,1t it ,vas made 1� a_ccord�nce with the law and as such wa co -, vi pro all ce, ev ide i1 s nc lus i.ve s ons _ cit�d by the opponents were irrele ed sta t wa s .it va nt ; (c) i11 conclusio11s, � t. at 10 view of the fact that the wi d a� ato r tes t ll e tl1 was. pr t ov of t11 ed at o be since accord.ing to Ar·t 939( 1 ) . . rd thi d , o f con t. h e e s C1v1l the Code of relatives . · . or t ou rlb r�lationsh1p were presumed . o 11a . to .·be tacitly left out ' opponents d n right to cla·im · in· .her1·tance tO the deceased's p ro p e rt y. In a · . . . e � r:�: . 00 January 25, 1972 01st under Prob11:te and Adnll File No. 1�1lf tl� �: ra J and invalidated the w·ii ; �ourt upheld the argt1ments raised by the 0 d n a t e dece sed by citing Article 881, 882, 884, ��� 903 of the Civil Code� 1� � _ g. n o Ill he a ld that tl1e opponents shot1ld also be included the deceased . 's heirs. · This is an appeal brough n. o isi dec t bY attorneys of th e applicants against the 0f bhe Awr· adja Court. Bee:sons fo� the appeal __ e w1[, 1 left by the testat irturt .li '!IOO o c or · w' h • ic dJ · a h . wa Awra s �,fr. �ilenGe p.F0:v�s filla.t: . presented to the .

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l

f 1


ALDO TAGLIBRO ET AL v. TURUNESH TEFERI ET AL

(a) The deceased had written the will in his own hand-writing; (b) He deposited the will with the notary on the same day that he wrote it; (c) The notary, upon presentation of evidence that the testator was dead, revealed the contents of the will to the relatives of the deceased at their request. The Awradja Court, \vithout properly analyzi11g the evidence and by invoking groundless arg11n1en�s and citing irrelevant articles, invalidated the will thus commit­ ting a gross error 10 law. If the court's decision is not reversed it will not only cause problems of an economic nature bt1t wo11ld also be against public morality. Since the heirs of the deceased are only those mentioned in the will, respon­ dents cannot raise opposition by claiming tl1e rigl1t of inheritance. It was argued in the Awradja Court by counsel for appellants on January 3, 1972 that respondents did not have to produce wit11esses to prove that they are sisters of the deceased. It was \\1rongly assumed by such Court that appellants accepted respondents claim that they were sisters of the deceased and gave an erroneous judgment. Even at the court of appeal, attorneys for appellants did 11othiog to show that they have agreed to their contention. In tl1eir original statement opponents said that their n1otl1er (who was also the mother of the deceased) was called Erigebe Kassa. In their written supplement to this stateme11t, which they thought would back their original claim, they said that their mother was called Imahoy Mikure Kassa, forgetting what tl1ey stated in their original contention. They said that should the co11rt find this to be relevant, they would be happy if the c ourt considered and examined it for them. In addition to the photocopy of deceased's and asked the Court visions of Arts. 327(3)

above, cot1nsel for appellants have produced in will to prove that such will was ha11dwritten by the to accept it as additional evidence pursuant to and 345 of the Civil Procedure Code. It was so

evidence deceased the pro­ done.

Another pl1otocopy of the will, d11ly autl1enticated by tl1e Ethiopian Embassy and the 1v1i11istry of Foreign Aflffairs was given to respondents. In concluding their arg11ment, counsel for appellants said that the laws cited by their opponents in tl1e Awradja Court were irrelevant to the present case. They, in turn, cited Arts. 884-, 897, 903, 939, 2010 and 2011 of tl1e Civil Code in sup­ port of tl1eir clain1. Co11nsel for respondents begged tl1e co11rt to affirm the decision of the Awradja Court and repeated the arg·u1nents stated in tl1e Court of first instance. The Law The problem at hand is the will left by the deceased, Comma11datore Guovanni Ta,gliero. It is this Court's conte11tion that the Awradja Co11rt erred in law in deciding that the 'Nill was invalid for the fallowing reasons. The Awradja Court did not take into co11sideration tl1e fact that the will was ma�e on July 15 1963 Ci.C. in accordat1ce with the requirements of the place of ) res1dence of the d.eceased, i.e. Italy, and of Articles 884(1), 897(1) and 903 of the -45-


L. IX - No. I O V W A L N IA P O Il IT E F JOURNAL O

tl th 1e wi ry ta no ed sit of po . de c de s wa . . _ n C1v s ea ll wi e ch Su d's · de Co p ·1 1 l a a 1 � 10 th E ce . d e 1 igi. s d n a d e ft a r d s a w it y a d 1e tl n o e c n e of res1d sy in Italy and the bas E1n ian iop Eth . tl1e by ted tica hen aut u Mi • istr . Ev1 d. ence, du. 1y y . . ' t the t no tl1a c e ffi· t e ary, e th to d acting e . ' c ti d d a 111 acco n e J:f e b s a . b s' 1r a i1 . of Foreign A rtl 1 o_ f d e' d iv C ·1 c· 971 1 . le isc d . o ose . le ic rt A the f o s n o si vi ro p cont ents e th l1 it dance w . . st 11 11e 1e q tl re at d se ea ec d 1e tl of . of the will to th e family Cotlnsel for appellants produced a second p�1 ?toco.1JY. of tl1e \Vill to prove that the wllole of the ·will was in deceased's ha�d\vr1t111g. Tb.1s was presented as addi­ tional evidence after it was ascertai11ed that 1t _was a !rue copy of the will. In the interests of j11 stice, the Court accepted such evidence 1n accorda11ce with the provi­ sions of Art. 345(2) of the Civil Proce�t�re Code. A1�otl1er photocopy of such \Viii was given to respondents. The authe11�t1c1ty of the \V1ll pr�se11ts no problem since the instrument consists of one ha11d-wr1tten pa.g e a11d two lines on tl1e back of the same page and is duly signed. Arts. 2010 and 2011 of the Civil Code provide tl1at evidence produced in such a manner is deemed to be authentic. The appellants have 11ot ope11 ly accepted that responde11ts are sisters and n ephe\v of the deceased. Even if this ,vere so, they ,vould have no right to the inheritance since they are seco11d and tl1ird relations of tl1e deceased. It can be assumed that, in accordance with the provisions of Art. 939(1) of tl1e Civil Code, they ,1,1ere tacitly left 011t. Basically, in a case where a will is involved, it is the words of the t estator that have to be considered. We l1ave, therefore fo11nd that all argt1n1ents presented by respondents are of no effect in law. For all the above reaso11 s, we find the decision of the Awradja Court in Probate . and Administration File No. 68/64 given on 1·anucrry 25, 1972, to �e in1proper 1n law and hereby decide that such decision be quasl1 ed a11d the will be declared valid. . Copy of the present judgment will be sent to the Avvradja Court. Botl1 parties. will bear their own costs. Jtidgment delivered at an op en heari11g High thi s 5tl 1 cla y of Apr.ii 1972 i 11 tL1e Court (Asmara).

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Supreme Imperial Court Asmara

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Justices:·

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Ato Haile Ama11 Dejazmach Wolde Michael Mehari Ato Zewdu Asfaw HIRYTY GUANGUL (HEIR OF WO Z. HIWOT ASHEBER) v. AZALETCH ZEWELDE ET AL

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Civil Appeal No. 72/62

Promise to sell an i1n.movable-co11tract of loan-indispettsible parlJ'-opposition Arts. 358, 359, and 360 of tlie Civ. P. C., Art. 2877 of the Civil Code. · This case was originally instituted. i n tl1e Woreda Co11rt. Tl1rougl1 the process of appeal it reacb�d to H.I.M's Chilot. The case was then remanded back to the Supreme Imperial Court. Held: claims of the appellants submitted to the Supren1e Imperial Court were dismissed and the case was decided for the petitioner to the Chilot. 1. Parties indispeosible to a suit must be joined. 2. Promise to sell can be revoked at tl1e option of the promissor. 3. Contract of sale of an immovable should be made in writing.

JUDGMENT The case which originally started between W/o Azaletch Zewelde and Balamb�ras Gebre-medhi11 Tesemma involved a house which allegedly the Bala.mbaras promised to_ sell to W/o Azaletch who loaned the Balambaras $1,763. Ho,;vever, the Balam­ bar_ as s_ol� the said property to W/o Hiwot and as a rest1lt W/o i\.zaletch brought this suit 1n the Woreda Court. The case went tip from tl1e \Voreda Court up to t?e Supreme Imperial Court wh icl1 fi11ally upheld \V/o Azaletch's clain1 of pre-enip· ,v/o 1100 to buy the said pro erty. As soon r favo her as the Court decided in p . Azaletch transferred the property in her na1ne and sold it to Major l{abte Selassi e. . · · tted . At . h b t �ls sta ge, su W/ o Hr� vot far , who was not a party to the case so .· _ i��� a petitio� to the Ferd_ M1rmera opposit1g the s d� i 's t Co ur Sup ren 1e In1perial On the. 0th:er hand, MaJor Habte Selassie Minn su b 111 itted a petitio 11 to the Fe: d ve t r equesting !t. not to order a stay of ex ha o ect 1 t io11 o n th e land wluch lie claims • bough. t leg·1t 1mately and to affi rm . . _. the St1preme In1per1al Cot1 r·t's dec1s1on . . · . t . ursuant The Ferd Mirmera 111 E. ri· trea th . . . O . 1 C hi en . ga ve to its re co . on m m en da t1 . bY to a d e · t t o P 1 s bm p 1 tt e 1 ed to it by the respondent. The etition was tl1en rev1 we ppo th F � 11 i_ · p · ·· e erd Mirmera m Add'is, whic o the " h d1.ng reco1 n_me i�clu nded that the case, n tio sition, be heard b the Su da en e em ec pe Im o r ial Court (Asmara). Tlus r � i t was which was forward: d to the f{o�o lo h · the ur based 0n Art. 358 ff• 0f t . h e . able Afe-Negus Kita\v et al and to Civil Procedure Code. a to '' ... Art. 358 - Any person rtY pa was . w h O 8hould or co u d b.ave bee11 made Sl!lit and whose interests · are· � l e h · · f p 1 ' , . auecte a d · aY m by t a JUd gment in th su1 e . o • · )� l!lmt _ a j·afty t@ Slllch suit eith e . an e . fil . , ' n e, � t o ers 1v d _ � n or throt�gh a rep esenta p l&S1'ti01i1 t,e such j:udi gm.ent at anyi tune before such Judgment 1s execute · -56-

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HIRYTY 'GUANGUL v. AZALETCH ZEWELDE ET AL

Art. 359(1) - An opposition shall be in the form of a petition which shall, on payment of the prescribed court fee, be filed in the court having given the judg­ ment opposed to. Art. 360(2) - ��e proceedi11gs upon the filing of the opposition shall be subject to the same prov1s1ons as the proceedings upon the original action and the court roay on the con1pletion of such proceedings confirm, vary or set aside the judgment opposed to. !l1erefore, p�rsuant to the above articles it was decided that W/o Hiwot's op­ position be sl1b1111tted to tl1e Sl1prme Court i n Asmara with a copy of the opposi­ tion served on W/o Azaletcl1 and rleirs of Major Habte Selassie and the court was ord ered to hear and decide the case observing these procedures. Since delay in decidi11g tl1e case was likely to cause more harm it was in addition recommend ed that it be heard and decided as soon as possible and if any of tl1e parties wants to appeal against tl1e decision that he directly submit his peti­ tion to tl1e Ferd Ataris in A.ddis Ababa in accordance with the earlier recommend­ ations ma de b)' tl1e Ferd Miremeras." Eventhougl1 this Court was cognizant of this recommendation and did everything possible to effect the i1nmediate l1earing and dis_position of the litigation, the case had to lag dlle to certain unescapable procedural delays. For the purposes of clarity, a brief reference to the facts of the case at this juncture is essential. I. The case first arose when Balambaras Gebre-Medhin sold the property 11e had inl1erited from his motl1er to \1//o Hiwot. After the property has been register­ ed under W/o Hiwot's name W/o Azaletcl1 Zewolde brought a suit against the Balambaras alleging that sl1e l1ad loaned the Balambaras $1,763 to help him cover the funeral services and TEZK4R (a feast on the 40th day of the death of a person) of his deceased 111otl1er. Whe11 he failed to pay her tl1e money she alleges that he promised her to sell the l1ouse l1e inl1erited from his mother to l1er, and since he faile d to do so sl1e claimed that the contract of sale he made with W/o Hiwot be invalidated and tl1e property be sold to her. 2. The respondent, Balambaras Gebre-Medhin, in his statement of defence ackno\vledged the debt, bl1t asked that it be set off with tl1e house rent d11e to him from \V/o Azaletcl1. As regards tl1e case of the ho·use however, the record of the lo\ver co11rt s11ows that tl1e Balambaras denie d to have entered into any contract of sale \Vith W/o Azaletch. 3. Since the property 1111 der litigation l1ad already been bought, paid for an d its O\vnershi1) trans!erred to a third party W/o Hiwot, and the courts were aware ,of this fact they l1ave made a proced11ral error in not joining W/o Hiwot in the procee dings. 4. The High Co11rt, on appeal - rectifying the · errors of tl1e Woreda an d Awraja Courts and protecting tl1e rigl1ts of vV/o Hiwot deci ded as follo\vs:a) It reversed tl1e jl1dgment of the Asmara an d Hamass�n Awraja Cou: t. b) It decided tl1,tt tl1e parties settle their accounts afillcably by o:ffset1ng tl�e admitted a1nol1nt of $1 763 with tl1e house rent that was due to the Balam­ baras. I-Iowever, reservi�g the rights of both parties to bring suit in court that h.as proper jurisdiction if tl1ey failed to reach an a.greement as to the set off.

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. X L L . O o l V W N A L N A I P O I H T JOURNAL OF E

es ti e ar th p s e se er en w p ex d er or h ot er d e an d es fe t ur to hear co rd ga re c) As their own expenses. . /� ed W ct t je le re za A e pl 's ci ch in pr in ai �l ad h t tir m based. Since the co . of sale tl 1e ab ov e dec1s1on w as not p e Jm is om pr roper or of t ac tr n o c e h t on unfair. · l1e t · le of sa p1 e ty er th op it<? sp to �e , rt ou C w /o Hiwot al ri pe Im 5. The Supreme y ur to bu vo fa 1· e th he 10 d sa de ci de e d m an al op pe • pr ap 's h t·y. tc le . za er A /o • . W . d t . e . p acce . on d er 1�1 op ec pr h t . im e d an h rig ? 1n nt ts o1 pp sa d1 of W/o ry ve is h t of . lt su . As a re 1�g o _ d �e wh r an wa un n t1o 1ga � l1t e s th \Va 1n rty pa a stayi ng t no s wa o wh Hiwot, t tha y s ert wa op pr the iste d reg an ed ect aff red re i n her we e, om h er h at y ull cef pea h. tc le za A /o W to d re er sf an tr as w e m na Explaining how the Supreme C?urt �ave a j_t1?g�ent prejudi?ial to her without giving h er an opportunity to be �o�ned 1n the l1�1gat1on, -'� /o H1wot p.etitioned the Emperor. The order from the M1n1stry of Pen to the M1n1stry of Justice and from the Ministry of Justice to tl1is court shows that H.I.M. had ordered the stay of execution of the Supreme Court's judgment 11ntil the case was studied and presented to him by the Ferd Mirmera. 6. However, W/o Azaletcl1 either becat1se of lack of confide11ce on the Supreme Court's decision in her fa,,our or perhaps witl1 malice transferred. the property in her name and immediately sold it to Major Habte-Selassie who transferred it in bis name.

7. The Vice Afe-N·egus of tllis Co·urt explained to the Ministry of Justice in his letter No. 983/58, on July 5, 1966 that the sale was effected prior to the stay of exectition ordered by H.I.M. His Excellency the Minister of Justice in. his letter, No. 5172/6/1 I, of September 2, 1966, in which l1e ga,,e ,1 reply to the Vice Afe-Negus stated: '�- ·.·T h e �tigatio11 (case) is being stu.died by the Fred Mirn1era with an order that . it 16 . to give priority to this case a1 1d send its recon1mendations as soon as possi�le._ The_ house in dispute is to remain in its present condition, and it is ordered �h at 1� 18 neither to be sold, exchanged, improved or to deteriorate until the case 1s decided by the Chilot. '' 8 · Since t.he Honourable Ato Tebebu Beyene, th e tl1en Vice Afe-Negus of �his .uo � ourt, 0rdere� the Office of tl1e register of property and cl1jef officer of execu ; 0 ly with the order in the letter that he· wrote to tl1em on ep e e P� S t mb � nce' 1 �6 � ' . ' ��e property preSllIOably must have plia m co in now remai 11 ed attached tip-to WIth , tws order.

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in the opposit ion forwar t �d:i�;'. Hiwo i:���: ::� f ded W/o by the of heirs Hab 'he st:temen_t of defence subn1itted by W /o Azaletcl1 an baras Gebre-Medhin ' , we ave given the foll owing decisio n . si

DECISION

Dn W/o Hiwot's Opposition:61 5/ 5 1 Whe!reas bh:e Supreme Court' . . . . No . ment _No. 266/57� �1·1 e n ble partY and- �Qi. �8�fijJ,, e-n Man.eh 1CJ s .d�e1s1on �n .Judg si 73 e . isp failed 1nd to Join W /o H1wot as an ,� il'e Sllit1! in Sll)Ite efr· Civ1'l p rocedure Articles 358-359 a·nd 360. - 58 -

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HIRYfY GUANGUL v. AZALETCH ZEWELDE ET AL

Whereas, it is clearly shown th�t the proper_ty . in dispute rightly belonged to whom from W /o H1wot bought baras 1t 1n good faith, paid the agreed Balam tlie _ sum, registered 1n her name and l1ad proper possession of it; Whereas W/o. Azaletch's �laim against the owner of the property stated, ''you have orally promised to sell it to me. Later, yo11 broke your promise; and your sale of the property to W/o Hiwot is not proper''. And the respondent had denied the fact that he had promised to sell the property to her; Since, even if the Balat11baras l1ad orally promised W /o Azaletch, who established sucl1 pro1nise through witnesses, tl1e Balambaras is nevetheless free to change his mind any time as there is no la\V prohibiting him fro1n selling his property to any one of l1is cl1oice and since Article 2877 of the Civil Code provides that tl1e sale of an in11novable will be of no effect 11nless the contract is in writing. Therefore, upl1olding tl1e Higl1 Court decisio11 of December 21, 1970, 11 11der file No. 607 /60, we hereby declare the contract of sale between Balambaras Gebre Medhin and vV/o Hiwot proper and valid . The property now registered under Major I-Iabte-Selassie's 11ame shall be transfered in the name of \V/t Hiryty Guanugl, \V/o Hiwot's heir, before January 8, 1972. Since pursuant to the Supreme Court's decision the property l1ad been trans­ ferred to W/o Azaletcl1, and W/o I-Iiwot ,vas not able to get the house rent due to her. W/o Azaletcl1 Ze\volde is ordered to pay through the officer of the Execu­ tion of decree, the house re11t fron1 the day of the transfer in l1er name upto January 8, 1972 on the basis of tl1e rent she used to pay to W/o Hiwot before tl1e transfer. If she fails to pay a11y property of hers sufficient to cover the debt sl1all be attacl1ed a11d sold by J)t1blic at1ction in conforn1ity \Vith Execution proce­ dures. To enable the High Court to execute this judgment we l1ereby order it in accor­ dance with Art. 374 of the Civil Procedure Code, to 1uake necessary additional or­ ders for tl1e effective exect1tio11 of this decree. On the opposition made by heirs of l\1ajor Habte-Selassie

It is IJOssible that Major l�alJte-Selassie bought and transferred the property in ltis nan1e in good faith. But since vV/o Azaletch's cliam of right of pre-emption to tl1e property was not proper and sl1e transterred the property in her name imme­ diately at1d sold it within four days after the tra.nsfer pursuant to the Supreme Court's decision jn her fa.vo11r \Ve find it diffict1lt to say that she acted in good faitl1 when she sold the property. Since W/o I-Iiv1ot was 11ot only the first to buy the property ·b11t moreover �o_ught it in good faitl1 it is 11ot proper that l1er, rights be prejudiced by st1cl1 1na­ l1c1ous tactic3. Therefore, W/o Azaletch sl1all pay tl1e money she had received from Major Habte-Selassie for tl1e house to the heirs of tl1e M,1jor ut1til January 8, 1972 and the heirs of the Major sl1all accept s11ch payment. Tl1e 11se of the house by heirs ·Of _the Major 11ntil Jan11ary 8, 1972, shall be taken as an interest on tl1e . money their father l1ad paid for tl1e sale of tl1e house and tl1ey shall not be required to pay rent for the period d11ri1 1g which they were living in the hot1se.

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L. ··IX - No. 1 O V W A L N IA P O lll T E JOURNAL OF

l nu ti n Ja a . rs u ei h ry e , th 8 to 19 , ey on m 72 e th 8 0 ' . a y p 0 i.ntere h c t le a z A o / W lf, s . es w o t e sh y e n o m e h t r o f r will be asked from he up to th e date fixed nt ou am e ol wh e th y pa ove, she ab But sho�Id she fail to . 72 y g a . tin nu ar Ja st 9 r of % 9 st re te in 19 l ga le ' e th y a p o t d e rr u q will be re e s -M ra re ba eb n1 a, G al d B in an dh h tc le za A o / W n ee tw be On the dispute

1ce fe1. of de t t e11 mi !em sub sta 's ted to this C hin ed M bre Ge ras ba lam From Ba our t een W /o h betw 1etc Aza suit the and that see . we , 0 197 Balambaras , 9 er emb . ov on N . . , h as b ar er, am owev al � � th the Woreda Cou by d te itu st in st fir as w n hi Gebre-Med rt . 1ff nt a1 pl h, tc le za A /o W , nt de on sp re e made th Balambara,s G·ebre-Medhin i11 his statement of claim to the Woreda Court alleged that W/o Azaletch had been receiving the rent on the ho?se he had inherited from his mother for three years and tl1ree months on the b�s1s of a pow�r of attorney given to her by their contract of agency; and tl1a_t she failed to pay h1m the money that was due to him. He asked her to pay lum the amount that would be left after the deduction of the $1,763.- she had paid for the funeral services and the Tezkar of his mother. Since the suit brought by Balambaras Gebre-Medhin against W/o Aza1etch had not been decided, .and since W/o Azaletch's claim of pre-emption is reversed by our judgment, we advise the two parties to settle their accounts in line ,vith the High Court's decision. If they fail to agree we reserve their right and t·his judgment does not prevent them from bringing suit in the Court competent to try it.

As W/o Azaletch is the one responsible for bringing this vexatious suit she will be responsible to pay the costs, the amount of which will be fixed by the Court after the parties submit their bill of costs. .V:'e hav_e o:dered the Execution Office to execute this· judgment in lin e wit? . a.dd1t1onal dir�ct1ve Arr s tha t ma y ,vith be given by the High Court in accordance . 374 of tb_e C1v1l Procedure Code. Copies of this judgment will be imn1ed iately sent to the High Court and the Execution Office. Judgment delivered in open court on December 28 197 in the prese nce of 1 counsel for both parties, in the absence of Balambaras Gebre-Medhin Tesse ma. ' W��ING - Any P�rty dissatisfied with this decision should submit his appli· cat_ on - ect to the Fird Mirmera in r i s Addis A ba ba within thirty day n confo i mi: t:1� tte recommendation ta fo rw ar de d I-I i by A N f eg us th e K. e on w et a . an / e order from the Imperi al Chilot. to t We en in AD DE ND s UM , addition order py of this judgment to be the office of regist-r ation of immov�ble pro:ert��

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- 63 -


IllGH COURT Asmara· Judges:

Ato Z,ewdu Asfaw Ato Usman Arabi Ato Tesfit Zemichael '11UMEZGI BERAKI v. A NNILO RIFONE Civil Case No. 42/63

Extra-contractual liability-Assessment of Damages-Tlze in1pact of contractital relatio11ship 011 the assessment-Civ. C. Arts. 1790-1799, 2088, 2549, 2550, 2559. A suit instituted to claim damages for an accident suffered by an emplO)'ee in the discharge of his duties. Held: For Plaintiff 1. Even though the relationship between an employer and an employee is contractual and liability is to be viewed under contract law, the extent of compensation should be assessed on ihe basis of the provisions dealing with extra-contractua l liability. 2 . It is only in the absence of provisions in the Civil Code that other la,111s can be applied.

J

JUDGMENT

The plaintiff was an en1ploy ee of the respondent. On December 17, 1969, and j while in the discharge of his duties, a falli11g iron bar injl1red plaintiff's right han_d thumb; he was taken to a hospital where i t was found necessary to amput te �is a �n oyees injured finger. Respondent was insured against accidents suffered by his etnpl the course of their duties and as a result plaintiff was given 1nedical treatn1ent 10 i a hospitaJ as an out-patient for fifty days. He then appeared before a n1edical board I to h ave t he extent of his injury assessed and was given a certificate to tlie effect th�t . the extent of his_ disabili ty amounted to 25%. An app]ication ,vas �ade tot � � Ministry of Community Development to hav e the amoun of compensa_ti on or t �as mages fixed. The Insurance Company with '. fed tnSU wh ich tl1e espondent was 1· ma�e . t� appear and the amount of compensation. du e wa.s assesse d by calcuJau:! i plaint iffs salary at the rate o f Eth. $ . 5 e Plaintiff, however, clai1ned !bat itb 0 0 p da r y. c N sala y �a� ?th -$ l . 20 per day and anc� rd l instituted this· suit claiming that, in acco ht e prov1 �u r)' . 10J s1ons o f Art · 2088 0f th . . t11e ) r · · · e c·1v1. 1 Code, his compensation :t° i' sustained. shouId amount to . Eth. $ 6,000.- (Six thousand Ethiopian Dollars . .tifI n In the course of the fi. rst h pJai , t a t ar�m d , t en_ . sai d Counsel respondent for e er should produce evide e to ff u s y edl g rather than sim J sta�f11 tha sustain _his claim f�r the . dama�es alle t e ,Mi11istrY the at h .eO the evid le enc e ava ilab h e reli on e 1s s of Natio:nal co!in. unit 1:) eveiopment b · · w e r' Lat _ and the Insurance Compa11y. pre file.ts, were being ar e� e to ame 7 Counsel said if plaintiff sl1ould have t��:r d, Even ' : e:�Utt©ns that his c@1fea u . e no r all_y took' he wo uld no t ha v� bee n 111Je �e � n a l 1l�g the iojnr: y eaus!d �o ur s n J la t mt� was caused by his negl1ge nce,_ h mages Ill (g��lfi1", m the name l da of · e Defendant, w hi m pa y as prepa.red to

l

....,.._, 64. '.


TIUMZEGI BERAKI v. ANNILO RIFONE

tl1e to according Labour Law published in 1958 (E.C.) 231.Etl1. $ of nt ou tlie am bit 3). Tl�e amount of damages fixe� by the Insurance Company was . . See Exhi o Nat1 stry lV n 1n l Com 11n1 y Develop111ent and Social Affairs tl1e � ! by ? � ! � � ed rov _ �p or1g1nal 1nd1cate ly d 111s w1ll1ngness to accept the said am011nt Pla1nt1ff 2). it Exllib (§ e �o�pany prepared � rec�ipt, be declared that he I1ad Ins11ran the r � afte _ b;t� . d 1nst1tuted tl1e prese11t s_111t. This �as pr�ba?lY so because he a1 mind his � ged . chan by people \Vho are interested rn 1nst1tut1ng groundless lit­ advised neously erro . as tl1e an1011nt claimed by i:>Iaintiff. The Ministry pay to f11ses r o11de11t Resp � n. ;atio Deve]op1ne11t fixed tl1e amount of damages to Eth. $ 231.­ Comn1u111ty al ation of N basing itself 011 �rts. 4� and_ 45 of the 1958 Labour Law. Moreover, tl1is Labour La,v is still applicable 111 Eritrea. Order No. 27 of November 15, 1962, sL1pports this contentio11. Plaintiff \Vas en1ployed by respo11dent 011 July 7, 1969 (See Exl1ibit No. 1) a11d "vas disn1.issed on December 17, 1969. I--Ie was being paid Etl1. $ 0.58 er day (_Exl1ibit �o. 10) and i �e total amount of_ salary h� received d11ring tl:e p _ entire period of 111s en1ployment 1s Etl1. $ 7 8 .04. Since pla111t1ff's monthly salary 1s $14.52, tl1e amo1111t he would get in one year wo11ld be$ 174 .24. According to tl1e Labour Lavv previo11sly cited, tl1is should be 11111ltiplied by six years and pro-rated against the perce11tage of disability sti:fl'ered by plaintiff. Such disability \Vas certified to amount to 25�/� and, as a r cs11lt, tl1e an1ou11t plai11tiff sl1ould get wo11Id be $231 . 36. * Botl1 plaintiff's a11d respondent's arguments l1ave been supported by docu1nentary evidence wl1ich is attached to the present record. That tl1e plaintiff \Vas a11 e1nployee of tl1e respondent, that l1e Sllffered ioj Ltry to l1is rigl1t l1and tl1umb \\1l1ile i11 the discharge of his d11ties and tl1at a medical board ascertai11ed that tl1e extent of l1is disability an1011nts to 25% is nowl1ere co11tested. The respondent does 11ot claim exemption from liability; it is tl1e extent of the con1pensatio11 that is being argt1ed upon. According to respo11dent's cou11sel, plaintiff s11ffered the inj11ry \Vhiie in the employment of respondent and h.ence the latter's liability should be determined by labour law and 11ot l1nder the provisions of extra-contractual liability. Art. 2088 of the Civil Code provides that the rl1les of extra-contractual liability arising out of abnormal risks, a11imals, b11ildi11gs or objects may not be invoked by a person wl10, 11nder a contract conclL1ded by the person legally responsible, is connected with the dangerous industrial activity, ani111al, b11ild­ ing or object wl1ich has caused tl1e damage. B11t even thougl1 the liability is to be vie\.ved under co11tract law, tl1e extent of compensatio11 should be assessed 011 the basis of extra-contract11al liability. Arts. 1790 to 1799 of the Civil Code sho11ld be taken i11to consideration. Even though there "vas a contract11al relationship between employer and employee, the forn1er is liable for i11j11ries sustained by tl1e latter in the course of his e1nployment (/-\rts. 2549 and 2550 of tl1e Civil Code). Since the responde11t is tl1e employer, it is clear that he is liable. The amount of compensation due sl1011ld be fixed by the Court and not by the Ministry of !'Tational Com1nunity Developme11t and Social Affairs a11d the case sho11ld be decided In accordance witl1 tl1e provisions of the Civil Code. Respondent's argument that the case should be decided by tl1e sta·ndards laid dow11 in tl1e 1958 Procla1nation is erroneous. The Proclamation v✓ ould only apply to i11sta11ces \vl1icl1 are not covered by t�e provisio11s of· the Civil Code. When tl1is Code specifically deals with a certa in situation, it is clear that its provisions sl1011ld be applied. *Tllis is an erroneou s calculation·' the correct a1nout1t sl1ould be $ 261 • 36.

- 65-


JOURNAL OF_ ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. IX - l�o. 1

se d ca ute . tit tl1e t ins tha d fin by we p e, ov ab la the of ixltiff 18 ba In vie\V se , 50 49 t?e of 25 25 s. d �� s on �d ou Civil gr le ab pt ce ac d Code) reaso_ nable an . . e T h d ere suff by y iff ur int 1n3 pla and pur �an Court hav1.ng seen the extent of bodily t to t lds ho tha de Co � n po il res Civ the of t 0 den 179 t. Ar of ons pay 11m t the provisi he su ry the inju ed. for tain sus m ion 1sat pe1 com as 0.2,00 $ . Eth of As the present suit was filed in. for111a pauperis this court holds that th e cou officer on and executi all the by other ed fees due be recover costs be covered rt by the partie_s respectively.

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It is also ordered that a copy of this judgment which is d e1·1vered this 27th day of· A pril 1972 be sent to the Execution Officer.

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-/il D 1lD• : cl:.r : hh1°lt\.11 : h"IC: ilt\ODm«: iJ:J>917f: f, 'i f : : l,:J ; J " OI ro l tL"10Jc : f A'l° '" : ;, 1 : l0lD f4 '1 9°Ah,J: : : /l\,1lA/f+t\f : �ar t 'h1�f lD'"9° i �1C : "11 ' 1 ' A 1� & 1 00Ail : (IGI;l : 'i : �i 1-A U f,f,wti' 1; .. .. f.. : °IA�: {llf ', "'It\:,• : :PA : : 1C , : } (1" 0 :, ,nt\ i', ''l7i'' :: a1 � ""-t\ J?,U1 19° }, : ff..l1{l,} : :'PA 11 , nc:1, : } � · : ' � : C h . . m / f,1 , f'J' ? ..e.;· = 1'(1, f· 'llD· = 4?'r�:f : t\1--�� ,11'1 fllll = : h'l'l•n ' l · : t\ f : ' C '" e 0 ,ri\:fm·9° f om:,'i\i\(D• : UD/;\.{l : (IGI;l : f 7..lP/r(D•: 'i14>'1': i,1"lt\..1f _: h'i: ,n'}Y:: =t\9° :: , : qc *A : : '" t\:,: '"I hJ?,:J lJ.' t --<D· ? ° : +H'l C*A : : n,, .. ;J(: .. .. ,, 'P ;JO> t,1C ( ni,, 11/\.11 = i',1c = r 00"1 = r,ro- = n«1tt,,-l· = rnti7i1 = ncJ>'1' = O'/fl,1• = 1t,e,:,:A� i . (l{IDfl '1' : ,1,1 : lD'1' : flf', : W·f:..f:C : i',A,rf..l1¥° -: llt\H..U: ti()« : hh. /t--: ;, C f,V'l.1fA1 : flPJ.A : 'llD· :: lltLV-- 9° : "'l(lt.�·: {ii1: 00 A.ll : (161.1' : f'J'?Y:: 9°Ati,1�1 : fil;rmcf;,(1:,..: .?tLllJ: -- t = OIJ. �{l,f:c = cl't. nro-1- = oo l' 01 'PJ.f ;-, :,,c · 1 = 1 t\ i',. ll (llJ 61!' -<;. ..."f ' ? f.' c., .r = Ail = : i!�: ��A 1,"t.c;,u.. 9° = ,1,·1a. fAtr'I <D•.r:Y.·c = i',f\ou ' f�c.,· = rUJJ..ff..'i'?C = r,,c = i',f\oo 4'� 1: f 0'l.• rflt..<;.t\:l- '} 9° : 9 ° llhr:1"' : h'J�.c/>C{l•t\;I.. : (l"?ill}l' : ·ttC1·1c : OD'? (\66/, : (D•{l'r: {ll.e*A :: ft,{/llAti1·: mfl.4': ;J--U•"/P': i·'k: cf>'}: Iil!tr: '}.9°. n,J-�6.: OT/ ODl,\h:F: t\Jf.U : no,n0r : UD[!\(l : hooAti:f : foowt.,J•W• : i\(l,1:;J...'i : t\�C-� : {1,,� : ::lD·: /J:J>?J:1�-: i\f,: .rArf•1 '1: (IrY:�c: n '' h 11i lPC•Y--: 6Lh"n'P: lfllf Wfll;l 'P : lflW· : f , A : lD,e,1ll : i', A.1---,.e.t. 1 fl,)·9'1'' f 02.A : (I.If'} � ill\tLU· : 'i'P11 : fi'? ,J·.�CJnfl;J• Y;c; : ,,1c;., {l :1-t : '"l..i(l,l;C : (D«Vf}, : 0'1';tA :: llt\tl,U-- : ntr.u- : J-,,�c: 0011·1ct: ,rf'(JDC9°C'= lD•ti}.:,e,{l{n1� ODt\.f): (tal_W...: nonn'\hf: i\(latJ: flPJ.i\;f!ro«: 9°llhC':f = f1C1J.�: 9 °Ah--f·i:: ,,... tn:1'0'/.lD•"}: ,)11-1-n : r11?fi){, l f:: {llJ(f'}: Jr1t\0Dlf',rlD·1 : ftt1'/ill�:l.. : r 0-rz.1"..fr : t\'Pce : 9° {lne:1. : ilt\Alf�. : on(t 07:J,:fo1•'}: '100Ati1.._: n1r•f11' : f,:J'lDU£/A :: fifn:,'t\i\OJ•: au1110· : ,,,ouc 9'1C': lD· .eoa1'}: "Ot\'PA:: e 0°7/r : o/.7' : {lhcA = fi!l>lOW· : hcnc : "/,"}.. oot,.OD C',lD• :, {LOJ(t"} : roY..1 . (}m· : rhcn«r: 'l'r"(l: rt1 -"ITI:1: '';,1'': f,f-- 'lt\CD·1: :J'A'i": fhf:: l'IDf")j: fml4,,} : °'I'r1 : 9 °I,\ti:,,,. : f<I)t\ 9 ° : "1 q ,,.,-: : f,, ,.•h 1 11':. : ''Ir_e,<i�A,' : h 0'l.(\ ll}·• : » . . ft' IA c; : r°'l 'r�,. : 9° Ah,).. : ft:/'t\ 9° : "1q 7... : ;, C : f ,,.,..on ta(It\ : lft; : ,1111 {l• "}: n "'I 1t1c : rt1 V/0 : '\j' : "., (D : ,n f i·t1ti7i'·1: IL1 If : f "'l :fA : OD IJ''}: 1, (\ OD If�-"}: °1 l;J1'P : �ro· :: htr/\.--: itil4'Y.."l/°:: h1i1tU: '1/\llr: tic.he: flcl''r;J... : ftPJ.ooflh,)· : f "}'?�": . o t11 ..0(1»=f· = u-�;J-- = n�:1--f-"kf = oi,,:,.. = ro·ll'r= ?°An:,,= {ln.01J..,r1n;1... nJf1"ir; fil'l0JJ o -. "1 : : f 1 '?f. : O) Y..".<>: (: : llfl "'I \1:J...m)! rl1 : f n DD 'f,?,:} :: 1:¥OJ• :: OJ"} : ffl i', °l 'l 11 .�·t..oi: r 0?.0Di\\1:1": f'}d§.(:":: ,61'1: Oril'r: .ht\:: J,1-LU: i\,e: q>c;ro-: �,1:: flA �Y:: 0, 1�.. : GTL,i.O ..l;C = .,,... OD11°1fl : ,"h1f{l.c9° : °h'JJ;.,fro-cpll}• : 0,;JJ-1,fl} : 001/il :J...mcef : ODA)l : f(Dfif]JOJ"1 : f1'?Y.· :: 9"°Ah ;r : 001/itOD(lA : ftP/.. lD�.e..t.ro•"} : �. ,� : t\ODht\\716\ :: ro,,r;,ar : ndf/il•»�J!-.." : f 07,:J!Af1,)• : ,),°1: ooc;'�'}: 0000 l 00 C: �m- :: rhv17i : mfl:J' : d\h{:h✓r : ClD!P(.:,.. : t,.l:'C1' : fm,1,ti:(-m• : f'J°lf.: : ,n"l : 1:f'«. f@�=f@[:"flfl9.: a:;:fW" :: ]i �ff-f.aJ : r tf)1dJ: ir/?,pf!':f'J: n f,l't-- : 1t'}OD/. 9°t-f\- '}: i "C O v. -1 1 = l � : : f <I?. f@g = " "10., ft\ttl'� : f'J'?X." : ro•,,'l,.·�'C : Fir : --l &.. f.a 'l° ,t1;� q mr:1,0:,. = l\UDlf)�a:; � ftn�?i: mfijl' = l\1.,Hl,tD· = tiv.1 = >,1�..h&.. nro•: 11110- = "�9° 'i = -�:��:, = h'i:l\� : !Amfa:ll» � ill\lf6i : 01·1.v : ncnc : cf!. f©i : ilt\Y.'111m« : u->,;r, OD rf-;f :,-. : Jr, fa 6� ft1., : l1] fl (ff[J llf� - : -:9,.,g,', cpt\ ::

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1-IIGH COURT Addis Ababa Judg es : Ato Negussie Fitaweke Ato Mohammed Berhan Nur Hussein Ato Tibebu Abraham . J. & P. COATS LT. v. ETI-IIOPIAN SEWING THREAD FACTORY Civil Case No. 1425/62 Trade J.1arks-U1ifair Cort1petitio11-Con1. C. Arts. 132. 133 and 134 Actio.n applying for a court order prohibiting the Respondent from using the trade mark �•Rifle" \Vhicl1 was alleged to be similar to the trade mark ''Gun'' used by plaintiff; also to have .all goods put in tl1e market by respondent under the said trade mark collected and to recover .<ian1ages suffered by plaintiff due to tl1e alleged unfair competition. Held: For Plaintiff 1. Even thougl1 tl1ere is no law pertaining to the registration and protection of trade marks :in Ethiopia, it is appropriate to consult and construe the provisions on unfair competition so as to make them applicable to such circumstances. 2. In examining whetl1er a particular trade mark can mislead customers, it is the similarities .and not the differences tl1at l1ave to be taken into consideration. 3. Importing raw materials from a foreign country for fu.rtl1er process does not justify the use of similar and/or confusing trade marks. 4. In tl1e absence of legislation dealing witl1 trade marks, tl1e refusal of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry to register similar trade marks, objections to trade marks publicized by mistake and other such procedures should be upheld.

JUDGMENT The facts pertaining to this case are as follows: Plaintiff company is the owner . a nd possessor of the trade mark ''G11n'' \Vith whicl1 it 11sed to r11n its commercial activities in Ethiopia. In addition to tl1e fact that tl1is trade mark - ''Gun'' - had been registered ,vith the Mi11istry of Commerce and Industry as well as with the ,Cha1nber of Commerce, it had also been publicized in tl1e Addis Zemen and the Ethiopian Herald. Plaintiff Company later heard tl1at on May 4, 1970, respondent had started distributing in the marlcet a sewing tl1read under the trade mar.k ''Rifle''. Although the most prono11nced feat11re of tl1e t\VO trade marks is their absolute ·similari ty in colour, it is felt tl1at tl1is ,vas done with the intention to conft1se and mislead tl1e custon1ers as regards tl1e fineness and quality of the product. A close ·?bservation of the two trade 111arks clearly shows that tl1e similarity betwee11 tl1em 18 not there by accident but was done intentionally. Sucl1 an act constitutes an -a�t of 11nfair competition as envisaged by Arts. 132, 133 and 134 of the Commer­ •cial Code. This case \1/as brougl1t before tl1e Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The office of the �Ainister, after givi11g due consideration to th� matter, . � on­ ·cluded tl1at tl1e trade mark ''Rifle'' is apt to mislead and create unfair co1npet1t1on. It ordered the Etl1iopian Sewing and Thread Factory to refrai11 from �si�g the . trade _ mark ''Rifle'' any longer, bt1t, as this order was 11ot carried out, pla1_n� instituted _ the present suit. In its statement of claim dated July 10, 1970, plaintiff company - 73 -


OL. IX - No. l .. V W A L N IA P O fI JT E JOURNAL OF

pany at1d its collabo1·ato rs to stop m ent co . court to order re spond · • Usi pra_ yed the g n t o a so I d an th d y pa re ur inc m da ' . age es ns pe ex s all a r ve co t arose t 0 k , r a m e d a tr said . e s a c is th f o 1 lt 1 s e r a as s it ib : g J1 x in e w o ll fo e th e c n e id v e in Plaintiff produced s; ie rt a p th o b y b e s u in 1) The trade marks er eg ist b ed r n � tl1 be � th ha wi k ar m the de tra e th at th Mi e nc � ide t Ev nis 2) ry c m b 1a er t h of e h t w1 mm Co d an try erce; s du In d an e erc mm of Co 1 n ia op lu ald Et e er I th 1d an er wh en m Ze e s di Ad the trade e th of s pie 3) Co . · ed; marks had been p·ubl1c1z the iff by int to pla Ministry of Commerce d sse dre ad 62 10/ 70/ 183 . No 4) Letter and Industry. Respondent Company, in �9-D?-Plian;ce wi�h . the order given by the Court 00 October 14, 1970 in response to cou11sel s prel1m1nary argument of ?ctober 12, 1970, pre sented its st�tement of defe11se 011 December 4, 1970. The s�l1ent poi�ts in the ·statement of defe11 se were: that the Respondent had done nothing to mislead the consumers · (public), that there is a clear difference between the trade marks of plaintiff and respondent, that while the goods of re spondent are m.ade in Ethiopia those of plaintiff are made in England and India, that the good s are different both in quality and i11 price (Respondent charges $ 2. 75 while Plaintiff charges$ 3.25), that the respondent's merchandiese number is 110 wl1ile tl1at of pla.intiff is 842 and that there is no trade mark law or any law governing tl1e protection of foreign · trade marks in Ethiopia. Moreover, Ethiopia is 11o t a party to tl1 e Geneva Conven­ tion for the protection of foreign trade n1arks. No one ca11 monopolize ords or w in the painting found on a trade mark. While the notice which \Vas publisl1ed newspaper s speicfies that the se\ving thread is imported f 1·om Engla11d, the label �n the box states tl1at the produce is made in India. The respondent has tl1e Am.haric word ''RESH'' (shot-gun) printed in order to avoid confusion. Tl1e Com.mercial Code Ar ticle s cited are irrelevant to the case as 011e cannot sho,v that respo ndent's pro_du�ts have led to co11fusion either as to the qt1ality or price \Vitl1 th?se _ of . the . plaintiff. Re�ponden nt.Ing t d1d prese not b)' com mit an act of unfair con1petition _ product as . if _it had been imported from England. Finally, respondent prayed the court to d1sm1ss the case with costs. in .. In support of its argument, R.esponde11t Com wing follo the subm itted pa11y evidence, The ne:'sp�per in_ which respondent's t rade-mark was publici ed z : cc r roe Th.e obJection which respondent lod · m Co ge wi d the Ministry of th and Industry. ·. I� reply, Counsel for plaintiff presented a memorandum dated January 4, 1971 or m which he stated that 8mc� er 1 hetl · . th e issue , , · on befo revo re lved the Cou rt w_ 1. trY of not an act of unra· co petit. ion had been committed'' and since th� M� : cour t -Commerce and Indu�t � nt alre ady po , _ m ade this a on clea dec r 1 isio h : s the n ?' a:i as w · prayed to study h e aud g�ve a decision. He furth�r argued 1 a a ying defense witnesses were �ot e tif . tes o pert s_ in tl11s field they were incapable f x g ein . whether the trade mark8 b . ir e h t were to nuslead1ng ·or not and he objected _· allmwe.lll to testify. .. · i T:lli • h ; 1 t · 1ii!f8.\\'mig ��amiagd tb.e aif .u . . . re . fo e . b .: e . ents su is e �pres en p th a ted part ies' by both � is �hi:tm:e r pTaintim's p : he t · :a: on e _ -mark ''Gun'' and the labelling used · •

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J. & P. COATS LT. v. ETHIOPIAN SEWING THREAD FACTORY

to Re�pondent'� trade marlc- ''Rifle (shot- Gun)' '_ and labelling al iden tic so are boxes ers into buying respondent's goods even though they meant o cus � islea d � m to so as o f plaintiff. se 1o tl y u b to There is no law in Ethiopia dir�c�ly g�verning tl1e protection and registration 1ar� � but there a�e p �ov1s1ons m t11e Commercial Code dealing with n e trad of ' infair compet1t1on. The question 1s to find o·ut wl1ether tl1ere is any law :which �ould enable us to I?r�vent a trader from imitating a trade mark conventionally registered with the M11;Us �ry of Co�merce a11d lnd11stry and publicized in a news­ based Pla1n for hts t1.ff arg11ments on Arts. 132, 133 and 134· of the 1nsel Co1 aper. p Commercial Code. We shall proceecl to examine tl1ese Articles in tt1rn. Art. 132 deals witl1 _payme11t of damages after an act of 11nfair competition has been co1nmitted. But since cou11sel for plaintiff has not quantified tl1e da·mages by paying tl1e co11rt_ fees !1e did not seek this remedy and we find it unnecessary to con1me nt on this Article. The plaintiff, alleging that l1e has i11curred losses caused by respondent's act of unfair competition, arg11ed to tl1e effect that tl1e latter be ordered to withd.raw his goods from the rnarket and refrain from distributi11g new lots of l1is product to the market on the ground tl1at tl1eir trade marks are si1nilar a11d the average con­ sumer n1ight be misled. What \Ve sl1ould examine is whether Art. 133(2) (a) applies to this case. Tl1is Article provides as follows: ''The following shall be deen1ed to be acts of unfair competition: (a) Any act likely to mislead customers regarding the undertaking, products or commercial activities of a competitor.'' If the goods whicl1 are alleged to have been imitated by tl1e respo11dent and circulated in the market l1ave any misleading effect, then tl1is rule would aJJply. In order to determine this point we have to compare and contrast the products of plaintiff witl1 those of the responent. It should not be forgotten tl1at wheq considering ,vhether a11 i1nitated trade mark would mislead consumers, it is the similarities of thjs trade mark witl1 the original one rather than tl1e differences tl1at should be focused upon. Plaintiff's trade n1ark can be described as follo,vs: The word ''GUN'' is written on the upper front part in big letters and on every foldi11g on tl1e sides i11 sn1aller letters. On the lower front part tl1ere are <lrawings of boxes to i11clica.te the kind of thread wl1ich is packed i11side the carton and the words '' Stranded Cotton'' / .........../ pearl cotton/pearl balls / ......./'' appear Oil the boxes. Belo,v these are the words ''fast colour''/ ....../ and at the botto m underneatl1 tl1e foldi11g tl1e n11mber, \veight and length of tl1read is indicat­ ed. At the top and below the foldi11g, the 1111mber of rolls of tl1read, the length, weight and tl1e identificatio11 number are i 11dicated. It is also mentioned that the kind of colour used is of l1igh q11ality. Across tl1e center there are li11es draw� from one end to tl1e other. 011e of these is a thicl< red line while tl1e rest are thin, red and yellow li11es. In the middle of tl1e thick red line there is a dra,ving -0f a yellow gl1n. A little below the foldi11g there is another drawing of a red gt1n. The rolls of tl1read packecl in the boxes have designs on: the fastening found �t ,botl1 ends of tl1 e thread. 011 tl1e tipper part of tl1e fastening the words , , Ma �e 10 . England'' are written in. the forn1 of a circle. Below, tl1e word ''GUN'' 1s w�itten .and under tl1at is a thick red line with the drawing of a gun in the illddle. Beneath that appear the words ''Pearl Cotton 12''. - 75 -


· . W ., r. A o L IX - No. 1 v N IA P IO H T E F O L A JOURN

. the details of plaintiff's trade n1ark, we feel that the are a, 1 e ngtb These be1ng r. bl eseTI?_e th d ) o o e b x o o f r s erp a sp p ( n o to r � . a 11de c e th f o r nt's t1 lo o c act' d n a th tr f wid b . � o h e e t d rs o e 011e a x sur · l1 w1t c 1 . low yel red • the i 1 g 011 n k mark.- The r�t·n and " ' N U e ''G th rd ies r wo r ca k ar 111 e d tra ' ; 's tiff Wll e a h ain pl at th c th d sp1te at t ' l) ' e ;s c in , all on ati clic er s oth ''' LE su IF ''R rd l wo 1 P o; res on-�en� carries .the e ar l d . 1 the lai xp e to ty ali qt1 ed us 1 of are h c the i wh tl1 rea are CottonP,, , ' ' F ast Colours'', similar. e 1 t.l ow bel ing nd fold fou ' and the specifi . �2' . No o11 Cott arl e ''P The wor. ds eight a11 d len gth of tl1e thread a re simil ar. w e th of , e c pla e sam e th tions in tl1e on cart e als� si�ila .r _ �f a� top and tom bot e .th of t r pa r e inn e th Althoug� signs' 00 . n o the s ings es, 1t 1s written fold d the w belo ten i writ s 1 ' SH' ''RE d wor the in place which is not noticeab�e �11d tb.e average consumer vvou!d be 1:3-is!ed into buyin: the respondent's goods th111king tl1at they ar e those of the pla1ntiff. It must be r ealized tha t with the exception of those who are e xperts in the manufacture of sewing threa.ds, the general public tends to r ely heavily 011 trade marks. Wl1en look. in g at the similarities b etween the produ.cts of the parties to this suit, the price should not b e taken into consideration.

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If respondent i1nports raw materials fr om abroad and prepares the rolls of thread in tllis co11ntry, why does h e put in tl1e 1narket a box \, hich in kind, combination of colours an d writt en words is sintiJar to tl1at of plaintiff? Could he not have made it different? His act proves tl1at he was pla11ning and counting on selling his product by imitating tl1at of plair1t.iff. Since J)laintiff's product can be mistaken for tl1at produced by r espondent, there is 110 doubt tl1at the latter has com.mitted a n act of unfair competition. We do not need the testimony of ,vitnesses to prove this point. A comparison of the prodl1cts as they appear in the 111arket is sufficient in itself to prove tl1at th e cons11mers wou · ld be misled. Although the Ministry of Commerce and Ind11stry does 11ot h · ave a special law regulating the registratio11 of trade marks, this Ministry customarily inspects, registers �nd p11blic�.zes trade mark.s of imported goods or goods n1a11t1factt1re.d in tl1is country in . t�e daily news-papers. This is why plaintiff n1ade a written objection to t_he Ministry regarding respondent's t.rad e ma.rk . In tl1e absence of anv la\v dealing '�1th trade m.�rks, the Minis_try of Commerce cannot take a11y meas11ri other than giving explanat1011s and refusing to register. For all. 0� the above reasons, y,,e fi�d re sponde11t's trade ma.rk to bes_ii n_ilar �� 1 t that ?f plaintrff and to have a m1sl ead111g effect n wit hi tow a rds the co11s1uner , fore �earun g of the �rovisions of Art. 133(2) r e The (a) the Co11 ercial Code. of 1111 de in accordance w!th Art. 134(1) (b) tr a s t n ' w e order the ren1oval of respo11de mark an d the withdrawal of the p ro d u ct s distri·buted in the m arket. . we . Although pIa1n d · t1·tr h_as asked that his right e v r iese be . da111ages lain1 c to es have not taken any action on fe ' rt co u tl1e . this point since be pa y to · d e fa ha il s ed r re quire d and specify the act 1 e ff su lla d am_age sustained. If l1e alleges tha· t h e has . . damages ' his right t0 InStittlt e a swt to this e ffect is reserved. ent Expenses incurred by I�1· nd o esp r t P y 1·tr, court and advoca !1 red cov e e, e te fees b d in. a:ec· ordance with the provisi o c ons of Arts. 463 a11d 464 of the Civil Prbocedure , oth b f o .:zlillldgemen.t delivered this 9th nce d se pre · ay · of e th Mar h c in . 1971 fStli'esw

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Imperial Ethiopian Government Supreme Imperial Court First Division Judges:

Afenegus Teshome Hlale Mariam Jvlajor Hailu Tewelde Medhi11 Ato Abebe A,vgichew Civil Appeal File No. 1060/63 Hamle 11, 1964 Plaintiff on ap1)eal - Etl1iopian Sewi11g Thread Factory Defendent on appeal - Coats Co. Ltd.

s11bject

of the Sl1it - Clain1 of 1no11ey Appella11t - Ethiopian Se\ving Thread Factory .Respondent - Coats Co. Ltd.

JUDGEMENT This is a trade mark case. The respondent argues that the plaintiff has used a trade 1nark similar to his and thereby created unfair comptition. The IJlaintiff argues that the trade mark is different and there was no unfair comptition. We have see11 the two trade m,trks and we have found tl1em to be very similar and they may mislead the p11blic. Therefore, we have affirmed the High Court's dece-

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'" SUPREME IMPERIA:L COUR f Asmara

Justices:

Dr. Jyob Gebre Kristo s Ato Berhe Tsequar Ato Zewdu Asfaw . ABDULRAHMAN IDRIS v. MOHAMMED ADAM Civil Appeal No. 37/63

Cheques-Limitatio,1 of actio,1s-Com1n. C. Arts. 881, 827, 829-Civ. Proc. C. Arts. 320(3), 321 af!.d 348. An appeal against the decision of the High Cot1rt \Vhich held that the defendant (pre.sent Appellant) pay the amount written o.n a cheque allegedly signed by him. Held: High Court decision reversed. An action instituted after the expiration of the time limit allowed by law for the presentment and. payment of a cheque shall be barred.

JUDGMENT 1.

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Nature of the dispute

The present Respondent (original plaintiff) instituted a suit in the High Co�rt 'l1 against the Appellant under Civil File N·o. 42/63 on October 28, 1970. In the statement of claim it was said that a_ppellant had given him a cheque No. 40942.30 dated Ju.ne 23, 1968, in the amo11nt of Eth. $ 6.900- drawn on the Commer�ial Bank_ of Ethiop�a. The cheq11e was returned unpaid due to appelia:1t havin? 1�� sufficient funds 10 his account and in view of the fact t·hat the parties to �his suit o n ed is 1 pro are r�lated, plaintiff did not take any action because defe11dant had �' � pay him as soon as it became possible. Si11ce defendant's promises were not fulfille · 'ff · · d en· · · f d e P1ainti 1nstit1ite a suit 1.n the High Court asking the said Court to order , Jaw . . . to dant t0 pay the sum wr1tte in . · · n on the cheque together with interest accord' g � . 10 co sts, court fee� and damage s epl ie s. To these allegations appellant r d a ::; 1 a) Th� clieque in question was dated June 23 . I96 0) 7, 1 e (S e11 G. C. 19 68 ' · s of . h th e rovi s1on � the • st11t was 1o··st1·t 0 ted on O ctober ti 28 1970 111 acco1·dance wit r te f h s t ticle � 8 1 o f the Comm o . ercial Code a� tions �f recourse are barred six Prn n b�uld t . t · s p rat ion th of i the i lim it ot· m fix eve n r presentme11t · b) ti e � ed � fo f and i • s o 11 e so , the amount l to pai cla ime d i d iff � fi d ;eadY been by pla nt � paYal had ant 'Y ould present cheque, docttments and wit11esses to prove tl1 at sue ;e:� had indeed been made. r � s n t1o The High Court rejected . ita ) liro of d e :fi e 11 dant' s a.rgu1nent on the period . actions of rec ourse and gave the following order: ts . in . o p · ''1ihe fi.rst argement m d i rits n · of e no e b 2) _ u _nse� for resl?onde?t l1as Y co ( 0:f J:aw. '[he si:x-mQ�th . � rld a ) 00 e ( rts. 1.11 of r oth d _ l a 0 ta subl1m1 ifi n s t1on ?1 �� ed spec AAi�J� i8t of the C · O.cu,_uercial Code applies to endorsers, the drawer a .

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JOURN.AL OF ETHIOP�AN LAW - VOL. IX - No. 1

. liable. It is Art. 881(3). tha t shol1ld be applied in this case, -this sub-article p ar� ies 1s by the holder of the cl1eq11e agai11st tl1e drawee shall be barred acti o1 at tl l st atltlg the of y expi1 the tin1e limit for presentment from · years ee r tli after w quest s signed on Jt1ne 23, 1968 and the tliree year ion in 1e clieqt � The n l1as 11ot expired. tio ita · Ji1n of d per10 I-laving rejected this argu1nent, \Ve have ordered defenda11t to reply to the issues in this case." Following subseqt1ent argun1ents, the Court gave tl1e following ju·dgment: ''To support defenda11t's allegatio11 tl1at plaintiff had received the money owed to him, counsel for respondent submitted in �vide11ce four cheques and one docu­ ment dated Septe1nber 26, 1968 allegedly s1g11ed by plai11tiff. This docu.ment was exami1 1ed by an expert \1/ho fo11r1d tl1at the signatt1re it bore was not that of the plaintiff. Moreover, defendant's allegatio11 tl1at the mor1ey was paid and the debt was settled i11 the prese11ce of ,1/itnesses is 11ot acceptable i11 law. If respondent had made payn1ents on accot111t l1e sb.ould l1ave taken receipts for the an1ounts paid. Art. 1761 of the Civil Code clearly states so. Defendant's reqr1est to produce ,vitnesses to the effect tl1at the amount due had been paid is de11ied as bei11g contrary to the provisio11s of Arts. 2001, 2005 and 2006 of tl1e Civil Code. The Court tl1erefore holds that defenda11t pay plaintiff tl1e amou11t of Eth. $ 6,900 legal interest amor1nting to 9% fron1 the date 011 which tl1e cheque \v·a s payable to the time when settlement is effected as well as co11rt fees according to the receipt given. Defendant \viii also pay_ plai11tiff tl1e costs and advocate fees incurred by the latter by reason of the present action (Arts. 463 and 464 of tl1e Civil Procedt1re Code). 2. Defendant appealed to the Supren1e I·mperial Cot1rt under FiJe No. 37/63 against the jt1dgment of tl1e Higl1 Co11rt on the following gro11nds: · · '

''The question of li111.itation of actions 1vvas raised i11 the I-Iigh Court. Altho11gl1 i� was stated tl1at in accorda11ce with the provisions· of Art. 881(1) of the Com1ner­ cial Code the action should be barred, the Court, nJ..isinterpreting the law, rejected · ?ur_ argument and decided t hat the period of limitatio11 had not lapsed. I-Iowever, it is our conte11tion tl1at the sub-article cited refers to ·111e dralvee and not the drai-ve r. For a definjtio11 of tl1e ter1n '' drawee'' one should refer to Arts. 867(2) aotl 868(b) of the Commercial Code. Althougl1 there were sufficient grounds for the court to decide the case on the basis of the limitation of t11e action, we were forced to go i11to the merits of tl1e case. The Supreme Co11rt is there·fore requested to hear tl1e case. " Respondent gave the following reply: ''Article 881(3) of tl1e limit ti1ne the is years 3 tl1at states Code ial merc Con1 �or pre sentment. Wl1en tl1e High Court rejected Appellant's arg11me11ts on those grouutls, App nt ella App tl1e is e'' awe nt ''dr ella Tl1e e. did issu not appeal on that · '' and the ''h 1 · . ion a 0 der'' 1s respondent. TI1ere is no nee d for further 1nterpret 1· - 83 -


M A D H E . O v M M IS R M: A ID AD N A M I-I A R L U D AB

s: ¥1 f s 10 a 01 d te gl ar . t 11 la el pp A . t er-reply In h1s coun point on li111itation of act1·•0 the ed ret erp in nt t de pon res · . 1or ns . '' CounseI c: h e •d d 1 b y C v o n pr n1 o1 · . t s . c er . er e � _ e al th JS m t of n Code. io . at et pr ter in al The le g . the of 11 1gl1 1s10 I Idec the Court 00 the ed ·. ent ,s argu.1nent tha ept acc we t · d . . . . . ) , c : p ·h 1v t f e o 1 1 320(3 r t. o r c A e cl s. u u re o e n o rr e 18 C s n o o d e ti c a f . o . . ion t· . limi·ta . '' 1 · t · a 11 ·t · 1m . 1 · f 10 o on 11 o 10 ti 1s ac d ec . a ns t 11s that we cannot appeal agai

wr ngJy. i R. . spon. issue of . o p· r v1des '

In lalv

The parties to tliis case prin1arily argu_ed 011 th.e issue of limitation of acti00� t . ellan t App poin could 11ot forth with a tl1at on d rule rt Cou High the and when ea t-0 a higher court (Art. . 320(3) of the Civil . Proced ure Code). Ho\vever, accoid·ing a as raise d e groun d o.f appeal when an b 1nay . ing 1· ru 1s t h articl�, s�me. the to a.ppeal is made again.st the final JUdgme11t of the Co11rt. The Court feels that the iss11e of limitation of actions should be exarruned first. A.rticle 881(1) of tl1e Com1nercial Code st ates that ''Actions of re course bv th.e holder against the endorsers, the dral11er and otl1er parties liable shall be barred after six months from the expiration of tl1e time limit· for presentment. In the case before us, the ·plaintiff is th.e holder •While the defendant is the drawer. The reason is that the defendant is the one who drew (signed and gave) the cheque while the plaintiff is tb. e one who received the cheque and brought it to the payer; thus the plaintiff is the l1older. In the case before us, the one who was ordered to pay (the drawee) is according to the information on the cheque and No. 8816 the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and not tl1e plaintiff, as the High Court stated. Arts. 827 and 829 of the Commercial Code help us 11nderstand the n1eaning of Art. 881 of the Code, the E11glish version in particular. bar� been As have Appellant explained, the sl1ould action by original plaintiff . 1n accorda0;ce with the provisions of Art. 881(1) of tl1e Commercial Code after six mont �s from the expiration of the time for the presentment of the cl1eque. Tber� fore, in accordance with the provisions of Arts. 321 and 348 of the Civil Proced�re Code this Court rejects the suit not on its merits but on the issue of limitation of the action and quashes the decision given by the Higl1 Court under File No. 42/63. . As the parties in disp·ute are related to eacl1 other it is hereby ordered that each one pays his own cost-s. ent ond Judgment delivered this 14th day of June 1971 p Res of ce presen in the and counsel for. both parties.

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I P IO I E III T T E N A R E D N U IV C N IL IO T A G O R B U S C OD E H IT W PAYMENT by Jonathan A. Eddy* I.

l.ntroduction

A. General

th or in ce dit pla cre w ne of a of the original on uti stit � sub t s ow all � _ ion Subrogat _ � . . erc ng w ex 1s1 no or the dit cr w ht, ne r1g e th of . 1ty b1l and its ssi � po e th . th wi _ . creditor, on si w us ll e, sc cl di ar is th e In restri r. � ito ? ed cr cted al ! in ig or to e th of , s ie accessor . the ian by iop h Eth wit lt dea n, atio Civil Code rog sub h wit nt me pay of role the 1 5. -7 68 19 . ts Ar primarily in 1. Sources. - Payment with subrogation may occur when performance of an obligation is made. to the creditor by someone other than the debtor. In certain such cases, the law provides directly that the person n1aking performance shall receive in return the paid creditor's right against the debtor. This is legal subrogation, which has particular importance in the law of suretyship, co-debtors, a11d mortgage. Yet in m.any cases, there will be n o Code provision or special la\v entitling the third party payor to legal subrogation. In these oases, the payer may still be able to obtain the benefits of subrogation through a contract. For instance, a third party may pay the original creditor under a11 agreement by which the creditor transfers his rights against the debtor to the paying third party. AlternativelJ', a third party may lend a debtor the funds necessary to satisfy the creditor, under a11 agreement by which the debtor permits the lender to exercise agai11st tl1e debtor tl1e rights which the now-satisfied creditor previously l1eld. u·11der certain conditions, the la,v an hol also effect give ill t such subrogation � agreements; contractual indeed, � ? .. ty �mportant place 1n the law, because it allows the introduction of needed flex1b1b mto the payment of obligations. . 2. Effects.-W�atever _the source of subrogatior1, the ejjects are the same: �e third pa,rty payor 18 substituted for the origi11al creditor, and is allowed to exercise nt sfa AD.. B., Harvard 1966; J. D.) University of Wasbi11gton ( L Assi and ecture r ) L Seattl 1969; e , p ean, aw acuity, HSIU . t e h . I • Payment with su brogation is is that o ne par . t . � ,,' au. d L�co ns . anothert·xc �1ar ins tance of ''personal subrogat10 substitution of one Per, 0 or Maze et in a legal Mazca { ud relatio nship . to . de droit civil (1956) en tak 0 41 subrogation , tl1us defmed, n 11�L1t be d10· it cii,il _ include assig nment � d th ITO , bi� . Pe�sonal . is so beige (3rd ed. 1964) V 1 .e • ique action. See De Page , Traite elerne1itaire �e 0% t t § \� (s e � i� t e h gener�, and �f such lit�l� ·�p SI 3B. Tb_ e�em�nt these _institutions �l1are ubsful d 1 ort they comp ared ed, wttl1 s the func tion d1ff erent technical rules surrounding ion est De_ Page is typical: after nit:h, that the value of t�e g:ner�lized. concept n1 ay be Jj�.h su bro· gat1on, he makes little use rg· the. ge ?eral concept 10 his d1scuss1on of payment assi·gnrnen .t of t or his i a on elucid act tion ue obliq of tl1e . l'd 1 V�.. ni §180 et. seq.; �ol� 1� . ,, that 1s, In addition to personal 8 b o. t . , §378 et seq. ttlie sabstitl!lt:ien of one ''�h� �� •in, French doctrine recognizes ''real subrogation, Ma.Zeaud, in t aud o or f e t e cooceP noth Maze a ship. legal in a r . o relati g Tb� 1 n QJl,� .ei!J! , ¥:01. II, §84 . o ry e of r eal subrogation i s prop erly part o� t l1;82 et. seq,, pa1nim0J!y. P0t fw:ther discassi ' §"" n see I Maz Vol. eaud , et cit., op. � Mazeaud 9[ ��, i§,i ,

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WITH s·uBROGATION UNDER THE ETIDOPIAN CIVIL CODE N ME PAY

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debto th r. Subr� gat�on· thus _ �vo�ds the normal effect st again � g hts . rj• s of the latter nt: tl1e ext1n_ct1011 of_ the obl1gat10�. But 1t 1s; important to understan e pay d � a valid with thir d n, party making a valid . payment will have an a st1br ogat to out en . . that. ev · rom th. e .d ebtor th. e amount paid . on his behalf. For at the ver f reco to . action . t 1s b d t· 1ngu1 d ex h · s e , a new o'bl1gat1on will be created . If · 1aI e · or1gi1 the time ' . . same 'S debt t o A , th·is payment \VJ·11 ext1n.gu1sh th e AB de B' s y a p C e c n ta s bt ' but , n · 1 rJOf 2 t. e b d BC 11ew a create it will The jroporta11oe of subrogatio11 is not simply that the subrogee receives an action by whicl1 l1e may reimb11rse himself: this he will already have. Rather, its importance lies in the fa�t that tl1e sub�ogate� ri�ht will _ retain in the subrogee's hands all which accessories had 1t 1n and t.he hands of the subrogor. And teristics charac the thtis it will often be advantageo11s for the subrogee to base I1is action on this for action personal riaht. The s11brogee also his retains some in reimbursement; . ci:cumstances th.is mig ht be the more t1seful action, and the subrogee will continue to have the option of proceeding on that basis. !

B. Payment In Parts II and III, respectively, of this article, the different sources of subroga­ tion and the effects of s11brogation are discussed in detail. Prior to that, however, the law of JJayn1ent must be considered briefly. This is so for two reasons: first, subrogation usually presupposes a valid payment by a third party ;3 second, while the Ethiopian Code follo,vs Fre11cl1 law very closely in the area of subrogation proper, certain complications arise due to variations between the French and Ethiopian law relating to the underlying payment.4 French and Ethiopian law are agreed that so,ne obligations must be perfor­ med by the debtor personally. These are obligatio11s i1ztuitu personae, where the parties have contracted with a vie,v to the personality of the debtor: for instance, contacts for the performance of an operation by a surgeon, or for a painting by a particular artist. Under Art. 1740 ( l) of the Ethiopian Code, which reflects the French position, 5 an obligation may have such a character where ''given the nature of the contract, this is essential to the creditor or has been expressly agreed." 6

2· For present purposes tl1e exceptional case, where it is C's. intention to confer a gift on B, may be disregarded. 3· The exceptional case occurs in subrogation by the debtor when the subrogee lends money to the debtor wl10 1nakes IJayment \Vith this money personally; see discussion infra, text at n. 42. 4· The follo\ving discussion restricts itself to the pertinent variations, dealing W'ith the issue who m_ay make payment. Ethiopian law follows Fre ·nch law respecting capacity of the payor (Fr. Civ. Co de Art. 1238 al. 1; the same rule obtains in Ethiopia by ap plication of the Code's general _ rules respecting capacity, see esp. Arts. 313, 358, 381, and J. Vanderljnden, The Law _of sical Perso11s (I-ISIU, 1969); capacity of the payee (Etl1. Civ. Code Art. 1742, Fr. C�v. Phy Code Art . 1241); and to whon1 payment tnay be rnacle (Etl1. Civ. Code Art. 1741, Fr. Civ. iode A _ rt. 1239, al. 1; Etl1. Civ. Code Art. 1743, Fr. Civ. Code Arts. 1239 al. 2, 12_ 40). §83_ 0 or discussion of tl1e French II, vol. cit., op. l'v1azeaud, et 'Mazeaud ge,terall_v see la\v , 1 ! seq.; Planiol et Ripert, Traite practique de clroit civil Jrancais (2nd ed., 1954, by E snJem) ol. VII, §1149 et seq. 5· Fr. Civ. Code Art. 1237. 6' Tfe phras e ''given t11e nature of tl1e contract'' l1a.s been dropped from tl1� English trans �t� n 0 the Code; it appears, hovvever, in the official Amharic text, as well as in the -French r t.

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r y he an ot tr m n , co n ve ts gi ac fo es pl am r ex r se e em v· tr ex ic e es are th to n o i· . t i· dd a In . r . . intuitu personae.' s t on y t1 1g pa bl a ar sum of mone ul ic rt pa in ? d an � � , ns io at lig ob Y, But many do l ra e e : n th e le es g 1d ru v ro p ) (2 0 4 17 . rt A s r. te c ra a h c is not ha,,e th e ct ra th nt r ay co de m un ns io be at lig ob r ca e th ried ou s, se ca r he ot l al ''In 1e ·t tl u, or co by , or bt by de e v., tli !a by .'' ed iz or th au (Emphasi: so y rt pa d ir th by a . . added). . . lly tia tan a v bs su la, ian op rro hi na Et o wer rule th an int ce du ro int to s ar pe This ap 9 : . rt 36 e A 12 od il C iv C ch n re F r de un or F . w la ch n re F of at th on pers who any has an inter est, suc h by ed orm perf be may ation oblig ''An r . to an ar gu a or r to eb -d co a as party third a who has no inter est by rmed perfo be even may ation oblig .An e and on behalf of the debtor nam the in acts ty par d thir the t tha d provide or th.at, if he acts in his own name , he is not to be subrogated to the right; of the creditor." Under either provision, the creditor may be constrained to accept performance by someone other than the originally envisaged.· debtor. The ratio11ale for this is simply that tl1e creditor, who is receiving performance, has no sufficient ground for complaining as to the person who is perfor.ming. Naturally the object of the obligation, that is, what is to be performed, remains unaffected, 10 as does the primary legal responsibility of the debtor for any misperformance or non-performance. 11 But the FreI1ch provision lacks the general req11irement of authorization contained in Ethiopian Art. 1740 (2). Accordingly, payment may take place without the debtor's consent, or even over his objection. The sole limitation of French Jaw is that may not validly be made by a third party over the objection of both payment · parties. 12 .•

7· 8· 9.

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11. Ii .

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· i (prel XJI Title F�r further exam.ples, see David, Comme1ztary on 1}1e Ethiopia,z Civil Code, m1nary draft), (trans. Kindred) (HSI U, 1968), p. 43; De Page, op. cit., \101. ill, §400, 40 �; 408- C?0ntracts oth�r t�an. those for personal services may also be i11ti1it1, personae: � c�ntra of bail, on the bailee s side; so also, a contract of residential lease, on the lessees sJde. a� factu the of It muSl be empha�ized that the only questior1 involved l1ere is the delegation perf�rl:1�nce, so·n1etimes referred to as vicarious pe rformance. Delegation of tl1e legal res��h ponszbzlzty !0r . performance (properly known as ''delegation'') is a different matter, dealt" by the Eth1op1.an Code in Art. 1976 et. seq. Author's transJ a!i• on. . s ome explanation. is reqi:1ire.d of the language of th� last phrase.• that rf. or edit er e the payor acts 10 his own name, be 1s not to be t� 1 s of right the d to st1brog ated d e r . acco A payor who ha s an , 'i t er;st ,, f: r 11_stance by 15 o t . ara n gu or 5) _ a a . codebtor a being 1 {l n t subrogation as a matte� O u{w �ot� " is not , 1n :rre�ch �d Ethiopian law (see text /:. r res When Art. 1236 8t ates th�t a pe�son t inte no l1as led who paying 1n nan1e his own ntit . e to be subr e t�e m �nm 18 s imply tb�t 11e is !lot, !hrough his act of p ayn 1e�t a !onei �', fo r a to subro;ifi! �; m er o� law. p tl11o r ber we d E a t 1 a ncl rem Fre ins , th ble bo n ssi in po � �_ eit . a person to ob n sub such 0 h �ogation as a matter of co,itract, at the ands t creditor o r d · ebtor · (See text infra at nn 32 -A11y 4 2) wu so · per ' . ·. It is exactly for this reaso h . . ons u. t. be at, t � · conyerse ly, intuztu personae obl1gat1 m ! perfonnance, pe rformed: the identity of 1e t of e person r n i characte those the cases atfects and a cl1ange of person s thus means a change of object. See note 8, supra. · s ur o .. c . Th·. is is ant, 10. 0g · the usual statement Of . t Capit . § 476 (c , • th e rule 1n French law. See, e.g., ·col m e e1�mentaire de droit civil fi zs (9th ed., 1942, by de la Morandiere),. vol. Il, e controve�: dl!�q� V Jum 1937, s. 193{anca . tl o 1 . 2 ar ). e, he B e , t1ro 1s, · · � T s � some r and has been for e�eir th� 11CXact ''ru le·,' see, e.g., Aubry et Rau., Droit civil francais. (6th ed., 19 8' bY,

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SUBROGATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CI WI TH NT VIL CODE PAyME

the F:re wit nch h pro visions regarding subrogation: in· ca we ll fi t s 6 123 · ses , Ar t· · , r w a y o 111 av h e an '' mterest ; his payment is theref the p ion, ogat subr or e 1 1 of alithorized by �rt. 1236 al. I. And in those cases where a payer

does s ecfK:aJ lyan interest, and_ 1s therefore relegated to contractual subrogation �t }Jave at the or debtor, the gra nt of subrogation makes clear that n cred itor the eithe r f ban d5 o does not object to tl1e tl1ird party payment • party ig i ati broa . the su o . said to be nea fi t rly so well w1th the subrogation proviArt. 1740 (2)_ ca_nnot · . problem respecting subroga1e Eth1op1a11 code. Trt1e, tl1ere will be 110 tl of · sions · · th e sam ere, b Y e Th . by the debtor. reasoning Just applied to the French 11 ;:visio ns, the debtor's consent to tl1e . Sl1brogation will imply an authorization of make pay1nent. Bt1t 1n the case of legal subrogation or subroga­ to party d tliir h anomolous situa tion 1nay arise: the Code clearly autho­ an creditor tlie by ti;n oes not al\va ys clearly authorize the underlying payment bt1t ation, subrog � rizes withou t which subrogation cannot oc ct1r. Of course, in n1any of those ca ses also, while the subrogation may not be roade by the debtor, be m ay authorize tl1e payn1ent. But this is not a complete ar1s,ver. To begin with, it is also possible that the debtor will not do so. For if the payment is co11pled with subrogation, it will not extingi1ish the debtor's obliga­ tion, but at best postpone it; whether this ,vill be sufficient ince11tive to induce the debtor's coopera tion will depend upon the circumstances of the particular case, in­ cluding the presence or absence of countervaili11g considerations such as inconvenience. Moreover, even if the debtor would be willing, it may be inconvenient or impossible to contact him, or it may entail unacceptable delays. And as the uncertai.nty tl1us created is the antithesis of the security which the sl1brogee usually hopes to obtain from subrogation, it may dissuade rum from acting at all. Thus there are 5ignificant practical differences in the results to be expected under the French and the Ethio­ pian rules, the latter being much less satisfactory from the vie\vpoint of the creditor or would-be payor. \Vhere authorization is not obtained from the debtor, payment may still be valid if the third party is authorized by the court or by law. Only the l atter will be discussed here, for it a lone has the potential of offering a general solution -circumventing the inadeqt1acies of a rule requiring the debtor's consent. The question of legal authorization of third party p ayment will be discussed first in relation to -cases of legal subrogation, and then in relation to subrogation by the creditor, as the relevant consideratio11s are quite different in the two areas. 1. Legal subrogation. - In the areas covered by legal subrogation, express .authorization often does occur in tl1e Code: Art. 1939 expressly authorizes a guarantor to make payment to a creditor after the debt has fallen due; Art. 3083 (1) auth­ �rizes a mortgagee to ·pay a s11perior creditor with the latter's consent or where the 1�movable is attached on the l a tter's req11est. And for co-debtors, no problem arises, ·smce each co-debtor owes the whole debt as against the creditor. . . The presence of such provisions i11 the Code indicates that it is correct to ·d1st1 ngtiish authorization to pay and authorization to receive subrogation. Rather tha n solving the problem, tl1erefore, they contribute to it. For sometimes the Code

i

. rans. , , by Bugne�), ed �1861 1965 i i s Oe11vre er, Y annopoulos), vol. I, §316 at n_n. 1, 2; Poth � ol. II, §495 et. seq. The autl1orities are 1n accord, l1owever, t�at m . French _ law a vf!� ayment_ may be n1ade '\llithout tl1e clebtor's knowledge, and, a fort,orz,. _w1tbo�t his_ autb?r. i- n. It 13 t is t hat contrasts with Etl1iopi an law, and provides the practical clifficulties exi st10g lt i�o the area of subrogation.

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e th to as ht rig iet qu y to l e tir en k is ma . e t bu on . a subr g authon�es . ene s ode al � ::Se �ith Art. 1971, the _C ' � r provision relatfu gYll!e nt. Io to. faot, thi� is legaJ tl1e w1tl1 ous variou 11 cotermJ s ot n is speci 71 fi 19 t A d n � r . tJon r subrog� o sioll! · 13 Thus while there is n o specific provision relatin; r vi p o le ap pear ng else\\ here ge d . 197 Art · s l , wil ges tga all r 1 mo ow b n rni su ove , 3 g i rog 083 . a t g r t A i o t s u n o lo a n a o of g . . ) d't y o c u � l 1or b UI � 0 v,,11 s a e : � o r l ·e : 1 · s � J r c �io ( pe su a rit intere�s ys pa o wh e ge ed l p o au thor1zat1 on t a.s t 1 en s1 IS aw l e th e c n Si to make p a .in .·the p 1edged pro perty. y. d. h lega l authorization'' is l acking, and ' a t tha ' ed . um b s t as e e e tor 's ment, should 1t b ? ry a ss e c e n is n o ti za ri o auth e t a o y n. n �ar it is ces _, ion cat one. Rathe r, by pli im l e ib oss _ a is t tha . p While the a , n F ce r t Ar in d 83 30 u ent_ly _applie q fre may b e treated . n tio e ta r rp e t in . of s es oc pr the e . To do otherwise 11g Cod erly1 und c1ple pr1n ral e gen a of e '' ativ as ''illtistr would create anomalies, for instance in the treatment of pled ge an d mortgage, which h ave no basis in diffe ring policy cons .ider ations. Yet even if it is accep ted that Art. 3083 is ''ill11strative'' of a general principl e what is that principle?. The an alogy betwee n pled ge and mortgage is immediate' but is the ''principle'' limited to the law of real security jnterests? On the co ntran,' Art. 1939 would seem to be another ''illu str ation:'' for the principle with ,vhi;h we app ear to be dealing is that _of French law: tl1.at a person with ''an interest" may p ay a debt, and will be accorded legal subrogation. In terms of the Ethiopian Code, p ayment in such situations i s '' authorized by law;'' the express provisiom simply note particular instances of this prin ciple's application. By this circuitous route, we are led back to the French law of payme11t.

/ l.

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2. Subrogation by the creditor. - Reconciling tl1e draf tsman's alterations of

the law of p ayment with his appare nt intent to i11troduce unchanged the French · law of subro ga t ion prop er is yet more difficul t whe11 st1brogation by the creditor is considered. Reliance on the de bto1·'s autl1orizatio11 is equal!)' inadequate in this in- i stan�; a�thorization by the court woul d again be a special case. So once n1ore th� 9uest1on IS to determine whether the payor is ''authorized by la\v'' to 111ake payment m cases of subr· ogation by the creditor. Ex pres s authorization does not exist: Art. 1968 n1entions only subrogat�on� not. paymen_t. _And an argument of implied authorizatio11 faces s11bsta,11tial obJection s The Pf1nC1J?le �evelop ed above with reference to lega l subrogation does not .�x ��: to_ these situations, for the payor now is a per so11 wl10 bas '' no 111tere5l. tllor au in �ght argue . that, since_ su�r?gatio n requires a valid payment, Art 1968, . ha,s a me�ing�· ing su brogat i?n, �ust 1mpl1c1tly autho rize paym.e11t. But Art. 1968

t , 1�t t ose _cases where the third party's s thi lly , Fi na � I ed pa . y1 ne 11t au tl1 ot is or he iz rw is; pretation would le ad to the t a ' l somewha cou ' t a creditor u so 2i bofJ l1e bizarre t resu that l t a m pay ents by a third part w . be n he h t subrogated the thud party: i out the debtor's consent, but onIY w 8 19� . At this point there remain , Art . . . ·r , �o r s op�n only a choice· of anomalies. or·s . does not au thor�e bt de t � e 1rr a e va req1; l on id y _paym ll ent i will 11orn1a gat � au thorization. Thus o br si ,_. 8 consent 1s n ot � n o gau subr o 111aY requ for ired could on1y occur es eat · if h e aut · horized the payment. The act obstacle that this cr · ual

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!�r:: :!,

Urisi matrter

l-,, ''b

. d l7ullf u-ea'. te · ia the d�·,scuss1on of legal subrogation in. Part II. ·

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SUBROGATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE WITH NT PAYME

. be I·arOae ' for the debtor \Vould not often hav e an interest in refusing authoriz· a·1trary reft1sal as a violation of the debtor' �ot treat an ar to b t i b ol1g rts col the s d a , 14 t1°� ? of good faith t111der Arts. 1713 and 1732. But the more important practical n tio a bh� o u· 011 remains that it 111ay be diffic11lt to obtain ''authorization'' simply because consid er a · thtis 11ot wholly satisfactory 1s Th' t tor. resu I · b . e 1s d the reach . to · nevertheless tilt d'ffic 1 .1.t 15 by the best ,:vhicl1 ca11 be reacl1ed in light of the 'unreconciled to ears pp 1 68 19 1d a1 ) . (2 40 s. 17 rt A of s ie Jic a � a d1screp, · · · 1 llsua 11Y JJresupposes a valid . at101 · S11b1og payment by a third party. · 3. Summary.law Fre11cl1 does not,_ that a third party making a payas s, reql1ire Ia,v n ia. Ethiop 1y tl1e debtor l11mself, by a cou.rt, or by law. In l so, do to ed authoriz ent be the debtor, deb�or's conse11t to the subrogation will the b� io1! sl1brogat f . o :ses 1�at1on of P�·)'n!ent. And 111 t�e area of legal s11brogation, t h. e at1tl1?r l1is tinie subs 1d1rectly a p.r111c1p]e also .found 111 French law, payment by a third 11 es embodi Code party lvho . h�s ''an _i11terest." Bll� "".ith respect to . s�brogation by the. creditor, it is not oern11ss1ble to 1111ply autl1or1zat1011 by law. Val1d1ty of payme11ts w1.Il therefore normally d ep e11d t1po11 the debtor's al1tl1orization of pay1nent, \Vhich may certainly not be presumed fr o11;1 tl1e_ creditor's con�e1 1t to subroga�e. Some a1nelioration o_f t�is rule may be obta ined 1f the courts will hold an arbitrary refusal of autl1or1zat1on by the debtor to be a violation of his obligation of good faith. Il. Sources of subrogation Ag ainst this background, it is possible to consider in detail the sot1rces of sub­ rogatio n . Three s11ch sources exist in Ethiopia11 law: legal subrogation, that is, subrogation of tl1e payor to the creditor's rights by operation of law; and two forms of contractual subrogation: by the creditor and by the debtor. A. Legal S11brogatio�

In certain cases, a person who pays another person's debt is accorded the benefit of st1brogation by simple operation of la\v, \Vithollt the necessity of any agreement at all. In each case, \Ve may see that the law recog11izes a special interest of the payor in the extinguisl1ment of the other person's debt. Usually this is beca11se �ltbo�gh tl1e debt ultimately rests witl1 another, the payor entitled to legal subroga­ !10n 1s directly affected by the exti11ction or non-extinction of the debt: such, for !nstance, is the situatio11 of co-debtors, guarantors, or persons enjoyi11g interests in the same property. _Art. 1971 is the Code's ge11eral provision providing for legal subrogation. It outlin�s two broad principles upon \vhicl1 legal subrogation shall be granted, each of which is elaborated elsewl1ere by specific Code provisions. Both principles again reflect French law. is 14· Compare the discussion of the ''interests'' of the various parties contained in the discussions of tbe French rule by the at1tl1orities cite 11. 12, s11pra. d, lS. th· Civjl Code Art. 1971: � u brogation to the rigl1ts of the creditor shall take place by vrrtue of the law, to the extent of the amot1nt paid: (�) for the benefit of any person \.Vho bein g bou11d with others or on behalf of 0thers f�r t e. payment of ricont or ty mni inde to tled enti a eby ther , is debt discl1arged tl1; debt and b ut 1on from h1s ' co-debtors· and • . ng over 1·t a ' (b) for I1e bene t y en or i Jo erty prop a of er O\vn \¥ of on pers g brin any fi ho t • ' . rig1lt of 1· en, a y rt e p ro p e m sa e th er o d mo rtgage or pledge, tJaid a creditor who enJoye v ! right Of lie n, mortgage o r pledge; a. n d

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W LA VOL. IX - No. 1 N IA OP HI ET OF L JOURNA

or on r alf the beh ano of with otbers.,,16 If a und ''bo n erso a 11 or ''0 om or wh Pay lf ha be '' ith ''w of' son per o wh m t a

J

1. Payment b . de1t g s a 1 9 or Pay :e o ro? by sub d � itle ) ( 7_ 1 · en A:rt atio is t n or pay ��: �} as matter � nd the b1mse is � is le tic Th ar . id pa nt e ou pli am ap s e tl1 to of a nt xte ' e e d th b to , of la� t g 1a a11to a or, e o o ''c to as 1·, r who.is 1 well ' " ,, d as bou r ' n anothe b ' . eh 1· ·. . n who 1s bound w1th lf b t on c y v e p or ex m e 1 ifi ad ec m sp re r i a c r lts p su re _ o si s, �t of'' another. Both these . y e l iv t c e sp e r , 4 4 9 1 t. r A 1909 11 and s n o or bt e de $1 ow co as A B2 0 d an B n o � os pp Su a � a. Codebtors. te du e er _, nb 31 e1 B2 ec D ys n O pa A st. re te in �n % 12 full rum self g in ar be , . 31 r be Decem _ s 11t, 1 h. o:1 �m l nt ful me the pay pay 1s to nd bou clea rly valid s wa B A, t ins aga z A.s 1s B t en hm u1s of 1ng ext the the b A low fol : y all rm no de t and Two effects would ct s effe do� _occur, for under A;t. 1908 er latt e Th t. deb 2 B new a of n the creatio � is given a claim against B fo� the . amou�t pa1� 1n �xc_ ess of his . share. This against his pr1nc1pal for reimb ursement action is in the n.ature of an agent s claim 19 ' s behalf. And as such, the claim will bear pal pronci the on made outlays for interest at the rate of 9% from the date of B2 's payment, without the necessity 20 B. to ce notj of a default

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However, since the Code accords the paying codebtor subrogation to the ocreditor's rights under Arts. 1971 (a) and Art. 1909, the first effect, extinguishment f the AB debt, does not take place. Rather, the debt continl1es to exist, not in favour of l A, but rather in favour of B2. Thus B2 acquires a second action againsi B, and one that in this case will be more advantageous for him, since it bears interest at 12%. b. Guarantors. - The suretyship provisions of the Code provide an exceptionally

)

clear view of the relationship of subrogation to the guarantor' s personal action for indemn ification. Suppose B borrows $ 1000 from A without interest and guarantees J �his loan. On the due date, B fails to make pay�ent; A approaches C, wl10 pays I in B's stead. ... Aga�n, � h.as a personal action against B for indemnific.ation under Art. 1940. This �ctton_ includes a right to principal and interest paid, and to co sts incur r�d. Sometimes it may also include damages suffered as a consequence. Art. 1941.. Ltke \ 0

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17 ·

18. 19'.

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(c) whenever the law so provides · ·the 10 P t· uI d'fli · 1 . e· en ces whic� · ted tre.a m8:y are exist law � betwee n Ethiopi an rench and . F co�r�� �� th · e 10 owing d1souss1on · 0 Ethiopian law foll11ows p·rench. law M zeaud , P· a et ud most closely in this area. See Mazea . cit., §855., Plaruo • et R1pert , op. cit., §228. . 1 1 sion In the English ver . I d as . . ''sub. ! ate · s ° f tra the n tly o _ d e, . 1 1ncons1sten ''subrogation'' has been � stitution''. A m e ac f ed t· r (1) A debtor.w{� � ecla� rendition of Art. 1909(1) would be: ec th . 0f t . unde r s righ the e Ar r be t. to 19�8 sh d _ tor to the extent of t·he tm ll . a ogat su � am ou nt pa id by h1m to the cred1tor. Rth, Civ. Code Art. 1806. . n I o u Eth. Civ. Code Art .. 2221(3) ac Y th eoc ag In or as ,gestion d'affaires (u ·. . French law, tl1e action is view·ed either � an . wbetbef e . the E eodet>lori relationship ar • nautbonzed agency m thiopian Code),_depend1 ng ?�, · vol. yrr, § iD92. It �s probably �:ai�ontr�c�ually o�. by law. See Planiol et Ripert, op ::p·;esent�tt:: i 3ee fi_th. C1v. leg tabl e SUJ to of e l view on the _ as a case atter e ction 1 s t . Code Art. 'zt 7� For a t h t our purpo� es here the exact nature of �S:e iJ lal,; as Art. 2264(� a . :li e ain d 111 t n co PP es tQ unauthorized agency the same rule �(. SJ]. . llli. C!ii. <Bede Att. 2iJ1 . . . (3) or. 2264(3), 1n conjunction with Art. 1751� . .'

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SUBROGATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE WITH T PAYivlEN

is viewed as action bein� in the nature 0� an ageilt's action, the , claim s tor' a ca.deb . of paym date ent, from w1tl1o · u t the 11ecess1ty of a notice of rest inte ars b e · 21 and , bt or. d e ry prima tl1e to t1It defa under _Arts. �971 (a) and 194�, once more provides the accorded on, ogati Subr _ action tl1e Whicl1 payor will prefer depends on the on. i t. c a. second a \Vith pay�� ular circ11msta11ces. In the exa1nple given, t11e g11arantor will prefer the personal interest at the legal r�te of 9% from tl1e dat� of payn1ent, bear_ ill _ w which , ;�[i�n , action would at best_ bear _ interest 9% at s from of notice default, creditor the h·te ,v I · d as en 1··1 :e17. 111terest1 · s· r ree. la 1m �nterprete y, tl�e pay?r might _prefer be 1 t migl � � and l1m1t1ons of tat11t reasons: tl1e l1m1tata �1011 pe�1 od may already s ?r f action nal erso p � the , action, b11t 11ot on _ the perso11al action, wn1ch only arose have rtin on the creditor s the freq11e11tly B11t s11brogated ent. m pay. action will be preferable: of date the on thar1 it more n1ay be furnisl1ed with real securities, or 9%, at interest bear niay it 22 action in advantage special from the r m otl1er creditor's position. be ay the e 2. Payments by a person who is owner of a property or who enjoys the right of lien, mortagage or pledge.23 If a payor \Vho is himself orvner of certain property, or lv/10 enjo;1s a seci,rity interest (right of lien, n1ortgage or pledge) in certain property, pays a creditor wl10 e11joys a security interest in the same property, Art. 1971 (b) accords him subrogation to tl1e JJaid creditor's rigl1ts to the exte11t of the amount paid. Tltis is a partic11larly clear example of our previous state1nent that legal subrogatio11 is allowed principally in those cases where the payor in question has a strong interest in extinctio11 of tl1e otl1er perso11's debt. In n1any cases, the payment may be made to preve11t the creditor from proceeding against the property, in \vl1ich the payor also has an i11terest, after the debtor has defaulted. S11ppose, for instance, that B and B2 are joi11t owners of a certain piece of land. Now suppose B, in order to obtai11 a loa11, has 111ortgaged l1is sl1are of the land to sect1re the loan. 24 Now l1e de.faults on tl1e loa11. Execution on the mo1�tgage by B's creditor n1ay be very i11conve11ient to B2, who \Vishes to contintre to t1se the land as an undivided area, or it n1ay res11lt in a sale at a11 artificially low price. In other vvords, he may be serio·usly prejudiced by tl1e creditor's action, although the debt secured is not his o\v11. Accordingly, if l1e 1noves to pay tbe � r�ditor, Art. 1971 (b) accorcls l1im, as a matter of law, subrogatio11 against his Joint owner to tl1e extent of the an1ount paid, to secure his eventL1al recovery. Art. 1971 (b) is also given 1nore specific applicatio11 by special provisions of the Code. For example , consider a person who holds a ''seco11d mortgage," that is, a 111ortgage 21. See Planiol et Ripert, OJJ. cit., vol. XI, § 1540. 22· Suppose, for example, that there are codebtors, B1 and B2, and one of tl1em, B 1 has been gua� anteed by C. If C l1ad guaranteed both B 1 ancl B2 , he would have personal recourse ag ainst both. But if l1e g1.1aranteed only B1 , he also bas personal recourse 01)Jy agaiI?st B1 even tl1 ough he n1ay be req uired to J Jay tl1e entire debt. By virtue of l1is st1brogat1on to the creditor's right, hov1ever, he may proceed against eitlter Bt or B2 (or botl�) for tl1� fuJI amount he has paid. The above is a statement of tbe Frencl1 la\v, see Plan1ol et llipert, vol . VII, §1092. TI1e Etl1iopian code does not specifically deal with tl1e isst1e, but �s ?P· cit.,. 11 �ontain s provisions identical to those of tJ1e Frencl1 code from whicl1 the above result is derived, the res ult will likely be similar. 2 3. F r anJ. oI et is Pl §855; cit., a op. d, d Mazeau ssion see d et Mazeau of cu the la,v, French · ? R ipert, op. cit. §1230. 24· T�is is allowed by Etl1. Civ. Code Art. 1260, aJtl1ot1gl1 B2 's consent \Viii be requirecl, Etb. C1v. Code Art. 1266.

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ve s er J1i n es pr ow To t . or e. m ag tg or n1 ' ge ga r he ot , an e th to y rit . . c. ond in pr10 se o d sec n o wh ee is ag t tg or ou m ab st fir . to a p f of ro y pa ce d agains to sh wi m ortgagee A � t. Ar t 1 '71 ) de a11 19 (b 1n · ll, wi d 1 he so rt � do he S f1 3 hould · 33 1 ( 2 , be ) . s id a a p l1 e h r o it d re 'c e th ; f o ts h g ri e th � � � : f � !u�r�; '.i 1 the u w er i gen on al ris pa v pro i�l co l , sio m 1 eft car Ar t. 1971 Art. 3083 (2) deserves _ _ _ ts ing men mak pay e� to tga mor a i ?re� �es oga tor subr � s havin �nly 30g� . Art ). (b . . 1. Art 125 de Co t 1l Bu C1v this nch Fre h rs a r estr1c· tion wit ' ·g ord acc in 18 s i Th . pr1or1•ty· . .1 n 1at t so . A� rt. rea no 9 1 1s ere 71 Th . (b) (b) should not 71 19 t. Ar in d ine nta riot co _ m e ov to � rem age a rtg rs °:lo sec a ! ce, � tan d ins for w, allo ortgagee ?� be a.pplied to 2� The l1m�t�t1on requ1red by French C1v1l ure. Code Art. who is threatening foreclos . 3083, �rt. ha� Cod� C1v�l been criticized in Eth: 1n orated incorp and 1, l al. 125 , law 1an by Eth1op 1n direct application of France;21 it can and should be avoided · Art. 19:71 (b). · In a11other respect both Art. 3083 and Art. 1971 (b) represent narrower rules than Art. 1251 al. 1 of the French Code. Art. 3083 grants subrogation in favor of ; mortgagees making payments, while Art. 1971 (b) grants subrogation is favor of owners or secured creditors ma.ki11g pay1nents; .,.\.rt. 1251 (1) of the French Code ;. more broadly allows subrogation of any creditor (thus even an unsecured creditor) making payment to a creditor enjoying preference over him. A similar provision I for legal subrogation cannot be found in Ethiopian law.28 3. Cases provided by law. - A third subsectio.n of Art. 1971 simply provides that legal subrogation shall also occur ''whe11ever the law so provides." The law might so ''provide'' either in tl1e Codes, or by expansive interpretation extendi ng the present Code provisions to cases \Vhere similar considerations exist, or in spec.ial legislation. To date, only the first of these three possibilities need be considered.

Article 1059 appears to introduce a li1nited version of� tl1e Frencl1 principle o-f subrogation accompanying payment· of the debts of a succession.29 The Ethiopian prov�s.ion accords subrogatio11 only to a special legatee; payme11ts by persons suc­ ceedmg by universal title are apparently not afforded st1brogation.

frrst it may seell?- strange that a second mortgagee \.Vould act in tl1is n1a�ner, �cr �sin: th� amount owed htm by a doubtful debtor. But suppose a piece of l_ and 1s ��bJect_ 1 $ l O,OOO fi�st _mor tgage _and a $ 500 0 second 1n ortgage. rrhc second n1ortgagee est t �bat iroa �� 0 ! under prevai.l!ng cond1t1 ons, a forced sale of. tl1e. lancl will bring jt1st $10,000, Ieavmg �o pll:1s f� r . hi_ m. Then he may cl1oose to pay o ff tl1e first rnorlgagee, and � sub rogated · l_lr � 18 rights, � n the or an im

·

25 · · ':t

hopes of a later sale of tl1e land at a mo re favorable pric e, provemen.t in the debtor's position. . so•· surel y, 26. Here also one m·ay at fir . . t . · s . der won . w1at 1 . interest the first 11.1ortgagee has 1n d010g i f a s .on'd mortgagee ion t _ 1.s proceeding against the property he is �doing so in tl1e e xpech t� of ec . . ' . that the saI e price w-ill be st . . �act1on . . . And. t is . 1f · fi · icien t to give sat1s1 him partial at course would .n a the st mortgagee could be leasti full. Tl1is objeC�. lS correct paid n O� in their l so far as it g:� B�� �t eg e ts h fact that le!-ld�rs �re often_ close!y ent win� e affairs borrower's affairs and l� � � } hos · t Y ere tlJa ore t have extr1ns1c 1.oterests 1n seein g . , are .not disrup.ted. 'l7. See A. Weill, Droit civil· /es ob· /·zga1.,o,zs (Precis Dalloz, 1971), p. 942. ·o in the . ·. '28 • . Also ' desp . r.\it.e ·the s1m. ilar1tie . . n f ovisi s r betwee 0 p n o ge ortga n 1s does e ther_ pled and ge, pledge sections o;f the Code dea :ing � _ l(b) Art. 9 with y not ,, 1 _ A dot} pa . � gation rt subro me 2s with . nt l . i apply tse. l l: 0 G S . 48 n the P:1e . 5 gh s ty t ? g , t supra e pr?p n r to ubro ion a ns, ''s 1 t ec ?g� . en ro parm with �m., eo.n:c. su t' · it 18 an mstance of real subrogation; 0 1 . . •·- lFllptlier, examples of fl b see :rid '3097. le ap·li>1��fon of Art. , a . 5 309 197. I(b Ar ) ts. fou are in nd ,: c ZJ! P� h �i�il c0de Art•. 1251 al. 3 , · · .

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GATION UNDER THE. ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE SUBRO WITH PAYMENT a nce �f �t1brogation, and one of great importance, operates with inst her A fiirt amage s. U11der Art. 683 of the Comn1ercial d nst a. g a1 nce sttra Code ' an O l•11 t eet resP e a1n rog st1 w1 1s c ate · d b b · I ·11 to ma ge action s against · a d · thir d p a·rties ying a p er ur ·s ode Art. 323 embod·ies a s1m1la C e 1� · · a ge. 30 Mar1t1m m r principle where a d · · the r f O hable be clain1s against third p a rties t111der the special ''general average'' principles y there roa t r A . 1 · t in . Y, 690 of. tbe Con1mer?1al nteres I · nce · �ode prohibits subins11ra e rin . � ma 0f alone leg ,11 s11brogat10 ontracts 1nsur1ng persons. There 111 1!) _ � (let_ es clatis . n 0 atio for sucl1 a prol11b1t1011 111 tl1e case of accident or health cation justifi r a cle :5 gno ! ance policies, where the s11brog ation of the ins11rer co11ld substantially reduce rnsur, ·ct�r coverage and presumably has 11 �11c � our Id 1 h' age 1 w 1c t ' i w1 f \\ e n � 1? a sm reroiu �ore social ut1l1ty tl1an co11ferr111g w1ndfall c111nul,1t1011s of benefits. 31

B.

Contractual

subrogation

Where the l aw does not accord subrogation to the payor, it may still occur as a matter of agreement between him and either tl1e creditor or the debtor. In both insta nces, its 11tility is as a means of allowing tl1e parties to '' refinance'' performance.

1. Subrogation by the creditor.-32 Suppose that A has borrowed $ 5000 from B, ,vhich is to be repaid i. n full by Dece111ber 31. This loan bears interest at_ I 0% pe.r annum, and is secured by a mortga ge on A's la11d. Now st1ppose that B himself desir es payn1ent earlier, perha ps in September. He cannot req11ire A to make this payment, and A 1na y be u11willing to do so voluntarily if he still requires funds himself. But C, a tl1ird party, might be l1appy to make this payment to B, if he c ould in tun1 be assured of receiving tl1e payment of principal and interest. Subrogation by the creditor allows this: the subrogated payor then '' stands in the shoes'' of the original creditor, and may exercise both the primary claim to the debt and the accessory security i11terest JJrovided by tl1e mortgage. B is benefited, because he is able to receive payment immediately, as he desired; C·is provided the opportunity of Iendi11g at terms he considers adva ntageous; A, on the other hand, is not prejudiced: neither what he owes nor the time that it will be d11e has been cha nged. Only the person of the creditor is different.

.

Is

Under Art. 1968, a creditor who is paid by someone other than the debtor always free to s11brogate the paying party to the creditor's rights against tl1e debtor. 33

3o. A distinction should be drawn between this legal subrogation and a ''subrogation clause." Under earlier French law, legal subrogation was not accorded, and contractual subrogation cl�uses were l1eld to effect an assignment, not st1brogation. The inst1rer's rec?very againsj a . (A full t�iTd party was therefore not Ii1nited to the extent of his payment to the msured. discussion of tl1e differences between subrogation a.i1d assignn1ent appears infra, t_e�t at n_. 52�. French law now accords legal subrogation; moreover, tl1is is a mandatory prov1s1on which 1s held to prohibit assignment See Planiol et Ripert, op. cit., vol. XI, §1347. . 31 · t �s possibl e to argue that tl1e inst1red ''expects'' a cumulatio11 of benefits b_ecause he 11a� �. P�i d for them." Of course if a rule allowing st1brogation were adopted, premiums would be adJ�sted so that the insured' ,wt pay for the right to cumulative benefits. �n that cas� , would while !he ''expectation" might still exist ' it is unclear tl1at it is one deserving the laws P�otect1on. S milar questions n1ay be raisecl concerning tl1e apparent absence of subrogation provisions �e � government's _pension pla11s. See Pt1blic Se�vants' Pension Decree, Decree No. 46 <19-6 1 am eocted, Public Servants' · _ Pensions Dec]arat1on, Proc. No. 209 (1963). 32 ol. v , cit. op. ert, Rip et l · nio 4 Pla 46§§8 a 11 v ud e t Mazeaud ' op . cit ., ol. ' 9' lly M zea era gen VSeIIe , §§1221-23.

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o it cl e re th n c . r ee w d et an b t e th en em re ag y pa . of o · r te r , how e at nl a 1s hi s t 34 As . n o t1 ver a b g o r t1. s e 1s ft e r to e e fr e the ered1•,tor 1·s likewis n on u upo gati b1�o ons diti con by two � the credito r• oses imp (2) Art. 1968 . e n_ lt t�r e tl1 t of _a cl ze te yrr ec pa eff . 11t be st u Bo · m th conditi: it 1d 81 s ·es pt ex be t mus ons 1l ch e. 1v n d C o re F e C th f o 1 . al parallel t11 ose of Art. 1250 o ati n. be o� ess br pr s11 ex at tl1 is m�ant to pre ot 1ne ire req e T .''� � a. ''Express d clu e s um 11c ta rc s c1 e r th ur n1 nd fro ou y pl i�g a pay men � � _ inferrmg, s1� _ the courts froni t . _ aid b1n1 w�o to on pers tl1e the or1 ed ogat subr � has or redit �inal creditor'� the that _ � 35 fr 1s to_ rt ly cou 1n1p a lly, tl1e rn1a N or intention of debt � the � nst agai � ts righ . a s t1on 1s oga r . sub one es of tanc u111s c1rc : ral seve such in tances contracting party from • · I "6 e, n ctic f 1n pra t o e h pro ., . t area of subrogation, 1rec d. mar ires req e Cod � where the � the result is to require unequivocal words. . If the words employed b� the parties f�il to establis:11 intentio11 �o sttbrogate, 37 an as ent. tion assignm transac the Th i s 1nakes the erize charact the result may be to r· equirement that subrogation be express quite stri11gent, for there are few words · r�gate," wh.ic� will indicate unambigously which may �e employed, other . than ''�u? , that subrogat100 rather than ''ass1gnme11t 1s intended. This narrow11ess of terminology is already constricti11g in English and French; the wisdom a11d utility of the provi­ sion may be doubted when the f u.rtl1er fact is considered that Amharic lacks at present words with the narrow technical meaning acquired over years by such words as subrogate in European languages. Application of the provision by the courts will therefore require delicate consideration for tl1e f orseeable fuiure. The requirement that subrogation be express should not be confused with a requirement that subrogation be effected in writing. No 1·eqt1irement of a writing is imposed. 38 Further, the two concepts are distinct and independent, so that the Code's requirement that the subrogation be ''express'' cot1ld be fulfilled by an ora.1, as well as a \Vritten agreement, and, conversely, a writte11 . agree1ne11t will only suffice v.rhen it shows the ''express'' intention to subrogate. b. ''Effected at tb.e time of pay·ment''- By its term.s, the second requireme�t would only allo� subrogation to occur simt1lataneously with payment.39_ In fact, however, the rational� of the requireme11t will be satis:fied if it !s only 1nterprete j to preclude subrogation after pay1nent, thus allowing subrogation to be agree before, as well as at, the ti1ne of payment. Louisiana cottrts, interpreting Art. 2160

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l 1 I

J J

)

t

33. Eth. Civil Code A rt. 1968: red .it� r W llo is paid by a tl1ird part y may sttbrogate lli.rn to l1is rights. · ltiro gatton shall be express and effected at the tir..ne of pa vm . en t t , 'pre ven . 34 While the ere d'itor 18· free to 11Y r n1a no · do \Vill so he tlus is not 11kely to do so s1·oce . .·.1ng · h'1s obta1n · the · me..;1: · un wate pay1nen't wh•ich ·bas be · , off en ere ct. I. VII 35. For a d.iscussion of express Vo a·s op·po·sed to tacit, see Planiol et R1'pert, O'[J. cit., §105. 36. See , � f r other exai_nples, Eth. Civ Code Ar 1 9 17 16 40 8 22 ts J . 82 19 5 , 1 77, 98 . ' 1:1 '.ound to 7' 37 · T h e d1ffierences which ·11 ' • " · s on W result ogati if ' an ''subr ''assig nment tl1a11 a Be illeseot ane discusse . dl 1ater, see text at n• 52 . ' rather z n, ,r.ra. • • 'l,ag � 1,� 1t.:r:,"11.1.'i.. a r.. u�e..s e.ne exist Ill Prench Ia . ., §1223. . . . . ee cit n1o op. Pla et t, per S R1 l · w. • Bill. M fea st one '.R 't�neai., W·nte , 1. P· 935 f . r A s W seem ill, op. ��e c1 to r�ch. th'1� concl_us1on: �ee . , bttJO .. n o e e ob · . r i p . ��� t W.iiltey5 ane ambiguou8 n this P?mt, g1vm h t to g tl1e1r attention 011ly Sufill�1tian aJtei I)a:yment ' an.�· t ·h e rationale underlying it.

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ATION' UNDER Tl-IE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE SUBROG H WIT p;\Y.MENT

Code, . also derivecl from and parallel to Art. 1250 of Civil na uisia the · Lo 40 the . t of 11 is s1 th re d he ac re ve ha C . Ode ch Fren 'lt is • sound if th e �at1onaIe of Art . 1�68 and its pre�ursors is su conre . . . This . d Nor mally, wl1en payn1e11t 1s mad e, the obl1gat1on 10 q·uestion is extinguished sidere exception to tl1is rt1le, by allowi11g the debtor's o·blian forn 1s n ogat io Subr · · · tbere bY·· f 1avor o t I 1e s11b rogee, who takes the place of the 1n -". exist to 111e 11 cont . to ga�•..00 co11ce Co pt11,1l ental t111 ly, . lawye rs co11ld only allow tli is result n B11t tor credi . 1 . n . or1g1 a . h t e at time o f place payn1e11t . Any later took agreemen t n would gatio be bro s ·!r � c tive for l1ow co11ld B (tl1e origi11al creditor) and C (his subrogee) revive by ' · · 1nefl e ' obl1gat1on, 011 t·11e part o� A, wl1ose origi11al obligation had an. ,_ eement agr their d by C s fay�1e11t? A pr10� agreement by B and C, however, ext1ngu1she been ady alre to B s. r1gl1ts when, 1n the future, he makes payme11t, s11brogated be \vill c that ' , and s�ot1ld st1ffice as a �alid s11brogation, �ev1val' of '' problem s�1cb. no nts prese o� st1bro�at1on \vhen payment 1s actually made. 111ent1011 f11rtl1er no 1s t11ere v if en e It sl1ould be noted that the Code s requ1reme11t refers to when subrogation shall be agreed: accordi11g to most �utl1ors, i t is possible to submit proof of a later date in support of the subrogation (as wl1ere, some days later, the parties reduce an oral agreement to writing), b11t nat11rally if a significant period of tin1e elapses between tl1e clain1ed date of subrogation and the date of the proof offered , t.he proof will be questionable. 41 2. Subrogation by the debtor.42 - Suborgatio11 may also occ11r by agreement between the debtor and a third party who lends hi1n money for the purpose of paying the debtor's cred.itor. Art. 1969. 43 This is an extraordinary institt1tion by which the creditor's rights against the debtor are transferred to a third party, without the consent, or even against tl1e will, of the creditor. S11ppose B loans A $ 5000 at 10%, sect1red by a mortgage of A's land. Let us say that A is having difficulty meeti11g periodic payme11ts to B, and B is 11nwilli11g to arrange more lenient terms. C, ho\vever, wot1ld be willing to lend money to B on more lenient terms, provided t11at he l1ad security for its repayment. The 011ly sec11rjty A bas to offer is his already mortgaged land. Under Art. 1969, if A borrows money from C and uses this money to pay his debt to B, be is entitled, by means of s11brogatio11, to transfer B's rights, including above all tl1e mortgage, to C, Yiiiflzo-itt tlze co11sent of B. As noted, this institution is extraordinary when viewed ii1 terms of our norm,tl concepts o. f consent: it is justified, however, by its extreme utility. 44 40· John T. 1-Iood, Jr. ''Subrogation, " in Essays on ilze Civil Law of Obligations (Dainow, ed., 1969), p. 179-80, and cases cited. 41. See Planiol et Ripert, op. cit., Vol. VII § 1222. , 42· See generally Mazeaud et Mazeaud, op. cit., Vol. TI, §§850-53; Planiol et rupert , op. cit. Vol. VII, §§1224-26. 43· Eth. Civ. Code Art 19 . 69: A de btor who borrows money or other tangible tl1ings to pay l1is debt ma)' st1brogate the lender to the rigl1ts to the creditor , even \Vithout the consent of the latter. 44· Note that its greatest utility comes from tl1e fact tl1at it allows not only a cbange in credit or but a change in terms of payment. For instance, a Joan at 10% is paid off! �d a new loan at 7% secured. N ion where ormally, a debt bearing interest is consid� red as_ an ob 1igat the term of payment an of ce absen the 1n y, d1ngl Acco or. credit and r t r benefi bo th debto xpre onse�t of c th ut ss reservat e � \Vitb o ed allo� i be ot n on would on t ymen this prepa point _ , 0th p � arties. .'See Eth. Civil Code Ar ts. 2482, 1865-66. The cred1tor'_s �onsent 18 not 11�:1Y 0 be forthcoming if, in the interim, tl1e level of interest has bee11 s1nk1ng. Th� grea� ut1_ h ty �i eb tor s) of subrogation by tl1e debt or is thus to allo w debtors to refi�ance tlJatr oblig�tio: -d g m advantage of the decline in interest rates. In capitalist terms, it- ma y also be view as go od because it stimulates co1npetition among lenders.

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es k · e ta o1 ac bt pl de e e du th y b to 1 o1 ti e ga th ro ib st e d btor'� th , ct fa itl If' d ge sa is vi Us as en by r, e ito ed . rt cr A a 6 y 19 pa 9 to 1 s nd fu e of .b �ro ed 18 n gh en ou th Ev e o . th or bt de br su e o th ; of te rs ga o � t di , d � e � cr other ic e re n �ay � s es thi do t no ors res dit rep cre e1 , 1 n se w tho t a of ie � son � e pr�or1ty, h avJU e r1ori y over o wh e al th i11 ig of or ce la it ed cr e th p or i11 p r ev1ously b ut s1pmpl y hi. s . substitt1tion enjoyed a pr1or1ty. a c i a nif es sig nt opportunit y for f �s p _ o als r bto de · the by o11 ati But subrog . ra · · ·, ud C' s a ou r1n or 1o t 1 rig 11 d o co d e tt n t:to l _ b 1n1 su s by Art. 1970 4; 1s er, 11g da is th oid av to and y lly ead 11a alr act s ha id A pa t tl1a e B, btit no\v find cas us vio pre the in ose pp Su s himself sh�rt of fu11ds. Becatise he l1a� al1·eady off�red wl1a� !eal security . he has t� other creditors and lenders, he has little prospect of add1t1011al borrowings. No. however, in conjun.ction with a potentia! lender, he agre�s th.at in retur11 for a loa:' he wi_ll ''subroga_te'' tl1e lend�r �? tl1e �1gl1ts of th� cre�1to1· he _l1as pre,,iously paid: .By virtue of tlus '_'subrogation . the lender a�qu1i:es. t]1� s�cur1ty of the previous creditor: n1ore especially, l1e acqt11res the for1ne1· s pr1or1ty r11 tr.111.e over otl1er secure d creditors wl10 have since a.cqt1ired clai1ns. T.he agreeme11t of subrogation bet\veen A . and C is ap_propriately back-dated to the ti1ne of A's payme11t to B

f

Fraud of this type is preve11ted, so 1011g as it can be ass11red that tl1e funds ler1t by C were in fact 11sed by A to pay B, ratl1er tl1an representing borrov,ing for an unrelated pu1·pose. And, in tt1rn, this is achieved 11rimarily by giving certain dates to tl1e tra.nsactions in qt1estio11. Accordir1gly, t'or st1brogation to occur, the Code requires both tl1e ''instru111ent evide11cing tl1e loar1'' and the receipt for paytnent obtained from the creditor to have at1tl1ei1ticated date.46 The loa11 instru­ ment 1n.ust also include an express statemen.t as to tl1e intended use of il1e funds, a11d the receipt, as to t·h e source of the fu11ds. I11 distinctio11 to subrogation by

The institution defies our n orrr1al concepts of obligation s, for it not 011ly eL1visages the transf er by the debtor of the creditor's r ights, but a.Isa alteration of tl1e content of tl1ose rights throu� an agreement of the debtor and a third party. One 1nay \Yell wonder what group ?f debtor� was powerful enougl1 to ac'hieve sucl1 dis to rtions of .11�Jr111al principles in tl1eir tavor:. lhc �nswer-the French n obility of the early 17tl1 centL1 ry. ReligioL1s ,vars in Et1rope ha? driv�n mterest ra�es up,_ and the .n obility was l1eavily indebtecl. At tl1e close of tl1e ,va�s, rat es aga� fell. �enrt IV, t n _a declara.tio11 of 1 ?09, allo'vvecl the nobility to refi 11ance t_ l1eir d bts, � of . tbu.s introduced !h1� ty1)e of subro�at1on into ts Tt 1e for1T1,tl reqL11r emen Fre11 la,v. cl1 both , 1970 of _the E�hio_pian <?ode, and its precL1rs or, Code cll tl1e Fren of 2 1250 Art. al. des rete 11a e tll�Jr basis In a Judgi11ent of the (Ar 0 I>a rlen1e11t de I'aris on July 6, 169 � . su rogat1ons). See MazeaLtd et MazeaLtd · rs' op c, · r · �8 51 , ' · � dito Fr · s � tres � th� t "' re . t 1nt1st1al fact that tl1e · debto r· is allo\ved to transf er .. . en,ct1 ��1ter llt- _e fon is r gh t, 1t u t s_tress_ing tndepe 11den i a oblJg e 1 tl of tly tl1e obvious fact t]1at the object te ; ( � . 0ga b · ��Slort cally, _tl1is is qt1ite t 1nde.r st a11dable, f r the a\1tl�or iz�tion to su :t\veen b !c��m���!d t ':L1 1lOrization to ? 1 r , Y clea gwsl 1 l)rep ay. dtst1 n I-Iow to · ever 1 , re the ia1it . . . . . e tw autl1or1zat100.s I1as led th � to some lack o f clarity. 45. Eth. C1v. Code Art 19'70· • s . · · r ea b (1) Subrogation by the debt n . . loa . · tll"' �g 1 . • 1.1es (sic) tl1at tl1e inst_rL11nent ev1denc . . r an authenticated t a d or imp ein �he . ed that ec1 the state t1se s�1 es fi of xp essl tl1e r su lent 1s e � r s (2) The receipt fo� t�e foan n:i exp s J1all bear a.n authenticated date and include an meot t11at the a ent 0 as Illade bf mea11s 5 or . mo t ne � � �f bo th rro e we �� d deb (3) .The credito� � not the . re refuse to include this staterne11t in the receipt whe E.e<!J,uiFes �m � t, Ar bY e 'fb ZWaMs 1n whic:h an • stru . . ned . roi b t er t e d may of t e · �o. � , a ar � cquire . date "' s1 au n!:ll · 2W�\ "#1, Lli 1.. " "' au tl1enticate(l ir� 1,.111 e ,_..,� t . p ei' ec ef Slll?i.Fogatt 0 t h e . ''r • e b e. \Vill undoubtedly 11 rmal manner . J:ImltlU. me»t ay a ''pahlie om' ffic ,?, o ? cerc, most likely a registra_r iu the court's notarY

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WITH SUBROGATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE T MEN PAY

stat eme that nt the debtor subrogates the lender to the expr ess an r di. t o · ' · 47 the e re requi·red. Suc1 1 a statement 1s hardly necessary in view of not 1s ts righ 's · -· · · forma11ties, · · · ered.itor · w h' 11 IC. WI h h ar dl y admit of another 1ntention r1g1d wise ther o the ill. Effects ma11y of tl1e effects of st1brogation have already been discussio11, g precedin tlle In 1 1ecessar)' to st1nunarize tl1em here, and to deal with a few special only is It . oted . e is r a h ic h w s 1 n ;roble Whatever the sot1rce of subrogation, the effects are tl1e same. And all of these effects may be deduced from tl1e fact that it is the creditor's right which the , together with the liens, securities and other accessory rights subrog'"'ee exercises · 48 It attached to . As a result, the subrogee \Vill l1ave a secured or unsecured right, depending on \vhether the original creditor had obtaiI1ed sec11rities; it will bear interest if it did in the l1ands of tl1e creditor, aI1d will 1 1ot, if it did not. If the creditor was a merchant, and special rules of evide11ce \Vere applicable to the debt in his ha11ds, the same rules \:viii apply to tl1e debt i11 tl1e subrogee's hands.49 And the running of the statute of li111itations will be in no way affected by the subrogation. Fro1n these conseque11ces it can easily be see11 tl1at the subrogated rigl1t will often provide the s11brogee witl1 a better action tl1an l1is personal action for rein1burseine11t or indemnity; yet at the same ti 1ne, partict1lar circumstances, for insta11ce, bar of the subrogated right by the stat11te of limitations, may make the personal action the more advantageous one. A further rest1lt of t11e fact tha.t it is the creditor's right \vl1ich the subrogee exercises is that he may not exercise it ''to tl1e detriment of tl1e creditor." 50 A partial payment therefore only e11titles the subrogee to pro tanto st1brogation; the creditor retai11s a full priority as to the t1npaid balance. 51 Article 1973 states the effects of botl1 subrogatio11 and assignment upon transfer of ''liens, sect1rities and accessory rigl1ts." Since st1brogation and assignme11t share _ important effect, and si11ce assignment, this like s11brogation by tl1e creditor, occurs through tl1e agreement of tl1e original creditor and a tl1ird party, there has often been confusion about exactly ,vhat differences exist between the two concepts. In fact, there are nun1erous disti1 1ctions.52 47 · For commentary on the identical Frencl1 prov1s1on, see Plaoiol e t Rjpert, op . cit., §1225. 48 · Eth. Civ. Code Art. 19 73: (I) Tl1e subrogated creditor or the assignee of a right may e xercise tl1e liens, sect1rities and other accessory rights attacl1ed to it. (2) He may 11ot enter i11to possession of the tl1ing received in pledge by the creditor without th e consent of the JJledger. (sic ). 49· Correspon ingly, the creditor has the duty to su1Jply tl1e subrogee with proof. Art. 1974· d 5o. Art. 197 2 (1). 51 · This s �ecific result of tl1e general Jang11age fot1nd in Art. 1972(1) follows Fren7h lav.,, an� is i��[ed �n _Etl1: Ci v. Code Art . 1972(2). There is some feeling that a rule according tl1e creditor or 1ty is excessive. See Aubry et Rat1, op. cit., vol. I, §321 . Pn 52 ' iee M azeaud et Mazeat1d, op. cit., Vol. JI, §860; Planiol et Ripert, op. cit., Vol. VIl, §lZ45; e Page, op. cit., vol. JIJ, §554.

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W ,. VOL. IX: No. 1 LA N A PI IO H ET F O JOURNAL

le � sa _ or tl1 gift· of a 1·igl1t by lly ia nt se es is nt e nm sig th e ori . _ _ _ _ _ 1; -Source. _ As _ . e th res t t11 en a1 1eq 11s co g1n ch st1 of t as h e cre d' d an rty pa ird th a 1 tor Sub · . ' r to : ed"1to er t s e a. s, no d ·, ay w an . d e re h t w al . 1n s r ay u c oc in ay 1 n conn·ectio . er ev w ho . n, 10 t , roga t· . n n a 10 ' ' bl 1g o s r to b e d l a in g ri with payment of th .e o e the cas ich is· is wh Th st mo or. dit cre closely re the of nt nse Co B the Ies rn� e s t at ed ect eff b 1 1st ess n d pr an ex e on ati t og br su of a.menyt • ··aut tlli h e t1n1e · s type . ass1• gn . . e b err 1 d . e 1n1. ca1 (.' d • an �ry 1tr co1 ed _n� the. on not have an _ , ent nm sig As . ent ym pa of � � e arg of tl1e origtnal debtor's cl1 e �1s th 1s at(th t en ym pa th wi all at connection obli : gation). ss se�pre mean be tl1at in n all doubtful cases, gatio subro that ment e r_ requi e h T .. . . . _ _ to d t a thir righ ty a par sfer may be implied, where the creditor's 1ntent1on .t o tran n ratio decla of ss expre ion no intent is tl1ere to subrogare, but ss, expre even is 6.c . t en nm sig as an as d ate tre be t us m the transfer b. Legal subrogation. - This form may also someti1nes rese1nble assignment but the- distinction will be clear if it is recalled that, in the cases specified b y th; of law, witl1out any intention of the parties. n1atter a occurs as ation subrog Code, . . c. Subrogation by the debtor. - This form o f subrogation, although consensual, resembles assignment the least. For here tl1e consent of the debtor transfers the right of the creditor. Th.is anomaly has already been commented upon, as ha ve the strict ·formalities imposed. 2. Effects. - In addition to the differences in sou.rce and formal requirements for validity, there are also substa11tial differences in effect. Among th ese are:-

a. Rights transferred. - Frequently assignment is used as a mode of ''dis• countin.g'' obligations: that is, a credit with a face val'ue of $100 may be transferred to an assignee in exc.hange for a $ 90 cash payment. For $ 10, t he assignee ass umes most of the risks of non-collectability, such as tl1e debtor's i1 1solvenc)'· If he is able to obtain jurisdiction over the debtor, and the debtor is solvent, he will be able to obtain $ 100, notwit.hstandi11g that he paid oi:ily $90 for tl1e credit. . Subrogation, however, operates differently: the st1brogated perso11 acquires� ri�ht . to payment only to the extent that he h.as actually n1ade payme_nt. _ This prmciple, t�at a creditor n1ay not ''subrogate to his own detrin1er1t'' (for_ 1 n5tance, by transfer· ring the whole credit in retu.rn for a11 only partial pay1ne11t) 1s a dopted �Y. Art_ 1972._ As a ,�onsequ ence, the v aluable economic function perf?rm ed by �'. _ discoun � as�ignm�nt may not also be served by 111eans of StJ.brogat 1on : s u brog t 10n retains its primary character as a n1eans of effecttia ting pay1nent. . . . stated ex;p1·1c1· t by ;i\rt. b. Priority - A secon d consequence of the sa1ne pr111 c1pl e, . itY . Y r . that 10 tlle event of the 1972(2).' 18 as io h 's insolvency t'he original creditor debt or ?r 'd ve his subrogee._ For is h wh ic ins tan ce, consider a debt of $1000, $ 500 of � � h e if�r s 0 tak es in retu rn a r a A. As sub B rog ati on aga ins t to rig hts 's ;io OO, tlie conse uence abov e, C has only to t rig h a no t a right to $ 500, B' re· . c s And ;: a u f second consequence, this claim is su bor�inated to and (he roaming ol�: }0� $��O uppose that e 1nso e lv S l tb e become the �' debtor has � v aeht is seeured b a 1e ge a l 1 of goo 00. P ds, r·, $ � B Y; b eing abl e worth, only howeve _ rvi�rt to realize 1 d and receive $ 500_ p ayme t in full _pnor o _c s � ian ee with t he � hi � @aY, amn.o!n� , fem the _ va.r at pledge. 1s gn result tl11s Again, e ssi e ;81fJGt 4!lf a li)artial a d -�0m.t,ete 0,n rc:�:�gn�ent, fo! in the latter ca.se, both assignor a n . enu � ,al. 0 lng l'Or ava1lable assets.

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SUBROGATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE WITH ·�.fr:NT pAYlYlJ,..l

IV. Conclusion

the most useful doctri11e of s of the one law, and ' as we have is cration . b ro 0 Su. i11ere11t areas. It 1s a1so one of the most bewildering pplicable in many d•C'f' seen onfronted._ Unfo�tu?ately, the subject�s inherent comp­ first when � Jaw ; �he _ . are.a _ �f been increased 1n Eth1op1 an la\v. This add1t1onal complexity have even may Iexit ;�s ors_: one, the confusion existing between authorization to make fac � -two froin resu 5 1 011 t o be subrogated; two, tl1e close resemblence, but djf_ zat alithor1 and payro en t 1 brogatio11 by the creditor and assignment. As to the st betwee11 result, s 1 · 0 · ference av1 at 'd D 1 not simply choose to follow the d'd h t e t reg:,e_ d be perhaps inay it first, . 1 v1 l Code Art. 1236, rather than formulating a new rule, C French of e doctrin ch F en { full conseqt1ences of whjch \Vere difficult to foresee. It is unclear what bas been 1 ained b)' the alteration incorpora�ed in A:rticl� 17�0(2), and it is _ also unclear to �vhat extent the draftsn1an l1 �ld this alteration 1�. ID.111d as he [ash1oned ot:11er pro­ visions. As to the secor1d, since botl1 subrogation by the creditor and assignment are consensual in na.ture, it is not clear why two separate institutions need be maintained by tl1e la\V, at the expense of great complexity. One regime of suppletory rules would suffice, the parties nat urally being free to fasl1ion alterations. Consider­ ing the scope of the ta �k before the draftsman in this area, however, these c·riticims may be classed as minor.

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II. "'I'1 i;:lD-'/° 1 f_, 11 :J! : q. ,f• °f : f,;, l'r I ftr).:,. = ,,,�H. u � h 1-,,&1' , J', ? , 'i:"'I! a, f.'1° , f+ll'I° P. '1 '1.f· oo-11.- , noo-i\- : "-,,':f,u,l'rll Tm- = r,'h, ., ti m. = f fl A = = "IAK" lJ.f.'i 6J!'(D« = 0.,,11 = 'h1f. �nc 'i:,. ' - wl�- ' v..,.h n,;.:,., ' (f •t. o-11.+'21 i: "'1.,.,.. ' n..,.., fl.9':i: ' -l . -.. .<.fitJDc,r'J): ;i-O!f-?'l-: oar.f,: O,"h"l : &.if•= m·m-i = t,1Jt'f�¥m•: fl::i, f:lai --f;r(lflfl,r : tr'i = Y,:rfA i �tJ'l° = nY.elPl�:J 'l! :: Fco:, = f+�.illlh:,,1= ),o !J!?Jl- : at;J'I! : it�'C1 : f,.f,'f't--T'P A :. "7 """' : �m .. :: :,11:Fc; : h;111,:: f°?.} (t«,r : n '} Y: : it 1 J.'..': ,r�:J-9'1' : OA � : �C..(!- : (1,f,"f : ID-il'I' : 0,f-cfl � : m7o"f: OOIP(.:,--: 'h1Jth'ilD�: t\67Y:l"l: 'l°'iAQ:,..'I°: h;I' .e:: hA� (}(.'}°:: f,U: fllf'}: 'i� 1 ,. tt1'"1\f¥a = rncil.irl·'i 'IJ!,OtJ'f,, = n��:fc; = t\ttf,1rP-:r.. = A ¥a = ;,.1o7f = on'ic �n lflT I 'h�tLtJ1'1°: m'Jo:f : P't,. : ltf, : il'"7'PA : A f- = �CY: : fi.1'"f: 6f.b'l°C : oo'ic = �Ol'l:fOJc OlltJ'I° = (llJ1Pl:,,. = f'i!Tdt = ,nt1h?o = ,1,'? = 1t1cri"f = h1Jt f1il'1fr = f°tf.l�T : +,:,{l9':f.: ;,irfl:J!:fm·'} : il00&.?i'J°'i : :J1l:F¥(D«9'°: O>t� JttJ: it'}«f>f.:f : ODtp(.,)• : 'h1-'th'ilD1 : (lOIJ..ouc,n-n..-1, : 1._l·t : 11:1: : �(D•: "'lft.;I•: '¼l\°'l(IJc = .eu = �nc = ,n� = 0010D.-f: = '?1 = n 11Jsro = >tfl:t!;,t = tlfc.A == �(J}«

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THE SUBSTANTIVE LAW APPLIED BY l\tfUSLIM COURTS I� ETHIOPIA Possible Justifications for the Continued Application of tl1e Sharia By Zaki Mustafa Introdoction,-The Position Before the Civil Co�e:

It may be helpru1 to �egin by s_ ta ting that Sharia COllr_ ts have for a long time 1 a11d were perform1ng o p1 a Eth1 1n t ence very n1uch the same e h,ad a d facto exis functions that they are _performi�g today, long b, efore any legislation was passed to tegula:t e and organize their constitutio? and �iln�tio ns. It may also be helpful to remembe,r that Sharia courts, wherever they exist Jn tl1e world today, are vie,ved as special courts designed to serve a spec.i al functio11, 11.amely the determination of certain questions falling wi thin the area of Muslim perso11al law. As �ar as Ethiopia is conce1·ned the organization · and jurisdiction of Sharia co urts. are governed by the Kadis and Naibas Councils Proclamation 1944,2 �rt icle 2 of which provides: ''There shal l be establisl1ed K adis and · Naibas Councils ·in such places as we may det ermine with jurisdiction t o · decide;-

a. any question regarding marriage, including divorce and maintenance, guar­ di anship of minors and family rela ti onship, provided that t11 e marriage to which the question rela ted was concluded in accordance ,vith Mohan1medan l aw or the parti es are all Mo ha.mmeda11s; b • any question regarding wakf gift, successio n or wills pro·vided the endo,ver or donor is a Moha.mmedan, or the desceaed was a Mohammedan at the time of his death; c. any question regarding the p ayment of t11e costs i 11curred in any suit re­ _ garding the aforemention ed ma tters. Thes e p_rovisions made the jurisd icti on of Ethio pian Musli111 courts similar t.� t�at of Sharia c? urts .1n the Sudan, Nigeria , Niger, Senegal and other Afri. can cou �� ries where special courts exist to handle the perso11al law matters of the MuSl so part of tbe I?opulation. The drafting of rais : ? to : rs app ea the _ se ns pro o vis i ather mt eresti g questi_ ons. bnng to ?T o rs . begin appea �oll with (a) sub articl e owing mar age situatio ns within the jurisdiction of the Muslim C?urts: con· r:i . 1 · 1he sit�tion where both p arti was ge ria 1na r es are Musl.ims and the c ude � in accordance with lim . us M law. . ge w as con· 2. The s1tuat 1on where the hu sba•, nd I·s ,l M us1·im and the marria eluded unde r Mqslim law.

11, do n o L J• S. 11timin · gham ' Islam zn Co, • EI' hzop and . za . , . ss pp Ca , 137 nk , Fra 151 227, 230, 232 �18�. � ft0eia,mati011 N:e. 62 ef 1944• �i

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LAW APPLIED BY MUSLIM COURTS IN ETHIOPIA NTIVE STA TI-IE SUB

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where both -parties were not Muslims at the time when they tion situa Th later adopted Islam as their religion. but arried, m firs� both parties a�e Muslims bt1t the marriage was not where tion situa The coi1cJuded in accordance with �usJ1m law. The situatio11 where neitl1er of the parties is a Musli1n but the marriage. ,vas co11cluded in accordance with Muslim law.

co·�ld re �so_nabir be assum�d t� have been �ontemplated: 3 1_ h t 11ations sit i gh o Alt b the draftsman o� th �s article, it 1s di�c11lt . to 1mag1ne that he intended the aiticle to ap_ply to s1tuat1ons 4_ a11d 5, but . in view of tl1e use of !he conjunction _ or in the last. part of the. pr�v1s0 to s11b-art1cle ( a) one .has · no option but to_ say that they are 1ncl11ded. It 1s d1ffi�ult to see how no11-M�sl1ms c ::in contr�ct marriage� under M11sli111 la,v or l1ow Mt1sl1ms can co11tract a val1d marriage outside the rules of Muslin1 la,v. Another point arisi11g 011t of the drafti11g is to be fo11nd in sub-article (b) where we find reference to lvakf gift, wl1ich is a misdescription of the institution referred to. In Isla1nic la,v reference is made to lvak,f wl1ich is de.fined as ''a thing which while retaining its substa11ce yields a usufruct and ·of which the owner has sur­ rendered his power of disposal witl1 the stipulation that the yiel� is used for per­ mitted good plirposes.3 '' This is the Islamic law equjvalent of the English law institution of trust and jl1st as it is u11us11 al to talk about a trust gift in English _ estion may arise as to law, it is 11n11sual to refer to Wakf gift in Islamic law. A qu whether the Legislator mea11t Wa/cf pt1re and simple or a special variation of that institutio 11 known as Walcf gift. Tl1e cot1rts have so far treated the words as re­ ferring to f17akf One can11ot l1elp wondering, however, whether the introduction of the w ord gift in the description of Wakf is in any way responsible for t'he omission of gift as a subject of litigation fron1 the jurisdiction of M11slim Courts. Hiba (gift) is considered one of the perso11al law q11estio11s falling within Jurisdiction of Sharia co11rts in all those Musli1.n states wl1ere Sharia Courts have a separate �xistence, because of its close relationship with a11d its effect on successio11. Co11ld rt be then that the Legislator mea11t to incl11de both Wakf and gift but the 01nission 0� a con1ma which should l1ave separated the two words created the problem just discussed? Thjs is qt1ite possibly what happened.

Subject to tl1ese brief re1narks 011 tl1e drafting of article 2, we ca11 then say that Islamic courts in Ethiopia l1ave bee 11 e1npowered to exercise jurisdiction in . relation to all the matters n1entioned in that article a11d that they have in fact been doing so. e l11 troduc tion of the Civil Code a11d Its Possible Effect On the Substantive Th L a,v AppJied by the in 1960, Muslim promulgated was Courts: Code Civil the When 001e of the the questio affected way ns any in had v1hicl1 it whether ,vas arose ;� es of Islamic law wl1ich tl1e Iv!usli1n Courts were applying. To answer that q11es­ ton one would have to look at article 3347(1) of the Civil Code. That article . provides:

''Un!ess otherwjse expressly custon1ary or n writte er \Vheth rules all ded provi · · ' . Prev10us IY 10 force concer111ng 1natters provided for in this Code s ba11 be_ repIace d bY t his Code and are hereby .repealed."

3-:-s--· ee Shor ..

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ter Encyclopaedia of Islam p. 624, Luzac, London, 1953

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. · L O w A IX V L N . o IA N 1 P IO H T E F O L A N R U J.O 4 k Boo II tl1at ies carr find vve very . e Cod the det . ne "IUI· . a·i a ex 1 ed we Whe a. . , . • . Pro. 1c 1,t1 . te1 ce a1n or n1 e, div · , e, ag ard rri . gu ma .1 of h ans . rs tte ma i' P, fam· . g in n r e v . o g s n io vis . ·c. I t a1)pears. to follow . ·11y t e s 1, 1, 01 ess 1cc ·t s g1 1 ate l est int d aii e tat 1 o gi calJy tes s hi p s 1 , t1 a 1 re . 0 . a s ec e ed ule by the thi g s on t am ff r ic are art l es rul . B ook . . . . . ur1s f rom 1t his that Sharia II p f SI 1 o c 10 d a r a 1 1 1 ou 1· C . t l1e ts 1 t in ith J, e . ce t Wakf s . covers .all the matters falling \y � rersally app11cabl e .to all res , 11111 be to i i dents f d nde nte is , de Co . •i v1 C. 1 · .e Tb . . the o _ . . s 011 is1 ov set its pr 1 . 1at t t ot1 rs tte 1na to the all reg to on ati rel ulate. No in Empire . s�. cla ok Bo or t1p gro II y a11 arr c _ of r oµ ies no saving fa� in e d . ma is ion ept exc an able cap en1s e s_ 11:es s thu It . s. re 1nfe rule ria Sha nc� that the of ur favo in se clau s ,vJ.11cl: were _ in force before rule ia Shar . e thos gate abro to ded inten Civil Code its promulga,tioJ?, in so_ �ar as they_ w_ere not e�pressly s ave�, 111 1 elat1011 , to all matters eovered by its prov1s1ons.. If t1:is inference 1s accepte�, 1t wot1ld follo� tl1at Muslim Courts, whose only fu11ct10.t;1 1s to apply those S haria rules to certain family rela­ tions pertaining to Ethiopia11_ Muslims, would l1�v� 110 substantiye la w to apply seized to exist as soon as the C1v1. l Code came into force. and should have . · We find hovY'.ever that Muslim 9ourts do exist. Tl1e legal pro_priety of their continued existence has not so far been seri_ously challenged. We also find that the substantive law which they apply is the Sharia, and their right to apply that law has_ not so far been_ seriously q11estioned. The problem of whether the continued application of Sharia rules is compatible· wjth the Civil Code, has, until now, been an academic. problem occupying the minds of scholars alo11e. The institutions im­ mediately concerned are not, even aware that a problen1 exists. It may be fair to start by admitting that there is no easy acaµemic answer to the 'academi c' problem created by article 3347(1) of the Civil Code. There are however a number of pos sible explanation.s which we shall now examine: '

4

Article 40 of the Revised Constitution · 1955: A Question of Supremacy of Constitutional Provisions

Article 40 of the Revised Cons titution provides: ''There shall be no interference with the exerci�e in accordance with the law, of the rites of any religion or creed by reside�ts of the Empire, provided that such rites be not utilized for political purposes or be riot prejudicial to . publ1c order and morality''. . Mus_Ii� la": C06Usiders 1narri�ge as well as �ome of tl1e questions :e l�ting t� �t as religious rites. The same 1s true of succession an d some for111s of gift. C.a it no� �heref?re be argued that since the Co11stit utio11 guara.11tees tl1e free exe�cts: iou 0 f religiotl� rit�s, t,hen any �nterference with obv Tli e ; those rites is null and void? . eakness 111 tee ran t1:tis gua arg wn ent 1s that article 40 of the Revised Co11stitution � ; e zee exercise of re1ig!o_us rites, ''i11 accorda11ce with the law''' and sin ce :th�� . s n . doubt that the C1v1l Code is a law 011e wottld conclude that th ere 18 le · c i t enc y . B t of tha t is not the end of the' matter. The Amharic version �� �n; : � . ar:1cto e not _1nc�ude the phrase , 'in ac s t1 co appearould rd 1 an d '' an ce wi th th I law e u · oe -·abso ute in its purport. The w nd pn Amharic versio11 is .the offi.dlal versi a - . ' :4 • �icl� 550-1125. �

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.. b tbe 5. l[t G?uld be ar gued that even . . eca u�e s . . . . W. l.eglJ;11ate:u appears h 18 o covered by t e provis1o�s relating t f 1944• o to have tFea :k[ . e It No. as J{urait a on g for0 1 . Procla mati of ift in BJ �slims are irnpl OFed to many . he . t ses . t . bal in to s tr ve t ea � th eir variou � by wives . �g @ DODl.beF ef y ect. well s a ing . . p dit a tii ions 5 of a ih s . r e � � �i �� is eS:sentj.al to complete , rop �t. One of the tradi tions goes a th e religion Qf ·a true . Muslim.: . · .:. · .

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THE

APPLIED BY MUSLIM COURTS IN ETHIOPIA LA\V NTIVE SUBS TA

and the English version, be considered the it 11 betwee t conflic f any e 7 One could therefore arg ue that a s c he 3347 1 ? n. since t versio article v n e ( ) i tati ri utho · rs to be 1ncons1s_ t wit en . · · I · h · t e art1c 40 of t�e �onstitutio n, 111ore a l Code appea . Ci,,i the with interfer e marriag e to and successi on 1 n the case attempt s of it as ch u ju as � or abrogated to the extent which would remove amende d be shall it 5 1 us article 40 of the Constitution. But one must hasten ' y between it and of � � tenc . cons1s h 10 Cf' te me arg t f o 1ne appears 1 to s t u hi a11ord ? some explanation although that mit to a� satisf offers a actor _ y answer to the academic ques ..· mean s no by it em, l b ro. th t? n ra.Ps ed One can al1nost bet that 1t would not carry a lot of weight with the t1o ! . d te a g ti li is m le b ro p e th co urts 1f Religions to Relating Marriages: A Possible Escape: Provisions Code Civil The There is no doubt that marri�ge �nd the _consequences flowing fror:n. it constitute by far the most important _quest_1on 1n Musl11!'1 personal law. The C1v11 Code deals with the qt1estion o� n1arr1age 1n great detail. The C?de refers to two classes of marriage: Civil marriage (arts. 597-604) and other marriages: (arts. 605 and 606). The category of otl1er marriages i11cludes religious marriage and marriage according to custom. Article 605 (1) provides:

''The conditions on \:vhich a religious marriage may be celebrated and the for­ malities of such celebration shall be as prescribed by the religion of the parties concerned.'' This article appears to sanction the application of Muslim personal law to the very important question of marriage. It can therefore be argued that since the marriage was concluded according to Muslim law, then that law would govern the marriage and all its consequences. If this is so then that part of Muslim personal law which applies to marriage has been incorporated into the Civil Code by virtue of article 605(1) and the co11tinued application of the relevant legal rules as well as the continued existence of Muslim cot1rts, as the organs for the application of those rule s, is therefore legally justified. This argument, plausible as it may be, does not stand close scrutiny. There are at least two good arguments agai11st it. Firstly article 605(2) says: ''The provisions of this Code relating to the conditions common to all forms of marriage shall be complied Vr ith in all cases." When these conditions are exa1nined one discovers that there are some of them t�at ar� not con istent with tl1e Sharia e.g. the provisions _relating to bigam� _and � �:- p e riod of widowhoo d, ida (arts. 585 �nd 596 respectively). T�ese prov1s1ons . ich_ are common to all forms · of marriage clearly show that 1t was not the �ntenti?n of the stomary ri1Ies c or s or religiou Legislat u of ion to applicat the permit in ·their totality. · �econdly the article giving effect to and g nisin re�og at d ars aime be appe to marriage s celebrate d · · · g the uni·on. con· n1s1n · · recog · 1n 1.e. 1on, . ce rel1g s rdan 011e' acco w1th cluded n a n nt the ­ � not i a cord ably prob nce \Vas It witl1 ul. lawf as ious relig rites tion to i m c ake marriage and all questions stemming from it subject to some special 1

7 · See · • article 12 5 of the Revised Constitution.

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. IX - 1:�o. l ls. For if t l1a t were so, the n a 11n rib t l ia ec sp th t of se e a y b e ed li . � sho ap r law u d s l n ct se tia d ris an Ch r fo s u rio e va th e th w r Je fo . s les r11 f o s a t se . l 1a ec sp nd ro be · . . b 1 ay h · e T te e ora es. 1 . .. u v pro e a s tho isio r ly app ns t1" 1 · to o ts f the c·1v1· · · u o c a 1 ec sp en ev · be . 1 s 1 h rt1e e t p,t e ect ere to wh s c ion t con 11a t si e lud o t d . . the1r roar. con•fine . . e b · Id u wo de Co . . . i im 11s . 0n..e ca n 1 s . . dl ov pr 1ar 10 1 se y ho t by ag ed · rn ve ne that this r1age and have 1t go . . . n o t1 n te n 1 e th n ee b e v could ha

.

:r to la is eg L e th f o n o ti n te In The

One of the main questions _ to ·be as�ed i �. ord� to ascer�ain the meaning and true purport of any enactment .1s; wl1at 11:te11!1on. d�ci the . Leglslator h�ve? Various theories ha ve bee11 evolved as �o how leg1slat 1ve. intent can be ascertained . This is no t tb.e appropriate place to d_1scuss _ those theor1e s. .. It s11ffices to say here that in our attempt to ascertain the 1ntent1on of the Leg1s_l a.to1· . we ,vou ld look both at the wording of the a.rticle concerned, as well as the d1sct1s�1ons and all other relevant circumtances which preceeded and followed the Proml1lgat1011 of the Civil Code. Article 3347(1) is vecy clearly worded and whether we read it independently or in conjunction with o ther ar ticles it leave s us in no doubt that it was intended to have unviersal application. If ,ve take it that the Legislat11re had intended to use the words actually emp loyed in that ar ticle and l1ad given perfect expression to its intention, we· would have no option but t o conclude tha t the Legislature intended to abrogate the Sharia rules that were in appl icatio11 before the con1ing into effect of the Civi l Code. There are, on tl 1e other ha11d, a 1111n1ber of other relevant factors wbich make such an interpre tation appear unreal: To begin \.Vith there is a substantia l amount of evidence that the. Coclificatio11 Commission i1Jtended to allow most, if �ot all , of the rules of Muslim personal law to continue unaffected by t.he Code. To give effect to this Professor R. David prepared at the request of the commission a set of draft provisions ,vl 1ich ,vot1ld have enabeld Sharia n1les relating to marriage, succession etc. to appl y, with certain exceptions.8 T.he draft provisions prepared by Professor David were n.ot incorporated in the fi.11 al draft a11d 110 reason could be found for their omission. However that reaso11 is not diffic11lt to guess, Bo� Professo� _David a11d the Commission were fully a,vare that the proble11� of �aking the C1v1l Code provision s relating to pe.rsonal st atus applicable to 1'1ushms, . � volved th� !aking of policy decisions by· the Government, rather than by a te_ch­ rucal commiss ion of �egal experts. Tl1e Government 1night have ·thought it, u11desire­ able to create t_ �e impression tha t it was in any w,l.y interferring \\ritl1 the rules of the draft . provisio_ns was intended to leave the rules of S l. 1aria intact a11d unanlen· ded Sharia applied by Muslem co11rts. This 1neans tl1at the omission of !a­ ther than a�rogate th_em com pletely. T11is view finds s11pport in a11 i11cident ,vhic� wa occur�d during the discu ssion of tl1e Civil eiit 1 an Par li While Cod Par e lian 1ent in . e debating the chap ters of th.e Code d�ali e ng wi th pe rso l status' one o_f the m mb i; na ke whe er those chapter s were intended to replace Sharia rules 1n the. cas} e : 1;1s�ms � h . e speaker s�n� the question in wr ice t Ju s o� ter M in is iti th . ng e to .. as wr tt�n s er of the M1ruster stat VI e Co d Ci vil ed th � at th � e th pr e � om of ul ga tion no inten e to affect the Muslim courts or· th e rules t· hey were applyin g. Th@ Minister's reply cou.·Id f '' ove . rn� . . g o b t· e c s1dered as a clear m an ifest�t1?n i � ust ice s � men1ta,4 �n·tention'�· B. . u one ma y leg1t1mately ask wheth the M1111ster 0f J er ,

· 1llit m�p,Monrs· related t0 a· · !lgamy, age of majority and administ(ation of successi;on. 142 -


LAW A.PPLIED BY MUSLIM COURTS IN ETHIOPIA IVE ANT ST B THE SU.

the inter Civil pret C de, and whether Iiis statement has t_ o ority auth � nt ete o c l the l1 1 tanding vis-a-vzs a law passed by Parli ament and approved by the Sove­ s w r a eg ns e to this \Ve co11ld say that the Minister was not really interpreting anY I ? rn a ·go re1 ar to 1 1a1nc P 1111n nt th e scope of application of a partig · e d · fi mere ly vas , he d • the Co et Code as the Gover11ment 11nderstood and intended it. Parti­ Civil e 1 tl of cular par refore passed the Civil Code on the understanding that it did affect the ·' ·.1ms. We may thus have in this amen.t tlJe · 1 app 1·1cabl e to M us . 1 I a\\ personal of rules ' a r i � - �h situation \Vhere tl1e Legislature had not given correct a of exan1ple an t . . . 1ntent1on. 10c1den1ts of l o ssi r e l ex p In additio11 to tl1is there is evidence that Muslim Courts as well the Ja\V they a ly exist by the ,vish a�d on the order of the So_vereign . Immediately after the ��n1u1gation of �he Code 1t �as rumoured that M·usl1� Courts would be abolished �d the appljcat1on o.f Sharia r�les ,v�uld cease. Th1s led a number of Mttslim dignitaries and elders. to see_k aud1a11ce w1tl1 tl1e Emperor and to s�11nd tl1eir . appre­ hensions. 1-lis Imperial MaJesty assured the1n that nobody shall interfere \V1tl1 the ,vork of tl1e Sl1aria co11rts . In consequence of trus meeting and perhaps also as a result of the q11estion raised i11 Parliament, the Minister of Justice sent out a circular addressed to the Preside11t of tl1e Court of Shariat informing hin1 that all Muslim courts sho11ld continue to function in accordance with the provisions of the 1944 Procla111ation. This circular was not gazzetted. Since then the Ministry of Justice and the Muslim courts have been worki11g and dealing with each other on that under­ standing. Although the circular, take11 in isolation may raise a jurisprudential ques­ tion similar to tl1at already raised about the authority of the Minister of Justice to interpret or limit legislation passed by Parliame11t, it seems to have much more behind it than the authority of the Minister of Justice. It has the authority of the Sovereign. The Sovereign had in the present case sufficiently manifested His will ,vl1en He assured M11slirn elders that nobody wo11ld i11terfer with the work of the Sharia Courts.

We can thus say that Musli111 courts and tl1e Sharia rules which they apply have more than a de facto existence a11d that if a question as to the legality of the continued application of tl1e rules of M11slim personal Jaw to M11slims, is ever challenged, there would be at least two good answers to it namely:

1. The true intentio11 of tl1e Legislatttre was that Sharia rules sbot1ld not be affected by article 3347(1) and 2· The wisl1 of the Sovereign is that the Sharia should continue 1tnaffected. b . B�t ,vould it 11ot have been m11ch tidier if a short article \Vas included at the ginnin g of Book II stating that tl1e provisions of that part of the Civil Code � s all_ n?t �pply to within falling matters and �111slj1ns affecti11g of statt1s perso11al tl1e the Jurisdiction of M11slin1. Coi1rts as defi 11ed in Proclamatio11 No. 62 of 1944. Tbe School of Jurisprud.ence Follo,,1ed By Th e Courts

or neral on ly w follo e opia Ethi sp of a 11 la?o ing popu lim e Ivil1s the s e11ou indig k the i� e of three of the c11rre11t Si1n11i Scl1ools of J11r1sprudence, namely the Hana ! : the Shafir,1. 1 b Han the and to ts eren adh the \vn kno Maliki Scl1ools. There are no . Sch o 1 a n_ b � mo g tl1e indige11ous pop11lation. There are however a few Zaidis an� lbad�s (o f wh ch n ii�! �:i� the� So1i .Ara a from e �n�s 1igr ar imn s) a sect tl1e Slzi' g r non i th� said t the followers of the Shafi'i school are a maJor1ty among Ethiopian - 143 -


. IX - No.. 1 W L A O L V N IA P IO H T E F O JOURNAL

e a en tim be w s ha b e1·e .en . Th s. n . thi Ha . s afi ain ert . asc const1.tut7d to t 1 u c but it_ t.s. diffi o t K m en es of t pr st e th . ait ar r Sh A is ad of c rt ou a e Shafi'l's e th a . maJor1ty on . ea tr 1�i E 1 i1 is ik al M w fe a with some H anafi·s and. io slim lat Mu pt1 po the n en wh es do s, thi as not adh h sttc on ati 1n a s•tu to re e · " e ol th ho Sc to as ich wh s ise ar l ou sh y all tur na d be . e Schoo1 ,.1 th.e question 1011owed . on . . u 1a 1io_ n or_ a substantia 1 maJority p _ po li m s Mu the I I a. of them by the courts_. H ad to do 11g thi uld l wo 1ca log e th v� ha l, oo sch been for the e . on of ers low fol been lim e 11s 1 t� _i. ere w� ses lat ca pu po In 1on of a state ol. ho Sc t tha low fol to courts at re th tl1e ds n e y fi ar all u ee us e thr on l, oo sch possib]e altere on n tha re mo follows d e we by th llo fa ts: . ur be co to ol ho sc e th g in in m ter de r fo natives to be adhered to. This 1. The state may d�em_ it fit to p�escribe the school l/ould have to c�urts \ !he wh1cl:i act ive legislat obey. This would be a course of action had been taken 1n Egypt, the Sudan and some other countries. Ethiopia has not foilowed this particular course. Although thls · method of determining the school \vhose pr'inciples and teachings are to be applied by the courts, has the obvious merit of making the law definite and certain both to courts and the litigants, it is of doubtful validity as far the principles of the Sharia are concerned as we shall shortly see. 2. The courts may choose to follow the school to \Vhich the parties belong. This alternative has two obvious merits. In the first place it would afford the parties · the chance to be judged by their own personal ]a\\' in matters affecting their personal -statu.s which may be highly desireable. In the second place, it would help to avoid the difficulties and anamolies which would arise when parties who had concluded their contract of marria,ge in a.ccor­ dance with their own school of jurispr·udence, find that questions relating to �aintenance, family rela_ tionship,. divorce and the like, are to be determined ' 1n accordance with the rules · of some other school. Th.is alternative ,vill also I ensure that the law whicl1 is applied on appeal, if there is any, is the sa_me l as tJiat applied at first instance. H owever, this alternative has its own diffi· cult1_es. It .does not solve the problem of what .is to happen when. �e parties belong to different schools. One is also not sure wl1ether it 18 practical or desireable to put the Kadi in a position i11 whi cl1 lie_ would have to apply all the schools to �rhich litigants appearing before �s court may belong. Musli. m Courts in Etl1iopia do not f�ollow tliis alternauve. I 3 · The court. �a� follow the pri11ciples of the sc11ool to whicli the belongs: This 1s what t�e Muslim cou.rts in Ethiopia �o. Altl1ough fer alternati_ve appears to ra ise a nun1ber of proble ch we shall re h wh i to ms i belo'_V, it is the one alternative o gs e hi teac the i that n with ft s con sona nt l .Shar1a.

��1;

The Orthodox Sharia View on the School to be Followed By the Kadi: dJ1abihi''• There is a famo . . . a . us. S ha�ia ,n • maxim . which says ''Al Kadi yal<di ala · {A· judge sha II on1 Y .decree In accordance with his o w n Sc.hool). _ l w tFihe _�hari1a requires tl!l o n e k hlY g . at on thro I Y thos€ who are well versed and u d_ g i,,111,ns1 ·tgeat1e ie the Sh . a ' an be appointed as Kadis. Some of th_e lea Ill s urces , At� �at ih:e &.!� ; ul o : a a Sh e t11tJ it� lWden&ffitr.<li 'a �, � a ll> an original interpreter of the basic. ou� · the need 1t e act rules elf s him. �ti: V: b ,. including from for them :�f��w 'dtt �n:.m � a nybody else; But some o, f the Orthodox imams ·

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LAW APPLIED BY MUSLIM COURTS IN ETHIOPIA NTIVE STA raE su·B

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is possible to appoint an imitator, who fo� it that say Malik and .f ni a Abu_ B p �ations and deductions of others as a Kadi. This is what is happening the 1 tn er � Muslim world today because the category of those who can interpret r. t e ov� tl1eir ow11 opinio11s has almost compltely dried up. form all a11d ces 8011r na l or1gi e . . . . . th only a11 or1g1nal interpreter (n1t1Jtahid) could be appointed when tin1e the . 1 Fron · th. at t·h.e K ad1 1nust always n1le according to ope d eve. l d ,vas theory a di K a� � � i ,es to _be tl1e correct Shari� rLtle. He was no� allowed to apply the views of . ,,ha he el e, interpreter becalise 1f l1e genl1111ly believed tl1em to be the correct al origin a noth_ e: 9 This they tl1en qltestion wo11Id ]1ave been n o\vn l1is partic11Jar views. . . . . Sharia t'aiid o a · · . . e a ·o l d K h t· t rc ! t V: 10 1s a n1er� 1m�tator aclI1�r1?g to r. t 11 gre� er 1:o w d i lie pp a s a ,v � y . theor articular scl1ool. Tl1e ph.1l�sopby on wl11cl1 tl11s 1s based 1s fairly stmple; an 1m1tator betwee11 several scl1ools would s�lect and follo,v �he selectrng �f choice the bas ::O scho ol ,vbich he co11s1ders to be 11�arer_ to tl1e correct understanding a.nd exp}an�t1on of the Sl1aria tl1an others. To 1110.1 1t should, tl1erefore, represer1� what 1s right. Other schools are, at best, 11ot as r1gl1t as that scl1ool. There.fore 1f he rules on any issue accordi11g to tl1e pri11ciples and teacl1ings of a school other tba11 h.is ow11 he ,vould be applying principles about the correctness of which l1e has so.111e doubt. His judgment \VOltld therefore be 11ull a11d void. What is more the Kadi .is expected to follo,v the ''official'' or predon1i11ant view within l1is school. He is 11ot allowed to ignore that and foIIo,v a \Veak or minority ,,iew. 10 In sl1ort the in1.itator sl1ould always follo,v his ln1a111. The Sharia makes it ltnlawful for th. e gover11ment to call upon the Kadi to apply pri11ciples of Jaw derived from a school otl1er than bis ow n or to follow the weaker view witl1in his ow11 school. 11 If t11e appointment of a Kadi ,vas made on tl1e condition tl1at be applies the doctrines of a school other t han ]:us own, the appoint1nent is considered valid but the co11ditio11 is void and does not bind the Kadi. 12 It thus appears that the practice prevaili11g in Etl1iopia is more in keeping with the Orthodox Sharia view than ,vhat l)revails i11 Egypt, the S11dar1 a11d a nurnber of other Muslim cotintries. However, tl1e adherence of the Mttsli111 col1rts in Ethiopia to this theory appears to raise a nun1ber of c1t1estions to which we m11st now at­ t��pt to fu1d the answers. 011e 1nay thl1s ask whether it is fair to apply to the litigants tl1e doctrines of a scl1ool other than their own, witl1 tl1e possible res11lt that a �r�nsaction concluded in acco1·dance with tl1e principles of 011e school, would, �hen I1t1g�ted be judged by the pri11ciples of another school. Tl1is question was discussed 1n some detail with the n1embers of the Addis Ababa Court of Shariat. The answers to it can be summarized as follows: l. The differences among the Sl1nni scl1ools of Jurisprt1dence do not relate to the basic princi1Jles of the S:haria and are mainly co11fu1ed to details whicl1 do not serio11sly affect the i11divid11al litigant if his scl1ool was not followed. H�?. there been. a question of applying a rule of Sunni jurispruden?e to a ��1 1 _adhere11t or vice-versa, there wot1Id l1ave bee11 son1e hardship and lllJUSt1ce.

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9. This is n t- t · · · . 0 oe 111s , 1e\v on any matter if be becomes cl1an c nnot reter · a later conv? ct say that ·an interp • truth e th h n to near t appears n1e qt1e 1on s the on at view r's mterprete i anotl1er ce ' st a than . his own. 10. II. �'Badda'i VoJ. VII p. 5, Ib,z'Abflin Vol. II p . 368 z A b in Vol . II P . 75 12. llashiy ar lbn,Ab din Ala el Di,r Vo l. IV p. 369 and All Muglmi Vol. IX p. 106 0

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. L • W O A V L IX - ·No. I N A PI IO H ET F O JOURNAL

e �e th . et b · 0 l1� sc e n 1_1c re ff� di to e th ic wh e 1er wl h the liti s se ca e os th � � 2. ·1n a l, g nt 1a e . . er 1 th at ad 1n K 1s ua i, s u. ad K lly e th of at te th de r es be1 s and l�e t . °1{ n l of he J oo sch es of rul the � the th wi i t nce iga a rd :� t. ma�t in acco us. 1f marriage a of concluded lidity va in the acco r dan e a question as to � !:t e 1 e 1ot 1ire es the do q 1· ich ns 1 co wh h ent l oo sch of t e rral, t .he. rules of a . 1�e p1·ese1 . e t h e �f k 1n� witnesses essential 11ot does_ wliich or (guardian) fo e f or d1 �- I(a b _ elongi11g to a scho the validity �f t .he marr1age, arises b� oi s, that bas a diff�rent ru le on these n1atte� tl1e Kadi ..:'vould de�e rmine the h l 1oo of scJ the tl1e of t n es ga. rul I1t1 the . to tng T ord is indicates acc question . that in practice no injustice results fro m adl1erence to this rule. 3. There h.as for sometime now been a gr�wing tend�ncy to recruit Kadis from among the inl1abitants of the localtty where. t�ey wo11ld be stationed. This, to a certain extent, ensures that the KadL 1.n a ny particula r areas would be professing the same Madhab as tile p1·ospective litigants. . Another question whicl1 comes to mind · relates to tb.e problem which is likelv to arise if. the Kadi who decided tl1e case at first i11stance belonged to a school different froin that of the Kadi or Kadis of the appellate co11rt to which the case wa.s referred. This is not a remote possiblility al1d the matter may acquire an additional complicating dimension if tl1e appellate co11rt consisted of several Kadis who did not all adhere to the same scl1ool. According to tl1e strict Sharia view each Kadi is supposed to adhere to tl1e doctrines of his school in determining the matter before him. The Chief Kadi, in answer to this question, said that the appellate court would determine the cases 1·eferred to it in accordance ,vith the principles of the. school which was followed by the Kadi wl10 first decided the case. The appellate court confines itself to ascertaining that tl1e court of original jurisdiction had correctly inte1·preted a11d applied the rules of the relevant school. This ap:pears to be logical and fair to both the litigant and the Kadi in the cou!t of first instance. It would however co11stitute a contravention of tl1e orthodox Sharia view explained a hove. Developing Sharia Rules

!he attitude of the Ethiopian Gov ern1nent has to a large extent bee n o ne _of non-interference ii1 the religious practices of Muslims. Tl1e t\VO Proclamation s13 \Vh!ch were promulgat�d in 1942 :1nc1 1944, to organise Muslim cou r ts, made no me�uo : o_f � substantive law which those courts were to appl y. This has res �ted in. s t 1 situation where both the determination of aDtl ed app li e b to the s u bst law ant e i\ · e development and modification were left otb In ' to the Kadis and the local ' ula ma. � r f the wor!d w�ere e ules Mu r slim Sha ria cou rts exis t to adruinis ter w tofi�e . r t � f. a t e law e�tdbhsbing those co ur ts in ad dit ion t o defining t he madhah o oll wed, prescribe s th fr d te e way i n which rules o f that madhab may be depa r . � � ;: �vo �r _of rules taken from another madhab or bas ed on the vie ws of s?:d adi u co sults o p e thus find th at in r a ;�o ol Egypt the Sharia Courts L w . W that lfij ��ar�a a sh all a n l p y �n: viell' the H_ t he �hin p_r�vailing view . wi �� eiicep1r where � leeg�::� e ilf v1 d pro n s1o a f r o th� au 1 1s1ng the a1?pl1cat o n e.Msts. The. same m et��� ·urisdicwas f ollowe� ill Iraq, Tunis a11d many othe l fb t tbe �arrs. In tJte Sue. a · an. and N orthern Nigeria, fi n on the other hand we 1

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NTlVE LAW APPLTED BY MUSLIM COURTS JN ETHIOPIA BST A sU THE

in . the Grand Ka diI� the po\ver to authorise dep vse sts on slat i legi art ure t a relev n mad/1ab by c1r c11lars sissued by him 15 In· 1· prescribed the of rles 1 a most r · · . the from wh ere a method for departing from the rules Id Wo r M11 slim the of of th e ts a p all �b ·,nadhab ex ists, f11ll advantage was taken of that niethod to mod . · if y or rescri ed t th a es b ad. proved ru I l _ . to b e unduly restrictive or unsuitt 1� f o e som p art from d:f o th changed social and �conom1c c_o�d1t1ons of the co�ntries concerned. Thus _ a .e f r �tfJed gove he rn1ng 111Jn1111�� age at which a person, male or ules r � the od m EgYP t tl1e r11Ies gover111ng prescr1pt1on, Pre-en1ption legacies to heirs mar ry, can ' · ' · fero a 1 e' ' h t _e_ n I S d u. etc. _ a n n�or� than fifty circulars were issued n · gestatio of eriod the p r� fro_m tl1� p reva1l1ng �1ew w1th1n the I _ I ana:fi dep.artu school on a number g orisin autli right of a girl to 1narry w1_tho11._t the �onsent of her tl�e n�Iucl1ng 1 tions of ques t�1e r1gl1t of a husband to .compel h1s w�fe to J1ve in the mat­ an, guardi or er fath of t 1s ody 1e c ch1 to dre11 the period of gestation etc. In �1ght l ? b m t n � I th� on1e, l a i o ri 11npose_ d 11pon the right of a Muslim male to prac­ we�e restr1ct1ons e r seve Tunis 1lateral . d1v_orce.. In �II tl1ese cases the desired change l1n e.ffe�t to or my a big . tise \vas efl'ected by resort1ng to a m1nor1ty view w1tl11n the prescribed madhab, the view, �ompl_ e tely outside the revailing view v,1ithin a11otl1er b o� s��e recog­ madh a_ p nised n·1adf1abs, advocated by a Iearu11g alzm or draw.1ng directly on the Kuran and the Sunna as ultimate sources. But tl1ere has recently been a tendency to go out­ side these limits and to subject Sharia r11les to cl1anges dictated by the necessity of the social a.nd economic co11ditions. A good example ot· this is fou: nd in the legislation passed by T1111is and Iraq, a few years ago, decreeing that the _children of a praepositus shall inl1erit eq11ally irrespective of their sex. This change in the Sharia rule \vhicb gives the male twice the share of the female was not based on any recognised vie\v witl1in or outside the accepted schools of Muslin1 juris­ prudence.

When ,ve conside r tl1e positio11 of the Ethiopian Musljn1 Courts in relation to what ob tains in tl1ose parts of the wor Id just referred to, we can11ot help \.vonder­ ing whether the rules of Muslim law \vhich those co11r ts apply are going to remain indefinitely static since no procedure for cha11gi11g them bas been prescribed. It may be fair to start by stating tl1at tl1e freedon1 of choice between legal rules wbjch th� Muslim courts i11 Ethiopia seem to e11joy appears to be n1uch greater than that e_nJoyed by Muslim courts in jurisdictions where tl1ere is active legislative interven­ tion. Interviews v,1itl1 the Cllief Kadi and a number of Kadis revealed that the 1a,v whjch the Muslim courts in Ethio1)ia apply is what one may call jurist's law. Each Kadi has a n11mber of leading a11notations and comn1entaries relating to the �nadl1ab which he follows. These works are sever al centuries old and their authority 18 accepted \11ithout question. ·\Vhenever a problem comes before tl1e Kadi he ref�rs to these expositio11s of his 1nadl1ab and determines the problem in accordance with the preveaili11g view within the n1aclfzab. No atte1 1tion is paid to any other view ru1d the questio11 of whethe r tl1e prevaili11g view is consonant with the needs a11d dictates of the changed conclitio11 s of life is ruled out as irrelevant since the rules of the Sharia ''a re good for all times and all peoples''. The Kadis recognise the author�ty of the local 'ulan1 a' Uurists) a11cl their right to challenge the decision · of Muslim

14 ' Tb js is f!e iary· Judic 1� tl of the ion divis ia title given to tl1e person v1l10 l1eads the Shar _ post. 10 e nJ �ys. the same status t len iva equ e Th n. isio div il Civ as the Cl1ief Justice in the E"t h 10Pia 1s th at of the Cl1ief Kacli. 15 . 16 19 s n o ti Ja u · See sect·ion 53 of the eg R d ure J e p Mol1an)medan Law Courts Organization and roe

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W - VOL�· IX - N·o ·. 1 A L N IA P IO H T E F O L A JOURN o nstitt1te a departtire from tlie rele c n o isi dec se o th that va nd u o t e t h n o s rt u co adhll/J ling vai pre vie the f o w wit ns o i a hin a t t et rpr h t � � te sin mi rn� a e a J h h t at _ t� or to ee are f cho o se the rules ha/a . T e the y r r heo y t in t a th t ap p e Kad1s rea l _ conced ear . iti o o de nd n co ns o t m fro r ble ita m su y an e �r ·m l d Y an a Sh a e r b l a source. l re o m e b r1 to . . a1 y ves 1 Tb e b ms � 1 the ' . d' ey . ,,a ,na t tr1c als res t? to d nee concede tha and without the t . i ff at tl1 d en a es be h. an ch e the ed ect f o g e n nta va ad . the Sh a e tak g Id o e · h I m me of h se o ia. to iop t Eth A · th t ila sim sa e r ons diti h con �in ycoeun;r·es wit ti . e t�ey u re fro m t l1e pre vailin g view with i art dep rted o rp u p any n t h e rethat 11 sound a �ear , • t h OpJ.?OSI•t·10n fro_1n t. he , u lama , and will wi t me b� uld o w not be levant madhab I _ pu po on. Some of them �lso at1 l1m us � he t _ of l1ty era �en the fee l that by ·accepted . on 1s nee�ed be f ore �hey ca n enga ge m wh at 1 ect d1r �r 1 1 o 1 at ris o th u a explicit they F o r t_bis r ). in tch (pa . easo11 the rules of Isla mic g talfi f o _ g s ces pro a be o t er consid have �ed apply rema11 rts 11ncha�.�ed and represent to ou c Muslim pian o Ethi which law· t o� l1e 1 o1·s leadt aut� 1g expo s1t1ons of the rele t�� of views the t exten e _ a larg vant _ madhab as· tq \x;hat the preva1l1ng view w1tbi1! that ,nadhab 1s. We can see from this that no •advantage was taken by the Kadis o f the apparently un1inlite d free­ dom which they enjo yed as a result of the no11-intervention of the state, to deve.; lop· the Sharia rules which they applied. We sho�ld n ot howeve1· forget that Sharia Kadis and. . tl1e ulama as a whole are conservative people who resent and dread change for fear that every change pr odt1ces a 11ew situation that may· constitute a contra,1ention of Allah's commandments and i11vite His anger. This is not peculiar to Ethiopia. It is the position in many co11ntries where special Sl1aria courts exist. In m.any cases the failu re of the Kadis t o use • the "' means at their disposal to develop and adapt Sharia rules, had led to the use ot the n1ore ct1mbersome legis­ lative ·procedures to effect sudden and fairly drastic changes. As far as Ethiopia is concerned, one feels that th e_ solution wo11ld lie in clothing the Chief Kadi16 with the same atithority which the Grand Kadi has in the Sudan. The reason why I think: this would produce son1e result is that tl1e Kadis of tl1e Ethiopian �1uslim cou r. ts have interpreted th.e absence of any p1·ovisio11 at1t]1orising or sanctioi1ing cl1a1 1ges in Sharia rules, as meaning a prohibition of s·ucl1 changes. A legislative provision along the lines suggested wot1ld act b oth as a co mn1and and a licence. And although I was assured time and time ag ain that no injustice or hardship had resulted from the lack of adaptation of so n1e Sl1a1·ia rt1les , o ne feels certai11 that the problem would have to be faced within the n ot too distant futt1re and therefore a procedure for tackling it . m.ust be prescribed. Since there are a 11umber of reasons · wliich make the revision of the Naibas and Kadis C ouncils Proclamation l1igl1ly desireable. I �oul � suggest that the revised version sl1ot1ld include ::1. p1·ovisio11 alo11 g the follo w­ ing lines: ''�ecisions of Musli1n Courts shall be in acco1·da11ce witl1 tl1e at1tl1oritative doc­ � n� trines �f the �chool to which the l(adi, tryi 1 1g t11e belo nce , at first i11sta cas e � e�cfpt 1� relation to matters in which tl1e Ch b y Jd­ Kad i o the1-.;1/ise dir ects ief _ ,, or diqial c_ircular or memorand um in c a c which case tl1e decisio11 shall be in

ii

WIth th� direct!0ns set �o!th in such judicial circular or . memo d rao i;;;:;b ; would _give offic!al re c o grut 1on to the ex is ting practice by whi ch t�e d � !11a an to be 0\1owed _ 18 deteriruned and a ma wo t ul am d 1 g jm at tl giv e a11 s e i t e e lll ive ·ng w1 urageo u s �hief Kadi dra y am_ b p le les chan ce u t r o Sha. � r deve ia l op and adap t �on t he experie nce of Muslim commu.ru·t·1es eIsew ere. h n�e

f C11ief • Ii'\ · ;i, :.� e1ty �ne �we here would 1 · 1• the ost oist even of the fact � �t i n n is made that no me t o �di· iin P»oefamation No 6� ex · n s 44 19. an� theref?re in law the post doe _ Ao;Qb ��� is in taet a Oble foKadi who 1s appointed as such. '

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,. = m = f7i�'?t\c;· : _e.. fl"'i ttDD �:flD.. : filLA?A ,== '11C P. 1 'h : c.:i• u ,,-r , 1 f �-'::' 6-Tm- , h ���•). : .., • ;, ' "'rPt-c , 7i"'l"l. 11,9' 1' 1. hf,1--1\'1° :: f . "'lil , i l:P , ,,,.,c'¼�•, �lP-l�· : _ ;r��) :J (-1?. "' ii 1_ 0.1i.c ,;:,1-,1 i , i� . 11 f P,�r, : 1 1i'1°"1At; Y.': 11001:: �m.: �,lit\= >t � l\Y, � �l. .,; .:,, l1 : + h _. ll�:flD· : hlJ� : 'J°h1J,l· : (lt\,/iO;fu : 1eH. : 7i 01/°ln,sP:1! : ft�fA�,f = 'Im· � • :fw : fo;r "l 'I! ift;J · l'it? : f, f" : r7i9° A JfOD,: : i; = f{1,f1t f-'"kf.: :,-. h... °1hoo�O�l&: f7iri f f. .� A'i : ���:,... : ,:JC : (L','l�C : f"?.'i"'l\il'l:fro.. : on11P...-:f- :: hJltJ : {ll\f,: fl\OJ•: h6£bC: OD"/1\tilii :. q"}�... : {lh«t\: 09°�t,.{l: h�ft: '}-/l'J°: fOl/.11vr: f7i9°'?At; : Pi�'l,r : (lt\,lt : llh·A: n1t.:,-.f-A-f: fCPJ.1,e&: ffLT : HUDY: : f7i'l°"IA'1 : P,�',:,... : Jt'}J;.. : ht\.l\Or : ;JC : fl\(J)c, : 1l9°J!-c;: r : : f ; lDcJ,(Dc : f7i9°'?Ac;: fltfA :s {l 1}tj,r : {lrP/lm'lm« : '¼l\9° f,f,{\ODf..OJc'i ��.,:,... : ff\�,-,... : ODIPl;r'l! : '11�1' : {l� : ff1--I' : ff OD1: : f7i9°'?A'i": �1},}: tIJcllT = n1'1r-'I° == r,1c = "l"J = hl\f, = 'l'i.1'"r = r..,...001\ h,i:,r = h., tLu = UDlPt.:J-'ce = '11�1' : ffl,ft-:,• : f7i9°"1A'1 : P,�'I T : {lODLPl,f:: f7i?"°"IA'i : J;��t : hf,t "tl

,_

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rk:,...fckf = rl1'i· = uoof: 1 r7i'l°"IA'1 = .i;�r,:,... = h.il1Pi� = 'It&== �1c = 11=

=���:,-.=

tttY-.f\9°: i1.';.u = fl\ar = f7i9°"1A'i = Pi�r,:,... = llt;:K-9° = r7i9°'?A'i" : : : : f 9°11>£b ill\tPJ +1l!lA:: 9°h1 f,f:9° : .n�'\1n:,... f,f..l°lt; (JDc"J:,. : ilt\OIJ.lf'} . �{De ::8

nlj::i•t1t = 11"1.C = c1t;J1'1 = .fl\l& = f'1+ = uooY: = r1i9°"1A'i" = �i�t = fCPJ.{11)

t-tIJc : +ht-titsi>:i: = 'l1t-:far"} = n7i9°'?At; = l\ODIJ»"blll = noi.r�c1�l� = {l'J°'f �T I IJ.J!,lf'} : Llch1•: �(Ir:: f,V9° : Ol/l\T: f{L+: tfODf:.: f7i9°aJA'1 = �?ff= A� = /JOJ«4>:t- : iL'it-:far: f"7...1 lJe&: flflAt;: "'l.il:,... : 7--�J?,: 11:-J! : tiJ?,lf'} : �ft 'lA'i" : °tilT: "J---':f,: {llDll)lD•?° : dl°l: 6Lh'J°C : ',Or== �-,c: dJ'}: flrrflav�(lr! f1i9°°1A'i" : >;��:,- : h.rPt-C : 7i"7<?t\,9'9f : Ll7i9°'?At; : f\D?.ff..:r : �1C : fUIJ. !llLA1(l)c'} : !VA : A� : /Jm•'l>T : iL'it-¥ar : O..fll�ACIJ'I° : 1'9"°-01i9° : ih1'1 : "'lw:i» : tif llLA,:J:fw,-9° :: h"IA°IA: 1'_'}:{ : b7i9°'?A'i. : ��'IT: ;JC : ftJl/f,lfODJ!,.(D• : ftPf{l;rt.:P: P'e'¼:,...: hh.Tfckf: ffLi·: Hoof:: f7i9°'?At;: >;�',.'}•: .,"JC: tt-OC': f,'l�IA� �1e : °11 : f"'l il;rl� : P'C'¼Tt;: f7i9°"1Ac; : ��',:,; : V·l\:, •: t.lt:f.lD·1 : f7' /tc'i: +:J>t.t: flf). : f'l1C: OD<J?l.65]. : If f.,911' : 'i'TlD' :1 r7ira1A'i : �'\�t :� 1i"'l"Jft,SJ>!f: I f+lnl\:far'} : hchr.-':f : (19°,f'(D• : f"?.OJil�{l,,'}• : ti� I (LtJ''> f"'lll;rl:,, = Pea,:,. = °l"J = '¼tia,ar: ncnc, = (t9°•f : ou�i',,l• • ,,J!,11'1 = 01A °IIA : h"'ltif,�:,. : heh�'} : 6'ilw1� : 'le& :: 11 f . : flH.tJ ' 4,e.�:,- ' +4-Ac\ ' f0?.1"'iro- , Jt:J:oo- : fh.:t.·f"kf {1,,f-' ""�: fii9°°1/A'i" : >;�r,:,-."} : boo.,e.nfw• : f'1i9°"1At; : -9.��•r : ;,C : ftPff,lltl'/ .

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· ?,��:,.. : flm:'f,1\1\a,.: f7i9'°"1A'i f�Ol(l)c: AOl/f:: : b· 0h1C: ....

{lt\tJI/f: : '11'? : /\7i'l°"IA'i : ���:,, : "IA?i'i : Thnl\t1 : TC1'9° : 1t'i1� ti:r9":: t1tl,tJ : O;r'f : f+m«f'oa r: fA"'JY..•: �n'?: 'h'Jf.°1.fi'lt.P,ar: f7i9°'?A'i: �1� ��'i" = 01A'1A OD '1 '1f., = :J>I\,..,_. ll.lf.,. ;. :,.. c-,.."'i¥1&9'° 1t 1,.: q.y,�:,-. 014 ,e,1im·9°: fhChC: OD�lif : l'IYo : °7/\"1' : �t& :: t,'JY..': �1C: '?Aft': �lD· f,nlD49° : �1«r1 : (\ODa;t(.{l : fl°tf.l1t& : P'C'¼... 1·: 7i01/°llb?J:i: : fOl/..m+oo,, = �,t.:,:1&1 = n7iv->'?A'i = f\oo(J;l. n,r DD11f: = r,1,�ro-9° = n.tr1 = '11\"l'?if":t: lilt; 7i°1'1fb9':f:'I° fl°tflm·T 1& '1). = t\OD1f.Y..' = n:,,Y..'°tf = fOl/..fF.c-,..:,., il9"9°�T : OD'j'?,. : �014 ::

=

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fCJ?.h+f\,a:,.., 1l'JOD/;\h,}, :­ <<ilfl�A "JA : lD'A :-

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�A�A: 0'1/\ h'?Y..': ro ,.e..: OJcf;: ,f-ODl,\(a: hil:rt.4:: 1i"'l'?lb: ODC{fl: 9 . �1?-1 nic:,, = 00Q;1t.fl : "?I\:,- = �1&>> ::

=

11

<<[1?.] ifi.fj1-07i"'l'?lb: °IIA"IIA: ft\cl>: �·1c: f7i'l°"l/A'i: Pii1: fllf�(l)c: lt"'ltif!,�:,.. = f.,t..i01A = 1'1,t = nnil = mf.,'I° = /\P'AllJ'J-JthA = Pi� = fl.<rC,fl : i',f,-:f·A'J°>> :: io [1?.] §7i'.fig - �'1?-"} :: ll7it1';1°1lb : (Df_,9'° : fltJODY..' � ,;� : (\ODtJ;b(.{l', : h7i"'I cJJ ft, CD• : mf..'1°: h lf on f.": .q�lD" : :J"'/;\ : I\f_, lD llJ : {l DIL 1 '1 : (l)«A : ii 9° 9°�1· : f Y..l1 : (tar : hA:J'"l..q>'J ° : /ltJIJ/\,)·'i : f;rl<l'tn·'J'I° : 'hC:P : l\''1 'i:lil : 'tif!,:f-A'J°>> � 1 << I1?· 1 �7f.fQ - flro o1 : ,,.8,.d1f'8A ,,.,·,a,c : f ODt,:J·· :,:a r1- : lD (l 'J = f"'l.l'? m« : 7i '"/�fb?J1, : oncmw-a : o � fn.. n..ll,,f 'l- : ,,.,,tp,,e..ro• : ;t-C4'lD' : 'hC:J:t:J!or = >,�,;: h6.. 0(l = tl:\I\ � i'i "tf,.�m· � ,,.,...tt&--tit = f�tnCt;:f,o· : 7il1'f'?lb?J:f = 09° ilhc�;J,:(-m.. : m())..; = n.1,l"1�9" : itl\--1' : 111\o : /\Pi� : (Lfouf\n:,.: ODi\

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_1. · 01t1c =AtPJY: =ooLPt.:t- =�Y-t.'? =r�nl = �:ft; =f7icP/criA'i =�,�:r == J f = t;:+ ( t;:C�: l)«: ft·l· .q�: �(lt;-.,}: ',; ·"}: "'1Ct1: it1Y:: 1.u: 'llH.IJ: fh �

-i = hoofD'IIJ = :tactJ = ,e,��1 : n&,:, = n��:,- =rit1,..t;..:fa,. h1>tu f�-T"' =11t1t.c = = -: + fl\9° : <<ll�,r,h : �1P'T : Oil 4>C ntt.:, f•*·.r : lt,I\ : f:>11:F : t;:� : 11.f:f : ;,,o· :f-1 : f"7..oo I\ h:,. = ,,...9,f, : (t,,f;,TOI/ TlD4 = foY. m + DlhT : 14 llAO?t.' : "1"1 : 11:f- : �ro- ==>> <<+,:,rtsi>:f. : {lff'W-1 : 1.tt : OX-th-<j: : f°ttr1 : f;J•O:F : lD•A: ff..C;Jft-:: f,IJ9°: f-t/\ODf.: hLPt.C: �(D- ·:: (Dc/t•: {-'lPJ..f..t.1ro• : htrt\rf:9° : fL+nn:f : lD1"} : f AIJ''I- : 7iat/"lll,S'11- : 1'67� : lf�(JJc : OOl/.1�0:,.: (LU''}: ,f-.;Jfl.91:ii: h : 'f�1C : }tf"}>;"}�:,!a,. q:,..,: fO?.,tr,r : 'Pit: 14>CQn- :: fl �1C : Ji 'l.-J:: i�: ·.,, i't"}Y: : flD-A : K-th-'i! : fA'ODIIJ&\ h..:f,;,(lc : O�il : 011&\t; : oiri1: : OP� hA =n/\OD"l'l'l>r = ttLmc = r�1c = Jtq.-1: = +<1flc = il9°9°'1:,, = i1Jt 'i �TID' : ODllJC : �(De :: ))

m"l :

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15

<<Ai : Ai : f�i- : t11'1 : ht\ :: fh�+,;:ro- : �C� : fL,}- : �'T1' : f"tlC �>;f, : tltf>C-Of\:rar :. �:,. : fU1C : t\at/t.'"}: ,tonc_bcff(Dc: (Llf"}: it1 �: .. fO'f.00/\hi:T: ,,...,.: f°7.ffDc'f?rl,1c;: Of{l;f•(l)c: f°tl\ffl&'}: r>i1C: AIP/ 16 ,, Y: : �"" :: ill\H.U : ,1, ,.. : h 1 Y..fll\ .,,.�f-=6 : f+llff : oolf'} : Jill n:,-. ::>> ' n·1t1c =A°71: =�:,; =roi1.t."lfl¥(Dc =A�=A�=0011?---:f =rot&,:,,= i1 f.9°1l.i; =f'i::t;C& =lD-ft� =ooflm--r : f°tl·l\•:t, : flt+ : Jf{JDY: = f7i9°'?A'i= �Tl· =�:,: ='i':ft& :: ,n1-- =nouw-"11: , n&.-1· =r� nlro- ="ot--c 1i1Jtu= tt��nl9° ==h11.u =n:r'f =fl\w-1 =i100Ah,l- == '

.,

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.

Oil9°9°�,l- : f°7.f-l'1 : 00�;1--:,. :

<<I«h.Ji -ntt1c =AUI/Y..' =oowt..,l· =fi"l:10· =fJ.Ac; =°7.il>T =o�e'P:flD'·= ti� il°7ao-: , +C+tIJc :

00

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a : : ar: 1'i : � l ' t!\V-"f: (IT ri\t : b�C.(!O, . ID-61.h 1: Rd. : n : : : = � : ( fi : fl�t\ . -�ll�1=L���llO•= �C•1� 1=hfl�;J-l\�:�fl:�c�sn.�shr 17 » " 'P H;, 1 f, • 0 o A 1 1f P ' O : lt 0 � 1 lf P {] h : _

;f_,;1

'19° : OiPJ fl,1• �.

'ttA/,.A - [¢ ]1�-- - 'lA'i' , oiil:,.. : l}I\ODillPJ°"IT : n.�n-9° : l' !l. : h1f..: -:fflo;J-ar: ' .: f,1'l�A: h1)( , �;1 ; 710,"i!: tiil1"n..f--: il.fil«J,9°�:,.. : OJf,'J°: IL&.;J--:,18 -- 9° = = >> IP/ A& = I\:, l', '1 :J .. , c; .. 'l° c: � 1t" lD r {/JJ t\., . {I)« 111 1, l', 1 : m IP/ :, I\ 9° " = : . 1 0

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O'J.fl"h' '1Atr'I:f....: lDf,'J° : OP';J : 1,9°1\ ti : rTlD lDlli- : lJAlf� : o+c: °tfli:: h1J;.&.:J-- ,1-- : O'i�C:.f': n.:,--: hmr+-:far: f,&. ;J'IA : 1' 1� : h 0·1 : f,(i:,t:'1 ' flIP/ I\:,• : 111,l·A?° :: >>19

'I I fl7i111/ 111 tl, : CDf,'? : 0H {/JJ.. �: ;J :,,: <<[4?.]�7L1t"" flA'i: OJJ.fl:t··: lf�OJc: (L��: Oi•4-1:: "LU: 07i °7"1"1 =04! c'f' 11tt-0'i= h-0,1- = ,,... ,"«111\ro• = h i'llf� = o�.I\ = o4!cT = oon1r:r¥lIJc 20 >> l : f J·rocp: hlf�: h1'f...1'i: Jt 1(i:/\°1: '111\: A:,--hfl: }',:,..7£-A'J° := <<[�.]fjil· 'lA'i : 01.il:,• : (Lti.. i: : nt.'1:f1D4 : h"fi,r : h1J;.�� : 07i°7 D : ��T(l}c : l\f, : f A..,.. J x-°lib : OJIOD ..{:' : ,,(�� : hrf-fl.ri : {l�\I\ : '1.;t : htO .. lir : lf'ltD• : fm�:, .., : h&./\1 = UJ/{llJ'I-1'1 : Jtiltf'f:ootD• : 7imm· : J-1 fil 21 ° >> flUI/ fl,}- : h:,..1"--A'1 ::

=

f. f{l,,t, : ff0Df." : r7i9°'1A.'i' : J;�',:,.. : � f Tdt : ,rfl,h.C: Ok;l.. : {lrfc(lm• : r(i:C�"': -1--J;f-:f, : 1t IP/l-t'1�;,-. : (L:J--f, ;:

,n°l: llOD(l)cll}rf:::

: f.": 1"�\1·1-- : O:PC,,0 : "LtL : f --t-�.l-�, : {llJ' f C 11:,, : 11lt1: 'J° f 'i1'1:(-lir: (i D •f : �·9°: h1i).: f'r1,f::1: hn�C : h1f..U!J.fltf.. : i',.en1lmC?° :: «J>�'i : 0,0r 9"°dtl'l: : },"}� : tt.:t·P·kf : t,,pllJmC: �w· :: 22 f j:C:..e.." : tlm•.� .,f:: =mt,.'i: l h ta7i. ;: 1,Atryar : roc:P'IU -: ..-1•hti7i:: f,U1 : < 1'?t A<;11,n• = :J! f A'lro• : fl?°..l:uC g a,:,.. : ro·fl'l' : fl°1..11ro·: h�T«1lD· =�/ D : 7i9°°ll,\ c; : �,,. : fori_ 1;.:1-."} : O'tD f1q:1-.. : 0OO D C D UDC: (llf"} : flflfl.rl• : J-O f Y: '" 1 : P, �,} hlLU : 'ct1 7'i':fro ... : f�C"�"� '1-�f-:f: v-fl-.: :i,.e:oi.r : .. rnro•:f<;::C..(:.. : "l"Pi 1 = 1100..f.."' = -�':1c; = f + .. --J: = 1 1 1.� = f y, = �m • := rn.u : 1--J;f, = ou111..fl , raAa; : 011il

=

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ill\£i:�'i : ilt\1 •nl,r : h'i=,,f i f�t..•1,:,-. : I.an r.....-.. ?o 11, lt&a,1, m �o : . ,,, r • ¥ :J-: , � : fl 1· :J 11, .. l . -, , °tfI m : . .· , '111: : (l',.(" ·: f,!LA 1 'i.9C.'i" : O ?° ?"�+. �� f. • : >i " : . C °I il • l'"J l' : : 00 fY:C: : q� : llllhflhi\--l- :;• 1 ;1 6 : l ,,.. ja 1 : (i:. .. il ,.,., , �1 n 1t : : : • :J /fL ij: � m: 'f • · lD � i• t;: ar1 h ll : /t-r K9 4 � 9° . h1 < : 9 l : fl� & • �r fl i :f 1t,f :: '!_. m 4' " S'. a ro . I D : r::i.: ·Pi t Q ( J (I : -:,! "'I °I11, : h1>tat.C h ' ' = = hm : T ? • "l t.(I li"'l I. -ll; = nv hc hc ·1 � r� :,!m : � O:'r,i\, ,01.-1: : hij:f : nt. • II. =-n o r; c : h hJ?.o : .il"'J '; : 1 \"'i : -P, l\1 h Q : 1 t;,,� 1 mtJll I' : ll' m lJ : ll9"9"�--l- : t;,. . 1 r•1-t.. t. OD m-1,). 9" " = � r·:t: .v, • 9 fl q , o ii • 'f 9' 11, ., 7i"" 'i = ,," = 1t--T = n ¥'ll-1: = 1 0(1, ·\"''P: mft}'T : • : 0 : CY: 9" :: J ., ..-: : {l°:i Dfl 7 \""'P , mf..ij:Cf: : 11. 1 : T(I Ori"'/"/ : H hH : : OD .7.9° :, �.6 :, « l,1 9° « • v,f il9° : '1 : f..l 11T : "lllr ,r ', IJ� i't"'I : 1\,9':,i : 23 -1t8f..f-th1il: hti7i I 011+: P'ltfL: 01\f,'ltJ: i l1ti·li. :: f,U : r>:f, : l"tft&.UJc: ;,c = +ODtiti.e = fllf19° = ,},17i = t\r:,-=roiAn:,,: �1c= .t,n_:�.e1ie&sro='ln=1-� r-� = �1�TlD41 = n7i 9°'?A,; = t\ODQ;bl_il = ,,eY-t.1--1" = ll'1°9°'l+c; = f7iCP/°lih?1f9'1 11.e,1 : fln1J.!"',,r : rai1�11:,, = it1Y: = (l',�- : ',W• :: :h0-9° : fll:l>OI/..: DDftfr: r llit;J-M : htt.,U : fl; i- : "IA1lm'l'PA ::

v::

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«fil9°9°'1:,•: lD4A ht ... 01li': P'l\a'i'" •••i'tOY. : f·t11 1il: fl'lAt;: CllJ.h,} hIDf�r· q. "°· >.1it•r1 =· hilh = ttv-1 = [rtilt"1::,.. = lil��l.r:lll = lfl, (lootih" 1'1 : i't1lc> : /\OD'iC : il?°?°'I:,- : ll"llJ'} I [>.�:,.. : 7ilP/"lfb9'°f�= n 1.(- : fHODJ.!· : �;;:) : htLU : 11;1-1: : n,rooflhlt"t-ar : hta.�., : 1/t"ll\Or'}:

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·- 175 -,.-


I I }

THE FALLACIES OF FA1\1ILY ARBITRATION UNDER THE 1960 ETIIlOPIAN CIVIL CODE

by Aklilu Wolde Ammani1el 1. !

INTRODUCTION

(

The justifications for the preser�ation of th� old i�stitu�ion of family arbitration ·through the Civil Code as a �echarusm for. solving fanuly disputes are well-expressed by the drafter of the Code 1n the f ollow1ng passage. ''Betrothal, ma.rriage, �ivorce and concubi1�age are �usceptible of raising numerous legal diflicult1es. Chapter IX, which co.mpr1ses of Arts. [722 to 737], refers to and deals with the manner of solving these difficulties. We have tried, on this subject, to take account of the customs and to preserve the inistitution of arbitration which is so ml1ch diffused in Ethiopia . . . · The provisions of Chapter IX aim at maintaining a well-established, and which appears to be an eminently respectable, tradition. On the other hand, th.ey are inspired by the idea that the judges who are appointed by the state are not perhaps the best placed and the best qualified to resolve dis­ putes of a family nature: this consideration has led different countries, such as Brazil, to create special jurisdictions for family litigation. This trend can cor­ corresop·nd to that which has led many countries to establish special juris­ dictions for t ,he adjudication of cases, civil or criminal, concerning young persons. Moreover there are at the mo1nent fe\v qualified lawyers in Ethio­ pia; and for this reason, there is ground to dread tl1e cro�rding of courts, which is the present evil all over the country; this consideration has streng.: thened our opinion, which is materialized by the provisions o!� Arts. [722 to 737]." 1 of on To b m instituti re precise and concise the drafter i 1 1corporated the � ? _ . fanuly arbitration 1n the Civil Code for the f'ollowjng three reasons ,vlucli are no more than mere assumptions as we shall see later: . 1 · It is a well-established a11d respectable traditio11 worth preserving for pur­ poses of solvin.g family conflicts; • · . h • re more a 2 · It 1·s. a means �f settling 0 s family d isputes throt1gh arbitrator w _ d qualified for this purpose than the judges of tl1e regular courts, an ' a special 'diog 3 · Fami·1Y arb1' trat . 1on . reduces the congestio 1 1 of courts by provi forum for the settlement of famil disp utes. y as , o h w With all d·ue respect to the drafter on · sJ mmi · s Co n . Cod ifica tio and • order the fi �� : 0'. �ur law, did their best in go od faith an d in all good w;��: custoqpi,an�:ze our new legal system . by taking i11to the Civil Cod e f_. ��, le. rtJ,razl de fa {atnille dans Ie COut! A 1�'-,, ;'1/' -JJ � � 1t1 "' . Eans1at1on by the autho r.

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ARBITRATION UNDER THE ETHIOPlAN CIVIL CODE FAMILY OF ES FALLACI

arbit!ation, we humbly ta.ke exception to the above points famil y like ts men 1 e e . war� w sl1o· progress1bely why we do so shall "ve d an 1e\V 0f v urpose of this paper is to show that the above assumptions of the drafte r . . . The P o ru e t day w.hen 1an t .r 11·1 y ar b1trat1on 1s put to the test muc h as ved pro t . n e v ba � rafter migl1t have thought in the abstract before the promulgation of the as t he Civil Code. shall l)riefly con1par_e the instittLtion of family_ arbitration witI1 ,x,,e I t par In t fi11d ,ve as 1 1� tl1e . We�ter11 world. Tl11s we v;il] do in general in oii arb itrati _ of natttre fan11ly arb1trat1011 tl1e under our Code by way of tand 11nders to r · · or d e · s a. we 11 h Th exam111e en . n. our ct1sto111ary law see to co1npar1so whether . . . , and contrast 1 s . t g1.n e1n 1er or1 a11y s ha n tio itra arb family In part II and . ill ,ve shal � examine tl1e provisions of the la\v and several cases containing arb1tral a,vards 1n order to see wl1ether or not there is truth in the assumptions of tl1e drafter as stated i11 Nos. 2 and 3 above. Fina]ly we sJJalI make som e suggestions 111 our co11clt1sio11. Toro11ghout our djscussions i11 tl1is paper we sl1all 1nake frequent refere11ce to various Code provisions w]1icl1 \Ve sl1all not be able to reprodl1ce for lack of space and time. Therefore the reader is advised i11 adva11ce to have the Civil Codes at hand.

PART J THE NATURE OF ETHIOPIAN FAMILY ARBITRATION A. Comparison ,vith i\nglo-American 1\rbitration

AJthougl1 the characteristics of tl1e institutjon of arbitration are basically the same in the wester11 legal systems, \\'e sl1all take as an example that under the Anglo-American legal systen1 since it is tl1e most developed and the 1nost document­ ed affording us witl1 relev�:1nt materjals for pt1rposes of ot1r discussion in this paper. I. A brief look at Anglo-American Arbitration ''Arbitration is a n1ode of settli11g differences through the investigation a11d detern1i11atio11, by one or more unofficial perso11s selected for tl1e purpose, of some disputed n1atter subn1itted to tl1em by the conte·ndi11g parties for �ecision and award, in liet1 of a jt1dicial proceeding. The object of arbitra­ tion is tl1e fi11al disposition of differences between parties in a faster, less expensive, n1ore expeditious, and perhaps less formal n1anner than is avail­ able in ordinary cot1rt proceedi11gs. The i11vestigatio11 and deter1ni11ation of matters of difference are placed in the l1ands of private extraordinary jt1dges, 11st1ally selected by the parties ai1� known as arhitrators, who proceed i11 a judicial way, sometimes as an adJunct to a cot1rt of justico." 2 (Notes on1itted.)

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AM Ju�. 2d (1962), Appeal & Error, p. 519

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W LA L. VO N IX - No. 1 PIA HIO ET O;F AL · JOURN

the d •' lle rd ca wa ''a is h 1ic wl rs ato itr arb is binding 0 1 e tJ of ion ·.To,e decis n the e rs rop t tte n1a i bm rly su al 1, to ted ] s ''a an n tio d pro perly · . to til e arbitra . . • parttes . ·hor1ty o.f t 11e subrn.1ss1011 [or agre in . ed by the arb aut the . er u11d s tor itra . . t · e vest1ga . ''3 ] t · men • . n d 111� a t 11 JU usu __ cli y nar y a fter confirmatio or any as rced e.ofo i� rd a a\\' The n � b. . _ elf s its of ha d e a1 th aw the rce s fo law me so and effect r de un .' gh ou th court 4 judgment. ctive the o11 distin citati in� go characteristics of An fore the in fro rs appea As it glog: 111 w lo Americ;in arbitration are the fol 1. ·volunrary s11bmissio11 of t.he dispute or difference to the arbitartors by the parties · who mt1st have already rnade a11 agreement to settle their dispute thereby and to be bound by the award. 2. : The ·speedy, less expensive and friendly so�t1tion ?f _t�e dispute by one or more arbitrators w1th expert k11owledge 111 a JL1d1c1al, thoug11 informal 1nanner, that is, in a way the ame disp11te would be handled i.11 a court of law. ;3. The paramouncy of the agreen1ent or contract which forms the basic frame of reference for pt1rposes of deciding the dispute by the arbitrator or arbi­ trators.

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Under Ethiopian law these characteristics of arbitration in general are apparent from the provisions of Arts. 3325-3346 of t·he Civil Code and Arts. 315-319 and Arts. 350-357 of the Civil Procedure Code. At this point it mt1st be pointed out that there are two kinds of arbitration ltnder Ethiopian law. Arts. 3325-3346 deal with a.rbitration proper as we fi11d it i11 i\oglo-Atnerican law. This is 011e kind. Th.e second is family arbitration (ot1r concern i11 this paper) \Vl1ich is dealt with. under Book II, Title IV, Chapter 6 and 9 especially.

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5 Code Civil 2. The General Features of Family Arbitration under the Ethiopian 1. It is compulsory. The code Compels resort to arbitrators whe11ev�r. t�ere is a fa1nily disp· ute by making family conflicts out of the ju r1sdicti on of the regula1· courts except when they come by \Va)' of appeal (Arts. 736-37) and that under limited circt1msta11ces, (See generally Arts. 665{2)t 666(1), 723? 72?, 726, 727, 728.) The law 1�rces tl1e parties to cons:�s to th� arb1trat1011 �f their displtte by perso11s selected by theni. r i ! b ­ to there 1s 1:3-0 such thing. as aJ·bitral sl11?111ission or an a�reelll:ent e ther te !rate a d1�pute and �o b� bound by_ its 1·est1lt. In fa1111ly dispu s s but 1s no choice but arb1trat1on. There 1s 110 way to go to the cou��a rs to through �ppeal and that_ only i11 cases of ''corrt1ptio� of � he arb�' 1 ni· a n r or fraud .1n regard to third persons'' or i11 cases of illegality o · on· a s nre fest'' unreasonable11ess of t .he award (Art. 73 6) or 1n • case Of u· a�le delay (Art. 737).

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i. �er an elaborate d' u :ars ugh thro • 1 b e en ia h a utio1;1 resol o te the mec anics of mar:ital di�pu &D.li�:a.n the reaJ� T c; �.r�, �18 rieferr.edut to th10 P E H. Urba n Becks 1.0. trom, ''Div orce Ster, &:e c·•�fl · ecle., J. Eth. La·w, vol. 6 No. 2, 1969, p. 283. •

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ARBITR1-\TION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN lLY FA M OF CIVIL CODE CIE S ¢�

bit e a rators. Generally �he arbitrator s, are fal l-ti m re bef � o not is tho se It 2. persoilS who I1ave bee 11 �1tnesses to the marriage or betrothal (A.rt�. .the parties or t e . cot l1 1rt � tho or the arbitrators may a _ ug 5) , 72 723 point other persons to act as arbitrators. (Arts. 728(2), 73 1-735). 6 p 7 und cert er ai n spee dy circ um ta gly ces. seem The in � � arbitrators a.re is _ It 3 to I?ronou�1ce divorce wrtl11n one month (according w . Ja by · ired requ · _ An1 . vers 1011 of l1ar1 the c Cocle) cou11ting from the date to the official of the petition i_n case of a serious ca11se o._ f divorce (Art. 668) and \Vithii 1 one year 1n. other cases (Art. 678) wl11cl1 period may be extend­ ed to five years i11 tl1e latter case, by_ agree111ent of the parties (Art. 678) . In all cases tl1ey are bou11d to deliver the supplementary judgment within six-1nontl1_s from the date of tl1e judg1nent of divorce (Art. 680(2) ).

4. It depends to a large extent on the substantive provisions of the Jaw and to a much lesser extent on the agreement of the parties.

The parties may regt1late their pect1niary relations by the contract of 1narriage ,vl1icl1, to be valid must b e in writing and attested by four ,,,itnesses to (Arts. 629, 627) or other contracts concluded during mar­ riage \\1hich n1ust be approved by the family arbitrators for purposes of validity (Art. 633). To this exte11t the arbitrators may refer to agree­ ments 1nade between spouses (Arts. 683(1), 690(1) ). B11t in all other cases they are bo11nd to frefer to t·he provisions of the la,v. (See Arts. 627(3), 634, 665(2), 683(2), 690(2) ). 5. Since there is little reliance on the agreement of the parties, the arbi­ trators, as we s!1all show later in more detail, are required to know the law to be experts in family arbitration. He11ce they are reql1ired to have legal training ,vl1icl1 is 11ot the case in ge11eral arbitratio11 practice. 6. Reconciliation is part a11d Parcel of family arbitration under the Ethio­ _ arbipian Civil Code (Arts 676). It is one of t.he legal duties of the trators to be perforn1ed wl1ere there is no serious cat1se of divorce. 3- Ethiopian Family Arbitration Vis-a-,,is Arbitration Pro11er: The Institutional Fallacies The· above ot1tli.i1e of tl1e ge11eral f'eat11res of arbit1·ation as is t1nderstood in t�e west on tl1e 011e hand and Ethiopia11 family arbitratio11 on tl1e other throws light on their relationship. The basic attribt1tes of arbitration as is · generally under­ st00d and accepted in tl1e n1odern \Vorld are lacking i11. ottr family artbitratio�. _ �ut_ wit�otit these basic qualities, \vhich are 011tlined above, arbitration is no arbiat1on 111 its proper sense. . Et�o pian fan1ily arbitratio11 i s compt1lsory. But such arbitration is sajd to be · '' no arb1 tratio · n at a]l a d an e natur tary volun its of se hing becau vanis ''a 1s it mea1 prevalen·ce of ''th .. . . . e sp1r1t of 11t1gat1011." s .

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se n . it \V e g ia rr a m f O ors �ges 1trat arb" .. Jaw ses ( e. erng athat �nay flo�; from tJ1e per1naneot func�1011 as oy�d 1 : tI�e opt� 0� . the · b) '. ,, . _. : :qua1nted witl1 tl1e law and ll1e �acts) 1s. d�st� _ gives t! 31e partie s to resort .to other persons w1tl10L1t l1m1t�t1on. ·· · . _ . . . � .. 7 That this 15 n t tr e _ ons o u 1n practice will be a pparent fron1 later discussi . 8. G. p . . as APP1·red to a Voluntary prohrlipps ''Tl 1e Paradox i11 Arbitration Law: Compt1ls1on _. , ceecti g,, , n · 1farv L. Rev. vol 46, (1932 - 33), p. 1267.

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JOURN.AL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. IX - No. t

s, its as ha de 1ne Co fra vil of Ci r ou reference, not • r de un il tio itra arb ty . . Fa1ru . • t .e . h t· e s b t s an tv 1e 1 1s1 t ov �r b ut ns o _ _ 11 es rti of pa w , e th the la T of n io iss bm l st1 tra bi ar . . · his ly t s on 11o ert , exp be st 1n mu f s l tor am itra arb i y matters, but . means that the fam.ily . . . a r_ ne 1n 1 e a1 ge rs t ato no 1tr so b. ar ile much require wh law y ntl fai n i rts · d to · lso e.xpe i sp ut e th ey arbit rate. of d pe ty e tl1 of es liti ica hn tec the as law �now the n foreig e!�m�11t, reconcil_iati�n (w a ins cont� ration _arbit Y �a111!1 Ethiopiatl hic h is . 1o 1at . c1� on t1t B rec d _ n ). an 1se . a:bitrat,on are tw o related to the institution of con1pro1:1 s. ice l1ng ett dev te-s pu d1s Arb1trat1on prestippos e d ose opp ally tric me dia atid di.stiiict controversy or a differe11ce to be tried a11d decide� �b. ile reconciliation has as �t: id 1t avo to but sy through compromise. ver tro con a e cat udi adj to not e pos pur These basic instit�tio�al fallacies of Ethiopia11 f arn_ily_ arbitratio? render it the direct antithesis of arb1trat1on proper. O n the 011e hand 1t 1s a coe1·c1ve arrangement w•hich destroys people's right of choice i11 the settleme1_1t of their disputes and wh,ich substitutes for their consen.t to arbitration a stat11tory co1npulsio11. On the other it is, not arbitration in its proper sense, but a hybrid of two dispute-settling devi�es. reconciliation and a coercive arrange1nent for whicl1 we fail to find a better name : B. Comparison with Customary Arbitration before the Civil Code 1. Customary Arbitration in General

In customary law we do not find a neat and clear definitio11 of arbitration. As the following extracts from customary la w show it seems arbitration and compro• mise a.re generally synonymous terms to mea11 one and the same dispute-solving device. One thing is clea.r and that is whichever means is t1sed in the dispute-solving process there is prior consent to tl1e jurisdiction of tl1e s. h imagiles and to be bound by th .eir award. Consider the foil owing: ''Contract of Compromise:Compromise n1eans a retur11 from compulsion to consent and settlement of the case by conciliation before chosen arbitratir1g ''sl1imagiles' '. 9 '' [Section] 2109. � compromise rea.ched through the arbitration of elders is executed. by Judge of the arbitration and it 1nay not be taken to a quasi-autl1oritative Jtidge. ''[Seo.] 2112.- A person, who bas agreed to reacl1 a settlement before elders o·r a 'relative' judge and to be bound by th.eir decision, 1nay not refuse to inake the settlement, nor may be ca11cel t.he settle111ent.'' 11 s do to ''[Sec.] 2104- - . If the elders, selected to settle a border dispute r efuse � ers el e d t after the parties have agreed to be bound by the decision of h �f o rt o t after th� terms of the reconciliation l1ave been l1eard before the c i , n ��· ted sel the e the parties may break the_ settlemer1t but higher autho.rities may forc elders to fix the border-line under dispute." 12

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FAMILY ARBITRATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE OF IES AC tJ-IE ff\LL

right . to a party to an arbitration to appeal the giv es 13 Zl . . 11 to the . ,, from a dec1s1 sect10 . . on mad e by a partial arbitrator. The court has t cour l the ''rigl1tfu r to refer the case to anotl1er arbiter or elders 13 powe i d at an itr rb n A ce or iv D y ar m sto Cu ? _ 2. Cot1 a rt I-I1gl 1 Jltdge here, writing before tI1e pro;mulgation once , Mare in Nathan ys: a e s d o C il iv C e th of Ne�a st, Fetl!a there is the 110 law of n1arriage i n Ethiopia. fron1 art ''Ap ,,,1tl1 111atters dealing co11cer11ing 1na.rriage, apply customary 'vvhe11 s, cotirt e Th . j ,,14 Jaw 011 y. ''The com1uon featt1re of n1arriage is t11at a 111arriage contract is made between i11 :v�·iti11g. S�1cJ1 a contract is 1nade before elders who are ust1ally s, partie the not members of the fa1n1I1es, as ,v1tnesses, and each party p11ts up a guarantor k.tlO\Vll as the '' Marriage Fat!1er'' The 'Marriage Father' keeps one copy of the marriage contract. J_f tl1ere 1s a11y s·ubsequent trouble between the parties the d uty of the 'Marriage Father' is to try to effect a settlement between then1. "15 ''There is 110 t111ified divorce law. Th. e I-Iigl1 Court relies on customary law as espot1sed by the various jtrdges wl10 l1appe11 to sit in on a particular case and on ct1stoms that vary ir1 every area. Thtts the law must vary with the parties in eacl1 case." 16 The many avenues towards divorce under customary law: As we shall see later prono11ncing divorce is the exclt1sive jt1risdictio11 of family arbitrators 1111der the 1960 Civil Code. That was not tl1e case before its promulgation. Let 11s see. DiYorce by• lVlutual Consent ''[Sec.] 6. - If a l1usband a11d wife whose marriage was co11cluded according to c11stom, file a case for separation dt1e to a failure to live together harmoniously, and if the l1usband volu11tarily declares ot1t of· co11rt tl1at he has divorced bis \Vife and will sba.re tl1e property with his wife before tl1e judge bas given bis decision, the case sl1all be closed wl1e11 tl1e judge records the agreement so reached." 17 By Unilateral Repudiation ''[Sec.] 92. - Wl1ere 11t1sba11d and wife qt1arrel due to some misunderstanding, the h u sband, sl1all, i11 accordance witl1 his capacity, either allow his wife to stay in his house and n1ai11tain her or l1e shall divorce her." 18 By filing a suit in a court of law ''[Sec.] 23. - \VJ1e11 a wife s11es her ht1sba11d for divorce in court, he sl1ail not 19 . f er togetl1 se ]'' re u [u nless they were 1narried� by taking the sacrament

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13. Ibid.

14. 15. 16. 17.

18. 19 ·

Marcin Tlze Ethiopi(lll E,11pire - Federatio11 ancl La111s (Royal Netherlands Printing aod ! Itbograph1n g Co., RottcrcJam, 1955) p. 160. Id, p. 161. Id. p. 64. 1 Digest 0if 0Icl .Etlziopia,z j11c/g111ents, vols. 1 and 2. Ibid. IbI·d• ••

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n io t a r it b r A y b r o s r e Before the eld . b �e t�e ef? rce �ivo s elder a get , ses haviiig agreed spou 11 Whe . _ 3 209 · ''[Sec.] t o k d a a s so a 1m 1· an 1e1 d � sep I. a1 � n y ne o ati � of m� � is 1 � n ta.ke a fix. ed sum ow , 1 _ 20 e tl1 e e of . ar a op sh r pr fo y rt n ai ag m hi e the wife may not su e agr eed l1av wife 1 ·� the prese nce of and ht1sban� re he 199.-W ''[Sec.] . eld ers h t e 1 w t �n d 1ey cat n ce, ow vor ir the the woma n sh e tak to s tor itra arb and all 1 1 they �l11ch �oney ave lier pay ?pent together and to husba11d � h�r ask not g eacl1 ow111 ot tted 1er ad1n1 not 1n the presence of have they which . y mone 1 " 21 friends.

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3. Family Arbitration through the Cases be·fore the Civil Code The �ases ;which we are goi�g to .see 1nay be of recent origin, but they cer. tainly reflect the_ practice that existed 111 the old days. Dates are accordi 11g to the Ethiopian cale11dar.

22 is the e arliest Workineh case on the subject that we Almaw v. Woragna Zewditu were able to find by looking tlirough the files of the High Co11rt. The file of this case contains a doe11me11t in which husband and wife 1nade an agreement of divorce an.d the partition of the common property before five witnesses one of \.vhom is designated an arbiter or ''relativ e judge''. The wife had some difficulty in getting her share of the common -property from l1er ex-husba11d. Therefore she applied to the High Court for the enforcement of tl1e settlen1e11t ,11he1·eupon tl1e colirt instruct• ed them to settle their dispute before sl1i1nagiles (or by arbitratio11). The parties went back to their locality and later the ex-wife ca1ne back with an instrument signed by both pa.rties and by the tl1 ree shimagiles who settled th.e dispute concern· ing the matrimonial property and who state that tb.ey made the parties agree on the terms and conditions specified in the instru 1nent. The court ordered the enforce· me·nt of the s e tt 1ement reached through the sl1in1agiles t1po11 the request of the la.dy. 23 . A similar but more interesting case is Atsede Yohar111es· v. flabte Selassie Belai11eh What is interesting in this case is a doct1ment w.hich contains wl1at migl1t be called an amalgan1 of arbitral submission and award in one a11d the same i11strun1en t. Yfe think it is wo rth our attention and we have hereby reproduced it after h.awg _ _ . translated 1t 1nto Engli sh. .

''Agreement:.. I ...Habte Selassie a11d ...Atsede Yoha11nes, I1usband and ,vife fro � 1942 up to now [Yekatit 1 /45] have divorced ovving to �isagree1 ent er ��; � _ _ _ ed in �ur married lrfe, pt1rst1a11t to the ter.1ns a11d co.nd1trons set by [� _ . shimag1Jes and one 'relative jt1dge '] as follow s. '' · · · A't · h cas • · sed 1 · n e y · O h annes shall be entitle d to pal d 5 500 to be $ a of total. _ . .upon g1v r· 0 t . . . ' · 11ne · rec eipt, n s · ing . b Y . .Habte Selasste Belainel1 1n n1ontllly iusta . . at : th , e 1 each as 0� Yekat1t �0/45 to be co1npleted 011 Sene 30/45 pro vid d ... l 0? he will have 00 rig_ht to claim er tYl p pro 1roo n from ltim [the rest of the co n

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. A RB ITRATION UNDER THE BTl:FIOPIAN y AM IL F OF ES AC I CIVIL CODE Tf{E FAL L

of the full amount specified above on. Sene _ ent pay m the 30;45( 'g ,,Fail� to _pa� $ 2,500 over and above the original amou� · bo11 nd s a ssie � s t. . fl · · on be 1s under obl1 gat1on as of toda y ... to pay $ 30.00 mo. nth ly s:-0 'Jk 1, r . mi . t i d ad 1 · t:expen ses 1or t 11e�r c1111d_ until he is three_ year�. old. sary neces r othe and ohannes and ... 1:: Selasste Bela1neh have freely and voluntarily Y A. . .. ;,we conditions stated l1erein above and shall not violate and term s the to agre ed the settle me11t. ''We the above designated perso11 � have n1ade the parties come to agreement stated above and n1ade tbe1n s1gr1 tl1e instr11n1ent i11 tl1eir own free will. In :�cordance ,vitl1 tl1is agrree�e11t ...A. Y��a �nes is released from the bond of marriage as of today Yekat1t I, l 945. . . S1gnecl by both parti'es and the- five sh.imagiles. Tliis settlement \\'c.lS rea �l1_e� after the wife, petitio11ecl the High Cotirt_ for a decr ee of divorce and the d1_v1s1on of the _co1nn1on property. While the ' court was considering tl1e case the parties requested It to settle their dispute by th.e · arbitra­ tion of sl1imagiles upon wl1ich the cot1rt appointed tl1em an arbiter or a ,''relative judge'' and sent �1en1 back l1ome. Late : tl1ey came to the court with the above instrument. Upon Its attacl1ment to the file the case ,vas closed. 24 Belaineh Dessita tJ1e parties were referred to the v. Fesseha Feleketch In arbitration of sl1i111agiles. But 11po11 failure of the husba11d to · appear before the shimagiles t11e Higl1 Cot1rt pronouJ1ced divorce in f,1vour of the wife. Many other similar cases may be cited b11t the above cases are eno11gb for purposes of ot1r discussion.

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4. The General Features of Customary Arbitration

A close observatio11 of' tl1e extracts from our old ct1stomaty jurisprl1dence and the cases disc11ssed above sho\vs the .following general characteristics of ''a rbitration." I. In all cases i11cludi11g family conflicts tl1e parties had t\vo cl1oices in the settlement of tl1eir disputes: the courts on the one ha11d and the shimagiles on tl1e other. 2. To submit a dispute for its sol11tion by shimagiles was a p11rely vol11ntary act. Custom did not eoforce the consent of the parties to go to the elders for the solution of tl1eir conflicts. 3. The shimagiles settled the dispute through an arrangement by making use of compro mise and arbitratio11 tooether or separately. Tl1e d.ichoto1ny that e�ists between arbitration and con�promise in modern law, it is s11bmi�ted, d.id not al�vays exist 11oder 011r c11sto1nary law. Sometimes we find arbrtra­ tion in its strict sense. 11 ost of the times we don't. (One should closely exan1ine section 2112 DOEJ and tl1e A. Yohan11es case above.) It is \l/Orth­ While to note this differe11ce bet\veen 011r c11sto1nary arbitration and modern arbitration tl1ougl1 the vol1111tary nat11re of arbitration and tl1e bit1_din� force of the award c:lre the basic characteristics of ottr c11sto1nary arbitration as Well as of the modern one. 24· (I-I. ct.,

AA,

1949, Civil case No. 254/48) (t1npublis}1ed).

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1 cl hi as w · w , nt ne e1 ed re gn ag si or by the contendi t en in le tt e S . 4. T he finaI · ng "". 1 11, s e · ·tt wr wa · 1 orc ·r es e1u 1, g1 le ma eab shi by a court a d · part·1es and by the _ . . n · . s e bindi.n,g upon the parti c /1o by ad ted tl1 lec bo se r e rti bit pa ar s or by a c0 an s � ay alw s wa _ 5 · There w �;t, el1o s who o d te u · tr1e 0111 d1sp to the r on g j brin ed tl icat d ie ho ad u. t r �es a ni! e· les n agi shi ked her pic t up o 1 l1 wit n1 fro er eth · tog th t n Co 1� n-t o agreeme · . · y unit � • . by the parties to the d1spute �s e -V d th ol e s-a on Vi n tio tra bi Ar · ily m Fa ew N e Th s. . One should 11ot forget that ot1r aim i11 this part of the paper is to show ent 1g tem wi1 sta of the drafter: f ollo the in t 11o or th tn1 is re the r the e wh ''We have tried . .. to t.ake . account of t�e cust o!ns an? �o preserve the institu­ tion of arbitra�ion whi ch 1s so much diffused Jll Ethiopia ... The provisions of Chapter IX aim at maintai11ing a well-e stablished, and which appears to be an 25 ]'' on of tituti s in ration [the arbit tion tradi . able, t c· respe eminently Now the impending question is whether the so-called ''respectable tradition," tlte institution · of family arbitration. as known and as understood in the pre-code days is preserved or not by the Civil Code? Tl1e inevit,1ble answer is ''no' for the following reasons. The old institution of fa1nily arbitration \Vas vol11ntary whiJe the ne,v one is compulsory. (See our disc1tssion above.) Tl1i s n1ea11s i11 the old days people could go either to the courts or to the shimagiles dependi11g on their cl1ojce. These two choices do not exist t oday as regards fan1ily dispt1tes. Going to co urt now is allow­ ed only in case of an appeal. In tlie old days arbitration depe11ded on. the agreen 1ent ot· the conflicting par-ties while the new family arbitratio11 does depend on tl1e law. That js to say the source ?f cu stomary arbitration was the agreemei1t of the parties while the source now 1s the law. 1

ca . !he ol�-time family arbitrators 01· sl1in1a.giles applied the custor11 of� their loT� lity 1n settling a dispute while the present ones a·re req11i1·ed to apply the la\V. e Co�e le�v� little_ chance to the arbitrators, if at all i � does, to use cus ;om � _ an their decision. This can only be presL1med from tl1e prov1s101 1s of Art. 695(- ) (3)_ and this is only for purposes of determining the penalites to be i01:posed on : gu1lty spouse. I� all 0th.er cases the arbitrators tnust a.pply th.e provisio s _ 0� t.h Code. (See for instance Arts. 668-682, 690(2), 695(1). The exclusive and nr�stnc�:e­ n��re of t .he Code as regards c·ustonJ can be seen .fron1 Art. 631(2) �hich . 1011 ofpthe 1;1ib�ts a contrac t of marriage, which has minimal effect on the decis a arbitrators anyway, from refering ''_purely Gtnd simply to loca.l custo in." that · · es · · d of, its most impo ThNS- en1 ptie rtan t elem a1 ents 1d filled ,v1th 11e� ?n '1 0110,11 ,· , . _ 1 resp. ectable tradition-'', th e oId . . . its n rved 1 ._ 1ns • prese· t•itutJ011 1s . of . n tratto· arb i and 1lilusory form. 26

. See noi.e 1 S.apra1 seei11 . . on Wne e,,astea:ce o.f rec net-1. a . . ce at . i s tr bi ar f 0 O , i n . tio rn botl1 the old and. t11e ne\\' kind _ than of substa we f� e�te aome ainri-l . ? r t as he de c ra e f�rm e f t m. is si this r on Bu ty mila i o t een, � bltw . il��� l. ? M�1teo�er� teG<:>J e I:©n as Jitt the . er un le role to play in family arb1t.rat1on ilW s� t:atei.. , ' •

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ARBITRATION UNDER THE FAM JLY OF ES , ETH)OPIAN CI'VIL LAC I Ar CODE rJ-IE fru.,

PART II OF FA1\11T,Y ARBITRATORS FOR PURPOSES C ALIF TION I A U -1.E Q I T OF SETTLING FAMILY CONFLICTS on of the drafte� tha t for purl?oses of decidin pti as�u m the g family disIt is ors are mo re qualified tha11 the Judges in rat arb it , the regular co urt s, Jv fa.,, , i•u,i I . . utes 1 r�tor s ar� ex erts in the field. On P f. amI1 y arb·t t?at , ords_ o f the benefits . e w P. er oth in rope� sense _is that 1t affords expert kno wledge to p its n 1 on trati the parties . of arbi o achieve a Just sett1e1ne11t of the particular dispute fo t orde r iii d r whic.h . co neerne . �1ay n o t b � qll�11·fi1ed o wing to the special character cour ts ar J regt1 the_ 1n ges the jud or�d11ary arb1trat1on the r ole of the arbitrat In 1nvolv �d1te displ or i s to of the _ virtue of his knov:Iedge of that particular fact and thus come by fact of es issu try o f tl1e c o11fl1ct. t 1en len sett t jlts a 1 ,vitl out In this se11se the arbitrator is m ore qualified than the judges in the regular courts. To talk of the rural parts of tl1e country and of customary arbitration,21 in so far as iss11es of fact are co11cerned the shimagiles may be ''the best placed and the best q11ali.fied'' to resolve fa11lily disputes. They are usually seised of the facts prior to the trial of tl1e dispute t o tl1e extent that jt is almost unnecessary to adduce evide11ce and hear witnesses in order t o prove a11 issue of fact. They know the backgro1111d and even the te1npera1nent of the parties concerned and hence ho w to approach tl1e problem since they are selected fron1 the same l ocality as tl1e parties are i11; fron1 among frie11ds, villa.ge elders and religious leaders wh o have concern a11d sense of duty in tl1e just settlement of the conflict which is acceptable to both parties. Tl1e shirnagiles are especially q11a]ified in the field of reconciliation by virtue of their age a11d long practice which gives an aura of auth ority to what they say. They k11ow wl1ether or 11.ot a displ1te is s11sceptible of reconciliation. �f not no time is l ost on a case \Vhicl1 d oes 11ot afford any compron1ise. In suc·h a case the problem is quikly dis1Josed of and the common property liquidiated. In other cases they do tl1eir best to save the n1arriage by virtue of their wisdom and art. Tl1ey spend long l1ours try.i11g to rec o11ciJe the sp ouses. Da111ages are a,varded to an injured spo11se \Vhere 11ecessary. \Vl1ere there i s a deadlock they let tl1e ma�­ te� rest for someti111e, then res11me the 11egotiation after a while and if there is still. failure try another tactic anotl1er ti1ne 1111til tl1e parties are reconciled. (This tactic may be the inclusion of �111 otl1er inflt1enctial elder or a religjol1s leader.) .rial !his is c11ston1ary arbitratio11 in its pttre for111 a s practised from time imme�o­ in rt1raI Ethiopia where th.in os seen1 to be still as tl1ey \Vere bef ore the com.tng f Civil Code. Bt1t to talk the countryside may be irrelevant since it is n?t f0. the the most par t affected by tl1e new legal syste111. Therefore we should bear ID mtotl tha t 011r disct1ssion is generally related to the t1rban areas of the country vbere the r the new e und ies dut pl peo and e ts righ ir are ; the of s ly iou c tive 11sc o rela _ aws \Vtth help of tl1e variot1s media. · In_ the ltrban areas of lt resu a as nal o ers imp g min o bec society is p ro gressively increasing m ti igra on of people fro m the c o untryside t o the t o wns where indepeudence

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. the province where b e . 27. The wr·1t er- perso . t eas in nally J.u.1ows 110\v family arbitration works at I . t f disputes Was b0 0 nd en 1 sett the for ?e f:;1ers se�tt.le family in h'15 am�IJy reared. Sometirne in tl1c IJast he l1ad to arrantim e the ow es I1 ny ou ma thr gh sed s nes wit a l i 1im 0 l1ad les d an o · Confl ICtg 1'n the count1t;-side.

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tle y lit of er ch v ea ow · kn he ot le op r Pe sin . ed er st fo ce e ar i·t o 'd v di st 1 . and. 1 of m n ff ry ith nt co r e ltu tl cu Vi of al 11 rts 1 pa di us rio va ere Y ! � i in · � ce Which s ot ro ir � · e av tbem he rn t 1ce o11 co1 p ab t d roblems of. hs an 1g di1 n . sta der un t e oth er .. • . act as a barr1er to the • ss 1n an urba nized . 11i.; 11� c10 ns -co ne f· t11 o ct fa al n tio di ad e th • s - o . y e oci fe11.ow. There 1•s als t " e d ot · to e ev r tim 1o o n. or rp pu tle lit e os ve ha s of arb'1tra, le op pe at th ns , a wb1ch �e . . . 28 . g .1n m su n o -c e m t1 1s h ic tion wh Jack ty �ocie e tl1_ urb�n ies an qualit in ators arbitr and faci lities family all All in s ion on . est t� qu 1ca Jud ad of to er t ord fac _ in· n1 the o inv of ed uir req lved that are �e ab l1tt o�t y ver he � or g ?a_ck�ound of �� hin not w kno y T?e . � ute disp a family f ly am1 1n ge_ Y'Ie� kno conflicts �s a nece ssary d -han first a B�t ie�. part th� and �dispute ul btf 1s dou it se that �rb1trators select­ rw1 e . otb e aus bec tion 1tr� arb ily fam of element e can h�v a genwne concern and �ct cond of code no with and dly, azar haph ed h 1s l It . ��e btfu d1sp �ou the of nt t eme se�tl at they make just sense of duty in the . any effort to save the marriage thro ug� re�onc1l1at1on which 1nay be shunned by mere lip-service and that they take their t1me or care at all to devote the time necessary for the fair trial and just settlement of the dispute. C'

Even if fan:uly arbitrators may be qualified to try questions of fact and for purposes of reconciliation, still they are far from being qualified to be expert arbj. trators in the eyes of the law because simple k11owledge of the facts and the · technique of reconciliation is 011ly a small part of the job in family arbitration since the Civil Code compels them not only to know the whole substantive and procedural law but also to apply it correctly under all circt1mstances. 29 The follo,v­ ing illustrations can make this clear. · Accordin.g to Art. 736 of the Civil Code the decision of the family arbitrators must among other things, be legal, to be valid from which it follo\\'S that they are required. to know the law if t11ey are not to infringe it by their decisions. Leaving all other provisions of the law aside we sl1aJI briefly show how an arbitral award can be illegal under fantily law alone. �-nder Article 690(2) the arbitrators are required to apply the divorce hinderance provisions (Arts. 691 - 694) irrespective of whatever agreen1ent there might be b etween the spouses. Suppose husband and wife agreed bef ore-har1d that i·11 case of divorce they shall share the common property equally whatever the cause of the divorce. A

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in his article ''Divorce in Urban Ethiopia Ten Years after_ tl1e Civil c?.�{; e r . rd IlQte 5 , supra a� P, o 29!)_ obtain says that many to couples go to court . itrators , whom [tlley,] t · e _to arb ult diffic sol1 c1t, ng sh. a ll bec on1 act i in is a disp it sinc ute '' e t�rs • persons who can act as aribtrat ra . . . ' arb1t . ed der h c1t1es. e t in ors cot1rt-or of srncer1ty the ut B is very d btf 1 sinc . e ·tl1ey have no legal bligation to act_ as ar�itrators. They su�11 react note i� � by absen�i� �be selves from �he � (see case proc tl1_ eed e ings . m1s and l)an dl1n by g � e saO! �te' 40) or by d�m 1 g a mu�I1 higher remuneration o parties the pay tl1an f r . ere paid would � � case if they w en O court. In one aod d. nde case I . dern a (See kno w arbi the trat five ors $ 100 each onI to �S.00 _ nt di d orce. wo v ut beb!Y rece ived u� for fee B the 1rt t co_ san1e the case f?; � N . Legal otice o. . f ° case , 1972 N!!g· er an�th Gaz., rt fee 12th yr. No. 15.) ln_ � e a total sum of $ 2700 for c u h o that worud be paid when both divorce and _ property award wb1cl1 1s roughly nd 78,5(?0· a 00 he alue n of $ 78, � in famJIY . • betwee r the v t subJect anges mat er \ But the High C ou t ti d u a p handle i the the c;urelY there � 9 sa1:1e 1i is c cas� fo_r $ .0 as tl � dbijltes� This in a�di;� 8h } t1 �0methutg WJJeng her! ows how family arb1trat1on 1s beco111:1ng expensive. 1 . . . e od viJ c I:� . We lave al.r:ead� l:lam , . i ·, tea· out . C h e t that custom has little or no place at all under . �ee I\!. 11& '

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FAMILY ARBITRATION UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN OF S JE LAC CIVIL CODE FAL · rI-IE

. n in a case of divorce fo r serious cause or on the insistence . giv of one ision e : the agre of eme nt is illegal on its face. basi s the dc on es ou s e p th f 0 cl1i ldren shall be entr11sted to their mother '' (2) 681 Ar t. to ng _ up to Accordi· '' · I s tl1ere 1s '' '' " · a es · se ri ou tin s · re ears as o n 1o r e d v ci d in fi g otherwise. � of � aue _ be th e � tw een a hu sb an d an d a well-to-do wife the arbitrator te dts pu ily fam _ a s Su�p e in t tlieir t\VO cl11ldren, two an d three years old respectively be taken tha from dec! ded thei fatl to r d 1er without any reason for ; 0 doing. It is entr uste and r · tlie . . their mo on. s1 dec1 gal an ille that tl1e arb t 678) (Art. ! ded provi �ators ''shall _ pro�ounce the divorce withIt is . one year'' fro.n1 tl1e date of tl1e pet1t10 11 for divorce 1n a case of non-serious . 1n ec1 e trators d "d d to b' exte11 ar d � his p�r1�d to two years on their � .. cause. Stippo�e tl1e . of tl1e _parties. The dec1s1on 1s illegal. o,vn and against tl1e w1sl1

Under Art. 676, it is ,1 duty 011 tl1e part of tl1e arbitrators to attempt to 30 tl1ey prono1 before 1nce divorce parties . In a real the case the spouses e concil for a divorce decree an� the tribunal granted the divorce �:titioned the arbitrators _ ,vithout ever attemptI11g to reco11c1le then1 and without trying to establish the cause of tJie divorce as it appears from tl1e records of the case. This is an illegal deci­ sion ir1 tl1e eyes of tl1e law beca11se tl1e tribu11al bypassed its legal duty, attempt at reconciliation, a11d proceeded to give divorce decision.

Agai11 i11 a nother real case31 the trib11nal liquidated the co1nmon property witl1 out pronouncing divorce. By so doi11g they acted against the basic rule that there is no liquidation of comn1on property without an award of divorce because tb.e forn1er is a consequence of the latter. In fVorkinesfz Slzelvatatelc v. Zev.)die Fe/lake32 the tribunal, harassed by the continued defa11It of one of the parties, closed the case and told the petitioner to institute a suit in court thus \vaiving its O\Vn jurisdiction \Vhile it could l1a ve pro­ ceeded and given decision in defattlt of tl1e other party. (See Art. 317(4) Civi I Proc. Code) Later the spouses divorced by m11t11al consent before four shimagiles through a written instrument i11 a co11tractual fashion. The same shimagiles liquidated the comm.on property subseque11t to the agreement of divorce. This amotints to recognizing divorce by m11t11al co11se11t which is prohibited by Art. 665(1). In lvf a111za Aye,,zeJv 1,. Mitikit Kassa 33 in a decision pertaining to property the . 1al tribw denied petitio11er's 1·eqt1est to prove her claim of$ 79,015 against her hus­ ba�� and gave an a\vard, by 1najority vote, of$ 4000 and two plots of land for petitioner. The case is novv in the Supreme I1nperial Court on appea l based on _ the refusal of the tribunal to allow the petitioner to prove her claim, and �� :nal�ze the husba11d for ad11ltery whic11 she has proved as _ the records show:. this case the tribt1nal co1nrnitted a proced11ral error accordi11g to Art. 351( c) (11) 30· M( enber Ababa, Civil Appeal No. 309 /63) Addi katclze1v ct. v. : Zel/e/ (I-I. , Tirt1ala1n s Tac/clesse unpu6 hshed). . ess 6 6 No, al Appe Civil , ct AA, eh Tejin Imp. h edetc (Sup. Agar v. am. Mari W. e . Jt f?I . See also Ti r11nesh Dessita v. Haile Selassie 1vfakz1.ria (Sup. Imp. ct - AA, ivi PP N� ed) · 769/61) (unpt1blisl1ed) 32_ ct. Addis Ababa, Civil Appeal J\To. 8 I 8/63) (unpublished) 33. 34. Se �P- !�P- ct., AA, Civi,l Appeal No. 600/64) (unpublished). . ublished) un ) p M1t1ku Kassa v. Ma1111a y ( A e11ev,1 ( Sup. Imp. ct., AA, Civil Appeal No. 350/57

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPJAN LAW - VOL. IX - No. 1

. Proc. Code in that it refused to l1ear th e evidence. 35 It can I· a so . of. the Civ. · be . t A . r d r 1 69· 3 e (1) 11 r c· 11 1 o rr v1 e e v t1 n a st Code 1b st a d te , in tha . it m . m o c . it t th d g n 1_ one eat d�f ic s bas thu , use ic spo P?l y lty gui of the :a� t!-1-e e aliz pen . 0 : }:tied e se th ng ou 111 sp t10 10 nc wl sa by lt 1s cu ffi di at e rc vo di fault. e ak m to is which can be re d, mo cite ny ma are t1gl1 tho en011gh to sh , ces 1 tar ins few ve abo e Th , a law t !l�e st lea 0\v la.1 o t _ ily fam ed r -i_ 1 : req _ are Jaw, and ot: s tor itra arb ily fam that _ ns. But to 1s1o dec t al wha illeg ng g1v1 n exte id avo t to y can thJS' ectl corr it . apply· . . 1t:'or1nal connec tion no h h o ave w d ges JU ay I by d sfie sati be \Vith the t requiremen c? l1o ad ed ct le se e ar o wh d an em st sy court On the one . ha11d �he Civil C�de requires resort to �anlily �rbitrator� in family disputes. There 1s nothing wrong 1n that. On the ?ther 1t r�q111res a str1ct appli ca­ tion of its provisions by the same. Surely there 1s som.ething wrong in that. It is one thing to provide for an instituti�11 as a me�hanism for_ settling a category of social disputes. It is another to provide for tl1e 1mplementat1on of the same institu­ tion by private citizens who know nothing about the law. Certainly there is a basic flaw in an institution that fails to create the condjtions for its own implemen­ tation and such is the institution of family arbitration. It is submitted that family arbitration under the Civil Code is an ins titution to be used, not by lay-men in the law, b·ut by legally trained people. This being the case it is crystal clear that family a1·bitrators, being what they are, are never quali­ fied for purposes of settling family disputes. If they are to be qtralified tl1ey must have legal training. Otherwise the law is such as makes it difficult for laymen to be experts in settling family conflicts. Hence the fallacy of the staten1ent that family arbitrators are '' the best placed and the best qualified." PART ID DOES FAMILY ARBITRATION REDUCE COURT CONGESTION? When the drafter included family arbitration in the Civil Code he thought that it would h .elp to reduce the congestion of the courts abot1t which he \Vas deeply concerned. He said: '' · · · there ar� at the moment t·ew qualified lawyers i11 Etl1iopia; and for tbiS. re�son, there is ground to d1·ead the crowdi11g of' courts, wl1icl1 is tl1e pres�n� �VII all �v�r the country; this consideratio11 has stre11gthened ot1r opi 11io11, whic 18 materialized by the pro visio11s of Arts. [722 to 737]''. 36 W�tb tbe gr�atest respec� to the drafter's cli� e de ,ve �} n con cer and sin cer ity entertain the belief that family arbitra ercr owding t o tio 11 th e ca red n uc he to e lp v o· ur courts On th e . . her v 1 · in o · · e 1 c o 11 t· r a r· e y . 1· an we b b 1s e 1eve ·. t congest1011 . . at co11rt n� in th. e 1ns co s t1tu t1o n thi itse lf. The followi11g disc11ssion is n1eant to substantiate . olus1on.

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3'-5. For the same procedural er . ov e ad ult . en ' f . . . or (i see f/lai{e M'llfciam Tekle e; . 0 thi� case a denial of pot1t1oner's requ� st to Pf No. 363/63) ass,e v. Yime,zashu i C1vil Appe a fruJtua1isae1ru).

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ZeK,die ((H. ct. AA,

fali�: . B. i>l\�cll!; eit:ed aheve at aote 1.

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UNDER THE ETHIOPIAN CIVIL CODE ARBITRATION LY FAl\rfI OF S ACfE rrIE FALL

The Inadequa cies of Family Arbitration ers t w n o e p m e c r fo n e f o A, Lack Procedurally 1· reqt law by d ir is (Art. 317 (1), Civ. Proc. Code) to tribunal � � ration arbit · · . T11e · 1n a w�y s1m� Iar to the procee 1ngs d' of a ctv11 court. This eedings proc _ its _ uct cond as duties 1 te-settl1ng 1n.achinery it may a its fulfill d1sp1 to order iil . . . . n1ea11s that 1 or a a r mo_ physt to 1 , s�bm1t all infoi:mat1on, documents ersons, p a11y e � req1iir _ . 1. 1 1 required by the tribunal for the_ car­ possess10 tl1e1r 1!1 1ce 1 de 1 ev other and ryi11g ot1t of its dt1t1es; 2. require parties a11d \Vitnesses to appear and tesftify at hearings; 3. adini11ister oaths a11d or take adrnissio11s of persons appearing before it and exa1ni11e a11y sucl1 persons upon sucl1 oath or ad1nission; 4. in tl1e case of persons s11 1nmo11ed to give expert evidence, allow ''reasonable re 11t 1 n1eratio11 for tl1e time occupied both i n giving evidence and in perfor­ ming any work of a11 expert cl1aracter necessary for the case." (See Art. 112(2), Civ. Pro. Code); 5. order the defraying by the parties of expenses incurred by the witnesses in attending at the tribu1 1al; 6. take disciplinary 1 11east1res tl1rough tl1e chairman to ensure order in its p roceedings a11d su111n1arily punisl1 any person present before it and who is g11ilty of improper conduct in tl1e course of any proceedings. (Art. 480, ct1m Art. 317(1), Civ. Proc. Code)

These are some of tl1e measures available to the tribunal in carrying out its dutie s. B11t these measures are 011ly effective througl1 the good will or submissiven­ n e ss of the person against \vhom tl1ey are taken. Otherwise they are no more than mere reqt1ests for cooperation or good will of the party or the persons whose attention the tribunal \Vants to draw towards the fulfil1 ne11t of a certain measure taken by it. Tl1is is so because the tribtinal has no power to enforce the measures mentioned above or a11y otl1er 111easures that tl1e law allo\VS it to take. Every mea­ �ure the tribunal takes must be enforced thro11gh the courts i 11 wl1ich case the intere sted party has to go to co11 rt \Vitl1 a request from the tribt1nal for the en­ force ment of its orders. (Art. 317 (3), Civ. Proc. Code.) This means that a file has !0 be opened in a regular cot1rt whenever the trib1111al finds it diffict1lt to i1nplement its or ders. But a simple reqt 1est for the enforcement of a measure or order given by the tribunal may t11rn out to be an i11volved case by itself if a situatio11 arises ,vhere the court has to iss11e orders repeatedly to a reluctant party or witness or h ere a �efat1lting witness or party has to be heard to prove that he failed. t? : m ply with the summons for C1v1l the of 118 Art. under case a in se u ca· good p roc edu re Code. It is not diffictrlt to see that such cases may contribute to the · con gest10n of. the cottrts. 2· Substanti atively n er the Civil the rs othe , ong m a. has, l una trib f ion trat Code the ami ly arbi r D_ <l 1011 owing su b stantrve powers. 1 · According ame l ona visi pro h suc er ord 1all ''sl to Art. 674 (1) the trib trnal · e • th s rd a g · re s sur�s as are req111•red by the circumstances 1n a r a I 1cu t par main tenance of the spot1ses and of the children or the management of the property of the spouses. " - 189 -

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a� 11 111 or prohi bit a sig '' it 2) t. ar ub s ( le tic ar �� e det ermi­ _ 2. Under the sam f ore the final be to th e ,vife or d an b s hu · . e th o t avrv,ard IS. nate reSI'dence given. o w� r · to liquidate. al_l p e h t _ ha� d war a l fina s it the pecu­ in 3. The tribunal t y h 1 s p o use accor ding 1 �1 � 111s p11 to , s e us o p s t11e f o s n o to Arts ti a rel . niary ody a11d 111a1ntenance of the children c ust tl1e e at ul reg o t nd a 691_692 bor� of the contending p artie s. , . of en�orcemen t 1n procedural matters, r e po:" 110 as h nal ibu t r he t But as just . t�rs e t . An o 1t1v ma r der or awa rd sta1 sub n 1 wer o ·p me sa the s ck a l it me, a s must the essful par ty f o� its enforceme11t according to be s ent to the c ou rt through tl1e s ucc . Art. 319 (2) of the Civil Proce_dure Co_de. Here again tl1e successful party has to open a file in a regular court, 1f ther e 1s _ no file already �pen, and go through all the processes of execution, thus encumb e!1ng t�e court with all the problems of ex.ecution tha t may result from an ordinary Judgment. As Book VI of the Civil Procedure Code show s the execution of an a,vard as well as a n ordinary judgment is an. involved, intricate and vex ati ous aff�ir to both the court a11d tl1e party seeking execution. It is even more intricate and time-con suming than the trial of an ordi­ nary case. Just consider the cumulative effect the f oregoin g inadequacies can have on c-ou.rt congestion.· 1

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B. Lack of Facilities Ignorance o_f the· law on the part of family. arbitrators (See also Part II above.)

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A High Court j11dge who sits in a division exclu sively assigned to fantily dis­ putes says: ''.T·h.e fact that artbitrators are by a nd large layme11 and illiterate may well be the reaso11 th at cases conducted by family ar bit rators are full of irregularities and problems." 37 w110 is to be eligible to act as an arbit­ rator. The determination of who is to be an ar b itrator is left to the choice of the partie:s . Natu rally what the parties ch oose a s their arbitrators is as much as possjble those persons wit h whom they have already an established friendship or tl1ose wb� · symp athize wi�h them. No cons ideration may be given to the legal ql1alification ot th� would-b e arbitrators, though persons with st1ch ql1alification are almos t non­ ex1s«:nt for purposes of family arbit ration or 11navail,1ble wi tl1out very higl1 _remu­ neration. After sol?e fishing in the loca lity the parties ·pick up their own Judges �ho form the arbitration tribunal whicl1 usually sits in church yards or under a the bi . g ·tree wher ever th �s is a vailable. elp I1 to There a.re no ways and 1nea11s _ n th tnh:iinaJ get some enlighterunent as to what the J aw says. 38 In such a situatI ? � _ �rbi!rators are a l aw un to · themselves and may · decide accordiJ1g to the1r vie,vs 0 0{ JUStlce 0! a�co��ng to . the custom ;prevailing om e out c ocality. The in the ir l such arbitrat1o � is a mess and chaos from which the reg1.1lar courts ha ve the .fina burden of finding a way out.39 The l a w does not dis criminate as

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37 • An interview with Hon· At0 air· ma Selass· ie. Araya, l\r!ay 9, ,t 972. . . points 38 ... @e i, .r .th, rol� o. { :the legal assessor g di n reg � rs .. in. _E�_gland. who advise� arbi trato ef��:� � . .' 3-J �· l};;or, iJl111str�ions·· w�-· .i;e·ffier the . 35 wbicb ar: · · · . to., " ., . . -. re �d �r ove in no tes 30 : t. n of thtt . ib.u«<:Ia:nt i:m ibotb .roce ra . and s bst�nt. thee cases .. cited·· ab � 1o r� errors aqd irregularities. �n ·exa011.ntic· files t�ms��es slfuws €�ueai,1Jy 110w u arbitration cases are indeed messy .and chao _p

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ES OF FAMILY ARBITRATION UNDER THE ETH)OPI AN CIVI CI A 1 LA L CODE rI-IE f�

fam of ily utio arbi 11 tration does not stand w·th i11st it the tice . . l o ut cou .. rt ''In prac it has aImost .become subor d1nate to 1t. In most instances a party ct t a arbitration first approa belp. In s to' submit his case to family che s the cour t and • . t wan b w o . fi The court then 1nay give an or der for the appointment of arb·t. le . 1 rat ors a · en . · partY 1nay come with all sorts of complaints er op h • e1t. d opene is . file against . a e onc · 1 rs and t he ot her party. C011rts usua11y accept their oomplaints."40 b trato the ar J not is 110w a sound appears and workable mechanism that i� as 11 ttitio iiisti The the of help the regular . courts. As a result the co·urts \.V1tho11t feet its on . s and . can ·t t b o SlLJJerv1s� ar ves 1trat101 1 proceedings in addition to 1 1e111�e l t 1 upo1 it il have take a11d a\vards tl1at come both 011 appeal and as refereco1npla 111ts rot1s ntin1e . bandll·ng . . k l 1e 'Jog see I p. Just consider tl1e f ollo\.ving case. tr1. b t111a1 I ed tro11b a fronl nces

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41 ie. wd e Ze 11 sl1 na me Yi ,,. si las Se kle Te m ria Haile IVIa In this case !he ,vife approacl1ed tl1e Addi� Ababa Awraja Court for the ap­ pointment of . arb1trators ,vl1ere11pon the court _1n the . presence of both spouses ap­ pointed a cl1a1rn1an and told tl1e?1 to go to tl1e�r locality a11d select their respective ar bitraiors. The court left the i1le open expect111g to hear the result of the arbit­ ration in a month's time by fixing a date for that purpose. On the day appointed to bear tl1e result the parties appeared and told the court that the arbitrators have not yet started l1earing tl1e case. The court made more than te11 subsequent adjourn­ ments, each ti.n1e 111 aking a11 order for a speedy settleme11t of the dispute and to see tl1e a,vard 11 1ade by the arbitrators at the next adjournment. A1Jd at each adjournment the parties 11.ad to appear in cotrrt in order to give a report on tl1e progress of the arbitration procceedings. Also the cl1airman of tl1e tribunal had to appear in court several tin1es in order to explain why the tribu11al could not reach a decision as soon as the court expected. During tl1 e arbitration proceedings the wife made two complaints to the court. Her first con1plaint relates to 1nai11tena11ce ordered in her favo11r by the arbitrators against the husband ,vho refused to 1neet the order. The second has something to do with tl1e conduct of the cl1airman who1n she \Vanted to be replaced by another chairman because she alleged that he treated her unjustly. Thus after so 1n1tch swinging of the parties (and even of the chairn1an) fr.01n court to tribunal a11d from tribt1nal to court tl1e arbitrators gave an award, an erroi�eous one, j11st a year after the case started and that through tl1e constant and nagging orders of tl1e Awraja Cotirt.42

T�oug� tl1e arbitration proceedings were conducted under the supervision of the court in this case as i11 many other fa1nily cases and though the court consta�tly urge? the tribunal to be on ti111e i n its proceedi11 gs, all the same the tribunal [ailed to give the a\vard \.Vitl1i11 the legal period of time which is one month according to the Aml1aric version and tl1 ree n1onths according to the Englisli version or Art. also H · 37 ee ote i S · at n ie t ve abo cited 40· !enck sn erv w_ with I-Ion. Ato Girma Selassie Araya · a-re S J? O ti ti e p e rc o iv d no . trom, cited above at note 5 a, wl1ere he says that ''11·t1g ll t i' w ants c 4 I. ci·ming to courts initially in increas ing nt11nbers''. 42. c ted above at note 35. . it h g u o th f. Miti ku . Kiassa rs a e y 34 wl1ich took ten v. te o n Ma11, at 1a above cited Aye11 eu, was sup ervised by a cot1rt like this one.

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. of divorce, aduI. tery, is 1se cat s . iou r se a e r e h allege d "l'L · 6, 6.8 since th'is is a case w J.oe · t t h ,1'lt 1· t ref11°ed r · 1 11 11 , ro . o r _, e a ous i r ow e s the w·ri d another 1 e to · tribuna1 al8 l1 I-Iig The Cou d. r t reversed ban hus r e h f o t duc con the a ar d e o:s prove t b·e a�uft� � b t 1 11e to e sa1 trib cas h e t e l un a ed l and rem · for and e re e ar1ng. on appeal b Y t he wif . . . . . t 1 tha ly �a�1 r tra ciea �rb1 tly n _ a t1?n 1_ 1as. mad e d b11? a be t mus it t poin . At this fo r t d 111s o a D11 a 1e ·r ti t n 1 1 o f 111 1 a t1� · c st pli Jti m co 1ce as sho y ar ess ec n tin d an ion us nf co wn y re eed r sp mo fo d r a11 sie a court to ha a e ee n b ve a h uld wo it s e cau e v b e a ndle a b a . . see o or t a se ca ere t h 1on 011 c1s de a e giv appeal from. a nd a rt a st . rOm the case f . . a rea sse d d, up and mishan me I h IS 1c . h w Y e cas a on te a c udi adj n a th lower court dled by l�y judges who give awards based, not on rules of l aw, but 011 1ne re com mon sense. Fa mily arbitration as practised by th e illiterate h as , :ve believe, increased rathe r than decreased t he overcrov.:ding of _ �he courts b�cause It h� become the breeding ground for grievances a nd 1rregular1t1es from wh ich emerge 1nnurnerable problems 43 . kets crowding cour t doc The nonexistence of an arbitration tribunal or persons legally bound to arbitrate in family disputes Art. 725 (1) says tha t f an1ily disputes '' shall be submitted to the arbitration of the persosns who ha ve been witnesses to such marriage." But Art. 733 (2) makes it clear that even such perso11s are u11der no legal obligation to act as arbitrators. Nobody is bound under the law to arbitrate in f a mily disp11tes for t11at matter in any dispute. But everybody is bound by law to submit family conflicts to an arbi­ tr ation tribun al which is to be constituted by the parties concerned. The require­ ment of the l aw th at fa mily conflicts must be settled thro11g11 arbitratio11 and its • failure to provide for a tribun al or personnel legally bound to handle the same conflicts expose one of the most outst�1nding paradoxes of t he inistitution of� family arbitration under the Code. What are the poor parties to do if' no arbitrators are a vailable? W hat they do in practice is to go to court in order to get arbitrators appoin­ ted by the court tho11gh the courts h. ave 110 power to order a person to act as an _ arbitrator. Initially t he parties may succeed in getting persons who will act as arbitrators. But when these pers ons find tl1e work inconve11ient or when 011e of the parties who does not want to see the e11d of the dispute (ust1ally the ht1sba11_d �ho wa nts to harass his wife) shows a hostile attitude to,vards them or exerts his uifluenc� o� the� they disband a nd quit by si�ply absentin� themselves �rom � : proceedin� in which case tl1e party co11cer11ecl 111 tl1e 1·esol1 1t1.on of tlJe d1spute bo� parties ha ve to go . to _court to �et ano e 0 or itrat ar ed appoint th r_ cou b rt arbitrators, or an o _ rder directing a previously appou1ted but relucta�t � rbitrator. { 0 any cas� the parties reques_t a�d the co a e do ant the request. This 1s n g�e. ur ts gr and a�ain until an a ward 1s given by d r ov e g 11 10 s oine a rbitrators after it is Here 1s an ex ample. In Mitiku Kassa v. Ma,zna Aye,zew 44 sittin g rt Cou h , :_r· a cas . e initiated in tl1e I,.1g nt a t Dabre Markos, Gojjam, the co ta 1 uc re urt spent ten y ears just issuing orders to

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Our conclusi on is fully suppo rted bY the High Court judge whon1 we �s -ab(l);v.e.

ote n e Se . d· interviewe

ed g e �heat ai ne\_e 34 suplia. lncide all is ce . r o . y iv ntlla d f this o is a case ·where a serious cause alfcl Jal.er pliey,ed .• ;

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replaci11g l1nwiJJu1g arbitrators by new ones.45 After 80 many o rd er s d o trat rs an 1e arbitrat ors ca111c together i n the sixt h. year an rbi s011 mel10 \V so a its ei . J , . ce1n . d a p r y and e award regardi11g propert _,v1thou.t p ronou11c11 1g divorce. Tbe.n the court n a ve ga . 0 angr)', took 11p tl1e c ase itself a11d gave a d�vorce decree. At this point see�1��d1�es replac�d the old 011e s. T�e �ew .- co1�1.ers who doubted the j tirisdictioii . for 111st ucti r 1 on n�\\_ J aske d fro1u tl1e Sp11preme Imperial Cotirt 1nat te s 1 tb iil rt . oI .t11e aco11 t11e c1·ivor�e d. ecr�e r-' or reasons of eq111ty ordered tlie lower aff1rin111g fter \vluch o y to arb1t�a.tor ? fo r otl1er n1 atters. Tl1 is year (1964 fa111tl case tl1e r refe t cour) 1 a,:vard \vhicl1 1s 011 appeal in tl1e S11pre111e Irnperial a1 gave a tors a rbitr the E��-rt fo r reasons \vl1icl1 ,ve discL1 sse d. ab�ve. 46 It . js nO'w' ten years since this case C t d aiid no 011e kt,O\VS ho\<\' 1011g 1t will take 1n tl1e appellate co11rt. 47 star e ' The 11on-existe11ce i11 tl1e Code of per��n s legally boltnd to arbitrate in fainily L tl1e add cot1rts tto11al IJro lem tl1e to o·f constitt1ting a11 arbitra­ l b create c has flicts \ l io11 gap left by l the a v. Ja Tl1oug s i 1 tl1ey l1ave attempted ser icl1 \Vl s nal tribLt _ �i�� u of legal e d ty s 11se of or 011t 011t of l1umanity .1t � as respo,1se � b gap, this _ fill to 1 1 1ale, fe1 l1as be Etl11op1an t a11 11nsuccessfrtl a.ttempt in f tl1e 1 : � problen1s t e � b to 1 tl1e p to 1gl1t of tl1e clest1tL1te woma11. 0 11 tl1e contrary good tle ne li do t has that it it has c a11sed problen1s to the courts tl1emselves in that it has become itself one of the factors of co11.rt co11geslio11 . It sl1ould be ren1embered tl1at our effort i11 this part of the paper is to get an a.ns\ver to tbe qt1estion a.Ireacly l)Osed. Tl1is is tl1e qt1estion: Does family arbitra­ tion redu·ce cot1rt congestio11? Althougl1 we do11' t I1ave st,ttistical data to show how much it has co11trib1tted to cot1rt co11gestion a11d to disclose tl1 e perce11tage in the iise of the overcrowdi11g of cot1rts as a res11It of fan1.ily :1rbitration as co111pared to other factors, we believe the al)ove disct1ssio11 is e nottgh to s110\v that faI11i1y arbitra­ tion has acce11tuated tl1e problen1 of co11rt co11gestion in its o,v11 trnwholeso.roe and eccentric \Vays. Tl1erefore tl1e ,111s\\'er to tl1e above q11estio11 is a negative one. ,.

P1-\RT IV CONCLUSION

. \\'e have been so far occt1pied in tryi11g to a11swer three difficult questions trigger� d by the state1ne11t of tl1e drafter appearing i11 the introdL1ctio11 of this paper. In plain and si111ple la11gl1age the questions appear 1nore or less as follows: 45 · 46· 47 ·

he co �rt \vent to the extent of iss11ing order for tl1e arrest of tl1e resistant arbitrators by '1 1 c police and to appear in co11rt for exlpanation. . See i\1anna Ayenew v. text anying acco111p and sttpra Mitikz, J{assa cited at note 33 �o was initiatcd in Ihe High Court on Mcgabit . 25-54 (E. C.) During all this time i1 (� s��• a o s uffe rs the most hardsl11p because 1n tl1 e \Vords of P1ofess_or Beckstroni [ J h I eavmes nthew LlfS oc� lly era gen ls Th ily. se fam ou or d s an nd frie h ust;aJJy goes to sta y \Vitl1 e rd1 parat i n. se of is irot ess des st of mo is \V}10 l or who a1n h e ht b n1ig �ie be thoug t to ft g�18 the let or e sen Ethiopia11 male's pride an· d prerogative to stay in the l1ome and �1or . · cept x E Won1an go a ay. e rs u co f o age t van a d 1 t1ca Tl11s l)uts the man at a grec1.t prac . the Iitt1 · that\li ren,ains �rt el1 cot1pl tl�e of the woman stealthily pack on l1er back, all m o tr s k under t�1e c e i 1 1f . ? e � P . o man's control, so tl1at in any case the n ext move is tlf � .1 r l 1 �1 e enan c cited t note aint t i .1e1 supI_J y 5 f to e s u_ re supra, n1ay p. d l1usbao 285). The tbe d orde e� by n a d e l1 c a e r w is e r the .arbitrators or by a court till a settlen1ent of tile �•spu� e. executio on ain 01 . tlie e abov . , n of maintena11ce orders may constitute a case by itself o,et ail

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e resemble customary ar od il C iv C e th · r de un n io at tr bi ar bitrat ion . Does family before th e Code? al t tr bi uc ar ee nd oc co pr to ng ed di ifi al qu s as exp ect s or at tr bi ar ily m fa Are ed by the law? ce co ur t co11gestion.'? du re n io at tr bi ar ily n1 fa Does er sw we ns e d ''no''. an tio 1es q1 e es th of e on ery ev d an ch ea To In the fir�t place if family �rbi!rati�� under tl1e Civil �ode l1as almost nothing in common with customar_Y �rb.1trat1011 1t has no val11e - neither c�I�ural nor practj. cal_ v.rort�1y of the . apJ?re�1at1011 _ of. th e people and ca1J�ble �f ga1rung their accept­ . _ . an.ce. It 1s a new 1nst1tut1?11 . w1t_h a11 old 1:-am� th.at. 11_as failed to gain ground in our society and as such 1t 1s likely that 1t \v111 ren1a1n a stranger to the people for a long time to come. •

Seco11d1y if tl1e ne\:v family arbitration is 11ot s11cb. as to be handled by private citizens who do not hav e any legal training a11d jf at the same time the same people are supposed to put it in practice by acting as arbitrators, it is submitted with great respect that the institution of family ,1rbitration exists in the Civil Code as a serious legal anomaly that sl1ould be cleared immediately.

Finally if family arbitration does not help reduce tl1e congstion of courts it has failed to 1neet the most that was expected from it. Therefore ,ve n1ake the following suggestions f. or a ft1ture amendment of the Code provisions concerning family arbitration.. In view of the fact that society bas a pa.ra1not1nt interest i11 the preservation and protection of the family as e1nbodied i11- A.rt. 48 of the Revised Constitution, the pow er to pronol1nce divorce n1ust be withi11 t11e excl11sive jt1risdiction of the regular courts rath er than in the hands of simple private citizens ,vl1 0 know 11othing about the aims a11d goals of the Ja\v and who mav not tak e so n111ch trouble to save a marriage as a duty - co11scio11s court wot1ld. In recog11itio11 of the fact that special qualities of l)er·s011ality and experie nce are needed in order to save a marriage from break-do\vn and tl1ese qualities have been poss essed from time imm e morial by the sl1i1nagiles (i11 the trtLe a11d traditional sense of th.e word) parties intending to get a divorce decree n1ust be subjected to a process 0� r econ�iliation through tl1e local judge (atbia dag11£i) before they catl be granted divorce 1n cases o·f 11on-serio11s cal1se of di,ro1·ce. se pou s Con� iderin en g the fac t that the liquidation of pecuniary relations bet�e . : invo_lve issues of f�ct tb t are difficult and t i n1e-consun i ng to prove . 1n. cour :. � � � . 0 _ partr�s should ?e �1ven the option to settle their pecuniary disputes through cer· u<le r pr_omi�e or arbitration accordi11g to Arts. 3307 - 334 u tl1e Civil Code 6 of ta1n circumstances wl1ich will be give11 in detail later. to · � 0f _the fact that ole · I� vie bi� a · lo c ha al ve ju dg es an (a tb da c ia gn as ) . di· d a pJay m f�tly disputes they s hould be 0 r 1 ers po w . e .and Civ il pe r mitted to exercis e tion to v nt1 . _ th etr former ones and that should b . ta s11bs the bot h 'fi e d spec1 e 1n proseaural laws . s tor a itr Re.Hc:e according to th�s � . arb . 11 • . fan •iy of , gu1del111es . the functions 1n1nor 655 . ; , P-f@tm.� �Ill. ,,,· d 652 u.ch prov1s1o�s as 8 64. • � th os 64 33 e of 32 Ar , ti 6 les , ssor s. � 6 !, :m : sse � • a . �a be exercised by. the local. Judge together with bis . •

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rce the local J·udge would . n cas es \vbere tl1ere are no serious ca11se of divo . 1 emp a t· tt or ng 10�. to re�onc1le th� parties 'li c1 reco �1 1\Jso of Y . tllrough the dtlt . e 1 }J ave t! � give a cert1fioate to tl1e petitioner in ·case and ty Ioc a. l 1 the of wh . 1 a sh i01 �� :� it fajls stati11_g t��e reasons for tl1e fail11re. Where _the law provides ;�: io . i recon � l d or arb1tr at1011 l1e wo11Id _lend a J1elp1ng band to the parties ai and � rnise coillP settlen1e11t of the dispute tlrro11gb such n1ea118. y speed tile for nge a rra i11 di�orce ca.ses _is to be determi11. ed jurisd ictio1 1 ose (,:vl1 according to rt cou The exercis e tl1e wo11Id .. ll18:JOr Code) po\vers now exercised by the dl1re Proce 1 C ivt . the · ,vou·Id prono11nce divorce 1n case of a seriou s cause within It . rs o at tr famJ. 1� arbi (\vllich shoulcl be three 1nonths). I-Iowever i11 case of non­ ti111e of limt o al J h t �otr5° calise of divorce tJ1e cot1rt wo11ld· · first require tl1e ·petit io11e r to try reco iici· ser1 cons1 · der t he pet1t1on unI_ess t·1 1e pet1t1oner shows that recon11ot wo11ld and lia tion l1 l e ug ca tl1 ro e lo th dg ed Ju 1pt en att . en be s lia t·on 1 .1. 1a Cl Not\-vitbstanili11g the p_rovi�io11s of the Civil Proc_edure Code fixing the j·urisdic­ tion of courts 011 the basis ?f the va�ue of tl1e sub3ect 1na�ter, disputes arising out of the dissolutio11 of a m�rr1age by divorce w�uld be subm1tted to the deter1nina­ tion of the same court which 11roJ101i11ced the divorce. Ir1 other cases the provisions of the Civil Procedure Code \VOt1ld apply to determine the jurisdiction of the court. The court would be give11 the discretio11 to refer rusputes regarding matrin1onial property to be settled througl1 com.promise or arbitration in case of non - serious cause of d.i\1orce on]y \Vhen tl1e parties agree to such resolution of the conflict. In case of a serious ca11se the court \vould allow only arbitration and not com­ promise and here again only when the parties agree. Where the court refers the dispute to arbitratio11 it would do so with the necessary i11str11ct i on.s to the arbitra­ tors as regards the pe11alties tinder Arts. 691 - 693 of the Civil Code. Whenever the parties choose tl1e resolution by the court of their pecuniary dis­ putes the court would apply the provisions of Arts. 690 - 695 mutatis mi,tandis thus having the iliscretion to pena)jze tl1e bla1newortl1y spouse even in a case where divorce is ordered for a 11011 - seriot1s cause. It is finally submitted that there is a pressing need at present calli11g for the realization of the above s11ggestions.

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QUIZZ.ES IN ETIITOPIAN FAMILY LAW ANS\VERS

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in Vol. VIII No. I es zz ui Q e th to s er Answ Asmara , from is t�e �ibroi : n, wit1ner of the Journal of Ethio­ m braha A Ato gu1z. His _,,ery go�d _a11swers to the first problem are printed be-_ first s Law' ian gratis st1bscr1pt1on to Vol. IX of the Journal of Ethiopian a ve recei will He f and off-prints of the p11 blisl1ed answer. For those interested in tl1e c1 uizzes we also publish tl1e answers of Professor Krezeczuno\vicz who was the author of the quizzes.

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I. ,.\.NSWER TO TI-IE FIRST PROBLEM

BY ABRAHAM KIBROM

Parliaments' reversal to tl1e effect that tl1e bond of affinity subsists notwjtbstanding that the marriage creating s11ch bond is dissolved - Art. 555.

I. has proltibited 1narriage bet\vee11 persons related by affinity eve11though the marriage ,vhich created the affi11.ity is dissolved - Art. 583.

2. has made tl1e obligatio11 to st1pply n1aiote11a11ce not to subsist in case the bond which created the affinit)' l1as bee11 dissol,1 ed by divorce - Art., 809.

2. ANS\VERS BY G. KRZECZUNOWICZ

Without participati11g in tl1e contest or affecting its result, the at1thor of the quizzes hereby proposes tl1e fol]o\vir1g ans\vers to tl1e four problen1s involved:

PROBLEM 1 QUESTION 1 . The effect of the reversed rt1le is to extencl tl1e effects of t11e (no11-reversed) Article 583 beyond n1arriage-dissolt1tion. Ql.JE STJON 2 . The effect of tl1e (non-reversed) the of reversed effects extencl the r11le is to Arti�le 808(1) in fine beyo11d marriage-dissolt1tion, except in the case of divorce (Article 809). PROBLEM 2 QlJEsTION 1. 852 icle h Art e of ng rdi g wo alle ation of redundancy is right. Reason: The evclu T ed s all perso11s othe,, tba11 relatives or the State fron1 1ntestat·e) succession. For

I\

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. IX - No. 1

e c n e of a s b te a c p specifi s e d d e � d lu rule c x e is to th·ts e se u o sp e th , le . p ex. am ffe c o n e c th u n to b o ct. ti i1 1e la re (i r r in e g u le la ru r a h c un·ion) a Th e presence of su d . t n a ds n d u e d r , is • . 13 7 le ic rt A : w la e noth ing to th QUESTION 2

rule of Article 713 is not infringe . The . decision is wrong. Reaso11: Tl1e d , sin· ce . . . a ac ca 1c 1 1 · d I I t l d e · h r1 e Ju w · t 1 t bu or testament tha ' n' io un r la gu re 'ir , e th t no is it t has · ). 2 91 1m ct b) 19( 90 created the legacy (Article PROBL�M 3 •

QUESTION 1 Article 591 ( c) concer11s: (i) not the effects of marriage, but the conditions for its valid conclusion and (ii) not the consumniation of marriage, but e1·rors regarding the others spo'use s incapacity to consummate it. 1

QUESTION 2 Article 696(3) concerns the effects 11ot of marriage but ot· its dissolution. PROBLEM 4 We choose the proposition No. 4 for the reasons gi\ en in K. O'Donovan, !'Void and Voida.ble Marriages in Ethiopia'', Nj. Et/1. L. (1972), Vol. 8, No. 2. 1

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QUIZZES IN ETI-IIOPIA.N FAI\IIILY LAW by George Krezecz1,1no1vicz

ed vit t e in t? ar tes w ir La the ian op h Et k of l ·na ou � the ?�Wledge of of � Readers � _ al es leg izz to by qu ers sw �n sub ing lat mu m.ttting to the for 1n ll ski ir the d an law the sel ecte J:?-S from ble pro 1ng � the ollo f the to author 's· 24 _ s wer a11s '7' tten wri l rna Jou dur m e ed 1n f lish rap pub eog s m1m wa ch whi d _ ? or , Law ly ami an iopi Eth in b ing Pro lems [ the 1970-1971 acadeID.Ic yea.r. . The best . wr1tt�n answers_ to �ach quiz submitted to the Journal in either Am.har1c or English will be printed 1n volume I0-2 of the Journal. A.nswers should be submi�ted. befor_e Octo?er 11, 1973. Eacl1 participant whose answer is selected for publ1cat1on will receive a free copy of the Journal is-sue in which his answer appears plus five off-prints of his answer. The participant who submits the most satisfactory answer to all four quizzes will receive a year's subscription to the Journal without c.harge in addition to a free copy of volume 10-2 and th.e author's off-prints for any answe1· which is p11blished. Participants are not obliged to answer all quizzes.

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PROBLEM 1 Pursuant· to Art. 777 Civil Code, as n1odified from its original draft by the Imperial Codification Commission, 1 an action to clain1 a ''statt1s'' (of affiliation) brought by the mother shall be instituted against the child.2 111 other cases (those brought not against but by tl1e child), the actio11 shall be instituted against t?.e mother (or her heirs) .3 (Where such action, if successft1l, ,vot1ld attribtite paternity to a .� an,4 the latter shall be joi11ed in tl1e s11it. 5 ) I. t follo\VS that i11 the absence 7 can ,ieve r 6 of . Civil Statu.s records a child wl10 possesses l1is n1aternal filiatio11 claim non-possessed 8 pate.rnal filiation since:

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QUIZZES IN ETflIOPIAN FAMILY LAW

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all eged fat he r ,:vitho·ut claiming against th th e s11 e t nn o . ca e Be mo th er 1' ' tl1e aga ins 1notl1er since this is possible only t cla im no t catl 1 where 1le 2 · J� not possess his mternal filiation.9 es only ty p e the that of practically arise . in Ethiopia, i. e. tliose claim . s atiotl 1 fit" Thus, r-p of oss ess the c11ild, in tl1e latters' name against tlie or mo tl1e e 1 tJ b,, t . broug 11 · 10 s. 011 1ci always . ' · · b e ec 1 re. e l b d t · y · t 1e cot1rts without going into merits. h tiler, fa ed alleg 11ever do11e by the cot1rts who, moreover, never give theit is tl1is ss tllele Never . . 2) rt 7( A 77 11g di ar eg s� di r' fo r eason5 In Iig11 t of tl1e above, answer tl1e followi11g QUESTIONS: QUESTION 1

TJ1e rule of positive inter1Jretation reqt1ires tis to give the pro·visions on action render tJ1em effective'' to clai1n statt1s, if capable of two 1neanings, a 1nea11ing ''to 11 1\s shown tl1e111 re11der wot1ld '' . ineffective'' that 011e above, the ratl1er than 12 make the la\v Art. of 772 777(2) cz111z n1eai1i11g if wot1ld, applied, l1tforward strajg 011 actior1 to claim status practically i11effective in Ethiopia. Is a11other 1neaning possible? lf yes, ,vhat is it? ·QUESTION II Eve11 if another 1neanii1g for Art. 777(2) cz,,n 772 is discovered and applied by· a court, it ,viii not bi11d fL1t11re co11rts. Thus, a permanent solt1tion of q11estio11 I requires a legislative c:1me11d111ent ot' tl1ese articles. Wl1at amendment do yot1 propose? \Vould an a111e11dme11t of Art. 761. also be 11ecessary?

PROBLEM 2 David's elaborate draft of Titles XXI-XXII Civil Code l1as been replaced by texts ''l1astily prepared by tl1e oifices of the Ministry of Justice''. 13 The 11e,v Title :X"XfI (Transitory Provisio1Js) provides in Article 336(2) tl1at, t111til the co1ni11g into force of tl1e ''civil status registers'' legislatio11 mentioned by st1b. (1), proof of bitrth, marriage and deth s11all be made bv acts of notoriety. This transitory provision is inco11siste11t 1vit/1 per111a11etlt provisions of 1. n1arriage ]a\V and 2 filiation law:

l. MARRIAGE L.t\\V In default of a civil status record of marriage Article 699(1) reqt1ires proof not by act of notoriety, but by '' possessio11 of status''. Proof by act o� �zotoriety 117ay be req_uired only in the t/1 ird place i. .e. .i11 case not merely c1v!l stattis records, b11t also possession of statt1s is lacJcing (or contested): see Article 701.

772· it Art. See e 771). Art. t1nder e sted conte y r ssfull succe is ssion poss ci allege s :'h (o �' e 1 I onicallyr this 11or111al case is the only one tl1at is ignored by the legislator. r , 11 ·. 1737, which apJJlies a fiortiori to interpretation of Jaws . . r t !A . ' ' 12 ts. 1· � app cation has so far been prevented by the abse11ce of l<11owledgeable defienda_ots to paternity clauns. 13 · see David , op. cit., p. 8.

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JOURNAL ·OF _ ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. IX - No. 1

2. F'll,IATION LAW tl1, of bir ord rec ) A_rticle 770(1) requ· re tus sta il (civ a of t aul def In · · · f Pr s i o 11 10 t t · f ss s o a s o se po . JS ! _ y '' b t p '' u b , roof ty · o n _ 1e or t by by act of no� t ac' . . . of _ t �o orie lace .1 third the e. 1 n 1n t only case requrred not J? may be merel : y ci�il statusy _ records, but also possession of stat11s 1s lack111g (or contested): see Artrcle 7 . _ 72 . ncy problems can be solved only by: . n· s1ste . . The resulting inco makin.g Article 3361(2) prevail over Articles 699 (1) and 770(1), or (b) making Articles 699(1) and 770(1) prevail over Article 3361(2). Choose a.nd. argu.e one of the above solutions (a o . r b). (a)

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Journal of Ethiopian Law Vol. 9 No. 1 (1973)  
Journal of Ethiopian Law Vol. 9 No. 1 (1973)  
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