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CONTENTS -

Eighth Annual Report from the Dean : 1963 E.C. (1970-71) by Cliff F. Thompson . ..........•............. ; ........................•

IS

CASE REPORTS C.ase Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

25

ARTICLES The University College Period of Legal Ed11cation in Ethiopia by George K1·zeczunowicz ........ . ............ . ....................... 89 Protection of Trade1narks in Ethiopia By Everett F. Golclberg ........................................ , ..... � 130 Ethiopian Nationality Law and Practice by Fasil Nahum ········································ ·········•·····� 168 A Short Critiq11e on the ''Gover11mental-Interests'' Analysis by I. 0Ju. Agbede ...... . ............... . . ...... . . .............. .. ..... l,&4 NOTES AND COMMENTS The Potentials and Limitatio11s of Codification by A1·tJ1i1r Taylor vo11, Mehrerz . ...................................... � � . l 9J Quizzes in Et11jopia11 Fan1ily Law by· Ge·O' ,·ge· Kr7eczzt:now', i'cz ········································-······· "".i:i· o3. ,iii,,/ .

1


JOURNAL OF ETI-IIOPIAN LAW g les i11 tic t1r 11 ar at io 1 fe at 1 cer11_ co lic 1b pt ly lar l1o sc a is v., La ian 1 iop / Et of Tlle Joitri1.al t1rts. I� is pt1blish­ a11 co i hi 1J Et of rts po r se ca d a11 law a11 i J � oi hi Et � ing all aspects of 11 10 e pt tl1 ce tl1 ex w1 ( of cl1 ea l­ s vo ue 1ss o tw of es m lu vo n ve se d atl ar ye ed twice a st isst1e was IJublished i11 fir the ce sin d are e 1J ap ve ha s) ue iss ee thr s ha ume s, which the stunmer of 1964. All correspondence shot1ld be addressed to: Jot1r11al of Etl1iopia11 La\1✓, I-I.S.I. U11 iversity, P. O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Etl1io1Jia. Tl1e price of eacl1 isst1e is Etl1 . $ 3. 50 within Ethiopia a11d U.S. $ 3.50 (pl11s postage) ot1tside Etl1io1Jia. Subscrip­ tions (by vol11n1e) are Eth. $ 7. 00 withi11 Etl1iopia and U.S. $ 7. 00 (plL1s postage) ot1tside Etl1 iopia. All orders will be 1uailed by sea 1nail, wl1icl1 talces llIJ to six n1011ths to arrive at U.S. destinatio11s, t111Iess tl1e custo1uer specifies air rr1ail. Mailing costs will be at tl1e custo1ner's expense. The Ed.itors e11cot1rage all interested 1Jersons to st1b1nit to thern a11y material i11 Amharic, English or Fre11ch which \Vould be a1Jpro1Jriate for 1)11blicatio11 in the Jour11al. Mant1scripts should be subn1itted i11 triplicate, do11ble s1Jaced, a11d on one side of tl1e page ot1ly. Ma11t1scripts should follo\v as closely as possible the for111 of citation set 011t i11 I-I.S.I. U., Boole oj· Citatio11s of tlze Facitlt;1 o_f LaH i, copies of wl1icl1 will be st1p1Jlied at1tl1ors on reqt1est. U11fort11nately beca11se of bt1dget limita­ tions the Jourrzal is unable to offer pay1uent for ma11uscripts it pt1blisl1es b11t it does give autl1ors two free COJJies of tl1e issue i11 \Vhich the contributio11 \Vas published a11d te11 t·ree offprints of tb,e contributio11. *

*

*

The Journal of Etf1iopiari Law has recently pt1blisl1ed tl1e first of a series of occasional lJapers whicl1 will supplement the pri11ted isst1es of the Joi1r11al. ,

: a b a b A Addis in Business R Zemariain Berh , ''Legal Aspects of Doi11g � � �i� � P l of Mercato bt1s111essme11 a11d their receptio11 of 11ew la\.VS." The Editors believe tl1 is seri·es w1·11 · . .. . . t 111 ro d 11ce a des . ira ble flex1b1l1ty 111 the cost an d . 1 ng of p ubl1.cat1. . 11m . 0 11 . . w . it h o u t di 1 · m 1111 · s l · 111 1 . ed g t. 1e l11gh star-1dards 111aint • a111ed 10 tl1e pr111t 1sst1es of t11e Joilrnal. Copies Of · th firSt pa1Jer are available at Eth. $ 1. 50 withir1 �. Ethiopia and u ·S· $ 1 ·,_0 ( plus mailing costs) outside Ethiopia.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS . Eighth Annual Report from· the Dean : 1963 E.C. (1970-71) by Cliff F. Tho111pson ............. . ................ . .......... . . . . ... CASE REPORTS Case Re·ports ........... _. ...... .......................................... ARTICLES . . The University College Perjod of Legal Education in Ethiopia by George Krzeczunowicz ...................... . ..............· .. . .. . ·. Protection of Trademarks in Ethiopia By Everett F. Goldberg ............. . ..................... . ......... . Ethiopian Nationality Law and Practice by Fasil Nahum .................·. ..... ........ . .................. . .. A Short Critique on tlie ''Governmental-Interests,' Analysis by I. Olu. Agbede .................. ............................... NOTES AND COMMEN'TS The Potentials and Limi·tatio11s of Codification by Arthur Taylor von Mehren ..................... , ......... ...... . . Quizzes in Ethiopian Family Law by George Krzeczunowicz .............................. ·{!, ·'ff

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JOURMAL OF ETHIOPIAN. LA •

Published twice annually at the Faculty of Law, Haile Sellassie I with the co-operation of the Ministry of Justice

University,

(to be cited as 8 J. Eth. L.)

EDITORIAL BOARD 1-l.E. Dean H.B. H.E. Hon.

Ato

Belatchew

Asrat, Chairman Hon. Ato Amanuel Andemjcbael Mr. Jeremy T. Harrison Mr. Peter Winship

Cliff F. Thompson Afenegus Teshome Haile Mariam Ato Negt1ssie Fitawake Ato Ne.gga Tessema

EDITO.R IAL STAFF Editor-in-Chief

Peter Winship Articles Editors

Managing Editors

Case Editors

Daniel Haile Daniel G. Kidan

.

Bron-Otto Bryde Getachew Sharew

Anne-Marie Jacomy-Millette Haile Fissehaye

RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE .

'

.Jeremy T. Harrison, Chairman Katherine O·'Donovan Mebratu Yohannes Georg.e Krzeczunowicz Peter Winship

Anne-Marie J acomy-Millette Daniel Haile Brun-Otto Bryde

EDITORIAL ASSIST ANTS Zemariam Berhe Tolesa Walde Y eshimabet Desta The following student editors worked on the publication of volume 7-2 but acknowledgment for their work was inadvertently omitted from that issue: Hailt Kebede, Gosh. u. Wolde, Yilma Mengesha, Merid Abate. All editorial and business correspondence , should be addr. essed . to the Editors,, Journal of Ethiopian Law, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. - -

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HAILE SELLASSIE I UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF LAW '

The Faculty of Law of Haile Sellassie I University, established in 1964, offers <;ourses in law leading to the LL. B. degree and to a Diploma or· Certificate in Law. For further in.formation contact the Faculty of Law, Haile Sellassie I Univer·sity, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa. ', FACULTY 1971,-72 . Cliff F. Thompson, A.B., M.A., J.D., Dean. Jon Eddy, B.A,., J.D., Assista11t Dean. Berhane Ghebray, Dr. e·n Droit Br·un-Otto Bryde, Dr. jur. Alain Ched.al Dani.el H.aile, LL.B. Jeremy T. Harrison, B.S., LL.B., LL.M. George Krzecn1nowicz, B.A., LL.M., Lie.Sc.Comm., Lie.Sc.Polit. Franz Lang, Dr. jur. Mebratu Yoh.annes, Dip.S.W., LL.B., LL.M. Robert A. Melin, LL.B., J.D. Anne-Marie Jacomy-Millette, Dip.Pol.Sc., LL.B., LL.D. Katherine O'Donovan, B.C.L.; LL.M. _ Dominique Pierson . ' -Selamu Bekele, LL.B. Ronald Sklar, B.S., LL.B.,_ LL.M. B.J. Tennery, �.A., M.A., J.D. . Thierry G. Verhelst,_ Dr•. en Droit_, M.�.L. Peter Win.ship, B.A., LL.B.. ..

'.

. • •

PART-'l'IME FACULTY .

,,

Abeb. e Gu.angoul, LL.B_. Abebe W0rke, LL.B. Assefa Habte Mariam, Dr. jur.. Assefa Liben, B.A, B. C.L. Eden Fassil, LL.B. Legesse Wolde Mariam, ·:LL. B. Shiberu Seifu, B.A., L .L.B. Shimellis 1'Aetaferia, LL.B., M.C.L. Taddesse Ab.di, LL,.B. . Worku Ferede, LL. B . Z�geye Asfaw, LL.. B.

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PATRONS · OF . THE JOURNAL OF ETlllOPIAN LAW ',

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The Journal of Ethiopian Law was inaugu.rated by His Imperial Majesty Haile Sellassie I in the summ.er of 1964 as an important step in the development of Ethiopia's legal system. Subsequently, · the Board of Editors of the Journal has invited those who are interested in the. continuation and expansion of the Law .Journal's activities to express their · support by becoming Patrons of the Journal ' . . · ·Of Ethiopian Law. '

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1

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H.E. H.E. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon. Hon.

Afenegus IGtaw Yitateku Afenegus Teshome Haile Mariam V/Afenegus Assefa Liben V/Afenegus Hagos T-Medhin V/Afenegus Kassa Beyene V/Afenegus Kebede Kelil V/Afenegt1s Matias Hiletework V/Afenegi1s Tibebu Beyene ,

H.E. H.B. 1-I.E. H.E. H.E. H.B. H.B. H.B. ••

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Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu H-Wold Ato Abebe .Reta Ato Aber. ra Jemberre Ato Belatchew Asr·at Ato Befekadu Taddesse Ato Getachew . K.ibret Lt. _ Gir·m<;L · Woldegiorgis Dr. Haile Giorgi�. Workne�


Hon. Hoi1. Hon. Hon. Ho11. Hon. Hon.

Ato Ato Ato Ato Ato A to Ato

Adera Francois Berhe Soqt1ar Berhane K .iflemariam I-Iaile Aman . Mohammed Nur Husse1n Tadesse Jirre yohannes Berhane

H.B. . I-I.B. H.B. H.B. I-I.B.

H.B. I-I.E. I-I.E.

Ho11. Hon. Hon. I-Ion. Ho11. H on . Hon.

Keg11azmatch Abebe Jirre Ato Aklilu Betemaria.m Dr. Aklilu I-Iabte Ato Assefa Bekele Ato Assefa. Tsegaye Dr. Aelio11, Maurice Ato A.bral1a I-Iadgembess Ato A.brahan1 ])etros Ato Bekele N·edi Ato Bekele De1nisse Col. Belacl1ew Jemaneh Woizero Beliyt1-\Vork Gebremaskel Dr. Berhane Gebrai Lt. Col. Berl1ane Woldeyes Dr. Berhe Be)1 ene Ato Beyene Abdi Dr. Bryde, Brun-Otto Grazn1atcl1 Chalie Yadetta Ato Denlissew Assaye Mr. Eddy, Jon Ato Eden F·assil Dr. Eyob Gebrekristos Kegn-getta Gebreha11a Kitaw Ato Gebrehiwot Aregai Balambras Gen1eda Urgessa Ato Gilamichael Babta Ato Getahu11 Hu11egnaw Ato Girn1a Abebe Ato Getachew Tessema Ato Habte Mebrathtt1 Ato Haile Wolden1ariam Kengnaz1natch Hailemariam Debuna M . r. Harrison, J.T.

Ato Ketema Abebe Ato Ma1nmo Taddesse Ato Mesfin Fa11ta Ato :rv10I1ammed Abd11rahman Ato Neg11ssie Fitawake Dr. Seyot1111 I�Iaregot Ato Teshon1e Gebre Marian1 Ato Yil111a 1-Iailu Ato Abebe Augic11ew Ato t-\rnanuel A11de1nichael Keg11azn1atch Amede Lemma Fitawrari Bayissa Jem1no Dejaz1natcl1 Bekele Beye11e Ato Eyassu Gebrel1awariat Ato Tibebu Abraham

IB1�E, Legal Department Imperial Etl1io11ia11 Tobacco 1vionopoly In1perial Ins11rance Compa11y I.E.G. Ar1ned Forces (Legal Department) Dr. Jaco1ny-Ivlillette, Ai1ne-Marie Capt. Ka1111a Gt1rnn1a Ato Kebede Gebremariam Dr. La11g, Franz 11ajor Legesse Gebremariam Mr. :tvlelin, Robert A. Brig. Ge11eral Mebral1tu Fesseha Ato Negga Tessema 11s. O'Donovan, I(atherine Dr. Eziio, R11ssi11i Ato Salih A. Kebire Mr. Scott, Robert Ato Shiberu Seifu Ato Shiferaw Worku M ajor SJ1imelis 1v1etaferia : Mr. Sklar, Ronald Mr. Sogolombis, D.G. Mr. Stordiau, A.1fred O.C. Ato Taddesse Abebe Ato Taffara Degueffe .A.to Teferri Berha11e Prof. Ten11ery, B .J . Dea11 Thompso11, Cliff Fitawrari ...fsegaye Teferri Dr. Va11derlinde11, J . �r. Verhelst, Tl1ierry 1v1r. Vosikis, N'icolas c. Mr. Winship, Peter Kegnazmatch Woube Woldeye s r Viii

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EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT FROlVI THE DEAN

1963 E. C. (1970-71)

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Cliff F. 111ompsor1, . Professor ancl Dean . •

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Haile Sellassie I Unive. rsity .

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A permissible pres11n1p_ tion for a 11ew dean is to recast events into- historical

tre·nds. In my repor·t last year, I did just that, envisaging that the Law School was entering a transitional period of great importance. I saw the Law School beginning the change from being a new law school with a wholly expatriate staff, to · biooom'i11g· an established law school with a predo.mi11antly Ethiopian staff. . This trend con·tinues. The implications· flowing from the transitional period will dominate annu.al reports from the Law School for many · years to come. , . B·ut for .this year my report · will emphasize the activities we started, or completed and I will . reserve to next year an initial evaluation of the patterns which are_ emerging in the transition from a riew to a maturing faculty. ''

I.. Unusual Credits and Activities

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I will begin by noting a number of outstanding events which were credits to · e expected of the Law the year, beyond the normal progress .which has come to ·b School. In doin·g this, I want to emphasize that the rycord of ou.r fafulty now provides solid evidence for the claim that the ''unusual'' is normal. Our ability - to innovate programs� has been amazingly consistent over the past eight years. _,

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International Jessop= - Moot Court Competition - : •

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The Intern.ational Jess11p Moot Court Competition selected our Faculty to rep­ t�sent Ethiopia, and Africa, in the competition· b.eld in Washington, D.C. This program was undoubtedly the . o.11tstanding academic and . extra-curricular event of the. year. Some sixteen stude·nts participated in the· arduot1s competition from which Hagos Haile· and Yewondwesson Mekbib, with: Bezawoi·k ·sh·imelasJi �s the alternate, emerged as ou.r team. The final selection took place at two public moot competi­ tions· held in Law House and was judged by two panels of 9 judges each, includ. Jng outstanding lawyers from the local and interna_tional community. Hard work �howed its result. We were all impressed by the competitors. · One of the nicest eompliments · came from a fellow st·udent who had earlier been eliminated fr·om the competition; he said, ''They have certainly come a 1011g way from whe.re we all were!''

The value of th.e competition was 11ot ~SO much the substance of international law involved in the moot question, bl1t the development of a lawyer's skill- to see ·1fte legal issues and. argue them cogently. The panels of judges did not allow 'the competitors_ n1erely to give prepared speeches; they interrupted the speakers ,vith 15 -

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I - No. 1 IT V . L O V W A L N IA P IO H JOURNAL OF E'f'.

r of ou eti l mp Al co . . int po s. tor the to . ers sw an t prom d te difficult quest.ions .a?d �xp�_ !n d renewed the feeling in the Fact1lty that we ea , � a I � t in ty 1l1 ab r ei th d se increa . ts en d u l st r al fo am gr ro p rt 11 co ot need a inore ge11era.l and e.fliectiv e mo al in i-f n1 e rounds . se th to • i11 ly ct re di d e r te · · en s i1t de 1 L t s r • ou • . • h1ngto11, D c as W In ' · 1 · 1er e ea Ii at 1n 1n ·1· 11 m wo n d 1o ha ·. • 1 cl h1 \1/ s am te p to and im1ned1at·e 1 y comp e ted w. 1·ti 1 ed re at ag tl1 em th of all e th d an , m tea r ou 1 o1 ts or ep r an y h d rn a contests. We . ave h r rn ou t s, ea d ge tl ended · o f s I J ne pa e th of g tin vo e th on d e as . B . . t . en . . team \vas exce II vot· g e in th b �n e, s1v ll a es pr 11n e or Y M s. am te l na i-fi m se ne ni e th e of dl in the mid aile ra nk ed 6th, and H s go Ha r, a ke e sp g din an tst ou st mo of the judges for tl1e Yewondwossen Mekbib ranked 3d ! F aculty, an d Associate Professor Ro11 Sklar organized the con1petition at the nearly all of tL1e staff assisted in the judgi11g and criticism. We are all pleased and proud of the result. Conference on the Lawyer a.nd Legal Education in Ethiopia

Senior Govern111e11t officials. concerned with the ad111inistration of j11stice, me1nbers of the Fac11lty of I�aw, and. some outstanding private advocates, gathered for two days in May at the Galila Palace to discuss and argue points of commo11 co11cern. We bad a fruitful b egi11ning of disc11ssions on topics such as the hiring and best 11tilization of our gradua tes, Ethiopian University Service, a curric11lurn better desig11ed to meet tl1e act11al 11eeds of the co1111try, and research priorities. Professor B.J. Terz11er;,, \vl10 organized tl1e ,1ery successful confere11ce, ,vitl1 fi11ancial assistance fron1 a.n AID edt1catio11al gra11t, l1as prep ared a report ,vl1icl1 ,vill be tl1e basis of further clia)og11e. Sir1ce tl1e l)eginni11g of the Law School tl1e Facultj' has kept itself i11for111ed of tl1e real 11rob]e111s in Ethiopian legal develop111ent by i11formal contacts and through some institutional ties such as the Board of the Jour11al of Ethiopia11 Law. The confer ence represents a steJ) toward eve11 n1ore systematic developrne11ts s11ch as the creation of son1e kind of institt1te actively i11volved in the areas \Vhere practice a11d acade1nic i11terest clearly o,1erlap. One st1ch area is tl1e Amharic-Englisl1-Fre nch Lexicon, which became fully revived in tl1e Faculty tl1is year. Amharic-English-French Lexicon

About five years ago a start was n1ade in creati11g a lexicon of legal phrases wl1ich were found in tl1e Amharic, E11glisb, and Fre11cl1 law 1naterials which co11stitt1te Ethiopian major sol1rces of mod ern law. Tl1e need for such a work \Vas obvious i11 order to sp eed a11d ratio11alize the creation of a national legal language. A co11cept s11ch as ''mortgage'' had received s_everal _Amharic translatio11s i11 offi �ial texts, ar1d translatio11s of tl1e Fact1lty's Eng­ lish articles a11d books ft1rtber proliferated tl1e Amharic legal vocabulary. Mr. Jacqt1es !3ureai1� a French governme11t volt1nteer to our Fact1lty, \\iho is a l�wyer c�pable in all t�1ree lan�t1age�, con1 pletecl a prelirninary edition of a n1odel Lex1co?-. H1� syst�m pernuts cross-1ndex1ng in all of tl1e languages. The 1nimeographed �vork 1s . being d1s�r1buted to dep artments or p ersons who have I1ad a conti11uing interest 111 the proJect, sucl1 as the A111l1aric Department of the University and Dr. Berhanou Abebe of the Haile Sellassie I Prize Trl1st. '

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EIGI-ITH .ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DEAN

We could move forward from the preliminary edition by completing• the index.ing coverage of all legal phrases in the codes, and by attempting to limit the Amharic versions of all such phrases. My stro11g feeling, however, is that the next proper step is to have th.ose who are daily involved in legal affairs to select those phrases most used, and begin with them in creating a dictio11ar·y of Amharic legal termino­ logy. The scholarly developme11t of a 11ational legal language will in any event be . a long and difficult process, and must tl1erefore have a strong practical orientation £rom the begin.ning. In this regard it is worth mentioning the efforts of Mr. Peter Winship, who has compiled English-A111haric phrase equivalents relevant to his commercial courses as an aid to cteveloping clearer and thus more llseful Amharic legal concepts.

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The Northwestern-HSl'U Law Faculty Research Project The project. involved inte11sive field-wo1�k for six months on research to·pics of importance to Ethiopia. It was not a 11ew project at the Faculty, but this past year was only its second trial since 1968-69, and we added the im_portant element of i.I1volving ot1r students i11 the writing as \ve11 as the research for the completed articles. Again expertly directed by Associate ·Professor Beckstrom of N ortbwestern · Uni­ versity La,v School, the . project teamed three Northwester11 law students and t.hree students from our Fac11lty ,vith scores of student-researchers from tb.e School of Social Work and 011r Faculty. The researcl1 was interdisciplinary, and foct1sed upon the socio-economic-political ,tnd legal aspects of juveniles in trouble, and upon the economic potentials and problems of traditional commercial institutioi1s in the Mercato. The preceding Northwestern-HSIU project resultecl in three published articles, and our expectation is that the sa1ne quality v1ill be achieved this tjme. More import·ant, I believe 011r students have bad a s11perb opport11nity to receive the benefits which arise from close professional supervision in the intricacies -of field research into often sensitive topics.

CALD Contribution to ECA Hu.man Rights in Africa Conference In the spring of 1971, the Economic Commissio11 for Africa sponsored a con­ ference on Human Rights in Africa. The International Legal Center, New York (a grantee of the Ford Fo11ndation) provided travel grants and other suppo.rt, and the Center for Africa11 Legal De·velopment of 011r Faculty provided a series of background papers and doc11mentary support during the conference. Dr. Thierry Verhelst, Co-Director of the Center, 9rgan.ized the assistance, which included useful papers by Professor Anne-Marie Atfillette and Mr. Zygmunt Plater. In the course of the Conference, the Center vvas able to provide the kind of help which jt1stified Professor Jacques Vanderlinden's origit1al conception of the Center as an African basecl center of doct1me11tation 011 African law. When, for example, the conference delegates expressed partic11lar interest in African developments in the concept of an Ombudsma11, the Center was able by the_ fol�owing day to distribute to all delegates the relevant Africa11 legislatjon. .

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I believe it is a trib11te to 011.r Center that it was requested by t'he Secretariat 0f the E.C.A. d11ri11g the con.ference to ser•ve as rapporteur for the proceedings. Those proceedings, with the background pap�rs a11d selected legislation and a biblio• graphy, will be pt1blished by the Center.

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.[OPJr\N LA\.v · - VO - i'-lo. I [I Vf . L . . · p ETH JOURNAIJ o am gr ro P e 11g ha xc E 1t �1 d tu S aw e es - i1dan � _ · Etliiopian-S _ t en 1d stL \v fron1 our la a of 1ge a1 c11 ex . or·.e·· . than f1_'. ve · �· ars 1 a1 ts W' ·e tl 1e ea T1 . id re l1e t l,tpsed, e11 1cl ·. M stL 1e o1 1,t se cl1 J1i ; : 111 �: rt� �a � o f y Fac11lty to til e Un1ver�1 m a1n eed M ol1 Sa a11 De .nd a ed ful ess cc L s� 1111 e11 ' b� l . ch .i. ac ge h an · c ex e tl1 e 11s · • ca be t but 11o t o er l ore 111 v1ve 1t. re ce e11 1cl or sp rre co e bl era id 11s co ed iig cb a ex ·r d . . Al1111ed E·1 l\tia hd . . s lty wa cu a visitor Fa vv La 1111 toL 1ar K1 of tv rsi ive Uil the f 1 , n ass1 · � �l d S tudent _. AI. 1 m � · " __ . 0 "'f" t; 9 70-7 , a 1thor1gl1 }1 c was initially a11d 1 1 P r J1 es 1 "' S o11d Lv S l1 t; at our Facu l ty. du11ng t n OUlld f11e dS and I .B , l ·' \Ve Ill fit l1e s, 011 at1 od 11 ?m acc ing J otn ' _ r 11ts de stu t.l1e � at ed I �ppa � particitJated _ jrJ 011r acade1n1c and social life. A ptirpose of tlie excha11ge JJrogra?1 is tl1e l1e11efit to. tl1e !1:d.ividual_ � tt1dent � who experience t11 e cti1ttiral ar1 ci other differences _of a cot1nt1 y 1 fo, e1gn to tl1e111. But the 111ore arnbitious J)ltrJ:>ose is to add, eve11 if �n � s111ftll \\ ay, to tl1e lo11g-term _ ange g9od r�_ l_at_i�_1:i�.bet\¥ee11. tl1e two 11eighbours,. Etl11�1)1a a1_ 1d St1dan; As tl1� ex �h pi:ogr:in1 qont,nLtes,. n1ore a11d n1o�e l�l\1/ g1 adLl�LeS, . rna11 y . of 'A11 0 1 n w1Jl 11se to tJositio11s of 11 ational in1portc;111ce, v✓1! l k11ow t 11e1r 11e1_gl1bour111g cot1ntry not as a . fr1e11ds a.11d t1es colleag of cou11try . as a bt1t slra11ge land,. . . ..

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Sp�cial l,ecture Series .

TI{e Center for Afric�t11 Legt1l Develo1Jm e11t, tl1e Research il11d Pt1blicatio11 s Co1nmittee a11d tl1e Jour11af or Et[1iopia11 Lcl\V SJ)OllSOred a series of SJ)ecial lectures. \1/ith tl1e aicl of a Fre11ch gover11n1enl gra11 t, Professor Go11irlec of tl1e U11i\1ersity of ·Paris was \Vitl1 LLS for 11enrly a 111011rl1. Ir1 addition to J)ublic lectL1res 011 il1e tl1e1ne or legc1l a11cl pcllitical i11legration i11 Africa, lie tat1gl1l the I11trodt1clion to Pt1blic La\.v course for lhe er1lire periocl of l1is visit. Professor Garretsoi1 of New York U . niversity,. ivl10 was �t legal advisor i11 Ethio1 )i,1 fro1n 1949 to 1959, gave several public Iec�Ltres reco1111Li11g tl1e role of la\,v in. tl1e l )Ost-\\1orld \Var II develop111e11ts. Profe�sors .Jtfeagl1er and Lee of '"fufts U11iversity, and Professor Fctt1,1ros of Ir1dian.a U11i,1ersity gave a ser11 i11 ar on la"v and deve lop1.nent. Professor Yash Gf1a i, formery Dean of tl1e Law Scl1ool at tl1 e U11iversity College i11 Ta11za11ia, gave a fact1lty staff sen1i11ar 011 recent cleve101)1ne 1 1ts i11 East Afri.can pLtblic Ia\v. Professor S'inger of Alaba1na ·uni\1 ersity (a former 1)1en1 ber of our Fact1lty) J)resented l1 is fi 11 di1 1gs on attit11des to· Jegal ch,t11ge ir1 · Etbiopi�1. Professor ,5i,,-1dstro1i1, of Uppsala U 11iversity (also a for1T)cr rne111be_r of 011r Fac11 l ty) gave t\�10 pt1blic la\v se1uinars; Mr. J/ c1 / y SJJoke· on aspects of the class struggle i11vol\1ed in la11d. reforn1 ir1 Tat1za11ia: and 'Ato Paz,los spoke on -land reform in Et l1 iopia. Nlr. .,.1bro ,,s disc11ssed tl1e r�le of the OAU ir1 regard to the problei11 of' tl1e s:1le of arms tL) Soutl1 Africa. ' i Every year we J-1ave l1_ ad, tl1e OJ)portt111ity to 11e,1r 011lsla11di1 1g speake rs fron1 _ . outside of tl1e Fact1 l ty, but I teel th,Lt tl1e series this year was except io11ally ricl1 in talent.: •

·

Faculty Finances .and

,.\dn1i11istrati.or1

In· tl1is report, n1 y next ge11eral category is '.' Usu�1 l Credits a 11 ct Activities," and 1 \¥011ld prefer to be able to say tbat the favourable fina11cial sittiation ,vit J1 wlJich we ended tbe. year was "us.uai''. progress! ·

Unfottt1r1ately, a!1 1111t1st1a l 1 1ou11t of 1ny ov.,,11 · tj r11 e \vas consLinied in tl 1.e ef:. � � _ f'ort to handle tl1e d1ffict1l t1es ar1s1ng fro111 ll1e IJha · sc-out of st,_pport from tJ1e Ford Fot1ndation.

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REPORT FR0�1 THE D �IOHT ANNUAL . . . - ·E .AN. H

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The two most s1f9�essft1J. r�sults were · that the Universi:ty· budget• be.gan to:cover the cost of s�veral seci:etaries esse.11tial for Ollr })l'lblication: program· ·.which. had previously been carried 011 otir. Ford Fou11dat.ion ·budget, and the •Ford. Foundation approved a research g·rant for tl1is year, aoq. a staffing anci , research. grant for the. two-year period beginning_ Septe.mbe1· 1971, at t11e level of Qt1r .reqt1est, .ed 11eeds. • . ! ; . The gra11t from tl1e Ford Fot111datio11 had seen1ed ass�1red. i11 April of 1970, but . financial and policy reassessn1e11ts in tl1e Fot111datiot1 .1·est1lted in cuts of 50% in th� . grant to the University, i11cludi11g the Lt1w Fact11ty. We are grateful tlia·t in the end the grant to the La,v Fact1lty was restorecl to 1neet our 11eeds. We can now. turri to the stin1ulating effort of. 111akjng tl1e best "llSe of' these fltt1ds,. and·. !preparing, � · · · program tailored to tl1e i11evi ta lJle decJi11e .i.11 o L1tside :fi11·a11cial support. · On the adnlinistrative side, \Ve were ver·y f. ortunate to have Mr. Jon Eddy joi11 us as Assistant Dean. .r11 a short ti111e J1e was able to restore order to the areas \.vhich fell loose after tl�e. de_parture of OLlr. assistant _dean in mid-year: last . year. He was able, for exan1_ple, to create a co1nplex schedule which ·made it possibl� for La\v to be tl1e only fact1lty to offer to al] withdraw11 students an overload st:Ft1cture as an alternative to a seconcl s11mmer n1ake-up session. We are sorry t.hat Mrs. Nellie Okello, an LL.B. graduate of the U11.iversity of: Tanzania, bad to return home to Ke-11ya� for she ga·ve able assista11ce in ad·ministration and ]egal writing .. ; •

II. Usual Credits and Activities <

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There were a nt1mber of 11oteworthy developme11ts i11 the activities which 1 believe have come to be :associated with 11ormal progress 'iri- tl1e Faculty. · · . . . . Last year I empl1asized the difficr1lty and depressio11 which can arise from the ne.cessity of new staff finishing _projects by staff wlio · hav_e: departed, rather than · vation.- The need for s11ch sacrifice having full time for their ow11 1:.esea· rch · or i11no by staff is llndoubted; · bllt · remains a he,1vy b11rden nevertheless. Tha· t a· sofficienf number of staff continued to gi,1e of tb· emselves in this ·way was marvelotis. Most of the backlog fron1 the past wa.s re1noved, providing a clear strea1n and encouraging prospect for next year. ,, . , , '

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Research and Publication ·· _: ·

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Assistant Professo1· Katherine O'Donova;-1 ·and her Researcl1 and Publication Commjttee this year sent to ·press the seco11d volume of · Paul and Clapham's .ETHIOPIAN. CONSTI·TUTIONA� D�VELOPMENT. This ·long-awaited \'\iork had passed. · 'throug·h several eclitors- a11d l1el1Jers, organized l _oca11y by Katl1eri11e and 11rged forward from abroad by Jim Paul-he l1acl ·beco1ne · Ets aoxiot1s as an expectant father abo·ut this volLrme, and v-te are ,111 ple,1secl by the excellent rest1lt. Katl1erine's committee also published P r. ofessor . K1·zeczu11owicz's fine book 011 THE ETHIOPIAN LAW OF EXTRA-CONTRA.CTU AL LIABILITY, and bega11 tbe. printjng· of tl1e CONSOLIDA.TED . LAw·s OF ETHIOPIA (E1,ving, Ge11e1·al Editor). This massive work, comprising more than 1000 pages in both the Aml1aric and Englisl1 v· e1·sions, kas been a major institt1tional effort of tJ1e Fact1lty for n1ore t11an five years. For several years tl1e Fac11'Ity J1as anno11nced its irpmi11ent a.p p_ eara11ce, but the 0Jnnouncements reflected optimis1n ratbe1� tha.11 reality. It, is a pleast1re to report · that the first page proofs, at ]east, are 110w a rectlity. a11d p11 blisl1ed former men1ber ot1r a P�ofessor Va,iclerlinden, Faculty, of completed ' ' . 1.n Paris an introclt1ction to moclerr1 Etl1iopja11 law i11 Fre11ch. •

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. 1 T o . II N L V O V -W A L N IA P IO H JOURNAL OF ET

also W LA ctppeared during IAN IOP I IET OF AL RN . . JOU ·h Two_ 1nore issues � t � r Majo I. articles i11 these ber Num 7, me VolLl �nd 2 r � 6 tll lu Vo , a� ye he (by Beckia 11 op ba l1i n ur i E� e rc vo di � : cs pi _ to ilg '\-vi llo fo h: 1s s� es . d1scu�sed: in d, ePt.�� s tion rela our lab (Moref1oi,s) . ia11 iop Eth , ty) agli Ger · ( ts � t1 co er strom) , : �th1op1an 1 ow . r) ,e ( ia isl p _ F 1io tl E in s er 1d 1 te of le ni ve c r JU and cr1 1n1nal proced L1re to . 1 1 }Jri_inari!Y responsibl e be s !1a r ate Pl 1t 1 u gm Zy . . 11r e rs, yea ; Dtt r1?g the . ast three nt 1de stt itors, and we the Ed of rk "vo . tl1e a11d L NA UR JO the f duc· tiopn fo. r the• p· ro · Et11·1op1a. . . s 1 cere . vo te of tliatiks upo11 I11·s fi111a 1 d epar tt1 re fr·o1n H' 18 1 a l11n g1v 1 ll it 1d a m, wi ra og be pr 11s tio ca po bli im pt1 r rt ou . .· . , p' 1· 1-1 _ depeartt1re w1·1 1 uleave ,a large ga . . led fil be ld ou sl1 w 1t l1o lly tfu gh ou tl1 r e 1 d. 1s1 co to ant for t1Je Factllty

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Activities of the Full-Time Teacl1iag Staff rr1 aclditio11 to taking normal teaching loads, 1ue111bers of staff partici 1Jated in 111ar1)' t1seft1l acti\1ities.

Abiyu Geleta - ga v e occasional legal advice on reqt1est by the Bt1sir1ess Vice and cor1tinued researcl1 on an introductory book on Ethiopian Preside11t of I ISIU, property law.

. aw Factilty Ct1rrict1lt1n1 Coin tnittee vvl1ich Frank C. Balla11ce - Cl1airn1au of tl1e L co1npleted a 1najor sttidy of tl1e cur riculurn; produced tl1ree vol11mes of teaching 1uaterials for Law and Develo1Jme11t cot1rse; co1npleted article, ''Zambia and tl1e East Africa 11 Comm1111ity," to be pt1 blisl1ed by SyractLse U t1iversity; member of the Academic Con1mission.

Berhane Ghebray - Director of La\V Factilty's st1b-Degree progra1ns (see descrip­ tion below); n1e111ber of the University Fac11lty CoL1ncil and University Ext ension Con11nittee; me111.ber of Vice Preside11t's ad !1 oc C o mmittee on ''salaries a11d fringe bene fits;'' co11tin11ed res earc11 on taxation la\v. Jacques Bureau - completed preli1ni11ary editio11 of .,-11nl1aric-Frerzcl1-E11glislz Lexico11. Jon Eddy - Assista11t Dean, respo11sible for a wid e ra11ge of ad 1ni11istrative dt1ties, and Acti11g Dean in Dea11's absence. M e 111ber of University bodies: Deans' Co11ncil; Faculty . Cot1 ncil; . a�d Admissio11s Board. Me111ber of La\V Faculty c o 1n111ittees: e.g. Acad emic Comn11ss1011; Student Relatio11s; book selection for La\v Library. Began � esea �ch on ar�icle ''ProdL1ct Liability under tl1e Ethiopi,1n C ode," a11d preparation of reacl1111g mater1,1ls for Obligations cot1rse .

. �eo �ge Krzeczur1owi�z -. p11blisl1�d book, Tlze Etl1io/Jia11 La►v of Extra-Co11tract11al Lrabzlity, s eii_t f�r publ1cat101 1, art1cle ''T he Ut1 i versity College Period i11 Etl1iopia n g d�catto� (JEL), �11d article, ''Tl1e La\v ute of (In stit . Fili atio Eth 11 1 iop i 1 ia'' � . ;:.111. P1�11 Sttidies). Conttntied rese ::;; arcl1 for n1011ogr'lJ (.. Jl1 ' '' ·Forn1a.' tio11 of Contrac. ts 1n Eth1o· p1a. · '' St arte d • draf .·ting �egal . ·. Verhel s ). t�e . East Africat1 Restatem Qt11z sa111ples for tl1e JEL; revie\vi11g (\v1tl1 e11t volL11 nes for the JEL · ,vorking on n1ar1 t1 a1, Th Et ;11�pian L� w of Da,rzages. Completed tw o volt1111es of t�acl1ino- n1aterials and 1- 118te rue tor s qt1est1011s " • 01 1 ''Comp'r .0 a at·iv e Tort,, �tnd ''Da111,lges i:t1 1d U11JL1st Enr1cl1n1e11t.. Men1be f s: ver 1 La Faculty ,t. r 1ersity arid Un i\ co1n111ittees · re1Jorteci 011 Etl1iopian law to �h� In eri a a A c de y. of Compa rative ; � ; w La. l 1 eld �' orlcsl1op n1eeti11gs with nlembers of t h ei 1tion ega.1 pro1ess1on.

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EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT FROM THE DBAN '

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Franz Lang - published article, ''Legal and Political Aspects of Establishing a Modern Local Governme11t in Africa'' (Afrikaforum); t·ranslated Sundstrom�s article on our Law Faculty from English to German for publication abroad; started article, ''Judicial and Quasi-Judicial Protection Against the Executive in Africa.'' Translated German legal texts into English for Administrative Law course. Robert Melin - started teaching mate1·ials collection for Evidence course; helped

prepare basis for introd11ctio.n of Et11iopian Legal Assista11ce Clinic; conferred with government officials about ame11dn1e11 ts to Draft Evidence Code. John Messing - co1npleted revisio11 of fot1r volumes of teaching materials and instructor's notes 011 Tra11s11ational Tra11sactions; co111pleted two vo)·u. mes of teaching materials for Natu.ral Resources co11rse; member of the ·university Faculty Council. (John is leaving tl1e Fact1lty 11ex.t year and he will be greatly missed; if every staff member could produce teacl1ing mater.i�tls of the quantity and quality of his, we ,vould be considerably improved. He will also be missed in Faculty Council, where his pr·ecision and pers11asion made hin1 one of the Council's most formidable members.) Anne-Marie Jacomy-lVIilJette - _published book 011 Treaty Law in Canada (Paris); published a,rticle on Ombt1dsrna11 in Africa (Revi,e General); mem: ber of Center for

African Legal Development team for ECA H11man Rights Conference; assisted organization of Jessup Inte1·national !\,loot Co11rt Competition for the Law Faculty; helped organize Law School p11blic lect11res; prepared teacbjng materials for African Institutions course. Katherine O'Donovan - Cl1ai1·111a11 of the Law Fact1lty's Research ai1d Publications

Committee which published. two books and sent two more to press, and assisted publication of the JEL; Articles Editor, JEL; completed teaching materials for Introduction to Private Law; started teachi11g materials and an article on Ethiopian Family Law. Fac11lty committees, incll1,ling the Academic ComMember of several • m1ss1on. •

Zygmont Plater - Chairman of the Journal of Ethiopian Law, which publi:shed

two issues and sent a third to the printer. Member of the Center for African Legal Development team for the ECA Human Rights Conference and completed paper on African Constitutional.ism for the conference. Member of HSIU Press Board a.nd correspondent for Ethiopia for African Law Reports. Ron Sklar - chief organizer of the Jessup International Moot Court Competition for the Law Faculty; member of several Fac11lty committees including Academic Commission; continued writing article abot1t do/us eventualis in Ethlopian Criminal Law and began related article; continued to prepare s11pplementary teachi11g materials fer Penal Law Course. B.J. Tennery - organized and co-ordinated ''Conference on the Lawyer and Legal

Eaucation in Ethiopia'' held May 21-23 and participated in by senior government officia]s concerned with the administration of justice, members of the Law Faculty, and outstanding private advocates; began research for monograph on ••Ethiopian Employment La\V ;'' fou11ding member of ''Ethiopian Industrial Relations Research Association;'' member of the Law Fac11lty Ct1rr.iculum Commi!tee a1, 1d Student Rela­ tions Committee. Thierry G. Verhelst - Co-Director, Center for African Legal Development, in-­ eluding assistance to ECA Co11fere11ce on H111nan Rigl1ts (see description above); advisor for establishing course for Jay magistrates in Rwanda; organized law and 21 -


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JOURNAL

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o. I ETI-I[OPJAN LAW - VOL. Vllf :, N

_ O articles ?'1 dcvelopn1e n1 t\V d r1e lis 1b pt ; lty cL1 Fa · w La t cle __ -�c lec. tLires a . _velo. p111e· n.l ._ _,l:)L101 d prepa ri ng ue in nt co l); na ur Jo w La ty rsi i\,e lJn 1 1 sto Bo . t law (Louva1 11 U n1vers1 y. and teacl1i1 1g materials for La1.1d Reforn1 Course. . 1 1 a1 1(l co111 1Jletio lat gu Re Jic 011 o11 Ec · d a11 \V L,t · · 011 · se Lir : e· -. w· nsh' · . g· ted co a d t111 gro ck: i ba ing ter tat n1a 11o a11 11 ga l . be d 11 a d ate tlsl Lra � r1a��cl� ��� it lrng- ima ;p: e_d tePaCt��� al rci 11e e 1n1 th Co of de cl Co t111 gro clc b,1 011 cle i ·1rt d . " ' 1·te sta ' e. , od c l c1a h n1er 0111 oI1 t e . . . I' d' , · · �r t1 co ina e r bl o r_ __ 0� 11s� 1Jo res d · 01 a11 , tee 111t 1111 Co 1n1 L ct1I rri Ct1 ty cul Fa v v Laer; 111b · Me .. S Co111n_ 11t_tec, EU 1ty ers n1v U d a11 y t11t Fac er, n1b n1e Senior Researct 1 \1/ritii1g prograrn; . : . Yohaniies: H:eroui _ co11 tint1ed · researcl1 01 1 EtI1iopia11 civil procedt1rc. ad abro s!1ip olar Sch on , · . Staff 1\'leznbcr . s = · Fasil ,-Nahurn _ �01 11pleted requiren1ents for LL. �[. La,w . . . Scl100J. ai1d received ''excellent'' rati11g fro1n 111s · · Worku .,-f.efara - co111pleted requiren1e11ts for LL. lVI versity; Law .Se:h(?ol a11d receivecl ''outstandi11g'' ra ti11g •

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progr,1n1 at advisor.

Yale U11iversity

progra� at N_orth\vester11 Unifrom 111s advisor.

l\1ichael - contint1ed researcl1 at U11iversily of BrLrssels for tl1esis on tl1e La\v of co11tracts; I J1,1d 11ot yet recei,1ed a rei)ort fr<)111 11is advisor �tt tl1e tin1e of 'Nriling tl1is ·reJ)Orl . . .. . . .. 1 ab e Sem�r

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Extension Progran1 for SulJ-Degrce Cai1didatcs

Dr. Berl1a11e ope11ed two 11ew Cl,urses i11 the seconcl l1alf of tl1e year. I-le i 11it.ic:1�ed a ne\.V Diplon1c.t JJ1ogra1r1 for 200 stL1de11ts ,1fter scree11i11g over 650 ca11did­ i:1tes, a11d after arrangi11g t,vo special exa111i11ations to be given by tl1e U11ivcrsity's Testiiig Ce11ter. I-le also opened a nc\.v s1Jecial course for al,ot1t 40 Pc1rlia.n1ei1tar1a1is. · In·· lio'th. · coL1rses a ne\v syll�tbus was createcl, and eigt1t excellent te,1cl1ers ,vere e111ploycd.

, · A ·rasc, inal.i' 11g· rest1lt of ll1e _ exarni11ati()l1S adrni11istered by tl1e Tesli11g Ce11l�r �-vas· lh'e IJt:oficiepcy distrib11lio11 of tl1 e c,1ndidates. Tl1e a11(.1lysis of the exa1ni11ation divicled _ _ _ tf�e rriature ca,1d.idates i11to. tl1ree n1ajor categories: th.ose witl1 a Giade 12 �di1catiori; · ti1·ose with·out. tl1at b(1t. w]10 l1ac! gradt1ated fro111 the Law Certificate Program ,vitl1 good ct.1rnL1lative ·gradc aver,1ges; a11d tt1ose 'I.Vill1out eitl1er of tbci J)recedi,1g,-�_ b11t •witl1 1 !011g eiperience (IO years- or 111qre) in. l,L\V related jobs. The cxanis ·:- \-\1e. r�•. i11.,. An1l1aric, a. nd.. · b�sically testc(l readi 11g ancl co111 prehensio11 abilit_ yi. Would·. :yot1,. as ,reader, Jil<e . _no\\1 to guess \.vl1icl1 groL1 ps scored best? Of course, Jl1ere!·\\1�r�,-indiYidual ·ditfereP-yes, b - 11t as gro11ps they lJuite cle,trly fell i11to a�1 order of relative ability. Tl1e r,t11k.ing, l1egi11ning \vith t11e !)est score�, \Ven l i11 the cx�9t 1 . 1 1oted. Sucl1 testi11g, a. orde _of r the grot1ps_ as ,Llre ad) 11cl \Ve i11tend to tise aaai . ····· r ,. . .. . . .. o n J!1e':· 1e�:pe��t__ _ ai!�-- coop ·��a�ive· .'servi�s ·of. tl1e �esting C_e1_ 1tc:r� · vvill provide t1sef11l cl_L1e? . . �-�P� t .wh _�� �l1��1ld: �e t�_e qL1ant1t) 1 rt11cl c1ual1ty of our stib-degree tei:1cl11r1g 111ater1als _ r . 1 lard· · Clirr.Icu1t1n1·. • • ·• = • • • • 1., .. ;;;.� .,Tl1e ·_ g�fe11$,l�D :te_aci-i�rs': f'oi· 19?0-7 I. were: Ato · i-\babya Abajobir, Mi 1iislry. of J-µs.�1c_ e- ; .1i 1 E_ :· �to M uha . m �11ecl 1-\.bdt1rc1l11nc.t1 1, Co1nn1 issio11er of· ·1)en sio11s; Dr . 1\ssef;1 l-Iabte �1�c1riam, _ Legal �uviser, rvri11isLry of Com1ne1�ce, J11 d L1 s(ry at1cl Tot1ris-111; Ato 1\�.s�fa 1:,1 b�l1;,. J11_d�e, FI1gl1 Co�rt� Dr . Bereket-ab [-I,1bte Sellas si�, Legal Ad,,iser� ��1111strr· �f. ;11���r1 Q�; At _ o �e�t1l ··M1cl1ael, Assist�111 t 1-\ttor11ey General; I\1 ajor Sl1imel­ �1s_- � .e ��f1r1a_,-' ·Adviser, M1n1stry of Defe11cc; At o · _ Zegeye Asf�lw, Legal ,\dviser: · M1n1 stry of La11d Refor111 aI1ci Adn11. 11istratio11. • . .

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EJ·GHTH ANNL1AL REPORT FROM· THE DEAN· · ·

Curriculum and Academic Standards ·

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Mr. Frank Ba/lance's Currjct1lum Commjttee concluded a year 6f .. clebate and cliscussion by p·rod11cing a report i11 Apr.il which was to be the ·basis ot· .full Faculty consideration. The committee emerged with some stiml1lating ideas, and we all r�gret that the disturba11ces at tl1e University i n early May and the many crisis meetings effectively postponed discussion until next academic year.: I regret that Frank is leaving Fithiopia, a11d w.il] not have tl1e opportt1nity to follow-through on the ideas proposed. By September of 197 l \\te also will ha.ve ,t11 evaluation report .011 the Faculty by Professor Yash Ghai, forn1erly Dea11 of the u·oiversity Law School in Tanzania, and now Research Felio\\' ;;1t Yale University Law School. He is known for his imaginati\>'e a: n·d critical 1nind, and I asked him l1ere· because I feel we are at a stage where we need an evalt1ation by an ot1tsta11di11g ot1tsider with those q11alities. •

We have also writter1 to our staff members w.ho are currently abroad_ on scholars.hip,, and we l1ave already received long. ancl 11sefl1l replies. At the Conference on the Lawyer a11d Legal Educatio11 in Ethiopia we received many c11rriculum suggestions from government officials and private practitioners, and vve will be continwng the dialogue with them. We ,1lso intend to invoive ot1r stucle11ts and former students in the discussions. It sl1ottld be a lively year, a11d we hope a fruitful oi1e as well. My o,vn concern co11tint1es to be .less with the partict1Iar 11odes of knowledge represented by the Sl1bject-:01atter of i11dividt1al courses-thot1gh thes·e too r.equire careful thought-bt1t 1nore witl1 tl1e skills v111ic�l1 a gradL1ating Jav1yer must have and which I feel we still 11andle jnadeqt1ately. I define tl1ese skills broadl)'· They incl·ude the ability to identify t11e .isst1es i11 bl11na11 problems, to isol�1te the relevant social and other factors to project t11e co11seq11ences of diflere11t solt1tio11s, a11d to n1ake the most effective resolt1tio11 of tl1e proble111s. The stt1clent mus·t also be given greater opportunity to develop J1is _po,,1e1· s to arg11e perst1asivcly, botl1 orally a11d ju writing) and i11 particular to be able to draft alteratio11s i·n the ]aw or ne\V laws which truly reflect the goals desired. At the end of the yea1·, before tl1e fi11al examinatioi1s, I took a co11fidential alild anonymous stt1dent 1Joll on eacl1 teacl1er. �fhe student respo11ses seen1ed frank and fair, and I believe ou·r teachers ,1vill benefit fron1 botl1 the corripliment.s and criticisms when I discuss then, wi tl1 the111 next September. The overall responses jn most (but not every) case \.Vere gratifyir1gly i n ·praise of the teachers, bt1t in all cases the trends in the answers will be t1seft1l to ·ot1r teacl1ers, and tl1ere·fore beneficial for the students. This year there was a11otl1er boyc0tt of classes dt1ring the fiJ1c1I \\reeks of the -seco · nd se1nester by st11dents f ro111 all 1· aculties, \vl1icl1 restilted i11 a11 early clost1.re of .many c]ass-year units i n the fact1lties. As a wa11dering c:1lie11, it is not easy for me to judge the political adva11tages t]1e stude11ts seek to gain by boycott of classes and related activjties. But as a te:icher wl10 ha. s tc1t1ght in St1da11� the U11ited States, and it1 Za111bia as well as in Ethiopic:t, I have no dot1bt that ac,c1den1ic sta11dards sl:lfiifer by tl1e repeated i11terrtrption of tl1e le,tr11i11g process. One aspect o f, tJ1e pro�1le111 partic11larly distt1rbed .me. There see1necl to be a11 j11creasi11g nt11nber o.f stt1dents who wanted to believe tl1at a.r1y staff 1n. e1nber w110 talkecl ,1bo11t acacle111ic stt1ndards "''as iMtdu]ging in an attack on stude11t JJolitical ac(ivity. I.n J)c1.1·t, tl1ey are r. ight. A few staff members in the University l1ave t1scd loose tt1lk ,1bot1t acaden1ic standards tto d.iscourage any activity other tl1an st11d),ir1g. Tl1is is �1 rong, But it is e-qlts.ll)' 23 ----

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JOURNAL OF ETHIO.PIAN LAW - VOL. VIII - No. I

wroiig for 80111e studei 1ts to use loose talk to deny tl1e adva11tages of maintain ing high acadenuc standards. Whatever· the futtire may br.iJ1g for Etbio1Jia, there will be a11 overwhelm · need for well-trained doctors, engin� ers, ar1d _ I�':".� 'ers . - the social e11gineers. ��; gradtiates will be u11a.ble to fttlfill their respons1b1l1t1es to the peo1)le of the cou rltr if sta11 dards are lowered a11d easy grades are �anded out � fter every crisis. Thy Law Faculty intends to do all it cau to 111ake its st11clents 111to sl<illed graduat e e and it intends to keep its star1dards high for tl1e benefit of tl1e st11dents and th� s� they will eventually serve. Our students who excelled in the ir1ter11ational moot co11rt con1petitio11 agaitl st schools from n1any places are an example of the standard 011r Fac11Ity can reach­ and I sar ''ottr'' purp�sely, for all of ot1r sttidents are capable of 11igl1 achievemetit. Bt1t ach1eve?�ent requJres good teachers and_ good stt1dents (and these \\'C have), , and tl1e ,LbJlJty to work hard. Hard work 1s not natural or easy to a11yo11e • all per�ous, stt1de11ts i11cluded, must develop the capacity to worl< long a11d ,v;ll. I �el1eve staff and stt1�ents must together c?me to .� c�nsens11s 011 ho,v ,ve can ftirther develop the skill of hard work-for 1t is a skill, Just as coge11cy and per­ ceptiveness of thougl1t are skills.

I I

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REPORTS

The following reports are cases decided by the Supreme Imperial and the High Courts : of Ethiopia. The Amharic judgment is official and always precedes th. e Eng­ li&h. The Jour 'nal of Ethiopian Law is a scholarly publication, addressing itself to al1 members of t.he profession. Its purpose in publis.hing judgments is to make known t.o the profession interesti11g decisions which in the opi11ion of the Board and Editors raise important issues of law. In selecting a particular judgment for publication, the Board and Editors do not wisl1 to co11vey the impression that the judg·ment is definitive on any proposition for which it may stand altho11gl1 the quality of the decision is always an important consideration in determining whether it should be 1nclu.ded in the Jot1rnal. When, in the opi11ion of a Board Member or an Editor, a judgment is of interest and raises an i·mportant issue of law bt1t there is reason tQ believ@ that aspects of the decision are contestable or that the result reached hy, tb.e court is not clearly the only sup1101·table conclusjon, a 11ote on the case is often included. The absence of such a note is not however to be interpreted as indicating complete finality on the issues raised in the ca_se, as. it is expected 1lla11! members of the profession on all levels 1nay hold differing opinio11s on the me1its of any jttdgment pt1blished l1erein. The Members of the Board and The Editors .

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SUPREME IMPERIAL COURT Addis Ababa, Div. No. 1

INLAND REVENUE DEPART.MENT v. ARTISTIC PRINTING PRESS Civil Appeal No. 705-60 Taxation-Review by courts----Asses,sment-Legal Notice No. 258 of 1962, Art. 16 (/)-Proc. No. 173 -0/ 1961, Art. 59.

Plaintiff-respondent, the Artistic P1·inting Press, alleged that out of E. $ 300,000 that clie,nts owed it, it was unable to recover E. $54,136.85 which it entered as bad d.ebt.s,. and hence claimed to be relieved from payment of income tax on this sum. The Income Tax Authority and the Tax Appeal Commission held that the plaintiff r,espondent was liable to pay income on the whole amount. The High Conrt reversed this decision and held that the bad debts were deductible to the extent that the plaintiff could establish that they were unrecoverable. The S.upr.eme Court reversed the decision of the High Court on the ground that the taxpayer who de.mands the deduction of a bad debt has the bu.rden of establishing that he failed to recov€r tlie money after having taken all steps necessary for the recovery of the debt.

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.

1'1"1-'ttJ : ili\'Pil'i : illl+f1f : fl,p"};rro•f'} : �cp.:f'i : O'f:,rdt : �1P' q:9° : f+KLfD-"} : {l"}ODi\h+ro· 1 f'Pil : �-1\4..�T : ll+w(l� : 111-111 1 r+,� : ?1\4..�:,-. : _e.'?'I° : +f,r : nf:t-1.ro.."} : t\"'l�l-0 : llf+C-0 : '11 : '11\+C11 :· 1th'i!l\t\o- = f llm-1 = 1"J·t111 = /\(Jl)hLA = ODlf�-1 = t11..�"" == tt·�.(l•= rct::i--t1t = -0"'1.C : lh'1 : hot1 ;rm� : (}.(.:,-. = f�'1 l.<D0 +t...KOIJ. : ll1'1 : 1,U : �OC :: f'Pil'i : fi-f1f : ;�I\L� :,-- : 01·1,11J : i', 1KC : (l.;J--.e, ! 1'lH11 : floi>h&.A : l.1X' : f,r/\,f: : :}1\4..�T = h9°11•19', : A� : �nc: : 1\17111\:l.. = t,f,:J!A?° :: htLtJ�: fll\.e, : {lt;:-l•dt : �1P'srf: : ·f+KLW· : f}��: : 'Pit : :}I\&. : f"'l.lf�W- : '11\«f'C-0 : th�') -{\Ir : ,,r/\ : h1J!lf�'i : 1'h'i!l\t\V• : 1\1\0r?° : f111·1fi" : Ah : nil.+Y:'I° : r+w o� = 1'1-.e.lf� = aorr-,.1 = illl"t'i"IC = ,f•f7r = 1'1Y. = fl(ll\ = 'Pil = f"t"mc .: ootr',-1 : (1,f"t\f, : '11lt-C--Y.. : .fill�A :: :

r+f:'P'(JJ« = A"1f:'i = at"l = n.lPt-C = .e,u = flODlf.,. = rr1·�ti = 1'.itft- = ft;: Tm :, -OdbC : rll"l : (l.H;J� : 'Pil:,..'i : --t"f1f�,1·19° : 1,1Jtm+AA : ,f"�C1 : 1--K'j;A � ill\H.IJ : 'Pil·1--'i : fOit/\W- : :'PA : ,,--,,r�:,-- 19° : f m:J>Ai\.t!\ = ,flt\') : oo+C?u'J° : '11\111 :: .e,-fillr'J° : O�"t',h : 11dhC : at<JJ : ill\ : 'Pil:r'i : f,f--KLt»- : n+111�:,-.s,u : l\.e : +LK°!. : .e,IJ'c;/;\ : OI/1\:,.-- : �OJ- :: it)t(t- : f(i:,)--,h : 1ldt»C : _'Pil:t'c;: "n'i �w- = IP/1\:,W fat7-'} = 'll\ "1"1 = h;J--ml = "7Cj : 00, t...il : "'14-/\il : f,IJ'<;A ::

0:\1\ =

= --1-.r>fr�:i-- =Ai=

=

"n1<1JJ;.U : 0�'1·th : 11th»C : m'? : n�k'l'C : .,60.:i:f�e ... ,... .- ... : f+KLtD-1 : mf_ao �C?noo- : "h10D/\il ! OtLV• : 1:1;,1, : f+KL1D4 : f'Pil:,..<; : arA : /\+w(l� : . . 1'11111 : ttAlf � : Lt-7i : -,OJ : f,I\A :: Lt-7i : �ro· : "7/\:, : m;J'I! : ro-m:,W : fll�9° : CP/ I\:,_.. : � w· :: ,--

'f'ilT<; : (D•/;\ : illllf� 1 04?'1'C : {!fl.!!£7!1 = r•rK"·(I}• : hh,l\fD• : h/\ : °Ila :re; ' m-A : tt,f'K4..ar : ,,.?C : ,J•ilCP/"'l. : "n1Jtlf1 : +f.C1 : f+(lt- : �ro- :: (l<f? 'l'C : jjif.irl!>:i: ill\ : W·A : f+K4.ar : n.11: : W•A : 0d1'1 : .(.:,.. : 'P;, : i\ 'i �OJc ,. fOI/.l--llw- :-,.,.

fl�/ �f/

--

I\OD'P'PA : -:ftr-:J =

! fl\:t

m- =

(19':.f :

f--t-'P'Ptt-n:.i• = �,c r;1 ro+c;= =

"1.;J'f! : flf� !

r�; ro-tt- = •

6.

,,... ..... � ,.

;,,dJ = , f,ll.l,\ ::

--

nfl'l.,.:1111.ro· =

rof.ro-'i : &.�.,e.w• : f,+'P'Pl\- J

"nC'1m;;:-,:,.. = f llm· ; f"'l..:J!A'i =

i:.c'J° = oo,>,l·1-- = f+lP&-- = h..}..e..11� =. �w- =

'PhT·'i : 611-o;J--- = �aJ· :: "lYv:1--'J° : 1'.'1ltfti:(J)c1 : 1.tl. : f"'l.4.mltD4 : flro«A : )m- :,: Ot&A : fOIJ..-!.mC?° : lfo :J-- : nil1-�'1..:�:,, : J\1-'t'r �ro· : iii\ : arA = fi­

m

11

Um-1 : Y:1;,1, : ooh,,-. I!\ : it It fl:,.. == 1, i\f, : 'h'} f. +1 /\ llr = I\<D•A : h. oP,.,.,&­ t+ ; h"'l.filLA1--:'f-- : -,,l�l· : (I}•il'l' : it1'�.. : +'P'Pr-:11 = f"7.'P'Pl\•O:,- : '11C - 33 -


'}° . · -�--•' · � ·=· f, ,,� � a> l\ 1· " 1't ll : 1 -oPlf I,\ 'I°

:1

. .

n.ro :

-- m -.. m : ,C' f = �1 C : , .. ;;:�: ;J f ? 1 +'i JC : : f "'l.'P'Pl\•(l:1- :' 'I = i',ll = UtJtt:,.. : i't o :i: m hA : ·A. : (11Jti r,-:(: q,q> .. " 0,, ,., ( \...f\ : 1 I-';,� :, n ,1H ..�

.

., -- n,)-ll P f 'P' .. " : lJ ', 'i il/\ : 't\ : �1 C : (l) it 'i fl'P :'f• : itT'i�o : fO'J.t.mlCJJ" : --m � : ( Wlf"}= i',ltfli• : f ..l.. lll'tllr i f l {l f, : : 1' tn (11J : 0 1111 • : O> ft •t; it:, '! f'P "'ll\:i : H.U : a,m• ,; l -- t -- : ftlll/ '' : f t{..1 1 (Df._ m· .. 1. .. : .U }: l1t;:+'1m;=.· �c� : (1:,.. : (14?'1'C ,:J! ; l 0 l fo : 1\0 'P{ : : " dJ l} f'} Dl : tU ° ft .. { : � ' t:J T V• :: f � ¼f, : ,.e, '?lo:J--: tDF,'}11 : }'} . (ll: .: .. t., r l 1 1n : '} A. : f,1t lf y,. : lt, 11 : tl : (l8, t-m i .. I\A � , , /ti,\ : hft.tPJ.I,\ i 'PhT'i : = /oi it.01 .-, .. 1 ;1c = 1 , = 00 t il = ,1.. f ti,1 = f .. t-,, , i "f = : 1,11 "11 , c .rf:i•= {l'l':f:A =� -,1 r :: . .,m · f : ll.W ,, : � 'I' � :' f'1 1 h 9° itF,f..lt.'r :, --- = -l : (loPOJlrl: : h 1,.,.... : (llD" : tp{l: f°tmt--m· l/\O l '?�;J : ODJ?...,,.,,. : flan ll,n:1• : .,� 'P(tc'r : 'Pit:,.. i;m·1= fOIJ..(l mm·= 'P il= t, .f..•t..'L ro · = ,,eft n 1--1- : °If.o ;r= q,e&.g,9 o : fl(l• : ,,-.,,.. t,,,y. :: aifu;J--m·1 : /lODJ.?,9° = .,m, :: 'Pil·) ..'i" = rD t(l ,p n:,.. 1�:r= r:1•m4,c;= f--1-•ro(l., (P1tJ'1= i'l.ttn:i,:: o..lf1'9',= it•}P.1J.'..' = '?fn� n1f..-n: f.-f•a>{la; : ll.ll''} : ill\°t�/,\ I "l,.fu:J'(l)•: i\(l1P,:�'1:1 .. : f C"l. 'flm•: 1�{r: b--t- t.1.011 : n:\I\: a;lD• :: (ficl�'l'C : liitiitu : f-i"1at.m"1: ODOD/,\h:t" : .en,Pt\)1 2 1 f, iro-9° f\9°1}/l,: tt1f.": (Im·: hil,l\to·: (lm·: ;JC= 'l J!...l1m· = il9°�'l·) ..: {lfb: .rtt.ro•"} , {1--1;1: fht--ftJ/,\�}: h"}f..(f',: {!fi.: 11c: l'lO'rYfl.v.. : -Oftv : '?Yo:J" : 111 -;J.:A : 1'.1{1/,\ :: "lfo:rm·: ?;if,: "nc : flODtit.A: ',tD• :: a,1c : td/1: it,.t;.."}: n:u : 11C : fOT/.b'i:tt.o)• : (lro,•f (D• : {1,f:"} : ,,rt1t-r : h 1f..lf '1 : .,m, :: f f·f.lJ : '}f,�1· : lf.o:J ... : 01f..•{l : frf•(D(l', : (J1.e..,;J-- : f,'11\A :: 01.e.."n : ft.-f•tD()', : °lio :J--: cp{t : f OTLlf'} : (l(D• : ;}l\k : fD'/.lf',a>· : 1..e.o· : hi.. &.x.on :: (l:\I\: (Llf-}9°: f'?5?u;J--ro•: or1 m"}: itit+f.•tp>: oP;J --m:J, r i',l\n-l--: : i',I\Ol\1·1,..<': °IJ!o :1": 11.'}P,(\: itf,,�mC9°=� llt\H..IJ : fl cl!'PC : li'itu!t?; : f·l·�t,.(D• : fD'/,.OV{\h,t,m• : 01f..•fi: f,f--1m/l mt\: --1 = :1 ll tt. rr,, i o cJ:'I' c = ?; ii, 11,,,.�&.m..= ;, c= ,1.. ..,1 OIJ OIJ..= ,,1>t °'Y-n ,P6't 1\f,f..lt.9° ::

li'i1:uxt;·?;

=

=

=

=

0

=

=

0

a.ft

=

= ..,.

fltj:-l.. d, : ,fl,li.C : ,'h.'?: (lcf='l'C: [ifi.ft f?.i"� : O ··J,�t..ro·: J.'.."'},;J1,: f'Pil:,•c;m•: 11-tl·fl : fi'Pil-l•t;a>• : W-A: a>·it'I' : ODOJ{l1: i'tllfl1•: tit\ : (l�.I\ I (lcf! 'rC : t?TI:yft;?; : crra:,,c; : 11'ttfl· : I\A--l•m(l} : °lfo:J.. 9° :: ll.lf"}: .e-:,�·il.A: ·flfr>: 'h1f.. f..'111 : (JIJ,j•C19° : c)1"1-- : hCil : flC(l• : ..,--,;,t,.i : ljOJ• : OIJf\:,� : f,IY'i :: 1 A ', C: 1"}: <h°I: it"}J.':: f...•"};J'I,: fbf\ID«'}: irf•h;J•l\ ! J','ry,f,,'i ,,.. "} {10 : 1-JOIJ. : :: lf 'f 'h f.. 1-�&.: fi-1'" l'Jo 0'lt\: h1t: it1J;.'}: Y..'1;J'/,: t\,l\ro" y •fit.'P ,f--{lft.o : t,,e•r : , A : ° ° l1 9 'J° :: llfllt.U : fh�..,,.�m· : �C.�' : o.:,. : lcf { !'rC : li - fl..".__v ..vfi ... ...·.l:... : {'�--1.&.. m' : . ..

0

0

-

- 34 -


-

-llt\+1, m t\m�:'f : "11o:r9'� : f"'L(lm(l)c'J : 'PllT'i : f"t(IDt\b:,.. : 011!-0 : tJIJtr·'l-1 : 0DPH1;JT : ih'J,,1 : noo•� : '1f1't1f11 : f(lmm· : TC1-'I°: Thht\� : nl\.11�m-r rr'i

=

==

oPAll : {16£b,(I)- : Tf,r : ttY:t--im- : r11u..n : .r,r : ill\ �Ol I f"tf,HOJ•9°: 1'1H11: Ah: hif@it.U :. ,fl(:: Ol\.f. : oPlf)-1 : ,e.-,q� : q�: llt\"tfm·�: f'Pll :'f-'im- 11H-fi Ah 1,1f..1- m(l� • ,e.�mt--A O"'lt\-l-- ilta+ltt:'fw hcht: ; AKx@n:: ,oc 1 'Pil : oPlf'iTID- : O'PilT'itD- : ID-A : ill\AT1t\m ; hCht--:ftD-: ++q,e.�:,. : ft\m-9° ::

=

=

=

=

=

=

I

: O'Pil-l--'im- : C:C9° : OJ•ilT : r_e.-,q� : '1\?- : 1-0l:,.. : rrfi'ffC11�A ilt\TfJ . A,tD-9° : O.tr1 : 04:TC : (iit.itf'?!'!: : frrt'�,.ro.. : f'PilT'ilD- : i1H11 ': Ah : ,e.m (11 1 ""A • h 1){ f'P(t• : v11:t, ,,e,�mc t-tf,A'J° ilt\tLtJ · hcht.:fm-1 . JtAi'+OA�(I)-'/° II ' . . ' .

=

=

=

=

=

='

h1°1JtU : '11�-"} : {tc;m:J> /At\(JJ• ! n�.(l• : r�,1·,h : 11111.C : . iftd/ : OFt-- : 1tf. = h«rt\ w,e.r ·vihi\�,;1·· -,r:,. l'l°r: = r+X:''1'1ro·1 A."'11:'i ;,,-, 3 aub+A : t,.f,!J!A?° :, O�TC : ,..Fit.fvuii .,... .... ,,... ...... : f,t'K�m· : f,bl\hl\A :: 1'1'?-'ttJ : "11-hfht\ttft ! ih7- 1 h"tf..'l'?1lD· 1 l&ali£b : O�TC : {!fi.Uf�ll oPIPl:,. : 'IATH;JJ: : f'PA�,;: w,e.'J° r+,,,..-,+ '°"A tttt11u 111\o oom(l1 tt"I.Q-O h!,1-A'I° :: il/\tLU : fh'i!+�(I)". : 'i!C..(- : n.:,, • nv--t\...,..;;:m- : 1·hlt1i : Qu. ). : : t\h�T;;:m- : <j:C� : '1-l- : f;"l'l� : q_e; : l\f, : ffltnlD·1 : 'i!C..(- : 7il'l'PA :

=

=

,

=

=

=

=

=

=

= �""�:,. =

=

·=·

=

=

=

f,�� ::

' •

3.

-,...... f

if.rr.�:t == f,t•il",._:,. r�,,,J1.:ll° = ,..,,,.,1-- := 1

(i) «?A� • flF� : ,f•:J'�t : f.•'l,:J't : ht\.t\ : fl4'C = flJ·l.tJ = O't:Tth = 11.th.C ; :h°I :: w-ll�r : tl+ot> t\h"i:T : 1-�r-�1: ! hH.tJ : (I&.:,-- : {1A"7 X" : lD1,'J° i: ,..,..K"t.ro-- : ,.e,w�Q:fw- ; f)O-...+ • �'lfl� • = hit , ..,. ..,.ti = +7i�'PA :: o•tt:- = .e,u = ffi:.:°f"m = -0 ..,... ,.:

(f) O+h,.e,'J° ::

= ,..,,-,

(v) ,11 ..,::,. =tic.,,�:: !fif!i = '¼. '/°. f�C.:J = �.., (/\) f!fifii : '1-. �. f1J..(-C II at«? ! +"li�'PA ::

- 35 •

r.


-

T R U O C L IA R E P IM E M E R P U S Addis Ababa, Div. No. 1 Justices:

Afenegus Tesl1ome Haile Mariam

,Ato Tadesse Tekle Giorgis Ato Haile Betselot

GEBRE MARIAM AMENTE v. IMPERIAL BOARD OF TELECOivfMUNICATIONS Civil Ap1Jeal No. 4-61 ,fJurefJ,ship-Teyaj a11rl Jtrlastna-Specification of the maxin1un1 a,nount of guara11tee-Ci11• C., Arts. 1922, 1925, 1678, 1869, 3347. 011 appeal from the judgn1ent of tl1e 1-ligh Cou� t holding tl1e defendant liable as a Teyaji . even though the maximum amount was 11ot specified 1n tl1e contract. field: Judgn1ent reversed. I. Te;1aji11et and rVas/11.a are consolidated by the Civil Code it1 tl1e law of suretyship and to treat lhc t\.vo differently is contrary to the spirit of the Code.

2. As Article 1922 of the Civil Code requi1·es the 1naxin1u1n an1ount for which a guarantee is given to be specified, to construe Article 1925 of the Civil Code as validating a contract of guaran­ tee where such amount is not specified \Vil! be creating a clear contradiction. J-lence Article 1925 should be interpreted as to be consistent \Vith Article 1922. lEd. Note: Readers interested in pursuing the question of the present status of "custon1ary la\v" in Ethiopia should consult G. I(rzeczunowicz, "Code and Custom in Ethiopia," J. Eth. L., vol. 2 (1965), pp. 425-439 and G. Krzeczunowicz, "Tl1e present role of equity in Ethiopian civil la\v," J. of Afr. L., vol. 13 (I 969), pp. 145-157].

JUDGl\!IEN1�

Tbis appeal was .lodged i11 1Jrotest agai11s t tl1e j udg1nent e 11 terecl by tl1e I-Iigh Cotirt in file 110. 590-61 . We l1ave examined the record. Tl1 e facts of tl1e case are as follo\\'S:The p�e�ent respo11de11t filed suit ,1gai11st i\to Asn - 1elasl1 Ay1 nt1 t a11 d tl1e appel1� 11 �, as fii st atld sec o1 1d, defe!1da11 ts respectively. Tl1e res 1 po1 da 1 1t clai 111s tl1at tl1e . � ;�t- 1�feni�11 t . as a treastirer of t�e r�as 1Jo 11 dent, 111isa[)JJrOJ)riatcd a st1111 of E. $ 28_,_ a s11: ce the second defe11d::tnt I1ad 11 11dertake 11 to gL1 a,ra11 tee as a teJ1aJ1 a_r1 Y defatilt whi�ll tnay arise fro 1n tl1 e act of 1e first de fe1 1d an t i 11 \vl1 atcver capatl c ty t�e 1 l( ) ' ( ) ���� iuight \Vork for the Bo�r_d, pt1rst1a11 t to Articles 2005, 2031(1), (2), 2033 ' . - .' 1930, 1931 of tl1e C1v1l Co the de pa y bo th to sb req ot1 J 11ir d ed be n1 � ti t t:11 d spute. Accordi1ig Jy, defend,t11ts �J)pearecl i11 cot1rt. TIJe first defe11dant � eni � ; e c l arge atld 111oved for a11 orde f l ld o r f sh c � to r tl1 e at1 dit e a11 e o t at l 1 t u 1 ec th� ac o tlts ?f the res1)011d e11t. Tl1e seco1 1d defe11 cla;1 t c prese11t appellant, ��w � � ever, Itlvo e Article 1922 of th e Civil Code a11cl ar gu ed that tl1e contr act of - 36-

1

}


GEBRE MARIAM AMENTE v'. IMPERIAL BOARD OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS

for. which gt11arantee· is of no effect si11ce it does not specify the maximum.. amo11nt · the gt1arantee was given. . · -� Having recorded all the evidence add·uced and q11estions of law raised by both parties, the High Cou.rt e11tered judgn1ent against the two defendan.ts. This appeal was duly lodged f·rom this judgment. The appeal was filed by the seconcl defendant alone and as such we shall consider this case as pertaini11g to 'him only. The appellant has stated h.is grounds of appeal in his memorandu1n dated August 31, 1968. He does 11ot deny l1aving sig11ed the contract of gt1arantee. Never­ theless, l1e contends that the co11tract is of no effect pursuant to Article 1922 s.ince the maximt1111 amou11t f01· whicl1 the gt1arantee was given is not specified. Respondent, on tl1.e other l1a11d, has presented its arguments in a written reply dated June 4, 1969. In brief, it states that (I) Article 1922 is without .. bearing in the case of teyaji11et since sa.id provisio11 is applicalbe only to wastnc1; (2) wastna is an undertaking for a. specified amo1111t while teyajinet relates to a futu.re obliga­ tion which cannot be deter1nined in advance; (3) since Article 1925 provides that a guarantee 111ay be given i11 respect of fl1ture or conditional -obligations,· this would be the relevant provision \vhich should have been cited· in the case at bar; (4) since the appellant t1udertoo_k tl1e gt1arantee with ft111 k11owledge that Ato As-melash, as a treasurer, was to be responsible for at least tb.e salary payable to the employees of the Boa,rd-a sum of E. $ 230,000- the provision of Article 1922 is also complied with; (5) furthermore it argt1ed this sho11Id be tantamo11nt to specifying the maximum amo11nt for whic11 the g11arantee was given. As indicated above the contentions raise cl by both ·parties call for a determination of a question of · Jaw. Conseqt1ently, we shall examine those provisions of the Civil Code which relate to st1retysbip. Article 1922 of tbd Civil Cocle states:• '�(l) A guarantee shall not be presumecl. (2) It shall be express and may not be extended beyond its contractu.al limits� (3) The contract of guara11tee shall be of no effect 11nless it specifies the max.inium amo11nt for ,vbich guarantee is given.'' The appellant contends that tl1e maximum amot111t f 01· which the gtta.rantee was given is not specified in the contract of guarantee. Tl1e responde11t, however, argues that teyajinet and i,vctstna are disti_nctly · different and as st1ch Article 1922 has no af)f)licability to the former. Before we embark upon th.e i11te1·pretation of the · provisions of the Civil Code which deal with was·tna it is pertinent to determine whether or not there exists any difference in law be�een teyajinet and wastna. The new Civil Code was drafted i_n light of the c11sto.ro,1ry laws previou.sly in FoF"ce. Nevertheless, once the Code was enacted j11dges 1nay not resort to custoni aad pre-code laws in deciding cases. They may revert to sucl1 ct1stoms ru1d laws enGy when the wording of the provisions of the Civil Code are vagt1e or lend tfiemselves to more than one interpretation. AccorclingJy, to deter1nine whether there is any difference in law between teyajinet. and wctstna we have stt1clied the Digest Qf Old Ethiopian Judgments as · well ,ts the piovisio11s of tl1e Fetha Nagast. Our findings f1·om the :Digest reveal tl1at the responsibility of a teyaji was to guarantee the appearance of· t"he person for whom he beca111e a teJ1aji. Yebesel/a K!tzss (guarantor of debt), howeve1·, tinder·took to guarantee the paymet1t· of a debt. 37 -


' •

1

,• ..

.

- VOJ.,. "\/I.II - No. 1 W . LA AN PJ IO H ET F O L 1 _; JOURNA

j

'

.. w to it that the debtor ap_peared his 11ndertaking wa� . fulfilled Hence,: 1ft a ite;,�Jl, sa a11d be was relieved Of ·bjs obligations. As years we11t by, l1owe�er, later Judgments tween tI1e t\VO. The 11ndertaki11g of a teya_ji w be ce i.ff re d d · �l bl��r� e _ �u�lly gra as �� : :ar �ilteeing of the appearance of __ tl1e debtor. As the po l�_ng�r. -li1n1t_ ed . , th . j11dgmen ts, as _ teya11 was treated in later tl1ro11gl1 den;d meaning of tl1e word ,vi . e , lle was liable to pay the debt he undert ook the to 1er . as tl1e �vass - z •• 1 an . �a. D:1e_ m . . . . isappeared · C o11seqt1ent� t l1e two g ra d t1a 11y d' e11 betwe 1 io1 ct i11 t dis : lie t c e, . en H �. nte ara . gu . ilging tl1 e d ebto r to co11rt l1e ,vas liable for tI1e bri in ded · · 1 ee c c su a1i te; · Iy even 1f a · d hi bl" s o ' an 1gat1011 was 1n 110 wa)' paymer1t · of the, debt · ·U1 defatilt of the latter different. f roro tl1�t of .the lvass. Io tl�e. ·Fef/1a · Nf!,gasi suretyship is of t \VO types:•

(1) ."g�· aran tor of person." (y eej 111ass); (2) ''guarantor of debt'' (yegenzeb 1.vass) •

In th e first. · case, the gt1arantor u11dertakes to gu�rantee tl1e appear_a 1 1ce of the debtor. If ,he lias also u11dertake11 to pay the debt 1n case of tl1e fa1lt1re of t11 e debt�r to appear, tl1en tl1 e guarantor also be con1es liable for tl1e pay111ent of the d.ebt. In t11 e · secor1d case, gt1aran tee is give11 for the payn1 ent of a d efinite sum of n1 011 ey ·on a . specifiecl date. But if all that is sta�ed is �hat he gt1ara1 1tees to pay tl1e 1no11ey tbat X has borrowed from Y tl1e11 b.e will be liable for tl1e tot al amount after · it · is ascertained. I -Iavi11g exa.n1ioed tl1e role botl1 wass a11d teyaji played in judgments as \Veil as in the Fetlia · Nagast we realize that a }Vass gt1arantees the payme11t of a definite sum of n1oney :w.l1ile a teyaji pri1narily undertakes to gt1arantee tl1e appearance of tl1e debtor bi111se]f and, if l1e specificall)' t1ndertakes to do so, tl1e JJayme11t of the debt where tl1e debtor llimself fails to appear. This ,vas tl1e pre-code la\v. In the ligl1t of the :above tl1e obHgations of tl1e wass and the te;,aji as regard s a money debt differs _very little. Moreover, if a 'guarantor of pe rso11' t1r1d ertakes to pay tl1e debt in case tl1e �ebtor fails to ap(, ear, the Fetlza Nagast reqL1ires that st1cl1 st1m be specified. Io this respect a· 'guarantor . of person' is treated like a 'guarantor of debt.' Ttiis being tl1e · customary law, tl1e Cod e co11so]idated bo tl1 1-vast11a a11d teJJajinef t111der one t�tl�. I-I�11 �e, we must inte rpret tl1 e law of sur etysl1 ip a .s i 1 1clt1di11g teyajinet as ·\1/el� . . :P1st1n¥,�!slu 11g . betwee11 lvastna and teyaji11 et \Vould be co11trary to the purpos� and, SPi1r1t of the Code. Now,. we shall rever� to the in terpr et ation of Article I922, \vl1icl1 provides thal a �ontract of gua:ant�e 1s _of no effect unless it specifies t l1e 111axin1u1n an1ount for �lu cli ,guar�11 tee is given. By 'of 110 effect' th e provisio11 1neans tl1at tl1e c ontract has 110 Ieg,11 consec1uerice. • Si� c� st1r_etyship )s a c ontra�t, tl1e p rovis io n of Artic le 1923 is \Vorded so as to m ake 1� coi1s1 stent with othe r provisions i n tl1e book of ob ligatio11s. Article 1 ?78 sets out th ' e elements o f a contract: ''No valid co11trac t sha ll exist unless:a) · the parties ar· e capa · ble 0f c oi1tract1n at g an d · lb e , gi ve a th su law·,. . ei st co r ai ns n en t . - 38 -


6,EBRE MARIAM .AMENTB v. IMPE.RIAL BOARD ·op TELECOMMUNICATIONS

. b) the object of a contract is sufficiently- define·d and =is. possible'· and lawful; · · · e) the contract is made in the form prescrib�q by law, if. any.": = . .' Guarantee is an opligation. Moreover, an obligatio11 in most cases arises from a. eent, ract and, to have any validit' y, the contract must incorporate !the elements ,of eo,Fltract. Among these elements is the reqt1irement that the object of the contract ee sufficiently defined. Otherwise no valid contract exists between the parties. •

I

-It is because suretyship is created by a contract of guarantee that the require­ ment for the specification of the object-the amount of money-is imposed: Since Article 1925 1 _pro,,id.es that a guarantee may be undertaken in respect of future or conditional obligatio11s, the High Cour·t was led to rule that a guarantee could be unde·rtaken for a11 t111specified sum of money. This, however, is contrary · to the spirit of the law. We state our reasons hereunder. A gt1arantee is given. prima1·ily with a view of providing security for the dis­ cha.rge of the debt. In suretyship, the guarantor undertakes to discharge the debt i.n case ·tl1e debtor fails to do so. Hence, the requirement that the object of the gu.arantee be sufficiently defined. But there could be circumstances involving conditional obligations. For such obligations to be effective tl1e said conditions mt1st be fulfilled (Article 1869).2 To illustrate, a person may enter into a contract witl1 another to pay him E. $ 1,000 if, the latter rents him his hot1se situated in Bole. This is a conditional obligation. One w'ho undertakes to gt1arantee such a conditional obligation is answerable only after said condition is ft1lfilled. Bt1t even in sucl1 cases of conditional obligation, the ma.ximum amount for which the guarantee is given must be specified. The lack of _such specification deprives the undertaking of any legal effect. Hence, Article 1925 is consistent with Article 1922. Article 1922 provides that the maximum amount for wl1ich gt1arantee is given should be specified and to interpret Article 1925 as validating a cont.ract of guarantee where st1ch amount is not specified would create an obvious co11tradiction between the two provisions. Nevertheless, a provision that comes subsequent to another must be given a consjstent and complementary interpretation. Consequently, we are of the opinion that the High Court erred in its interpretation of Article 1925.

The respondent has argued that since the guarantor kne,v that the debtor was 't,aking the responsibility for a sun1 of E. $ 230,000 this should be sufficient specifica­ . tion. But, since this sum was not indicated in the contract of guarantee, the argu­ ment is without merit. As to the co11tention that the property of the guarantor had been itemized in the contract, this does not amount to specifying the amount for which the guara.n- � tee was given as required by Article 1922. Hence, this argument also fails. 1.

2..

Art. 1925.-Future or co11ditional obligatio11s. '. (1) A guarantee may be undertaken in respect o.f future or conditional obligations. (2) Where the time during which tl1e guarantor is to be bound bas not been stipulated in the instrument creating the· guarantee, the guarantor may put an end to his undertaking so • long as the primary debt is not yet due. •

Art. 1869.-Principle.

A contract shall be deemed to be conditional where it relates to an obligation whose existence depends on the occurrence or non-occurrence to an un�ertain event.

- - -39 -

-


JOURNAL OF ETH.fOPfAN LAW - ·VOL. VIII - No. I

. In conclt1sion, after the new Civi_l Code �ame ;into . force ctistomar equity ca1rnot be employed as a basis for d1spe11s111g Justice. Tlle roY. l� v,s or s p 3 o a e p rso11 liable corJtrary to �i rous of Article 3347 prol1ibit this. flence, to b . lcl he Cocte is u11-lawful. 1922 provisior1 embodied in Article Conseq11ently' tJ 1e ju· do 001 errt of the High Court is reversed. M ay 5, 1969

3. Art. 3347. -Repeafs. (I) Unless other wise force conc erning express!Y �1.o_v.1ded, all rules wJ1ether \Vrittcn are hereby repe matters p,ov1d ed for in aled. this Code shall be or customary previously in replaced by this Code and (2) In particular the fOliowing . laws· are hereby repealed: (a) The law on . . Prescr 1ption of -?9t h Febrt (b) The Jaw 1ary• I 948.' and on loans of 1923.

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r�1?- = nODllJT = h11-t1•u = fl• If") = rhtj:+�(l)c = 'j:C..(' = 11-r = nh'i7i'i = r O+b'i7i : ool}bA : f{l; : '?1f''i : 7i f61.1- : (l)c/A : OD'j?,: nA+ti.f.'I°! itb&.tit: rtr�w- : ji�(l)c : +hti7i : t\hlt7i : f7i'm«T : fl;J- : itil<l-1:'1° : t\00111: : '11A ·OJftoT : 'h1Jtro«A : oo,,e...l,.. : 'h.fw+ : 0011,: : 'h'1�AOJ(lf.(l)c : 0671:l°l : �llJc'i: (l)cfr: LC(l : 11H O·: f,{IIJt\ilfA':lj : fl.It- : h'17i : f+llr-r : 'Pf4: : ilt\ tr� : llT:,,9°-r : �:I! iliJ : '¼ : 9° : flootihl\:f(l)c : f,f-f.l11D''1 : ID'&\ : il1 �..... : +·'} : _...._. oot\h+w- = {l;}-(l)c'} = (l.11r : floom'}Jtil = ffA,f-t\'ll'i = mY.wf-9° : fl.t\'ll : O.f1 il'I° : (Lfllf9° : t\00")1J.':'i : t\h.f.'l'lf, : IL+�il'I° : 7Lfbtl:")'J° : If� : OOP'l,f : fi.1:'1 : OUl\k�-r : i'tf,Amf,:,,9° : f°tA : °lf.o;r : h1�t\ ;}-(l)c*A :: O"'lt\T'i e& tr-l-- : fl**"J.:fa,- : fl s->l-- = I\ _e, : d1oi : 'i:far ·: f°tt\ar1 : · d1"l : hlj!,r m = -OdbC : dl°l : (lODlf'+il : 'h'}Jt,r'J° : fl+Q;I,Ol/t : ll'i:-rch : 11th.C : dl°l : 4?'PC : S7Lifdif : f+�Lar '} : dl"l : m:,,(l : �?fl-- : artr-l-11 : t\"77i7i A: nf,,i-fr'I° : o.a,fl�� +l--.Y..'i : n-r-f- : wy_a,- : r+'P'PirT 1 : a,-A_ : f,'i:lllA':lj : -Ot\ar : b47i : f+llr-r .: 'Pf4: : ++q_e.�,}-'} : nf1':lj9° : h'i:far'} : IPCH'iA : fl.A : flf:9°6 : -OA� : 'h1Y-Llf.fl:far : OD1f1fr : fill�A :: •

: 1\1, : f,OJfl'{ •: f+flt\(l)« : fltLtJ : 'i:Cf: .

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nit �il+� = 1:'l°iJ = r+t\ i:,-. = �� = r+ifm•a;,- = P:J- = n:,, ..(-OIJ.f = t\n1 · A.OJ r ·== = 1'{ = Jto-r = r+roflf. lf'i = fl?-fL · fl.Pf& = "11\k�-r = Awilf: n = w1:�t\1 . . . . ·1i1.ctA : 671:l°l'i : "'lilLl'I° : L?i'l° :· f"'IH;,� : f1-r : 'l°f : nf,Y-t\'I° l '1H ;,'If: f11: : 1'1-'ttJ : ft\(l)«'} : fOIJ.hi'-A : hlf� : t\+1hot\7f'':f = 'l°!J:: i't1:6'1u-r r hoPlf�'I° : 0/\f, : 1\1&,f:9° : 1'1:1:,, : +.P6't'i : Ob+"'la,«'J° : f(l ;t- : 11r 1 (Dct\. = 'h'l°�T'i = BT:1- • f"'lf fl'P = ,1,-,qc = 11cr = �;1-r� A == llt\H.U = ticnc = t+�PfO-r = fl:J- = n�rc =-"It.� = t\00111: = r+rofl Y- = 0Dlf�1 = 67H;,;f = 111: = 'hfw+ : a,«ft-'} : 01/iltt?tOO• : n°l fl11 : flt\ : ODlf� : (I)•� : · �C(l : · h'17i 1 1'1H fl 'PA == :fw-1 = = n +llf-1-1'.1Jtf11=.fl.�= nm'i .. ' h�'I° : OD1f10'1 ··= 1'1f.. +l��OJ•'i" : OOC9°l'19° 1 'h.1f..f.lil")(l:'f- 1 f"'IH r = :1i O.,f: = ncnc = r,t-�tio-1,1 = fl: = t\00111: = rroflf.a,- = OIDY.2/i = q = 'I° = DPtr�1 = 'Tl\'1 = ilf\o'i = nnC'ti, = n1r.f.. = �1:1 = O'?A?i = 1'.f m+ = w-A.. = """" _ita'i = P;ra,-1 = Ol/7i7im- = +1n. = tr'i = nl\11�w•'I° == a ,-t t-1 = h"'l'P'P t\· 11 o�:,. •· fil;f-(l)c = �, : oolf�'} = wf,'I° : ,f'OJ'lC = 1'11.. 'Pt\ = f'Tl\)·1 = h'i:A = m.f.� : "7"1 --43-


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( ,. : : l f U tlii ll., ll 1,1 : f, '?," ;J : f r tJi/ . : · C =11 f,, : m & � ro_ .: t.:i· : -,oln:i• : nch?-9° ll, • . J O ', , ,,. • ., .. ,, f f: : ,, t fll "'l 'lt\?i1D'1': .,'P-0: t}t\ . ° . ' .. f' 1 fl: : &\ 0 •A 1 D" lD OJ l'< l l .. 1. : : : · 0�1 •ft•"} : :{f ,:J l f· f"'l : 1' 1J' {l ht\: m·ll· 'l°: ,. = f 01d.,e '-J'oJ•A ,, r C n Y lfl : h o c; � _e t m A �n� : titJl/'P'Pt\"' ; (lt , 1-. : rrrl\.,·1 -"': t\_ , t-, : · U jll) ' : • ) m . P/ ol {1 J � (l; : � {1� : Jt }'} IJ' f cp : D U H. {1/l , :: • ',l 4' OJ : ;t' f . " }: -. t,t_ 1 t. '? e. ,, : ., fl 1• •<;" 1 lJD : ' • (D• 1m • •}/ t; : '9° '}'4 j\{llJ : (J}•t\O : "'l7i'7im, : 7i.,fal;1' A'l' : ovlf-,.' } : O•rAU: f,;t'lD:1'A :: . 11rcp9"° = fl tr -,.. : 0ID' it' = m· o'r P ;::J·· 1»· l\ {ID 1 ,,r:'I° : lf } tt ,-, �'l'l.e = r t 'l oopt,f: n,,f:1 0"11'1&,a, ..:1• hA,n.e q,9° .lJtt-:1..: n.w(l�•: TI:fGJJ;19°: r • 1 ',m• aJ'} fl; hOD�J,,' l;f•:1:w.: tt t\ O'J.OD"llD" 1\ :{ = , fl�./\ = : ;J--w·1 : h1 · (l (1&,,)• : fllf.,lD": '!'IC: t,.flaotf-,.: {llD-t\• : h'I,:J1C: ""1'1A�-'P A:: 11-f'P: n;J-­ m·1: f11t1◄ : 1.ft: (\OV'}'lf:: ..fA+ro(lf,.'i: ',{/: (l;J·--: OD{lf\0i',rro•: {lq,'}: Afr'i r1tt· avlf.,. = ,1.,1?- ttti11n. y_,;t-mfJ'A ft1�,1-�:m. : 'i:C�·: 0,:1.: OY."''J°o: 11A61-J.: 01),nro· �C..f..- : l\,,e: m..1t :f. : 'l!f:!f:oo• cp:froc : (l9':}'� : oot-ihA : ,'h'? : c;:,�m- :: f'Tl/..t\Wd", : ,11°1 : n1:1J(}'Pt\: r o m-: ro·t\·"}: c)ta lc ft. (;(l.: 9°h1 f,U• 1: l\1:{: J?,U: it,'?: ,f--&..?i°t: t'lPllf'l 1 2 .r,r:1·· : n�:i-J1: •0,lbC: ,)1'?: cl?'PC: li7L%XJ% 1,'i: j;7l.,jfj%, r,1--i&..ro•: ,11°l: I\ ,e : },1,,e. ,,.. ODl\h·t-m· : f1· lf'r·-:,: : ,{..�,f: : 7..,.e;,"l\ ·)· : fl n, l\ : 1.. 1-Lc; : h"·f·'l''P\1--:l:9° : rtt1��ro·: {llJ��..e..--: Oll,71"l··)·'i : fl..e..--11.-t"'i : ,,-1·1h A: flt\ ( ',: 1.1·1,: ',tD·:: 1'1jf.: hi·'l..'Pf·!J: : f111Y-.7.:m . : UD<j-:cpf_-: (li1;,1 ,,.. :,.. c; : ox ·1 1,1,� : rf--" }h A : {llf', : "l.!L : t,f,f./\9'1 firl•1'h A: f,t•j!,.l1: lD·/;\ : t./;,a"li: },.,Y-..UDlf�-9'°: n�:,.,,. : •fl,h»C: ,)1°1 : 3 : lD"I,\: &..t.:o : foY.tf',m•: f..-f".. �l1 ck'l'C:: t!fi.if� '111,ft: cl?'1�c: (ll) ;_ l1""1-- 1h h.-t-q>q> r-:15: OJ71: (lJ•(tc: l,,.,;.,Y-..t.'? : ff.l.1ID• : flU•flrf--c;ro• : ,f--q>q>f, : I\J!_,: .,f-- "}�•A: '1.eJ!..l"l: 'iC:: OJ·A: f<PJ...fY-..C'?: h1f.'l(ll.: n.1Ax· : ',W•: noiz. l\OJ•: dl;, 'C : ;>f, l\ : :P A: ,,..1t\ ;,A :: htLtJ: 41 '1'1\0 "'/0Vtfll1: f°7.1l}(lJ-: f,'?'1°1: 'lf,<J> : fl;J--m"1 : hDD"/lf::J' :fro·: flk-l-- : (l;rro•: /\OD11�": OD(D{l};.. 1: .rro«ch: 'lfll: UJJ!,il: i',fm·'1?9°: 'IOl: fDIJ .t\m-'}: f'I' f'I:: ',tp,fl: ',m•:: .flD"c#? : ',{1/. : 11/lo: fltJ1/o»1: {ltTJ'J°: ttil:f;,t: 'Im- : 9°h1f,f:9'1 : P:J"a>-1: l11tf·•: n:\I\ : n;J--w·: /lnn'}1�": f,f•CD o� 00 lf�--1 1,1P,a>-f? a>,'tfw-.,.. : Oft,11-r;J, : f,f•cpq>/\�:,.. : m·A : h1-'t&.C

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-44-


itl'i I i(f"11- : ' 1'1H'1TW-"} : h"J}LODA(t.ft:fa,. = o0 mf:)>:fro-"} : bOU°llf ;r:fro• 2 Ak..,.. : (l;rro- : flOD"}"JI: : r+m(lf,. : ODlf',."} : i\/l"'llD:J>:far"} : n-,..AIJ : ilt\OIJ. f�l�l\:fW- = ',ro- == itlltLtJ = hH.tJ : 01\f, : h'1Y...+1t\?..(D« : hli!+�ar : 'i!CY: 1 ,1t-l- : OtLtJ : ',"IC : 01:9°iJ : 11A� : f(lmw· : 'i!C..(!- : b+m+(t.-r : m°l:,-r : �l\"7 : :,c : r+lfoof_ : '1/l : OD(f',. : 7il'1'i : nit',it--�� : 1:9°iJ : fw(lmOJ•"} : .it'111 : Y...°IL1 : (D«{r : f-t•d.?,.ODOJ• : Oit,n+:.,.. r; : n+'1hoA : itt\lf', : 'i!Cit : i'tY: .c11 = h�(D« : +b'17i : OtLtJ : fl:J- : 7i ..f6P.' : 9°h1.r:i• : bf,'?'l� : flf,q> : l\f, : fOJ(l�:,-.1 : 11H11 : hit : bl[f>t.nn:i• : 1(171 : "'f.9°C: : 11110-1 : b�/lt& : �itb : ,Q;l,/.(1« : 1:l.it : :it:,'I! : lD/lY: : fi'}-1/D:,.. : noo..Y. : Hm� : 61b9°C : Ji"}�h'i!fr : ,gc;: (D« = ou Ait = (l 6£h = rttJtit = 1t n '1 = "711;, ;( = 11:,.. = fl;r(D«"J = n 1" .,. = (I)«itT = nou111: : it9° : ilh. 'i : Oh(!'h . : >t'}fl;f-. : O'?AK' : ffff(D«'} : P;tw : it7t7i(ll : 1'lit7it- : it9° : r++Ollt»-'} : 111·111 : h'}�40D t!\il : t..Cf...'iA :: 0

r : ODAiJ.: (lfiJ!': (19':.f,: 1,,.fn'1�1�:fro•: /lf,'?fl� : flf,q> : g�a : ��l&''i' · oo,,,.. = OD.Y.. = •nc = n .,., tr-'i = b;;: = oo Ail = (1611- = r�1-,:,.'i = r A� = A� = w6f.h = _..... fl)!t.(l� : h1Jth'i!ll-- : ntl'iA :: 'i!C);.. : f,f-t\tDm : 001.f'I-'} : Jt(Dccf, : flm:t>l\f, : 17-LP : .,,,,.,:,:. : fi!C..(!- : 11:.I· : ODlP/...,.. : ll"'lilL?.9° : f,-:{-fA : ff'}Y: : f'i!C);.. : "lt!\Q61h : /lbc;:+�(D« : 'i!CY: : f1-1·· : f,-twl\ll<i! : 11/l'iA ::

.

fstJ : c;:c,: : If&, : 'l'C : f;,! IUVXb : '¼ : 'I° : nm:t>ilf, : f'}"J•IP : ',1 .... .... : +1 : ......,�.-..--: -:fflo-r : +(lm :: P'T. : 'i!CI: : 11:,. : Obi.1 ,...

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- 45·-


..

T R U O C L A I R E IMP E SUPREM Addis Ababa, Div. No. 1 •

JlLstices:

1e er ey B u eb ib T to A s ti eg n fe A Vice Aleka H arege Woyine Beyene Kegnazma.tch Mula Beyene

S ABAB,A. Y DI OF IT AD AL IP IC UN M & O GI OR GI o .:rz Er NC VI v. A AMARETCH AD Civil Ap pe al No. 25-61 . Conrraclual obligations-Sa.le of imtnovables-Municipal registrat io11-C'iv C., .4rts. 1696, 1697.

1733, 1704(1),

. igl1 Court disn1issing the plaintiff's claim for On appeal fron, tl1e n1ajority decision of the H the cancellation of a contract for the sale of land, on tl1e ground that the agreement between the parties barring the institution of suits in case of expropriation is law among the parties and cannot in the guise of interprctatio11 be varied u11der Civ. C., Art. 1733. field: Decision reversed.

1. The mu11icipality's authenticatio11 of tl1e co11tract in dispute in disregard of its usual practice of conducting an enquiry ,vas 1neant to obtain an undue advantage for the seller and adversely affect the buyer. 2. The agreen1ent barring the institution of suits 1s limited to wl1at n1ay hap1)en c:1lter plain­ tiff bought the land and not to what had alread :y taken place before the conclusion of the contract. 3. The agreen,ent can be enforced only if it is not vitiated by a defect iI1 co.nsent as envisaged by Article 1696 and 1697 of the Civil Code, that is to say, if the consent of the parties has no been given under deceit or fraud as l)rovided by Article 1704(1) of the Civil Code.

JUDGMEN1' . The record of tl1e case discloses that tl1e ca11se of action of tl1e present plaintiff�appellant was that the first defenda nt sold her his land sitt1ated i11 the Tekle Hai�anot sub-district 11e ar Alem Tena Z one for a s um of E. $5,390 includi11g regis­ tratioi� expense. She alleged tl1a t the seller l1ndertook tl1e sale \¥itl1 k110\vledge tbat the pi e�e of l and was already designated u 11der an alignment pla11 f'or a public r oa? prior to 1961 and th a t tl1e second defendant (present respon ard dis reg n i den t) · · ' of its duly . t o veri·rY that the 1 and offered for s,1le w as 11ot in any way allotted for_ a p ublic road or for any other p11 blic IJU rpo se pri a11 to tl or 1et1ticatin g aorl · reg1ster. 1ng. the cont . rac. t, proc1u•ed an u11d11e advantage for tl1e first defe11dant bY c 11 1d eg i tering a contract th ?bj ct of whicl1 is i111possible by v ir e o t11 f i r�f�� f6;� a t � � ( )' . c )' a nd (c) of the C1v1l Code. It was all defe o­ sec on d ege tha d t d t a·ct 1 h'18. �th · kno\l.'ledge that the said a for ed pie ce all of ot t lau be d ha en d. ; p��lic roa� p t1 _ yed pra t 1 e court to invalidate the contrac t in ac cor1 dance "'ith ·Artf��� �sbier , ��o;;, 1818 and 1824 of the Ci,1il Cod e a nd to order the

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j


AMARETCH ADA v. VINCENZO GIORGIO & MUNICIPALITY OF ADDIS ABABA -

first defendant to compens·ate her pursuant to ·Articles 2131, 2061 and 2064 of, the· Civil Code for t.he unjust enrichment he derived through a voidable contract with interest running from the day he received the money until he pays the full amount; · · and compensation for costs she incurred in the litigation. •

The first defendant appeared in court and argued that because the plaintiff had not adduced evide11ce in support of her claim, her action could not be sustained. This contention was countered by the plaintiff's prod11ction of a written document dated July 9, 1967. After this no f11rther defense has been entered by · the · first defendant. Counsel for the seco11d. defe11dant, on the otl1er hand, submitted the defense that the plaintiff and the first defe·ndant l1ad agreed between themselves that neither of them would sue the other or the Municipality if in the future the land is found to be larger or smaller tl1an the area specified in the contract, or if the land sho.uld be expropriated for pt1blic roads or squares. In this regard, the Municipality is only responsible for registering the agreement of the two parties, and it is up . to the seller and buyer before they conclude their contract to have the land surveyed. He therefore 11rged the court to dismiss the case against him and to award him compensation pursuant to Article 2028 of the Civil Code for damages suffered from a vexatious claim. The record further shows that the first defendant had produced as evidence the contract concluded between him and plaintiff on November 7, 1966. In order to clarify the matter the High Court ordered the engineer of the Municipality to appear with the plan of the land in dispute despite the objection raised by counsel for first defenda11t. Accrodingly the engineer appeared but failed to give satisfactory answers to the questions posed by the Court. Thereupon, the Court ordered the appearance of the engineer who designated the land for a public road. Consequently, Ato Zewde Shoareged appear·ed and explained that the land wa.s designated for a road under a general map prepared for the city of .L�ddis Ababa in 1958 and not by an engineer appointed to survey the particular land in disp, ute. This being the case, he said, it is impossible. to tell exactly who drew up the plan and he added that no roa:d has yet been constructed · pursuant to the p1.an. He stated that he acquired this knowledge · in his capacity . as an official (mekitil halafi) of the Planning· Department. Finally he promised to reduce his statements to writing, which he did as shown in the record of the · case. .

After receiving the parties' statements and hearing the evidence the High Court, by majority vote, rendered a decision in favour of the .defendants. Since the �and had not been properly measured and surveyed, the parties, in the contract which they concluded on November 7, 1966, agreed not to bring suit against each other ot against the M11nicipality if the land was fo·und to be larger or smaller than what was stated in the contract of if it should be expropriated for public roads or squares. The Cou .rt, stating that as between the contracting parties the terms of a contract are binding as though they were law and citing Article 1733 of the Civil ©ocl.e, which states that courts cannot by way of interpretation vary the terms o[ a eontract, dismissed the petition of . the plaintiff for the invalidation of the c.ontrac�.: The appeal is lodged against this judgment. The minority opinion, on the other l1and, after stating that the ·Municipality has no power to make the parties sign an agreement which obliges one of the parties to assume the consequences resulting from the sale of land which has already -47-

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OL. VITI - No. 1 V W A L N IA P 10 I-I T E F JOURNAL O

. oi11ted 011t tl1at tl1 e ado JJtion by tl p , e s o rp pu ljc ub le been app ropriated for a · P e fraudue11t and deceitful urag e11co nly o not uld o ,,, v, acts · Mu11icipality of sue 11 p ractice 11 a1a11g co11 trac ts relatiiig 1 by nt n1e . p o el dev s try' n u o c · · to r.r.:ect the . but also adverseI y e11 rel 1 ble._ The op 11 011 co1 c1- ded ?Y_ stating 1 111 d an e r u c_ se in � � � 11 ew · o } � tl1e sale o f tl1e city's land n 1 e e x1sten_ce t I ont_ract, w lie c tl 1 � f o n o ti tra gis re of . tl1 at the Municipality's f or a JJU b1IC ro ad, was illeg J d . te 11a s1g d: is d a11 e tl1 1 icl 1 wl al aerial pl1otogr aphs i11 1nbt1rse d. 1 re be d ul 1o sl iff nt ai JJl e an d conseqttently th s 1 e11 tication of ty' ci tl ali 111i �u Mt �he d 1 fi1_ o als e w rd eco r this. the ing ? _ Afte r revie\.v ee n1e 11t, 1t sl1ot1�d }1a,,e clari agr tl1e 111? cat nt1 the a11 to or Pri er. op r ­ JJ im con tract to be 1 n!11 g Depart 1ne1�t. Tl1 e s111t 1s a direct 1 �l� tl1e m o fr y uir enq a11 by tter nia fied the coiisequence of tl1 is failure of the �11n 1?1pal1ty to ascerta111 f2:cts �y an enqtiiry f ro111 its plaonitl g section before reg1ster111g a�1 . agre e11 1e n t. Tl11� . be1_11g tl1e usual practice of tl1 e Mu11icipalit),, it is tl1erefor� eXJJl�c1t tl1at_ tl1 e Mu111c1pal1ty's authenti­ cation of the co11tract in dispute disregard111g tl1 1s practice \vas 111 ea1 1t to obtai11 an undtie advantage for the seller and ad�ersely efl:ect tl1e b1 1 yer. _I! is_ also clear in tl1e agreeinent t11 at tl1e btryer's 11ndertak111g 11ot to st1e tl1e Mt1n1c1pality and-or the se ller in case tl1 e la11d be aJJpropriated for a road or a sq 11are is Ii n1ited to \vl1at n1 ay l1 ap1Je 11 after sl1e bougl1t tl1e larJd a11d 11ot to \Vl1at l1ad already taken J)]ace before tl1 e conclusion of tl1e co11tract. It is clear e11 ough fro111 tl1e surro11nding circu111stances that the bt1yer bo11gl1t tl1e la11 d. i11 good faitl1 believi11g that it \vas _ free fron1 a11y ki11d of alignn1e11 t pla11 for a road. 111 its j11dg1ne11t tl1 e High Cotirt has cited tl1e provisio11 wl1icl1 a.ttribtites to a11 agree111 e n t the force of la\V as bet\veen the parties. But tl1e Article ap1Jlies 011ly if tl1e agreeme n t of tl1e parties l1ad not been vitiatecl by a defect i11 conse11 t as e11visaged by Articles 1969, 1 a11d 1697,2 that is to say if tl1e co11sent of tl1e parties l1 ad 11ot bee n give11 11nder deceit or f rat1d a.s provided by Article 1704(1 ). 3 The r1ext iss11e to co11sider is \-vl1etl1er tl1e buyer l(11 e\:v before buyi11 g tl1e land that it was designated for a. road. It is hard to l1 o]d tha.t she kne\.v. The fact that sl1e s011gl1t t]1e i11validation of tl1e co11tract ,vl1icl1 sl1 e co 11 cl11 ded by 1nistake a11d tl1e restitt1tio11 of l1er n1 011ey as soon a.s sl1e realized tl1 e trt1e natt1re of the facts clearly i11 dicates that sl1e did not kno,:v. . Therefore, we l1a.ve reversed the 1najority opi11io11 of tl1 e fiigh Cour t beca11se it 1s ��ntra�y to_ th� pt1rpose of the provisio1 1s cited above a11 d \ve affirn 1 the mi11ority op1n1on 111 val1dat1r1g tl1 e co11tract beca11se i t w as conclucled u11der deceit ,1nd fraud. Tl1e first defe11cla11t is ordered to con1pe11sate tl1e plai tifl 11 ' for \Vhat he received fro111 h� r as_ a res11l� o� the sale of tl1e 1a11d, w itl1 9% i 11 terest r11n11i n g fron1 the date this action ,vas 1 n st1tuted 11ntjl the \Vhole de bt is discl1arge ..., d. The seco11d defen-

1. Art. 1696.-Jnvalidation of cont ract. A co nt ract n1ay be invalidated wJ1ere a. party gave h i s consent by n1ista under duress. or ke 2. Art. 1697.-Mistake n1ust be cl ecisive. Jt:1 ��rty ;�ho1 ink\n'o kes l1 si n1ista ke s hall establis h tl1a1 l1c v uld r , 11 v o nol l1ave entered into the le own t h e truth. 3. Art. 1704.-Fraud. • (1) A contract may be invalid a practices so that the otJler ted on 111 e ground of frat1d vvl1ere a t)arty resorts to deceitful party vvould 11ot 11ave e11 been deceived. tered into tl1e co11tract, l1ad he not

-48 -


AMARETCH ADA v. VINCENZO GIORGIO &. MUNICIPALITY OF ADDIS A.BABA

eant shall return to the plaintiff the money she paid for authentication by the Mu1ucipality. Each of the defendants must pay the plaintiff E.$ ] 00 by way of damages. Tue first defendant shall pay cour·t fees and othe1· expenses incurred in t· he litigation. This judgment was delivered by the Stipreme Imperial Court, i!_rst division, on February 5, 1969.

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Addjs Ababa, Commercial Division Judges: Ato Negussie Fitawake Ato Assefa Liben

Ato Abebe Awgachew (1) ALEMI.TU GEBRU, (2) :BERGA D.EMBOBA & ZER.GJ L'ASSICURATRICE ITALIA.NA

BERATU v.

Civil Case No. 1055-59 insurance-Third part)' vis-a-vis tlze i1zsurer-Admissibility of evidence-Co"1m. C.� Arts. 685: 688 1 662(1), 661(1), 672. Civ. C., Arts. 1959, 1960. Civ. Pro. C., Arts. 463, 464. An action to claim damages from the inst1ra1�ce company by thjrd party victjm >_s . fam:ily. _ Held: Case dismissed. : 1. A third party cannot st1e tl1e insurance company directly for conipen.sa.tion; similarly, the insurance company cannot sue directly the person liable for the inj11ry 'before it pays com:penBation either to th.e insured or the injured party.

2. The practice of summoning one party to a police station in a civil case and obtaining a statement fTom him under threat is a practice which the Co11rt strongly objects to. A statement obta�e.d under these circumstances is illegal and tJ1e Court cannot accept it as evidence. [E-0. Note: The original draft .(in French) of Article 688 of the Con1mercial Code reads as follows:

. DECISION

The material facts in this case are as follows: The first plaintiff's husband, Ato Tebebe Seyot1m, and the second plaintiffs' son, Ato Bekele Berga, were riding with Ato Kassa Desta in a · car · (plate no. 21185, A.A.) when they were involved in an accident: which res1tlted in their deatb. Ato Kassa Desta had a genera.I ins11rance policy with defe11dant's insll;rance comp?,ny. File Nos. 1055-59 and 97-59 sb.ow that the plaintiffs are the la,vful l1eirs of the deeeased. The plaintiffs state that the manager of the ins11rance company had aJre,ady appeared at the Shoa Province Police Head Qltarters on J11ne 12, 1967 and had j)romised in writing to pay the� damages. T�ey are 110,v st1ing hi111 for dam.ages amounting to E. $ 17,500. Counsel for the plaintiffs presented two argt1ments based on two grounds. �l) On the basis of the written e,1idence before the cot1rt, which shows that the :manager of the insurance company 11,ad appearecl at the Shoa Province Police Head Q:m.arters and prom.ised to pay the inst1rance money· clirectJy to tbe plaintiffs. (2) On covers tl1irci pa1·ties, the compa·ny, ac:corcling to fke t11eory that si11ce th.e i1Jsurance .

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. VIII - No. 1 L O V W A L . N 1\ I P llO IT E F JOURNAL O es I 959 a1 1d ! 960 of the Civil l tic .Ar d 1 a1 cle o C al rci ne tur Co .. 1c . le 66 l ) of t1 Art C r11_n1er1cal �ode provide he of ? ( ! . 8 68 1ci a1 5 s 68 le ic rt A e · o C de 1s li!abl e. F11 ·r ��ern1 or ' 1 sation, gi ve p1·1or1ty to tl· ·urd par t'ies. i pe m co g in ay p in , lcl tl1 at t l1 e defe11 da11t sl1ou ng di �I) ts. or en cc 1n � g11 ,1r ng to vvi llo fo e th Artid e r1t se e pr s a li l e s 1 11 . . . De1e e: 11ce c01 1 vo I,,ing_ c?1�pe_�_s at10_ 11 _ I s to b e . brougl1t 11 it su � de o C ial rc e C mn1 of ·th.e o cl e 68 5 1 e 111 s111 e1. I 11 otl1er words • tl t ins aga t 11o d an s r 1 11e his r o 1 501 · agarn_st t 11e 1ns11red per esent defe11 da 11 t becat1se tl1� Jr tl1e 11 st i aga I l1t 110bro n bee \'e 1 • · ° · . • a suit sl 1 oul d 11 0t· l a o t A. sa K .a s � d, 11re Desta, and 1ly \.V1tl1 tl1e 111 s COJllparly 11ad eiltered into a contract 01 s �-1111 111:one_? to the w� n� a 1?1p co tl1� of r _ ge na 1na 1e Tl ) 2 ( . iffs irlt JJla not \vitll the e r be1o_g tl11ea te11 ea. \.\1tl1 1111 p11s?n ment t_ Af . s er art Qu ad I{ e P lice o ce vin Slloa Pro 1 ce . policy? he promised t? 1 t1r� �ns the 1 11 ted sta ' ne) mo of tlm 11111ess lie paid tl1e s . _C 11rt. JJay tt1e JJlaiiitiffs if tl1 e in st1_red perso� . or !tis 1:e�r s are f�u 11 d liable _by tl1e o '"f11e i 11terference of t l1 e police a11tl1 or1t1es 1n. c1v1l cases �1�d tl1e order tl1 at the defer1daiit, giv_ e _ a guara.11tee, bo\vever, i s deem�d to be sufl1c1ent tl1 reat t� amot1nt to duress ··a:,id' evide11 ce addt1ced t111der sucl1 c1rcumsta11 ce_ can11ot be c�ns1dered as 1e11 by · th,1t ,v:1s ey 1 g1\ e 11101 ra11c insu the pay to the , tee rai 1 gua 1e tl re valid. 1"J1erefo n1 aL1ager is leg:1lly i11vaJjd. Tl1e cou11sel for tl1 e defence has requeste d that the case be disnussed becau se tl.1e. suit was brot1gl1 t agai11st tb.e wrong perso11.

A sti1dy of tl1 e argu1neots prese11 ted by both parties s110,vs tl1 at tl1e isst1e before C Lrrt 'is· whetl1er or 11ot th.e· co11tract ,vhich existed bet,vee11 t l1e company and t l1is o t l1e insured e11 ables tl1 e preser1 t plai11tiffs, who are third parties to the contract, to stte tl1e inst1rer ciirectly for pay11 1e11t of co111pensation. Two argu111 ents were forwarded .to'. prove tl1a t. ' �b� 'plaintijTs cari 's11e tl1e con1 pa11y. (I) Tl1e 1Yia11 ager of the con1 pa· 11y, whe 11 su 1 n1noned to the Sl1oa Provi11 ce Police Head Quarters, l1 a s stated i11 writingj ''lf I f:1il to set�le. t l1e 111 atter after . suing the JJerso11 responsible for t l 1e accide11t I shall, accordi11g to tl1 e obligatio11s I ut1dertook, . pay the ,vl1 ole a111 ot1nt of the i11st1rance to ·tl1e,, rel atives of the deceased perso11s''. · (2) Since Articles 5 and 6 of tt1e i11sura11ce- con.tract s110\V. tl1 at tl1 e policy covers . third. parties , Articles 662 1 ), ( 685 anci 688 of tl1e Co1 11 n1ercial Code entitle the prese11t plai11 tiffs of tl1 e be11efits of the compensatior1 111011 ey. ·Now let us exan1ine tl1 e first poi11t. A party \.Vho claim s to I1 ave a right in a civi� case 1�1 us_ t seek e11 forceme11t throl1gh the co11rts. Reporting it to t l1 e police sta�10� as if 1t were a cri1ninal o1fence is procedurally �vro11 g. In tllis case, the pl'?-111t1ffs too_k advantage of t l1e fact tl1 at tl1e 1u.an:1ger of the corn1Jany is a foreigner. They l1 ad htn' l' st1n1moned to the police station and in a11 interroo::1tio11 tl1at fol]o\ved had hi� state, ''If I fail �o s ett le tl1e n1 atter after st1ing t l1 e JJer;on responsible for t11 e ac����nt I s11�11, accord111� to tl1 e obligatio11 s I 1111dertook, {Jay tl1 e whole an1011nt of t�e 1��Lt�a1��� to tl�e relatives of the deceased perso11 s." Ha t l1 e n1a 1 ager kno\v n d 1 of l1_ 1 s r�? l��s -��der the la\v, l1e c?ttld l1 ave refusecl to giv e a11 y state111e11 t in t_he police � t a�LOil · on 111 atters concer11 111 g a civil case. S l1 011ld tl1 e lavv t l1 en l1 old l11n1 respon�ible for the s tate111 ent · that l1e g,tve dt1e to l1is ignora11ce as to l1 is rigl1t s? Altl� ough �liere w�s 11 0 gross · tl 1reat to tl1e n1, t11ager tl1e n1ere fact tl1 at the head 0 _the police s_t�tion ?�d s11m1 non�d tl1e ma11a.ger of tl1e co111 par1y and hacl him give a state11�n_t in a _ c1_ v1l c.ase co11st1tt1tes 11ot 011ly an 11/tra vires ano but an1ot111ts th dure_ s�,·· Besid�s t sine� tl1e g11ara11tee given by the ma11ager I 1a s tl1e conditional :P r_a s e, · 1\? I: fq�l to .settle tl1 e · matter after st1ing the fo r le l 1e. t pe re sp r s o1 on _ 1 sib ac · • ea r th at h e ca of · c1dent .•.· · ··,1t·...1s. cl nno t b ee e t o o b · • _ · li ge · gua d ra to 1Jer f orn his 1 payment before , he·, h as taken steps · · On ,th.e . co11d'1t1o the • sine · na � Mo 1se. reo ver , .. . . 1.. clal . .

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ALEMITU GBBRU et al. v. L'ASSICURATRICE ITALIANA 'I,

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�ocument which cont�ins the unlawfully obt8:ined statement of the manager was not si,gned by both parti es we calll)ot consider it as an �agreement binding the � p'laintiffs and the defenda11t · company but �erely as a simpl e expression of th� manager's private opinion. The practice of s11mmo11ing one party to the police station statement under threat is a in matters of practice civil cases a11d obta i ni11g bis . . . that the Court strongly objects to. It should be clearly understood that to crown such acts with l egal recognition is · 11ot only to condemn P.eople to be dragged to police stat ions to give staten1ents i11 ci vil cases, thereby violating , their �fundamental rights, bt1t is also to raise difficult legal problems. Si11ce the statement claimed to have been given by tl1e n1anage·r of the company was · obtained illegally we therefore· do not accept it as evidence. The seco11d argt1111ent is that a11 i11s11rance contract being concluded for the benefit of third parties, by virt11e of A·rticle 662(1), 685 and 688 o·f the Commercial Code and Articles 1959 1 and 19602 of the Civil Code·, the plaintiffs should be paic;l the· compensation money directly. Articles 1959 and 1962 of the . Civil. Co�e ·�x; _ plain the rights of tJurd part ies for whose benefit a stipulation is made by one of the contracting parties. They do not deal. with cases involving. payments of insurance compensatio11 to third. parties in tl1e event of an accident and are thus irrelevant to the case at band. Articles 5 and 6 of the i nsura11ce contract indicate the lim i ts of the insurer's liability to cover the damages ca·used by the insured's car. Thus when d.amage i s ca11sed, the extent of liability under the contract of insurance is determined only between the insurer and the insured. However, the insured is allowed to transfer the benefits to whi ch he is entitled under the insurance to a,nother, either by spec:ifying or without specifying the person. It i s only in cases where this is done that Article 662(1)3 of the Commercial Code can be cited. But there is no such provision in the contract before us. An insurance contract creates a legal bond only between the insure.r and the insured. This view i s firmly supported by Article 685 of the Commercial Code which provide.s that, ''(T) he insurer who insured a liability for damages shall not pay compensation unt il a claim is made against the ins11red person with a view to am icable or judicial settlement.'' What this underlines is the principle that an injured third party cannot by-pass the i nsured and sue the insurer directly for damages

1.

A.rt. 1959-0ption of beneficiary. The person for whose benefit the stipulation was made may, when the o·ption is offered to him in accordance with the contract, acc�pt or refuse as he pleases the ben.efit of tl1e stipu­ lation.

2.

Art. 1960-Heirs of stipulator. (1) Where the obligation t1ndertaken by the promisor is to be performed upon the death of tl1e stipt1Iator, tl1e person wl1om the latter appointed as beneficiary of tl1e stipu.Iation shall� where he claims t�1e benefit of tl1e • stipulation. acqL1ire his right against the promisor on the day of the bene·ficiary's death. . (2) T'he ·heirs of the sttpt1lator may not revok.e the appointment made by . him· of the beneficiary of the stipt1lation. • Art. 662-Policy ,nade for a11 i,,ispecified third party. . (I) A contract of insttrance may be made for an unspecified third party who may e,,entt1ally bave an inte.rest. It sl1all be deemed to be made on behalf' of tl1e pro . pective beneficiary. . . .s

3.

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOT�. VIJI - No. 1 4 �f tl1e Com1nercial Cod� provid 688 icle A:rt es that which he ma y incur. Sin1ilarly; the insurer must pay compensation to the insured person unless it has already pa id the third party inj11red by the ins11red. The Com�ercial Code articles. cited _a�ove clear!� shov� _tl1at a_ tl1�rd party cannot sue the 1ns11rance company d1rectl� for compen�a�1on. S11rular_Iy, tl1e Insuranc e company ca11not sue directly the person_ �able for the 111Jt1ry before It pays com pen­ sation eitl1er to the insured or to tl1e 1nJ11red 1)arty. The present plaintiffs should first have sued tl1e insured who is said to have caused the injury, or \vhere he is dead, they should, pursuant to Article 6725 of the Commercial Code, have sued his legal heirs. As has already been clearly stated the plaintiffs ca□not sue the insura11ce compa11y directly. Therefore t11e case is dismissed.

The plaintiffs shall pay the defenda11t's costs and advocate fees. The costs shall be determined when we receive tl1e details in accordance \\1ith Articles 463 and 464 of tl1e Civil Procedure Code. This judgment is given i11 tl1e prese11ce of both parties. October 20 , 1967

4.

Art. 688-Co,npansarion ro be .. to l1. 1Ju . red JJGYIJ'• paid

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HIGH COURT

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Add.is .Ababa, Commercial Division

Judges: Ato Negussie Fitawake Ato Mohammed Berha.n N·11r Hussein

Ato Tibeb1.1 Abrahan1 BLATA MOHAMMED SULEMAN v. RAS INSURANCE SHARE COMPANY Civil Case No. 739-62 lnsi1rance._Rene1-val of po/icy-Retroactive effect-Act of war-Comm. C., Arts. 659, 676. Action for compensation and da1nages under an insu.rance policy for a bus which was turned owr a. c:liff and rendered useless by a band of armed bandits on the Senafe route.

Held: Defendant liable t1nder tl1e insurance policy to pay compensation and damages. 1. Eve ;n though the payment of the premiu1n for renewal was m.ad.e on the date of the accident,, since the defendant had consented to make the renewal retroactive be had thereby accep­ ted the liability which arose fron1 the accident purst1ant to Article 659 of tl1e Commercial C.od.e,. 2. The turning over a cliff of a bus by a small band of armed bandits does not constitute � civil war nor an act against the p�litical security of the State as these bands are not organized eno·agh to exercise cont1·0I over a given locality within the country by resisting the force of the government.

DECISION

Plaintiff's statement of claim submitted on January 27, 1970 shows that he ha.d insured his bus (plate no. 22961 A.A.)· with the defendant company for the period fiom April 24, 1967 to April 24, 1969 t1nder policy no. C.V. 1066. After the e,,xpiration of the period of insurance the contract was renewed on May 28, 1969 to cover the period from April 24, 1969 to September 3, 1969 on payment of an andition.al premium on the bus' estimated value of E. $ 80,000. The said buis while s�rving on the Senafe route had an accident that rendered it totally useless. This Eaet was communicated by plaintiff to _the defendant company on May, 29, 1969. How­ ever, defendant company has repeatedly and uneq11ivocally expressed its unwillin g. ness ta submit to any arbitration as contemplated by Article 8 of the insurance policy. Thus, since the defendant has failed to act in conformity wit.h the terms of the i1n.surance policy, the plaintiff claims:1) that defendant pay E. $ 80,000 as d.amages in accordance with the defend,ant's eb]igation under· the insu.rance policy; 2) that defend.ant pay the legal interest of 9% as of June 11, 1969, i.e., from &he. time when .the plaintiff started to pay compensation until bis debt is fully re­ ®¥ered ' -

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VOL. VI1I - NO. I W A L N IA P IO H T E ..... F . O JOURNAL

fees and all other expens es incurr cot1rt pl�lintiff l e t l t 0 ed 3) tl1at defenda11 t pa)' t '. 1 · t1 s t n e s e r p e th f o by plaintiff as a result . . . . .· -· pla1nt1ff to cl aim addition the of r1gl1t l lega the v _ 4) t�at tJ1e court resf: i defendant's refL1sal to p erform his obligations i al t f su nder e r a as _ ed rr u c in expet1ses the contract of insurance. ce to st1pport l1is claim : e11 id ev ng wi llo fo e tl1 • · "uced The pla1•nt1ff bas add clud ed bet we en tl1e plaintiff and con icy l po , e c 11 ura itls e the 1) a JJl 1otocopy of tl1 defenda11t; . . _ f . 1f pla1nt tl1e by \Vben paid tl1e contract iwn prenl ional addit h • e t 1� or t JJJ 2) a rece of insura11ce \1/aS renewed (May 28 , 1969); 3) a pliotocopy of the endorse1nent ,v� ich defendan! gave to plainti oi1 Ma y ff 1_ n suranc� J?Ol1c� e ':a l of t?e 011clud_ e d ren the confirmiilg 28, 1969, bet�een the � plaintiff and defei1dant an. d stating tl1at 1t ,v1ll re1na1n 1n effect for tl1e period from April 24, I 969 to Septen1ber 3, 1969; 4) a pl1 otocopy of tl1e certifi cate gra�t�d to tl1e plair1tiff by tl1e ins1)ect ion offi­ cer of the tecl1 nical de1Jart111e11t of tl 1e !v11n1stry of Commt1nicatio11s to cert ify that tl1e bus was totally destroyecl and" rendered t1se l ess; 5) a pl1otocopy of tl1e letter ,vhicl1 plaintiff wrote to . defenclant 1969, inforn1ing I1in1 of tl1e accide11t of the bus on the previous day;

011

!vfay 29,

6) pl1otocopies of the letters tl1at defendant company \Vrote claiming tl1at it is not liable for tl1e a cc icle11t; and 7) five wit11esses to testify on the matter. Defendant co1np:iny r,1ised tl1e preliminary objection sayir1g tl1at n1ere allegation of an accident is 11ot st1fficient and plilir1tiff shot1ld explai11 the conditions tinder whicl1 the accide11t took J)lace.

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Pt1rsuant to this reqt1est, counsel for the pl aintiff' clarified l1is pleading furtl1er by sayi 1 1g that on May, 28, 1969, wl1ile tl1e bt1s in qt1estion and another bus belo11 gii1g to tl1e Ethiopia11 General Transport Corn1)a11y ,vere travelli11g near the tow11 of Senafe i11 the Province of Eritrea, tl1ey were attacked by bandits ,vho tl1r11ed the buses over a cli11�, renderi11g tl1 e1n totally t1seless. In_ tl1is state 1ne 11t . of. d efe11ce the counsel fo r tl1e defenda company adn1itted nt tl1e ex1�te11ce of a val1cl 1nsura11ce contract bet\ve en l 1is client ar1cl the plaintiff, for �he period from May, 2, 1968 to May I, 1969 Ho\vever, lie argues th::1t, si11ce it . is u11_co1 tested tl1a� the bus w�s overtur11ed armed an d pt 1sh ed ov pr by er ec a � ip ic e . ba 11dits ,1.nd. that since tl1e pla111t1ff r enew ed the co11tract i 11 ba d faitl1 after the bus was_ overttiri�ed by tl1e ar1ned ba11dits, the defenda 11t is 11ot liable on tl1e ba sis of r�icl � . 8 of 1nstira11ce po.licy 110. C.V. I 066 concludecl b etween tl 1e defe11da11t and the � . P aintiff, · nor· o n tl1e basis of Article 676 o f the Con1111ercia l Code. M or� over , coti_n s�l for tl1e de fe ndant, after pointi110O ou t th"at tl1e i11terpr etation of the 1nst1rance policy,· given b · t1·tr ,vas ,vro11g, added tl1a t pla1•t1u·ff· 11as Y P Ia1n admitted tliat . the bus" was · ptlshed over the precipice• b y ba d h 1 th at .asked the O nd its a11d. _ 1 e _a · nme t to· .allo\v · liim_ t� import aiiotber · b t1s. free of- in1port � utJ•. This· havi�g: �::� � to . the plaintiff, the defendant co bas been duly comp!�s��:�. ncludes that- the-phU", 11fl . .. --- 66:-


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BLATA MOHAMMED SULEMAN v. RAS INSURANCE SHARE COMPANY ,

Defend ant produced the foilowing evidence to support its defence: .

1) five witnesses who wo1tld testify that plaintiff renewed the contract at 5 p.m. on May 28, 1969; '

2) witnesses who know that the bus was overturned by the bandits at 12 noon on May 28, 1969; 3) documents wllich would p1·ove t.hat the plai11tiff's bus was ove·rt11rned at 12 noon. In addition, defe11dant bas requested the Court to order the concerned offices -to produce the letters \vhicl1 would show that plai11tiff bas admitted the fact th.at the bus was overt11rned by ba11dits and has aslced the Government to be allowed to import another one duty f1·ee. In his reply on April 13, 1970 co1111sel for tl1e plaintiff contended that: 1) the defendant except for merely alleging that the plaintiff renewed the contract in bad faith after he realized that the bt1s had been overturned, has not provided any evidence to support his allegation; moreover, the document evidencing t.b.e re·newal of the contract clearly shows that tl1e co11tract was renewed on April 24, 1969, prior to the overturning of the b11s; 2) the mere fa.ct of turning a bus over a precipice can not deemed to be an a.ct of war nor evidence of a state of war; 3) the fact that the Government has allowed the plaintiff to import a bus f:ree of tax is irrelevant to the case at hand. He then petitioned the Cou1·t to consider the claims as prese11ted and give its decision. The above are the contentions of the parties. The issues that relate to the contentions are: a) was the contract 1�e11ewed before the accide11t occt1rred? b) if the contract was renewed, would the fact that the bus ,711as overtt1med by eandits relieve defendant of his liability? a11d c) if defendant is liable, would the fact that Government allowed plaintiff to impo11: a bus free of tax redt1ce the amount of damages to be paid? Since the first two issues (a) and {b) related to the qt1estion of the liability of defendant and since it is necessary to decide that question before fixing the amou, nt of damages to be paid we will first take these issues. As regards translation of Article 8 of the ins11ra.nce policy, it was ordered that a tr8!ns1ation of the Article by a third party be prese11ted to the Co11rt. This order has been carried 011t and it is this translatio11 ,vbich tl1e cot1rt shall give effect to. lirst Issue Th.e contract of insurance bet,¥ee11 plaintiff and defenda11t was first conclu, ded (i}ifl A[F>ril 24, 1967. Defendant adrnitted tl1at pla.i11tiff l1ad orally asked defenda11t �JmipaRy to renew the · contract and tl1at pursuant to the 1·equest the bus was tmspe�ted one saturday by two of 'the Co111pany's employees. That th,e former con­ iract of insurance wa,s renewed by an additio11al e11dorsement signed on May 28, 1,19 is shown by exhibit no. 3 submittccl by tl1e plai11tiff. That tl1e ::tdditional -67 · '


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'

.,. . JOURNAL OF E 1� I-IIOPIAN LAW - VOL: VIII - NO. 1

.

to defendant is prov ed J)laintiff by 969 I ?8 11 ay by endorse ment was paid on 8. 0779 cl bere nun1 cles, Besi ipt rece a we iff t l lail hav ·b t e by te it in b i s1 2, . . 0 11 it ib exh � 1 e I) eriod betwee11 A 1Jril 24, 1969 and tt for cl \v ie� : e e learned that tl1e co11tr,1ct JJJaintiff. the Defe11dant contends by · submitted ,., O t � :1 e from Septe� ber 3, ! 9��itiona ad tl1e premi11m after the payi11g t ci ; � ; : � y b act t 1 0 e tl e \v ne re that since. plai ntiff l1as also 1dant Defe1 uested to b e . req· le. b lia not is ·t d � II� ct oc y d � accide11t bad alre that in spite effect tl1e of to testify d :oul plainti ' \ ff's 110 \V es ss 1e 1t1 \V ll . ca to ed w allo · tha- t. the ad ditio11al premit1m \vas paid a.t 11 a.m. on M·.ay 28, 196 9, tl1e 'cla·1n1 . . sa1ne tl1e day. As regards tile on p.in. 5 · at d .,.. pai· ,as ' "'' t ac f 111 m iu . . em pr add1't'!onal ffi e A ect, . 111to rt1c I e 659 of the es con1 e ra11c itlsu of tract • 11 co a 11 e h· w to as on i quest . Comn1ercial Code provides as follows. ' '(1 )

.

otlier,vise exJ)ressly specified? t�e insurance policy s h all come into force 011 the day \\1hen tl1e policy 1s s1g11ed.

uoless

(2) Provisions may b e n1ade to the effect t hat the _lJolicy shall only come i11to force after the first premi11m has been paid.'' Eve11 if accordi11g to this Article a contract of . i11st1ran�e _\vere to . co1n� in�o effect 011 its signi11g, tl1e p:1rties to the co11tract reta111 tl1e _r1gl11 of des1g�at1ng 1n the contract itself tl1e ti1ne as of when the co11tract co111es into effect. Tl1 1s means that they have the rigl1t to desig11ate a date eit her before or aft_er the time of the sig11ing of tl1e co11tract 011 which the contrac_t wot1ld con1e into effect. If t]1e parties exercise this right t]1e co11tract co1nes into effect as of the date that the JJarties have designated in tl1eir agreen1ent. The above-mentio11ed la\v gover11s the q11estion of when a co11tract becomes effective. Let us tl1erefore cor1sider the contract i11 light of this law. Although the first contract of insurance ter1ninated on April 24, 1969 at the time of re new al on May 28, 1969, tl1e partie s agreed that tl1e new contract shot1ld come into force as of April 24, 1969. If tl1is was tl1e agreeme11t, it means that pursu.ant to Article 659(1) of tl1e Co1nmercial Code t he contract bet\Vee11 tl1e parties came i11to force on A1)ril 24, 1969. Tl1us, t he contract beca1ne effectiv e be fore May 28, I 969 (tl1e day when the bus was ove rtt1rned). Defe11da11t's co11tentio11 based on the theory that the plaintiff renewed the contract by paying the additio nal pren1ium aft er the accident occurred is unte11able an d his plea for r e lief fro 1n lia b ility is therefore rejected. Since defenda11t has by consent accepted tl1e retroactive effect of t!1e . �greem�nt at tl1e co11clusion of the contr act, he in effect h a s accepted th_e l1abil1ty which has arisen from tl1e accide nt an d th us l 1 is reqt1est to pr odt1ce testl· mony to !h� effect that plaintiff paid the a dditio11al premium at 5 J).m. 011 May 28, 1969 1s irrelevant. 111 addition,_ d.efendant alleged that plaintiff cla11de sti11ely a.nd ir1 b,id faitl1 rene, ved co11trac� of insu

t he rance at 5 p.m. o n Nlay 28, 19 69 after th e bus ,va s o,,erturned. However, since tl1e defend.ant h as neither substa11tiated tl1is allegation \Vitl1 evidence �or proposed to do so, we h av e r ejected . t h e contentio11 · • Since th e contract of insurance between the pla10 · t'1ff an d de1e c: ndant ha d already be day e h t 011 the acc·ct ren en ew ed 1 ent occt1rred we have d . . d ec 1 ·d e d . ·ste ·b t · at xi a e va lid e co an nt c between t he ·parties. ract of 1ns11r - 68 -


BLATA MOHAMMED SULEMAN v. RAS INSURANCE SHARE COMPANY

The Second Issue

,.

Since the b11s was overturned by armed bandits, the defendant contends that pursuant to Article 8 of the contract of insurance and Article 676 of the Commer­ cial Code it is not liable. Plaintiff on his part argues that Article 8(b) of the e0ntract of insurance refers to a war declared pursuant to A.rticle 29 of the Consti­ tution and 11ot to acts of robbery committed by bandits. He further added that Article 676 of the Con1mercial Code cited by the defendant, suppo1·ts his conten­ tion rather .than that of the defe11da11t beca11se the cited provisio11 deals with inter­ national or civil war. According to Article 676 1 of the Commercial Code, there are two situations when a party n1ay be relieved of liability: a war with another country or a civil war. However, at the time wbe11 the accid.ent occ11rred, no war bad been declared purs11ant to Article 29 of the Constit11tion and therefore there was neither a war with another country nor a civil war. The damage that the bus encountered was not on accoltnt of either of t.he two situations. If some people, very few in number, carrying arms, ambusl1 and attack other people or property, this does not constitute a civil war nor an act against the political security of the State and herefore does not fall 1mder Article 8 of the contract of insurance. This is so because bandits are not organized enot1gh to exercise control over a given locality within a country by resisting the force of the Governme11t. Therefore, we rule t·hat the fact that a small band overturned the plaintiff's bus cannot relieve defendant of liability because Article 8 of t.he contract of insurance doe· s not cover this sitt1at.ion. October 16, 1970.

I.

Art. 616.-Risks exclucled. (1) Unless otherwise agreed, the insurer shall · not be l1abJe for losses or d-a:tna.ges due to international or civil war. (2) The insurer shall- establish that the loss or dan1age occurred as p1·ovided in st1b.-art� (:I).

- 69


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llC'"'iro·f1 :; 11�-l ·th •Cld1,C :; hm 'Jlt\ti:'i.. = h'J°l ..�" ,l1°1 = 1\ 1'J;.. u-s,u : bP'� : pcq,)• : a1 '?'i" : l11t.ti'iorz..nll : :'r?°UC,f:f : ,J--011C«tm" = f,t-m•"Jnl• : Tf4:9'":j'. : ,C'. /\ct,l--'i": f"'lt\&,fm◄'J : &.1 -- 'i": °101/.li : 'P ,:J : ff ll : ttm:PI\Y, : &..... t·r.· : (l{l),, : lDC : Iitf�i : q : 9°: ,f-{l'J'..Y• : r-l--9°tJCrf: : tf OD"} : fi:ioi: lf�:: Ofi-}1;:1,: we : Iilf�Q : l¼ : 9°: -l·9°UC-l--: fl,rl! : t\OD'?'l-l· : t}OD"h,f:,)• : ?ir.i•!i : TUl/t 9':f: : ro·il'I' : 'fl!! : :,-.9nucr1:·) : ClO'f."1'1 : 6.7'.. 0DUJ• : t\ODj!{ID/,..,f : 1.. lf. : f,t-o n, 24 • ar"} rm'? : J;;. rt\ '11/ : t\fP/"l.'iT : o:,,+crA ::

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= nf.\C:.. = nr,t-UJJt?Jl� = l\f!, = foi:1 .e,1:fm· = Clef! = r1r� = = '""9° = : 9"vc:,.. = UJJ'lil 1 --

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f,U = Y'il+�OJc =· 7-1:llT = bo,;fl19° = fO/lm = l--"IC = A. Tc» = 'IOC floo°I 27 ° Ob"-A : f"?.O<l!'i' : btU'9 : + Tflu : l\c»CIIJm•f; I l\.n.1+ ftflD' : fl"'lil+C : = n7'1a,a11� =­ ,c'i7i'i'A = ;,,,a,,; = l\h.ti'i"'lnil = :i-9°uc:,.. = "'lili'CIIJtf = r+H;,� : {l«f! ' f"7{l,f'"7tf : OD"lt,r?J-:f : ',{l?t :: '11C : °11 : 11Cf:flD•: btiOJ•c»;r1D'.,l1,} : f ,..,,°I : :,,; �:,. : tr'i : /\"tli,:J�,)-- : _f<j:T,h.: .-0"1.C: fro1�t\ 7/'i: r;a,,: : ,..,1°1 : oof..{l� : ,}9°UCT : "7il+"7tf : f"?.lf�.. : ?icft.E:'.:l-.. : Oh1 1 r (}{\001 " ; :fro·• f OD9°tJ&.�· : ''h.tl,v11, hil'eil'i. : hY:coo; : '°IIL11� : ?idt-�:f : t\.e : oucmw• : 7'8".-0 : Y,.-;:,, : lltr'I : :PAT<t:'i : l\,nd'/ : t,'I;, f ,c : {1"7,,ou-:;. : llh1°11\.1•1-;: : t, 'I.".J 1C : (lOD,f'C1°9° : +m:PooOJc(}:f'PA :: 1i9'1 = r!f:,!f: = 7fa,c = 9°n,s:i- = 1T'/il•t-"7tfc; = "71'i'Hflf = y_,irc;n- = r,1•'lt\ roo:e:_ODtf?J:ii'} : 00Ka1'i!T : ,l1-? : 'ffO'/ ,., n•,)•'' : +"'I t?Jl- : ILmcf>tJDcQ 28 1 :flD' = nA:J!�9° = '' 1'1P..".J "101/.. : f;,,a, : itil�l'Ol/t?':Fl-1 : f°tfil+9°?tTi : ° • ihd/ : ilAT'i' : 9:19: : ("1AJ'1-i:9 : 6�9°C): f0r<l! : ilt\'IOC : '6U1 : h'l� :· 'f"IC : f£ll/..m0cr'l:i!ro.. , : ,,.<'UA : l\.f:P!Aft.-,)• : Tt\'PA ::

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fit'}..(-: lJ1C: ;,,"l: 1'i : ltJ!,tn11J : tDJ!,9° : 1'i : itJ!,;rtn�: (J!,U9° : llcl'C: 1'i: '11!,;J-- +9°) /l{JD•f\c : "Ltl. : fJt°I& : 'TC:°lt.'J°.: +"'lt9'9;f-: 37 _e.u : ,,-.:Ptn·'l" : 04! : ill\ih.7• : T9°1JCT : oufl,n-l· : hJ!,;Ft!\9° :: (Ltr19° = h1l). = n,fc (J;l,"7& a r°2..h-t•f\c:,• = 9°n1.r,r..:f = �n?- ==

o..r1il = fl..r'iil = rJt°It , TC:'1�9° = ooflil--1..;;: = rtilb� = T9°uc:,. = · · tDJ!, 9u 1 ,,..OD /t t")J!, : T9'' IJC,)• : f I\ T(Dc : h_(;IJ;9'T : h1�c'f7 Cfie fl T : filLIA;JA :: n,t.<' : "LJ·L : °11 : �t'fi'C(Lrf;(l)c : h 1f-�H.tJ: fir : r.it '?& : TC'°l�9° : l\°7'J:<Jf9'' : ftP/..fill"·it- : 1tab91:.f : l\°1:Pt.11 : n.A :Fil9° :: (1"7. nAt: r;,,a,: ftPJ.fltT�: : (JDcf : f,n°I hhCTll: ti,hAt: ti. , ,_ = r:,.c<t: = 1..u = t,il+tJJJt9'l- = 1tc>=:1· = ooouflt.:i• = -O«h = iLtr1 = n.J!,l-A9° :: 9°ti1fi:9° : fhCTil : ti-nAt'i : fih°I : ti-hA--1: : r:'f­ 'J°tJCarl· : hr'lllJT: J·f�,;': '¼l\"7: llllJ9°: f+ilf�: ilfllf).: �ro«:: fih"l 00',,<''> : f"'lJ'il+'J°C : ti-nA,J: : OlllT ¾ OD'J°tJ&. 1 : noo'J°t.1''. : ODK·Ja<t:-r1 : flOD"Jtf,)·· : &.fie'} : 7£-� : til\il-t-J;f..(. : "'hf1..1: fl..'/,!: : nf,:f A9° ::

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m/ r,n'? :,..;n,:,- b<j:,,..;;: flcil (Iii f�ui-2ti)

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THE -UNIVERSITY COLLEGE PERIOD OF •

LEGAL EDUCATIO.N IN ETHIOPIA (1952-62) I

,

by· Geotge Krzeczunowidz*

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;

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·.I had origina1ly inteocled to write a monograph ·oii_ the history of legal:_ �duca� tioti in Ethiopia i. n· oonj11nction with an Ethiopian scholar 1 who would describe the traditional i11strt1ction in tl1e law of the Fetha Nagast nomocanon, which had. been ta11ght in Ethiopian ch11rch schools ever. since its Gheez translation had acq11ired substantial authority in the first half of the 17th century. Unfortt1nately, no Gheez scholar willing or free to d6 his part has been f ou11d to date. i have 'therefore decided to write my part now, while some witnesses are alive, their memories fresh, and official or other records at least partly preserved.2 , The appearance of this article about coincides •with the twentieth anniversary of the starting of modern legal ed11cation in Ethiopia in the ways described below. In 1951-52 His Majesty the En1peror reached the momentous decision to codify the laws of Ethiopia and to entrust the drafting prima1·ily to francophone experts fron1 continenta.l Europe.3 Altho11gh the act11al drafting of the Penal, Civil and Commercial Codes was to start in 1954-55 and leacl to promulgations 'in 1957 ('Penal Code) and 1960 (Civil and Commercial Codes), it was essential to form in advance a nucleu.s of persons capable of 1111derstanding and applying the impending legisla­ tion. Since the University College of Addis Ababa had just been ina11gurated (Feb­ ruary 1951), an academic basis for the creation of a law school was at ha11d. Upon the request of the Minister of J11stice (reflecting His Majesty's wish) some law courses were scheduled in January and started in February 19 52. After an ''experimental'' spring term, the Ministry expressed fL1ll satisf· action with the initial achjeveme11ts. In Fall 1952, tl1e University College formally comprised three constitu­ ,ent units - the Faculty of Arts, the Fac11lty of Science and the School of Lalv •

Professor, Faculty of Law, Haile Sellassie I University. Dean of tl1e University College Law School in 1952-59. 1 • See Instittrte of Ethiopian Studies, Register of Currerzt Researclz (1968). 2. The University College period· of legal ed.ucation was never described by annual publications comparable to the dean's reports ap1Jearing since 1964 i11 this Jot1roal: Tl1e resulting danger of oblivion was increasecl by other factors: Until 1955 the clean of law scl1ool was in a meast1re l1is own recorder. Later, losses of records have occt1rred. In 1956, tl1e introdt1ction of a joit1t college registry has led to mislaying of papers and departure of tl1e. registrar. 111 1962, in turn, tl1e transfer of the college reco.rd.s to Haile Selassie I University Registry seems to l1ave occasioned further losses; subseqtrently certain gaps in old law students' records l1ad to be supplemented from memory. Other recou·rses to memory are n1ade necessary by losses in this writer's duplicate records whicb, in bis absence (September 1962),. were '. taken out of his filing cabinet, 01islaid and o�ly partly reco·vered. , 3 • American . experts assisted in tl1e d . rafting, of the Revised Constitt1tion of 1955.

89. '


. 1 o I . N II L V O V W A L N JOURNAL OF ETI-IIOPIA

e en� Sci and dispensed full time . s Art of s e tilti fac · Tlle each headed b y a dean. tl1e evenings to reach persons 111 . courses held 1 0 10 1 sc instr11ction, whereas tl4 1e law ''in tI1 e professions. '' • _ . 111 other fields, acl 1 jeven1e11ts the J1istorJ, College -1 i rs 'e i: n U e th to st In contra one of a largely is }Jromisin College g tlie � 11 start 0 � 1 a uc ed l ga l� al of profession 11r1der the it following sun1marize slJall headi e • 11gs: . J).C li e de us uo in nt co followed by _ou1s . c (1952-55) ol .. C ho Sc . T· he p1·rst Basic· L aw t• ar St _ 11g 1s1 on1 A · A Pr , . . and the 56) i' i F La\v (1955 '· tio11 Educa I act r · Legal lty na s1o es o1 Pr B. Suspen.sion of Problem (1955-59) T he Advanced La,v School Course (1956-58) on ati of uid the Law School Liq the d an e urs Co l oo Sch w La sic �-- The Second Ba (] 956-59) 2) 2-6 ts (I 95 Ar of lty c11 Fa tl1e in \V La of 1 g lit acl Te '' E. ''Fringe F. End of College Era and Revival of Professional Legal Ed11catio11 (I 962-63)

t

A. A Promising Start: The First Basic Law School Course (1952-55)

TI1 e initial ft111damental problems of the la\V scl1ool co11fronting tl1e college pre­ side11t and/or tl1is writer as dea.11 were as follows: (I) ,vhere a11cl to w]1on1 law should be tat1gl1t; (2) a.t wl1at level la,v sl1011ld lJe tatight; (3) by \\1]10111 Ia,v should be taught; a11d, !�1st b11t 11ot least, (4) ,,.,bat la\1/ sb.ot1ld be taught. J.

.la'\-v ta11gbt 1-vl1ere and to

1v/10111?

In co11.trast to 111a11y otl1er regio11s of Africa, Etl1iopia possessed 11 0 body of forn1ally trai11ed ]a\\·yers capable of a1Jplyi11g n1odern la \:VS. This ,vas pa.rtly due to the fact tl1at Etl1iopia 11e,1er lost its inclepe11de11ce (save for tl1e sl1ort episode of incon1 p]ete· Italian occL1patio11 in 1936-41) a 11d tl1us 11e\:er had its Ia,vyers trained i□ tl1e legal syste1n of a colo11ia.l or protecti11g po\ver, as \.\',lS ofte11 done i11 the ''a11 glo1Jl1one'' or ''francopl1one'' regio11s of Africa. Tl1e Et 1iop ia1 1 coi1cer11 for ft1rther l preser,,atio11 of independence \Vas reflected i11 tl1e ec lectic cl1aracter of tl1e i 1111Jet1ding codes_, \Vl1ich were event11ally ir1spired by several legal systen1s a11d drJftecl by coin· parat1,'.e law expert�. It foll Vi'ed that th e bt1lk th of ? an Et l1j oJ )ia ra la tl1 11 \v er ye rs , be trained abroad 111 a fore1gn legal svstem . l1ad to be ta11g- l1t Etl1iopian Ia,v "at • 5 home. '' 4·

As fr?n1 January l9_54 tl1 e Faculty stablishe of A r ts 11a s e rtment d a D st ep 1b a or Ex bl g 0the� eve ning s tu� di te 11a ns tc io n en ts to. i!11pro:'c their "profe ��: � ss 1 in is�ra· io al n st n A an Bu d iI1 di si 11 11e cc o n g ss t1 g a u 1;1 nd Pubhc Adn11n1strat1on." Sec Unil1er s U sifJ' College B11lleti1z (l1creinafter cited · C· B ul let1n ) f,or 1952-54 . a and 1954-56. 5. !s � ��ov!�1no� device, before t 1e code-enact,n en c ts ertain Ar ts Fact1lty graduates were S�l!t u ; s e re scheme was suppor t�� b ��::�.., cognate bilii1gual l eg al syste1n of Quebec i11 C a!1 ada; � 1 ea of la,v, wh o success pren1atu.re degree-level Iai fully op po se d tl1eir ret en ti on fo studY a� .b on1e (see B , below).

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THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE PERIOD OF LEGAL EDUCATION

. . On the other hand, it was decided that law shall be taught primarily to persons alFeady occup�ing positions wh!ch require some k.i1owledge of law, such as judges, advocates, :police officers, public servants, and persons employed in banking and business. This was, indeed, the only way to ensure that at least a small body of lawyers expected to apply the forthcoming legislation ·would be formed before its enactment. 2.

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Law taugh·t at what level?

Since University College was only starting a11d hardly any college-educated candidates were as yet available for law study, 6 legal instruction was offered at ''sub-deg·ree'' level. Indeed, even candidates holding a secondary school leaving cer­ tificat.e were a rarity, so that the standards of admission had to be set at about eleven grades of secondary edt1cation or an equivalent in educational or professional expe·rience. Entra.nce 011 ''probation'' was made available to som.e of those not fully qualified.. Since instr11ction was given in English, proficiency in that language was r·equired in all cases. 3.

Law taught by whom?

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In developed countries, su·b-degree law courses a1·e often taught and administered by expert practitioners from the Ministry of Justice or lawyers' professional asso­ ciations. i In Ethiopia, such persons v1ere lacking. Our sub-degree law course was therefore of necessity attached to the University College and staffed primarily by '\academic'' lawyers. Nevertheless, in contrast to the fact1lties of Arts and Science, the Law School was granted no budget within the College. The Law School's only full time- instructor was the ''dean'' (paid pri1narily by the Ministry of Justice); th.e other academic instructors belonged to the Arts Faculty and taught in tlie Law sc·hool part-time (they were paid from- law-students' fees). One of the dean's many remonstrances in this respect reads as fallows: ''Whether with or · without success, I feel it is my dt1ty to comment 011ce more on the absurdity of the present situa­ while only a proper law .tion. High sums will be assigned for law . codification, . school, with a budget for three full time lecturers, cot1ld produce in time a genera.­ tion of modern lawyers capable to understand a.nd apply ·the future codes. ''8 Since th.ese ''staffing'' remonstrances reinained without effect, the La·w School cot1.ld never 9 ensure a bi�annual · or even an annt1al ro,tation of admissions. and courses. . .'

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What la'ri' to teach?

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This paramo11nt questio11 seemed almost insoluble, for as Professor Re11e David wrote in 1961 ''L'enseig�ement du droit -.et tme �qrmation des- juristes deviennent, <llu fait des codes; possibles. en Ethiopie,. ,alors-. que -jt1sq11'ici les meilleurs .esprits s'interrogeaient sur la ma11iere dont ils clevraient concevoir· et organise!". un_ tel e:n.1

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·: ·· 6. With rare exceptions concerning foreign-educated officials. ' 7. In France, however, tl1e sL1b-degree ''capacite'' coL1rses are taught at tl1e t1niversitjes. . . : 8. Men10 of 28. Xll. 1954. 9. The insufficiency of the Law School's staff \Vas also stressed by Re,ne David (the expert ·drafter • of tl,e Ethiopian Civil Code) jn l1is memo of 15. XI. 1955, p.2. .. . ,

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. 1 O N I . lf L V O , V _ W A "L 1� A JOUiiNAL OF ·ETI- IOPI

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1952-54 cl en t rte e,, 11o sta d n i ha s de co e · tl1 of ing ' s·11. 1ce tl ,i e draft , . . o J. 0 n tl1e one 1ard pt1t· t tas< l d ee d 1 11 e er w ' s' t i_ pr es s 1r et ill the -Law School'.s '' 1 ne . , r , l1e e 11d ot tl1 l1a n O o t,v .. lav e t1r t1t s f rea t en o ns ist ex llno a h c ea t t 110 · · ld t1 co e hand w · 1a. First few o "'t I f E ·h aVI' 1op 1ary to11 ct1s a11d l o11a diti tra ' ted tl e teac1-111 g of the ,prev· en :1ages ds or 111 ts rec fro en i11 g ra 1g its la1 n1 f in rta ce as uld co - i,.v th a t l 1,a w or persons k11e . t·. ava·1 ? ' r t_ :° �� ·] . . 1a . \Ve ab l e 111 t ts r · po -re ·any �e ca 1n tro or 11 Llia It� or z ee otller tba.1l Gh 1 e trad1t1onal a11d CllStomarv tl cl1. tea to red . 1 u req 11g be1 m fro ,· I a11g _ uage. seco11d, so far · • J . : ·1 .· d i ) ) on 1 at1 . a1� 1.111 ass t 1 for :e J nts l cation l laws, we were asked to preJ)are. ot1r stt1de � 2 1 e the 1ne lac 1 fo1 rep 1 eal rep te1 01 sys to re \\'e 11. 1cI1 ,:vJ1 1 vs, lav of tlJe futti re inodern o11. ati situ He d 11te e I_ cec JJre exp_ressed his un an h \Vit ed fac s thtl s wa law 11 of The dea st :1e lea s?1 at e11 g1v ess t111l n gu1da11ce as itio pos his 1e tint con or ept acc to nce relticta to the i iJtended general cliaracteristics of the �utt1r� codes. Sucl1 1111n1n1t1m guida t1ce eventtially materialized in the forn1 of successive l1111ts13tha t tl1ese codes were to be 1'' sy�tems. 1:t fol.lowed tl1at ,:ve sl1ould ]aVt 11tal tine ''con ous va1·i o11 based prin1a.rily familiarize our slude11ts with co11cepts, categories, class1ficat1011s a11d n1ethods of reaso11i 11g prevale11t i11 tl1e so-called ''ron1a11istic'' legal syste111s. 1"be a·bove a.im \Vas reflected i11 tl1e syllabt1s of tl1e first la,v course, J)Ub]ished (v;,ith son1e errors) 14 in tJ1e U.C. Bulleti11 for 1954--56. Co11trary to the cl1aracter of sub-degree la\v col1rses i11 otl1er col111tries, tl1 e lack of positive lav'✓S forced an initial stress15 011 ''sociological, tl1eoretical, 11istorical and comparati,,e as1Jects of law, ratl1 cr tha11 011 t}Je practical subjects of its ad111i11istration a 1 1d court proced11re.'' 16 se1gnen1ent. ,,10 .

The 1·01l0\-vj11g is a s1.1111n1ary descri1Jtio11 of tl1e courses that covered 3 ½ years of 6 periods JJer v,1eek instructio11 : The i11troductorJ! semester (spri11g 195 2) provicled cot1rses 011 sociological, theore­ tical and historical introductio11 to la\v a11d e]e111ents of constitt1tiona1 law. 17 Since tl1e futt1re codes were to re·flect co11ce1)ts prevalent i11 tl1e ro111anistic Jegal systerns, tl1e _first J 1ear of stt1dy (1952-53) en1pbasized con1parative Ro111a11 law. Of the three co11rses giveD, one was concerned witl1 the development of Roma11 la.\V, its tra.cea.ble. connections with tl1e tradition.al law of tl1e Fetl1a Negast a11d its prese11t day s1g111ficance. The second first year course focused 011 tl1e core of Ro1na11 la,v cont.ai11e . d .. in Jt1stinia11' s Institutes 18 and stressed the classificatio11s a11d cateoorie s ::, �U-�'VlVIrlg. lll moder11. law. The third first year COtirse (Civil La,v provided an 1utroduct1on to certain c?ncepts of modern civil Ia,v througl1 st1cl1 topics as "tl1e [Geru1an] law of st1�cess1on �s developed fro n1 Roma.n pri11ciples." 19 Tl1e tl1ree se�on� year co�rs�s (1953-54) 111lroduced tl1e stude11ts to inter11ationa law, esse11tial l prltlct_ples of cr1minal Ia,:v a.11d ·'Matters Introdl1ctory to An 1 al; zi11g a Civil Cocle." 20

n

IO. 11 · 12. 13. 14. 15 . 16 • 17. 18 . ] 9. 20.

R. David, "Le Code Civil Ethiopien de 1960," Rabels Zeitschrift, \fol. 4 (J 961), p. 680 . C�. the La� syllabus re.conm1endaiions of tl1e 1952 re1Jort of tl1e In1perial l\1inistry of Educ atioll, Cr., e.g., C1v. C., Art. 3347. Cf. U.C. Bulletin for 1954-56, p. 141. Although pointed out in the dean -'s· memos, tl1ese errors ,vere 11ot folto,vcd by corrig enda. (In part analogy to certa.in degree curric ula abroad) See said Bulletin, p. 141. Id., p. 142. Id., p. 143. ld., p. 143. , Id., pp. 144-45.

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T.HE UNIVE RSfl'Y COLLEGE PERIOD OF LEGAL

EDUCATION

In this last course, of the romanistic civil codes that were to serve as models for the Ethiopian one, the Egyptian �ode for which an English ver�ion was conveniently 21 was chosen for ana]y21ng the , legal concepts used therein and for solving hand at , code-based problems. Tbl1s, the stt1dents were given a foretaste of the questions to be confronted in the application of t]1e � future Ethiopian Civil Code. In the third year (1954-55), the gradt1al appeara11ce of lligh col1rt r·ules of proce�ure permitted a course on elements of crimi11al and civil proced11re professed, respectively, by t1n.e President and a p1·esicling j11dge of the High Court. A second third · year course provided the stude.nts witl1 same basic knowledge of economics as a background for tne conunercial law cot1rse tl1at fallowed. 22 After discussing the origin, development, utility and sotrrces of continental commercial lav,, the latter course concentrated on tmternational t1niforn1 laws or draft laws whic'h were expected to be incorporated in fu.e future Ethiopian law. Fi11ally, the third year included a law debating class. 23 IncJdentally, one of the assignments djscussed therein resulted in a work of excep­ tional merit by Taffara Degue.f e (presently general m.anager of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia) on ''Capital Fot·mation in Ethiopia," subsequently published by the University College. It ren1ained for years t.he only college-student publication in book form . •

S.

Varia

Of the six weekly class perjods, fot1r were always filled., for a succession of su, bj·ects, by the full time instructor (the ''dean''), and the remaining two fell to a part-time instructor in a subject. Instruction was primarily given in the form of lectures follo\ved by questions, often inclltdi11g lively discussion of controversial point.s. The course was concluded i11 July 1955 by a comprehensive examination coun­ ting for one half of the overall grade, ·bearing on selected areas of Rom.an, civil, pe1ll.al and commercial law, as well as on procedure and economics. Of the 121 original applicants of Febr·uary 1952, 39 students successft1lly reached the end and became holders of ot1r first law diploma.24 6.

Weaknesses of the Law School

The Law School had many defects; some of them were u_navoidable, but others we:re due to University College policy.

This was an important factor since English, known to all students, was the la:o_guage of instruction. 22. U.C. Bulletin for 1954-56, pp. 146-47. 23 . Id., p. 147. 2.4. Their names were as follows: Abebe Teferi, Asl1enafi Bete Mariam, Assefa Tsegaye, Atnafe Tsehay Bekele Habte MiI<ael, Beyene Wolde Mariam, Da,:vit Gabru, Egeta Feyissa Baltche, EyassL1' Gebre Hawariat, Fel<eta Selassie Getahun, Gabre Wodajo. I-lailu Negau, Habte Mariam Wolde Kidane, Hiwet Hidaru, I-Iovannos Kaypagl1ian, Kanaa GL1ma, Kassa .Beye11e, �ebede Gebre Mariam Kidane Maashow, Legesse Wolde Hanna, Lero.ma Feyssa, Mebrel1atu F1sseha, Mohammed B�dri, Negash Denneke, Pa11clit V.J., Semie Takelie, Sl1amsu Ahmed, �bifferaw Am.are, Sileshie Difabatchew, Tadesse Delnessal10L1, Tadesse Mengesba, Tafarra Deguefe, Tebaibou Beyene, Teferi Lemma, TeJaht111 Birru, Worqu Bashaye, Zawde Meshesba,, Zenbe Worque Haile. Tli1e successive i.nstructors in the various subjects of the first law course were Messrs. Jesman Roucek, Krzeczuoowicz (ft1ll tirn.e throt1gl1out), Krucky, Grabowski and Roberts. 21.

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W - VOL. VIIT - NO . .I A [, N IA P IO H T E F O JOURNAL

: ed d lu c in ts ec ef d le ab id vo a 11 The i1

i11gs becatise of tl1e sttidents) e11 ev to 1e tin 1 io1 1ct trt 11s j of (a) tlie li initatioil 25 ; rk o w y a d professional ; 2G t1 o d gr 11 r k ic e ac u b ad ac t 1 1 1 insuflicie e1 ft o s' 1t e1 d t1 st e th b) ( 1 1aterials dt1e to 11011-exis�e11ce of rele vat 1 i11g cl1 tea of k lac_ _ lt _ (c) tl,e freqtierlt 1 gt1age of 111s truct1011, whicl1 la1 tl1e 1n law 1 nta i,e nti co was texts on E 11 glish. l ob 1. JJ1 1s t !ot ua eq ser Ad ost e 1 e tl ted it11 � iist s � co gli En � t l1 Jeri din � Tbjs last inJJJe _ _ 2 te1 . a11 d: st1bseqtiently) es 111 se ry to uc o? t1 1n e tl1 of rt pa a r fo e bl texts were availa i, 111 for 1rs 111a tl1e t1t cot cs. es n11 11o B eco co a11d law n cer c r Ro1nan ' law' interiiational 1o . . a 1 1�\V and co1n1nercial 1Je11 ( ·1 1 aw, c1v1 1111 l e11ta 1 ti1 con on �� ifie? cod be to ing a.reas . gs ,vere largely dra v11 upon 1t1u \vr al leg [by the � _ law), ''Fre r,ch aild sw1 ss-Gern1an _ instrtictors] a,1d 'acrobatically' adapted 1n 11nconge111al legal . �11gl1sl1, tl1e la11guage ed tl1e or1g111al refere11ce books of i ristrtlctio11 . The same la11guage difficulty re11der28 inaccessible to studei1ts, wbo cot1ld not 'read' law. " Fortt inately, ot1r Law instrtic� tors were ofte11 sufficie11tly co11 versant i 1 1 tl1e relev�111 t legal syste111s and la11gt1ages (Italia11 i t1cl11dec.i) to perform this prol1ibiti,1e task as ,vell ,1s cot1ld be expectecl. Ot/1 er weak.nesses of tl1e J_,a\v ScI1 ool ,vere dt1e to ·u11 iversity College _policy, 29 bt1t , law cot1rse first the of 1 ation was a.lready ter1ni1 t 1 after 1 appare ,vhicl1 bec,Ln1e reflectecl i11 tl1e fact that tl1e dean's reqt1ests for jm1Jroving tl1e L,1\v Scl1ool by givincr it a budget, a11 i11creased staff, a rotatio11 of admissio11s arid co11rses, etc., remained t1na11s\.vered, wl1ile tl1 e ot11er College departme11ts vvere rapidly develo1Jed. 7.

Si1ccess of tl1e Law School

In spite of the mentio11ecl defects and policy l1a11dicc1ps, tl1 e first law course co11stit11ted a very promisi11 g start i11 academic legal edt1catio11. The ct1rric11lun1 v,1as systen1atic and cornprel1e11 sive. The 11t1n1ber of graduates ,vas 11 ear tl1e "forty" proposed by R. David., the dra.fting expert, a.s tl1e 1ni11i11.1t1m yearly ot1t1Jut of la,v­ yers for Ethiopia. 30 Otl1er experts and tl1 e Ministry of Jt1stice expressed aJ)p.reciation for ot1r \.Vork. Tl1e gradt1ates' qt1ality was, with fe\V exceptio11s (dt1 e to occasional overgrading by a part-time i11structor), qt1jte up to the ''capacite'' level reached by acade 1nic sub-d�gr �e gradt1ates in France. Tt1e la\v debati11g class indt1ced tl1 e produc­ _ tt? n and p�bl1cat1�n of a scholarly book . 31 Several of tl1e gradt1ates later ably d1sc�arged. high ass1g1:01e11 ts (e.g. five became St1pre111 e Court judges, inclt1di1 1g one Pres1de11t). Son1e co11t111uecl to JJerfect tl1eir trai11 ino i11 tl1 e advanced la\v cot1rse of b 1956-58. 32 C

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25. 26.

27. 28. 29.

30. 31. 32.

See heading I above. See heading 2 abo ve. See said Bulletin, p. 142. G • Krzeczunowicz, "Ethiopian L . . · on, ,, lot1r11a e ga I E d u cati l of Etl1iopia11 s;rudies, Vol._ 1 (1963)• p . 69. The Law School;5 a. 1 ref e rence materials are cited in the various U.C. �10d·nt . ot ext ao d or Bulletin · s f or the \Vhole per f 1 9 52-59 See belo\v. Me1no of 15. XI. 1955. See preceding page, lines 14 -18 f rom top. See belo�1 •

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THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE PERIOD OF LEGAL EDUCATION

B. Suspension of Professional Legal Education (1955-56) and the ''Law Faculty'' Problem (1955-59)

Before the successfttl terminatio11 of the fi1·st law course, the dean made several proposal� for starting 1?-e� courses. Si11ce annual admission which alone could ensure the Dav1d-s1.1ggested ID101ml1n1 ot1tput of 40 grad11ates per year was excluded by the patent lack of staff and 1nea11s, the dean advocated admissions every second year or, at the very least, starting a 11ew basic law cot1rse immediately upon termin�tion of the first one. Even this req11est was de11ied and the Law School was suspended i11 . 1955-56 in the frt1itless expectation of a possi bility to start a deg.ree-granting law faculty in 1956-57. 33 The only conseqt1ence of the st1spensio11 was the wasting of the teaching pote11tial of Ollr tiny staff, incltiding tl1e single ft1ll time instructor. 34 These decisions affecti11g tl1e Law School, which remained unexplained, were made by the non-lawyer president after consultation with another layman, the. dean of arts, and withot1t asking 01· heedi11g the advice of lawyers. Since the merits -of the College Admi11istration in other fields were immense, this attitude can only be explained by the priority given to the College's avo\ved purpose of educating the G:Ollntry's future leading elites, 35 which a s11b-degree law course was not suppo­ sed to achieve (but see Appe11dix below). And since discontinuance or limitation of professio.nal legal edt1cation was criticized and damaged the College's reputation, from 1955 to 1959 variot1s rash projects we1·e made to start a degree-granting law faculty before there existed the slightest possibility for an effective functioning of such an instih1tion, a fact of which 011ly gradt1ate lawyers could be and were fully aware. In the 1955-59 period the dea11 of the Law School, while plan1ii11g the requested tentative LL.B. progran1s for the ft1ture, repeatedly reft1sed to start and lead prema­ t111rely a full time degree program 36 that, as he pointed out, could- not be successful withot1t (I) subject matte,· to teach, (2) candidates to be taught a. nd (3) self-gover,iment �o administrate : . 1) A full time law instruction to degree-students of an impending national la\v cannot be given before that law comes to exist, that is before the projected codes are enacted37 (or at least ptiblished). Although this evident objection was in itself s1rfficient, the followi11g ones were added: •

2) A degree program requires a minimum of junior college education or its eqmvalent of its candidates. Tl1e University College cot1ld not offer more than fo11r such candidates. '

Tl1e possibilities of starting a Jaw fact1lty were investigated at the reqt1est of tlle Board of Governors, which, however, never demanded a st1spension or curtailment of sub-degree law courses. : 34. The Ministry of Jt1stice cot1ld bardJy be pleased witl1 such policies. It discontinued from 1957_ tl1e basic salary of the dean, wl1ich came to bt11·den the College buclget. • 35. See, e.g., U.C. Bulletin for 1959-61, p. 22. 36. He .had also repeatedly offered to resign (but colt!d not be replaced) when the st1b-degree activities of his law scl1ool were suspended or curtailed. 37 • Only tbe Revised Constitt1tion l1ad reacl1ed tl1at stage by 1955, and tl1e Penal Code by 1957: 33.

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. O II l I N . V L O V W A L N IA P IO I IJOURNAL 01:;- ET

.help fro1n tl1e staff of tl1e arts e . tim rtpa 1 01 lty cu fa w la 1 a n io ss fi e ro p a g 3) Basi11 o11ld condem11 tl1e former t o i11efficiency v 1v , ter lat , the f�ctilty, as \ Va.s P �oposedbby ild objectives are JJoles apart. A p rofessional la w' ods a et • m e t 1v ec sp re since th e d o ffi e I k · Jo an ur I 11g -p sta s1ng au_ 1a , ry ta ge 1d b1 ut o th wi p o c Cll1ty COUld 110t devel 1a . eless, t onomy. th . er rs ev ye N w la e e th t 11a ad gr p to si· us re o vi ob · e er w · t •. 1 s · r o · ects r.;;en1e �ge d _p er1od1ca . ii Tl1e above p o11 a d p y ty 1l J � c1 fa \V }a e ur at . dent's or dean of arts' prem pend 10g t.1 1e establ1slim ent 1001 1 sc 1 aw the of on ati uid liq , . • • • 1959' to the . finaIIY I ed' tn s d 1ng' Ias ted_ four Ller 1�r . JJe11 1 t· f _ . r s Th 3 ' ' s. se r _ 11 co e r� g D of a La\V Faculty offering 7 11eed of legal professionals re di 1n od sto ch b1 \v ia op hi Et years _ a costly loss to wl1ether or not of ''degree'' level.

C. The Advanced Law School Course (1956-58) After a year's suspension of the la\\' scho?l's activities -(i11 1955-56) it \Vas a,greed that, in addition to comn1encing a 11e\V basic sub-degree la\v cot1rse, 39 gradu­ ates of the termjnated first Jaw course should l)e offered. s_on1e adva11ced training, whicl1 was now made possible b · y tl1e appearance of C1v1l Code draft s a.nd the fioaJ text of the Penal Code. The College I>resident, ho1vveve r, barred admission to tl1 e adva.nced co11rse to first course grad11ates i11 tl1e 60-65% g ·rade bracket 4o (altl1ough passi11g grade was 60%). Becat1se of disill11sio11me11t 1vvitl1 tl1ese policies, only sixteen qualifyjng ca11 didates joined the co11rse, of whom tweJ,,e obtained the adva.nced la,v dipJ01na in 1958. 41 Tl1ey remained in1pervious to tl1e suggestion of staying for ,inot]1er year ir1 1958-59, when ft1rther code drafts appeared. 42 The adva11ced co11rse i11cl11ded prin1arily cot1rses i11 the civil law, the Penal Code43 and pt1blic finance. Tl1e adva11ced ci\ 1il ]aw course follo\ved, step by step, ''the gra.dua.l appearance of draft code fragn1ents in tl1e difl�erent brancl1es of Civil Lav.,." 44 The advanced penal law course analysed the Ethjopia11 Pe11al Code. 45 Public finance, wl1icl1 was treated. summarily i;1 tl1e prior course i11 eco11 omics was stud�ed ju detail \vith reference to tb e latest legislatio11. 46 TJ1e debating class was con�1nt1ed as an extra-curricular activity, ,vitl1 instrt1ctors acting i11 a11 advisory ca­ pacity. See_ Ak_lilu I -Iabte, "A Brief Reviev.1 of tl1e History of the U11iversity College of Addis Ababa" Univei: 11J' College Revie1-1, (Spring, 1961), p. 3 I.- quoted in G · Krzcczuno,vicz cited above �I · · ' note / 8' p . 68 . 39. Se e D, below. 40. Contrary to the dean's preference tor equa 1 act \Vas, 1n a · · n11ss1on. de_ a n Inc1cle1: · i t�llly h e la\V t _ , n1easure, a figurehead: the Law School s utono n1y ! \Vas substantially l11111tecl to curr1ct1lar matters. a 41 . TI1et. r names we re as follows· ·Asliena BekeI e · B ete 1v fi '1ar1a� 1, · Tseha y, Assefa e Atnaf Tsega ye, 1-!abte ?vii.lea.el. Fekela .Sclassi� e ahu H ,abt e Ma. r1a_ .m Walde Kidane, Kassa Beyene, Lemn1a Feys sa, Mebrehatu Fis scha Tei.at OLl �ey_ enc, Tcfe�·1 Len1111a, Worqu Beshaye. The instructors were Mess/s. Kr ecz ow1� z (full t1111c). Gr bo,vski a.nd Stanley. � � � 42. Their justification was that tJ1 - � e res� ei1t-imposecl pro1111se 111 1956 of LL.B. degrees for them (\vhich was then a Dor ba rring the "belovv 65%" candidates: see above) had bee D . c n � g obliterated by the ci�: o unc1. l 43 · Wh'ich was enacted in 19 57. . 44· q.J.C. �ulletin fo r 1956-58, p. 177 ff) · Inci _ \Vere ve rv difficult to obtain . ,dentally, these dratts since, 1n the Government's ., vi•ew, th ey \Vere confidential do cun1ents. 45. Id., p. 178. 46. Ibid. 38-

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THE UNJv"ERSin·· COLLEGE PERJOD OF LEGAL EDUCATION

D. The Second Basic Law School Course and the Liquidation of the Law School (1956-59) For its first two years (1956-58), the second ha.sic law cot1rse was conducted simulta11eously ,vith the above described alivanced co11rse �or se11iors. The resulting additional need for part-ti1ne i11str11ctors47 was eventt1ally satisfied as well as could be without budgetary suppor·t. Disillusionment with the College policies regarding 48 to that of p1·eve11ted a ''lat1dslide'' of candidates simila. r 1952. education legal Entry was also limited by the ]1igher adn1issio11 req11irement of twelve grades of seconda.ry ed11cation or a·n eqt1ivale11t in ed.ucational or pro·fessional experience in addition to the passi11g of a tol1gh proficiency test in the Engljsh language. Only twelve candidates registered, of whom eight graduated in 1959. 49 The co11rse benefitecl from the enactment of the 1957 Penal Code and the gradual a.ppearance of draft fragn1ents of tl1e outstanding Civil Code. For this reason, the c11.rricul Llm differed somelvhat from that of the first basic law co11rse of 1952-55. The foIIowi11g is an ot1tline of the courses that covered 3 years of six periods per week ins·truction: In the firsi Jrear (I 956-57), tl1ree courses were offered. The ''Theoretical Intro­ duction to Lav-1'' familiarized the students with. jurisprudence, sources of law, and world11g concepts of law, whereas ''Historical Introduction to Law'' stressed the development of st1ch institutions as fa1nily, ownership and the state and analysed t.he Christian and Roman law infl·uences on the traditional law of Ethiopia. In a third course, the students were i1.1trod·uced to the nature, scope and basic co·ncepts of ·the new Ethiopian Pe11al Code. 50 In tl1e secorzd year (1957-58), an introdt1ction to Roman and. civil law ,vas combin.ed ''as it is considered usef11l from the 011tset to t·each Roman law as 'living' system, with the emphasis laid on those of its insti­ tutions which still underly the modern civil law systems and the coming Ethiopian Civil Code. ''51 Another course dealt i11 detail with the problems of punishments under the new Penal Code. Finally, the enactment of the Revised Constjtution of Ethiopia provided material for a new important co11rse on the Ethiopian Constitu­ tion and Government. 52 In the third year (1958-59), the area of obligations was given priority · in a detailed study of the Civil Code, since the draft of that area was first made available. 53 The pe11al law lectures covered the Special Part of the Penal Code dealing witl1 particular offences. 54 The emphasis given throughot1t the curriculum to the Penal Code was simply due to its complete availability in final form. The above priorities have prevented a st11dy of commercial law as those d.raft provisions were not available. '•

47. See p. 89, 3., above. 48. When 121 had applied: see above. 4·9. The gradt1ates' names were as follows: Abebe Gt1angu], Alemayehou Eshete, Asrat Tek:le Marjam, Fekade Selassie Zawdie, Han1awi George, Legesse \'\'olde Mariam, Worku Ferede, Worku Tafara. The instructors were Messrs. Bereket Ab Habte Selassie, Krzeczunowicz (fttll time) and Graven. 50 • U.C. Bulletin for 1958-59, pp, 172-74. 5 I . Id., p. 174. 52. (Id., p. 175) ably discl1arged by our first. Ethiopian Jaw jostructor cited abo,,e at note 49. 53. Id., p. 176. S4. Id., p. J 77 .

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L. VIII - NO. I O V W A L N IA P O lI J T E F JOURNAL O

ed by d low gra fol Llalio1 1 of tl1 e 9, 195 1e J111 in ce pla k too n t·o 1 a • . . al exam111 · l1e f1n · T . 1 s wa q11 111a ll fi I 1 I Y 1· d c oo ate sch law r (fo . tl1e 111 ally er aft ere Tli 55 . t· es a 1 d"d n , ca . 1 u f ss . Q:)1 t s11cce ei . f· e 1· h. 1111 1ev re to r 01n co 11s1derar . . ite wr s . • tl11 . ,._, ed ask nt de esi Pr the d 0) an · ' · · . • . 1n. J�. 1 111a1.y 196 th e en h w. p1 t1111e . om11I gat1011 of very the at TllIS ' • ects i J pro, +: 1 01 • cu · . . ·. . d • .. d tIOJl Of 1a\l,'-lilStru l ec a11 111 q1 1e e · pe11111tte th ) 60 19 ay (M im s de Co a1 me ci · ei· m 1 · ·' 1 n O c e th d an 1 -1 1, C. the · 56 of a 111ax1111u111 11L1 • • · 111b e r of lawue e]s Jev l era sev at ion . tict "J rs d.1ate tra1n111g and prod · 57 · . . . s e 1 d 111 · wy ed I 1 1 er . 1 c s11 d delayof a11 l< lac 1e �l 1. en tl1 � ply ap � to le ab . be __t 011 ,vho would fec 1al ef 11t l 11e cia eq so 11s co a e th n. d ecotl1 w1 t, e11 n1 lop ve de al leg 's try tii, ed tlle co 11omic developn1e11t.

E.

''Fringe'' Teacl1ing of La,v in the Faculty of A.rts (1952-62)

i_ts. It l1ad with _ The defu11ct U11iversity College l1ad, in ge11eral , ou.tstanding mer sn1all 111 eans initiated a n1odern systen1 of !Jost-secondary ed11cat1011 111 Ethio1)ia. It some SJJecia­ had also as 's0011 as wa.s possible, diversified its curric11l11n1 to allow 1 od 1lly intr essf1 s11cc 1ced options in, Arts lizatio11 i11 senior years. Thus, tl1e Faculty of for exa1nple, ad1ninistration, ed11catio11, eco1 1omics: Tl�ese optio11s . gradually develop­ ed i11to auto1 10111011s sections or de1Jart1J1e11ts, wh1cl1 111 t11r11 as 111 tl1e case of tl1e Educatio11 Depart1ne11t, proved a steppi11g sto11e towards developme11t i11to a full­ fledgecl fac11lty. A per11sal of tl1e various U. C. B11lletins s 1Ja1111i11g tl1e College's existe11ce (I 95 I62) ind.icates tha.t efforts v.1ere n1ade to tea.cl1 - an1011g otl1ers - legal s11bjects i11 the Faculty of Arts or its extension depart1ne11t. B11t ,tpc:trt fro111 a l1alf-l1earted and sbortlived attempt to establish a ''Pre-Lavv'' sectio11 of doL1btf11l stat11s, 58 tl1ese legal subjects were not i11tegrated i11to a, col1ere 11t law progran1 or ta11gl1t 011 ,'.l profes­ sional basis. Witl1011t creatio11 of a rnajor a1 1tono1no11s law depart111e11t, 110 stepi)ing sto11e towards a La.,v Fac11lty co11ld be placed witl1ii1 the Arts Fac11lty, wl1ere t1Je J aw subjects ,vere offered in a ''general cL1lt11re'' fra1neworlc, or were i 11tegrated ,vith and orie11t �d to the objectives of s11bjects otl1er tl1an law. Law ,vas sin1ply taught on the ''fringes'' of the arts curricul111n, as, for exclI11J)le, fi11a11cial ]aVi' as relevant to econo111ics or ad111i11istratio11. 59 certain Arts Fac1 1lty sections l1ave, at various ti111es, provided their Ne,,erthele�s, _ st11de11Ls Vi11t!1 a s11fficient backgro1111cl for degree-level stL1cly of Ia,v abroad. Son1e of . .

55. •

�6 -

57 .

.

58.

59 ·

Several of �he 111 have by now achieved pron1i neoce. For exan1p holds an Taf le, ara \1/o rku LL.B. and ._1s a pern1a�e11t men1ber of ot1r Law Faculty ; Ma jor 1 ebe Guangul holds an Al LL.B. �nd teaches law 1 n the _Law Faculty's Extension; holds Ma rian Ma 1 jor Leg \1/ ess old e e fv f .C.L. aod te�ches law 1n botl1 the La w Fa culty Extension a11d tl1e Police College; �or ku Ferc,,.de acl11ev ed a French law doctorate; e le. · 0�1; l J ng at degree level still prese11ted grave pro � ble111s: see G..Krzeczuno>vvicz, cited above : ;� � : 0 tegrated teacJ1ing Non-in of law fragmen • ute r10 r , ts tO some Arts faculty stude11ts -..vas 110 substit . Suc1,1 t1·a·1n1n · g: see be Iow. . . Its head had no PO\Ver to fix h"15 · se owri curriculun,. The names of tl1e fe-vv grad v,ho · es uat • · • . A · degrees 1e B . ce1v · ed th e "P re -L aw " 111 18 m. en b. 1t io n ia 111 9 · . · 958 1 -60 · A wer 58: e foll as 1 ow In s. Gabre Ma · Asse:1 d s a, B k el� Nadi, Gabre Mask B c r i� al ia lgilig°:, TefTeri Be rhan ;; � "'Tesbag-are ���be; r 1 9 L sa , 1-lagos Gebre Yesus; J-Ian1a\v1 George, Kebbe ' H abte, tv1alake Selam Bekele' 1 cie beyhou, Sa1nuel Yemane. Ale 1na Tes yeh fay ou, e For othe.r ex, amp 1es se·e G· Krzec . · � 11 ow1cz zu , cited ab ov e at note 28 lJ. 74, no te 30. , .

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TI-IE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE PERIOD OF LEGAL EDUCATION •

our arts bachelors were thus enabled to achieve ·foreign LL. B. degrees at a time when Ethiopian law was not yet crystallized and the national law faculty 11ot estab­ lished. 60 F. -

End of College Era and Revival of Professional Legal Education (1962-63)

At the end of the year 1961, l-Iaile Sellassie I U11iversity came into formal existence, with the developn1e11t of professional legal ed11cation in Ethiopia as its first priority objective. Tl1us, several montJ1s before tl1e old University College h. a d ceased to exist as a t111it, the policy clecisio11s concer11i11g legal education had already passed to the new t11tive1·sity. The be11eficial effects of tlus 11ew sitt1ation in the long-neglected field of the st1b-degree legal i11structio11 was itnn1ediate. A la1;v committee, established by the 11niversity, 61 decided at 011ce to offer s·ub-degree cottrses in law that were largely open t. o candidates f1·on1 p·rofessio11s si1nilar to those wliich constituted the ''reser· ­ voir'' of tl1e old Lavi Scl1ool in 1952. 62 Tl1e acc11mt1lated demand for s11cl1 co11rses., t1nsatisfied for years, p1·od11ced a landslide of 490 accepted candidates. ,

T·he courses, V✓l1ich started i11 Janua1·y 1962, were from the outset divided into �A.mharic and English Iang11age sections. The latter's level was necessarily lJ.igher, si.nc,e it both implied a higl1er ed11catio11al backgro1111d (English \Vas learned at high. school) and used a la11guage riche1· i11 n1odern legal termi110Jogy. In contrast to the old Law School, and in view of tl1e country's tremendous acc11mulated ·11eeds for law-yers, the committee set low ad111ission requirements (literacy pl11s interview), Ie-av­ img elim,ination of the 11nfit to orclinary attrition processes (which already i11 the first semester brol1ght the total dovvn to about 300 students). Teaching was greatly facilitated by the availability of codes for all the 1natters tat1tght. 63 T'11e following is a list of the co11rses offered. Co11stitutional Law; Pe11al Law Amharic Section; Penal Law English Section; Penal Procedure; Civil Law (Perso11s a:nd Family); Civil Law (Obligations and Com­ mercial Law). 64 The sub-degree law courses ·beca1ne a pe1·n1ane11t featt1re of the u11iversit)7 and were integrated jnto the later established Law Fac11lty. Tl1e commjttee next addressecl itself to prepari11g the grot111d for a law fact1lty. Tbe law faculty problem had two broad aspects. First, it req11ired a budget ,vithin

60. 61.

Particularly usefLtl were tl1ei1· stL1dies at tl1e McGill Univ,ersity of QL1ebec (see note 5, abo\•e). The committee was composed of eigl1t Ethiopian lawyers occt1pying pro111inent official positions alild holding foreign law clegrees, and tl1ree expatriate experts. 62. See above. 63. The latest enacted being the 1961 Code of Critninal Procedttre. 64. Tb.e respective instrL1ctors (mentioned in tl1e same seqt1ence) were Messrs. Bereket Ab Habre Sellassie, Nerayu Jsayas, Philippe Graven, Charles Mathew, Belatche,v Asrat, Tesl10111e Gebre Mariam a11d M:ohammed Abdt1rraman.

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11 - NO. l L 1/1 VO V \\ L1 N f\ Pl IO l IET . F O AL N JOUR

rs cto tru fro1n abro,Ld. IIis ins el lev g11 hi d ari s - per nd fu Im as ll · 1aJ we as ty rsi ive the tln · vers1ty · 's top ad m11· 11s · · t t r� bl1s1e�l tb�mselv ra un � the and � es With Majesty the Chancellor nm e, n itte the mm ed co p ern nc co a ly invo! e 1ch wb , ect asp d on sec . this aspect. The d v d 1 0 and par aw pre y .g st a J _ � t el d firs 11. �lev ree deg � for s ate raf did t obtaini11g fit can r .. Fo ds �ee tlus pu rpose a ian 1op E!h f o w vie _ of nt po tbe m ! fro _ a curriculum su�'. 1 111tc wed v1e ancl prepared a r· committee was forn1ed, 65 1nclud1ng this ,vr1ter who ed par pre a summary of the s;�'. als He . ate did can � ial ent pot n seve nty twe ; list o\ _ . at1011s 1or adm1ss1on to tl1e Law Fac . 11lty' the dcgree con11111ttee's views on the. qualif1c . . research req111s1tes regard111g the a.vaila b·li. to be offered, the ciurat1on of stt1 dy, the 66 y 1n1 icul1 tl1e curr and to be ts n1en docu followed �� e of case reports and. legislative resulting �ubco�nlittee report of Fe1;>ruary _23, 1963 was67 transmitted to J am es ·c .N Paul, the 1ncormng Dean, a11d except 1n curr1c11�ar matters, was largely iinplem ented: The Law Faculty made its successful start in September, 1963. Its develoP nient i n the consecutive issues of tliis JOllrd is set forth in the Dean's Reports publishe . . perspective, we postpone our assessment of its histo ry. . U:lI . F"Of l ack., as yet, of suff 1c1e11t

65. The subcommitte . e mem '" bers appointed o1.1 A tche.w Kibre pn·1 9, 1 � 62 \Vere .Messrs. Belatcl1e\-V Asrat, � eta• . t, Bereket Ab Habte S ellassie ' w. uhag1ar, o\VIC�, 66. 1:he research imped d K.rzec2t1n P. Graven an G. � im _ cited above at note 28en. ts to be overco� e _ 1n tl11s fielci were set out in G K.rzeczuno,v1cz, His articl wa . s 301.ned to the st1bcomrnittee report �e�tioned be)o \V, 67. In which the views � . of th.e mcomtng team 0 f .inst. ructors fro1n ti1e U.S.A. \-Vere to prevaJI.

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APPENDIX

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,

Below, we submit the results of repeated attempts* to ascertain and list, so far as possible, the present or last titles and positions held by the 1955 and the 1959 graciuates of the old University College Law Scl1ool (see supra, notes 24 and 49) a,11d, if any, their main postgraduate p11blications. The brackets after the names contain brief citations of the degrees and titles, if any, held in addition to the University College law diploma(s). The ad'vanced diploma graduates of 1957 (supra, not·e 41) are not mentio11ed separately but are included in the 1955 first diplom.a h.@lders list (supra, note 24). ''Pre-law'' B.A. graduates (supra, note 58) are not Gc1ns. idered at all. The graduates' names are spelt as in notes 24 and· 49. This spelling necessarily follows that used in the original records and the official Univer� sjty Colle,ge Bulletins, wit.ho11t considering the varying English transliter.ation practices used thereafter. . .

A. Law diploma graduates of 1955

I. Abebe Teferi (Brig. General) 2. A.shenafi Betemariam 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

lo. 11. 12. 13. 14.

15 •

Senato.r Regional Manager, Imperial Board of Telecommunications Legal A�visor, Commercial Bank of Assefa Tsegaye (B.A., LL.B.) Ethiopia Advocate, class A Atn.afe Tsehay Bekele Habte Mikael (LL.B.; H.H.) Vice President, Supreme Imperial Court, Asmara position unknown Beyene Wolde Mariam Senator D-awit Gabru (Colonel) Head Legal Department, Imperial Police Debebe Hurissie (M.C.L., Force Lt. Colonel) position unknown Egeta Feyissa Baltche Presiding Judge at Imperial High� Court, Eyassu Gebre Hawariat Addis Ababa (Captain, H.H.) Presiding Judge at Imperial High Court, Fekede Selassie Getahun Addis Ababa (Major, H.H.) Ministry of Education, Curriculum DeGabre Wodajo partment · Legal Attorney, Internal Revenue DepartHajlu Negau ment • Governor of Yerer and Kereyu awraJa Habte Mariam Wolde Kidane (Fitawrari) Advocate, cl.ass A Hiwet Hidaru (Kegnazmatch)

• �au�e ef repeated delays in the appearance of th.is paper we apologize for any resulting lapses r:eg&;dmg the l·atest data.

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'4 1 . VIII - NO. I L O V W A L N A PI IO H T E JOURNAL OF

16. Hovannes Kaypaghian 17. Kassa Beyene (LL.B., H.H.) 18. 19.

20. 21. 22. 23.

24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

31.

32.

33.

34. 35. 36. 37.

38. 39.

Managing Director, Lion Insurance Co. Vice President, S11preme Imperial Court Addis Ababa

realtor Kanaa Guma (Captain) - Vice-Ivlinister, Central ner Commissio Kebede Gebre Mariam (B.A., Agency; author of Public Personnel LL.B.; H.E.) Admi1zist r�1tion & Develo1J1ne1zt in Ethio­ pia (Add1s Ababa, 1970, HSIU Law Fac11lty Archives) Advocate, class A Kidane Maashow to Den1ocratic Ambassador Rep11blic of el, on ol (C na an H de ol W sse Lege Zaire. H.E.) General Manager, E LSOLEM; realtor Lemma Feyssa Mebrehatu Fisseha (Brig. General) Chief Administrator, Wild Life Conservation Department in private business Mohan1med Badri position unk11own Negash Denneke insurance agent Pandit V.J. General Ma11ager, Savings & Mortgage Semie Takelie Corporatio11 of Ethiopia Vice-Administrator Ge1-1eral, Haile SelJassie Sha1nsu Ahmed I Fou11dation Head Criminal I11vestigation Department, Shifferaw Amare (Colonel) Imperial Police Force Senator Silesrue Difabatcbew (Fitawrari) Tadesse Delnessahot1 Advocate, class A (terminating graduate law study in tl1e USA) Tadesse Mengesha (H. E. Afe retired, former President Supren1e Im­ Negus) perial Court, Addis Ababa Tafarra Deguefe (B.Com.) General Manager, Con1mercial Bank of Etl1iopia; auth.or of book on Capital Formatio11 in Ethiopia (Addis Ababa, University College, I 958) and several learned articles Tebabou Beyene (H.H.) President, Imperial Higl1 Cot1rt (forn1�r Vice-President, Supreme Co11rt), Addis Ababa Teferi Lemma (I-1.E.) Vice-Ministe r, Mi11istry of Co1nn1erce1 Indt1stry ancl Touris111 Telahun Birru Director, Ministry of Public \Yorks Worku Beshaye (Licencie en droit) deceased Zaude Meshesha (Licencie en ' y ghwa Hi tlead Legal Depart1nent, I1nperial droit) Authority Zenbe W orque Haile (Lt. Colon el) _ deceased

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THE UNIVERSl1'Y COLLEGE PERIOD OF LEGAL EDUCATION

B. Law diploma graduates of 1959

1.

Abebe Gu�ngul (LL.B.; Major)

2. A.lemayehu Eshete (Licencie en droit) 3. As1:at Tekle Mariam 4. Fekade Sellassie Zawclie 5. Hamawi George (B.A., B.C.L.) 6. Legesse Walde Mariam (M.C.L., M.C.A.; Major) ? . Worku Fered,e (Docteur en droit)

Legal Advisor & Deputy Commissioner, Public Central Administration & Pensions Commission; lecturer, Law Faculty Extension Haile Selassie I University Advocate, class A position unknown Chief Comptroller, Haile Sellassie I University Advocate, class A Law Instructor, Aba Dina Police College, lecturer at Law Faculty Extension Haile Sellassie I University; Legal Advisor to Commissioner, Imperial Police Force. Legal Advisor, National Bank of Ethiopia; author of La Responsabilite du fait des choses en droit ethiopien et francais compares (Faculte de droit

8. Worku Tafara (LL.B.)

de l' Universite de Paris, 1967). Full time Lecturer, Faculty of Law Haile Sellassie I University, presently on graduate research assjgnrnent in the USA.

• f

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fi'?f: : Ai : ?"Ah;I.. ' rl,l1"1 : {lt\on,ntl:P

nti, 'fflo:,-. :

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hif..•: (l,ro• .: t\'11�": lJ:11: lDf,'I°: ll/J .,4>0J•: hm:f>/lA: lDf,'J°: i,.;.c; .;: (J:J> : tlfbl\ :1. : 1\0'lti�� .. 1--: 11,,.. ,P�:,-- : 'h .. 4'�1': flODilr:,-r;: /lOI/lD:,, : }\i�:J!A: /\"'I Y:l'11 : rtrtm«J>?°n:,-- : 9°Ah-r : 111/ll:," : �lD• (1\9°1\ll, : (l{l�: ffiC{ID•(l : l\f, 1 0 r i11·ro• : il'1°) := nhw·e;r : n+,:qo : �tL : i,if." : f1°1 ..�': Af..: ?°AnT: 1,"}f..• lDf,'I°: l/'(\:,-- : --t·'?'lel-;: f.,&...'/i'I°: �nt: :: 1'1f..'1:: fi,."}..(!:: h.4>: llt\ o.:,-.; : /\f,.,f-: fll;r w•:J> A: U··t\--r�: 1 flt if.' : }\:J' : A� : 9° i 6f!>i: t\J?,-f·: ,,ril ;r w•.<J> A: (ll9°'1t\, : LPtOJ•i : (D f., : 'if (;l;bj) ! f,U9° : fiiro·e;r; : i°l j.!• : f(l l\f, '1 ;'f• : t\ 'I llt. :f!w-= f', ;J � ?11-- :: 011U (lc»:f : (�A�il): il fl: }, .cJ> 9':1·•: 'l°i '611:f,c;: 'l't.T : f"?,OD /lhrJ: : ,"ft"Jo:f•c;' : flP'&,.: l\f, : j\OT/'f'/;\: }t"},c:;::,••fl-. : {ltrJ9"° = t1 ill 1\1.. s 'lar :1

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-- trT: t;:fm-:- f1A"lfto:'f-: 'l°AhT I +ooltti_e, = il'l°:Y..'I° : f"7.h·l ll,�l-: ftlt1llT : mf,9° : hm:J>/\,.e, : 'l°An:,.,•• : h:J>t0- : f,f•(lt..OT'l : (l;.r : f"'l.fltf,= -OIJOD/,\h:J! :: 1''1H4U'J° : 1'"}f. : f"}-?f: : Af. : 'J°Ah:'f- : Oi't.."1·\"'A-f : "1<1/ : r+m (l';.: hf,f...ir'J° :: f1A°lll�:,- : 'J°AhT : "7/l:,.. : ''i't"}f: : (lro· : f"'l.f+CO(J)c"} : -= = = ibftolhoi fl9'l.. r+cn�:,..= tt.1A°lfto"1 = floonr:,.. = f"'l.ll''l = 1t1A°I�:,.. 11 9°Ah--r : ',ar'' :: i\'J°ltt\, 1 f\6l!''IT : 0°7.f1/\"lfr,r : oon.'.?>la : l\f, : f"'l.1 10J-: il9°: mf,9": h'Jf: : fA.-Oil : 'l?i:ht; : oo(l�: llmll:f(Dc: A-O(lif-: ouif '-..f : l\f, : fOIJ.11lD• : il9° : f1A°lfto:,• : 9°ATIT : OI/i\T : 'llJJ« :: f1A°lftoT : 9°Ah-f:f 1 01°1.. �: Af. : 9°Ah1'--1' : ;r�h : tD4il'P : (l(IIJm). : J\Jtil : 9°ot,.<j:: 12 bti!+cp/,\ :: f"}°lf: : /,\f. : 9°An--f·'f : fto:1>9'1.. : 1t"}f,.OIJ.(lm-T : 'PO:P : lrir : h�ILU: f1A'?fto:'f-: 'J"A:tJ,f,:f-9° : fttt1A°l�,f--1• : +outa.ti_e.: 'PO:J> : ilftD?..(lm-: 11-'=11:: J\1C'1' : ;,11u-:f- : 1'1f.. : f"}<IJf: : Af.· 1 9°An.f1-- : i',f:C1tJJ« : f(IDf\h 13 :t:f'PI!\ : = lf'r9° ! h&A : 'PO:J> I '1.f,(ltp.:ftD-9° :: f°7"10C : tDf,9° : f:'f--011C : 9°Ah'T : f"'l.llftlJJ« : '''tt"}f: : "'l�nc : O"'l�Ol,f•?'f:f. : J\OI/ti�'IT : fOIJ..mt,. : h:J» : (rof,9°: 1'.:J>?'l-1) : mf,9°: f62.(l'P: '1.1A'?ftoT : (mf,9°: J\1A°lir>,Y..1'): 14 foo',(J;l:0-l-1 : (l;r : ftf,fc = (1"700Ah:, fOIJ.m4>9°0T = 'l°ATI"f' : ',(Dc'' :: ftLU9° : 9°'11\. : 0'1. "}1: : flP&.+;;: : O?�nc : J\OI/ti�'l"f' : f+lP�:'f- : "h:J>9'1' : 111, = rori.r'"(De = m1,'J° = tt.11: = "h:J> = +Ll\1.(1}«1 = f..l� = r'" = t..ou tr�: \167..f(ll� : 9°ATIT : 1'l�1 : (167..4',llJmlOJ• : Y:c�:,.. : f"'l.hmLlJJ« s 9°AhT : ',(De:: "h�tLU9° : 0-0lf4: n1C'1"' : 0.-"h°l s f+mn'k : t;:f(Dc :2 fh1C = 9°·"}61!' : 9°ATIT : 'tt"}f: : 1':J> : f:'f- : 1t"}f..1-rP� : fODftt);r/,\ :1 f,tJ'J° : (111)9° : 11

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IL 'ie : _e·:;·I\A : 11t\1 : (\OD(D{l"}: 0011·:,.. : fl\llT: rooooq()/,\:. -c OD·ffi'l : {lJ'"}�"}� : U--).:f : f+l\ff : �(J}• :: 1,C°lT: �(& : Thht\� : '?A'l� : n.1� = 1r A1.1t = ou1the = l\.• 'ic ,,e:fl\A = °1l\T = �m- �1c = '?1: 9°Ah+:f: = fl°lX': it"}f;: qj!,�T: ODlf"} : .1'.1f...lbi\CJTOJ«: °lfA7'•: �O)c :: 9°19° : 1'_"}';1."} : f+�OJ« : 11C : mCJJ!,: h°2.1•1m· : 1'.-4> : ;J/r.: +il'P'PliJ.b: l\.lJ'1: fi.i""A9°: �'l-1 iID"ft- : A� : Af.. = 9°AtJ,f,:f.., = (1"?0011 H1 : t,f m'i--9° I T:J>�1 : '11�:Y..1 : ° O�I\� :. f,l.'1'PIA :: i:t> : iL 11-1 : OtDflJ : 1.1-1, : f1°l� : 9 Ah�1: 'r:J>�1: h�fto:f : l),eoo1..9°C : t,.(t«: fl.ODCT : y;:;..I\IA J OJJ!,9° : 7f (J;); : t\,(lmm«: f.,i' .. : f"}°lf:: 9°An,f-.:f-- : llm�I\I\ : h11(: )1tj:fA: lit,\:: f(D«'i!'.: h.1C : tj:Cf: : n,.y.;f flti<t:A : ooon 1-f ti"} : 1,1,,e..lbl\ l1:f1& :. f, itU'J "1 It- :: 9°Ah...y..�f-"} : 1n1 : l\1n1 : n'l?'JP = A�.,,r..'f1 = oo�A'? = .,..,ll = '1.J!,f...t\9° i ��O)c = tr.(l«'t = 1111''i = nil+ J : 'Pf, : ll!Atr�m· : +&-: ouro(i'} : '" : i',1:C"ln : OD/the : t\.'rc: : ou;rtt-1 11C : fl; . . . . . 27 ltll0T � . {ID

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• . . ----25. hl\1, :' 0°7ll:rmil·: 4:TC: 3·f : ·f,f•m4'flw· : f; r�fl- = ll9°9°�-l· t ckTC_= !ll: 1-0·ll I hfi:flo� • -F'i" : -6 ,: 26. It. = h��c ; hl\,e. : 0"7ll;l·m7i = •1? rc • f : f...l•m+fla,«"} s 1K" : ��-ttf. = J?,00llh:tA r1 27 · hH.J>w• : {ltLU : �T1l = l\f. : frl•flmOJ• : f1,�}C : hlli•.rf:,-- 0/.\ � : f'}-'JJ.!'" : 9°Ah--l· • ittdJ ' ODv,l.,}• : ootihC'} : 0 "'l.filh,)·/,\ : OVODt'\(1/,\ : V°l11..r:,.. : f'}-'JJ:': : 9°/.\h.f•:f'} 9°111'1 'l\."7 IP(.lf J OJJ?,V° : /\°1il+t.,"f- : ftPJ..1.. /.1 lD•"} : hit. : fOI/.OV/\tlT : }a,« =1 lf'i9° 1 ftYl/,,e,1'1 • a,«J:':J:':C 1 001/.,fflh,rt\lD-9° : ovtihc : {D•(l-T , ll.v•&.C):fa,. t f<P/.;r ,A : f,OV{ll\t\ � . 1

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f°1'? : i\\1 = ":J>S"·:f. = 61!>&.7i = f"'I Y, 00ltflit- : n.ir�-. : ootihc : A.'ft: : 'lf,1-�9° = i'tif: : '1:JYu = f1°1Y: = 9°Ahi: = l\,I\ = nro• = +m�'l°n:,-. : ': A : : t\.4'1i10."r ' ' itl\OIJ..":f itao« f, U'} : l\Ol/ithAhA : f,t.A°l : .f,lf'i/A : 1: '' -Oi l\" � a,{l ;,OJil : f.1'1A :: f, U : ''il.9° : OD«f>',il :'' fOl/...l\OJc : it'lllA : f,f-- ODtp tJf--OJ- : Jri11: : f1°1Y: : 9°Ah'1-: fn1..l!' : h:f>: oo{\f: 'lro« I ill\J-LtJ9°: f"}"JY:: & : it il-f..lt(!"fi : l\f, ',ro• : : «f?TC h.POJ·'} : _ O;J•f fil;t ro·ltA O"t/\t 1: : : : :: 9°Ah �,:JloOJ- : +m4'00 : fOl/.flt\ID- : f"}'•11: : 9°/,\h� : ft.(t«'}: },:J> : l\(lt& � O.fil ;r tJJ« A : 1''}j.S� : n,tr>-:i."-- : 11 It' : 'h ?'1�-'} : fl.fit:1-- Orit .: f, g,f.. I\'I° :: 'I°Ahrf: : f, n. .. : <J! 'I'C : f',-� ..eOro-; : },:J> : IP/ '1 &\ 1' : h1l tt- : /\, 1\0".-f : h :J>9'';.f : ,;J Ire : 11--t-,,, ODe.. & 11 lt jf ,f: �• t J!.A F.. flrf•tJ,1 •I: : fP/ t'J° 7'f4>',(l : :: 11�> 1\/\t : : : 9°Ah : 1-t:J> : : l : f f : f ° t 'J° : f"}'} : : l\f, : h'P/\ 19" 1 : : 1 : : f,tJ : A� : 0,f,,',:,-W'/° fi . l 'h"}l;\ ,l1llf 9 tp;J>9° 9°Ah:'f--: b11�+.;:ro-, 1'j> � �t,.. : (lOl/ffOD�.. : f,U"}: '/°An:,-.: 111\:t!ro-: h.P 9'l- : ;J/r'I° : f1'i1'PIA :: n,11•tJ�l.'if'I° :;: f,U : ''fil'J° : IP/F..'ll\� : rof,'J° : 004> f �ll fi\11:: 'l°An:i·•: A�: fODl '}: mllii: OOD°lt.�: f,IJ: f'}"lf:: 'J°A ti,l- : llth°l : 'h 1f... : ft 1.f: : f"}"l Y: : 'I°Ah:i·• : '1'0:J> : 1,1�(lmro•· : I\«7 �l°l : itfPr°l:, . i mf,'l° : fO,f_,:J!A : ti.elf'}: i'tf,4'C'J° I 9°h1f-f::9° : it"}Y.' : f1°1Y: : 9°ATIT9°: Ot-"h°l: 1,1>'z.m0�: A�: fODlf'} = mflf,: 1,1�.'f l.lD•: fil&..A,:JIA :: ootibc : 1t..e.c11 : fi.TA9° : 'l.e'fA ! r,1J : ''ft9° : IP/J!..lll\� : Wf,9° : 004>',{l'' ° f°t1Too"} : ?°Ah�J: : 'lAlf'I : 1,� : l\f, : f1T�9 : (Lm·A : ill\lf'I I it,J.': : u 'l;J!o : ''il9° : "11,.lll\�, : m,,e.,9 : oo<f>',il'} I\IP/h4'l:,•• : fl\Or = �ft1n'1- : r -fOl/.t.ltro- : ,f tD��tCD• : "/,;JYu : ft.. (t« : f}t\.lf', : 9°An"1· : ''houm+'I° :· n.: 1 1'

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h1oi1: = 9°An,,Y..'i--'i = h"2..lP4i--T = /J:J>9'1''J° = m'lf, = l\,I\ = .e..,n?'f-1--1 = 'itPJ.f1,.'i°l� : 1ltl· : '11�"":i"-- : Jilt.- :: l\9°'1lb : Of,°lfl:� : l\f, : htf '.Or : i'tillP/.'i : ftooA{l : (ltJJ__ : ,hl\k ',,f: : f,t-ro(l', : f�1)!C : f il�T : ooh., 'i : h·lli1 : ooti bA = nr,nt.a,.. = t1chc = fOI/f,1fl = .-,..ro��t = nooflA = nil = r«1>t.nn:,.. = Y,"lfl�:. Qf,: rt,.(}-1 : Ft,. : hoo)!004,. : n,...:,.. : fDDAil : (1'11. : +«l>llJt : If'f : f,l.Pt,. : f�Ol.'i : JPt.ar'} : hloPl9° : {1:\1\ : \11"1f: = 9°AtJ,J:1 = il'rt:: : P't.ro•'} = 33. 1t.. • Jt��c i hl\f.. , O"'ill;:J·m"l· � �rrc • f I r..t-m4>i'lm - � 1K" : t:l: 11 Of..'i".e.:,..� , il,t:,..ll • m-{l,p • illloY.11ro• : '1•(1}-t11 = fOD:Pt:.:J· : .K"'}il : U/t,fl • illl+flm • 1\.ll•t-,, f fT • ''�.flo1i"} 1 :i•t. Y.."OWJCh I h1-'i!&1-l:OD,-,l• I hC'l!A I 1-- : ff : 'l!i'l'T :'' '/C'ifC� I /l0 &a.Or � ii'Af..r t:"% I (IDf9%) I 11' I lift I f,DP/lh;t:A c: (l ..t-�"769° ,! ibhrf•C ! }11\.e I (lD"lll;t-mif 1 �TC: J{ = f•f-ill +llm -1- ,f f,OD/l1l�A ss :

- 113 -

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J ;I• .• JJIJ.J n n . t;.. • A A : (l ,,.1-. : TI OD fl OJ{.: l,. OJ RIO.. 0 lD ✓. •:. , ,a • ., ,, • • OJ • ' II : 11 {ID/.\ : l · f',(l .. !"12�": ,. .,. l : . : . : { '}•, ,"I" f,U f :: lD· l• ', , : ,} flij: : ��: il'I' 01 , 'I : ,n'J � : �� · 1 0:,.. : h'l(llm«: . . ,, l . &. f: /.\ ll. !A rlt f, : C 'i . fl : 1C : '1 · ,1 ·tt {l : fOIJ.ftiil i o'lJ.?,· oo•;I � . = m , t fa .. P.P. l· : lD ?J, .. . ,, .. · /. · ' P/. ft : : .,:, tP/. , ,1 tt?. f<J�'l'C: jjf 1Q ... .,..: . .... ,..uif ,,. , , • .,, . , .. Ol) A A (J o J lO -:. • 0 (lfJ 11 A o • 11l 1..• ,-,(JIT ·1· 1 • O "} ,-1 , •(D :2 I J• 'IO lf : r., '1/.\ll'', : Fir : lt, : 1 O"T , . .,.. : •n•.': ? v l · m• : l : 10 uo D•il ": ,,: 'J 'f 1C: fl fli'1 ' )' f.. 1 }: ,:J n'l /t: (lt\, 'J°: r., m,, lt 1: t\(11J : 'f1 : 1:1'�:.I·: 001,1·: o'r : ft11/.'l°h4• : ',,,"Jf.o?J--,l"· : 'i•;(-m·:: 'lV·� ·: i','l,:J1C ti'i:t\oT'J : ,,,,., /.\ 1 ,f•lDP.�t?':t: : ...,-UDtil)� : ..01·m;;f ·'l'":_ : (o4' (fl ,,-1) 01'1. '}�..: l :: l.�: i'Oli/.fooc, 1,m,: ( f ,t\ : �) tD· fl,f : 1 'l' }ti)'l{l.: (1...,'i:t•) 1 (lJ',1�": 1.lL {ll'fl ◄ .. (l� ..J!"..i:'C : I\� : hJ!.,�fl'l°:: : (D (l tl . tt� ':' f (l} ..: ,,".JC : • ,y .. qo i' h {l[l. : OJ n ( " : l (D ) , . : · ?'1· : ou.. t\.· : f1 00 "it• : r,t•onti 'l,.� u,t;. ftPJ. : :, /l iT'/ l V''f9° : w.-..�·..e..·c : }',t\ : t\ -o a c : ,n n : m�'} 'J l!W" h }�. J'm•r Oit " : J\'}�,lf�-: 1,f7i'J°:: m�: . llJ�(D·• : ti .� : -. m � i'tAPA ,,:,. : ht\./tT(IJc : {1Dffit111 " nl.,,,".J� ;JC (l •X' c = i\,e ft.U'i : J!,":j, l\A :: ( i) fli't...;l·f"A-.r: w.. il'I' : ,fl;J:: {Lt-: f' {l[I.. il'maJ• : oro· = O�.t.'} v-1f,: t, 1c: m.-ll'I' = ,n:J! : fl.t• : 11''1/. if ,nw· (lm- = ;,c.: o,o-..{:".�'(: l\.e = i't,ef..ll.9° °li : m·Y..·1.:4- = r01J.tiY,�.. n:,. P'fi:lr f'il4-:i• = ODm'J = O•i"tt,,e ?° = n, 01.c;.. J»t,.: l\.V''J.;I.. : (1°2.1' OD(n"}: n°1.fmll)m•: 1\.4 °if,'1•1·',': lDf..&,:I·?'°: / . J) > • l\·;l.. (191:f : i'l1'1C: n.:J--.e 1 r,·f h,flf: f.,tr','t\ :: flh1;I {lj (),: l1 ..�·: Ofl?-1 J 1·--c; c11,i'·P:1� 1tf, rY.lo,o◄ = t\OJ·'r 1 ro.. f.:f... � = nr:1r:, .. ,,1�arz. f,f>'f'' I\Uo'i1c ,1,1,n.e'l° l,ll:t!;,t f.�c·1'l1 t\ ll9° tifl, i,1.. e:= rn.1,.: ,niT'/ ''! = fl.t-lD·'}: i', {lODIr: (D·• fl'r : .- (l = CL 7i' 'r c;: ;-,"} ..� " : I\, I\ : f flt- : m Ol/t : �'1'1° : 0.t.. cn·, : fli',�.il: J-,fl'l : m·{l'r : "{l;f- : fl.O..'I'; O,n:l,l\ltm·: i',�,:J1C: lJ·tt� : C{l : (lCl}:J:,r,. : Om•�"�'{: : 1t_e : i',J!,J'..it.·9'°:: 'l"lC : 11: f"}'1J�": 9°Ati :,.,. flUD�'�:, .. = l1f..-- nc»-�"f.'C l\f, i',J!s.e..1t-?"' lT'/ll:,,. ilu,1-:,.. = .etJ'C."t\ = n,, f.l-'OD/r'i : fl1'1�.{l : i',(lll : o0 iJhA : f1°'l.ll'POJllD·: ,111l •fl: '1?'1'(:: 1,fGQ.{]Dt. : flY,�: ,p.'1'C: ,, .. ti'P 'Pt 9':1:: ,e. 'J (l7,°:1 ·•: h.,!J' (De : f:, ·: l, ..}J?,. ..,•UJt•: 0}c: t\, I\ :1=l1}• : J!.,1"'/tA ,: htf.. U9'1 : }1/.\C:: : 1'11�,�- : �,.4,91:7. : Oi',"},'i'}�-- : ltiJ'lfl. : OJ•{l'r: + mPi�: 'I ,,l·'J : fl"7°11· :,-. : ll41It i\·: i't>til = 1 flf = l\ur1<rJ .f :,... "/,"}J?�II2. "f· ft·: (JlJ•J1 tt,n : m:f''"l. = 'Im.. :: m·f.:.�·",... : t\ ilti-1. : f01L:l..·Ao:,-; : pt;:/,... : i1�,f:U'J.f = .. P . "'}m:,,: 01'°1�' : / t. : OD{l')...4.:, : l1�': t\ l?i : f..-:fl\t\ fl'}'?�": 9"/,\n•f·1:: l1.�': .eu: fro,.,f�·Y.'l:: n AA: 1\{lh : u1t,.,..: : �'}{lr::14 ..<!"lil tJD{l : 4•-�': hft > 0 �- : flo1I\ :1-� : J!_,:J!ltA 36 :: ,._

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7'11-+**oofl."ti : �1C : ,f• �Tl'PA :: Ill\'\ : Oh·A : f..'?'I° : t\9°ltil, : fUA : 53 lD'il T : ill\�C(l'1--'i : ilt\ h .. -, : 'f'{l,(l : 71ll:'f·-i;:,, : TC:}"2.: At;::,,ida-Odh(: : 7i1f..,f-{lma>•: '¼J?,-,:,-- = f1•'1� : 9°An:,.. : 1·0l-r�ir : fl'?Ag- : f.-t. - e.. -,1111:t- : tt:J- = ft\?° == :rct\lT'/ = ,e u1 = f°2.ff.cai = ,"l,'1 = i,,�fl fmllJ = n"f... l'? = nOi},,.. li: : f1"If: : ,11"I : 1' C.,,,P .:f! : fl+.TC : f?it : A�: "11n1-- : (Lt\ : f m � (l (De : 54 . it lf"} : 1:1--1\A:: oo,0:,..1 : oo-,p' : tt�C11 : (l01J(11l : J-,1Y: : (itD1- : n�:,-.rkf : W-il'l' : '11'11: = 1'11.· :r 9°Ah-l" : f oom<f>?° : 0011:,--1 : ilt\°7ef1�n:,.. : 55 t,.);;J"- : i\UoODCODC : ,(l'}q· : (fltl.U : ,-.�y_, : (lcf?TC: f@r : ODtpl,}) OD1}rf:'}: -C = (t\ODmf1'¥) = = �:1:A 1.0J = 1,,�t\n:,-. = °7T'i:,, = "7ilhf1 ,, ,� .. 9°1 : OTJY.. = t\ f,'i�'iA == +fl�A ll· : 'li = ,r4-:,. : 1i•c:tA : f°tt\m- : (10>· +w��� : oolf = n,,<'1il = 010-il = <f?Tc = 11,, = ODLPl� = = 11\11\n:,. = �, = ° 9 Ah:'f· : h�:1>91� : ,;JC : (L ,t-ff,: f9°AtJ,J: : OJ-,'l'klD· : 004',�:,-. : 1'1'1�1'1= hllh"'l.e.. Cilf11T : -,'l',fl : 1:l.il: (IDlf',-1 : O"'/l)f:,• : +.TC: f@r : f"'l.flf Hm-� =­ '16:l.l\: .elln:PA :: .,e,tJ9° : h(i: : ,flt\'} : OJF. : ,..,• .,;,,c'}{):f(D« : TC:}OJLSJl:f : _e,on : hlt"li : 9°AtJ,J:1: O'i!C�·: n,.:,.. : nil: t\ODmf:,, : .e,:Y..A: fA(tCj(A:: {l1a;t"'l69'° ff"}f: I f'16Jf.: : SJDAtJ,f: : hfbt\oi)". : itf.OD/t{lt!\ : {14! : t!\�.,:,.. : f/lf.D4 : 0Dlf�1 : t\�� :· {1,f: : t\"'llll�:,.. : f,ntD• : 9°An:,.. : t\.mO�t\T : f"?:111 : .ODlf�'} : r "7/t· f,r : f,�CO; A :: 1'.'J .,e..H.U : ft\m• : 1'�J!. : Oooloutf : 9°AtJ,f: : /l°tlP �OJ• : iJ� : "'n.'}.�ODdJ(tff). :i lf'r : (l,. lP&-{1:,-W : h� f : ll?.I\ : h1... Jt : ,{ltf:,.. : hl)7i : h°l1P&-t&- = o"4' = .�c = f L'?.fil+ltllc = lloi:i--1 = 11Y-..1n�:t: = f\f, = i'tti.e-�A = 56 067/\,r : fl°t'l'1c& : ncnc : l\f,: f,f-t\f : 1-"IC : f,LT&-A == 9°111.'l : f°tf ilhTt\lD41 : to·m>:,.. : llH..tJ : fl;r:Y.. : 1t.1-,;,1cf1;rl\1::

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�/ ftD'}�t\ � : OD �6liJ. : "161 1 -#?TC : fm1'lt\� : OD4'tili/, : cn"l : 1'1 : m·f:f..'C: f,'i1&-A :: . f,U?8 : 7-l;f,: (D«(ltp : h°lfl,(l : fl.':'(.W• : AT : �TT� : Otr., : 0011�- : 'Pt;OJ« = r9°,., ;,1cn:,- = hc1'il:,.

nm1-:�A: il/\°tfilcf''IJ = f"7'6 f1'1J!': 9°Ah1'-:Y.1 : i',iloP{lfr' � O"'t.w�fl:,.: o.eo f,-:f-A : f.,IF'iA ! IF'r9° : 4?TC: J!,U1) - : 1--Paf, : ilt\°'l,ODt\hT : 1ttf.U : l\f, I = J?,tr'ilA ==

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77. fl'l'°lJAr, :,.1oY: = 01/Ch = i'th-r = (ti'i'P.) = «f!TC =11: i·ji-I{=.lbt\.11 = if 'l°otr'i! = !1fi i r'i..e�:,. 1 ch°l = hl\f, = fl"?{l;J--ro?f : «f!TC: li = f..�m+(la,.. :1 ckTC=?; 1 f1Hf@ = f,f1�,f:7i = :i--1o.Y: = OTfCn 1 ith:'f·: cf?Te:f: jl]:ji'i' !·lr I hl\f,: flOl/ll;f"mq: ckTC: I-� : f.-f•morJ-(le&1 2 Y:1;,1. 1 ftD/liS.'l:-t\ :1· flti'i"P,ar : th°l : oowt.:� : f":f-�;1,ar : 1..tL : till+ : {l�i\ : r,::/{L•f:. : fli't1P.1Y: = flTtDfl't-: v,,� 79'°:f: e&{lrp : fA,.�oo · n1nar : ?°Ah:, .. : . h--�00111nar: '/°An:,.: ;,c: 7o1 : ll?--1 : norr:,,9° : l\f, 1 � 1);.arA: /L4..:,, Y: : ,,e·:{•i\A :t "k'PC : Z'li ' z-� :: 78. ll'/°4/b'I° : ftom- :. >--i'i : 1oft.9°0C : 'J.ili : !ilf:li : 4..l.1""lf, : hl\f, : 00'/ll;rro?f : �'rC: iii 'r r+m+flar t (h.: q'ij'�: 0?-(LfoA: J'.ftolf l (l.,lof,: !.UX!l?:: h�th ¼ 11...: itf.: CJr{lrp: llt\tLIJ =ih°1 1 fflma,.1 = h.ll,,..ff:,•: f,oi>flh:t:A == 1,cjt1,1:1 =fa.om-= nP...ellt-r = '-'F =.l1"'l.c1i..fA = floarll.= 1'� 1 tl : meA�.. • hi\f, : 0"1(1:J.. tD?f : orf!,rC: �?; : f,�m<f,(ICJr I lD•llT : 111�T1llr/r I P.°1'1° : f ,:c0011 • thdJ • f,or>llh:t:A :: 'fAOll?.1 .. : 1,1el- : 'l"YoA : ihdJ : t.<f!� ' i't,.. "�}C 1 hi\.e • fl°7ll;f"tDq : �TC I i-� I f.., ..morf'(lm-: ?, 1�11/r/r(I}• 1 ftDP,..('..--�A :: ?9. /'r-(1}4 = }',�: )tft.'/°OC: '!iii 1 1iif!li ¾ +.rrc: � : hi\f,: fiO"/{);f·tD«)· : �'PC: :!:ii : f.-t-m+(l(l)c'j" = flt 1 ?f'ii'� i hi\J?,, O"'lll;J..ro?f • ortTC I i:!s: r,,�m4>flOJ<o i �{l,f•.. rr:,--1= ,,eu'/° = ·ni\.,.e. = OOl/l17m7i 1 'k'l'C I tic s r,�m«f'(lar : 4..&.D'l. 9':t: : 011C1f",.. : �•Pl.T : f;rtDck : ?"Ah.-f":f- : •1''-})tm11+. : f°tmf,cf>OJ<o"} : f;r&ft.1: {l'J°'J°}-r.: +.'l'C: ill: oP1t.ll: fOl/.4..�'I'�: }m◄ :: • SO. Tt.� • OTfCh, J\hr; I ti = fTm+��; .. «J!TC: 1.i/lt I fq.,,e�:,-.: ;,1°1: hl\f, r O"'lll;f·tD?f: +.TC --m?f • +. TC ;J O"'lt'l I hi\f, C = "c��c 1: · 1i -k'l' , � , ..�ou1tta,,e-: arm,.:,-.1 1 fllh:,--i\ll-- h. : f-f•mcf>(la,.1 : ftD���A :: - ]27 -


'9. I ft n. IP/ ft ;:1 -- m :,, : '" 1 A : 9° : ( llrft'P lf'i : l4 t.:ro· : 'll\9° f (lh'JJt' : f1 ·°lf.." : 9°t\h1· flh.:i"•V• f /\ODmcf>?1'c;' : 9°t\n;t-:f-m•'} : ftODm(l:,:> : f0l/...t.A1-. : 09'1.." : l\,/'tllr : n,4'C l = r ° . = "'lil; rocf'.fm-"} = n.m•Jh = flf�a, : (lm .. = 9 Atl1"1- : tin.'1:flD· : b:J'?11' ;JC J : �i·ffH 1"�f,; /\,�":{-: (19'"f: (l'} J�-- : ?°An1.. : 1,,.<;,e,n4'001': (l,:JH,{Tl9 'f: f"'lilm 14'4!.f = °'lil;rmtJ!f!Pi'1'' : (11P/UJ·flJ1• : 1P/ftm1�:1,:i!ro, : f,f"fl{llJ�: -'rlD· :: J!,U: v,);;J : O°'lc;'T(lr9°: fi',.1·f·A��r: ,71 °1: 1,i-�."Jwi\: ltA'l'tnf4'9° I 1

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= OT�'I° = l\f, = 00'Pitc = Ot1J9° = roi.e..1� = �m- == "'lil�m�f = "'le& "I:,. : f1"1J.!" : 9°Ati+.1 : "11111 : 'h.1JlflD4+ar : booc�,f:'J° : 01\f. : l\ibfto-:;_.. : ',;Jlo?'l-9°, : "'lilm1 cf>«f!f : ft.If'} : f,-:fl\A : hH.V9° : 01\f, i A'J°,_, : 'h.11. : {IDir-;.. = ODm1 1 'i:C.'!" = a.:,-. = r1"l,: = 9°Ah:," = 0011.f--:f 1 = n01J.001tb,},n:," = 34 1«ti1, : 'P;., : l\.llma>· : r�.1'1 : 1'�f,, : �w• :: •

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l,.f: : 9 ,Ah..}- : TO:J' ·i O.i--1\_e : f°7f,1'1 : OJ•J.':f:C'} : Otto-� : 1.tL : (ll"tOD/\brJ::}• : f1°l.� : ,'"11'? : J!:1,;J1,SJ)1'". : (<l!'r�1· : f@g-f@!!) 'i : nm1,:l\� :· 0Df6li/. : """' : ck'PC: If?§ = l\f, ' f,f-OD(ll.-f c : �O r =, f'}'?..(!- : 'J°AtJ.-1: : 01"1.l!-'i": Jr.t_-JJ;.it:,-Ct = oitil'1:c; = 000°11111 : I\ <rn.4�m• = o.-p f..9'•:,. = ,J-"J._A--Y.. = OD1i':,. = .tl\fl:'f-: 1---�f. = ovtr� = --fw1A�A = f"7ilm11'4!f: IP/lt;rm,tf?J-:f1'1°: 01/0r"lT = f+lloof...: �l& ::· f+ltf: f'}'?f:: 9°Ah,r: rl1"l : oat..mc : fl'}"J..f.' : ,1'1' : r+ 8�ll : ll..tr1 : h '1 Y: : f,.U'} �. : -�,qf, : f"7.oof\ h:,.. : ,hd/9° : 01f '?1f.-:,.. : l\f, : laf,, lf1 : ltf,cf-C9° :: 1

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RKS IN E T I -IIOPIA A M E D A R T F O PROTECTION )),: rg e b ld o G . b y Everett F t v ec la, ot 1 pr ia1 op em hi tl1 Et es ? do Til e ob�ec w ho d aii ' , ks . . r a m • e d . a t tr e r a t a li W ht t o e t h. . g 1ou t re 1 1 g1v1 ng ev::1nt provis1·0 . · t cons1· ns, st1o qL1e . . e 1s e tl1es er d ns o of tb1s r1ot en o e1n rc 1o t· f the c 1 ai1n and oth en d' r. , 1es e m Re . g. ur1 ar me · · eir th er . ns as to and st1ggest1o . Y fl e ri b Y 1 11 n o · d e h c u related. 1natters are to e th 1t o! 01 d 1nake up � conip­ ,v b11g ro tb n tio ec t o_ pr k a� m cle tra \ of Tlie pritlciples 11g 11t co11nt ries. The 110 re a1 ts ffe ec d1 sp re y an m 10 rs iie di h 1ic wl e 011 lex body of law, 11s cove: all __tl1e pro blem s ea 1y 111 a1 by t no do d a11 , few e ar les ru ri relevailt EthioJJia ' ✓ r. Tl11� article's purp CO d? y tl1� s le1� ob p t�e all y_ arl cle ose ve sol � i,1 the area or � to 11 e tl1a vid n pro s1o c11s d1s npr 1or co1 nt poi g rtin eheusive sta a e vicl pro to re nlo is a.nswers.

°

NATURE AND FUNCTION OF TRA.DE1\1ARKS law de.fi11es trade1narks. Neitl1er t11e Com111erci,1l Code nor a11y other Etlliopian : Bt1t the word is ge11erally used to n1ean a mark or sign \Vl1icl1 a perso11 attaches to a prodt1ct or its pack.agi11g or uses with relation to a prodL1ct, i 11 order to identify it a11d disti11gt1ish it from the prod11cts of others (for exa1nple, the label on a beer bott]e).1 I11 olden ti1nes in Europe, a trade111ark served one or both of two ft1nctions. First, it identified the O\Vner of a11 ite1n. Second, it ide11tified the partict1Iar sot1rce of a prod11ct (for example, tl1e ma.11ufact11rer or seller); this \Vas especially · i111portant to tl1e 1nercl1ant guilds which dornir1 ated Europea11 con1D1erce, so they co11ld enforce rules regarding the origi11 a11d c1t1ality of goods. 10 Altl1011gl1 it still may perform these ft1nctio11s, its major object i11 a 1nodern competitive system is to distinguish a prodtict t'rom otl1 er prod11cts, so that a cusio1:ler may J)�rcbase a11 item v\1l1icl1 he believes, by exJ)erience or reputation, be ,vill 1t�e ; a11d, 1_n t1�rn, so a }Jroducer or seller may attract and retai 11 custo n1ers. Io this sense, it still may be said that tl1e trademark identifies tl1e source of a pro· duct, ?ut �lot _ a particular source. The trade1nark states, in effect, that tl1e goods to which it is attacl1ed co1ne fro1n the same so11rce as otl1er goods bearing the same trademark, whoever tl1at sot1rce may be. Si r niJarly, tJ1e tr�1de111ark is a

----*

Associat� Professor of Law, University of Mar yl an Sc d l1ool of La�,. l. The precise definitions of "tr,ad emark" irY• oun . . to y · These distinct" 0n w-11, ot al be examancl s01ne related ter1ns d1fl.cr fro1n countr o �d d bY i _s pr � 18enibcr the Model La� �n � ra�� a�� s, Trade ined here. A usrful poir1t of cter)urtu reac1onal I Name s (Intern and U11fai r Con1p etition � of Commerce' 1959)' vv l11c1 10 Art. 1 defines a tradc1nark as· n · · · any mark used or . tio ela . . . · · · r or inOf others . to goods for tJle purposePt°�P��ed. to_ b_e used upo11, 1n co1111ect1on with,those 1stingu1sl11 ng tl1e goods of a t)erson from any As sue11 may serve any ct·18 t· or �e ' · ev,� tnctiv . e sign, . iocludi11g a \-Vord, na1n e, d combin ation thereof. , la· See F. Schechter The Ii· . . ork Y , . \, Columbia Univ .' Press, ;:;;;�al Foundatio,1s of tl1e La•v Relati11g to Trade1n arks (Ne - 130 -


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PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS IN ETHIOPIA

evaluated a cording n to a11 t objective standard, but the quality � of _? ol symb _ , by experience or reputation, the pl1rchaser attributes _to .2 the .product which l ity ua q The variety of signs wbic� may serve as a trademark is illustrated by the A.frican and Malagasy Conventions: S11rnan1es taken alone 01· in a distinctive form, special, arbitrary or fancy na.mes, the characteristic fo1·n1 of a prod11ct or its get-up, labels, e11velopes, emble·ms, pri11ts,, stan1_ps, seals, vignettes, selvedge, eclging, combinations or ar·rangements of colours, drawi11gs, reliefs, letters, figures, devices, pseudonyms and in ge11eral, all n1aterial signs servi11g to distinguish the products or objects of a11y business shall be co11sidered to be traden1arks. 3

r.

The esse·ntial .req11iren1er1t of a trade1nark is distinctiveness. Other countries have developed several r11les to help separate tl1e signs which l1ave it from those which do 11ot. For exa111ple, terms of fa11tasy and the arbitrary use of terms un­ related to the product usually \vill be distinctive. But words which are merely des­ criptive of the prod11ct or \\,J1icl1 are necessarily used in describi11g it, generic names for the kind of product, and identificatio11s of geographical origin usually will not. Thus., ''good'� or ''beer'' \Vould 11ot be valid trademarks for beer. But ''Lion'' would;4 If a person uses tl no11-disti11ctive sig11 to tl1e exte11t th.at it becomes associated with his goods in the mi11ds of the public, it may t l1t1s acquire the necessary dis­ tinctiv·eness. 5 On the other ha11d, a mark 'n1ay lose its distinctiveness; for example, if it becomes so popular that it is t1sed by people as a generic term for the kind of product involved rather tl1a11 as an identification of t]1e partic11lar product (thus, when '' A'' is used as a sy11onym for beer,. and not just the brand n1ade by one

2. F. Schechter, ''The Rational Basis of Trademark protection," Harvard L. Rev., vol. 40 (192627 ), pp. 814-819. See also P. Roubier, Le droit de la propriete industriel/e (Paris, Sirey, 1952-54) vol. 2, secs. 242-246; C.J. de Haan, ''The Protection of Trademarks," in Restrictive Practices, Patents, Trademarks arid Unfair Competition in the Common Market (International and Comp­ arative Law Qu.arterly, Stipp. Publication No. 4, 1962), p. 60. 3 . Art. 2, Annex II, Accord Relating to the Creation of an African and Malagasy Office of lndastrial Property (1962), as printed in B. Offner, ]1zterriatio1zal Traden1a1·.1<: Protection (New York, Fieldston Press, 1965),' .p. 259. 4. The use of a person's own name as a trademark poses a problem of the conflict between the possibility of confusion and the right of every person to use his own name. See Ci,,. C., Art. 45. See also Civ. C., Art. 46, regarding the use of the name of another person., and Comm. C., Art. 137, regarding tlJe use of one's own nan1e as a trade name. 5- Compare Art. 2 of the Mode] Law, cited above at note 1: The following shall not be deemed traden1arks . ..: (a) those whic}1 consist exclusively of a sign or indication which may serve . in co1!11?erce to designate the kind, quality, quantity, destination, valt1e or geographical or1g1n of a product; (b) those wl1ich consist excJttsivc]y of a sign or indication wl1icb has bec_ ome conunon in the current Iangt1age or in tl1e lawful an,d constant ct1ston1s of the trade 1n the cotmtry where protection is sougl1t; (c) those tl1at are otherwise not distinctive i11 tl1e 1neaning of Article 1. In all such cases, the claimant of tl1e mark sh�IJ be entitled to prove that tl1 e trade­ mark in q,uestion is in fact distinctive ....

131

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e iv ct in st di ly tib ec and \.Vha t i s ot pr is t l1a w . n ee tw be · , t coinpa�1y).6 The bounda1 y tigat l ion in h 0 muc of other i . 11rce c u 1 ?o s the o been 1 t as h d n a , rres. e t1 g a v y sl t1 1o is obv s whe th . . n1an 1aws, soine signs ·1nay be prol1ibited· for use as tra• demark er . U y • , 11der fl s, s, ag m ar f o 11 s s1g 1n · . for ex coat 1as le, 1p an . or . , other ve cti n t1· a·s 1 . e . a1 • or not . they nme11 ta 1 organizations ver go • er· t · 1n 1 a 011 at1 ern 111t of or , or decorations of governnient, 1 it . ora1..y in r o r e rd o c li b u p to s u o ri marks \· vbich are i11ju e , m ks so ar n1 late� �ig us IUUs de r� tra of 11 tio ec ot pr al leg e th . 1g 1i1 1 t Before exanu cl es t na111 a11 d1st1ng 11s.hing ma'·rks. de tra e ar nt 1 : rt: po im t os 1 n e th ps • ha · • · . 1w . . �: be 1de11u···f i-ed . Per , e rk' S �r d 1st1n.ct1ve s1g 11s in that 1� 11 g 11 11s g1 111 st d1 1d a1 es in na e ad tr Like tradema.rks, ess . f ro1u the b�siness of 111 t1s b s 11 rso pe a of ct pe as me so ish gti tlley serve to distin d ate by !he e tre d 1nm an C? ed fi11 de l rcia are y the , rks na · Code . dei tra e Lil( un er. anoth t�s 111s business and ,vhic era op son per a l1 uc "'l cler u11 e 1 nan the h ''is A trade 11aL11e 8 It is used 011 t e bt1s1_ne_ss �ap_ers of the ss." ine b11s trader � e 1 tl s ate clearly., design g luo 111s i\ t1ng y. d1s tas fan of 111ark is ''the term a or e a1n 11 11 ow and n1�y be his . es mis wl1ere the trade is car­ pre tl1e 011 xed i aff lem e1nb or sign 11 atio ion 11a111e des 10 Tl1e ." 11ess trademark:, tracle naine busi the es gnat desi ried . �u ai;d \.Vhi�h clearly a11d. distinguisl1i11g mark n1ay be tl1e sa1ne. But they also 111ay djffer. Tl1e trade r1a1 11e is 111erely a name, the disti11guisl1i11g n1ark is a sig11 attached. to tl1e premises a11d tl1e trademark is attacl1ed to, JJart of or 11sed ,vith relatio11 to a prodt1ct. Other related ter111s i11cl11cle service rnark, associatio11 or collective mark, and .i11dication of geograpl1ical origi11. Like trade111arks, tl1ese terms are 11ot defined in Etl1iopian laVi1s. A service 1nark is a sig11 ''11sed by a perso 11 for tl1e purpose of distinguishi11g services perfor111ed by l1i1n fro1n tl1ose perfor1ned by others." 11 For exru11ple, the sign ernblazo11ecl 011 tl1e vel1icles of a trucki11g co:inpa11y or attached to �t packa .ge of l�t11ndered clothes by the lau11derer is a service 1uark. Service 1narks are a relativel y rece11t development in tbe l1istor y of disti11ctive co1n111ercial signs.12 Since they perfor1n for services the sa111e fu11ctio11 described above whicl1 a trade­ mark perforn1s for products, the laws of some cou11tries treat tl1em as trade1nark.s, altl1ougl1 not all give tbe111 the same degree of protection. 13 An association 1nark or oollective mark, is ''adopted by a11 association to i11dicate 011e or more properties of goods or services origi11ating fro1n or l)erformed by 111e1nbers of st1ch associatio n, 6 . See S. L'ldas, "1�ransformation of a Trademark into a Generic Ter1n in I:;-oreign Countries" The Tra1ernark l}eporter, voJ. 54 (1964), p. 941, discussing tl1c approaches taken to this proble� 1n a variety of na.t1ons. See also E. Offner, "J)raft 1\1ode! Law for Developing Co� nt�;8 on Marks, Trade Names, I ndications of Source, and . Unfair Cornpetition - An .A. p· pra1s�l, The Tradetnarlc Reporter, vol. 56 (1966); p. 836. 7. Model Law, cited above at note 1, Art. 3. 8 · Comm. C., Ar_t. 135(1). Th e· Code 11ses the \Vords "fir m-nan1e'' and "compnay nan1e" for the nan,es of business organizatio ns, but these serve the nanie. See trad e sam the e fun as ctio n Arts. 281, 297, 305 and 514. 9. Comm, C., Art. 136. 10. Comm, C. ' A rt. 140(1). Jt at�o . . . , . is de 0 ·is ca11e d t11e '·spec tra the \Vhtch ial . dcs1gu at1on under · · carried on." Arts. 105(j), 127(2) (b). 11. Model Law, cited above at note. I Art. 12 12. �r, ) ·er en�;;� • Tracle n1ark ·Prot�ctio� an£! U,ifai r Tr�ding ( Bend e\V Matt h Alban}' ' New York.' , p · --, Dctlloz E rzcyclooedre Juricliq . . · res (Pans , R c eperto,re so des et ie i · ue, · · . coll1rr1er clroit de l a c Dalloz, vol. 2 , Marqu� de fa br1que et d e service, n o . 3. 13 • Se e -E. Offner, work cited above roarks . · e . t note a v 3, pp. 138-141. Tl1e Model La\V treats ser ic as trademarks·' Nlodel Law' c'1 te d ab ove at no te I, Art. 12, an d p. 21, . ·. '

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PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS iN ETHIOPIA '

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as a geographical origi11 of goods." 14. A11 example is the sign which is attached to products to sb�w they a.re m�de . by members of a labor unio11 or the sign attached by a quality-control orga111zat1on to show that a product measures up to certain standards. They also receive protec�ion in many countries. An indication of geographical origin ide11ti:fies t�e geographi?al origin of a _pr_oduct. It i � particularly important for products of wl11ch. tl1e q11al1ty or character1st1cs vary with the place of origin - - fo1� exan1ple, wine. Leg.islation in many countries, including Ethiopia, 15 of false indicatio11s of use origin. the prohibits Who cares if 011e bt1si11ess1na11 inlitates the traden1ark of another? The general public does, bec<1.t1se it l1�ts a11 j11terest i11 promoting fair and ho11est conduct. a.mong its citizens. So do buyers o.f co111n1ercial goods, becat1se tl1ey do 11ot want to be deceived as to the prodt1cts tl1ey b11y. But n1ost interested is the businessman. The success of an)r busi11ess depe11ds 11pon its custon1.ers. If the trademarl< on one· pro­ duct is similar to the t1·ade1nark 011 a11other, a purchaser may thlnk the source of both products is the sa1ne. If the products are identical, purchases of them will be divided betwee.11 the d..ifferent produce·rs. Eve11 if the prodl1cts are somewhat 1ill st1ffer if the other is of poorer quality. 16 reputatio11 of 011e \\ the diffe·rent. PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS

Article 148 of the Com1nercial Code p1·ovides tl1at rig11ts of industrial property, which include the right to 11se a particular t1·aden1ark, shall be governed by ''special laws." 17 There is no special traden1ark law presently i11 force i11 Ethiopia. However, existing laws, particularly Article 133 of tbe Co1nmercial Code and Article 674 of •' the Penal Code, provide civil and pe11al remedies for the victin1 of traden1ark imita-:­ tion.18 In addition, the 1'1inistry of Con1merce and Industry is required to 1naintain a register of trademarks. No stat11te req11ires traden1arks to be registered in order to be prote.cted, b11t a recent court decision has indicated that registration may be necessary for that purpose.

14. Model Law, cited above at note l, Art. 13 . In some countries, this is called a ''certification trade mark'' - for exa.mple, in the English Trade Mark Act of 1938, Art. 37, Halsbi,ry's Statutes of England (2d ed.), vol. 25, p. 1213. 15. As in the Model LaVl', cited above at note 1, Art. 15. The use of a false indication of o rigin is expressly penalized in Ethiopia by Pen. C., Art. 674. l 6. In addition to preventing conft1sion of customers, a businessman may have an intere.st in preventing ''diltttion'' of his mark. As to dilution, see note 33 below and accompanying text. 17 • The English version of Art. 148 states: ' Art. 148.- Patents (1) A business may consist of pate11ts relating to registered in,1 entions, tra.de-marks, designs and models. (2) Patents shall be subject to tl1e provisions of _special laws. A more accurate translation fron1 tl1e original French and tl1e official An1haric of the word ''pate nts'' is ''industrial property.'' T11is also applies to ''patents'' in Art. 127(2) (d). Note too that the word ''registered'' in Art . 148(1) modif ies only tl1e word ''inventions'' and not ''t:r: ade­ . m arks, des.igns ancl models;'' tl1is appears more clearly in tl1e French and Amharic versions. &eferences in t.l1is pape·r to the French version of tl1e Commercial Code are t<? �e Code de commerce de L'Enipire d'e t!1 i<Jpie de 1960 (Pa is, Librairie generale de dro1t_ et de Jurisprudence, r 1965), 18 · of Some o f the otl1er relevant provisions are mentio11ed at appropriate places belov,,. Dis cussio? . all provisions �'l1jcb may apply in particular circL1ms1a11ces is beyond tl1e scope of Lb Ls article.

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3 3 1 le ic t r , A e d o C l ia c r e m 1. Coxn t e 11l t11 th fa \vi al of unfair 00 de de Co al c er 111 . es l 3 . 14 i ro Co . 3 of tl e . cl p . lll m r e a d y v ed ro m f re . o1 t i or t p pe 1 n1 i co i d tra i A r fa un e r·a k i . . t T h at the2 -. ru.les go:ernin(Je, . ely t o h -et1t1on. ave •. a de r h as o r · s .lik cr t cus a rs, t a om th e � 1 . n I te x T 1 e e th o 9 · the c0111merc1a Co de as imitation is c;leat;. f o o ''g 3 0 1 od le ic rt A , ll, wi y b d e n fi e d e a u 1 be h as � v n io . tit pe · 11 i . n1 r co st Fo ne ho a ex of e le us ca mp be . · hi se ea cr de ' s ay · , n r • g d 1 w • o o s d er a tr • g a pr o d 11ct or serv1ce of . mers by 01er:-. r1n 1e A Sto ClI better 1 ors .m ay take away his 1 con1pet·t oss o f good w1·u ·is a 11at ura s er d , tra e h t gl1 ou th . en ev l . ted 1it r11 pe ' · s . s i' Th . t y ,.,o al· i , H qu . i rta1� conduct wl1ich ce , er ev ow s.� or t1t pe n1 co . s hi of ts result of the i1 1te11tional ac r 1d 1?e a1 ro 1s tl1erefore pro. � 1n 1 _ be �o ed �rn de is ll wi . od go 's or tit cuts down a compe . a e me ga lrl< 1.e co1npetitors 1s Tl 1ty t1v ac 1al c e-: m m co . se, sen is tll In .. hibited by la\v _e__ ga1� of comme rce of th les �L1 1e Tl . �es ru e_ tl1 tl1 v11 �� an rd co ac in y, f nlust play honestl t1 pe n 1r n1 t1o fa co t1n . 11g d1 1d rb fo s on 1s1 ov pr e th i11 ly ief are co11tained ch 3 1), 11nfair competitior1 ge11erally consists of "any act Accordiii� to Article 13 ( of co1npetitio� cor1tri1ry to l1011est corr11 11ercial practice.'' I11 particular, 22 according to Ar t. 13 3(2): The foLlo\ving shall be dee1ned to be acts of 11.nf�1ir competition:

(a) a11y acts likely to nlislead ct1sto1ners regarding the undertaki11g, products or co 11 1111ercial actitivies of a co1 111Jetitor. 23

19. Even if there \Vere a special traden1ark la\v, tl1e rt1les of unfair co111petition n1ight provide

a supplementary re1nedy..For exan1ple, in France, at least before the revision of the trademark statute in 1964, the victin1 of trade mark: imitation coulcl follo\-v two basic routes - an action under the special statute or an unfair competition action. Both 111igl1t be brought, unfair con1peti�ion being relied upo11 if tl1e special lav,1 were held not to apply. See P. Roubier, ivork c1t�d above. at note 2, vol. 1, sec. 107. Compare tl1e Englisl1 actions of infringement and passing off, discussed i11 T. Blanco \Vhite, K"er/y's Lalv of Trade A1nrks and Trade Names (9th . ed., London, Sweet & Maxwell, 1966), nos. 592, 718. Of course, \Vhether unfair competitioa remains as a general trademark remedy in Eti1iopia if a special la\.v is adopted \vould depend . on the \vord1ng of the snec ial law • • n1iia­ i from Note that protected the trade name expressly and the distinguishing inark are . tion by the rules of unfair competition. Co1nm. C., Arts. 137(2), 138(2), 141(2). �ee also the excellent discussion of trademarks and unfair con1petition by Judoe Buhagiar . · ·on in · Azanaw Aleme 111 his d.Issenring opini v. Singer Se1rving 'f\.1achi11e Co. Ltd., (Sup. Imp. a · ., 1964), J. Eth. L., vol. 2, p. 220. 20. S e �oubier, :¥?rk cited above at 11ote 2, vol. l, secs. 116, 118, distinguisl1ing the doct rines � � o u air compet1t1on and abuse of rights in French law. 21. Comm. C., Art. 131'. c 22 · The words "in particular" are rJv , . I uc ntro i part. J t]1e_ � of die /\.. n�har1c and Frer1ch versio11s of s: clause of Art. 133 ? • Lhey a_re Engh the of not �n the English version, althougl1 the sense version would seem C-),t require �� a _ a� th n1eans This inte rpretation giving a similar result. a ct may constitute �n. air conlp�t_ition even ,�n! gi s thu (2), tl1ough it is not listed in sub-r\rt. the defintion of 1 air competitio n a fiexibility whicl1 enables it to be adaf)te d to cha ng ing commercial usag e� 23. The definition of unfair . . bis, .ition . 10 . rt. compet • . . as 1 n Art. :133 1s substantially tl1e san1 e _ A 111dus tri al paras. (2) and (3), lines 1 a nd 2, of t l1e Conve11t1on of JJa ris for tl1e Jlrotect1on of n· . erty Prop · · of 1883 as revised Ti e conv f . · r JnieJ• le original F ench an�I of ic al English �ransl�tion of tI115 t10 �,. with revisi�ns ! throu gh ,: are r p � t?duccd 1:1 U111tecl States Treac1es a,�d (! th_e not a 11at1on al Ag:e�111ents, vol. l3 ���� ) p.l (A rt. 10 b1s at a 15 ( opi Eth1 a 37). 14 nd party to this convent ion pp. kn, ' to ti1e owledge of the ,1utt1or. 0

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PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS ·IN�ETHIOPiA •

The following d1�cus�1on. wiJl foc�s on pa!�graph (2) (a), ..but • �he. ·generality. wbioh parag·raph (1) instills i11:t� unfair · competit19n must be kept in ·: mind. · The scope of activities pr�h�bited. by the rules of unfair competitio11 is .. 'b:roader than the specific acts ment1011ed 1n paragraph (2), and is impossible to · define with preeision. The essen c� of _u11fair co1npetitio11 is its relationship to the customs of the business com1n11n1ty, eval11ated' as t o what acts are h o11est and what are not.24 Inherent i11 it is a flexibilit)' w11ich pernuts the judge to consider each case on its facts, in the co11text of the time a11d comn1u11ity involved. Paragraph (2) (a) is pa·rticula1·ly releva11t bere because trademark imitation may create co11fusion as to tl1e ''·L111de1·taki11g, pr oducts or. commercial activities of a competit or." Of co11rse, a.11 act of i111itati o11 need .11ot be i11 the form of another trademark to create this con·fusio11. It may result when a pers o11 uses as · any d.istinctive s_ig11 the traden1ark of a11 othef. -- for example, as a trade n a1ne, distin� gtlish.in.g mark, or se·rvice n1ark. · · C onf11sion am.on g custo.n1ers is the primary danger in cases, of trademark imi­ tation. i\n act is st1fficient to create liability if it is ''likely to mislead customers;'.' actual confusion is 11 ot req11ired, altho11gh pr oof of act11al confusion may help sh o w that confusio.n is likely. It is i11teresting tliat tl1e Fren ch version of this provision is more literally translated: ''of such ,1 nature as to create c o11fusion by any means whatever."� 25 The actual En glish versio11 probably represents the intended. meaning of the phrase; in any case, h o wever, it is a· prefe1·able interpretatio11. In em.phasizing the sufficiency of a likeliho od of conf11sion, rather than actt1al conft1sion, it reduces for the plaintiff what DJight otherwise be an i11tolerable bL1rden of p.roof. It also empl1asizes that c onfusion of customers is feared. This suggests that the standard for evaluating similar marks shot1ld be the average pt1rchaser of the pr od11ct involved.26 '

The degree of similarity there 11111st be for a likelihood of confusion to exist var-ie, s \¥itJ1 the case. Of co11rse, full duplicatio11 would always result in a likelihood of confusio n. But it seems clear that the signs need not be exactly the same.. Although the characteristics of the average purchaser may vary with the prodt1.ct, he usually does not spend his day working with different marks and comparing tbem; he easily forgets the details. When he does go out to b11y the product, he m:ay pick it or take what is handed to l1im by a clerk without taking great care to examine the fine points of the trade1nark. Tl1e co11rts i11 other countries generally agr,ee that trademarks should be compared in their entirety and not part by part. The marks should not be placed side by side and differences sought; ra.ther, the judge s.hould put himself in the place of the forgetful, inattentive average purchaser and decide whether a likelihood of co11ft1sion exists. 27 •

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24. P. Roubier, work cited above at note 2, vol. I, secs. 114, 118. He notes in sec. 114 tl1at t4ais p .rinciple is embodied in Art. 10 bis of tl1e Paris Convention, the source of Art. 133. (See note 23 abov,e.) 25 - Art. 10 bis, para .. (3) (J), of tl1e Convention of Paris, cited. above at note 23. �6 · See E. Offner, work cited above at note 3, pp. 72-73. 27 · Ibid. Offner's comments on this point refer to the detero1ination of confusjng similarity in _ l�lS• wr?C· eedi' ngs to cancel or prevent the registration of tradernarks undc:r special. �ademark lation, but tl1ey would seem to be applicable to confusion in unfair compet1t1on cases as well.

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1es on ih.i� l )Oint. Iu AZA · oacl appr . ri11g difte used . . 1an J.ud �have N The Eth1op · .,2s tl1e s1g11s were b11 ilt ar AW I-IINE CO. LTD :: AC N M I G N u nd .. R <?' E SI . v E ? M acb E s L er ord Sing · A '' e S tl d an ,v 1 ewing Mc 1n 11 1 ltl1 wit . l ng i sew • • . r a · ro o ,v e8 the 1etter '' S'', with a ne , chi l11n n1a \V1t 111g sew a crown on a h wit w's ana A to A t o p, along the contour , r ette S g rclin the cco A . to ng owi l foll u the '' lter -� Cet · g t S · ew reme a b e h S ·1 p '' s d r · o w · a11d· tl.1e · e1t · h. er 1n appe arance . ''ther. is not even a remote s1m1 ar1t Y, or In1per1al Cot·1 �, � pos sib cl ility o con t}1e ; . . . using ct1stom f f ema rks a r t he 1 we e t e r �rrangeme11t! t . y dis ti11 i ct ere 11t. re " a ma rks l d ff Th tra e de co1 ; two s 1 the rt se . 1 a1 ec b ie . , se l n a t t o n . "' ··b does ·1 .. . d .1 e d t l1e suit as '' Ilotlii c;SCI 1t 1at t s k 111ar the of y arit inlil diss so strong 1Y abou t the g n sma r e . i11es u11d bt1s ing the pet com a e guis ass har to of tnh e pt ttem a an . n 1a l t e or m , c: ndant ,,t11� da1nages 1t ca used de1e the pay , to tiff, plain · e th ltim I.a,,.,,. and ordered l u B d 1ag1ar, wh o ct1ssen ge J ,,19 . ti e. cat1s · ted from good ut witlio suit a g t· 111 •t . · by 1nst1 u . . • t th e � I tt ers d th a ' ' S ' ' ?te n 1�, 1s10 d dec use 's . urt Co b� both . ial per 1 rn irle tlle Supre , . . . g nd1� tl1� hsta t 1_ re !1o!w diffe g11; des1 nt �etails , he e s�m e th tly exac ''of \¥ere parties . t1re l feat c1pa 1_11 tl�e desig n ,vhich pr1n t�e d an_ t1c er1s ract clia n mai e 1 ''t] . added., sewing mach111e (111 one for,n or attracLs the eye is the ''S'', a11d this with the 30 According to the '' . .. . II- igh Court, in . usion conf . another) is . likely to create accurate copy which the suit was originally brought, Ato Azanaw's marl( was '�a11 31 I� :se �nd ter or." _l�t col tl1e n i l1 bot r�, ems clear ema trctd y's pan of plaintiff co1n . th.at tlie major question whicl1 d1v1des tl1ese op1n1ons 1s the degree of detail ,vith which tl1e court sl1ould exa11 1ir1e tl1 e trademarks.

There sl1 011ld exist some si11lilarity in, or relationship bet\veen, the products in ord.er for conft1sion :1s to a tra.der's ''u11 clertaking, products or commercial activities" to result. The closer tl1 e p rod11cts, tl1e 111ore likely ,viii the ct1stomer think their sources the same (for exa1nple, beer and \.Vi11e as opposed to b eer and at1to111 obiles).32 This factor is also requirecl, in perhaps a greater degree, f or the traders to be in con1petitio11 - an.other require111ent under Article 133, ciiscussed belo\v.

Note tl1at, even if tl1e products are completely dissi11lilar and tl1ere is little likelihood o .f confusion, a business111an 1nay wish to preve11t · l1is tr�1demarlc from being 11sed by another i11 ord.er to prevent its ''dilt1tion." The dilution co11cept rests on tl1e idea tl1at a trademark is a sy1nbol of the prodt1ct a11cl, tl1e refore, calls the procluct to n1ind whenever the trade111ark appears. A trader is be11efitted if the trade­ n1ark only calls llis product to mi11d, i11stead of a variety of products. The more products it is a_ssociated. witl1, tl1e less the 111ark represer1ts his product. Also, if tl1e s_ame n1ar� 1s usecl on an irlferior prodttct, even if dissi 111ilar, the I Jublic 111ay . ass?ciate tl1e 1rl fertor qt1ality with the trade111ark and tl1ercfore \Vitl1 all products ::liich bea:, it. Final�y, dilt1tion of a 1nark's disti11 ctive11 ess 111ay eve11 tually n1 a�e it inore diffi.c11 It or 1 11 1possib1e to protect as a trade1narl<, si 11ce disti 1 1ctiv eness 18 tlie essei1ce of the trade111ark. Si11ce dilt1tion occurs \vl1e11ever a n1ark is 11sed on � o��1 er p rodu_ct, whether or not confusio11 is likely, ,l trader's .interest i 11 prev enting dilutioi1 is satisfiecl whene ver a11other tracler is preventect fro111 l1si 1 1g tl1e san1e n1ark.

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28. Sup. Imp. Ct. 1964 J Eth is . Add C L I I 2 · ., vo · , JJ. 220, reversing a decision by tl1e I-I1gh our, Ababa'· 196J. ,., '1• Etl

29. 30. �l ·

32 •

' L.., VO 1" ?-, p . -"77 . J. Eth. L. vol. 2 , p. 224. J. Eth. L., vol. 2, P. 227. J._ �t/1. L., vol. 2, p. 298. Sec tl1e discussion of eva e not luation of product similar t a e ity in• E. Offner> work cited abov 3, pp. 72-73. 1..

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B1:1t the confusion requiren1ent cuts off part of the area in which dilution. might occur (for examJ?le, when. the s �me n1ark 1s used on beer and at1tomobiles). AlthQ-. ugh tihe courts 1n some coltntr1es have protected against· dilution even where there is 8,o confusion, the concept generally has not bee11 widely accepted. 33 The confu� · usion requiren:ie�t i:n Article_ 133(�) {a) of the �ommerci�l Code, and the neces&ity for product s11n1lar1ty 0011ta1ned 111 the compet1t1on requirement, prevent protection of marks from dil11tio11 1111der Article 133 i11sofar as dissi1nilar goods are concerned.

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1n addition to tl1e 11at11re of the tra.demarks and products, a variety of factors m.ay affect tbe likelihood of co11f usion of customers. For example, i11 AZANAW ALEME v. SINGER SEWING MAC.HINE CO. LTD., tl1e alleged unfair competitcr had been employed by tl1e plai11tiff before starting his own busir;iess and . ran his business with his marks displayed ir1 tl1e sa.me building which plaintiff had occupied before moving to a 11ew location. The Higl1 Co11rt took this into account in finding a likeJil1ood ot, confusion to exist. 34 Article 133 applies 011ly to i1nproper acts by competitors. Competitors are those businessme11 who are atte1npting to attract the same customers, or, in other words, to sell it1 the sa1ne mark.et. In the prese11t context, this entails three major 35 time. area, same the in products, si1nilar selling be must they : e m sa. the at ents m eJe· (1) T'he person wl10 produces teff is not in competition with the person who manufactures- automobiles. But th· e prodt1cts need not be exactly the same .before competition results. The maker of wi11e n1ay very well be competing with the maker of beer or even non - alcoholic dri11ks. •

(2) The person who sells beer only in Ethiopia is 11ot in competition with a person who sells beer 011ly in France. Btrt the size of an area of competition is relative, particularly witl1 regard to the size of the busi11ess, the type of product and the prospective custo1ner. The .increase in mobility of persons and prod11cts makes it particularly diffict1lt to say where the competitive area begins and where it ends. Fo ·r example, if one beer manufacturer sells his product only in As1nara and another beer manufacturer only in Addis Ababa,. they are not generally in competion with @�eh other. B11t it would be· a mistake not te> .treat them as being in competition fo:r purposes of protecting against trademark imitati'on.. With the i11creasing movement of people between Asmara and Addis Ababa, customers who do travel might very well be confused as to tl1e so11rce of the product. More important, it is wise to rgcognize that certain products mt1y e�sily expand into ne\v n1arkets. ·. T�ki11g into account an area o· f pote11tial co1npetitio11 may help promote the expansion of -trade amid commerce. It even may be argued that this area with regard to trade.1narks should extend to tl1e 11ation's bou11daries. 36 If this is do11e, however, a difficult

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33 • E. Offner, work cited above at note 3, p. 75. For a cor11mentary on the dilution concept in the context of U11ited States law, see Note, ''DilL1tion: Traden1ark Infringement or Will-0' -the-Wisp?,'' Harvard L. Re�,., vo]. 77 (1964), p. 520. See also Scl1ecl1ter, work cited above at note 2. 3t1 • Case cited· above at n.ote 28, p. 298. Tl1e Supreme Imperial Court di� not discuss these faGts when it reversed the High Court's decisio11; it rel_i ed on its own fi11d1ng tl?at tl1e n:1arks themselves were too different for confL1sion to result. 3$ · See 0. Lagarde, ''Unfair Competition-France," in FI.L. Pinner (ed.), World ·u,ifair Co1npetitior1 !Law (Leyden, Sijthoff, 1965), vol. 2, p. 972. 3'6. AsS to the effect o·f national bottndaries on the qt1estion of trademark rights, se--e PP· 15 and 17 below.

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1 g . siirular n1 arks i11 cliffere11 t areas eac11 bu'l usii 1 d up . _ . e m n1a), _. probl It �rea. ":1ay b same . tbe e 1 1 1 u11fa 1r to re . 11 to sell be _ e tl 1 bef ore a cl1e 11tel� {nodir llis ro arle. Oi1e solution to this cl1le1nma n1ay lie ��•re i he one to give up ?� o remedy ap ly. particular t fJ Tl f 1 is a is discus s for red tJI q re y 1t 1l ab lp cu of e degre ed belo,v. 1et sell a prodttc not ) does or sells t is 11 0 Ion longer 110 h 0 w perso� r (3) � . e di 1l t i11 terpret ative q � t too ere ffict , , does. I-I ; 'Il -,vho ues i in co111 I?et1t1011 vl1 I? a perso 1 11 aki.11g or selli11g a prodt1ct tempor arily sto1J inay ' on r:s pe yet , I may arise. A . . �s t bl . . e a reasona for t1n1e, protected or _ k sliotiJd be ,vo11ld se e111 I 11s mar .- ye t brot1 oht h" s prod u t until . he aband• o 11to tl1e _n1ar ket 1 as not l ho w on rs pe � a , � e ise w ke Li it. s on ble t11ne 1f l1e h as taken preliinin a arouably shouId be protected for a reaso11 • · ary · pr od uc t a 11d •trad emarkr. 37 \Vheth st;ps to do so __ for exainple, by a d-�ert�� 111 g I 1�s r . e ar cle 1s un 11s t]J e idea of con1petitio11 covers the s1tuat10 M�ty a perso1 1 be guilty of u11fair co1 11pe�itio11 if he a�ts i�1 good faith, not kno'11,ing that bis 1nark resemt)les to tl1e point of co11fus1?11 tl1e tr_aden 1ark of s oineo11e else? Or 1 n11st it be prov ed that �1e ac�uaJly acted 1_11 . ba? fa�th, kno\ving of the existe11ce of tl1e otl1er trademark ar1d 1r1te11d1ng tl1at, by 1 1 111tat1ng 1t} custon1ers will be 11,isled to b11v l1is products i11stead. of his con1petitor's? Or is tl1ere soine midclle ground? A rti�le 133 does 11ot fully a11s\ver tl1ese_ q11estio�1s. ,. A_rticle 133(1) rer�uires tl1a.t a11 act be ''contrary to _l1011est con1111erc 1 al P:a?t1ce - 111 order to constitute 11 11fair co1npetition; ''J10 11 est'' 1s a vag1 1e term, pern1 1tt111g great flexjbility i11 interpretatio11. Article I 33(2) 1 ne11 tio11 s 110 111e11tal ele1 nen t; b11t, si11ce it contains particular exa1n1Jles of acts falling \\1itbi1 1 Article l 33(1), tl1e rnir1im111n standard of ,'contrary to honest co111111erci,u practice'' \¥Oulcl see111 to apply to it. IJ� a person acts i11 bad faitl1, i11ter1di11g tl1at his trade1nark n1islead c11stomers i11to t.l1i11king his products are tl1 ose of son1eo11e else, or l<.110,ving that such \viii likely be tl1e res 11lt of l1is acts, and his acts have this result, l1e clearly co 1 111n.its u11fair con1petitio11 . I-re should also be liable if l1e a.cts n e glige11tly; tl1 at is, if he did not knov,1 l1is trade111ark would be likely to mislea.d c11sto111ers, b11t if J1e sl1ould have k 110,v11 it. This n1a y occ11r ,:vl1en l1e . did not acttlillly k11ow of the existence of the otl1er trade111 ark, but should have; ,vl1e11 l1 e did not belie,,e l1is trade111ark \vas co11f11sing, b11t should l1ave; or wbe11 h e did 11ot tl1j 1 1k the otl er sig \Vas a valid n 1 trad�n1 ark, bu� should . have, Altl1011gh no t clearly sta ted by the code , liability for negl1ger1t creat1qu · of a likelihood of conf 11sio 1 1 rest1lts fo rm a consideratio n of the tlnderlyin.g purpose s of the rules preventing un fa ir co 1n 1Je tit 1 and tl1eir place in io 1 the ·legal scI1eme. 38 The most imp?�ta 11t purpose of th to . is e rt1 les ion co ag m pe ai u1 st 11 tit 1fa ir assure that compet 1t1on_ is fairly can an d pr op se er ly JJU rp ca o Th rr or ie 39 is 1. d best be served if negligent co n dt1ct is prohibited as ,vell as intentior1al co11<luct. �ra ? ers . sh.ould be encouraged to be r ot he ca re . fu l an d 11 i tl1 s ei tr r ch ad oi e1 ce na of rk diSLingtiishing Signs. Since the f choose a trademark is quite 11111nber o f dif erent sig11 s fror11 \\'hicb a person may broad, the. burden is - 11o t a serious 0 1 1e.

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37. [e rding p ublication of c ustomary notices, see � f Section 4 below. 3 8 · n ranee, or example the . . . wing t or i�ina lly requir sho of imprudence o r n gii en co.urs a 110� ed ,v· proof of ba(l faith. But _ c e e 18 sufficter1 t. Eve11 good faitl1 n1ay not be a suflic ie�t def ense for purposes of an inju�;ti at note 12 vol 1 c n on (as opp osed to damages). Dal/oz Enc ,c!opedie juridiq ue, cited above J u re c � elo : e e ; d yal o u ilLicite, nos. 13-17. 39. P. Roubie;, wo k ' ite a b r 11 c ove at note 2 , vol. 1, sec. 109.

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Unfair competition is a parti�ul� typ e of e�tra-contractual liability.4o .' The ract ual liab ility are. contained in Title_ X_l�I of the Civil general rules . of_ extra-cont _ Code. Accorcling to Article 2027, the s011rces of extra-contractual liability are conduct which constitutes a fault �nd. _condl1ct whic41h, although not a fault, is made the Unfair competition .-is a type of basis of ext.ra-oont.ractual 42liab1l1ty by law. Accordir1g to Article 2029(1) of the Civil Code- fault liability based upon fault. ''may consist in an i11tentio11al act or in 1nere negligence." Although eertain ;rori.gs may be li11uted43to one (for exan1ple, physical assat1lt, in which intent is part· ot there is no express limitation in the definition, of commercial the definition), unfair con1petition. Tl1e defi11ition of civil t1nfair competition in Article 2057 of the Civil Code does reqt1ire that the act of the offe11der be ''contrary to good faith.''44 This does not necessarily govern Article 133 of the Co1nmercial Code, however,' sinoe the latter contai11s its own definitio11; a violation of Article 133 is expressly treated as a violatio11 of Article 2057 whe11 its own requirements are fulfilled. Unless the requiren1ent of civil unfair competition is held to carry over to the comn1erical area, tl1ere does not appear to be any reaso11 why negligent conduct should not be considered wrongful i11 this area, just as it is ge11erally in cases of extra-contract11al liability.45 The fundamental purpose of assuring fair competition raises particularly difficult problems when a trader has acted i11 good faith and without negligence, but his mark is still likely to co11fuse ct1s-tomers: If he continues using his 1nark, the p,urpose of th.e rules will be thwarted; yet it seen1s unfair to punish him. _Here, a court might take advantage of the great flexibilty of the remedies available to it to arrive at a just compro1nise. For example, a court might order the trader to stop using the confusing mark in the future, but not award damages based on prior use. This is consitstent ,vith tl1e essentially preventive nature of the rules against unfair competition.46 Or, if it would be particularly unfair · to prevent him from using the mark -- for example, if l1e had been usjng it soip.e time and built up a clientele connected with it -- a court might merely order modifications to avoid c·onfusion as well as can be done ·. in · the circumstances. In this latter case, tne court might even refuse to apply any · remedy beca11se of the delay of the plaintiff in bringing bjs action.47

40. Comm. C., Art. 132. The English version of Art. 132 states: ''A trader n1ay cl.aim damages under Art. 2057 of the Civil Code from any person \Vho commits an act of compe·tition ,vbich amounts to a fault.'' A more accurate translation from the French would read: ''A trader may bri11g an action for extra-contractual liability under Art. 2057 of the Civil Code against any person wl10 com111its an act of competition which amounts to a fault�'' 41 • The English versio11 of the Civil Code t1ses the term ''offence'' as a translation of � be F�ench ''faute." Articles 132 and 133 of the Con1mercial Code t1se ''fat1lt'' as a translation of the same Fren.cl1 word. ''F�tult'' is t1sed in tl1is paper as the preferable translation. 42 · Comm. C., Art. 132. 43. Civ. C., Art. 2038(1). 44. Civ. C., Art. 2057: ''A person commits an offence where, through false publications, or by . . n of a prodLict or the otbe� means contrary to good faith, he compromises the reputatio credit of a c.on1mercial establishment.'' 45· See P . . Roubier, work cited above at note 2, vol . 1, sec. 109. 46 · See id., secs. 109, 111. 47. Compare Civ, C., Arts. 2097, 2121. -

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l liabilit>', all the c· tua rac ont ra�c ext .. of cies spe a is . con1 p . 11 fair , Since �� :�;:�:ontr actl1al liability dealing ,v�th 111atters not expres�v Code pr?v1s101:s o11 ple, JJer1od . of limitatio11 , burd: y m exa for ; ble lica app 3 are covered 111 A rt1cles l 32-1 4 n o bo l1 s on ers o �s rp co c of r e rat y ilit JJ b nsi for th respo m . es, a _ da f t e11 f pro e 4 1 d ov de pr _ 111 sly es pr e i icl 3 e Art e r a. x es dj ren1e f . 1 48 � ai1 r . t . Ce r Th , ? ?f e . s, er ot �c.ts of . comp etitor. Tl1e cour t in e 1r 11fa tl1e u m fro I es 11ag da1 · ay 111Jured person 111ay c ai 01 , f d t tl : · o e un a1r. co1np e!ition; e11 I� . a t u p to ry sa es ec n re a s a a ls o n1ake sucl1 ord·ers 2 o c A , rt. l iv. under 2 , to C · order an publi particulr sh at · ' ' In · e, d u c I in � · ay n1 e tl1es . · � t o d I emo,,e t he eflect of e g11 e�1 d es t1c 11o r ito pet com r the fai th� ex p _ense. 0f. tle un Art. o ., i 2, . 212 l1i er 111d pro C ,, C bitin tion l unc · ·inJ an ? ·ind · • 111c . b the nus 1ea. dw g 1nll tation , ' . . 1n1s . lead •111g act. s. A t e111porary 1nJt t1011 nia g . 111s. ,. . • coi1tir 1u1n u11 f .. lit con1peti·tor fronl · . e suit. 49 .As 11 . utio1 of th . �t1t · 1d.1cated ab ove_ , a coury 1 111 . 1e tl t be granted as early as . ts of tl1e partic ular case. tl1e fac to y 1ed ren 1 tl1e 1g or1 tail iii ity ibil flex d enjoys broa. air of u11f s rtrle the co111petition clo not , ory tl1e i11 at, 1 t1 d Jiote be uld It slJo 1ecl a�e ai11 y 111ore at preve riting tl1e rk; en1a trad a use to t righ the er trad give a another perso11 frorn imitatin¥ a trade1narl( already 111 use. The , en1pl:asis is not on the first user's property r1gl1ts, bt1t ratl1er 011 the seco_11d t1ser s m1s -c o11dtrct.so ,.fl,us, it is lituinp . ortant for p11rposes of trade111,irk pro�ect101_1 tl1rot1gh u11fair com­ r1gl1t 111 a trade111ark. That etition to co11sider \Vl1etl1er a perso11 has a property 51 and is 11ot easily answered ies, cot111tr n1a11y of jt1rists the puzzled questio11 11as i11 Etbio1,ian Ja,v. Tradei11arks are listed as rigl1ts of ''indt1strial property" in the Co1ru11ercial Code a11d are co11sidered ''ele111e11ts'' of a busi11ess, \vl1icl1 itself is dee1ned. pro1,ert)' by tl1e Code. 52 011 tl1e otl1er l1a11d, trade111arks are no\.vl1ere expressly defir1ed as pro1,erty rights - as are literary a11d artistic pro1Jerty in the Ci,,il Code ) for exa1111,le.53 Jf any legislati,,e e11actn1e11t is to do this, it is }jkely that the special Ia,¥s co11te1nplated by Article 148 are wl1at tl1e drafter of the Com111ercial Code l1a.d i11 1ni11d.54 .

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Tf ,�,e do wisl1 to tbi11k in terms of rights a11cI to consider 110,v a person acq11ires the rigl1t to 11se a. trademark in Etl1iopia, ,ve ml1st really consider what be must do to be al,le to protect it - - in the present co11text, l111der Article 133.55 48 • See generally, Civ. C., Arts. 2090-2161. As to tl1e possibilily of the plai11tiff recovering profits wr�ng u f lly n1ade by the defendant, compare Civ. C., Arts. 2162 and 2163 dealing with unjust enrich11?-e0!-. As_ to the relalionsl1ip between ren1edies in un fair competition and extra-conira· ctual habihty in Frencl1 law, see P. Roubier, work cite abo at note 2 vol.l, sec. Ill. d ve _ He 0?tes that altl1ough some prejudice normally must be 11 tractual liability extra sl1ow for -c� n to exist, the em_ph�s is in un fair co1npetition on a like to liho od o co1 f 1 f u sion reduces the need sho\v actual pre ud1ce Th·1s ts consi·stent w1tl l'.ul · 1 tl1e ratio11ale base d 01 1 preYe11tion o f ,vrongi, · conduct . If d.an1ages are sougl1t by the plainti repar ation ff is the rat ion n1 ale gr"' 11g t11c 11ti f o r · '-' · ' o f 11arn1 done t0 h Lni, · ·· and som e dao1age (alt11ough perhaps difficult to evaluate) should be shown. 49. Civ. Pro. C., Art. 155. SO. P. Ro� bier, work cited above at eeo bet ,v no te 2 vol she s I sec dis s. tin gui 4 1-Ie 115 14 I . , ' protection of trad emark. rights · cr e� 1·cd by tt"' -d " 'b1· b y' I s c c, _ ·a · 1' stat11te pro 11 ancl v·ro11£f u l P conduct the rules of unfair competit ion. � ·• 51. Sec, for exan1ple, F. Scl 1echter' work c·1 t ed ab ove at no te la. 52. Con1m· c·, A·rts. 127 14•8 . ns · See note· 17 ·sio rovi · p b a ove regard i ng tl1e translatio11 of these 53. Civ. c., Art. 1647_ ' · 54. As in Frencl1 Jaw· See note 50 a bovc. . 55 . Protection under other . . See articles w 1 ·11 0f course d . .' , epend on the ele11 1e11ts of those arucies for example, Pen. c.' Art d 67 4 , 1scussed below. · 'J 1

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if suffic satisfi h�· ient , es the : requ irem�nts of Article 133 that he be seem d l wou It ged wro�gdoer and that, at least under paragraph (2) (a); 4" competitor of the all¢ _ . the mark has been used on or with relation to goods to the extent that an imit­ ation by the alleged wrongdoer is likely to conft1se customers. This returns us to ly discussed. The plaintiff may also have to show in a court previo us ons defini ti the action that his mark is sufficiently clisti11ctive to be protectib le as a trademark;� This may be parti�ularly diffic·ult i11 the_ case of signs which are originally descriptive d to have aqql11red a linl< witl1 the plaintiff's product in the but which a.re claime · · 56 The effect of registration is ,discussed below: minds of custoniers. ,

2. Penal Code, Article 674 Article 673 -of tl1e Pe11al Code provides for crimi11al unfair competition. It may be applicable i. n a case of trade1nark imitation, but Article 674 provides more direct coverage a11d \vill be the 1nai11 subject of discussion here. Article 674 provides: (1) Whosoever inte11tionally, . (a) infringe.s, in1itates or passes off, i11 such manner as to deceive the public, another's mark 01· distinctive signs or declarations of origin on any produce or goods or their packing, whether commercial, indus.. trial or agricultural; . . . is punishable, upon complaint, with simple imprisonment or fme. . The sam� penalty is imposed on those persons who sell, offer for sal�, impor·t, export, distribute or place· on the market goods which they know have trademar� which are imitations, and those persons, who refl1se to declare the origin of goods in thei.r possession with such marks.57 This article is essentially a farm of unfair co·mpetition, in that it. emphasizes the misconduct of the wrongdoer in misleading the pnrchas.ing public. But its scope is both broader and narrower than Article 133 0f the Commercial Code. The differences are important even to the person who does not seek a pena l remedy, since a: violation of Article 674 also may result in civil liability pursuant to Article 2035 of the Civil . Code. '

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Insofar as the act of imitation, the likelihood of misleading customers and the involvement of products are concer11ed, there is little difference between Article . ff a.s well 674 and Article 133. Article 674 speaks of i11fringement and passing o as imitation, but for purposes of this discussion · these words essential ly mean the same thing. 58 Article 674 says, ''in such manner as to deceive the public," ins�ead of •

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56. See E. Offner, work cited above at note 3. p. 82. · Pen. C., Art. 57. 674(1) (b) and (c). 58 · !he words ''infringes2 ' a.nd ''passes off'' may have so· mewhat different meanings. For exa.mple, 1n English law, ''infringement'' refers to ·the imitation of a trademark registered pursuant to the trademark registration statLite. Ilalsbury's. Laws .of England (3d ed. London, Butterworth1 1962), vol. 38, Trade Marks Trade Names and Designs, p. 648. The French version of the Etn.io·piao Penal Code 11ses :'contrefait," wl1ich is used in France i n this context to <lenote the same thing ''infringement'' does in England. Perl1aps tl1e drafters of the C�de tho_ugbt. of Art. 674 as providing a remedy for imitation of a registered mark · when a special. r�g1s�at1on statute _comes to be adopteq, as well as providing a mor�. general remedy for im1tat1on. of non-reg1stered marks. ''Passing off'' in English law refers generally �o _. the false_ represeota t10 n th at a person's business or goods are the same as or connected w1t� the bust�ess · or g??05 ?f arnother person. Halsbury's Laws, vol. 38, PP� 593-596. It js thus ak10 to unfa,rr compet1-tion in Ethiop ian Jaw.

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be sl1ould s pl1rase i11terpreteci the o w , t e . th but , rs e . i ''likely to mi_slead cust00� ' Cod Pen e eqt1 al ires the �· actu i11 al se i u s� ne phr a l co the at f t t1 g r a 1 t � way. 011e i1u�h the difficulty o f provi11g s 00, of ligl1t i11 d n . · u u11so is n a co11st u tio t c ri st a l1 c _ u s t u b � � o of Article 674 to t111fair co111petitio11 ge11erall �tuaI co�f· t1s1on . and. the �e �-� � by tl ie fact tl1at pe11al sa11ctio11s are 1nore sev y� i A er t s�r�ct read�ng is . 1101 J �� 1 ; e 1 te nt ( discussed _belo_w) ade quately p t; an i1 of t en m e qtiir e ro - c1v1l sanct1�11 s_, s111ce t. i Use of tl1e wo rd ''public'' 111steacl of ''custom c� . reg ard is tl . ers .. offen·der. s 1nterests 1n e th . . 1 1011 If se 1s 11ot a pre-re qti· t co1npet1t l1at fact . t the of 1 o o yth'n an ·r 1s1' te 1 s a reflection, 1 � e 6 74 . l ic rt A f o on ti ca li p ap to the a11d Article h 674 133 . Article are t tween e at Arti'cle b rences e .r r di· 1 u Th e maJor . • •• .· t e t ar 1 n ,1 o o et1 n. c_ n1p and tors l v1�t r nde h offe 1 1d tI1e t if even v ni at ly . i 674 a app _ . . e t d d 11111 n to 1 111te ate t 1 1e v1ct1 n1's inark 1 )' actu r nde �£fe the ss unle � wjll 1101"' apply e pt1bl1c. i 11 sucl1 manner as to deceive th Article 674 does riot mentio11 con1petitio11 or co111pet_itors. Tl1t1s, it is not 11ecessary tlJat the offei1der a11d the injured perso11 act11ally be t_ry1ng to reacl1 the san1e custo­ mers . t 11 at is. that they be selli11g similar products 111 tl1e sa 111e area at tl1e san1e ti 111 e.' Tl1ese requirements are n_o·� co111�letely elin1i11at�d,_ 11�\vever. 1-\s _discu_ssed above witl1 regard to u11fair co1npet1t 1 0 11, w1tbo1:1t �on1e s11111lar1ty �r relat1011s h1p bet\veen the J)roducts there will probably be n o l1kelil1ood of ?01!f11s1�11. !f the products are 11ot sold at the san1e tin1e in the sa111 e area, tl1ere also 1s little l1kel1l1ood of co11fusion. One n1ajor exceJ)tio11 to tl1is n1 ust be 11oted, l1owever. A trademark n1ay be \vell­ kno\.vn ir 1 a cou11try or area eve11 tl1ough tl1e prodt1c t is not sold tl1ere. Thjs n1ay occt1r, for example, tl1ro11gl1 ad\1ertisi11g, or in1portatio11 of the goods witl1out re­ sale, or tra.vel b)' people fro1n that area i11to a11 ,1rea \vl1ere tl1e procluct is sold. 111 st1cl1 a case, tl1ere n1ay be a likelil1ood of confusion arisi11g fro111 i11litation of the well-kr10\\111 1nark. 60 Tl1is proble1n l1as bee11 JJarticul[trly in11Jorta11t i11 inter11ationa1 trade. Traclen1ark rigl1ts are generally clee111ed to be territorial. Acquisitio11 of such rights i11 one cot1r1try does not, in the abse11ce of treaty , give t11e l1older rigl1ts i11 a11other 1 cot1ntry. T :i1 e da11gers of tl1is theory for \\1ell-know11 trade111arl<s ,verc recognized i11 tl1e Con\'entio11 of P::1ris for tl1e Protectio11 of Industrial Property, \vl icl1 expressly 1 obligates the parties to provide protection for \Vell-k110\vn marks. 61 Well-kno,vn n1arks arguably co11Id receive J)rotection under Article 674 of tl1e Pe11a] Code; they could not under Article 133 of the Con1111 ercial Code, since th.at article requjres that tl1e parties be in con1petition. �he degree of culpability vvl1 ich a perso11 must l1av bef lie violates Article ore e �74 is clearly stated. He must have i11te11ded to imitate t he trade111 ark of anoth er in Such manner as to deceive the pt1blic. PursL1a11t to Article 58 of tl1e }Je11al Code , 59 • The French version of tllis · Ari · p l· 1r·a.se 1· 11 Comm C 1 [1 se 1r 1 p a rt. the 133 is closer to 674 . s ee note 2 5 above a.nd ac A , companying t�xt. . 60 • It may seen1 odd that the • . .• · regard � · ena1 pro vision . 1n n 1s less prov1s 1o strict civil the than. to the requirement of compet1t. · • cuon. As i11dicated, however the 1on, s ince. a pe11a l sanct10.11 1s n:iore severe t 11an a c ·1v1·1 �an �. d 'f ioce fi . e · enc e l � IS not as _gre at as 11gh � appear 011 the sur:ace, �1av there at least n1ust b e a r n c e i 1 oo� _of co nfusio n. The k i l l nder o qu1 rn intent n1ore than tl1e tha 11t t re re e ff e · · ba l a nces 1he rerna1n u1g differenc e· . 61. Convention of Paris for . th e p ?3 Ari. otection of not e. at Ind 6 bis. See also Lav, o f D ust ria l Pro per c i ted a bove � ty, ec.em er 31 'co des . s t � 964 l (Fr .), Art. Dalloz, 63d ed. J 967) p 708 a Code de co111tne rce (Pe 4 it i t Jc n , 1 , C comn1erce inte�ation ai'" ·i Mi A l avanne, "La notio n de JJre1nier usage de marqfie e d elange.s: en l'hanneur de 0z an Da Sirey, 1961), vol. 2, p.' 37n Lib. (Par is, Pa11 l Rou bier 7.

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t.his element is satisfi�d either if �e committed the act with full knawledge of the other m3.:k and 1nte�t to deceive_, or if he was aware that his mark would or might deceive the public and committed the act regardless that this would occur. I

· Penal proceedings against a person who violates Article 674 may be brought only upon a complai11t made by tl1e person injured. The offender is punishable with simple imprisoninent or fine, or 'both. Aside from this, the court must order the seizure of the infringing objects and any proceeds of the sale of such objects, an,d the judgment ml1st be give11 publicity by the court, at the cost of the offender.62 A person who ,,iolates Article 674 incurs civil liability as well as penal liability. A civil action may be brot1gl1t llnder Article 2035 (I) of the Civil Code, which provides that a perso11 co.m1nits a fal1lt ''where he infringes any specific and explicit provision of a law. ''63 The retnedies l1nder Article 2035 are essentially the same as those under Article 133 of the Con1merc:ial Code: damages, injunction, publicity at the offender's expense, and, ''subject to the liberty of persons and to the rights 64 . a11y appropriate measures to . damage. " parties, . make good or limit the hird of t 3.

Registration of Trademarks

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Protec.tion of traden1arks through the device of unfair competition (or a relate� remedy, such as Article 674 of the Penal Code), creates difficult problems for trademark users. 111 order to meet tl1ese problems, most nations have adopt,ed trademark registration statt1tes. Although tl1ese statutes vary in their effects, they at least enable a merchant to discover some or all of the marks clain1ed by others an, d to give notice to others of the marks they adopt. A registration statute may enable a n1erchant to test i11 adva11ce the validity of his mark by permitting the liegjstrar to reject those that are not valid. Registration of the mark may be considered to establish its validity, or at least to raise a presumption o, f validity. Registration might be treated as extending the use of tl1e mark throughout the ent1Ie cottntry, thus assuring protection in markets in which the merchant does ttot yet sell llis goods. Some statutes permit merchants to protect their marks ag ainst dilution, by pernutting tl1em to claim the mark for goods other than· tl1ose · 0.0 which the mark will im1nediately be used. Some permit a merchant to register marks si1nilar to the one he actl1ally inte11ds to 11se, to expand the area of protection aromnd his mark by preserving its disti11ctiveness. Some permit the merchant to reserve marks for use in the ft1t11re. Registration may enable a merchant to take advantage of treaties and foreigr1 laws wl1ich permit protectio11 of a mark in foreign countries only if the mark is already registered in the n1erchant's own coU11try. Finally, registration provisio11s are ofte11 part of comperehen�ive trademark laws,

6l. Pen. C., Arts. 89, 159, 217, 674 677, 679. As to secondary punisl1ments and pre,,entive and , pr0tective measure-S which might also be applied in exceptional circumstances, see Pen. C., Arts. 1 20-127, 138-160.

rii. See also Pen C., Art. 100, regarding damages in penal actions. Regarding joinder, see P. Girave n, ''J'oinder of Cri1ninal a11d Civil Proceedin gs," J. Eth. L., vol. 1 (1964), p. 135. M. Civ. C., Arts 2 090, 2120-2122 (quoting from Art. 2090(2)).

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L·. VIrr·- No. 1 O V \V A L N A PI IO I IBT ·.. NAL· 0···p"' · JOUR

a11d providi11 g. speci al re ]ice11si11g 11d a mei1t assigil . as m rs edies u1atte · srich: · r egulating 65 t. n e m e 1g i1 for infr 1 try is required by Ind11s and rce 1e Cor1111 • • of •stry Arric�e In Etl11o1Ji�,. tlle M'.1 in rt nta to mai er Ord emark registr 6 trad er) Pow of s tion �ni e (D 24(d) of tl1e M iniste�s arl rad em or states what yt.h bis r t reg iste r c to tra de a es ' e · · · Bt1t n· o . statu. te ob l1g at d d e 11 inc 1 011 . at1 e reg1str b 1nust 011 nan1es stat Trade eiiie ' •s • 1 t· n nts 10 a tr is . g re . . • f · o t ec eff . . 1 e 1, ro · 101 p 1at 11 an b Reg1strat10 ut this appe ars · ses pri ter Ei1 s nes B s1 u . filed ·un der t he a e 1 . 1 eg 1 ffi 1a _ects ar� stated. 67 Je s1 o n ; ly n o s se o rp u p l a � n o ti The to b e for inforn1a 05 ( ) t1c1es 1 1 , 105(J,) a11ct l06(d) r,r . rks ma de tra of ak spe 1 110 · pr.oc1an1at·10n does, . . lus1on • · es .1n d an d e na · t· �s Lra d o ... f 111gu1�b111g mark s 1nc e uir req de Co al rci ne nli Co . of tbe. t e no d ar 11e ks t10 ar e11 111 rn de ra ; 111 bu any oase s, nt n: te1 sta � n J tio ra ist reg s 1es o11 busi1 6 these provisions are not yet 1n effecL. , rk tion stra e1:na regi trad to tl1e coiicl usion cts effe l lega es ibut attr law no Siilce l cial lega spe effects. Eve11 assuming 110 are re t11e t tha is wn dra be to erl1a.ps e Tl1_ ose. 1)r11den� bt1si11essman ,vill p11rp a es serv still on trati regis 1e, 1 tr to be ibis r ½ to as:erta111 tl1e cla11ns of otl1ers. J-fe ema trad a g 11sin re befo ster regi e 1 tl line exan ,vill register tl1e traden1ark l1e cl1ooses, to give notice to otl1ers. ,

.

Registratio11 col1lcl easily be i11terpreted to be relevant to 11on-pe11al u11fair co1np­ etitio11, particularly with regard to the n1ental statt1s of the i11fringer. Tb.us, it n1ighi be argued that a trader should kno\\' of trad.e111arks i11 tl1e registr)1 • If bad faith is deen1ed to be an. ele1T1e11t of 1111fair co1111)etition, the trader co11ld be presu.n1ed to k110\v of registered 1narks, st1ch a presu1nptio·n bei11g e:itl1er co11clt1sive or shifting ' the b11rde11 of proof to the alleged unfair competitor to prove bis lack of knowl­ edge. The Con1mercial Code does establish a concl11sive prest11nptio11 of this nature for registered trade 11ames and disti11guishing mar l<s. 69 Fa.il11re to examine tl1e regis­ try migl1t at least be evidence of 11egligence on the part of tl1e trader.

65. See E. Offner, v-.·ork cited above at note 3; A. Chava1111e, \Vork cited above at .note 61; l\1odel La\v (including con11nentary), cited above at note 1. I�ote in particular the Draft Model IJa\\' for Developing Countries on 1\.-1arks 1�rade Nan1es Indications of Source and Unfair Con1petition, prepared by the United Inter1�atio11al Bureaux' for tl1e Protection of Intel• lectual property in 1966 (commented t1pon b_y E. Ofi'ner. \.Vork cited above at note 6) and the tradcniark law adopted by tI-ie adhere11ts to tl1e Africa11· and Malagasy Conve11tion, cited abov e at note 3. A survey world trademark laws is contained in a special volun1e OD pat ents _ a�is and trademarks of National Association of Cred Man L l ia ·c 1e r1 it ageme11t, Digest of Co1n � of �he J.Vorl d (Do�bs �erry, New York; Oceana Pt1blicat national regis­ Som e loos e-lea ions f). ; tration la\vs are cited in other 11otes i11 tl1is 61: England, not e paJ )er Fra exa for nce mp le note l�; Canada note 77. See also W Patents ' r,,;de M· arks and Desi gns· ln Afri ca ebes ter ' · (P retor1a, Patla\1/, 1961). 66 • J 966 Order No 46 Neg G . . n to n1 a·otain 1 ,') . year 2 a 5, no. obhgat1o ' · z , _ 23. ,A.rt. 24(d) co11tinues the a registry of 1 · d e ar k e S{abhsl1ed O\\e of by Art. n (De 32(h finit ) io Mi11 of .istcr tl1e s � � J� Order, 194J' Or��r 0· � • N eg. Gaz., year 2, no 5. Art. 3201) was repealed by Order J 0· • .67 · Arts. Il(l) (b) (l ), JJI(l) (c) (J), IV(l) (a) (2), 1961, Pro c. No. 185, 1Ve,ff. Gaz., yea r 21 , 00· 3· 68 · See Comm. C., Art. 1174 (1). 69 · Art. 120(2) provides that • not " th ' d"d d r art 1 e es t l) i �hall 11ot b e pern1itted to prove tl� at 1 Y lc�ow _ �f a fact entered in t ',s and _ � lle commerc1.al name e trad . d1st1!1gu1shing marks a.re not Iis ed. among tl1e register.'' Note, l1owever, ,that rigl _ t.s 0 third parties in good faith wh . facts wlticb "shall not aflect tl1e � � Art. er 1 er. 1ey rcgi5 l have not been entered i11 tl1e commercial_ -� 21. Note· also that these �. yel ot tc es n are are Part of the registration provisions ,vb1cI1 1n effect, under Art. 1 1 174{�).

or

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·- 144 ·-


PR.OTECTIO� ,O F T�DEM;\RK� IN .BTH):O- PIA . .

Toe problem of determining . the effects of. registration has receiyed judicial Imperia S�1prem l e Court recently The dealt n. with the relationsl;lip of ratio side con ":as used wh1ch b�f ore the other, or but one only the seco:µd registered. s, sign o tw Sewi ng Mach ine Com Singe pany r _ sued Ato �anaw Aleme under case, that . In Article 133 of �he_ Commercial Code to stop . him . from70 using a qisti�ctive �ign tl1e o _tradem St1?3ilar ar½ used. by Si11ger. be Both parties used. the ! to ed claim design in co11�1ec�1on w1tl1 sewing 1nach1nes. Singer's product and trademark were in use in Ethiopia for many years before those of Ato Aza11aw, and Singer had pu@lished cautio�ary noti_ces more than tl1irty y�ars before At? . Azc3:n?-w,' but Ato Azanaw l1ad registered 111s traden1ark at tl1e registry of the M1rustry ·of Commerce and Jnd11stry a11d Si11ger l1ad 11ot. The I-Iigh Cot11·t found for Singer and prohibited 1 Ato Azanaw. 71 The S11pre1ne Imperial Court, one design b� the of judge the u'Se · · . : . disse11ti11g, reversed It said It does not help to approac}1 the dis1)11te i11 Jjgbt of the law on registration of traden1rks a11d sole ow11ersl1ip because there is no such la;w in Ethiopia. And since "''e n1ust reso1·t to equity to arrive at a soultion, ,ve are compelled to determine who registe1·ed this letter ''S'' as a trademark first by consulting the register kept by the proper authorities. Under the law, 01· more appropriately, in equity, a busi11ess1nan may 1nonopolize a trademark and have other business­ men barred from t1sing it on1y if he was the first person to have that trade­ mark registered witl1 the authorities empo\vered to register s11,ch trademarks. The mere fact that a per�o11 has 11sed a trade1nark for a long time does not entitle bin1 to claim that he is the sole 0V11ner a11d that others are prohibited from using it, unless he was the first person to have the traden1ark registered and reserved for his exclusive t1se. In the absence of any legislation on trademarks, both equity and the spirit of foreign legislation on the subject, and· the practice abroad, dictate that we stl1dy the registers to determine the rights of both parties .72 Registration, ·the court added, is ''in accordance \vith the t1sage of tl1e country. '' 73 The court treated unfair competition as an independent doctrine and rejected its application in this case because. it did not believe the marks invol,,ed v,ere so similar that conft1sion would result. 74 Article 674 of the Penal Code was not mentioned by either the High Court or Supreme Imperial Co11rt and apparently was not made the basis of any claim. The demand for certaii;ity and stability in trade111ark usage may very well·-justify a general rule that trademarks be registered in order to receive protection. By s�arching the register, a trader knows whether or not the mark which he wishes to adopt is available for use. Once his mark is registered, he knows it is protectible from i mitation and generally safe from attack, particularly if t11e �egistratlo� pr�cess Ml¥olves a determination as to the validity of the inark. 75 But 1n some s1tuauons, the interest in certa.inty may be outweighed by other interests - for example, discou70• The nature of the marks involved is de�cribed in the text accompanying notes 28-31 above. 1:'1°te that the defendant's sign wa. s a distingujsbing mark, not a trade mark. For purposes of 1•�bility fo� imitatio1 of anot11er's trademark, tl1e distinction is unimportant. See p. 135 above. � 1 Si ger Sew 8 2 p. 2. • 9 vol. L., Et/1. J. (1964), Aleme v ng Azanaw e Machm . n Co. Ltd. i 7 • A2alilaw Aleme v. Singer Sewing Macl1ine Co. Ltd. (1964), J. Eth. L., vol. 2, P• 223. .,,3 .. Ibid. , �• See n.otes 28-31 ab? ve and accompanying text. ; 5 • See E. Offner work cited above ·at note 6. p. 832.

!•

- - ]45 -


OL. Vlll - r'lo. 1 V w A L N IA P IO H T E JOURNAL OF

rs, me sto of ct1 a11d con_sideraf n tio cep de . g tin 1 . vei pre ct ons raging_ dishonest condu k l1is sed m 1 s de ha tra 10 1 wl ar o11 � ers e (th ' . W it out r p · ise l b r o ii p e t to s es n ir of fa k). lar mar s Tbi simi a 111ay s ster regi e s I e e 11 cu o oc e . m r o s e r fo i e b it g in · er t . regi· � n ct , e th o r io pr r na a er f er ad tr us l( e tl1 of 1 s know , ilt regJs. tra s i' eg · ' r e h t 1 e1 h w . • 1 ar cu Part1- . otl1er s good wr·11. If tlie reit 1e ·l t If . se him to e riat rop app i t b's n . 1n orde.I to ,v o . . s . ters hi · n t d t co tic es ' on d 1s re h 1s . 1 c, r wa <led De e . 1n ar e tl1 g 111 115 11e in rlt co to e d tt . ra� t 18 permi c us· ; is red er ior cle t1s pr or e th to ion dit ad st p iu If · ult res . ll wi 1ng s er t om · s cu . o f n ptlo e d 1 a� p p11.t to the b ti b t u s a h e l1 l il w d o o g e expense th : . bis n1ark, l1e will lose ay 1s ll 1n tl1 A em se k. ar em ad a tr w g 11e hi a of _ sis h price ba e th on it g in ild bu re of to ·pay for trademark certa111ty. 1ing s_ ion r�t ide ?l\ 11s i11v co d n a_ 11ty tai cer tlie prot ec­ rk n1a de Tlle teilsion betwee11 tra s _ 011 111 d1ffe:ent cou_ntries. ut1 sol e11t fer d1f d 11ce od _pr s ha rs use or pri red iste reg un of tioil istered \VIII prevaII over reg not l1as o wh r use r prio a S, la\v rk ema trad e 1 soo der Un the registra11t.16 u11der other laws, tl�e p�io� user \�ho l1as not registered retai ns his JJriority> but only fo: a statutorily l1ITI1ted per1�d (f�r e�an1ple, five years). a t1on s stra user reg1 c r late tl1e 11celled within have to n actio e k ta. If he does not 77 Fi11ally, s0111e rk. eina trad laws provide the to t that tiine he ma.y lose I1is rigl1 o11 and tl1 at a t11at the 'rigl1t to use a tradernark is acquired 011ly by registrati 78 JJrior d tiser. istere unreg n a I-Iowever, even over il registrant generally will preva the la\vs ,vhicl1 make registratio11 co11clt1sive, eitl1er from tl1e begi1111i11g or after a grace period, do not 11ecessarily cu t off all tl1e rights of 11nregistered prior users. For example, the Fre11cl1 stc:itute expressly protects trademarks ,vl1ich are well-k.novvn, agai11st i11fri11ge111ent by registered 111arlcs - for five years if tl1e registration is in good faitl1, presu1nably for an 1111linuted period if it is not.79 Tl1e Canadia11 statute pern1its the ca11cellatio11 of a registration even after tl1e ei1d of tl1e :five-year grace period. if ''it is established. tl1at the person who ado1)ted tl1e registered trademark in Canada did so with k11owledge'' of a n1ark previously used or n1ade kno\vn.80 Aside fro1n givi11g substantive righ.ts to unregistered traden1ar1cs, ma11y statutes provide procedures \vl1icl1, ir1 lending stability to registered m,1rlcs, l1elp tl1e ov,ner of an unregistered traden1ark to protect it. '"fhese 1nay incl11de a11 exa1ru11ation by the registratio11 a11thorities to deter1nine w11etl1er a mark. pro1)osed for registration 76. For example: E. V�.ndenbur�h III, Trademar!c Lalv ancl Procedure (Ne\V York, Bobbs- Merrill . _ Co.? 1959), pp. 42-�.), d1scuss1n g United Slates La\V. This also appears to be the result under Itahan law (see Digest of Co,nn1ercial Laws of tlLe World, cited above at note 65) and \Vas the result un.der the old Fre11ch law, discussed by P. Roubjer, \Vork cited above at note 2, · sec. 29. 77. For exan1ple: Trad �arks Act (Canada), Art. 17, 1-2 Eliz JI, cl1ap, 49; Model Law, cited . above at_ note 1, Art. :, ; compare the British Trade Ma Arts. 7, 11 aod 13• rks I 938 of Act , tut cited _ab_ove a� note 14. Under _tl1e Canadian co�r l the end s peri act, od afte grac r the e �� Y � �der hn,ited circumstances permit the unregister ed mark to conti11uc in us � along \-Vith th e registered n1ark; Arts. 21, 22. 78. r m Jle: aw of Deceniber �I, 1964 (France), �� t��: law t cited above at 11ote 61 (see the co1nn1ent�ry A ·· Chavanne, in Recueil Dal/oz 5·;rev (19 5) CI1ro11ique p. 83); A rgenune r . 6 , ' � law' d'iscussed in n igest of Comm ercia 5. s"e also . I 6 L aws · note . o the f at Wo abo rld, ve cited th e Gern,an law· C c d by . ompare 1 he Draft Model Law for Developing Countries ' as d1. s,cusse E. Offner., w . ork cited above at note 6. . . 79. Law of December 3 1 1964 Art· 4 C l1 vanne . . T cited • abov e :it note 61, and con1n1e11t:1ry by _A. . . a ve al cited above at note '78 his a reflects Art. 6 bis of tl1e Co11vention of Paris, cited note 23 which requir ?t 6ed · · es· 1•ts adllerents to protect spec r man 11e well-known mar · ks in tl1e 80, T ra de M' ark s Act Art 17(2 . ) •' M0d �1 Law, cited above at note 1, Art. 5, con1es to a s·iniilaf result. Compare E. Offner, w ork cited a b o v e a t n o te 6.

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PROTECTION OF TRADEMARKS IN ETHIOPIA

mig there t be Or publi . cati us � i ady _ � �n of the proposed mark before or alre � : is oppor tunity with to t1on given prior users to . oppose the registration· reg1str a its r afte 81 n. io at ell nc ca its n tai or to ob Earlier in this section, it was stated that registration 1night be relevant to 1 ith regard to proving the defendant's particu \\ larly ition, compet state of mind. un.fair The court's opinion _s11g�ests !l1e reverse: that a later user can cut off unfair compe­ titio11 liability by reg1ster1ng b1s 1nark first. If the prjor user's mark is not registered, this may help show tl1e absence of bad faith or negligence on the part of the later user. But if tl1e registra11t actually is in bad faith, or perhaps eve11 negligent, and if the policies s11ggested above regarding protection of the prior user are acce­ 011ld 11ot preclude his liability. 82 sh. re. g istration ted, p In the ca.se under disct1ssion, the defendant clearly knew of the plaintiff's trademark before he registered his ow11.83 I-Iowever, the essential point in the case was the court's deter11unation tl1at the marks were not confusingly similar. This precludes liability for unfajr competition and under Article 674 of the Penal Code. It might ev·en preclude liability if the prior user actually had registered his mark, sjnce he has little ground for complaint if the marks are dissimilar. Thus, even though the cou.rt treated registration as an independent matter, it is not completely clear what the court might do if faced with. a situation where the m.arks of the unregistered prior user and the registrant are confusingly similar and the registrant registered his mark in bad faitl1. 4. Advertising In Ethiopia and elsewhere, it is customary for persons who wish to use and protect a trademark to publish ''cautionary 11otices'' in newspapers warning others not to use the mark, at least \Vith relation to goods such as those on which it is used by the advertiser. It is not expressly required by any Ethiopian law, but it is still strongly advisable. Publication helps make the tradem.ark known to the the public, and gives 11otice of it to other businessmen. Moreover, since it is castomary, a court may give it (or lack of it) weight in evaluating trademark rights. 84

CONCLUSION Trademark protection at present is provided chiefly by the rules of unfair c01npetition in the Commercial Code (Articles 132-134) and by Article 674 of the Penal Code. Registration of the trademark at the Ministry of Commerce and Indus­ try has been held to be a pre-requisite of its protection. Publica�on of cautionary notices is customary. A special· trademark law is contemplated by the Commercial Code, and one is apparently in preparation. It is to be hoped that such a law wll elarify m.any of the ambiguities presently existing in the law, and at least make clear the relation . between it and the code provisions which currently apply to trademarks. 81 · Compare the alternative registration procedures suggested by the Draft Model Law, discussed by E. Offner, work cited above at note 6, pp. 834-836. �l. �is would seem to be the result provicled in the case of trade names and distinguishing s1gns. See note 6 above. &J · See the opinion of the High Court, cited above at note 28. 84· N?te �he reliance by· tne Supreme Imperial Court on. usage in eval�ating the effect of regiSfr­ atton tn Azanaw A.leme v. Singer Sewing M.achine Co. Ltd., as cited above at note 13.

-147 -


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D PRACTICE W N A A L Y IT L A N IO T A N ETHIOPIAN by Fasil Nah1,1m*

t x te n o C l a n o ti a rn te n I e . . . Nationality in th l 11a t10 of 11a t ter ep 1n nc co a pe o sc_ ily ar im pr whic h i dean is I y lit na tio _ Althoti gh na . Y o ri s t e y law tel na ed rt pl1 a1J nfo , l1 to law u u , nal tio rria lte ati n a t shouId .be treated by i i y l 1 g as wel l; a11d the problem cti1 con but i fl 1re natt · l in s c est1 th us · . . are not 011 Y dom • c 1 "fi or asst maJ 1cat1011s of proble ms th two The . ated plic corn aild s u · iero : . n . u . at . ed are 11 rru.s to ar� t.11ose of statelessness 1ces give rise ta1 t1ms circ l iona rnat inte and ti e esent ssne�s 1s _ to ct1t the link a�cor ing tele sta of ct effe e Th y. alit ion nat lti) mu al. p(or d d� . , •ct als or (Jrottps of people benefits of protect.1011 fro1n the state which the, o 1nd1 v1 u . , 1e t o at r h 1 t 1 s . ) 0 ; e 1 t 11at of dual nationconsider to be theirs (since tl1ey 1de11t1 _Y wit 1 ce to more tha1 1 on� state. At tiine s 1a1 alleg �i,,e to m e t� e forc to of . ality is . . n1altreattnent of st1ch 1nd1v1dt1als or group of , 11 ationa1 or ii1ternat1onal cr1s1s, the people has been withot1t re111ecly. For purposes of tllis article 11atio11ality refers to the relatio11sl1ip of allegiance protection and identific-,1tiou whicl1 an �11dividt1al has witl1 a s�ate. Nati�na_ lity is � stat11s that res11lts fron1 botl1 act a11d 111tent, a11d usually entails a part1c1pation in the f11nctio11s of the state. •a In tl1e world today there are several \vays of acquiring 11atio11ality, but tl1 ey ca11 be grotrped into t\:vo broad classes - birtl1 and natt1ralization. The t'rvo basic approacl1es to detern1i11i11g nation::1lity by birth are jz1s soli and jus sa,1gi1ir1is. By the first, a cl1ild born i11 a give11 state ''A'', beco1nes a national of state ''A'', irrespective of the natio11ality of bis pa.rents. Si11ce it is the birthplace of tl1e child a1_1d 11ot the 11ationality of his parents tl1a.t matters, a child born to 11atio11als of state ;,A'' resicling abroad does not acquire the 11 atio11ality of state ,:A'', whereas a cllild. born in state ''A'' of either 11atio11al or foreign parents becomes a natio11al of state ''A''. U11der _ji1s sa11gi1i11is, a cl1ild acqt1ires the nation· ality of bis l)arents, irrespective of the birthplace. Tl1t1s a cl1 ild born to parents of state ''B'' 11ationality, becomes a national of state ''B'' wl1ether born in state "A1 or ''B''. It is not difficult to i1nagine the conflict which follo\-VS a meeting of the pure for_m_s o� these two pri11ci1)les. A child borr1 to pare11ts of state ''A'' nationality, �-esid1ng in st,1te ·'B'' acq_11ires tl1e 11ationality of 11either state ''A'' 11or ''B" . �nd !herefore becon1es stateless; a child born to parents of state ''B'' 11 atio11 alit )', re s1d1ng in state ''A'' acqtiires the nationalities of botl1 states ''A'' and ''B''. Many states �ave sySlems of natio11ality law that com1Jromise tl1e two pri 11ciples with one _ or e the 0ther pred.oininating, whereas others adher e to siv excl u 011e or tl1 e otl1e r a� tl1e

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Lecturer' Faculty of Law 1-J s I . ' · • • · U n1vers1ty. • · ·sity)· (No\.V or1 study-leave at Yale Un1ve1 1 The term an ationality" w,·11 b e em· be 1 1 · use d. thr oughot1t, although the tern1 "citize11s hip" '�� . u sbed pl oy ed in the l tter t f l arti cle to re_ fer to th� E_ritrean local stat�s _as d1:st� i s as a a ��al from federal nation al1t Y� �ot� iethat t _c the Revi sed Const1tut1on refers to .Eth101J1an na l "subjects" a ter.m common in 1nonarchical forn1 o f governments ' d . 1 a . The state 1s . here defined as an le eop . . P geogr . a . aphic l1av1ng portion surface of tl1e earth's an independent system of la:. .

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determining factor for their nationality laws. For instance, Argentina is classified .as a jus s�li_ state whereas Ger1?-any adheres to the. _ nationality of the parents as the determ1ni11g factor.. The Uruted States _ of America is primarily a birthplace an 1n . ort e to obtain as any nation � ls as ossible � has state whereas Franc � � :p _ ,, � employed both principles extensively. - The complexity of the 1nternat1onal picture legislation concerning married women a·nd the of nationality is furthered by recent 2 equality of sexes. the a Moreover the political events of this century of principle have rendered untold nt1mbers of people stateless; many thousands of emigrants have lost their natio11ality as a rest1lt of ruthless legislation of expatriation against 3 s. ie em al en ic lit po alleged Conflicts arising ou.t of dual natiot1ality have · been as cruel as those arising from statelessness. Adoptio11 a11d legiti1nitacy of children have given rise to dual nationality. Moreove1·. s01ne systems l1ave permitted their nationals to acquire a foreign nationality withot1t losi11g tl1eir original nationaljty. A major dual nation.ality pioble.m a.rose before and dt1ring World War II, when children born of immigrant parents in the United States of America, visiting the home country of their parents, were conscripted into the military service in those countries as nationals due to their parents' n.ationality .4 Although international conventions, treaties and protocols have attempted to solve some of the questions, the results have not bee.n overly reassuring. Probably the most important conference so far has been the 1930 Hague Convention on Conflict of Nationality Laws, which, in an effort to avoid both statelessness and d·ual nationality, tried to enforce as uniform laws as possible. Altho11gh uniform solutions to the many problems in this field could not be found, the exchange of opini.ons and the agreement tl1at was reached on so·me points was. a step forward. Moreover, the Conventjon became the foundation for the nationality laws of some states including the 1930 nationality .law of Ethiopia. Ethiopian Nationality Law

The R.evised Constitution of 1955 states that ''the law shall determine the -00ndirions of acquisition and loss of Ethiopian nationality and Ethiopian citizenship. ''5 Tme law in force on the s11bject is the Ethiopian Nationality Law dated Hamle 15, 1922 (Eth. Cal.), as amended on Meskerem 25, 1926 (Eth. Cal.).6 This la,v, pub­ lished in Berhanena Selam, 1 is one of the oldest ·1aws existing in the Ethiopia11 llegal system. Except for the incorporation of a few interpretations from the modern cod.es, it remains intact; and since neither the Civil Code of 1960 nor any other

2.

See R.A. Sedler, Nationality Domicile and the Personal La\V in Ethiopia, Jor,rnal of Ethiopian Law (1965), vol. JI, p. 162 and the discussion based on Oppenheim, International Law (8th ed. vol. I) , p. 651. 2a. E. Rabel, The Conflict of Laws, vol. I (1958), p. 131-32. 3 · Ibid. 4. Sedler, cited above at note 2. 5. Art. 39, Revised Constitution of Etl1iopia. 6. The complete text of both Jaws are reproduced as appendicxes A and B. The Gregorian Cal­ endar will be used throughot1t, u.nless otherwise indicated by ''Eth. Cal." 7, Berhanena Selam was the official government reporter in which important le gislation appeared ;prior to the es·tablishment of the Negarit Gazeta in 1942.

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rep eal ed or ame11ded imp lied ly or ssly expre a it.. , it re Gazet Negarit the of part· � · full force and effect. ma111s w11·h (a) Birth Nationalit)' · nis jits gi,i l sari pl 1era ge1 nci pri e the ing stat ds' ''A rea , Law · Y i·t 1 ? . • The Nat1..ona ny . . r 1 o th o f er 1e 1 . 1u at 1s se E ho \V tl11op ad ro ab ian ' or a pi ·o 11 1s an tl E · · . ' · . · · 1n rn o b n o ·pers. . ]1 E I t w1t .. 1101J1a11 pare11ts . 11at1011 to born ality child A ac ,,s • �ec· t qui . res Eth1op1an sub. . . . b" ·h 1 B t 1 . ,. t p ace . irt le 11 . e 1er t ge1 of al p � 111ciple ? . Ethio ian 11ationality irrespective . is t 1e11 eq1 11bs A era . ge11 cles art � � � pr111c !ple states some!hat qua]i·fied by �ubseq11e11t . f oll iage . . . ow marr s d 1n1xe lie nat1011ality 1l lawf1 a � 1 bor11 child ry � . _ that, ''Eve of .,E 1o 1 1 r1ed ly fu ma la a 1 fat11er arld t? � born cli1ld � a ':" p �� � _ . bis fatlJer."9 Th us, a _ _ . _ 01 , a11 11at1 :al1ty 1f 1t rootller with foreign nation.al1ty, acq111res Etl11op1 . 1s the inot her . that is of Etliiopian natioi1ality and tl�e fathe r has �ore1g n 11at1onal1_ty, tlie child follows his father's natio11ality. A child ?orn outside lawfu l marriage with one Etlriopia11 pa.re11t acquires Etl1iopia11 na!ionality, a1�d �ve11 wl1ere tl1e father of foreig n 11ationality stibsequently, lawfully �arr1es the Eth1op1_a11 111other, tl1e law state s that, ''the c11ild legitimated througl1 tl11s subsequent 1uarr1age follows tl1e natio11ality of his foreion fatl1er only 011 co11ditio11 that tl1e 11ational la\V of the latter confe rs upo11 hi� tl1e foreign 11ationality with all i11here11t rigl1ts. Other\vise the chiJd pre­ serves bis Ethiopia 11 11atio11ality.'' 11 A cl1ild retai11s his Ethiopia11 11ationa]ity when adopted by a perso11 (or IJersons) witl1 foreig11 natio11ality, ancl adoptio11 ''does not iL11ply a11y change of tl1e aclopted child's original nationality. " 12 Tl1t1s Ethiopia te11ds to avoid both stateless11ess a11d dt1al 11atio11ality in follo\V· iug the }its sct11gl1inis principle rather strictly, taking tl1e 11,1tio11ality of the parents as the exclusi,,e determini11g factor. No 1)rovisio11 is made i11 the law for ,1ny other child born i11 Etl1iopia to acqt1ire Ethiopian natio11ality except tl1rot1gl1 11aturalization. (b) Natio11ality by Naturalizatio11 of lndivid11al As_ alr_eady me11tio11ed , tl1e alternative method of acquiri11g 11atior1ality is through _ 11atu�al1zat10!1, by ,vhicl1 a person is granted tl1e 11ationality of a state after fulfilling certa1� reqt11reme11t_s. No state, of cot1rse, allows a perso11 to be botl1 a11 alien and ::1 national a.t a g1ve11 IJOi11t in time. Those states pern1itting tl1eir 11ationals to _ acquire a second 11ationality still co11sider tl1em J)rimarily ,1s tl1eir nation als but _ l1ave. giv en them leave to acqt1ire a second 11atio11ality so tl1at tl1ey n1ay no t lose certa111 be11efits st1ch as tl1e right to work or O\V 11 property i11 a11other state. 0rdiriarily, tJ1ere are several requireme11ts \Vl 1 ic] 1 a JJerso11 I1as to f11Ifill befor e beitlg granted nationality, a11d altl1011gl1 these requiren1ents m ay vary i 11 degree, they . 8 · Aii. 1, Ethiopian Natio11alit y Law. 9. Art. 6 , Ethio1Jian Nati onality Law. 10. Note that und.er Art . 6 suc11 a c_1 11Id ' th the . d 111ay i l1ave IJ to rovc tl1a t I1c 1s original nat io nality of h.is . 11ot veste ,v in o tl1er, if reqt1ested to do so , . 8, Eth . . . 11. Art . 1op1an N the .

ationality L_aw _ . Note tl1at there is 110 co11cept of 11l Ethiopian Law and the re e g1t1.m_,tcydin it is . D . illlmaterial whether that p°:r: 1te� itunati�n does 11ot exist. Once ftliation is estabh/h� itiopia 18 married to tl1e otl1er parent. Cf. Civil Code 0 t Book lI, Title rv, Chap � ter I . 12- Art. 10, Ethiopian ct bje Nat· n r I:aw. C u 5 . . ia. n nve�sely, a minor adopted by an Ethiop does not thereby acqtiti�� ? �;��iopian nat1onaltty.

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e e f m sort. Under the Ethiopian law, these requirements y th o ll sa a er en g e b to tend : s w o ll fo s a d te s Ji e r a ''A foreign perso11 who: tl1e age atta of majority according to the law of his cot111try; ined has a ) ( lived least for five years in Ethiopia; at has b ) ( ( c) can earn his livi11g, to p· rovide f01· hin1self and bis family; (d) can read and write the A1nharic language; and (e) produces evidence to tl1e eflect that l1e has 11ot been previo11sly co11victed for crin1e or sin; ca11 becon1e a11 Ethiopia11 subject.'' 13 •

It has been mis·take11ly stated that tl1e Ethio_pian Nationality Law requires the foreign perso11 to be ''of full age accordi11g to the regulations of the national law'' from which: bas followed that he must therefore ''be 18 11nder Article 198 of the Civil Code." 14 The reaso11 fo1· requiring majority under the law of his country is s_ imple and clear. Ethiopia wa11ts to avoid being accused of having contracted with a pers.on of a foreign state that 1nay consider hin1 too yoting to make such a decision. Since practically all ]egal systems distinguish between minors and adults and since the difference in age limit is generally not much from one system to the other, it is unlikely that this requireme11t wo11ld give rise to problematic cases. 15 The important tQing to 11ote is that under Ethiopian law, minority is a bar and only an adult may becon1e an Ethiopia11 s11bject by naturalization. The justification for this reqt1ireme11t lies i11 tl1e fact that naturalization is a juridical voluntary act with important legal a11d practical conseq11ences. As to the five-year residence requireme11t, it is officially 11nderstood that residence presupposes legal entry and compliance with all formalities and reg11lations of the immigration law of the co11ntry. Thus a naturalization application may be denied for violation of the aforesaid law. Moreover, the five-year period m11st be both continuous and im1nediately preceding the application. The obvious policy reasons for the residence req11ireme11t are to enable government aut·horities to test the char­ acter and suitab1lity of the applicant on the one hand, a11d to enable the i11divi­ �'.ual concerned to become acclimatized to the cot1ntry, its people and their way of living, on the otl1er. In short, it is to give time to botl1 state and i11divid,ual to te-st whether the relationship wo11ld be desirable. The state requires the i11dividual concerned to be able to earn his living, to provide for himse]f and for his fa1nily ( if any), so that naturalization will not 13 · �t. 12, Ethiopian Nationality Law. In so111e legal systems, an alternative requirerme,nt for (b) I� for the person to serve under tl1eir governments in foreign soil for tl1e stated period of tune . Cf. The Inclia Code (1956), vol. II, Citizenship Act of 1955. 14- Sedler, cited above at note 2, p. 166. Althot1gl1 the provisio11 seems ambiguot1s at first sigl�t, wl1.en one considers that tl1e Jaw expressly 1nentions Etluo1Jia whenever it refers to Etl1iop1�n law and does not clo so here ''lndageru'' does not mean ''according to tl1e regulations of the nation al law'' but in tl1is partict1lar instance ''according to the la'vv of his country'' (emphasis added). The autl1ority referred to was working with a faulty translation and the obvious disadvantage of not being able to cl1eck: it. 15 · One possible case that may raise problems is that of the stateless person. Presumably in this 0��- Ethiopia's age of n1ajority being as relevatnt as any other syste1n's Art. 198 of th·e Ctvil Code would app]y. ,

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e state. Th e langua.ge profic• tl1 d an ty cie so tlle 1e n o n e d r _ u b a tr x e n a e nd�trd. The reason ncy is sta plac m for uni a of s ion t 1ina xan e y b d e in a �t e sc a ly b e a m presu . edge k11ow of the workable ; l Uoct r­ offi a that cial is la !ying the _ Amha_r1c r qu1f;;�� e o11 ene ss a11d ith un� ty the of :V g ngua g fee lin � soc iet , e y n o t, o n l a ti n se t is es a for and n life ty bu Y socie of 11s the of eful ing stand es r d e s an d n u r te et b a r fo also co-operatio11. . e11ce evid i11g tl1at 11e llas sl1ow of n uctio prod tile 8 1· nt e em . , n . ot T· he 1a. st reqt11r . • • p1 11 11s s10 Tl . • . ov1. s h , sin d or oul ime ''cr be for d rea cte vi· d in been previous1y con . . an 111 d t , .. e pre Let · . d . n1ea�1 ''n1al 7 t 195 f o de Co l n� P� ian p · hio . t E the un1 the lig,,ht - of � _ . . 1ally 1t101 been recognised to b l1ave. trad that ns ssio onu and acts escrim e . . per se e ta.t_.1 on does 11ot include pet pr r _ t� 1n h' 1s_ T . le ab sl1 ru pu lly ra ne ge e ad nJ d ty wroi1g an . . wot1ld seem t111desirable and t i _ for es, enc Off ty Pet of de Co the er und un­ offeilces y pe�t of s 1:ce. e basi off tl1e �n T?e state wanis l� pure lity ona nati deny to ble . reasona l tl1e 11na s cr111 tl111 1mpt1n1ty _ reqtiireme nt , s l 1na. cr�1n of ety soci tip a ding buil id avo to sliotild be directed only to\vards cr1111e a11d 11ot pett y . offe11ce. Tl1e evidence must, of course, be prodt1ced i11 the fo�m o� docu_n1e:1t s1g11ed ?Y. }Jroper authoriti es. Since the app1ica11t wo11ld l1ave res1d�d. 1 n Etl11op1a for a 1�11111mu111 of five years, under 11811al circL1mstances tl1e J)roduct1011 of doct1111e11tary ev1de11ce from tl1e proper Etl1iopian a11tl1orities wotild suffice. Usuall)' tl1e certificate of in11Jt111ity is obtained fror11 the Registrar of the I-:Tigl1 Court. This mea11s tha cri1nes co1111nitted and pu11isl1ments served i11 other la11ds prior to taking residence i11 Etl1iopian are usually 11ot take11 i11to consideratio11. This is a sou11d aJJproacl1 to tl1e extent l1is five years or more stay i11 this cour1try sl1ov1s that l1e \Vot1ld be ai1 acceptable citize11 despite J1is previous com1nission of cri111e else\vhere.

After studyi11g tl1e J?ractical application of tl1ese five nat11ralization require111ents, l\1arein, a 011e-time Attor11ey Ge 11eral and Legal .A.dvisor to tl1e Ethiopia11 Govern• n1ent states i11 his fa111ous book that, ''n1any foreig11ers l1ave lately bee11 granted Etl1iopian citizensl1i1) \\1itho11t JJossessing a11y of tl1e qualifications laid. down in the said. la"v'' fro111 \:Yhich he co11cludes that, ''tl1e said law l1as either fallen into desu­ etude or that it ,vas never properly promulgated. ' ' 16 In fact, the Ia,v l1as neither fallen into desuetude or lacked proper pro1n11lgation: it has simply been amended by the Natio11ality Law A1nendn1ent Proclam,1tion of Meskerem 25, 1926 (Eth. Cal.) to al]o\,V the Ethiopian Goverr11nent to waive certain req11irements. � . Tl�e ainell:dme�t reads i11 part, ''The I1nperial Ethiopian Governn1e11t 111a y granr Etl 1iopian n_at1ona]1ty to a foreig11 a1)plica .11t, if he is deemed to lJe t1seful to _the cot1n!ry or 1� there are s0111e special reaso11s for gra nti l1i ng 111 Etl1iopi�tn 11ationahty, n�tw1thst�nd1�g no11-compliance with Article 12 (st1b-arts. (b) 1:111d (d)) of tl1e afore · said Natioi1ality La\v." Under Article the in d res 12 (b) ide tl1 e aJJ l1a pli ve n1 ca us nt . t country for a min1·mum of five years s· ' . 111ce 011e of the n11:t1n re,1soi1s f or t·he five· . · ·. year . reSi�ence requirenient is to such .a al lo w th e sta · c. te to test the suita ' bility of relat1onsh1p ' o Ilce tl1e 1·11d'ivi· dual • · i• . y s co nc a po ern li o ed . h tl1i s s ins co . 11fi pir de ed 11c e c c n derat1011 h.as lost _its n1eaning. est r inte s Fur the r11ic rmo re, 'eco 11o pol . itic al soc or ial · Of tl1e s tate may Justify d1· ' · I· a n· h ' spen aric s111g · . • with A111 t11e five year residence • Tl1e g11age requ1re1ne11t of Article n per so 12 a may a1so be waived. Wl1ere, for insta11ce? . has lived i il Ethiop . ia �or n1a11Y years, _ · ffo rt e l on a aided an d. cooperated in the 1 1ati 16.

N. Marein. The Ethiopian 1·s ihC E . 1 iibe (e Proc1a1nation Anl�nding �': Fe�eratiou ancl Laws (1954), that ne 62. Note � . 2, p the a ionality Law 00 mentio11ed in Sedler, cited above at

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by �howing his· feelings f �r ·th� soc!ety and his life of use­ ther t, eop � � devel � f ·or sho not ld u be nat1onal1ty denied him simply . _ , i 1an because it may be Etbio f! ss lne ft ar1c spec1a lly learn ( h where to lost has e his � original �1m nation­ � fo _ _ late � too ality by res1d1ng here). A ?a1n, . special social, economic or political interests of the state might deserve cons1derat1on. Ar��le 14 o· f the �ation.ality L�w esta?lisbes a special commission comprising the M1rusters of Interior and Fore1g11 Affairs and one otl1er government official. The commission is given tl1e dt1ty of examining the application together with the identi­ fying papers . a.nd a c�rtificate of imp11nit � submitted by the applicant to the Minis­ try of Foreign Affairs. It must be pointed ot1t that the granting or refusal of sl!lch an application is ,vithin the absolute discretion of the commission. which must hear the applicant in perso11. If granted, natt1ralization is conferred after the person bas sworn an oath of allegia11ce to the State before the commission. Unlike some other systen1s, in Ethiopia naturalization is a purely administra­ tive proceeding. 17 The decisio11 reached by the commission is final and no legal 18 Moreover, tl1e opportunity for a foreigner to become it. from lies appeal of right an Ethiopian subject is a mere matter of grace, favour· or privilege extended t@ him by the state. Nonetheless, in view of the constitutional requirements of equal protect: ion of the law and the acquisition and loss of Ethiopian nationality to be determined by the law, 19 the naturalization law and practice should be construed and enfo.rced with uniformity.

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of Family

It is surprising to note that the wife of a natt1ralized person does 11ot auto­ matically become an Ethiopian subject by the act of her husband; she is required to apply for it personally.20 The law is silent as to the status of minor chilcJren of the naturalized person, but one might anologize their position to that o· f the wife and conclude that they wot1ld have to apply for it personally when they reach adulthood. Although it is theoretically possible for the commission to grant natural­ ization to some member of a family and deny it to another, it is improbable since the Ethiopian Nationality Law is designed .to avoid both dual nationality and statelessness, and ought 11ot create unnecessary complications to th·e family involved. The effects of the husband-father's . acquisition of Ethiopian nationality 0n the members of the family is. an important factor for consideration and the family should generally be considered as a tinit,21 although there would have to be separate applications. If an Ethiopian subject is st1bsequently lawfully married to a woman with foreign nationality, Article 2 of the Nationality Law confers Ethiopian nationality 17 • Various systems differ in their approach. In tl1e United States of A,merica, for instance, naturalization is a judicial proceeding. Cf. Corpus J1,ris Secz111dc1m (1936), vol. III, p. 844. l8. This does not preclude tl1e Emperor from usjog his prerogative to grant nationality. See infra. 19 · Arts. 38 and 39, R.evised Constitution of Ethiopia. 20. Art. 16, Ethjopian Nationality Law. A fortiori, neither would tl1e hus�and of a naturalized . woman automatically become an Ethiopian subject by the act of his wife. (Cf. Arts. 3 and 4, Ethiopian Nationality Law). 21 · Note that the Revised Constitution takes a deep interest in the welfare of the family, a thing unknow n in many constitutions. Art. 48 reads, ''the Ethlo_pian family . . . is under the special protection of the Jaw."

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--------No. 1 I II V . L O \l W I A L :. JQVRN.AL OF ETHIOJ> A,N, 1 ioJJia11 s11bject . Etl . . tl1e ' lify q11a t 110 the s doe . 11 tern1·111· 10 1s v o r p 1e tl . · e s c 1n . r e . h 011 · Tl 1e Nat1011aJity a t1 1. a 1r • 011 tt 1z a n gh l1 o r th d il a . th 'r b . b . L 21a t� c Je b i su tl o b s e d lu e e riag r a _111_ e 1 is co11 tracted atl d ;:, _ 1e r e tl ,vI of s term i� 1{ 1ch defines. 1a�ftil m� rrJ_ag Code C1v1l l1as tl1e a i 1ce differ si _ Btit eiit ·ect. sub an 1 1 d 0 Eth the � p rty 1 1 _pa0; 11ded s.concept .o fa�ul marriage, it oug l1t to . be asst1111e�l . that tlie Civil C oex. de . e 1 1ce tl 1 s1 C1v1l ct, respe Code tl1is is j 11 Law the I'ty I a n 1 o t1 a N . e ate th . s e d e 22 : rs st . e sup · · . er ak 1n va, L n ta p 1 tO l t E . e th f o . . 11 0 t1 11 te in st e if n a tn . . • . Etl11op 1 a11 subJe ct is aut. on, ,111 · • A 1na. lly leoa 11 , r r y1ng • a ,vom • 0 • . y t ali' . t· a · fore1gn-nat'1011 .· 1cA • _ f d d e o1 . _ v1 l? p�o as 1 cle 2. Ths 11a.· rt1 t10 na 1an i Article 1op Eth an e om bec to ·allY e11titled. _ ood if erst l1ty 1111d 011a nat1 to be self-execut l dua of blem pro the _l iowever 1 1 ht raise ac to on t1ire 11esti n in Etl 1 an q wom iopia · q the n· natio ·al· ; so to say ' 1ng tl1at 1?5 �1,orc.i· r1o, r· n I1er o ther na t·1on a1·1�y a1:d 1s :�ta o t t� wan , 1an won the aIJovved (if il itio ·ity' iil add . er her otl1 ) to_ law Y �at1onality. Consideral1! 1on nat s ntry cou er oth tile to do so by . .111g the reference in A rticle 6 to tl1e• ''or1g111al nat1011al1ty of 11 1s rnother '' the con· . l 1 s e not r st1 11 reta111 s her other o h h et er w g, clusioll that Ar ticle 2 is self-execL1t1n natioJiality, becpines pr�tty ?iffic11lt to . reb�t.. It l1a� bee11 st�tted th�t �u�h a ,voinau . . still, 1t 1s desirable from Eth1op1a s standpoint . l1ty nat1011a dual ha,,e ''might . -natio11ality a.s her htisband '' 23 No reasons same tl1e have ar1 1 won arried 11 1 a that . are stated why it sl1011 ld be more desirable for the ,vorna11 to l1 ave tl1e same nation­ ality as her ht1sband's and have d11al 11ation�Jjty, tl1a11 t_o ha�e di_fferent 11 ationality fron1 her h11sba11 d's bt 1t have no problem · ,v1tl1 di1al n. at1011al1ty (like the Ethiopia n vi101nar1 wl10 accordi11g to Article 4 ,vould retai11 her Ethiopian nationalit)' if her marrying a man witl1 foreig11 nationality did 11 ot confer 11po11 her tl1e foreign nation­ ality). The dual natio11,1lity problen1 would l1ave been easily solved b)' conditioning the confere11ce of Etl1iopian 11atio11ality upon the loss of the otl1er (a s is done u nder Article 4). An Ethiopian wo1na11 wl10 co11tracts a lawful marriage witl1 a 111an of foreign .nationality, loses her Ethiopia11 11ationality only if she acqt1ires l1 er husba11 ds' na tion­ ality. Again 011e can note the effort in tI1e Na.tio11 ality La\v to avoid both state­ lessnes s a11d d11al nationality. Even if sl1e acquires another natio11 ality, ho\\1ever, the la.w provides tl1at all matters arising out of her i mmovable property shall be governed by the Ethiopian la'-'' of property. Tl1e Civil Code forbids foreigners to own immovabl e proper ty sit11ated in Ethiopia except i 1 1 accordance ,vith Imperial O rd�r. Thl�s it. seems that an Ethiopian won1a11 wl1 0 tl1ro11gl1 n1arriage acquires forei_gn nat1onal1ty thereby losing Ethiopia11 nationality, wo11ld hav e to dispos e of the lIDU?ovable property sl1e owns in Etl1iopia within six mont]1s u r1less she succeeds to retam ownership througl1 a11 I1nperia] Or der. 24 ationality by Imperial Prerogative � -

f

. Prior to the 1930 Natio11 ality La\v,· pia n Eth io as the po we for r eig ne 1 to rs it ad n s�b ec ts see � s t? have belonged ed rcis exe � ex clu ,e, siv ely ero to ga ti, t1 1 e r pe p I111 rial with ful d1scret100 by the mo narch. 1

2la. Arts 3 and 5. 22. For a systematic disc riage ussion f .Ethiop, Mar . . . a□ iar, n1arr1ag e law refer to W1ll1an1 BL1hag . under the Civil Code of . Eth?iopia, · Joura/ 01 Ethiopia,1 L · au, (1964), vol. f, p p. 73-99, 23. Sedler' cited aboye a.t �ot� 2, p. 165, footnote 23 . 24 . A. rts. 390-391, Civil .. Code of Eth"1op1a.

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. . ETHIOPIAN NATIONALITY, LAw"•·AND -PRActICEi' -' .withot1t par�ll�l · abroad·.·. The Brit not is r · pow ishf·:moharch e ·h · ad· the ··abs'o� _.. - Smch · : . lette of rs den1 zat gran t n. Acco to rdit1 g n to at1th orita tive creti o �riti s h s s otudi ce �� s; · e lut temp or orary cond 1t1on be al and could could co11fe r all or t a .. pqrtion of gran the _ natural -.bor1� s�bJect except,. tl1ose specific-ally .ex flt1ded by law. Tlie a . of s right . the den1za on of t1 was· l�tter 1· q111red to a . set out_ the· ci �c limstance� which r f _ tio� � peti ? _ . _ _ 1mpract 1cal or f 01· l11m to comply with ..cond1t1ons .required _by roade 1t 1mpos s1ble statute for a ·certificate of nat11ralizatio11 to be granted; however, the only condi,. tion precedent to the grant seems to l1ave been that of taking the oath of a.lie.: giance.25 In Ethiopia the grant of nationality was considered to be one of the highes t honours that cottld be given to a foreigner. Ethiopian mobarcl1s conferred this­ honour sparingly, us11ally as a reward for outsta11ding service rendered to... the· ·nation: . ·- -

The Revised Cons titt1tion grants everyone in t·he Empire the right to present petitions to the Emperor.26 It can be· argued that there is nothing to· prevent the Emperor, as sovereign and head of state, to grant Ethiopian nationality to people who have been de11ied by the · tl1ree-man commission. It would be analogous to the power of the Emperor to grant pardon and amnesty after the courts of law have given their final judgment ;27 there is stronger reason in the nationality case: since the commi ss ion' s opi11ion �s final and non-ap·pealable to the courts. In practice; foreigners denied Ethiopian nationality ··by the three-man commi ssion have on occa-: .. . sion been granted it on petition to the Emperor. Loss of Nationality

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An Ethiopian subject may lose·. h1s nationality . only through acquiring another: nationality. 28 Unlike some other .systems the Ethiopian Nationality Law does not provide for loss of nationality as � punishment for engaging in unlawful conduct. 29 Nor does it di sti11gui sh between subjects by birth and by ,naturalization in respect to loss of nationality. Once an individual acquires Ethiopian nationality he retains it until he voluntarily gives it tip by taking on another one. There are, of course, soll!l.e q·uestions which -the Nationality Law·· does not expressly answer. For instance, does a woma.n naturalized thro11gh marriage to. an Ethiopian subject, retain her Ethiopian nationality after the dis solt1tion of the· marriage? Or, if the husband loses ltrs Etll.iopian nationality, would his naturalized wife still retain· Ethiopian nationality? Provided another nationality is 11ot acquired, presumably the answer would be posi-tive in b· oth cases. . Readmission to Nationality

The last two provisions30 of _the· . Ethiopian Nationality Law deal with the Jeadmission of an individual who had· been an Ethiopian subject prior to los ing it •

25· 2627 · 28 · 29 ·

Aliens and Nationality, Halsb1,ry's Statutes· of E11gla11d (1952, 3rd Ed.), vol . I, P• 552. Art. 63, Revised Constituion of Ethiopia. Art. 35, Revised Constitution of Etl1iopia. Art. 11, Ethiopian Nationality Law. Cf. Sedle r, cited above at note 2 ' pp. 166-67, for French a11d America.n approach to loss nationality. io. A.r:ts. 17 and 18, 'Ethiopian Nationality Law.

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1na_y �btai11 tl1e be_nefit of per�on a_ Such . . ality nation Eth r . i0Ptari anothe g r1n 1� . Eth1op1a cqt a _ ancl 111 by reside applie to s to beco returns l1e d me an nat1onal1ty pr,ovide Ethiopian subject. r readmis sion is tl1e r wl1e clea 11ot is it la\v the ' Of a rig . ht . 6· · 1 Fro.m. the language 1 e poss th 1 1ty of jtidicial 1nes ass11 , rigl1t a is it that y en1 r.orce. . . or a pr1v1lege. To sa e d11re, t11.e a11swer ,vii) roc 11s · t .1 or f J) 1o v1s pro n s res exp s· no , 1 have ment.3 1nce the re .is . . n o t1 a c fi r1 la c e r tu fu it ,a v. a to 111s �ee fro111 the conte xt of the it ed 11ir cq rea is it)' nal tio 11a ian iop _, l Wh re Eth te y . l1t ca r� na go � t1o l111 n� T _ l na igi �r so his s _ m�one ain ret 1al d1 ivi ind r that . th; 011 n 1ss1 upo d111 h, rea birt by 1s c Ject 011srde red sub ian iop Eth 1 an • . was • • an previous y . . • . 11s Tl . 1s ortant to COtlside ura11zat1on 11np nat by t no_ and li birt by ject sub r Ethiopian . t,:vo e . 11 th ee tw be s st . 1 eX at th n io ct i11 st di e th of because

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1 rtl tJ' Bi by ali jon at d N an n tio za ali tur Na n ee tw Be n tio nc sti Di Once a :IJerson is naturalized, be . is . co11sid�red a11 Et_hiopia,11 subject , and as stlch n1 ost rights and duties of an Eth1op1a11 11a.t1011al by b1rtl1 are cotlferr ed upon bin1. No11theless, some legal distinctions exist bet,vee11 s11bj ects by birtl1 and throug h natt1ralizatio11. These distinction arise only in 111atters tl1at ca11 be co11venie11tly classi­ fied as political rigl1ts, ar1d that are expressly provided for ih tl1e Revised Consti­ tution.

Tl1e n1ost ft111da.me11tal of tl1ese is the rigl1.t to vote, \,1hich is li111ited by the Revisecl Constitutio11 to those ,:vl10 acq11ired Etl1io1Jia11 11ationality l)y birt/1. 32 The policy reaso11s behind tl1is provisio11 are not clear. It is not strong!)' persuasive to say tl1at a natt1ralized subject may 11ot be acq11ai11ted e11ougl1 \Vitl1 tl1e society to make a reaso11ed a11cl intellige11t decision as to wl10 and ,:vl1at programmes sl1ould be st1pported to reach Parlia111.e11t, because that is precisely wl1at the five-year n1ini1nun1 residence requiren1ent is inte11ded for - to acq11ai11t tl1e i11dividual \Vith the society a11d ,,ice-versa . Fro111 the rigl1t to vote follows the right to be elected, and again only subjects . by birt/1 are eligible to run for tI1e Cl1an1ber of Dep11ties.33 Moreover, a person inay be ,tppoi11ted to b e se11ator only i f he is a st1bj ect b 1, birtf1 . 34 It is obvious then tl1 ':t 11att1raliz�d st1bjects are caref11lly exclt1ded from I{aving any sa)1 in the Ia,v-m,1k1ng of tl1e1r adopted cou11try . One Iast distinctio11 is the de11ial of 11att1ralizecl st1bjects to be appointed as . . min isters of the Imperial Etl1iopia11 Gover11n1e11t. ts aff e c on exc lusi 1ni 1 1isterial Tl1 e more tl1.a� tl�e nattiralized subject because )' on � 11ot es req uir the Revised Constitutio11 . that �he 1nd1v1?ual conc rned be an _ h is at 1 tl ,1lso bttt Etl 1iopia11 st1bject lJ)' birtl1, � _ parents be Blbtopian st1bJects at the time of his birll1 35 Tl111s a11 Etl1iopian su bJect . 31 •

It is interesting to not" ti for d . . . . 'de vi 1�t tl!e Erit p r . �ean C1t1�ensh1p (An1endn1e11t) Act _of 1954 � r of the an appeal which couldc be Eritrean Secretary for tlle 10st.1tuted 111 the Er1trean Su1)ren1c Cot1rt against _t he o r e' as noi v readn1itted into Erit rean �� terio r� by a person. \vho, l1avi 11g satisfied the requ1ren1ents, c1t1zenship. . . 32. Ar{. 95, Rev1 ed Consti tution of Etl1iopia . � 33. Art. 96, Revised Constitution of Eth. 34· !�3, Re�ised Constitution of Et;1���:�. 35. . . , Rev1se d Constitution . . of Eth. · IOI)ta.

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we e not par · b? th Ethiopi�� subject� at the ! ime bf his birth, ent s who se � , birt h b b 1n app _from oint ed as ded M1n 1ster. !his gr�up 1nc �udes the child excl u � � be d ioui op1 an mo Et rr1e the d r . and m a an 1? wit h u f ore an 1 n nat 1on � to lity � ? against � � born 1s established. But _would not include the ? htld_ born · 1n .a lawful rnit y pate om wh _ _ mot her had or1 the 1nal ly ano ther n t1o � � ?al1ty, if as noted supra, marriage, where . but entit al1to les mat1cally confers Eth1op1an nationality upon· her. only not w la the Although_ important, these _are_ the only _disti11ctions . that separate Ethiopian subjects by birth and by nat�1r�l1z�tion. Otherwise_ the Revised Constitution provides _ 1m1nation among Eth1op1an _ st1bjects with respect to the that ''there shall be. no discr enjoyment of a II c1v1·1 ri. g hts. ''36 The Eritrean Situation

At this point we may consider the status of Eritrean citizens under the Federa­ tion. The issues raised by the Eritrean situation are as interesting as they are complicated. It is helpful to note. that Eritrea has had to pass throuth several legal stages in a relatively short period: from an Italian Colony towards he end of last century, to a Territory under British caretaker administration in 1941, to an au.tonomous unit federated llnder the Ethiopian_ Imperial Crown in 1952, and fin.ally to its present status as part of a unified Empire in 1962.37 Of the several legal stages, it is the Federation and its aftermath that are of direct interest when dealing with the question of nationality. The Imperial Order38 issued for the federal incorporation of Eritrea provided that, ''all in.habitants of th� territory of Eritrea except persons possessing foreign nationality are hereby declared to be subjects of Ou.r Empire and Ethiopian nationals.'' Moreover, ''all inhabitants born in the territory of Eritrea and having at least one indi' genons parent or grandparent'' were also declared to be Ethiopian subjects. If s11ch persons were already in possession of foreign nationality, they were ''permitted to renounce within six months of the date thereof [Order iss11ed on September 11, 1952] the Ethiopian nationality granted above and retain such foreign nationality. ''39 Thus, all inhabitants of Eritrea who had at least one indigenous grandparent and did not actively renounce Ethiopian nationality (by declaring that they intended to retain their foreign nationality) automatically became Ethiopian s11bjects. As was previously noted, the 1930 Ethiopian Nationality Law follows the jus sanguinis principle strictly and exclusively, but by this order, 'Ethiopia was fo·rced to d.eviate from that priciple ancl allow ''all i11habitants of the territory of Eritrea'' wfio did not possess foreign nationality to become Ethiopian subjects. F11rthermore, those of foreign nationality who bad at least one indigenous grandparent had the burden of declaring their foreign nationality within a six-month period to be able to retain it. The order ensured, however, that no person in Eritrea was left stateless.

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36.

Art

Constitution of Eth.iopia. 37 · For fu.rther facts on Eritrean legal status refer to the case comn1ent by the same author on International Law: State Succession, Journal of Ethiopia11 Law G1968), vol. V, p. 201. 38. Imp�rial Order No. 6 of 1952, an Order to Provide fo1· the Federal Incorporation and In­ clusion of the territory Gazeta, year 12, no. 1· Negarit Empire, Our of Eritrea within 39· Tb.e fuJI text of Art. 9, Imperial Order No. 6 of 1952 ·is attacl1ed as appendix C.

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alit� to the i11h,tbitants · . nation 11 . , pia Ethio . .. d blishe of B�tt r_ . ,'.'· .This. or�er� ha� ing t · t11g rest i11te ble pro the: a, m es pos e of re· refo �he dist i : n gu.1sh1 does· not _qualify· it ail li ation .nationals stio s q11e ·n is importai1t b n g Thi . . a �d ·.!:\ur: :i t' th b1 �twe en\ � : :follow the ·_class�fication. The portione caJl;e of � that s l i e s ctl � r p d n a l . � g Ie · the· . 'th here are taken. verbatim from tl1e Federal Act O the · l . \V g : � i ! n . a e ? e t ,a e a w d eir d he o·r 1 de a no · m· t clisti 'b · 1ction · t; i ' . ar1ied betw corop a · i ' c een · 1 1ch i w rth a nd 11 • 10 1t t1 t1 . s · n o C . , ' ., n a re t · r1 .E tIY . � 11e sarne rights and . d e)cac 11� ns citize trean Eri • All ·. • , · ht · · · . U d . he natural1zat1on citi zens. s as . w ·s . g r1_ e 11 voting els sarne· tl1e · · rigli 11ad ts to Pl! • , T: hey · • 6he. ·· · · · , •' · · -�. : 1 aw. . . · . . ... 1n'• f.ront ·of,,Jtue b 1 · , · - ·t . if0 1 1n g c f _�!��� -� � . �.. ��1�. �- .?t r�_ng1 y ar?ued tl:at the offi�: •·J.n··light. ! pf this .. �� k �?\ q mea 1 r1ct1on among n l1st crea to c · o nt te . · a ns ·· cl atio c · sifi :.. s . .• 1: .. 1 o · . la c Eritrean s. · . . . ' . order·, by · exc1ti 1 o . · · · , h t 1 g . t 1 rot1 1 1e 1ty na 1 nat1o order n p1a. Eth1o · liad the 0=Q me red · qtii c a · ho w 11s ea . r · t ' All E.rt 11 b d • d e erue . a �ot ,,o�i l� �ot g !l1ey and e sinc othe r such a11d es dt1ti � and . � righ . ts . . s by onal nati b11 th. n op1a Etl11 Fecieration occurred d idere cons o · r be liad ,1 . 11 y 1e tl , . rig•hts . . .1st1t . t1t1. on a11 d tl1erefore Co1 ised Rev . the ot does not rai·se prior to the prointilgation . . ·case. ;·s1 . . . ' . . b ot1_ a_ t· th roug came 11 a. .. � . · ce. 1 · a h ·th_e Feder al Act y, n : a In· es: u :iss @n.al ituti 11s co t . eaties, converi�1?11s. _and· obl1�at1ons'' to which· Ethiopia is tr nal atio ,'� a 1tern a·nd · sin e i1 o.n, c.onst1tt1te tl1e st1preme Iav, of tbe a· party,.:togetl1er wit. li t.' he ·Re�ised Co11�t1tt1t1. · · s arise... · ·,co11stitutional .problem Empir• e,40' I·., no . • ,' •• ; • I ·group to be s.pecially- co11sidered �re those . �b.o became naturalized Eritrea n ·, :one· . . · pl�e us after.·Federatio11. The E:ritr�an Citi�et1�,l1ip .�¢t of. 1953, establisl1ing the con­ ditions· 1 for. , the ·ac. quisition and lqss •Of E��trean. . c1t1z�nsl11p, 111ade the possession of Fed�ral ·1�at1onality a co11dition 1' irecede11t 'to: th'e ,apq11isitio11 of Eritrea11 citizenship. The Act disti11guisbed tl1ree 1netbods of acquisitio11 · ·of Eritrean citize11ship, namely, by. birtl1, by•graot a11d. by n1arriage. _t\. person w�s · �.onsidered a citizen by birth if he· was • b .or11•-in Eritrea prior to Septerob�r 15, 1952 had at least one grandparent indigenoi1 s . to Eritrea , and had not re11ounced .F�dcral 11ationality according to Article 6 of the Federal Act. If born on oc after September 15, 1952, be ,vas require<! t9 be b orn of parents wl10 had acquired Eritrea11 citize11ship through the Federal.Act. If bor11 outside of Eritrea, the requirements \\'ere tl1at both of h is parents ' be Eritrean citizer1s at the time of his birth a11d that he reside in Eritrea a11d· apply for it not later than two years after his e11try or l1is t,venty-first birthday. After . the pjssolt1tion of the Federation, such a perso n wot1ld also be co1 1sidered an Ethiopian subject by birth a11d would therefore . be e11titled to all rights a11d duties of Ethiopian subjects by birth. . The p�rson _ �ho acq11ired citizensllip by grant or n1arriage, I1owever, sta11ds in a , cliffere 11t l1gl1t. Since st1ch a person is reqttired to pos sess federal nationalty as a . '�co�dition _precede11t'' to . acq�1iring Eritrea11 citizenship, be 1n11st be a natur ali�ed Elhlopia0: SUbJect. Altl1ough 1n Eritrea (and 1111der Fed 1 1) l1e \Vould enJOY , er,1 the tio aJI_ the. rights and �uties _ of all other Eritrean citizens, after t1r1ificatio11 �1e \vo_uld etlJOY r�ghts and duties strictly as a natt1ra lized st1bject. Tl1e Eritrean sitt1atio 11 rais�s ew _issues becau�e i11 tl1e ;:1cquis_itio-1 f 1 dl � i y 1 e 1 of n t or1ality a11 d even. n1ore nar_k .�· e eilJo � . 1 yment of rigl1ts the Eth1op1an ,tnd bly ra Er1trea 11 approacl1es diverge conside •. ' :

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To summarise there are tw by · . t 1 · I' Y 11a o b a si c approaches in cietern1 1 n1n°o nat10 birth and Ethiopi� follows the jils sanguinis pri1Jciple exclusively. On tiie \\,hole, .•

40. Art. 122, Revised Constit ution of Eth'1op1a.

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ETHIOPIAN NATIONALITY LAW AND PRACl'lCE: • �

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to trying avoi� bo�h of statel essnes s policy s a' _ and dual natiotla· lity. is quite iopi Eth 1930 . t he Nat1o nal1ty eless, Law requir es e�h amendi11g to take into Non nd. _ sou 11 e e� s. th of od de 1n co s on 1s1 ov pr nt _ , accou •• ·,

Some of its basic principles may also .need modification. Adoption, for instance . u11der nationality child's Ethiopian f Thus, law.· an the Ethiopian child ct e af not se d·<:> adopted by a perso11. with foreig11 nationali �y, ren1ai11s an Ethiopian subject, even �ough under the nat1011al law of t11e adop·t1ng parent the child may be· considered r pa adopting e11t's 11atio11ality. Conversely, a minor of. foreign the acquired have to nationality does not acqui1·e Etl1iopian 11ationality tho11gh be may lose his foreign nation ality 011 bei11g �dopted by an Ethiopia!}. Since both dual nationality and statele ssness may ent1st1e by tl1e application of the Ethiopian r·ule on ·adoption, it would be- in co.nformity with the ge11eral policy and the. liberal readmission rule to modify it so that adopted cl1ildre11 neither acquire dual nationality nor become stateless. pual · 11ationality 111ay also follow the at1tomatic conferring of Ethiopia� nationality on a foreig11-nationality woman contractit1g · marriage with an Ethiopian subject. M.oreover, tl1e wife a11d children not naturalized together with the husband­ father, may becon1e stateless by the husband-father's change of nationality. •

As to the e.ffects of naturalization, in the United States of America,. such a per· son is put on equal footing with a native-born citizen, both as to rights and obligations, the only exceptio11 being that he is not eligible for the presidency and vice-presidency.41 In the United Kingdom, a person to whom a certificate of natt1ral­ ization has been granted I1as essentially the status of a natural born British subject, is entitled to all political and other rights, powers and privileges, and is subject to all obligations, duties and liabilities.42 Of course, it has not been so i11 all systems. Sixteenth century Spanish enactments, instigated by the inquisition, made the possession of Christian blood a requirement for tl1e status of full citizenship. In the last century, there was a tendency in France to distinguish between la gra11de 11.aturali­ satian which conferred the legal status of cito;,en and la petite n.aturalisation which granted citizenship without the right to vote.43 Classification of citizens was taken to its extreme under Hitler b·y the Nuren-i­ .berg laws, which established a gradation among those who were simple nationals of the Reich and those who possessed the racial qualities to acquire the privileged status of full citizens of the Reich. The former were void not only of political rights but of the fundamental h11man rights to life, }jbert·y and property. We have learned in this century that the d1stinction between first and second-class citizens in a state may be undesirable. Any disti11ctions permitted now may be precedents for far-reaching, destructive discrimination, subjecting the sect1rity of the Iess.-fortunte cla�s to the political temper of those in power. Particularly d11ring periods of national and international unrest, distrust of the nat11ralized citizen may lead to an attempted abridgment of his freedom.44

4 1. U nited States Constitution: Art. II Section 1 ; Amendment XII; and Nationality Act of 1940. 42 · Aliens, Halsbury's Statutes of England (1948, 2nd Ed.), vo]. I, p. 672. 43· M. Koessle r, Subject Citizen National and Perma.nent Allegiance, Yale Law Jour,ial (1946-47), vol. 56, p. 76. 44· Schneide rman v. U.S. A., United States Supreme Court Reports (1942), vo]. 320, P• 118· ' 1

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In Ethiopia, natttralization confers all the rights a11d dt1ties of ai1 y h . .. ._ _ er can These be righ_ � t s. onvenien J?olitical tl_y classifi: . sub�� except for ce�n _ a� Voting . t111de� the since Rev1s Bt1t d rights office�holding Co11stit and ution, tl � ?uty. to appoint Ministers _ and Senat�rs 1s reserved to t�e Emperor, ;; n�t alld d entitled to these Slnce no ap1Jo1ntmeiits it . ind1:vidual would a.s of right be di g s e i ect a b by ub requirement ?f bi�th ?nderstand why the j _ n _was 'tbou �1t flicult to to _be so stating 111 �lie �ev1sed Constrtut1on. It express need to as 1 mportant is also difli : cuit to underst�d �by such a fundami:ntal nght 1n any democratic system of gov. ernment as the voting right s.hould be derued to a segn1ent of tl1e citizei1ry. As r�gard.s the international problems in this field, a realisticall . . • ticip d a ate n able to do_ not be away _will it seems, with the le af o fut�re. �orld, e o t c n c tha expected �ay be �t � international p TI nat1onal1ty. No_n�theless, . law wi assume sup.f remacy d,eterm1rung acqu1s1tion and loss of nat1onality, denriving domest1. laws of their present controlling importance. It is also feasible that. don1 i 1.1 ratlc1 r. a e 1s.th n �i:rthplac� or parentage will in the future be the detern1ining facto� �or acqu 1tion and loss of nationality.45

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45. Koessler, c't I ed above at note 43.

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ETHIOPIAN NATIONALITY LAW AND PRACTICE • APPENDIX A

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PROCLAMATION PROMULGATING THE ETHIOPIAN NATIONALITY LAW* Conquering Lion of the Tribe o·f Judah Hai.le Sellassie I Elect of God, Emperor of Ethiopia

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We have pron1ulgated tl1e following law for any foreigner who deserves to become an Ethiopi an subject. Nationality of Children Born of Ethiopian Subjects in Etb.iopia or abroad.

1) Any person born in Ethiopia or abroad wl1ose fatl1er or mother is Etl1iopian, is an Ethiopian subject. Nationality in case of Marriage between Ethiopians and Foreigners.

2)

A Ia,vful n1arriage of an Ethiopian st1bject with a foreign woman confers the Ethiopian nation­ ality upon her.

3 ) It shall be considered as lawful marriage under st1ch circumstances, where: a)

an Ethiopian subject marries a foreign woman i n accordance with the religious or customary civil marriage practiced in Ethiopia, and the marriage takes place in Ethiopia;

b) an Ethiopian subject marries a foreign woman in a foreign country and a.ccording to that country's marriage practice. 4)

A lawful marriage of an Ethiopia.n woman witl1 a foreigner deprives her of the Ethiopian nationality if her marriage witl1 tl1e foreigner gives l1er the nationality of her husband; otherwise she keeps her Etl1iopian nationality. In cases where the woman losing l1er Ethiopian nationality is the proprietor of real estate tl1e administration of her property shall be settled in conformity with the law given to that effect by the Imperial Ethiopian Government.

5)

It shall be considered as Jawft1l marriage under such circumstances, where: a)

a marriage is contracted in Ethiopia of an Ethiopian won.1an with a foreigner before the consular autl1orities of the husband;

b) a m.arriage is contracted abroad of an Ethiopian woman with a foreigner in accordance with tl1e legal practice of the national law of tl1e ht1sband. Nationality of Children of a Marriage between Ethiopian Subjects and Foreigners._ 6) Ever. y child born in a lawful mixed marriage, as provided for in the preceding articles, follows the nationality of hi s father.

A child born of an Ethiopian fatl1er and a foreign mother united by the bonds of a lawf ul marriage shoL1ld, however, prove before the Etl1iopian authorities tl1at he does not belong to the original nationality of his mother, if requested to do so. ?) A cl1i1d born in a lawful marriage of an Ethiopian mother with a foreigner is al\:vays a6Je �o recover the benefit of Ethiopian nationality, provicled be lives in Ethiopia and proves 1,e. 1s completely divested of the paternal nationality. Nationality of Cbild.ren Legitimated by lawful Marriage between Subjects and Forei�s' Tran \ slate d by tl±e author from Balan1baras Mahteme Se/lassie Gebre Meskel, Zekre Neger, PP· 899-902·

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ational_ la1rv of tl1� f?reig11 father is posterio n the . to g din . : . . r r o c c a . c g � rr r � m v,i�th a_n Et�1�p1an �orna11, tbe chil d le . �o �he If the lawful relations h.is 11s [ore1gn _father only 1 ;1tu�a�ed of ! l1ty a n_ nat1o 1 birtl1 of tt:ie cbtld 1 ssued f:?;:-1 e 1 t follows 01 e ri 1 n t 1 ei u q se b h11n t!1e f<;>re1g11 nat1011ality with all ?�tt�on through tl11s . su upon ers conf f / r i!tte e 1 in ermg that tl1e 11a t1o�al law 0 . pr1::"serve. s 11-is Ethiopian Nat1onal1ty. rights. Otl1erw1se t l1e c1 111 Subsequent Marriage or Foreign li'atb wi', t l1out . d . Legitimate Child n re of er ... ",·th .· Nationality b1ect. Mother being Ethiopian Su . iage bet\veen tl1e foreign father and the marr . . . atto ul lawf nt eque _ snbs ,t 10 'ti £·h·10 i w{ T_he leg1t: o:1 � 1. t fi· mar ou ri side rela ge tio� thei r � deprives the chi!� f ed om t issL hild e t.1 . 0 r othc , i n: p1a� ers upon the c1 11ld thus legitimated tlo;> father con1: i ! foreign e tl if y n o t Y 1 . . J" Ethiopian nat1ona1 s. g ht • ri ng r1 l1e 1r1 nationality of tJJe father ,vith all

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9)

r ne ig re a Fo by ed pt do A d hil C an pi hio Et of , Nationality cl1ild· by a n1an or wo1nan of foreig11 nationality, the adoptt'on . """ E--thiopian :-.. , The· ad opt'·1on ot� "" 101 f ti 1e a dop t·tng person, does not imply f l ¥ o a.: ? s rm fo e t� h, t w! . ce an rd co ac in e ad m any being . y. J1t na t1o change of the adopted cl11ld s or1gm.al na Loss of Ethiopian Nationality l 1) They stop being Ethiopian subjects: a) when a woman of Ethiopian nationality marries a foreigner and adop ts her husba nd's nationality; b) \.Vhe11 an Ethiopian subject ch anges l1is nationality and acquires foreign 11ationality. NaturaU.za1ion 12) A foreign l)erson who: a) has attained the age of majority accordin g to tl1e law of J1is coun try; b) bas at leas t lived for five years in Ethiopia; c) can earn his Iivi11g, to provide for himself and his fan1ily; d) can read and write the Amharic language; e) pr oduces e,ridence to the effec t that he has not been previot1sly convic ted for crime or sin; can beco1ne an Ethiopian subject. 13) Any foreigner wishing t o become an Etl1iopia11 subject shall present t o the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, l1is apJ)lication together witl1 identity pa{)ers and a certificate of impunity. 14) A special Govern1nent Co1nmission co 1nprising of tl1e Minis ter of Interior, the Minister of Foreign Alfairs and another oincial of the Governmerit shall exan1i11e tl1e application, proceed to nec�ss.a�-y inquiries and after having l1ea rd tl1e applica11t in perso11 approve or refuse the na turahzat1on. 15) Th� n aturalization sl1all be conferred by Government Notice (Decree) nod the new Ethiopi an subJect shall take an oa th of allegiance to the state before the Comn1iss ion. 16) The n� turalization thus conferred does not exte legitimate wife of the ocl the its effec to ts natu.raJL?..ed n1an, unless she applies personally for t l1is benefit.

·Re-Admission to Ethiopian Nationality. l7) Origin� ) 1:thiopian fit _ su?jects having acquired a foreign ben e he t obt ain alw ays 11a tionalit y 1na.y of Et�iopian na_t,o�ahty when they ern· Go v the ret urn to to res ap ide ply in a11 th d co t e ry un ment 1or read n11 ss100. . 18) �?g nEetl tiopian woman_ llaving lost her Ethiopian 11ationality througJ1 l1er n1arriage -.vitb arat1-�� r may resume 1t after tl1 e d'1 . . scp a sso l ce . - · n o f this n1arriage by reason of d. ut1o or th d., , 1vor , Etlu.opi•an e th f h hu�b� nd if sl1e ret?�ns to re_sicle in Ethiopia and apJ)lies to the Gove��t f°or r�dm1ss 1on . to her or1g1nal Ethiopian national t y. i The present law abragates every la w previously pron111lgated on this subject. Cal.) . b . t (E 2 Ha1nle 15, I 92

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APPENDIX B

PROCL AMATION AMENDING THE NATIONALITY LAW OF HAMLE 15, 1922* Having considered Article 9 of Our Constitution an� Article 12 of the Nationality Law of have We pron1ulgated the C., follow1ng; Eth. 1922 15, e Hanrl The Imperial Ethiopian Govemment n1ay grant Ethiopian nationality to a foreign applicant, l t? t�� country or i� tl1ere . are so!De speciaJ reasons for granting him useft be to d deem � is � be if _ tY, notw1thstand1ng . no·n-con1pl1ance w1tl1 Article 12 (st1b-arts. (b) and (d)) of the onaJ ! Ethiopian natf aferesaid Nationality L a w .

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Meskerem 25, 1926 (Eth. Cal.) .

*Tna11slaJed by the autltor _from Balambaras Mahteme Se/lassie Gebre Meske!, Zekre Neger, p. 902. APPENDIX C IMPERIAL ORDER No. 6 OF 1952 An Order to provide for tl1e Federal Incorporation and. Inclusion of the Te.rritory· of Eritrea within Our Empire. Section 9; AJI inh.abitants of the territory of Eritrea except persons possessing foreign n · ation.ality are hereby declared to be subjects of Our Empire and Ethiopian nationais. All inhabitan1s born in the territory of Eritrea and having at least one indigenous parent or grandparent are also declared to be subjects of Our Empire; however if such preson is in possession of foreign nationality, he is hereby permitted to renounce within six m.onths of the date thereof the nationality granted above and retain such f· oreign nationality, but if he does not so renounce he shall theret1pon lose s·uch foreign nationality.

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A SI-I.ORT CRITIQUE ON TfIE "'

''GOVERNMENTAL-IN1 ERESTS'' ANALYSIS bi' I. Olit. Agbede* With the publication of Sedler's vvork 011. EtL1io1Jian conflict of lawsi it tl1eoret1cal the co11troversy by ge11erated 1 on c]1oice-of-l looks as if the stor,1 _ aw t e11gt1lf defe11cel e soon ss n1ay States � problems irl the Unjted ; cont11.1ent of Africa. ft is not the ptirpose of tl1is sl1ort �ssay t? �ev1e\:V Sedler s val L1able vvork as the _ preseilt vvriter is 110t con.vers�11t w1tl1 Etl11op1�t� l� w. All ':"e 111tend to. do is to . wbic!1 Sedler examine briefly tl1e very JJre1 111se-gover1� 1n�ntal-111te1est_ �octr1ne-from _ has chose11 to a11alyse and d1sc11ss Etl11op1an law. It 1s hoped ho\vever that our discussion wil] tl1ro\V son1e light 011 the relative wortl1 of tl1is doctrine. A. discu.ssion of tl1e ''Gover11mental-interest'' a11alysis may justifiably be based 011 a11 a·ppraisal of Currie's vvorks2 as tl1ere l1as bee11 l1itl1erto 110 sig11ifican t develop­ ·n1ent on tbis theory as f:1sl1ioned by Currie. Tl1e most \:videly disctissed a11d probably the 111ost co 11troversi,Ll tl1eory of choice of lav., in recent years i11 Ct1rrie's ''govern­ _ n1ental-i11terest'' aL1alysis. Like Ehrenzweig's ''basic lex f ori'' doctri11e, Currie's theory is st1pposedly a. ge11eral approacl1 to choice-of-lavv proble1ns. Accordi11g to Currie, the centr�Ll problen1 of co11flict of law is to fi11d the aJ)propriate rt1le of decision whe11 the interests of two or more states are potentially involved. 3 lil other \vords, its object is simply to detern1ine which interest sl1all yield. 4 Conseqt 1 ently, he insists t]1at a. court sbot1ld 11 ormally apply tl1e fort1n1 la\v i 1 1 cases wl1ere tl1e fort1m l1as a ''legitin,ate > ' i11 terest in tl1e application of its lav1. Bt1t wl1en a coL1rt is asked to apply tl1e law of a foreign state: it should i11qt1ire into the policies expressed i11 the respective l,L\VS a n. d i11to the circumstances i11 wl1ich it is reaso11able for the res­ pec�i �e states to_ assert an interest in the ,1pplication of tl1ose pol1c1es. In 111ak1ng tl1ese deter11u11 ations the cot1rt sl1ot 1 ld e111ploy the ordi11ary I)rocess of constructio11 a11d i 11terpretation. 5 Having deter 1nined wl1icl1 state may ''reasor1a.bly'' assert an i 11terest, tl1e court should apply the law of tl1at state if it is the 011ly state witl1 a reaso 1 1al1le i11terest. But * 1.

LL. M., Ph. D. (Loud.) Of tl1e Inner Te mple, Barrister-at-Law. St�!6a[he Conflict of law in E'thiopia, (1965, Faculty of Law, 1-Iaile Sellassie I University, i

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fct1·s

Ivfost of Currie's works a're no-..v Laws .1n . . ,r t· ,r 0 1 ct 11 Co111 con1piled • the his S'e/ecte{! ' ·Essays in. ln (1963) -v,ih1·.c l1 consists of fourtee s. year ty . • 111 . tl1e course of a 1Jer1�d of tv,1en . .: "The addition to this work th e f 11 . n. e ssays, \llr1lte11 . oi;vi n� are B . rele vti.n t n J}re the clisc to sen uss t . 1o : Cu�0tt:rurnents Disinterested T J1 ir d State,, Cl ConternporarJ' Proble,ns, vol. 28 (196 ), p. 754; " ? 3 00 Babcock V. Jackson ',,' ca, u,niia L. Rev., vol. 63 (1963), PIJ, 1233-1243. 3. Selected Essays cited a 6o ve at note 2 , PlJ, 66, 178. 4. Jc!., p. 163. . ' • 5 · Id., pp. 183-184; "Con1m ents on Babcoc/-: v. Jaclcso1 1," cited above at note 2, P· 124 2·

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interest where or disclaim more than one states tate asserts an g11 � forei , e r e ,wh, f the ply law o um whet er a mt1st not or the f � ore1gn co11rt states have � � the rest _ _ Jii lte �ual or greater interest 1n the appl1cat1on of their laws than the forum state has.6 _ ask to court a inappropriate weigh to and choose between is the it , Currie ;� 7 forum other so1ne a11d the states. of do To is so to dabble interests g ictin confl 8 Co11sequently, the choice l1igh ery a of order. '' function between politica � � into ''a foreign states f o· to left be 1nt1st legislature tl1e 111terests wl1ile the ting conflic the eotlrt should st1pply the for1un law 11ntil the legislature gives guidance as to. how the conflict sho-ttld be .resolved. 9 It follows that the 1naterial co11te11ts of law are the dominant factors in the determi11ation of states' i11terests and of the choice of law r11le. 10 However, Cur-rie <:;onceded tl1at son1e i11depe11de11t factors may reveal a state's i11terest in having its law ap·plied. For exan1ple, i11 ''g11est statt1te'' cases, Currie s11ggested that the state where tbe accident occt1rred wot1ld have a11 i11terest in ''deterring wrongfL1l conduct · within its borde:rs and i11 providing a fu11d for the protection of local medical -oreditors." 11 Ctrrrie gave little or 110 i11dication as to when a state's interest - sho11ld be regarded as ''r,easonable'' or ''legitirnate'' in having its law applied. He seems however to have asstimed that a state will be reaso11ably interested in having its law a,pplied to its people. These ''people'' a1·e variously defined as those who have their ''domicile'', 12 ''donlicile and residence'' 13 in tl1e state a11d as ''residents,"14 ''citizens, '' 15 ''resident-citizens, " 16 ''citizens or residents," 17 ''locals," 18 or as persons who may be entitled on the ''basis of co11siderations of decency and farsighted self-interest to equal treatment with local citizens." 19 So1netimes the forum state, 20 and sometimes "·'experts'' 21 on the particltlar branch of law involved (as opposed to conflict lawyers) have been claimed by Currie as the competent at1thority to determine state's interests whe·reas C11rrie himself devoted most of his writings to the ''probing'' of state's interests in the application of their laws in particular cases. 22 6. 7. 8. 9. [0. 11 1 2. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22·

lhid. Ibid.

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Selectec! Essays. cited above at note 2, . pp.. 121, 122, 124,. 165, 187, 278. . ''Politicians and not lawyers ar� to resolve trt1e conflicts," Law arzd �ontemporary Problell1s, vol. 28 (1963), p. 789. ''. .. con:flict of laws is a branch of domestic law-indeed, it is nothing more than the construction and interpretation of domestic law in the light of possible conflicting foreign interests." Jbicl. ''Comments on Babcock v. Jackson," cited above at note 2, p. 1237. Selected Essays, cited above at note 2, PJJ. 61, 103, 145. Id., pp. l 03, 322. Id., pp. 86, 91, 103, 120, 145, 149, 154. 253, 503. Id., pp. 103, 514. Id.. p. 417. Id., pp. 103, 488. Id.. pp. 89, 450. Id., p. 417. Or the ''voice adopted by'' it. Id., pp. 443-444. ··Experts in mortgage law and real-estate finance'' are the competent authority to resolve confli_ ct of ''purchase-money mortgages." Id., p. 430. ''I� my own researcl1es," Currie wrote, ''I have encountered an actual case of tl1e di�intereS'ted so ee 3 7 rd 963 aJ PS . 7 tate ), 28 (1 vol. ms, Prable y only once." La•v anc/ Conte,npoar r s Con1ments on Babcock v. Jackso11," cited above at note 2, pp. 1233-1242;

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11s of elimi 11ati11 g ''false ,, c ea 1n a as l1 ac ro Jp aJ s bl· W sa I on Y lf se ro h" · · rest ana Iys1s . of go,,ernn1e11 tal 111te C11 rr1e 1 · · to co 11flict -of-la\:vs ono·lets. on . ti 'b t et tr1 co st h blen1s pro ancl '' The cle�re � l x t m ods . . false . provid of es ence a is e tb o s e rkabJe h � \ Ji � v a t s e t 1 al'' t ''re a co1 of 1 t flic es cas is th ,23 In t11e tl1e co0 ts . , , � e th m:a!1s of ! de?tifytrlg t t� 111 dti1ge i11 weiglu1 1g or bal,111cing co mpetiu I1. \Vere 110 ter��ls. d e t c t1 r t s 1n t y ll 1 a 7r o B 1 tl1 1 v 1 Ia, or1g1n of r11 s. 11 e· f tio ca pli ap t i tI1e \\' 11 ec o ith · t ten n • o . n c n crh s, 11 T.hey were to rest • 10 . 1s C 111 v . 24 o 1 a r r1e 11 J? 0 t1 11 1t felt st n o C COil n a c ri e 1 lpelI n A e e th d h g ·t w y r eo . lo n . h1s th f 1 e aw 1 e1 re t gn re l1e fo \\' v 1 ly l ap tl i e a 1 JJ y or 11 sta te t n 11r co m ru "o 1 l e th t t e d e 1a co11c ' • . at in • . r•est coli ]d b e e 1·1n11.· 11a . d by a process te . te th 1f 0f res. . able 1·nterest . bas. a reaso11 e111-ig1 Jtened self-111terest,'' alt r . ,, ge ,t11 .,., g-1 on 1 a as n 1o 11ct str con · . u1st1· 25 tra1ned and 1noderate . . • • . , . 1 g ts 1 11 es t1 er pe 1t com s e at st er th 1o a1 r fo . rd ga re · · dt1c1ng cally rn 11d ot1 i11 ed s gr ift l1i sl1 al ve :fi11 ha to ars pe itjn g where wr ap e rri Cu . .1 . . . I11 any everJt, . . �1 · s t11e t 111u . r .d�c1.� 1 1e J�r1s�1ct10.n or, te a �t_ d r �h1 ted res e t isin d � ,vher e lie proposed tllat tt�111pt. to det e1m1n� tl1e interest that a �t �1u 1 , sed clo ore f 15 � the . sLich a solLitjon 26 to 11 ts t10 ed e11 ect att d dir i ba the 1t e 1f e. d. r issu fer pre ave 1 J legislature would r bip to bea l��s cho s _ and 1g r11i1 lea at gre 1t ugl bro 1,as . on tl 1e proble m of rie Ctir resolving conflicts between states' laws. His wr1t111gs are part1c11lrly vigorous, lucid and very detailed even if tedious. Tl1eir inflt1e11ce 011 lega l tl1i11k:ing is tren1endous. Currie probably J1as 1nore disciples tha11 a11y other moder11 theorist in this field of ]avv.27 Tl1e ''i11terest'' of a state's governme11t is i11creasi11gly being alluded to by Ar11erican j11dges in recent 'decisions.28 Ct1rrie l1as t1ndot1btedly 111ade a positive contribt1tior1 to the isst1e as to wl1e11 foreign Iaws sl.1ould be applied i 11 contradistinc­ tion to the r1egative contribt1tion of the ''local law'' tl1eorists. Bt1t his proposed solution is vulnerable almost at every turn. 29 It is hardly practicable or convenient to make n1ore tha11 a brief con1n1e11t in tI1e prese11t context. 23. Lau, and Co11te,nporary Problen1s, vol. 28 (1963), p. 762. 24. Particularly the "full faith and cr edit" c]at1 se. Cu rri e clai 111ed st1 pport for his theory in the "fulJ fajth and cr edit" clause, th e ''equal protection'' clau se and the "due process" clause of the Uruted States C onstitution. 25 · Selected EssaJ'S, cited a,bove at note 2, pp. 53, 94-, 186, 280, 297 and Chapters IO and 11. 26 · �c�ording to Ctt:ri e, a disinterested fed eral cot1rt "shoul d frankly avow a purpose. �ot 10 divine the govemi!1g law_ by a pseudo-judicial re ason i ng bt1 t to pt1t itself in the pos.11,on of . the Con�ess and deci de which int erest Congress woulcl sub-ord inate if it ,:vere to consider conflict from the point of ,iew of national interest '' See LaH, and Conte111po rary Problenis, , vol. 28 (1963), p. 7 88. 141; 27 · See , for example, R.�. Sedler, cited above P· 46, vol. Rev., L. Tax H · I-I. Kay' Book R eview, 1. Leg. Ed. vol at note I;) Baade, Curr 's theorv is supported, ie f . to s01ne extent by Trayno r, H. ancock ,' Ch 18 (1965-66 .' p · 341 I 1O pre e rs w avers e athan, · · Scol e, Leflar and. · probab1y C ,, t1le w . oi. 1c1 "purpose to ''poJicy". 28 · en5:3· urrie probably d erived his com p 's tl1eory fron1 the opi en 1 �ion ,vo rkn Sto11e i11 . n io11s of .Jus.tice s· 1rr11 . cases sucl1 as to be foun. d in Con . t en · a ' Alaska Packers Assoc1at1011 v. l11dustr1li . I A cc1 al· nt sion, 294 U.S 532 Am o the 1e gover1::,a1ia/ interests theory are·· Be�n �grant v.most famou s case s cJain1ed in support of tl Fowler, 55 Cal. 2d 588, 360 }). 2d 906 (1961); v. Kaufn1an, 239 o·re ?0� N. £. 3 , 5, 120 543 (1964); Dyn1 v. Gore/on 16 N. Y. 2d 2d 792 (19 65) and the � j 91 N. E. 1e� :atePd case of Babcock 5 v. Jc1ckson, 12 N. Y. 2d �7 , e L ibrary, 2d 279 (1963). [Editors' n t 1ese �se s unf?rtunat ely canno_t all be foun1 in tl a,v vail· Tl a Faculty of Law, H SIU, bu� �I L ·ley are d iscus sed 1n books on Private International able there'· e·g·, D· F · C avers. Tlte C hoice-or 'J-L Q'ij' process (196 . 5)] . . I 29 . For a critical apprai . Recu ei ,, sal f Cu rie r . 's tl1eory see Kegel, ''Tl1 e Crisis of Cor1flict of 1:a ,vs, f La\v ,'' des Cours, vol. 11 (19 64) _ c C �nftict of Recueil des cours. vol. 1' (���5-207; Reese "Discus sion of Majo r Areas of Choic the pp on 329 . -334; tise ' Tre A. ig, El1 Sec enzwc a A. . r a . 122; Cavers Chotce- of L ,vs, ' -La1-.,, Proce ss. PJ'.>. 98-112.

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The very prellJfse of Currie's syll@gis1n is . of dou�tful validity. A state is me•rely as one suclr ca11n , a. n d ot mean ction ingfully speak of state's int· erest abstr a al g]itic . p individua t l1e from l or ollect�ve interests of the pe ople within c ct i dist and te _ _ :Bl'ara _ � the ory 1s _ gr o tesqt1e ins ofar as 1� has had the effect of reducii1g Currie s ders. bor • J"1 LS • t·erest-carry1ng at1t o mata. e-in stat e mer to s al vidu indi Even if ''states'' l1ave separate interests, the pr ocess of ascertaining st1ch interests' as demo11strated by Cu1·rie, 30 is at best fictiti o t1s if . not wholly unworkable. Surely, some domestic laws 111ay express certai11 p olicies but it may be very difficult t o ascertai11 such ·policies. It certainly will be perplexing t o determine the p olicies expressed in all pote,11tially a_pplicable fore.ign laws. Speculati o11 as to the purposes or policies of common lavv rt1les 111ust, d o t1btless, involve a11 exctrrsion int o tl1e realm of legal hist ory.31 There are certai11ly ma11y laws which help to further 32 Moreover, the purposes ed be said to l1ave expre policies . but can sca1·cely ss them. _ _ _ o·f a given do111est1c 1·t1le are 11ot tl1e33only p o licies of the state th.at may bear on tl1e q1.11estion of· its spatial applicati o n. Ft1rtherm ore, the d o mestic purpose of a rule may throw little ligl1t on the basic qt1estio11 as to whether that purpose will be mater, ially ad,1anced by its application t o out-of-state situations. 34 ,+

Surely, in order to balance states' i11terests accurately, the Cot1rt n1ust be sure it properly f ormt1lates the interests t o be weighed. Both interests must be at the same level of conceptual abstraction. The interests must be expressed in eq11ivalent terms. There are certainly n o judicial standard for th· e evaluation of these imp on­ derables. How the Court will be able t o acc omplish that task staggers the imagina­ tio;n . Again, analysis of d omestic law may yield multiple purposes some of which may poi.I1t t o different directions on the issue as t o whether it should be applied to an out-of-state sitl1ation. 35 The unguided ''calculus'' of formulating, c ombining, and permutating states' interests is at best a belated pr oduct ''of a highly speculative and attenu.ated attribution of purp oses to a given law. ''36 It has a tendency to make ever·yt.hing depend o n the particular judge. It has thus substituted a discreti on­ ary system of equity for a system of rules and we are thus back t o the medieval beginning of private international law. 37 Currie's the ory is unc onvincing insofar as it assumes that a state has an interest in tM application of its private law. The application of foreign private law d oes not derogate or run c ounter t o the interest of the f or11m state in m ost cases. 3s lt is simply a step i11 the search f or jt1stice. No state has or wot1ld wish to have a monopoly of justice. In the c onflict of law field, we are n ot usually concerned with the interests of g overnment but alm ost always with the interest of private •

3 0. See Selected Essays, cited above at note 2, Chs. 2, 3 & 5. Bil· ''Common Law itself," according to Currie, ''is an instrument of social and economic policy;'' Selected Essays, cited above at note 2, p. 65. 32. Cavers, Choice-of-Law Process, p. 98. '" 3 . ee 1 S Id., p. 101. .. 34. id., p. 108. 35. €avers, cited above at note 28, p. 108. • 36. ld., p. 100. 3;/. See A.E. Anton, Private I11ternational La·w, p. 40. 18 · It has been SL1ggested that Currie's assLrmption can only be valied in relation to Ad.miralty, tax and currency matters. See Ehrenzwiog, Private lnternatio11al Lalv, p. 63 · •'

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t wl10Il)'. or e ven no t ''is ur co e th of t du e 1 . tt y re, . ri else whe d e u g r a s A a . s � t1 r a p ruy hrn 1 e r t o bala11ce these inter ests ratl1 b11t i sts e r e nt t such to . giv e . effect to statek cogtlition. ,,39 Currie's ass11m1Jtio11 tl1a t a sta w e . t e r ee s a . s s t s e r e � in only I private � law applied to its ''resici e t1ts, citize11s, etc." is 1101 ho e o 1ntereste? in 11 av_ing n a ut s stice i11j11 J a11d e 11c rdit prod absu to i e s d boun if opted · ly , by practice and 1s ce�t:in . a es t t 1 s � en t aw w� e b can . s 11ce b fere e dif r esol ved b I-Iis further assu1nption that . Y · c to , 1 11 1on s01 1ct e e str nt, s xte co1 d 1 an 1 a 1 101 tat e hyp o r1rI al ord'lnary process of interpr es tl1at ar e disti11ctive to c fl � cipl prin and s rule of e . nc e rg e m e o n 1ct conc ealment. o f the 40 of Iaws. Eveil if these assiinipti_ons we r� valid, the eco110111y. �f n1odern_ adjudi cation y asce.rta111able. This re quire reasonabl or in . deo1a 11ds that the law be fairly certa men t . . precltides speculations into the policies _expressed 1n ·f ore1g11 stat_utes and the deter mination of interests that will be 111at�r1ally advance d by _e11forc1ng s11ch policje-s in out-of-state situa ti ons. In a11y event, a Jtidge �ho goes bel11nd the express provisions of a stattite to discov er the u11derlying policies and tl1e i11terests tl1at will be advan­ ced by its inforcement i11 a particular sit11a tio11. l1as. only co11j_ured up a phant om Jaw. He would be applying as la\v only wl1at, 111 his fancy, 1s the policy behind the stat11te. To adopt this approacl1 is to 11tiilize statutory la\VS for a purpose for . 41 c tl1ey are for singularly wl1icl1 1 u and d e design 1s11ite l never e r they e w \Vl1ich n

Granti11g the validit)i of its postulates, the 'gover11111ental-interests' an alysis is at best an a11xiliary rt1Ie. It is inadequate as a11 all-pervasive pri11ciple of cl1oice of law . Tl1e process of 'inter1Jretatio11 and co11structio11' of any state's s tatute can 011ly begin after tl1e JJarticular state ]1as b een asc ertained. The ascertai11me11t of the appropriate jurisdiction is \Vl1at the traditional choice-of-la\v rules have sought to ;1cl1ieve. The 'governn1e11tal-i11terest' analysis n1t1st therefore remain a s11per-strt1cture on 11ormal choice-of-laVi1 r11les. The 'greatest cor1trib11tio11' of C11rrie's the ory 1nay 11ot prove so great vJben critically exa111ined. For pred.iction abo11t 'fa.lse' co11flicts ir1 a situation \Vhere the res11lt of litigation Vi1ill depend upon ,vhere th e issue has bee11 deternJined is, in our ,,iew, a11 exercise i11 logic not in law. F11rtl1ern1ore, in the particular circun1stances of ma�y Afri_can states, the 'gov er11mental i11terest' theory ca11 only succeed in �dvaJ1c1ng tl1e interests of the forn1er Colonial Powers as most of the existi11g statut es �n tl1ese :�ates �efl�ct_ t�eir, policies. Like 1?,hrenz,veig, C11rrie a ppears t� 11a ve sli_pped 111to the s_1ngle-Jt1r1sd1ct1011 fallacy. Tl1e re 1s 110 reason of J)Ol1. cy or social co11ve n1 ence �,by t�e 111tere�ts or polic.ies of 1nore tha11 one state ca11not be n111t11ally accon1 n10• dated 111 resolving a legal disp11te. . Ctirrie has obviously exhausted his reso tl� e to n1in d ]1is · u 1g rce acl 1 s dre before ssi basic P\obl�m� of resolving 'real' co nfli his , 42 eritl y Co1 1seq u cts \VS. bet ,vee 11 states' la �.lieory 18 limited to inter-state sitt1ations sir1ce no l egislat11rc is available in the . 11�.ter_n ationa� level, outside the tre aty spheres, ,vhich ca11 resolve 'real' conf lict. Even "ith1n tl1 e inter-state areas, C11rrie' s theory is inadeq11ate as it ma.kes 110 room for 39. Anton, cited above at note 3 7, p. 41 , 40 . Cavers, cited above at note 28 ' p. 9 7 · · 41 · Ide n 11ca1 Jaws, accord · 153 £ ing to currte ,s . • , do not n1ean identical policies. Selec ted •ssa) p , 4-2. On · th·is 1·s· sue, Curr1e 'ten1· , see . wrote l'. v ys ·· "I Ilave been unable to ,,isuaJize a satis1 ac tor � s · "Con1ments on Babcock'' , CI'ted a bove at note 2, p. 1242.

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f

of national int rests. ancement A t1�i?n in · ad which � each or state n � tectio pro the 1t� advancement of own pol1c1es and interests to the and on protecti the for ks . s::iusion of all others will surely be confronted with the disintegrating influence of , nce. More_ o �e ud as between s_ t ates_ jurisp where conflict practice in � · m li � ochia � � ;ar restraint the tl1eory can yield intolerable consequences. const1ti1tional to t subJec not is Our experience with the '·vested interest' dog1na, the theory of 'territorial sove­ of 'comity' has revealed the danger and the undesirability doctrin the and � ty' reign . choice-of-law rt1les f rorn a about gene. r al theory the na_ture of specific g derivin of conflict of Jaws. As convinci11gly argi1ed by a distinguished author: The imperfectio11s of conflict o.f laws do not result solely from the special cl1aracter a11d complexity of the question which Private International la\v has for its object to resolve, but also from the defective method which has been used in its elaboration. The authors whic.h have formulated its rules have almost always attempted • to deduce them frqm a very general and very abstract notion; inter-territorial sovereignty, ·personal sovereignty, community of laws be·tween states, international courtesy --- maintenance of rights vested under the law of a foreign state etc. The learned author went further to say: The a priori principle from which these authors have pretended to de·rive their theory has always proved powerless to furnish or justify a practical rule. On the contrary� it has only too often misled such author in his search for a solution.43 Currie appears to have lost his bearing when he ignored this war ning. A 'j1urispr·ude.nce of interests' as a general principle of choice of law, is logic.ally defi­ cient and in practice unworkable once it is recognised that conflicting interests can not be m.easured qualitatively. Currie knew he was navigating the proverbial Scylla and Charybdis and h.ence he judiciously abandoned his boat. The vessel of 'govern­ mental-interest' theory has been left irretrievably stranded. Currie's belated efforts te · salvage it by proposing that the courts · must speculate on what the legi�Iature would have done seems a clear indication of the fictitious character of the 'govern­ mental-interest' theory. 44 It should be admitted, however, that Currie's theory can provide · useful guidance in the area of public policy .decisions. But the use of public policy is genera. lly acknowledged, at any rate under the com.mon law, as an exception to the normal application of conflict _rules and, as such, reliance on it has been rather sp, a:Fin g. It may nevertheless e fairly o cluded as uggested elsewhe.re that ''it � � � � _ ?�es no harm to say that policy analysts 1s a continmng search for governmental i,nterests provided we recognise that what we ought to do in any ·event is to analyse !Ite pr oblem in terms of all the relevant choice-of-law considerations, of which t.he Jifiterest behind the forum internal rt1le is only one.''45 43 · Arminjon, Le Domaine de droit internalio11al prive (1922), 49 Clunet 905, cited from Lorenzen, Selected Essays, p. 12. 44· Carrie's theory has a smack of Hideonistic philosophy with the interest and policy of � l1e rie's Cur , phy oso phil 'Sta t th e te'' Lik '. ual' ivi ,' ''ind the stit of sub � sL1re ? plea uted for the pain and . _ bheory has erected a colossal super-structt1re on an imag1nary foundation. 43 · R.A. Leflar , ''C.hoice-influencing Considerations in Conflict Laws'', N. U. Y.L. Rev., ,,o}. 4l (l 966), P, 267 at 395.

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THE POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS OF CODIFICATION.. by Arthur Taylo!' von Mehren* On May 5, 1960, tl1e Emperor promulgated the Ethiopian Civil Code.. In the Preface to the new code, tl1e En1peror speaks 9f the need for ''precise and detailed r111es'' and further states that: ''It is essential that tl1e law be clear and intelligible to each and every citize11 of Our En1piry so tl1at he may without difficulty ascertain what are J1is rigl1ts and d·t1ties in the ordinary course of life, and this has been accomplished in the Civil _Code. It is equally important that a law which embraces a varied and diverse subject matter, as is the case with th� Civil Code, form a consistent and 11nified wh.ole .... '' In this passage are underlined two of the values traditionally en1phasized in discussions of codification, simplicity and intellectual coherence. The problem of codification is, l1owever, more complex and subtle.. My pu.rpose is to develop a fuller statement of the potentials and the limitations of codifications. Such a consi­ deration may assist in understanding better the proper role and possible contribution of the new code. I

The classical Western codifications, for· example, those of France and of Germany, can b e looked upon as historically inevitable responses to their society's need to have a Jaw coextensive with effective . political and' economic units that had already emerged. France and Germany were for historical re�sons politically and economi­ cally nations before they had a uniform national law and administration ·of justice. Indeed, England is the only European country in which· � gap between the effective _political and economic units and the effective legal 11nit did not persist into relatively modern times. And when a· contemporary polity faces the need and has, politically speaking, the opportunity to close such a gap,· considerations of convenience and of expedition make recourse to Iegislati�n normal. -

.

. A somewhat relatec;l purpose_- that of modernizing the society's legal rules and prmciples�is typically encountered in developing societies where it is desired to c�ange certain aspects of social and economic patterns that are not fully consistent with the requirements of a mo·dernized social a11d economic str11cture. •

. �oth these potentials of codification underlie in significant measure the Emperor's decision to promulgate a Civil Code. Of co11rse, prom.11lgation alone does not ensure that these goals will be achieved. A wide gap often exists between official law, wh�the! codified or not, and actual practices and conceptions. Article 32 of the thi?P1an Civil C de, which req1ur s that ery indivi?ual �ave a fa��y name, �� ? � u�nxshes a convenient tl11s propos1t1on. The d1ffic11lt1es of obtaining legal example of uruty and moder nizatio11 through formal law-in partict1lar codification are many_ in . s c ety s ch. as �f � � � Etbjopia. This is n�t, however, a11 occasion fo! th� expl� ration his topi c. For present p11rposes, 1t st1ffi.ces to note that cod1ficat1on serves to

F

;-·=r----· -

r v�s a ticle Sl�mmarizes a talk given . on At1gt1st 18, 1970, at Haile. Sellassie I University. Profess or Mehren is Professor of Law at }-Jarvard Law Scl1ool, Cambridge, Massacl1usetts.

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L. VIIl - No. I O V W A L N IA P IO l:I T E JOURNAL OF

e d ipl an i11c pr les ru s in t erms of rm ifo un . d an l ma for . of Whi'ch provide the st ructures . · . ty cie a so by d tie irs pt be n a c n o t1 a 1z n er d o legal t111ity and m of the e som r purposes tl otl1e of ion at ider cons a to n 1e tl 1 t11rn . at us et a L emp es, has as i Cod e poi . n Civ il z t . ed the of out ce Pre fa ' · e l1 a bove1 T . es rv se t1 o ti ca 1fi d co . . t 1 o w a11 d 1at se se11 e1 ext at \vh 1t can a . In cy. ren e • coh d 1 a t , y t C ode s1tnpl1c1ty, c1a r ty n i' lici ds im forwar a11d de 1) Co s cla awn rity l-dr \vel ? r A s 1 e · lt a · v ese th tlle e t Pron1o · ce by providing a very 11 seful law or der1· 11g an d finding · device. • . . tra t·10n of J· tisti . 1s . . adn11n 1es �11d pr111c1ples and . to 1ega 1 r u e� 111d ted tica his sop a is e cod draws A stlccessftil rms of pol 1cy and p11rpose te in ed t re!a is t tha r so tha t tte ma together subject 1_11derstoo . O ther, b11 t more cu 1 and v�d ce1 r p� ily eas e r n1o � mber­ ii)terrelations are 1 nco d1fi ed sys tem s .. For example, in 1 n 1 ns ct1o ft1n se tlie ve ser the some devices Unit;d States elaborate digest-i11dices ke�ed t? a comp rehe11s�ve syste1n of unofficial law reports orders the decisio11al materials, 1n terms of ,vh1 ch so n1 a11y problems are approacl1ed i11 a case-law system. I n addition a. code can provide a definitive answer to ·certain ki11ds of proble ms· in particular, q�estions that are f r�qu�11tly encountered i� ident ical or _nearly identical terms in the admi11istration of Just ice a11d that admit of categorical a11swers as disti11guished. from answers derived from a wei_ghi11g of various releva11t elements. Tl1us tl1e age for majority can be clearly prescribed but 11ot what constitt1tes hin­ d erance of performa11ce ''so tl1at the esse11ce of the contract is affected'' and. can­ cellation is available under Article 1788 of tl1e Civil Code. No system of law, codified or otl1erwise, can provide simplicity o r ce rtai11ty where the problem requires for \vise resolutio11 an exercise of judgme11t by tl1e adjudicator as distinguished from a mecl1anical application of a dispositive rule. And- fo r various reasons, including tl1e te11dency of life to defy at temp ts to contain it in a single, simple c a tegory, the areas in wl1ich legal r11les can be truly simple a11d p r ecise are fewe r and more res tricted tl1a11 01 1e initially assumes. Some codes, in particula r tl1e ill-fa ted Prussian Allgemei11es Lat1dr ecl1t at tl1e e11d of t he 18 th ce11tury, have ignor ed tins natura l limit upon codificatio11. The effort to do too 1nt1ch inevitably restilts in a confusing and 11n\1/0rkable situation. Wl1e11 natt1ral li1nitations 11pon codification are largely ignored by the codifier or, st1bseque11tly, by those c11arged witl1 tl1e code's administ­ r ation, the codified system can not long endu re. Another limitation upon cod.ifica tio11 that m11st be kept in mind is that the �ode, wi_th �he pass,1ge of time, inevitably becomes less central to the a.dn1ini�t�a­ tion _of Justice a11d loses, as \Vel1, a sig11ifica11t 111easure of its original sin1pli�It)' and 111tellectt1al coherence. Tl1e reasons for this phenon1eno11 are obviot1s. A s m u e passe�, new problems and 11ew valt1es, \-Vhich the code did not-indeed, cot1ld not tak� into a_ ccour1t,. emerge. Consequently, new sol11ti ot n ay 1 n t tha ed req r 11i a ons re e d rive ea�ily or directly from t l1e code . l1 1 be rn�i st . tl1a t n1a ad terials ditio1 1, the maSlered . 111. 0rder to 11nderstand what mea11 on i 11g the co de l1as i 11 ftCtt1al applicati expand si�nificai1 tly as a body of ad c to t e res p \-Vit jud l1 ica tiv e experience is bt1ilt up code _provrsi�ns. Ultiniately, tl1is proces th 1 1i _ s t a of aging reacl1es tl1e po i11t e \\ I c h code 1s nothing m·ore th a i1· a form . · . . . the 1 11 d a a11 1 star t111g .form of po111t .for legal rea.so1u11g • • a1111otat ed edit. ions-a convenient 1 e son . I 11 e . devic la\v fi11d11 order 1g ,t11cl 111g field. 8? for exanlple, that of delic · t bis ts, t l1e Frencl1 Civil Co de of 1804 is now 111 pos1t1011. . There is anotl1e r limitat1· 0 ? n . . tio ,ita r in l IJ)o11 cod1ficat1on tl1at deserves 1nent1011, a that flows directl from ert_ a1t1 advantages of coclificatio11, tl1ose already men tioalnedY ? of simplicity ' clarfty ' aild Inte llectual coherence. There is a l1uma11 tende11cy, especi l

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1

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I I I


THE POTENTIALS AND LIMITATIONS OF CODIFICATION '

to overestimate yo11ng, its relatively potential. This still leads to is code . . where a d an 1nterpretati n n d . woo 1mpe d the �s an ft1rther development nical ? ? � echa m _ . er rath a t;tseful aid 1n ot1r thinking code 1s about legal problems A order. l lega f the replace thou. g ht and not reflection. ld shou it �ut · In reflecting upon �??ificatio1 � it is also well to keep in mind that wise solutions require · att_ent1on not o!11Y to general structure and intellectual ms proble legal __ to of specific facts 1nd1v1d11al cases. A code system, especial­ to th also but y : etr ymm ou11 , te11ds relat1vely o operate in many ill ds on fie a high s r� is it � � � � when � � y _ tha11 JS p1obably ,v1se. (Conversely, uncodrfied systems 1n. ation generaliz of level roany areas may be too partict1larized a11d lose the ordering and disciplining -value of intellectual strt1cttrre and coherence.) Coclified systems thus benefit greatly from study of the judicial decisio: ns applying the code. S·uch st11dy sensitizes the jurist to the importance of understanding a pa1·ticular problem in its full factual complexity. (Conversely, 11ncodified systen1s be11efit greatly from the structure and discipline that are imposed by reflective legal scholarship 11pon the particularized solution of disputes.)

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In suggesting some- of the potentials and some of the limitations inherent in codified legal sy-stems, my basic purpose is to show that 110 legal system-codified or uu.codified-can p1·ovide complete or permanent solutions. At son1e periods, it has been urged that certain codified systems were logically complete_; that is to say, that the sy·stem either contained e�plicitly the solution to any given problem ·or, if not, a solution could be derived from the code through purely logical ·procedures th.at did not involve considerations of policies and of values. This audacious claim of l0gical completeness has not survived the hard test of experience. The legal materials­ in the case of Ethiopia, a civil code with which we begin our · efforts to resolve wisely legal problems · embody, of course, a great deal of organized and · disciplined human experience. A sound legal order accepts the discipline and direction contained in the system's authoritative starting points for legal reasoning, b�t does so under­ sta,ndingly and with awareness that where circumstances or -values have changed, new solutions may be required. A jurist's responsibility is always to understand and, where past solutions no longer appear appropriate, to create new solutions adaptei:l to the society's needs and. . to. . its legal and social traditions . . '. .,

.

You will, therefore, as future men of the law do your country and your pro­ �ession a disservice if you approach understanding your code as a simple exercise �n grammar a.nd in dictionary definition. You need to stutly the policies that infor·m Its provisions and to be aware, as well,. that the drafters could not fully grasp even the complexity of the present, let alone what. tl1e future will bring. Wivh such awareness, you will be less likely to abdicate your responsibility as jurists to de­ velop and adjust the law as society comes both to understand more fully problems t�at were foreseen when the code was drafted and to face new problems that either did not then exist or were not foreseen by the drafters. •

197 -


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i

QUIZZES IN ETHIOPIAN FAl\lllLY LAW by George Krzeczunowicz *

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Readers of t· he Journal of Ethiopian Law are invited to test their kn.owledge of in formulating skill their and �uswers to legal qt1izzes by submitting to the law the Journal written _an�wers to. the follo�1ng proble�s sel�cted . from t.he author's . 24 Prob/e-ms in Eth1op1an fam1/y Law, which w�s published 1n m1meog: raphed for1:1 during �he 1970-1971 academic year. The best wr1tte11 answers to each qua subID1tted to the Journal in either Amharic or English will be printed in volu.me 9-1 of t.he Journal_, scheduled to appear in December, 1972. Answers should be submitted before September 11, 1972. Each participant whose answer is selected for publication will recei�e a free copy of the Journal issue in which his answer appears plus five off­ prints of his answer. The participant who submits the most satisfactory answer to all four quizzes will receive a year's subscriptio.n to t.he Journal without charge in addition to a free copy of volume 9-1 and the author's off-prints for any · answer which is publis.hed. Participants are not obliged to answer all quizzes. Problem 1

As shown 6y Professor Rene David, 1 the expert draftsman of the Civil Code, the draft rule providing for cessation of affinity upon marriage-dissolution wa.s (for reasons unknown) reversed by Parliament to the effect that the affinity bond subsis·ts notwithstanding such dissolution: see Article 555 of the Civil Code.2 What are the effects of this parliamentary reversal in the fields of: 1. impediments to marriage? 2. maintena.nce duties? Problem 2

''Article 852 of the Civil Code, which_ was added to the Cod· e by the Codifi­ cation Commission., makes the (earlier drafted) Article 713 redu.ndant."3 • Faculty of Law. Haile Sellassie I University. 1 · See R. David, Le droit de la famille dans le code civil ethiopien (Milano, Giuffre, 1967), p. 15, ftn. 1. 2 · Article 555 states: Art. 555. - Cessation of Affiriity. A b?nd of Affinity sh.all sLtbsist in the direct and collateral line notwithstanding th.at the mai:r1age by which it was created is dissolved. (No!e that fhe old title of t11is Article, contradicting the present content, was inadvertently retamed. ) 3 · The texts of these Articles are as follows: Art. 713.-No rights of succession. An irreg ular union shall not cr�te any right of succession between the man and the woman engaged in such union. Art. 8·52.-Devolution e,pon the State. Ia default of relatives the inheritance of the deceased shall devolve upon the State. ,

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I . II - No. 1 L V O V W A J., N IA P O I H T E JOURNAL OF

g 11 ro and why? r w o t h g ri y c 11 a d . a11egat10 · n · 0 of redu . . . . . I · Is this ,, co y ll 1a le 1c 11l 1d 1n Jt a1 1s d e as 1n 1b c1 n co a to ntr cy ga I e ary a t a 1 i t e s t o · p p u S th t · a ng f o: b e1 ? A d e e cl t1g r1 rt1 · "nf 71 1 ed em 3. Is su e� de w la e . th 4 . ) , !) 6( 86 Ia.w,,-·(Art. ? h w l Y c u ,a g n o r w r _,_ decision right o Problem 3

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ts en dm of en er !b am 111 d additio ils n1 a11 a e ad m n sio lis mn Co to The Codification ca11 w e reconcile commi ow H . id av D r _ so es of Pr by ed jtt 1 on. ssi bn the draft provisions sti 5 \\'1th: 1 e d o C added Article 626 of the Ci\ il 6 pr ov id in g i11 sub-article (c) that 1, 59 o err le tic r Ar c . ed dd on -a ion iss · m m co l. · · '' 7 to const1mn1ate tl1e marriage 1s · · an error y 1 1t 1 b n ''1 . of . _icle 18 ?8 � ceming th e other spouse's 6 ) rt r A de 11n n 1o ut ol ss d1 eag r1 ar m es ifi st substa 11 ce (which ju 9 to tl1e t t flee tl1a t�e consequences of (3) 696 icle Art � fted -dra sion unis con 2. judicial marriage-dissolution depend, among other th111gs, on marr1age-c onst1mmation? Problem 4 by Professor David, 10 a draft provisio11 sub111itted to tl1e Codifica­ tio1.1 Con1n1ission gave biga,nous marriages tl1e legal status of concubinate (irregular UJiion). The Comnlission rejected tl1is provision. No reasons are recorded. The

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rejection can mean either:

4.

The text of ,\rticle 866(1) is as follows: (1) A provision contained in a will sl1all be of no effect v1l1ere its object is contrary to the law or morality.

5•

See David, cited above at note 1, p. 58, ftn. 40. The text of Article 626 states: Art: 626.-Consummatiorz of marriage. The effec�s of marriage sl1all in no way depend on tl1e r�-il or presumed consummation of the marriage.

6. Id., p. 55, ftn. 22. The text of Article 591 states: Art. 591.-2. Restrictive e11urneration. The following errors only shall be considered as errors of substance: . . . . • • • • (c) error on the stat e Of 1t1. ealth or the bodiJy canf orrnation of tl1e spouse, \\'}10 IS af1iec·t e;d by e. ag i marr the leprosy or who does not have the requisite organs for the consurnn1atioo of 7 · See Amharic version. 8. The text of Article 618 reads: Art. 618.-Error. aY m . ce (1) Whosoever ha s contrac an t 5 b . te<l a marriage under the influence of an error of su apply to tlie· co_urt to order the di ssolution thereof · aod, (2) 8uch appli cation may not b . rror ' e e made SIX months after tl1e discovery of suc1l in any case' tw0 years after th e celebration of th e n1arriage. . . • es, 9. See David, cited above stat . (3) . 696 a t not e 1 , p. 62, ftn. 69 in fine. Tl1e text Article of ct fa . (3) It shall in particu 1e I . t · lar have regard to the good or bad faitl1 of tl1e spo_u ses' . if anY, that the marriage h . b e n ren, d chil consum the � ma of ted or not,. tl1e inter�st . · born of the dissolve� union _ fa1th and the interest of third patties in good . . 10 • See D avid, cited above at note 1 , p. 57, ftn. 37.

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.. QUIZZES IN ETHIOPIAN -FAMILY LAW t t and (1) ding 334 �rticle 585 ·cum of the Civil · code st � Article notwith �f , that · _ l. .. · 616 of the Pen �l C ?de, _ marriages of most �1ganusts (t�e moslem �). continu� tot be the of 1944 Proclamation on Kadis and view Natbas councils; 3 or 1n s riage mar _ legal arriages'', far from being legal s '' marriages, must be denied bigamou � that 2. of irregular union (i.e., those of Articles 714� 715, 717);14 or effects legal the ·even 3. that the rejected provision was superfluoµs, since,. for the purpose of such fully unions satisfy fact'' of ''state the ition n defi of irregular bigamous most ffects 15 1 ( ; 9 ) 0 7 8 0 7 s le ic :nion in Art

11. The texts of these provisions are as follows: Art. 585.-Bigallzy. A person may not contract marriage so long as he is bound by the bonds of a preceding marriage.

Art. 3347.-Repeals. (1) Unless otherwise expressly provided, all rules whether written or customary previously in force concerning matters provided for in this Code shall be replaced by this Code and are hereby repealed. 12. Article 616 of the Penal Code states: Art. 616.-Bigamy. (1) Whosoever, being tied by the bond of a valid marriage, intentionally contracts another marriage before the first union has been dissolved or annulled, is punishable with simple imprisonment, or, in grave c-.ases, and especially where the offender has misled his partner in the second t1nion as to this true state, with rigorous imprisonment not exceeding five years . (2) Any unmarried person who marries another he knows to be tied by the bond of an existing marriage, is punishable with simple imprisonment. (3) Limitation of criminal proceedings is suspended until such time as one of the two mar­ riages shall have bee.n dissolved or annulled. 13. Kadis and Naibas Councils Proclamation, 1944, Proc. No. 62, Neg. Gaz., year 3, no. ·9, 14. The texts of these Articles are as follows: • Art. 714.-Surety for debts of woman. A man engaged in an irregular union shall stand joint and several surety of the woma.n, by virtue of the law, in all contracts which are concluded by the woman and which are neces­ sary for the maintenance of the man or of tl1e woman or of the children born of the irregu­ lar union. ' Art. 715.-Filiation of children. The filiation of the children born of an irregular union shall be established in accordance with • the Chapter of this Title relating to ''Filiation''. • Art. 717.-2. By the man. (1) A man engaged in an irregular union may at any time put an e :nd to such union. (2) !n such a case, if eqt1ity so requires, he may be condemned by the court to pay an mdemnity to the woman correspondi.n.g to tl1e expense of the maintenance of the woman for not more than six 1nonths. ·15 • The texts of these provisions are as fallows: Art. 108.-Definltion. :n irregu.lar union is the state of fact w·hicl1 is created w�en a man and a woman live ogetber as husband and wife without having contracted marriage. Art. ?09.-Expla,zatiotz. (l) It is necessary of r aviou 1 bel the that on i un 1lar irregt n have a. to in order and sufficient · the man and of the woman be analogot1s to that of married people.

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. . apart since fron1 ous 1 fin , superfl1 al was vali d on t d 1s1 ov pr a t· • e reJe C ton the that va 1-d 1 -1 always . unt1 4: . . are tl1e es marriag occu rre ous . 16 n b1gan1 6 3) c e of 1 ( 11 ' ( (2 )) 1) 6 69 rt. A possib1l1t1es Ar�. cun . 1 , · 612 ( Art . any ·r I t100 , a sanctioning d1ssolu .. •. 1ons. • . �o �1th respect propos1t above the the of se e on cond argu e and e Choos reJected also a sion prov1s Commis io11 the t allo win th e no� sitio ns, pro p � a and third union �d replaced it with irregular an keep � g the hus band, �1fe co nsen�� But ot also that irre gular u111011s are recognized th! e n a ) 3( 6 . nd 2 4 Art icle mandatory ) . 19 720 ( 708 Art s. law by regulated

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16. The text of Article 613 states: Art. 613. -3. Validation. Tbe marriage contracted by the bigamous spouse shall become valid on the day when the former spouse dies. 17. The texts of these provisions are as follows: Art. 612.-2. Dissolution of marriage. the d (l) In the case mentioned in Art. 611 the dissolution of tl,e marriage shall be 0rd �r� o ;ublic applicatio11 of either of the spouses of the bigamollS spouse or oo the requeSt 0 he prosecutor. . . titable anner, (2) The court shall not order dissolution unless it is estab1is11ed, in an 1ndisp that the former spouse of the bigarnot1s spouse was alive at tl1e time wl 1en t1l e :arr iage was celebrated. Art. 696.-Rule to be followed. of . • ns . d1t10 (1) Where the court orders the dissolution of a ma con rriage as a sanction of . the . 0 marriage, it shall regulate according to equity tl1e consequences of suc\1 dissol utio · spouses (2) :It shall be g�ided by the rules regarding the een bet\ v relations the liqu of idat io11 1n cases of divorce (Art. 690-695). · d and voi Th. }S f ou rth aI_tern.at_·1ve has been suggested by on 1 e l1er A rt·cl in O' Pr Do of ess no va or n voidable marriages 10 Ethiopia which is to appacar in the next issue of the Journ a/· 18. See David, cited above at note 1, p. 58 , ftn. 44. Article 643(2) reads: (2) The husband owes fidelity to l1is wife. code 19. These articles comprise Chapter 8 (lrregc,.l • ar U,zion) of Book II, Title IV of t J1e Civil

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Journal of Ethiopian Law Vol. 8 No. 1 (1972)  
Journal of Ethiopian Law Vol. 8 No. 1 (1972)  
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