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---------------=--=-=�=-----� : C <l>'•'r . Vol. V No. 2 �7,: : rAf.'f' : :: 9"''. '¼. : J.iifi· t : SEPTEMBER 1968 tJPilhl9° -·--- ·---------· ·-·-·- - -·------------.

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IN THIS ISSUE

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REPORTS

ARTICLES The Role of the Co1-1ncil of Ministers in the Legislative Process 1-f.E. A.to Seyoum Haregot 011 I11terpreting the Ethiopian Penal Code Peter L. Strauss R

CURENT ISSUE Pt1blic-Private Co11flicts over Sub-Surface Stone Ha1·rison

C.

Dunning


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.· V


I

PATRONS OF THE JOURNAL OF ETIIlOI>IAJ� LAW

b is l ed Irat al u eri ina mp s wa � w je La Ma � sty H aile ian iop � Eth of l rna Jou The nt st�p 1n the development rta po im an as 64 19 of r me sum of Sellassie I in the rs of ito ard Bo Ed of !lie Journal has the , tlY ue seq Sub . tem sys fl: al _ leg _ Ethiopia's on at1 d nu ari nt1 co the expa11s1011 of the 10 d ste ere int are o wh Law _ invited those _ support by becoming ns tro Pa of ir the the Journal s res exp to ies ivit act l's rna Jou of Ethiopian Law. Tsehafi Taeza.z l\klilu I--Iabte WoJde Ato Abebe Reta Ato Ma111·mo Tadesse Ato Seyot11n I I- aregot Dr. Haile Giorgis Workineh Bitwoded Asf eha 'N oldemicl1ael Ato Keteme Abebe Ato Goyto111 Pet1·os Dejazmatcl1 Berhane Meskel W olde Selassie H.B. Lij Kassa Wolde Mariam H.B. Dejazmatch .Fikre Selassie Habte Mariam H.B. Ato Bt1lcha Demeksa H.B. Ato Aberra Jen1bere H.B. A.to Belatcl1ew Asrat H.E. Ato Teferri Lernn1a H.E. Ato Yol1an11es Tsegie H.E. Ato Teshome Gebre Mariani H.B. Ato Mul1amed Abdt1rahman H.B. Maj. Ge11. Abebe Wolde Meskel H .E. Col. Leghese Wolde t.Ian11a Hon. Ato Amrnant1el Amdemichael Hon. Fitawrari Bayisa Jemmo

H.E. Afenegus K.itaw Yitateku H.E. Afenegus Tesho1ne Haile Marian1 Hon. Blatta Matia.s Hiletework H:on. Ato Hagos Tewolde Medhin Hon. Blatta Haile Wolde Kidan Hon. Ato Tibebu Beyene Hon. Ato Kebede Kelel Hon. Ato Negussie Fitawake Hon. Kassa Beyene

H.B. H.B. I:-I.E. H.B. H.E. H.B. H.B. H.B. H.B.

Ato Abate Abare Wondemagegnehu Ato Abdul Aziz Mohammed Ato Abebe Gire Ato Abraha.m Tes.fatsion Balambaras Adane Deressa Ato Adarra Francois Ato Admasse Gessesse Dr. Maurice J. Aelion Lt. Col. Ahmed Aminu Ato Aklilu Atlabatchew Ato Akli]u Bete Mariam Ato Alene Aligaz Ato Amare Degefe Ato Amede Lemma Dr. Aradom Tedla Ato Arege Arsido �rs. M �rica Arvanitopoulo F1tawrar1 Asegahegn Araya Ato Asfeha Kahsai

Ato Assefa Liba11 Kegnazmatch Assefa Nadew Ato Assefa Metafaria Ato Assefa Tsegaye Ato Atsheba Fanta Ato Ayalew G·obe Ato Befekadu Tadesse Dejazmatc11 Bekele Beye11e Ato Bekele Demissie Ato Bekele Gebre Amlak Ato Bekele Habte Micl1ael Ato Bekele Nadi Ato Bekele Tesfaye Col. Belatcl1ew Jen1aneh Ato Belatchew Nigru Ato Belay Meketa Ato Belay Mengesha Ato Belete Walde Sellassie Woiz. Beleyu Work Gebre Meskel •

VI


le Beke a sef tA � A in l1 ed e M eb G et ek er B � . Jen.

Brig Mariam Kefle e n erha A to B Berl1a11e Woldeyes Lt CO1 • Beyene tA o· Berhe Berman sell Rus M tA � Beyene Abdi 1. Ha1lt1 Tseha ga Bine _ Ato ar Buhag1 m Willia Dr a t e d a Y e li a h C h tc Gr�zma m a l1 la C r e l1 p to s ri h p C Dr. Mr. Richa rd Ct11nm111gs r ze g g E 11 e Z a am D . ol C Lt. Ato Demere\V Tashu Ato De111issew Assaye Blatta Demissie \Vorkagegr1aht1 Ato Desta Gebre Mr. Harrison Dun11ing Ato Endale \Volde Michael Ato Endale Mengesl1a tA o Enye\V Gessesse Kess Ermias Kebede tA o Eshete Berhane Mr. \Villiam Ewing Capt. Eyassu Gebre Hawariat Dr. Eyob Gebrecristos Ato Falke Aragaw Dr. Fiammetta Prota Kaypaghian Ato Fisseha Gebre Ewostate\vos Mr. Stanley Z. Fisher Dr. Gaetano Latilla A t o Gayi1n Asmelash Ato Gebre Gebre Giorgis Kegn. Geta Gebre Hanna Kitaw Ato Gebre He\vot Wolde }Ia\variat Kegnazmatch Gebre l-Iiwot �Aebratu tA o Gebreyesus Haile Mariam Balamb aras Gemeda U1·gessa Grazmatch Gessesse Mesfir1 A t o Getachew Admassu A t o Getachew Asfaw A t o Getachew K ibret Ato G�tachew Hunegna�' Ato Gila Mikael Bahta Ato Girma Abebe Lt. Girma Wo.lcle Gio rgis Ato Goit om Beyene Mr. Everett Goldbe rg gr. Philippe Graven r. Saba Habachy A t o Haile Ama11 A to Haile Giorgi s Differ A to Ha·1i e W e ld e M ariam A to Hat·1u Alemayehu

Capt. Hailu Arsede Capt. Hailu Shenqute Ato Hailu Tesfaye Mr. G. Hamawi Mr. N. Hamawi At.o Haile Leul Habte Giorgis Miss Mechtild Immenkotter Dr. Quintin Johnstone Mr. Julia·n C. Juergensmeyer Capt. Kanoa Gt1ma Ato Ke·bede At11afseged Ato Kebede Gebe Mariam Ato Kebede Serir Ato .Kebede Waga Ato Kidane Equba Egzi Ato Kidanu Kassa .Mr. Michael Kindred Ato Kirkos Nigatu Mr. Lawrence Knowles Maj. Legesse Wolde Mariam Ato Lemma Wolde Semayat Dr. Marcello Lombardi Dr. Maria-Grazia Prota Mr. Steven Lowenstein Ato Let1l Menberu Ato Makon11en Wolde Mariam Mr. Paul McCarthy Mr. Robert C. Means Brig. Gen. Mebrahitu Fisseha Lt. Col. Mel1rete Gebre Selam Ato Mesfin Fanta Ato Mewael Mebratu Keg11. Geta Mezemer Hawaz Ato Michael Fasil Keg11azmatch Misgana Gebre-Egzy Perow Fitawrari Haji Mohammed Seredge Ato Mul1amud Nur Husain Ato Mulugeta Berihun Ato Mulugeta Wolde Giorgis Ato Nabiye Leoul K.ifle Ato Negga Tesemma Mr. Donald E. Paradis Mr. James C.N. Paul Mr. Robert Picot Mr. G. Prota Mr. Kenneth Redden Mr. Harry D. Richards Mr. Ezio Rusmini Mr. Arakel Sakadjian Ato Saleh A. Kebire Mr. Peter H. Sand Mr. Oli11 B. Scott Mr. Robert D. Scott Mr. Robert A. Sedler ••

VII


Ato Seifu W olde Kidan Ato Seifu Gebre Yobannes Ato Seifu Yeteshawork Ato Shiferaw Worku Mr. Norman J. Singer Mr. Ronald B. Sklar Ato Solomon Abebe Ato Solomon Habte Gjorgis Ato Solc,tno11 Kahsai Mr. Roland J. Stang·er Mr. Peter L. Strauss Dr. G.O. Zacharias Sundstro111 Ato Tadesse Abebe Ato Tadesse Asfaw Ato Tadesse Tekle Giorgis Ato Ta.desse V..1 olde Giorgis Ato Tadesse Yersaw Ato Tefera Degefe Ato Tefere Sertse Den.gel Ato Teferi Berhane Ato Tegegn Bitew Ato Tekle Gebre Meskel Ato Teklit Makon11en. Ato Temesgen Work Ato Tereffe Gessesse Ato Tesfa Mariam Sebhat Ato Tesfaye Kebede

Ato Tes· hon1e Bah1·t1 :Balambaras Teshome Getaw Ato Tessema W olde y ol,aniles Ato Tilah1111 Fette11a Ato Tibebu Abrahan1 Ato Ti'beb11 Tegegi1 Ato Tsegaye Teferi Ato Tsegaye Wold.e Maria1n Mr. 1'1ic11ael TOJ)ping Dr. J'acqties P.M. Va11derlindei1 Mr. Vittorio Vercelli110 Ivir. Nicola P. '✓ osikis Mr. Frank D. Wi11ston Ato W olde Leo11l Seyo111n Ato \Volde Berhe Ato Work11 Tafara Ato Wo11be G·ebre Yoha11nes Ato Woube Woldeyes Ato Yeshewa Work Hailu Ato Y.ilma Gebre Ato Yilma Hailu Dr. Yobannes Berl1ane Ato Zelleke Desta Ato Ze11de Engeda Ato Zeude Mekwanent Ato Zewde Kassa Ato Zewd11 Asfaw

•••

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.M., J :S.D., Dean L� ., J.D ., A.B , one t 111s Jol l Qitintii . nt , .. ta n LL B. s1s ea s _ ., D A A B. , ng 111 un D C. 11 o J-Iarris . a11t De a.n ., s1st .M As LL , .B. LL all, rsl1 1'lia B. . ., M. Li_tt. John _ gs, l-\..B., LL.B Richard M. Cum1111n it o r D . r D l, e d E ic r E . .B L ., L .B , A g in w E . I Iam li Wil fasil Nahr1m, LL.B. . .B L L ., . B , A er ey m ns ge er Ju . C an li Ju Michael J. Kindred, B.A., J.D., M.C.L., D.E.S. George Krzecz11nowicz, B.A., LL.M., Lie. Sc. Comm., Lie. Sc. Polit. James C.N. .Paul, B.A., LL.B. Zygn1unt J.B. Plater, A.B., LL.B. Pau.l Ponjaert� Dr. Droit, M.C.L. Semereab Michael, LL.B. Ronald B. Skla.r, B · .S., LL.B., LL.M. G.O. Zacl1arias S1111dstrom, LL.B., LL.M., M.C.L. Micl1ael R. Top11ing, B.A., LL.B. Jacques P.M. Va11derlinden, Dr. Droit, Agrege Ens. s· up. Work11 Tafara., LL.B.

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Patro11s of the J our11al of Ethiopian Law

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Table of Cases Reported

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Articles: The Role o.f tl1e Co111Jcil of Tviinisters i11 tl1e Legislative Process ,. 1 bY 11•E. Ato Seyoi111 . 1-laregot . . . • • . . • • • · · · · · · · · · · · 0n Interpreting/tb e Ethiopia11 Pe11al Code Current Issue: 1

by Peter L. St,·auss · · · · ·

Public.Private Conflicts ov Suber S11rface Stone ••

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bJ Harrison C. Di,nning · 1

281 375 449


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Table of Cases Reported Supreme Imperial Co11rt Page

Taffa Segn v. Tl1e I1nperic1l High�ray At1thority (Civil Appeal No. 1291/56) ....... . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . iviulunesh fiaiiu v. Bekeletcl1 Hailt1 (Civil Appeal No. 36/57) . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . . Berhane Eqt1be v. E11da Gebre Kr·istos (Civil Appeal No. 27/59) .... ' .. . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . �

234 �

245

.

253

261

High Court Wolcle Michael T.M. v. Adris Umer Kekiya (C ivil Appeal No. Li8/58) ... . . . . .. . . . Zewd·ie M. eqt1ane11t v. Coffee Board (Civil Case No. 158/58) . .. . . , .. . . . • • • XIX

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REPORTS The followi11g reports are cases decided by tl1e Supreme Imperial a11d the High Courts of Ethiopia. The Amharic j11dg1nent is official and always precedes the English.

Tl1e Journal of Ethiopia11 Law is a scholary pt1blication, addressing itself to all members of tl1e profession. Its p11r1)ose in p11blishing judgmet1ts is to make known to_ tl1� J)rofession interesting decisio11s which in the opinio11 of the Board and Editors raise 1mporta11t issues of la\v. In selecting a particular judgment for publication, the Board a11d Editors do not \Vish to convey the impression that the j11dgment i s de�n�tive on any JJropositio11 for whicl1 it 1nay sta11d although the quality of the ?ecis1on is alv1ays an in1porta11t co11sideratioi1 in deter1nining vvhether it should be in�luded i11 the Journal. Whe11, i11 tl1e opinion of a Board l'vfember or a� Editor, a Ju dg:111-ent is of interest a11d r a�ises an importa11t issl1e of la\v b11t there 1s reason to believe tl1at aspects of tl1e decision are co11testable or that the result reacl_ 1ed Y t he c?urt is 11ot clearly the 011ly supportable_ co11clusio11, a note o� the case s �ften 111clud.ed. The abse11ce of sucl1 a 11ote 1s not however to be interpreted :s 111dicating co1nplete fin.oJ.ity on the issues raised i11 tl1e ca�e, as tt. is expected . hat_ members of tl1e profession or1 all levels 1nay hold d1ff er1ng op1111ons on the merits of a11y jt1dg1nent pt1b lisb.ed herei11. The Members of tl1e Board and The Editors.

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-

SUPREME IMPERIAL COURT Addis Ababa, Div. No. 6 Justices:

Vice Afenegus Kegnazmatch Tassew Ayele Ato Gebre Michael \Volde Tinsae Ato Kebede Habte Mariam TAFFA SBGN v. THE IMPERIAL HIGH,VAY AUTHORITY* Civil Appeal

No.

1291/56

Property-Expropriation-Compensation-Rev. Co,zst. Art. 44-Civ. C. Arts. 397, 1130, 1149 1184, 1204, 1450, 1463, 1464, 1466, 1470, 1474, 1477-79, 3347-Civ. Proc. C. Arts. 1, 1 s2: 211, 345, 348, 463-lfig!z,,vay Autfiority Proc. of 1951-Corrigendu,n No. 35. Natura.I resources-Su.b-surface sto,-1e-Ci�1• C. rlrt. 1209. On appeal from a judgn1ent of tl1e Iligl1 Court denying compensation to the appellant for sand, gravel and rock removed fron1 appellaL1t's land by the respondent, denying compensation to the appellant for interference with tl1e surface of appellant's land by respondent and fixing the amount of compensation for trees cut on app3llant's Ian:! by th� r-:::;p J:i.:I �:-it. Held: Judgment reversed. 1. Where rock or other property derived from privately-o\va�d lanj is re;:iuired by a govern­ ment agency the procedure laid down for expropriation by tl1e Revised Constitution and the Civil Code must be fallowed and compensation must be paid. 2. The expropriation provisions of the Highway ALttbority Proclan1ation of 1951 have been repealed by Article 3347 of tl1e Civil Code. 3. Where trees on priv·ately-owned land are cut by a government agency, compensati ?n shall be paid on the basis of their ulti1nate val Lie rather tl1an their value at the tin1e of cutting. 4. Wl1ere a governmeL1t agency piles ro:k and sand on privately-O\Vned agricultural land, com­ pensation mt1st be paid on the basis of what that land woL1ld have prod.uced in the absence of the rock and sand.

JUDGl\1ENT

. This case . was first _institt1ted by the pre e11t appellant wl10 cla i1ned compensa� � tion for certain properties. The appellant alleged that tl1e respondent e11tered 0 his I an� and took . or destroyecl the following properties: o,,er a thousa11d eticaJ�ti� d trees \1/1tb an estimated value of E '$ 1 '000' brrravel estir11a 0 0 a E at ted $ 4 ,00 , rr sa f . ' 0 and coarse rock d.ug from the land valt1ed. at E $ 30,0 0. 1--Ie clai1ned a total 0 E $ 80, 000 as compensation for tl1e above. ed lle he attorne T ba dng d y for th.e• responde11t · fi io tl1e s11it, c to in n his ect rst ob 1 · · ' · O r ere th t · e amount o f compensatto11 clai1n cour tl1e ed by tl1e appellant. Co11sequ�11tly that the amount be assessed by elders under tl1e st1perv1s1_ 011 of tl1e District Il

I

I

�;- N?te -:-- For com ment on some of the matters considered in this judgment, see I-I. ounnJD:;, _ ublic�Private Conflicts over Sub-surface Stone in Ethiopia,'' below at page 449 · •

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(!'


,

TAFFA SEGN v. I. H. A..

the ass�ssed damage in the following, manllet: ti!'ro elders the gly ordin Acc . nor . r e Goy was estimated at E $ 945; in addition they found that trees yptus eucal l��ki f the' ;� nas' of ''teff'' and IO ''kunas'' of barley ,vere destroyed. attorney tbe the. r o f' respo11d_ent argued that the appelobjection 1d . seco1 his In he owns the properties 10 q11est1on and evidence was protl1at prove ld hou Jant 5 e 1s t t p �1nt1 ·h h. ter I Af . "ff, t11e · eff prese1 e ct. 1t appellant, req_uested that · that to ed duc fron1 land h1s b oved re1n assessed, as this was not includ­ roc]<s · the of e � valu . The co11rt_ a_ccepted. the req_u�st the and order�d that elders assessment. s' elder the ed in engineer tl1e as of th� M1nrstry of Public Works was rocks, the of e valu the assess . The elders co11ld not carry out their task because of the nature of able a vail not . dug was rock tl�e _ T�ey . also could not assess the value of \Vhere from place the 1 a fi11d not 1y 1 did 1nd1cat1on as to tl1e 11um·ber of trees cut. they se becat trees te tl At this stage of tl1e proceedings the attorney for the respondent, in bis final staten1 e11t of defence, argl1ed that tl1e plaintiff's action sbou]d be dismissed because Procla1n atior1 No. 115 of 1951 a11d Corrige11du1n No. 35 provide that the Imperial I-Iighway Autl1ority should 11eit}1er assess the value of nor pay compe11sation for rocks it ren1oves from peoples' land.

In spite of the fact tl1at the present appellant cited Articles 1477, 1478 and 1479 of tl1e Civil Code to cot1nter the Proclamation invoked by the prese11t res­ po11dent, tl1e judgn1e11t of tl1e I-ligh Court reads as follows: ''\Ve find the plain· tiff's contention that he was deprived o .f bis crops and trees legiti1nate. However, we do not accept his clain1 tha. t the defendant rernoved rocks from his Jand and thereby caused da1nage to tl1e land.' ' In tl1e ligl1t of tl1e above the High Court fixed. the amount of con1pensatio11 to be paid to the plaintiff at E $ 960. E $ 945 \-Vas compensa­ tion for the eucalyptus trees and the rema.ini1Jg E $ 15 for the barley and teff. In addition the Court ordered that the defendant pay the plaintiff E $ 200 for costs.

This appeal is taken from the above judgment. In his n1ernorandun1 of appeal, tl1e appella11t requested the following: a) That tlJe value of the rocl(s dug 011t fron1 bis land be assessed; b) He argues that the eucalyptus trees cot1ld have ·been a sot1rce of jncome for 80 years and since l1e \\ as cornpensatecl fo1· one y·ear's income only, he clain1s tl1at he be compe11sated for the income be wot1ld have received during the rest ot· the years. He also reqt1ests that the number of the trees felled be determined.. c) Fi11ally l1e 1·equests that the respondent be ordered to pay rent for the land ii1 accordance ¥1ith Articles 14- 77, 1478 a11d 1479 of the Civil Code because the respondent piled and left ''gro11nd'' rocks and sand on bis land. In its reply to the memorandt1m of appeal the respondent referred to the Proclamatio11 it cited i11 tl1e I-Iigb Co11rt in support of its contentictJ that it · · should neithe r assess the value of, nor pa. y con1pensatjon for the rocks. The res�0nde11t argued further that it had already lodged an appeal to the St1preme Impe­ fl l Court, under Civil Appeal t.Jo. 1101/56, agai11st the I-Iigh Court judgment for : ent al appe of t resen p _ e o t nd s, crop a pens � and s tree tio11 s for lyptu tl1e euca � � � fhi: d be d sm1ssed, b cause tl1e appeal it bad mad e was dec1de? 111 its favour and � _ th er; cann .ot� be dec1s1on. Tl1e respon.dent two sam 1ncf the nt from epende ls ,lppea � roduced a copy _ rt and prayed that Cou of erial Imp the e t rem 111en Sup JUclg of the ihe appellant be ordered to p a y costs. 1

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W LA VOL. V - No. 2 N IA OP I-II ET OF L NA UR JO

·f Articles 1(1), 345(6), . 211(2) and o s sion rovi p ; the 182(2 ) of th· e After considering tl1e tl1at t1t ed amou order of t Cour the this rocks extra te Code dure e roc p 1 .. C 1d tl1e n uruber of eLi a s, Work d c Public 1 of try Mirlis lVl the calyp by tu s trees be assessed . ' e. ld'""'. b A �rs. d sse Y asse be d1ng cc?r nt ly the Ministry e ond resp by used and felled of . s to thL ) L1rt 59 Co 82o. 48 on �N July 13, 1967, Public Works sent a letter iri en e n1 th ss of lt se su as t: whicJ1 was included the following re That 5460 cubic metres of rocks and gravel \Vere dug out of the land; at the rate of E $ O. 60 per c11bic meter it would be worth E $ 3276. The letter (No. 555-59) sent to tl1is C�L1rt '011 April 6, 1967, by the Kuyu Woreda Gizat Court (Gebre Guracha) 1n Selale Awradja, coi1tains the following information: The i11come th.at could have been derived from the felled trees was assessed at E $ 2,000; iL1 addition the la11d on which the groL1nd rocks were piled up could have produced 2 ''da\vlas'' (qLtintals) of grain per year; tl1e ground rocks \Vere left piled up on tl1e land for a period of four years; thus the Land could l1ave produced eight ''da\vlas'' of grain during the foL1r year period. It is essential to examine thorot1ghly the case and the laws cited by tl1e parties. This case ougl1t to be decided 011 the basis of Articles 1450(1), 1149(2), 1463, 1474, 1184, 397 and 3347 of tl1e Civil Code. First of all let us compare the pro­ visions of the Imperial Higl1way Autl1ority Proclamatio11, cited by the attorney for tl1e respondent, regarding roads and properties i11volved in their cot1structions, and Civil Code Article 3347(1 ). The latter Article states that ''unless otl1er\vise ex­ pressly provided, all rules whetl1er written or customary previo11sly i11 force concerning matters provided for in t11is Code shall be replaced by tl1is Code and are l1ereby repealed." The Proclan1ation cited by the Imperial I-Iighway Authority, Proclamation No. 115 of 1951, Article 5(d) provides tl1at the Autl1ority shall have the power to take by emine11t domain a11y privately ow11ed lat1d f'or public use and fix the compensation for a11y buildings, crops, vegetation or other fixtures on tl1e lands so talcen. Article IO of tl1e same Proclamation reads: ''The right of the Autl1ority to enter upon or take by e1nine11t dotniiu any privately ow11ed lands, pL1rst1ant to Section 5(d) of this Procla111:1.tion, shall 11ot be subject to revie\V or appr o�al by any Court. Any person l1aving an interest i n any land so talcen may b�1ng _an action against the Authority i11 tl1e provi11cial co11rts of tl1e province in \1/l11cl1 the the land so taken is situated, or i11 · tl1e Higl1 Cot1rt to review tl1e fair11ess of the coinpensation fixed by the authority for the buildi11gs, crops, vegetatio n or otl1er immovables on such la11ds or the allocation of such co111pensation bet\v ee_n the respective perso11s l1aving an interest in sucl1 land." Sir1ce there is an error 10 th: Amha_ ric versio11 of Article 5 of Procla1natio11 No. 115 of 1951, Corrige11d�1,m provides that tl1e words ''or other i1u1novables'' be corrected to read or 0 fixtures.'' n a to e 1 t Although lo x rni1 et 1960, ,ve. war , these Proclam:1.tions. were promu o ated before . 1 0 t t1ld . o respon d�n t s argument that by virtue of the · 1 SL 1 t 11t1on Procl an ctted above laProc be �e quired to pay con1pensation read for the rocks a11d sa11d. Whe n we_ 1/e \ 54 19 matron No. 11� of 1951 in co1tju11ction with Corrige11dt11n No 3) _of anY . f fin� !hat the H1gh\vay 0-uthority is given u osati tl1 e power to fix con1p� ��ougb � butldings, crops, vegetation or otl1er fixture n tl1e public. .E\e unt of fro tn tak s e11 the· Proclamation gives power to tl1e HioOh\vay Author· ity to fix the aroo ac ep t compens · at·ton LOf .f:' th e above mentioned properties if the owners refuse to · ne in o ti the ainount of compensation ac an fixed by the authority, they 1nay bring

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TAFFA SEGN v. I. H. A.

the Co· urt does not accept the a.rgument that peonle right s; their rce enfo court t prol?erties without payment of jus� compensation. The t_ h eir of ived depr b� roaY tit claims that his vegetation, crops, rocks and sand, estimated at E $ 80,000, app ella k en and/or destroyed by the respondent. One cannot argue that these pro ­ a t r e ,v � � do not come under Article 5(d) of the above cited Proclarnation. The proper­ ertt�::i � suit are all 1novables·. The Imperial Highway Authority has the in ed ,,olv ties 1nv x c ?lpe1�s to at1on fi uty f or 1novables. The respondent's claim d the and � wer po the con1pensa t1011 1s ?Ot pay supported not by o the law. tild We have also sh it hat 01/56, wl11cl1 was ar� appeal taken by the present No. 11 Appeal Civil �xarnined at bar. Tl1e Supreme l1uper1al Court expressed its dissatis­ case tl1e from nt onde resp refusal to pay an respondet1t's arnount of compensation less than the vvith t ction . al e d pe th se ap 1is sn di d an 00 10 $ ;

Although tl1is case is to be decided on the basis of the Civil Code of 1960, we \Vill expl,1in briefly that the resiJ011dent's argu,nent is unte11able. According t o Article 1130 of the Civil Code lands at1d buildings are dee1ned to be in1movables. On the other hancl, otl1er tl1i11gs whicl1 have a material existe11ce are deemed to be movables. For exa1nple, wl1en a rock is 1naterially united to the land it is said to have the cl1aracteristics of an immovable; but whe11 it is detached from the Iat1d it acquires the characteristics of a movable. (It is deemed to be a distinct movable). \Ve have given the above explanatio11 in order to bring to the attention of the respor1dent the fact that the Proclamations it relied on do not warrant the conclusion that the properties i11 qL1estion are immovables, and that tl1e respondent is not required to pay compensation for the sau1e. However, by virtue of Article · y Title 3347 of the Civil Code the above mentioned Proclamatio11s are replaced b IX of the Civil Code of 1960. He11ce, tl1is case is governed by the Civil Code of 1960. Therefore vve reject the argument of the respondent. \Ve will now consider what the outcome of this appeal is going to be. The appellant claims compensation for the vegetation and crops taken, as \Yell as for the rocks dug ot1t on his la.11d by the responde11t. The amo1111t of con1pensation claimed is E $ 80,000. In accordat1ce \Vith Article 397 of tl1e Civil Code the respondent �s a pa rty to this SLiit as a private party. As pointed out earlier the respondent 1s not supported by tl1e Proclamations it cited in its defence.

The following fa.cts are established by engineers and the elders: T'he respondent entered appellant's land and (1) felled eucalyptus trees, (2) dL1g the land and re­ mov�d stones and sand, and (3) piled sand and gravel on tl1e land, thereby pre­ v�nttng the appellant from farrning the land and procluci11g crops. The respondent, '�1th?ut denying the fact tha.t it e11tered the appella11t's land and took the proper� ties in question, argues that it shoulcl not be required to pay compensation becau· se the prope� ties it tool< ser,,e the the by supported is actio. n and its interest )ublic 1 Proclama tions it cited. �efore any privately-owned property is expropriated for p11bli� use _tl1ere are ert � ain procedures to be complied with. These proced11res are fo1111d 1n Art�cl_e 44 of he Re�ised Constitu 0 of the C�vil Code. I 47 tion 1466(2) a11d and 1463(1 ), in Articles A:c0rd1ng to these provisioi1s wl1er1 an aclministrative authority determine� that PrLvately owi1ed of possession take property 11ot may it interest serves the public tl P_rop erty lint1l and ltnless it has notified the �wner of tJ1e conteniplated ex• �� . iat on and paid him tl1e a1nount of compensat10 fixed. The appellant. has a telirfoui � nded legal claim. It is t11e respondent who failed to observe t�e said provisions. The appella11t owns the la11d under dispute and any property which may be - 237 -


JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - l\Jo. 2 1 1g to Article 4.4. of the Revised Const itu rdi Acco land. tion ev ery de . ved froni e limits of the law , to own ancl dispose th in with right le • � tl has of pr Et opi an the right E onised by Ar ti cle 4 recog s ha. n ia. thiop n a , ;s t n lla e app ' 4 0f t b e . · perty. The . · 1ved 1n t11e case. According to 1nvo bl e . ova 1mm the s own e b and n tutio ; . . ' Art·IC1e Cons4.u . . . ersh 1p n1ay ne1tl1er be own o f h t rig e h t e , Cod Civil e th of divide d (2) 1?04 r;stricted except i11 accordan ce with the law. _ T_he procedures �aid down in the �� 4 Code. �1v1l the of Tl1ere 1478 1s aJso Article 1184 nd 146 s Article in found e ar � of tlJe Civil Code which provides that ow11er �l11p ma.y be trans_ferred by virtue of law or in pursuance of agreeme11ts entered 111to by the parties: Tl1e procedure laid down in this Article should hav e been observed. Before tal<111g possession of tl1e appella11 t's pro�erties the respo·ndent sl1011ld �ave n1ade an . agreemen� \Vith the ap­ � _ b� paid, not w1thsta11diii g pellant co11cern1ng the a�ount of compensation to tl1e fact that the said properties wer e to serv e the publ1c 111terest. The High Co11rt rule d that tl1e respo11de11t sl1011ld 11ot pay compensatio11 for the ston e s, because i11 its opi 11ion tl1e sto11es are a natural resource a11d not pro­ perties produced by tl1e efforts of the appella11t. The respo11dent, i11 relying 011 tlus judgn1e11t might l1ave thought that appella1 1t ,vas not entitled to a11y compe11satioo because Corrigend11m No. 35 replaced the \Vords ''or other i1n111ovables'' by the ,vords ''or other flXtures," a11d a sto11e is 11c,t a fixt11re. We tl1 inl<: that both the I-ligh Court and the respo11de11t have not 11 1 1derstood tl1e meani11g of Article 1209 of tl1e Civil Cod e. Accordi11g to the provisi.011 we l1a,,e already cited an o\vner may use his property a11d exploit it as l1e tl1i nks fit, except i11 the rcase where his rigl1t is restricted by law. Tbere·fore, after considering tl1 e provisions of Articles 182(2), 345 ,1nd 348 of the Civil Proc edure Code and th.e facts that: (a) the High Court failed to award con1pensatio11 to the appella11t for the stones a11d sand because the order it gave tl1e iv1inistry of Public Works to assess the value of the stones dug out of appella11t's land was not executed; t]J e appella11t's request for a similar order ,vas accepted 011 appe�, a11d according to the order we gave, the e11 gi11eer of tl1e }.tfinistry of Public Works assessed the value of the ston.es a 1 1d sand take11, at E $ 3276; (b ) tl1e elders assessed tbe ultimate value of tl1 e e µcalyptus trees at E $ 2000, i11dependently of tbe value which t11e eucalyptus trees bad at tl1e tin1e they w ere cut ( wb.icl1 was fixed at E $ 945 by the I-Iigh Court); (c) according to the elder's report, bad the la11d on wlJich tl1e stones an � sa11? were piled up be en ploughed, it wo11ld l1ave produced 2 ''dawlas (q�intals) of grain per year, or 8 ''dawlas'' of grain i11 four years; the price of the total amount of grai 11 was thus estin1ated to be E $ 120. We hereby reverse the jt1clgment of tl1e High Co11rt a11d respon dent shall pay total damages of E $ 5396. 00 to the appe]lant.

the

ORDER

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r o A copy of this judgment shall be sent satio 1 ei Con1p Co11rt. Iigh f the to . to coSts �nd damages sb�Il be rdered n atio plic ap when the appella.nt files an _ ? eii1a�� p effect rn accordance with Article 463 ap tb.e Code. Since of Pro the Civ ced il ure sued as a pauper, the court fe es shall be covered by the responde11t. J ant1ary 4, 1966 - 238 -

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ni't1�:f, = r;,,,n� ¾ rAY-:,S -, rqo:,. i UD111fl:f = rtr'I°== Oii!!jl = rlj:--r,h: srfi,lhC: ;,,;,:f1: r,,..f.',11ro•: f,)1 11"0: rtJ ..nc: UD1-f1f11':.:

=

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nt\'Pf\?° !(r�:,--"'=

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{tflJtU : fi�r)',-fl : 11,-fbC: ;,ld/ : (l<J?'rC: f f,:'6 : h'Jf...rf-UD(\\l"f-lD• : hlJ­ '}9°: QU''} : A���l--1' � (IUD�ft ..�': f 'J°iltiC: lD·l;,,:i.. : llOI/ilt..�-l-: 1'tf,;r A9° ! 0 f°t:F/\ro� = O!i� :,--m = ,,fl,l1,C= ,1,°l = «f?'rC= %£11 = 1\1f..1- 00l\h 7illP,� i·ro• rA��,,:,-.. v-).;r= oo�c1 = n"'lill�:,. = ',(IJc== n;,,(];F : lD•6f!' : f..-J-.ro{\f,.OJc : /;\� : }1 (l,f: : ',(IJ• : fUllt\(l)c : (l(l)c j IAY'u : 1w· -: ,-,,..�c 1''JJ;.f,11= ff...l10J« 1· UDlf't-1• �ar 11n.o= hif.= A"ff.. tt,<:"C1 �- .. rl\1-.. l\mP, � 1 fttiooy__, , IA"f:, : ', ar : 11 it� : hl\;t-w·<f, = 11- ODY: 9° ., I\, t\�":i_.. 9° = (l 9>:Y· • h1�ar -i rh1/\,: Al: �OJ« :: f°tir"r: UDff't-"} : "'ll\lP.:,--: i'tlln:,..::

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,_e-,q�; = q,,e.cp = lJDc/r'l ..li • = "} A-;: • = � 1' "(J)c ,..+"° .. �:f(J)c = nt.:t> • = .. ., -:f r: ,:,y,tr ii1 �I Ollro = = A = = J..f:c1ar: i't'1� 1(1}«: f#��T : UDlf'l-1 1 A:( : �1' : 1ll\W- : oPcf,nlt.:f(J)c"} : (l{l,i" : HUDY:' • OOJ�� 1 J,ill.Y::l' I � � i\•r I (D� ? - 241 -


& : h Y. f .. y ... � h1f. Jt y, . "}cp � ' : f-vt : '1F .. c f "f ht!' 9°il : '17i �t\: :}t r. = f "" = : / C:, r�n = l r "?..h. tt.;}fii f ... ,1 hc ,'l = 9°il li CD = CD!, , = t�'P • f(Dc -= htl-r = 'i: ,; :ftJJ<, j:;;:'tJJ< , 9"i'ltlC , 00 9"f, ' 1 �l ' ��"11 '_fh...Y. ' :!>?,It- ' fi,;:,. , rm�i r: m on� �'P � : e �11 .. .. (Dc ,,. ne : 'Pt ?°li Q : .. htl 'i t : : th f1il '11i f l\f. : ll tr� o : ,. i :,-. t.1 l\-1', = 11/\ :5>f, fJrt = = 4' = hc 9°il i't·f = 'h'i:,,. = 'i:f(Dc , l;,t-�tD· = 17 hc = f'lfl?- = 'i:flD" :: E'1lD" : 9°ilhC : 1'1 : h9°'i COT: h�c: h1C : Oiflf�i: '¼. er. hfr"} : l\"'if�.. : h-'til: hfltl: ootp:1; : ill\: A:( : ;}f.,n.•: uo:e_oo�.f: fl'l'n:.f. 1: A�· : 'i-r : {It\-> : hll,f-'PlD4>°1 ¾ CJDct\•'l"li1 : htbx : Aru :: hmf,/ f7l�OD{1r) n,:,:: r: "'i'i1lf-o: •llm.e:,, : f;,it : fh.f : ;)f.»fr : Al: : 'l:.f : 11ft : °1'1:F-r : f h -- l\ -, l\9°1 h ;t-1 = '1 f-1 = Ot?.hv= ,i\l\;J • o:t :i:1 ... :( u t h&.t\:y, : A:�:u = 1l:Y.'1 = : ll/\ A hlf'l'f: 1lfo = 1lm1,'l'lD " 1 A:e,il = fro/\.� :�..-,.. = A:e: = �-:,.__ = 'l1c = °11 : 1,f,t;: J:t...f-: o'Pfo: rfl11J:,-1 : oot,:,.. : lll\ ifm"fw• : n11..u : ,1,4,f.,°2.f T : �l& : ,nfto : A� : ODlfS:1 : 'l°lt!'�A : 11/\W· : OD{lhl'PA. ::

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l�'P = 9°lll1c : m_e/ mc:,,'17i = tlf\ft,·J;1 = t,...y. = ;}f,lt-1 = fltf.1-- : 1-i.r,1� : h,Y..: fl'Pfo : 'Ill�- � 'Ptrf: : hhirf- : n'f'f,.,. : ft·l-- : rf'WA �: ,.ff-11"": it"nhc: �n l"f • hh,Y..: :}f,lr: ;JC.: h,..flltD•: fl.'i?-: O"l,..Ol: P',;J: °11)'.'J:,..: '1.-f..: ;}f,ft-: h'Pti:: oo•lr'l7i1: mt\);. • h...Y...: 7f 'Pf-u9° : f A"f:: A�':fro•: ODlfS:1 : itro·tf>ro•: fr A1. : l,!1..:,-- : �flC I r n•A ,;J: rf'Wi\"f:: {l{\(f',,: �w- -i ODt,,)--9°: hh'r";t: ;JC : f9° r}-- 4>0Dtpfl:'f,a: h·C."'11 : ,;Jt).: ODt,:,.. : (ttp,f-- 'P:J'A t ilrl•mt--9"°: tJD«fl•�·n: :}J!,ir : hf +fill 1-- : 'lw· i f Y..1-:f-.ro· : J:t,f- : 'ifq>� : h'l°,,.l: : fl:\i\ : :,..nY.A--Of fl-:f: 001//\T: J:t...y..: ;}f,/\· : hJt, f--: n'Pf-o: 11:1-·: it9°'1'"f: hf.t--: 1lt\ {l'J',f·1= 11on;: = 'tY- • oo«ir�7i = 11>.. ..Y. :}1,1r = 111,1 = 1111... �r,1,:J ' = Jt();t = h·Y.. = :}f,i\' : htton:,J! : fl.OD/\{l : 7,'irf: : rof,/ (lf\f,'17i : l11t;J··!J!ro· : m{lf.cn•: htiY.1hT l flhq»OD : cfh'f'1 : ilTf.C(I : tli\9°/ rf--(l;, : (\t\�•:,!(D« : (\...j--{l',,fo: ,J-{ l;J : h rf-: :}f,i\'1: 1ttl;t1: t\'l°'lw·: h 6/!'rf-ro-, ittl:-I:: f."l(a : DDP.?-1: itW-j'fttr: 11fl (De : OD {lt, l q>A :: r,;:w.. : 'l°llhc: fitrf- : :}f,1\- : Jtf,}- i fo'Pfo : f1lld1 : h()"1-- = �1 1 fl.'i"ti tt-'I° : h "'I� : 'I OCU• ; floo•l\-', "'(a 'i : fl't, c.,·,,.t : l\ q>t1: : fl '1· 1f tL : {IDG>T : fl.( )11}:fw•: hlbt\�:,:: fl{\ 'I': hf.."C1, : f(tm;\:,,. ; f;),,f.,{\• : /;\� : novlfS:: �(D• : 11flro- : + 'i"II tt· I\ :,.. � fl '1· lf 1·t h T w, : ro-{l'P : ?t' ta'PflIJ·• :;: f }'\ 1· : ?J!.,It.· : 'h'i1· : f A:(: A"f: : �:f..: "'flfllD-: htif.1--h:,·:: t\h:, ,ao : di. 'P1 : (l,"f·J!--£:il : 111\'J°/, t{l;J +llti.. fo = tt+tlflro- = A'ir:fro- : ;J"fl:r : mf,�l'w· : 'tt11 : Ahc»·:� : /\CD,e/ fil\J?, '17i = 1l'l'?t--: fro- = h'lj:"} : h...Y. : :}f,tt-1' : mf,tf>w· = ill\fl· 1 1t,f· :}J!,/1:•'l : . hllmc+ro-:,,. : t..:J>�;;:: {l(\lf� : fl}' ,q:,.. : 0101 : X.""IO•"}: -�°l(a : h� : ftlJJ1f:· m11 = f'l1c = Jtq:,.. : iri : -1-- &..t--CDD1 : fl f..--z::,..: oo•l\·'l"'li: :} ,,et\•: 1,f,t·'1tt71·= .. . ll:,, mt--: OD 'rZ:1 : hW•:J> l\V· 1 ..fl/\ro- : DDil ti G'PA :: �;;:' q> ' 9"i'ltlc • 'l't·I: • h. Y. , :!>J',lt-t; , ht , Ohf-1: • Oh-I'- ' il'l'f r h"'ll l1 = hf:11 : 1:1°1/l.1 : mll ?- : oo•/\.. '17i"'} : ml\ f.. -i AX: : {1lJtrS:1 = t-.o l ti : ll -(ID tJDc Ir'l7i : '?f,it- : hf ,f qfl 'f : itf.i'�f :;: {1 :\ i\ 9° : l\qA : Pi t--1· : ·flll m· 'PA::

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pO(f� I

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= Jt,f.. = ;} f,/t- 'i = m J?,/ 'Pti: = hirfll(JJc : hit,f, : n'Pf.. 1 LI 9°{1}1(!'1•_ : t J h� CJr61!' nir., = °l'li"--'IT oo-tt-'17i'l = ODCJrflP,:f(l)c"} = �- fLf ,:"' = h.:J•fl:J• < CJA -'i : /\(L1- : Hoof: : fil;J-cm4? : ODlf O,,f·: :)f,t\• : A:(: '1-:f : 111\lD• : frf-f, r 00 : :r-(1Jc9° : h 'i;J-:t!CJr9° : hU:r:f(1Jc9°: (l, ,,. ,. . 11 f.1' : hf : : �:(-OJ•"} i fh,,,,. : :}f,{\• ;h,f : :)J!,lt- : A'f: : 11t\LD• : Jtf,t:9° : h'i,,.t:9° : 'llUi:9° : hit+ : ;}f,tt- : ;,c : � ,\•., 7i; : h l}P,"La;,} : f,,. ti.(. ft· : OD(f '.:t!ro-"} I 00-fl• 'I7i : fit,f- : ;},, it- : f : : 1\9° ilil /+ : : : h1C. it (IDlf S: 1 fl;, Jtrocf, . lt:!J Ajf :fro-1 : : � !' : � f A� ODflou : t;:,,w-1 1'.,J;.�?al\:J·m• (11}11 1i ..: t ->; ', : fro il c : {l:,·J!...Cil : /t : · : i ttA hf : ,:,,ett.• : {l}rif}:,• .,:,. : CD°l : t\'IA : ODP,t.:r-w-1 : ouilnl'PA :: itv-, : {lODQ;l.lq : foollJlfroJ!,/ DD'l\-'17i : :}J!,t\• : °hu:,.. : lDJ?,/04!1\ 01'1 : f?11{ltic!1:f: ou;cf,� : 'i"IC : JtA,J,cf'flA'llD•9° t 'J°{lnc::,;; : ffl°1ro- : fit Jt{l: '10'1 :},<D ·?:�· : �c.�-: fl.,}: �?-: 9°ilhc'i:i•: it�C.1 : i·cf>•{lf\o;rA:: J!,U?°= �c� : r1:,- : Ol,m◄ .,,.,,. : fou(th�• : 9°ilnC:r : ODlf'.:t�ar"} : +l�rf;rA :: lDJ!,/ ncJ>t\:f : fh'l;t, : A1;- = P';,'P, = mA;J... : fJrt,f· : "},Ol:,.. = ,n:J! : roP,1 ,n;1:q>"} : ftODm◄l ii : f'l°;rJ!... C 1 llr : tJD«ht. : ',W• ::

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A( : 'llD· : •{l{\o : O&..:J>� : OJJro;p : A�'i:,.., : fillP.A i A:( : ',l1>4 : ,:flf\o: frf�cf>n/\ar : (tro« : OJ/re7i : f,lft;A ;: rot.·li ',,f:9° : °h1J!... : ,'h°l : AY; : h h·A : �(Dc: h,:{ : Ai'l:,.. : ft\lD•9° 1 fcl>J.':''l°lD· : fttv-�'J° : "1,;J1'1 = ',ar :(f�·l-,h= •fl,fl»C : J1'? : ci!'J1C : tf@i'}- : _eODl\h;tt\.) :: h�rf-t1£D- : �C.� : fLT : OD«ftt', t {liij : '11: fl\lD!P.:t-, 7i1 : il--Y.. : ;}f-.(\-a : A�for>"} : •(lt\(D• : h'I°+. : (1:\1\ : : : •U IJ.�OJtq> = f t, --f, = ;}f_,/\... : A,: : oulf� : i1 J!... : it-tit : J!,;J--m:PA';>tj : -01\ : foo trJ°f: hJ!:C'J : 1�:f::f"A ;. tt#ef..f\9° :: A?: : ',';>tj i rot."{i',,t : ;J--m◄cf, : Cliloi : J!,lf °1· = Cle/'/\ l= ,:,,ell•'l° et\ 1 rntu qJ?,.,:,-;-,:,,c'l 'r fcJ.: �m• mJ!,/ f9 = 1\w• :: = = m ° h 9 fl1'fi : (L : A:��rf: : i,o-1 : �;J..ro:PA � : ffl/t\;t : 'il1>41? ttf.,J!...t\'J° i u--1\,f:'J°: T.fth :1�m• = rit,r.. = ;)fi. tt- : A JJ.:f : au tr c;:f m« = n � 'i: = J,,Jt:r OJ:,,":,!(D4 = ., (D4 W

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h�-tfw· : <t:C� : (ls} : llh fi;.O· : f<t::,•,11 : ,,0,.fi.C : ,11'? : O<h'PC : it�t : h'l.:1.�:,,.1 : Ul/m;p : fl7t"trf1,.� : ilAtri; : OJcm.1· : f/\OJ·9° : -O�A ¾ '11C : °11' : httu: flft,e: },1�A�W<-: ii--f--: ';}f.,l\... : (JD«/\•'17i1 : A:(: 'Ir: •0/\l1>4: frocf?:t·= {' �7•,11 : ,fi,l1..C : ,'h'? : huoartq.-·l: : h•!ll·f• : HOD"} : n&..:t- : ',(1>4 :: {l/\ 1·1. u = r�·)· ,611 ,,n irlll» c = ,rl1 '? = roJ!... :\i\ro· = rtJTJ1-, IPt.c; = n 4'Y:'I°m◄ = ,'hai = ':°IPt.T r+1"f. ·1--, OD,o 1' ·:,,. = rt1I/�I\ art1J ar = au = r� :,..,h = ,n '1h c. = ,h"l : cf?'PC : fA"A�-- : f lll�A :: {lf\tLU: Clcl'.f:qow�: ;11°1 � "Ll'L : }'1 1\7-,"il,t..T : O�A: f,t·J!...l10J·1 : f�: A"y: : � -: u : m 1lt\ Ul/m:,,c; : nlJ'M>S..'lfPW• g lfh°l : ODI.Pl.:,.. : f+1·fOJ•"} : OIJ,fl:,.. : OD/\ mrp : f"??,,;FA. : UDII'i;-'} : '4?TC : rn.f rvi:c : J!,'.1t./;\ : •0/\ 'i'A :: foo« {\-',7i : �11n:.:1-?°: : fA. )!;'}:,-.. : Qi],..-J�mo/ :: ffl4,_i:'I°;;;: � �al'? : {l"7.1.Pt. n,}, : 1. ti, ;- f+11 : �m ::

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- 243 -

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--'f 1 1 1 f h f O�tLIJ s o-.. r s 9° OT c = = fhij:r�iD" = ,;:c.(- = ci:i = ,;: .(- n,1,.., rtJIJ1,o.tPJ 1 = illlir} = i'l1lt.�'PA== ,. : : " iD : h ttn'l: h "t..;f fi:C.(- 11·1· &'-.lf..lD � �C-� : ;,c : 'h"}fl«IJOIJft' :: ft,�ll : _ } tDf,/ OO-t\•�7i =· :}f,tt� : fhr = :}.e rr = 7i'Pf-o = Al".. = �:r• : hl,U;t : hn1>n;..: f c· f : ro• : ;, r nn .. f· f, ,lr :} ,f..1"fro ·•1 : fOI/J!,'}<pfll'I> il. : lD'il'r o'P� = : : c f : :} ll9°: f"t14'ltrf>ll9°: 1•nl:'f·: hh·A: 00 1-t&..A: �1'1;:J.. A :: f��-, ..J:'} : 'J ..}H1l i f9°ilht'r: h.Vft--: flYi,'?ll�: "i"hta·li : fi4>/\f: ;}tfl1: :,-fA : -Ot\t;A ::

1 '

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- 244'

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,

SUPREME IMPERIAL COURT Addis Ababa, Div. No. 1 Justices:

Afenegus K.itaw Yitatekll Balan1baras Tessema W011dimneh, Ato Tadesse Tekle G-iorgis MULUNESH HAIL'U v. BEKELETCH HAILU Civil Appeal No. 36/57

Successions-Intestate successio,1-Civ. C. Art. 842. Filiation-Acknowledgement of pater11ity-Possession of status-Civ. C. Arts. 746, 720. Repealed legislatio11 - Civ. C. Art. 3348.

On direction from the In1perial Chilot to hear a second appeal where tl1e Awradja Court granted plaintiff's claim to tl1e succession of deceased and the High Court denied it on appeal. Held: High Court decision reversed. 1. An oral acknowledgement of paternity is valid if made prior to the Civil Code of 1960. 2. The Civil Code has no retroactive effect on rights that were acquired before its coming into force. 3. Paterna.1 fiHation can be proved by possession of status .

.JUDGMENT The plaintiff, the present appellant, Woizero Mulunesh Hailu opened a probate file at the Addis Ababa Awradja Court on November 21, 1963. In it she asked that since her sister Woizero Bekeletch Hailu and herself were the children of the deceased, Ato Hailu Shewaye, her share of the succession be transferred to l1er a11d that, in accordance with Article 996 of the Civil Code, she be given a certificate of heir of the deceased and the share of the succession which she is entitled to take. Woizero Bekeletch responded that she is the sole child of Ato Hailu Shewaye. After hearing the five v,itnesses for the plaintiff, the Addis A'baba Awradja Court ruled_ that Mulunesh Hailu is the child of Ato Hailu, and as such an heir entitled to his succession. The Court authorized the sending of a copy of t11e judgment to the _department of her choice so that she could t1se it as evidence of her right relating to the successiou - . W?izero B�_kelet�h flailu appealed to the I-Iigh Court against the Addis Ababa AwradJa Cour ts 1·t1I1ng ' and the High Court rejected t'he request of Woizero Mulunesh HaiJu. �oi zero Mulunesh then ou:t's C _ High the against Chilot Imperial the to appealed dee·1s1 on. he t• 0 the r Tu Imperial Chilot ordered tllis Court to review tl1e case. After l1sten1ng � ? ments of the parties and examining their file, we have given the follow­ mg dec1s1on. - 245 -


JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - No. 2

er, Septemb in intestate 1963; died thus succession ha Shewaye Hailu Ato s to . w la e th be in accor dance with the is et�h ter Bekel _daugh ro Woize o� Ato I-Iailu by that ted admit It is his !1 d e iv n lu t o a1 H rc to e A d e. n W o1zero Berhann e a nd marriage to Woizero _Berhan h 11 1dren. 1 m c i e or b ho w sh ne k1 or W ro married Woize Woizero Mulunesh was born out of wedlock to Ato I-Iailu by a certain Wa .1t before he married Woizero Berhanne. Woizero Bekeletch derlied that Mulun es � � the daughter of Ato Hailu. Our Fetha Nagast in Chapter 24 on Marriage pr�vides as follows: ''Before dealing with marriage,. we must rememb�r the first th1�g (I) the first necessity (purpose) of marriage 1ncorporat�s two thin�s: . the first 1s tl1e procreation of off­ spring in order to preserve the l111eage and 1t 1s demonstrated by tl1e word of God who said to the first progenitors: 'Increase and multiply' (Gen. I, 28). This cannot take place but by carnal t111jon. The second, since the concupiscence is rooted in the ani1nal nature, is the satisfaction of tl1e desire for carnal union wherefrom come offsp _ ring. And this brings about two necessities: first, the satisfaction of con­ cupiscence by carnal u11ion for procreation, and seco11d the cooperation which takes place between the couple to alleviate the burdens of life.'' The Fetha Nagast makes it imperative for one to marry to get offspring. Nevertheless children are still born out of wedlock. Although tl1is is contrary to the orders of tl1e Fetl1a Nagast, the cl1ildren born ot1t of wedlock can11ot be ignored or abandoned. As a resttlt there are provisions both i11 our customary law and i11 the Civil Code of 1960 concerning children born out of wedlock. What Woizero Mulunesh is claiming is not that she is the legitimate daughter of Ato Hailu, but only that Ato Hailu had made an acknowleclgement of paternity and that he had brought 11er up and given her hand in 1narriage. Althou.gh our Civil Code of 1960 is not substantially different from our custo­ mary law in dealing with marriage and filiatio11, it is different in tl1e form and proof of acknowledgment of paternity reqt1ired. (See Article 748 of tl1e Civil Code). Both in our old law and our present law there are t\VO ways of establislung pater: nal filiation of a cbi]d born out of wedlock. One is by tl1e ackno,vledgen1ent of paternity declared by the father. The second is by the judicial declaration of pater­ nity. a th latter _ �cknowJedgement the of only paternity present� no diffict1lties. It is : . is difficult. But the present case deals with acknowleclgeme11t of pate rnity. In th past acknowledgement of paternity was not don e in wrjti11g. �1� our country we do not have registers of 1nar riages, births and d�atl1 s · Tri�e prov1s1ons dealing with the registers of births deatl1s and marriages (Article 47 � of the Civil Code are new and have not yet been brougl1t i r1to force. Tl1erefor e bot the paternal and maternal filiation of a person cannot be proved by his · reco rd °f 1e 1 t of bI·th ssion · r · provided as is · 1n Article 769. It can only be proved by the posse · question status Of ch'l1 d under Article 770 and that is by showing tl1at tl1e man in . b'Id r tl ought up the child as ltis own, that he l1elped him get married, that llS .; :ed ? e s, c�n calle d by he his name, that he told his relatives and friends tha� � and ve m:�� the fath_er of th� child, and that the child is treated by hi s relat i s 0Y commuruty as bemg the child of such man. - 246 -


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.

MULUNESH HAILU v. BEKELETCFJ FIAJit,:tJ

appellant, Woizero . Mulunesh, proved (1) that Ato B nt pres e the as rain _ But h pater ent of nity owle 1n dgem her favour, that h e brought her Uip ackn an e mad bad gave l1e her tl1at ha11d in ter, mai:ri age; (2) that friends an<d daugh wn . o . his as . Ato H.a1lu bad acknowledged paternity of her? Woizero Muluthat w kno s relattve sra o rs At A t N. ev: ay, . A to Ha�· u 's father; second Woizero fi were, ! esses . witn esb's o of A Ha1lu , wife third MeID.Ire G�bre Medbin, the god­ rn,1er f � the . . � esh, _ �Vorkin _ . Wo1zero Bela1nesh , motl1er, fourth Woizero Waritu, Woizero Ha1lu s Ato of er fath and fifth, Ato Zelleke, the servant of Ato Hailu's grandfather. ; mother s nesh' Mulu The first wit11ess testified to t�e f �ct that wl1en he came to Addis Ababa to . visit his son in 1954 G.C., Ato Ha1lu 1_ntroduced him to Woizero Bekeletch as his daughter. He added tl1at l1e met Wo1zero Mu]u �esh at his daughter's (Woizero Yeshiroebet's) hoL1se ancl he asked \vho she was. His daughter told him she was her brother's (Hailu's) da11gl1ter. He then asked the deceased why be was not properly caring for lier si11ce sl1e is his O\Vn daughter. Ato Hailu admitted she was bis daughter b11t tl1at sl1e bad displeased him by selling a piece of land given to her by his grandfatl1er, Ato Sl1ewaye. The second witness, Woizero Workinesh testified in the following manner. Her husband Ato Hailu was bro·ugl1t up by J1is grandfather Ato Shewaye. Waritu was a servant that ,vas born and brought up at Ato Shewaye's house. As she was Jiving with Ato Hailu, M11lunesl1 was born to them. Ato Shewaye acknowledged Mulu­ nesh as his gra11ddaughter and he used to call her Bulgi as he was a native of the region of Bulga. H e even gave her a quarter of a gasha of land o.n which she could live with her n1ot]1er. She is even called Mu1unesh Hailu. After the death of Ato Sbe\vaye, fearing sl1e might be neglected, Ato Hai]u before he left for the front brought her to Ato Shewaye's p.Iace and entrusted l1er to my care so that she would 11ot be neglected. On Ato Hailu's return from the front, he bad 1'fulu­ nesh brought to Woizero Belainesh Sl1ewaye's (his motl1er's ) house. When she attain­ ed majority, Balambaras Tessega asked Ato Hailu for her band in marriage for bis so□ Tesfaye Tessega. She contracted marriage with tl1e consent of her father, Ato Hailu. The third witness stated that lie was godfather of Ato Shewaye, the grandfather of Ato Hailu, and testified that he was a witness when the \vill was drawn. He recalls Ato Shewaye saying tl1at he was giving Mulunesh and her mother a bigger share of land beca.use Mulunesh \Vas the daugl1ter of Hail11. He testified that Ato Hailu's mother Belainesh co11sidered Mul11nesh as her granddaughter and brought her up as such. The wjt11ess stated: ''Balambaras Tessega sent me to Woizero Belainesh to ask MuJunesh's hand in n1arriage for his son Tesfaye. Woizero Belainesh said she wo11ld h�ve to consult Mulu11esh's father, Ato Hailu. Ato Hailu \Vas called and he gave his consent to the 1narriage. In accordance witl1 tradition Ato Hailu prepared the feast, a nd we signed tl1e agreen1ent. I, represe11ting the groon1's side, signed the agreement. I k11ow that she is called Mul11 nesh Hailu." The fourth wit11ess ' Vi/oizero Waritu testified: ''Ato I-IaiJu and myself grew up · to geth r · ' · b to M uto Sh ewaye's house. I-le t ook n1y chastity and I ga.ve b1rt A in · .e 1Utle sb. I -Ie recogn called her M ul'un.esh Hailu. He ized and r ghte her as l1is dau gave her ha n d in m arriage later on.'' Ato le e whi that lled t reca T He e. f way ess She . v witn e h ant tl1e Ato was o s r IIailu bw fif �s still alive he considered Mt1lu11esh as his daughter and he ga� e her h�nd in � arriage. tle s tive rela ilu, I-Ia esh lun Mu led cal r ng t11e bei fur ted that besides . sta conside red h . er as Ato I-Ia1lu's da.ughter. - 247 -


JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - No. 2

tl1e als reve owing facts: that Ato foll s esse \vitn e thes of ny imo test The JI . a �u · . lock of wed out n whe tl1e t\Vo were li and Wol·.zero Waritu bore Mulunesh Vtng lQ "d es b ,tc ( SI . g that she 110 Iedg1n ru:1 �' � H 1 Ato t tha ; s hou e's way She � � Ato was _ _ his nts ht pare a11d IS, tl1at , 1uot ives, relat er � � � _ and sister that daugliter had told his _ ed p �rtly 1n ?ringing her up . but 1tri co1 y the t tha and er ght dau his was she tl 1 �t d Ato aske lt1 Ha1 eg,t for Tess his datighter's ha' d 10 from the fact that Balambaras marriage for his own son, \Ve can conclude that tl1e p11blic lrnew she wa� A Hailu's daugther; and that Ato Hailu gave his conse11t for the marriage of Mulunes�� We have not accepted. tl1e critic�sms put forth by Yifoizero �ulunesh's sister, Woizero Bekeletch, concer1:11ng t?e w1tness�s. The �wradJa Court listened to these witnesses and accepted thei r t �st1mony. This Co�rt 1s of the opinion tl1at the wit­ nesses testified truthfully. W 01zero Bekeletcl1, driven by selfisl1 motives, wants to inherit Ato Hailu's property alone. r

Acknowledgment of paternity proves filiation. Accordi11g to our past a11ct also our present law (Article 836 of Ci,1 il Code) cluldren whose paternal filiation has been established by an acknowledgeme11t of paternity inherit pro1)erty j11st like those children born. in. wedlock. The High Court wrongly considered that Woizero Mulu­ nesh's paternal filiatiot1 L1as not been established by a11 acl(IlO\Vledgement of paternity made by Ato Hailu during l1is lifetime, that she was requesting the Court to declare that she is his daughter after his death. But she is claiming that, since she is the daughter of Ato Hailu, her share of the inheritance be transferred to lier. Woizero Bekeletch Hailu has also put forth a similar request, but sl1ould we take this request to 1nean a request for a declaration of paternity? We do not tllink we should. Both are requesting the Court to recognize that tl1ey are the daughters of Ato Hailu. Using Article 748 of tl1e new Civil Code, tl1e I1igh Court has said that an acknowledgeme11t of paternity is of no effect unless it is made in writing. But this acknowledgement wa. s made long before the Civil Code can1e into force. Since ac­ cording to Article 3348 tl1e Civil Code has no retroactive effect on rigl1ts tl1at were acquired before its comi11g into force, the acknowledgement of paternity, in favour of Woizero M ulu11esh, is valid even tl1ough it was made orally, since the old rules which permitted such acknowledgements to be made were in force. Therefore, we have quasl1ed the j11dgment of the Higl1 Court because it js contrary to the law. We have affirmed the judgme11t of the Addis Ababa A\vradJa Court. Woizero MuJunesh is the daughter of Ato Hail11 SI1e\va.ye and as s11ch she ha� the right to be called to his successio11. Therefore sl1e sho11ld receive an equa portion of both the movable and imn1ovable properties of Ato Hailu. The court fees and witnesses' expenses are to be borne by the appellee, Woizero Bekeletch Hailu. February 10, 1965

- 248 -

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p.t,-tC : f-t h'}l'l : {ICY� I tf,";110'/1' : i·l'l4- : 1.f"-C.1.il : 1"0l : ,f,'}ltf, • t,;rm·t.t : 1-0l. : 1'.°ltl...h.,fld1.C : V"O+ : "'ICf'J° :: :f,'?'1� = t1,e {IDA l'l

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SUPREME IMPERIAL COURT Asmara

Jus tices: Doctor Yohannes Berhane

. Kegoazmatch Tesfaghiorghis Ge bretensae Fitawrari Gebregziabher Kabten1ariam BERHANE EQUBE v . ENDA GEBREKRISTOS ENDA TEKLEYOHANNES AND OTHERS Civil Appeal No. 27/59

Civil procedure-Tlzird party intervention-Appeal on interlocutory matters-Service of summons­ Civ. Proc. C. Arts. 41, 33, 244 (d), 320 (3), 105, 70.

• ..\nappeal from tl1e decision of the High Court denying appellant's application to intervene in a suit involving land on grounds that he is an interested party as be is in possession of part of the land in djspute and is related to the first named defendant. Held: Decision reversed. 1. Third party in possession of the land wl1ich is the subject of the dispute is an interested party under Art. 33 Civ. Proc. C. and may intervene pursL1ant to Art. 41. Civ. Proc. C. 2. Art. 320 (3) Civ. Proc. C. does not preclude a third party from appealing from a decision denying intervention. 3 • A party who refused to accept personal service and subsequent service from a court registrar is duly served.

JUDGMENT The value of the subject matter involved in the suit between the plaintiffs and the defendants was substantial. As a result the case was brought to the High Court of Eritrea in the first instance. The present appellant then filed an application 0? the basis of Article 41 of the Civil Procedure Code, praying the Court to allow him to intervene. On December 21, 1966, the High Court gave the following decision: s· ''etT�sat Kesci Berhane Eqube is a relative of the Enda Tombosa and Enda h�: _ i �enied. Hence, he should. first ascertain bis birth; after which he may his rights respected accordingly." . �esci Berhane, through his advocate, appealed from the High Court's dec1si on· · Thi·s Court 1s . 1n . session to hear the appeal.

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LA.W - VOL. V - No. 2

ber 21, 1966, and December 22, cem De on tten wri s tion lica app 196 From the 6 ane i Berh 1s Kesc clain tl1at to d rstan be unde an itlterested to able been have we party on two grounds: a. _a He argues: ''I . am relat�d to Enda Tombos Ton1bos is the son of Simret. Since Tombosa a11d S1mret, I should be allow of d) (lan te' r ' _ the lves invo tion litiga the ed �� to be a party to the suit. He argues further: ''Since part of the land in contest is in my possession, I have a direct interest in the suit.''

' I

After a date was fixed for the hearing of this appeal, the appellant tried to serve the plaintiffs and defendants with copies of the memorandun1 of appeal and summons, but both refused to accept them. They were called by the registrar; tlie defendants went and received the summo11s, but tl1e �laintiffs refused to accept these copies. The appellant and the defenda11ts appeared 1n court, but the plaintiffs were absent.

!

Briefly there are many issues that should be resolved by this court: but the ma.in ones a.re the foilowing three: (a) Whether or not the decision given by the High Court is appealable; (b) Whether or not the plaintiffs were properly served with summons despite failure to appear in court; (c) Whether or not the decision give11 by the High Court is st1stainable at la\v, As we clearly stated in the case Enda Sa11betaJ' v. Enda Att alo111 (File No. 12/58, 13/58), according to Articles 244(d) and 320(3) of the Civil Procedure Code, there is no appeal fron1 decisions on subsidiary isst1es or prelinunary objections. A question like tl1e prese11 t one that has to be decided before dealing with the merits of the case is a preliminary objection . 1

The purpose of forbidding appeals on minor, subsidiary issues is: to prevent a dishonest party fro111 delaying the case, to protect the l1onest party, and to sa�e precious judicial time. But i11 order that the otl1er party be not deprived of b�s r�ghts, he can raise such matters as grounds of appeal after a final jt1dgn1e�t 1s g1ven on the whole st1it (Article 320(3) of the Civil Procedure Code). Thus the r1gl1ts of both parties are fully protected by this procedure. But the case of the present appellant is a special 0 11e. If l1e were either one of the plaintiffs or one of the defendants, although l1 e wot1ld not be allowed to appeal now, he could appeal on that basis after tl1e final judgment. Bl1t the appella_nt e rt p th ants_ to o pp e �ar in one this � � a i ! f case as an intervening third party. \Vl1en . b 10 this l1t1gat1on appeals, how can the present appella11t a. p1Jeal? I-le cannot e _ !0 "''ant party because his appljcation to intervene was rejected, a11d he does not be left out because he claims his rigl1ts are involved. What should be done 111 the r eithe such a situation? The phrase ''other party'' in Article to 244(2a) refers · 1..: rd arty � Iai·nti·tr or the defendant; but we do not thit1k that it refers to a. t w P like Kesci Berhane Eqube. Hence we allow him to appeal. (b) There is no doubt that the plaintiffs knew of this appeal. It is also �le : that they k.new when the appeal would be heard because altl1ougl1 tl1ey refuse by er lat a cept ac _tder . the summons, they were served with them by ti1e appellant, , D<l ons the regiStrar. On the basis of Article 70 and 105 of the Civil Procedure Code we c

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'


BERHA NE EQUBE v. ENDA GEBREKRISTOS

appellan� as the �st issue of summons, and that by the by . ma de th' .·e ce v ser i he t t . 1tu te d service. Hence we think that the b s su or d secon the as plaintiffs trar re;;! bsent while duly served and thereby defied the court's authority. Therefore a suffer the consequence of their wrong act of they that ary necess and � is fair re fusal. specifi lly stated in the copy of the High Co�rt's judg­ 11ot is it ugh Altho �� _ (c) _ er tl1at the l1t1g tors, when aske� , replied that Kesci Berhane 111 � � uld c e _ ment, w � relative. But as expla111ed above, Kesc1 Berhane 1s . not arguing only their not ,vas _ he also argues on the basis of his possession. In his birth; his of basis tbe also cites Articles 358-360 of the Civil Procedure Code . Berhane Kesci n atio �;plic Accordi11g to these Articles, if a judgment is passed in a suit, one who should h ave been made a party to tl1e sui_t has _ the right to oppose it before it is execut­ . ed. If the reason for tl1e oppos1t1on 1s sound, the execution of the judgment is stayed, another proceedj11g _takes place, and a legal decision is given (Article 360 of Civil Procedure Code). But this means that two judgments are given, which is double work. It is a waste of time, money a11d energy to tl1e courts and more so to the parties. Parliament has enacted laws to solve such problems. For example, when there are suits involving the same question of law or fact, the parties (two or more) may be joined and. the suits may be consolidated (Articles 11 and. 217 of the Civil Procdure Code). But there are limits (or precautio11s) to this law, because man, imperfect as be is, may abuse it. Not every person can join or be joined and be a party to a suit. One can be a plaintiff, a defendant or intervene as a third party when be has a vested interest or a right in the subject matter of the suit (Article 33 of the Civil Procedure Code). The two parties in litigation denied that Kesci Berhane belongs to them. But, Kesci Berhane alleges that part of the land in contest is in his possession. If he proves his allegation, he \Vould l1ave a right or a vested interest within the mean­ ing of Article 33, in which case he can be a party to the suit. BL1t it is required of him to clearly tell wl1ether he is on the side of the plaintiffs or the defendants. Hence on the basis of Articles 180-184, \Ve give the foilowing decision: I. We are of tl1e opinion that the High Court's decision, Judgment No. 3/57 . given on December 21, 1966, deals with a question of la\v. Hence we acccept the appeal of Kesci Berhane Eqube, and quash the decision. 2 · Let this case be immediately remanded. Kesci Berhane is hereby allowed to P�o ve that he is an interested party within the meaning of Article 33, either by birth or by possession of the land in dispute, and to intervene if he so proves. ... .3 · The High Court is hereby prevented from passing final j·udgment on the merits of the whole suit before this question of intervention is settled. 4 · The costs shall be paid according to Articles 466 of the Civil Procedure Code, bY the one who lo ses the case.' January 17, 1967

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t1ttu = n�I\ b�ro- 00 All (l{J;}. = f,f•'lt\m-'J = 111l:,- = ltl\1•1v-,1• = nm Ir�: tn'P : f+'lt\W·: ..f/\it1'1 -fl : 'lllrt;: Of{J;l;: ro-Y::,,: f,tr1A�: 001//\-r: 1 t;::CY: : '1T : il'l+t.n : {JD jl>OJOIJ..f (JJ•: {1lJ:l aJ°1.f llr7 : t\itP'DD/r :: i\art-.jf : :rt--r: hilh.m fl1=�lil: fd1t.:�.: 7i.f61:>: /\1,lttD-: ;J--'?P..: 'h'J-'t <f.f,: {100111,,fl: 'h'I'C: �'f:fi:'(;/2%: °tf1·1f: !!l : <P1: I!lf2%: q. 'J°. T°hlf1f: O.(t'l''J°: f+lOro•: OT 11ll:,-. : ltfllf � : ilA {1lJ:J>mOIJ,,f: f Lovt\ h,1 ·m·: hI?; 7(.: -OC : 01\ ,,e, = flf�w-1 : fiJ).: rt1�,f•fm• : �C..(- : ll;I.. : �lD4 : 001//\-l• : t\n<j:,f..�OJ· : 'i:CY: : fL:,, : 'ttil,..1-­ t\ft&.:: fn�,f-�{I}c 9'1 : 'j:C� : (1•)-- : l,"}JtU : fflm· : DDjPOJiPJ..f : f1-0l,,.,: : 'P;,: h� : m,e� : 11:P : O.A.9° : OD,:l>tDIP/.fOJ-"} : IP/r:,- : roil•t\(D• : far : {l'j:� 2 }1� = �c� : f(lmro• : ft1ro•t.>1"ro• : <j:CY: : '1T : ltl\lf� = 'h.H.fw- = 'h'JJ;.;J--,,e. 2 0 00 11111 : 11.'PC : r'f.tt/9.i : ...)"h'f ll : fl,n :; Ott.u,'J° : ;l..°lllf1"1 : l\f, : flm�i\f, 2 �c� f1:,-- .e'?'l� = fih«f.,ln = �c:� = fL,,.,:9° = �1�1 = hDPlovlw- = O�I\ 1 rn;--:f : �C� : fL.-f-1--1' : .-}'h»N1f : ll"'l�--..e,.:p: hoo'J°tf: 6J!>?°C : DPjl>OJOIJ.fw-: ��0rt-.1f(D« 'i:c.e1\1..t;J--1, = 0001"1111 = cf!TC = lili!J"l;/2% = 1-�c = � +1 !!l!Yt = '¼.r. T1,l-f1·1 : (Im :� �

=

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O+fli\.(D« = :1,.h•l1-1 = OlJlwl:,.. = ftt0rt..Jfm· = �c� = fL-r=li� = oaAil = ()�• f<f>l Om•;: uaiJ>W°2.,f: .,. .."�'11/\ = fltJ"l/fT: hODlODl: O:\'l : tt1.e..'21w- : OD &\il 1 {t6IJ» : fcf>lOar, : on,,�J.,rooi_f : i--cl'·flflo : 'lt\iJ�tD- 1 : 1-0l'r : f1 noi1'1 : �lD• : 0°7l'l1· = 0001-1111 : ck'f'C = �!it[;/2% rtitT 2 !� 2 +1 �!1X1� : q. '/°. 'i!c,.e.,- : ill\(1,n : ,,e.«1()°1 : <l>lO :: ff.°1'11 : 'lf·'f : ovwt.,:J""'C tJC : ffi:C..(': 'lt\iJ�w-: 1-fllT: fi'j:C_(a ' hC : Ji rt&.�01J.(D« : hrl•hOl fl:1i.l\ � i\'l}tV •9° : O mt-�-:. : 1'1�.. 7i''l' = 0;.>ltllJ : hrollJ ' O ;\I\ · Dl/611-nc nc = f"i!C�" : llJ,11...,111- p:f--1 = O D,n:,- = l\OD1--�:,- = ct:c>;.. = 1, 'J�f, 0

r�c_e. :

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- 257 -


--1 hA=r oo : ·.e..t.1: ·li,.r6JJ7 � ill\: If�: 'P;i: t\.om c ti t.'lt'J°: n"'I+,:: 0'1-f..: (l,fl m: -:: � OJ 0 : 9° J'lf,1 '1 "'1"-.'} = • : -: mO 0 = ' h : (l hf : lll lXl.9' f,f ! y4,�nro ... 1\ lt fOD/Ail tt•� : 'lt\m• : 1·n 1: nn -i1 ; ill\ 'l,n D!Ill = ' otJPi .'l:; . 1' • • r n1J 11: .'l t-,,, . -r-A= 1 o h· = = f tt. -1 = : n l. · i\ -: "'iilhOC : nht;: ,t•�a>· : t;: C_e- : ft-1 =,..�il h:,Jl��---�J1?- : h:t-f : n�.I\ : 00011 -: : ;J . : '}. 7i'k cJ>, : !!Pf�?: :: '1°9'°• 11ll-i:: >,i.P,..[tp: ,"h"tP' fi�/2% 4 'J° '1'C : 1-0 ! « ro 1 = ill\.lf� f+ P n�� : O OT/Jl.14'lt4'il : i·fll:1.. 1-f ;: n(lmw· : .'l--'htJll : ooL t..-1-- = "'iil(IIJlf 1O.f : ?i/(L:,_.. f..,.. (ID H1 (1 : il/\ lf 'I 1 0°t 1 ij : f,,.l"tl B-f : 111l: ,.. : ',m• : n01/ l\.T : +ht-tiZ:A :: O'?t- : +i-- : lrA : fcJ>l.(lOJc'} : nchc : 'h1-f...ODlODC', m• : ft.mo, : c : OD/A{l: 061!' : '},fll;r : ftr�ro- : hl.. �� f01/..1'llD·: 6lh-0'1'= f1Jh+'10Jc : ODA(): -- : , l : (1 ,1 (1 Ol/.1 'l: OD If'} : it flOD [I')· I : tTl/ l;J 1'I': ., Ur:, (/IJ LP .'} 1 .. (ltif.b : f11-f (D• : 0 +lOlD·: m(lj>: f 1lll.�: cf!'l'C: g : i'u'JF.'1ar: auAfl : ()61!': , 'l� ff '? : 'lf-°f: .. fnro•,= ho•h--1''1ro· = OD/Ail: (l6Lh = 011\.-1-- = hfi:c.e- = 'lt\ «}..�ro.. = Oh enc 1te 1-0l:,.. : 1tfO--: ft\0-1-- : o;,111'11 : i'1'P'Pf, : f--1--�&..t; : OtJIJ,.e11>ltcJ>(l : i·fll,l· : 01JllOD111n.1 = 1.·/(L•r = n4!'1'C i2n: irt = n-f· ? = <l!'r(: = «1Jrn.11xi·i h •�-Jt. Oi/I�/ Ifift!! : f,l'ODlf10 : t\ODlf.,,. : �--Jt,.fi: : fill�t\ :: tlli.U ·: (l',�-- : },,y_.-,.. 1ftmlD· : ar �, : f,f--'P'P/1.--:,.. : "'h.ti,.t,.n'{;/Ili/;f;"§. : Oi»lf)-19° : fiJ}'9°C : f,1A ?iA :: r ··l''lftro•: 1-0lT: --l·'if ,n: f--1-- 'l/l.OJc : fi:C:f." : h--1 -- nmt; : 'J,fil.-i: : n,�h lll : (l�f\ : ODlf"} : i't/1.0Dlf',.1 : h'JODC9°C ::

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( llj:Cf.": 'll\.oP,m-: l\f, : f--1'&.lF.0:1,: ,p:,,9°:,.. : If:!Ilil Ifll=1% : '}. 9°. ',m•:: flij:CJ;.. = oowl:,• = lj:CJ;..'J = t\"'lil&.?.9° = f�C..(' = cPJil:J-- m,l'.f n�c� }t()&. ?i"t = nh•A l\�c..r.- = 'lftoP.OJc = d,9°/b I fib - -- .. ,,,.... q.9°. rf..lnm·= - = «111 = ,ur:i:'1: /1.DDlf't-: fhlD·t.jf w· : fi:C..(' : ft:,_.. : 00111-0: fillP,t\ :: f�C� : tJf/(l;r lD'l!f: f.c(l,.,.. : t\01{).t...?t'J° : t.j>F.';;: r 'lt\ODlf', . : ffi:C�· : l}{\l,P,(D• : ftJf/f.,14'/t'Pll : 1-0l-1--: (l{I:,.. : ti�A: fl-1,t;: oom4'0IJ.f : 6Lb9°C : f711..il : ro;t-F.C1 : hOl/i = f1°'1.l7l'? : f�C� : 'll\.oP,lD· : hc,-:,- : (}ft-(1:,-- : (l:J"'lD •"} : (lOIJ l}r.-r : 1•(1l•-I:'} : -f il = c m· h = t...?iOJJ. h.ti,.tt. nr1/I!Ifit;J;2 filhnl = ttunl �- = rf ,oill� 'lr·:1·= � � m(l.41: 'lcl:t lnro·: fX''"'fi::"'J hljf: 'i!'l'C: (ji): ..,.. l:J'?(!}. A:: .,,,,c : °11: }t1f..�Ol' 1 00All = (161,b = 1-0lrf:1 = 111:f'Pl\.u = oiz.11.m« tt. n?;/IlifInxt2 �m·= = ,,. J'b. -- r hIL U : I\ f., : 'P 'i' m- : Tf . 4: : 0�C� : fl ii. oP,OJ• : "} ,fll:,_.. : I\ f, : �C � : 1, '}>;, t. c..r.- = h..,,(lm,; h1--hnl f,,.. 'l11. w• 1 : 1'11 l:,, = ou i1" �r = r(11/f.,:1=A = l\ (JD fJ'l° lf't-: '?AX' : � m-:: fi''ll\lD• : 1'1ll:,_..: ffi:C.e- : 'll\oP,m· : 'ht;1· : llft."{11" : hnl. = ODlf't - = (l. ;J--ro:,,: 11cm·9° : ro; �•(JD• : ( lODlf)· = (l0D-t·•1oc = lt-C7· : h'JP.f .,&..?t'J°fiT: t\"'l{lfi'ht\: 00,,f•: (l(l•: 1-01.,1;: t\'i:C�: 'lt\11tlfl:t•:: Otl1 i'O((l : "'h'lP,f.,h&.A : f:J'4'f.: tlfo: ODlf't-: f;J--rocJ,: .,OJ•:: ilftli.tJ : {1],l•LtJ 11 ft\ : HF.o : f,f--if mm- : 1'1llT : 0"1'? : t.,:,.. : 'P,;, : l\. 'ilro· : 't,f.,-:f •t\9 :: �'} · >tu = fl\m- = +aillc = Ofi:-1--Ji = ,n,11. c • ,"11'? : n,J!TC = IJ1t1'{; = "h'i = Iflf.ll • f+hll.hl\. : ODlf',- : '?A �-- : �(De :: : � 1.,1 -0 fDDAfl = fl6Lh9'8;f--: mO:J>: OU../1.rf"�: a,T,fl: f<l>t. Oro·: aohl\hf' �1 • ·, n�:, r-A·f : f 'l'?� : 'l'Jh : f,f'fH :. {l{\.a,(ll : 1,1�.n· 'I' : fbij::..,.. 7,:ro. : ;c;: : n. :, . nau1 11,n : 4?'PC : fiu/r;q_ : 'lHIIOr : ODIPl;l' : h'l, � : f1t·fl}•:, . � (l'}" O "'ll\rl- : �(De :: fhfi:+�W:� ��'f:C� : (l:,, : fi:C� : lt"}J.1,.,f--OD/1.h:,• �lD·: ,l1

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(/Of: 1 tLnf = fi''lt\lD- = r�Ail,..��6lh9>:f, w1X:9° • ht11hc: ;,c = Vhd.>l h� ,of:C : (JJ'/;\ : 0"7f:l"l : !{;it {;£1C : 11C = +OX:c» : ill\AhLt\ : +b(a =hit -= (D{\ c:. = "'>;.h�A 1 &.cP..n:t-A == r+' llllD-1 = 11u11 = .rAhLt\ = i11'tr� • , h� = (IOt{/ -r = 1 l( l = f.U9° = f"?Y.n:J> : 1'11'tr� : f"?f,,"} J>( roi1+ta 1l tf l)c « = D ,nl:i· = ..,-if'° = 1'1"th �A = +LcP..n:rA == nri:cJ;.. = i11'..l"oot\h 1 : 'J,tttft<D• �ID : (l'},(ll--1: : l\f,: '1"}h· : f"},fll:,. .: 00f"lf: ('l°C'L�) : ft\lD-: t\ODI.I')-. : it&\ ' -t..1. qo: U•t\+�ar"} : ooA{l : (lat_: "?t\-r: fct:C�= .. ,,.,ntf'ft?°:: '111: f,U: <j:C�: ---9°:= h f �.., �OJc"} : ct:Cf.." : a.:,- : 00111-0 : {l"}OD/\h-r I (}{\�P,(D•'} : hf.01Jt\\1:i (}1h· : r--t-'li\ lD·' } : "}•{ll:,-- : {loof 1 f : (O'l°ci�) : rf1·10r : t\OD lf'J. : f«f> l( l I -- = �--c = 1•n�--1: = n'Pll:,--,; = r+ .rn 111tt,: ll'Jlll:� = ri\'I° il/\'11h· = ffl'mOJ" : ' }•fllT : ',OJ• : .. ,-- ,,1t\-o : 000All : (l�?Jrrf• : r+lO<& : DDhl\hf : hh ar��- r�4' hOIJlf'l-9° = Oi\f, = �c.e..· = a.,1:1 = t\"11't;1c = r+ln = 0011-,.1 = ,,flJ..f/;\ :: : �AtJ O 1t1.. e.'1lD'= ooAil = ,,� = r,1-- 11/\w-1 = 1-nl-r = 1 110- , f ft<& = na.1111 , J',i'P'Pf,'i : n,,nl:, .. : 011il00 111n. f : 7'/fi.-r : frt-ODH1flw« : ff,,'?{)� : qr--:r-- i ll'J{ll"ff: (�): h/f..'17..,,fill�'} : hOJ1f.."'1°:f. : O!?;'it 1 11C : f1ff(D« : �w«: 1'"}� 1 1'1f,•t-'lt\Or : t1'l,h· : fl,h�)?: : if..f6£b : f1fflD• 1 itf,1'/\9° :: ftdt(I"} : itUOD�: h..nf : {)' } h· : ,,fO�l(l)c"} : 1"}If·O : h"}J;,OD {I{\ "} : i1rm· : 04''11 ;r : /\ 'l"} n, : h�"1'�.. : f.,IJ''tA :: f,U'I° : f"'lfill�"} : f�C� : 'l/\ 11 H•fl'} : oo,n:,.. : t\"'I il«f> l•l': {l']o"} : f1--�l1 : f(L,f-- : ffUDJ.': : f7if61!'t; : f'?1( : l&/;\ : UDlf',-"} : ',<&:2 h1f.t1ar ooA{l = n6� = h'l1h· = l\f,, = '1ro• = r1•1u--:,.. •• 't-O lrf:9° = n'Pll.-rc.· = ,,-.ttf �oc .fl\.w· = ,1,(1:t- = tr'i = 0011·...1: = '1m· ::

,r

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-1

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n(ll){J;l, l if = 1-.. n l ..t:1 = n 01J.1 'l = 111::,; = n "'.e,1+ta4' il = 1,fll:,--= 0011111 = ti ii oo111 1l 11<�.. : 0,1,"1: ;rt&�/,\�: A: na, t\ :,.. : l\. <l'lOtD·: oohi\ hf ; it1..�=11ll-r : 0"'1f,, '}cpftcf>{l : 11ll·r: OD'Jl"l·fl: ar{)rp : {10000111ft : ·fl.r: ;,,;J'e : OD•fl"t: hJ!,t..T Ct\�.. ?1':: {ld1"1 : f :J'lltflD•: f"?ilODlf111: °lf-o;r: it'}J.': : (l(J}c : fl,1,'?: i\17(J}c: 00 11:,, : PUIJt}mq> f : C::COI/h.·t: : oo(JD«,,f : 1i1:{ : OD•fl,r : (161!' : hJ!,f.. l\.9° :J OIJ.u..: 00 1JJl,} : nnr/1-J;J�·: (1-1·: fc'Jl/..{l'r : llC;r: mJ!,9 ° : 001/J!,"}<J>ti�il : 111 l:,, : 00111·0 : m-{l'P : f...-f•on1·110ro· : m•/,\ : n,"h'? : flrf'l;J1m : 0011:,.. : fi--f.. 1 �: 'lt\ODIJ'�. : l\.�Cf..' : (1.."f-- : 1,f4>l{l : tic:J•a,- : m-J?.... :,> : ftr�n:,.. : mf,9° : 00 i''1' l11l1m·: f--1--fllHOrl... : 1,�y_, : n.ft ::

= I\J!, = f,f.. t.lf.. n:,.. = �c� = h 1�-��?°n:t- = h;J-- 111·1� = 1...nl,..l:?11 = n�cJ?... = t,ilt.1..orz.w- = f,t-nnl = t111'1 1 O'i�:,',l1 : 1ltl"bC: t:11°1 : 0,t'rC : 1ur1E : "hc; : 1Br1i : oow1.-r : 0?.I\ : 01°1' : r�cx_.. 'ltt6�w• = nm1f.."ou•: ooAfl = W-�tit\o- = OtPJl\.T = fl"'l,e"}«f>tt <f>{l : 1rfll:1, : 0011111 : n.. pf{lODll"J ,fi � 0,"11'? : r:1--1.e..m.. , : oo,,n:,--: 0°'1:rt\A I Ot/ '}9° (lm• : ftonif'r?° � rf� : noof\.tDT : f01J.e1•A = ilt\lY', 1 fl1'1�tLtJ = ft\= V- l;t- = f/\m•, fct:C.{'..· : !l/\6�w"1 : ..e-cif : 1111.:,.. = t,1.. �=1ro·= ODl:\.il = (161!' 1 �°71-f,), : llh01f,-:ft\ : fhP'ODt;. : i',OJ•t--�· : �c.� : o,;,-- : {100111-0 : �TC I !Jfit?;/9.i: r(}mro•"} : fij':Cf.." : 'l/\��ro·'} : (,�t\+'1(1}«: aoAfl : (161!7): �c� 1 0 l"} 1t /\ mz.. 00 "ro• = 1,n l :,-. = ,n ;: = f 611- = m..A = 'i:cft. = i1>;.111c; = n a. 1 : {l,t-(11,f- : uflCY� : ?,.th.it• nr::/I�/Ifif;f;'f;/Iufifl:Z 1 7'.1h. it- flj/ ; --�/ lJ1f;'Q : {lcJ?'PC : bf : ]\r}.,� lf,9° : {1"7f,"}«J>ta+/l : .-}1JlT : "'J{lOD1j"J fi.f I

on,-tu = n11.u=1--P.f, = r�c�.. = 11tt0Pi01- = 1111.:,-

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- 259 -


�Jet:,. Oiif..%f!li/!uf�§ = oo111-0 r= �'l'c = t2n..ift---="hr:= O'kTc-- = @ritur~�.

f1'oPtt10lD' = ffi:C.(" = ()f\6�(1}• : 1t11,,e..1t = '1.uoo� = h..hf = � c;r = r.,:�, i. OID' , h1.';.l'll11 • If<:' • fi'tOJ•t-JllD ' ' tj:C.("' o,:,. ' 0011111 • -ll'J'C , li'i/irB/--� fllj:C.(" = tf?'l'C = i!i:'f;/9.1 = n,,.. (1 "1{1)« = fi:Cf.:" = oow1.:,.. = r�c�- = ci�;ijic!.1; "71\:,• : rtt-01-1t : tt11ao.(" = h.tJf = �c7i' 1 1-•fll"1" = Od1t--� = .,.,.. 7i'" = tt.e.°1'1 � 1 ()V-1· : 1' 'J-'thLA : l'tfft;A :: r1·1..11 : tj:C.(" : :,..nnA : "JA(}6Ib : l\fi:C�· : h{lL?i°t(l)c ; /\,"h1f1l : h'P'Pf, : ('i;r�): ,tflti..�: -OC��'i" : l\"'Jf,"}4'(}4'(t: 1-•0l:,.. : '11ilou1f'IQ.f: 1,.--/CL:,.. : hi}t /th'i" : 1''Jf.tj:CP,-. : 1''}-'tLK9° : hHt;A ::

ODt\il : (16JJ-9'T : l\Y."l'l� : qr-:f : ��� rf:'} t h1-\tr9° : h. 0lt--t; : 0:1> • ttnA = .,rl.,.. = -0c = h'J-'th�t\-- = Lc,,e..c;A

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- 260-


;

HIGH COURT Asmara Judg es:

Ato Negussie Fitawake Sl1eik Gieder M. Camel Grazmatch Fessel1aye Zegaye WOLDEMICI-IAEL TEWOLDE MEDI-IIN AND OTHERS v. IDRIS UMER KEKIYA AND ABDELA AHMED KEKIYA Civil Appeal 48/58

Contractual obligations-Cor1tracts-l11validity-Fraud on creditors' rights-Civ. C. Arts. 1995 and 1996. An appeal fron1 an A wradja Court decision refusing to invalidate a contract of sale between a judgment debtor and his brother of immovable property belonging to the judgment debtor, which had already been attached by the Awradja Court Execution Officer. Held: Decision reversed, contract of sale invalidated, and the registrar of immovable property directed to strike registration of the contract fron1 bis register. 1. Sale to fan1ily members of property after attachment of the property by the Execution Officer is in fraud of creditors' rigl1ts and tberefore subject to invalidation under Articles 1995 and 1996 of the Civil Code.

2. Registration of a contract of sale of an imn1ovable does not affect the contract's inva.lidity.

JUDGMENT Ha san Ahmed Kekiya, respondents' brother, bought cattle from the appella11ts a�d failed to pay a sum of E $ 2,656, the remaining portion of the purchase price. Since Ahmed's brother, Respondent No. 2, had undertaken to guarantee the payment 0_f _the said amount, tl1e appellants bro11ght suit against him in the Awradja Court sitt�ng at Asmara. The Court, having examined the case, held in its decision delivered on Oct. 23, 1963 (File No. 189/56) tl1at Respondent No. 2 Abde]a hmed Kekiya, pay said amount of E $ 656 and legal interest at the rate of � 9% per annu1n, to be calculated from the date on which respondent had under­ taken the g arantee cot1rt fees 111 the amount of E $ 118. 50 and advocate's u fees in the amount 'of E 1 $ 50. Pursuant to tl1is judgrr1e11t, tl1e Cl1ief Execution Officer sent an order of ex ecution, date J 1 d u y 20o, 1o✓ or 4, (Ref. No. 575-56) to the respondent. _On Oct. 12, 1964 t11e Execution Officer with the aid of a policen1an, attached th e 1 a v mm? ?le property of the judgment debtor whicl1 consist�d of a three-ro� m h e us with 1ts faci� it� es (.AA pp. Ex l1. No. 21) since respondent failed to comply with o th e 0rder. As Exh1b1t No. 3 submitted by appellants shows, tl1e property of the - 261 -


JOURNAL OF BTHIOPIA'N LAW - VOL. V - No. 2

. 000 . Subseque11tly, the public 18, $ at E ed valu was was not'fi , JUdgm erlt debtor . 1 led . rty s b tor prope e d wou Id be soid by aucti a newspaper that the Judgment ld be E $ 18,000. (App. Exh. price wou ing start the that and 1964 24, �ov. No� �� Since 00 bidder turned out, the notice of auction v1as re-published with a modification that on Febrt1ary 27, 1965 the property would be sold at any price to the highest bidder (App. E xh . No. 5).

On June 3, 1965, the Awradja Court sente11ced the judgment debtor to s· months imprisonment, pursuant . to Article 6 of. Legal Notice No. 176 of 1945, ;� the ground that he had sold hrs property to his brother, Respondent No. I despite his knowledge of the newspaper auction notice (.File No. 189-56). The ju,dg1nent debtor appealed to the I-Iigh Court, wl1icl1 reduced the sentence to 3 months imprisonme �t (File No. 381-57).. T'he judgme �t debt ?r again appealed to the Supre1ne Cou.rt which held that the period of dete11t1on wh1cl1 tl1e judgment debtor had undergo11e was sufficient and that he s ·hould, therefore, be released.

TL1ereafter, Respot1dent No. I preferred an objection to the Awradja Court of Asmara alleging that si11ce lie had bought the property in question, the decision that it be sold by auction was i1nproper and that therefore tl1e decisio11 should be set aside. On April 27, 1965, the Awradja Court ordered tl1at tl1e sale by auction be temporarily stayed tintil tl1e appeal was exa111ined and a decision thereon rendered (File No. 185/57). However, since the objection involved a11 amou11t of over E $ 15,000, the court transferred the case to the High Court, tl1e court of competent jurisdictioD:,

The Hjgh Court remanded the case on the grou11d that the value of the pro­ perty involved notwithstandi11g, tl1e case may be l1eard by the Awradja Court (File No. 368/57). Respo11dent No. 1 appealed from this order to the Supreme Court which, after considering the appeal, confirmed, on Nov. 1 0, 1965, the order of the lower courts thus ordering with instructions that the objection of Respondent No.I be heard �y the Awradja Court (Fi�e No. 145/57).

Pursuant to tl1e said order, the Awradja Court examined the case, accepted respondents' objection, and on February 18, I 966 decided that Respo11dent No. I had bought the property in question properly (File No. 185/57); wherefore this ::ippea1. The basic contention of the respondents is that since the sale \Vas 111ade after the property of the judgmen,t debtor was att,tched by tl1e Exectition Officer ao<l after notification in the newspaper of its sale by auction, tl1e sale was made frat�­ dulently between the family men1bers to prejudice tl1e rigl1ts of the j11dg111ent credi· tors. Consequently, the sale must be held invalid. Counsel for the respo�ide_nts argues in defence that the property in questio11 l1ad been held by the Ethiop ian t bro l1ad C�IDJ?ercial B�nk as security for debt. To protect its rigl1t tl1e l1a11k � � � . p _ pr the t 1 uit the H o tl1,1 gh { 0 s Court, which ordered 011 January 4, 1966, i eri be sold by auction (File No. 29-57). The property was thus bought by respond No. 1 pursuant to this o.rder. s Ster regi He further argues that si11ce the contract had been registered in the of immovable property, the property ha d been bought properly. . . ue to be · ined the arguments on both sides, we tlli11k that the iss . 2 in . Hav�ng exam decided 18 whether Respondent No nt nde Res po No. I bought the property of - 262 -

' I

!


WOLDEMICHAEL T. M. v. IDRIS UMER KEKlYA

No. Exh ibit sub 2, 1;11itted by counsel for appellan law. the with ts is the e c dan ac cor 11g . the con. tract under which Respondent No. 1 alleo-es ody i erob to have · o t n e cum do q_uest1on from Respondent No. 2, the judgment debtor, and 1n erty prop e th 0 t 1 1 boU0 wn up by a public notary. wa s dra have been registered 011_ No�ember 6, 1964 in the oflice of the to rts urpo It p property - deed registrat1011 No. 24088, record of sale No. ovable in1m of e isters that s110\� the s contract was concluded on November 5, ent docum e h T ;3 _ 1hether the property de�ide v. d be to was ns sold after the judgment remai It 964_ a11d the property attached. red delive was Court High ;r tile Judgment was rendered ,igainst the judgn1ent debtor on October 23,1963. The record of the Awra_dja Court sl1ows th�t notice of execution of the judgment was sent by the Execution Officer to the Judgment debtor on Jt11y 21, 1965. It bad been proved by d?ctimentary evide11ce_ submitted by Counsel. for appellants (No. 1) that since tl1 e Jt1dgme11t debtor failed to exec11te tl1e Judgment after having received the notice of exec11tio11, tl1e Executio11 Officer \Vith the aid of a policeman, and in tl1e presence of the judgment debtor's mother, attached tl1e immovable property of the j11clgn1ent debtor on October 12, 1964. The property consisted of a three-room house with its facilities. Hovvever, Respondent No. 1 alleges to have bougl1t the property on November 5, 1964. Here the main question is whether property n1ay be purchased after an order of executio11 thereon has been and rendered the same has bee11 atta.ched. A direct answer to this is that it may not, because it is clear that property n1a.y not be sold after a11 order of execution thereon is rendered, and tl1e property attached. Si11ce the property in question was attached in the presence of tl1e judgn1 ent debtor's mother, since the b11yer was tl1e judgn1ent debtor's brotl1er, the whole transa.ction was employed concertedly by the family members to obstruct tl1 e execution of tl1e judgme11t so tl1 at the creditor could not be paid fro111 tl1e proceeds of the sale of tl1e property. Property sold in such a fraudulent ma1111er is of no effect. It is clear that such act is prohibitec1 by Civil Code Articles 1995 and 1996.

t27

. The defence adva11ced by counsel for respondents on the second point is tl1at since tl1e property had been held by tl1e Co111111 ercial Bank of Etluopia it had been bought from tl1 e Banle pursuant to a I-Jigl1 Court order for the sale of the property (File No. 29/57). As we l1ave examined the I-Iigl1 Court file, Hassan Al1n1ed K ekiya, the respo11de11 ts' brotl1er, \Vho l1ad concl11ded a contract of loan for E $ I 5,553, had bee11 ordered to pay back tl1e principal \vitl1 interest since he had failed to rep ay the loan. Tl1e I-Iigl1 Court had ft1rther ordered tl1at in the event the debtor failed to repay the debt, his movable property, a11d if tl1at was inst1fficient to cover ��e loan, his immovabl property, be sold a11 d tl1 e proceeds go to the Bank. The � . J dgmei1 t does 11ot specify wl1etI1er tl1 e Ba11k l1 ad a 111ortgage on any of the JUdg­ ;ent debtor's property. The judgn1ent does not refer at all to respondent . No. 2. hen we look at the High Court record no evidence bad been submitted to that the Bank l1ad l1 eld the property in questio11 on n1 ortgage. The . defence a�ded by tl1 e respondents - that the property was sold ·by tl1e Bank which l1ad · . · · he.Jd 1 t as sec·t1r1tv for a loan -is.., not 011 ly far fro1n the truth ·but 1s a1me d at misleading the court. h � propert� which Respo11 dent No. 1 alleges to have bought from the Bank aT by uction was 111 fact bouoht from his brother for E $15,000, and the contract of le � }: ecorded by a p11blic n;t;:1ry as evidenced by Exl1ibit No. 2 of the appellants. might be that the p11rcl1 aser had pai d Hassan A11n1ed Kekiya's debt directly to

ri;:e

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V � No. 2

t tl1e tha is ported contract of pur to ts oun am this all t sa 1 e the .Bank. Wh Was . ily an e in t sam er ord the 1 f o of s jud ber pre mem w: ice the r . cone1 ude. d bet en the ights d f n R espo . o ei1 t . 1\.·r o. s 1 t1on 1, ega 11 a , that The he had b dgment creditor. 0 f the JU �Ugb t . e the sam held as . had rity secu h whic for k Ban debt , 1s raise · · the the property from • Lastly, concerning the cont�ntion !l1at own�rsl�p o� the property is legall.Y 1 s of_ 1n11novable property 1ste the reg e ter reg 111 � n bee 1� had it ce i sin sed recogn it s _ ' i not does itute const rat1on reg1st a decision as to its Clear tha.t the mere fact . of . . . validity. The duty to register 11npose d bY 1aw 1s s1mpIY a f�rmal requirement evidencing a right acquired_ u11der the law, . but does �ot of 1tself create any righ t. title deeds 1ss11ed by the municip ality where . Thus' there have been instances · or bl e property h ave been held of contracts registered in the registe:s of . 11nmov� 00 effect for lack of a legally recogillsed right which tl1ey purported to evidence. Thus, respondent's contention that he bought the property after a court order to ex.ecute a judgment on said property had been entered and tl1e property attach. ed by the Execution Officer is no� _valid because su�h tr�11saction is prohibited by Articles 1995 and 1996 of the C1v1l Code. The reg1strat1on of the purported sale primarily aimed at defrauding a person's right, in the registry of immovable property, is of no effect. We therefore quash the judgment of the Asmara Awradja Court in File N·o. 185/57 regarding the judgment debtor (Respondent No.2) and we order that the contract of sale be voided as far as it relates to said property. \Ve fur• ther order the ca11cellation of e11tries (relating to Abdella Kekiya's share) made by Tesfaye Berhane, the public 11otary, on Noven1ber 5, 1965 u11der No. 1 1626·7947, on November 6, 1964 under No. 100 and by the office of the registers of immovable property on November 6: 1964 under File No. 24088 and 2292. We also order that judgment debtor Al1med Abdela Kekiya's share of property be sold by auction, and the proceeds paid to appellants. A copy of this judgment shall be se11t to the Execution Officer, the public notary, Tesfaye Berhane, and to the office of the registers of immovable property and the jud.gment shall be executed accordingly. Respondents sha.U pay to appellants court fees, costs and advocate's fees in the amount of E $300. January 26, 1967

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� i\tLIJ : irll· = ti enc = 00�?f = rrr�'°' = Ft. = �,c = rfr',; : fie� = 00r1N re. 0,f: Y:C1-i:1 : '/Jtf: : rof..ht\n:,-- .. : 0117'� ,..f: : oo11 Y: : t14-il : ilA'1 : l,f ; : ,\tfl/JlC : ll ll&.l\1 : OtLU-- : (l;J : f t\W• : frf;t\,t,tJDc�\b7i1 : "10.f : Wf.. ,o h� p:J-- : {l/\ortl·IC : ffl·fro• : (l;J-- : T19 °1'-- : t\(lC.';.. : h1�t\� : O,t,Q;1."769°: : .. : .. : :, A l\ " 1 'h P,.(D« ?. tJDc f:Cl:i..y.:f- : ,t, it °7°7. : fIf � t\,�11,o : h 1 f.\."lt\., :, : �'t : (l;J' : (1"11-- : {IDIP/.:,• : f'lt\Cilrl: : 00,fl:,-S : rf'm•fl� : °19°1:1 : lDf,9° : 'ttlJ� 1 : {lCJ'" : (l'fif, : {l:J'•(D«'} : O F't- : l\f, : l\"'1'PA : h1�TA : 0° '/t\-r : «= m "fl\1 : f«'l.f il&.A1w,, : u--l\:,-S : ou...y.. : 'If : i( : "'L f,J• : fl-111.fl htLIJ : ;, C: .,.. ..,,f -C : ffl : OU • ' t f : fl :'f • : .. {l 'h1�& 4'Y. (1:'J·· : t\"lC"'l'l!: �'}lff, : · ' i' f-' JJ· 11/o {l;r: : 1 C: {lt\hOPi\ll+ i fOTJ.,,f{lt.f.\.1W·: u--l\:i•: ou,y.: Uf : 7f. : oi:i•c: l-tfu: {1;1-- : "19°1:1 : .,, -J fu : : C; : {l ,f '1 �{lrf', : /lt1...Tfwkf : (}-'j" : (ICY;' : : rf: ;f�l;\ _e J,.{lf,fl (l}t (l(J t\'l'ttJ : 1'1);.,{l{llOr : (l}lf.\.A : OJ·i'lT : CilT : ht\1 : llt\ Of/..1\•:,.. : fl/l0U1l-f-T : .,..�� 1 r : lt"1'1��--1.. : rf•m'},f.. : f01f.,ro(l'} : ODlf�'} : flOD"J{\T ' lO i n t tifrC : rt 1 : O lc °. n = ' l = r'i'f.i!?l�/ r;/ iii n+i&. = rK",n&..:i- 1 . 9 «f! ,1;1· = 7; = t111 = Ii!I2t '¼ O'f,t{l.-f:C : 01/tl"lf : f;J'" HII : /lDPIJ'� : JiA.-f''1f..9° :;: /l �C� : (1rf:9° J "7 ill.�· : lf'i: rl'C!].A :: 1'{1\1{}•"} : �l{l : n+flt\(JJ• 1 "'1H� : OUIPlT : f 0-'i' : flCY: : 11H0-1 : Ofl'th : hil4'9°(0 : hrf:(\,}loo"tlb 7i1 : ODP'tf : (1 :,-S : fl:t"m-1 : f,t,lhflm-:(\ou lf�'i = f14'lnro·9° = "fl\1 ouwt,.:,.« = fi7Li! = oi:i-- c tifu P:J-- = nnc.i;. s (19° : tic:r : +�(l..y.. : frf.. (lmro· : l\OUlf� : r+lflA'} : "'llll� : ff\9° r: rfrt; = nc� = P:rro• = 'h1-<tt.+Y-'t\T = mfcf' = 'h1:( = n+&.+ f..t\,).. = aow l1" = "l9'°'F1 : /lfl1h : h ilcf'9' °(1l : {1:J"W-1 : f\OUlhO· : f"1l0lD · : Jt(lll: : t\9° :: f --- hta7i : {l·'i' : fOIJ.f fl'J1C : f"I A : 4 11 . 1 : . 11:, ntt : u-ll +� � . f : JttiflO : . , n ,, tti = h·f11,,r : "OT/4''1° = p... = h+'lt\w· = n;1, : a,.{l'f = @iL = oi:,, c tifu , (l;r : 1'1-'t(lmar : (1�"tf1&.."f' : 1Pl..1llrf:C : 04?TC : �iLJ!ifl I ir21/ ii/ f\111 /H -- = rf-- 1\A�A n...,... = ,� f1:, fll\m• = T'hlf11 = ouwt,.:,.« = t\P:J··w- = ii·7f.u = 11c = . h�fr> : ll<h'11C : iuif.i:riii:i: : f..-f--ou11· 1n : tic;J-- : 111/H,:Jj.f : fb:,.. : fl'J1,f·'1 A : fl°1ft:,, : tic;J .. ro·1.... : �;;,ill>T�:,-- : {lf cf'C119'° t fK",)1 t..T : "7..1llrf:C'} : :,--'h lf11 : Wf,'J° : '?Aflat;"} : /\�CY: : 111: : 0111/lll��:,.. : hl\"1lfl9° s: Orf-- fl/\ro•i\tJ: lic;r : l\f, : 7ial.. : 0""'i' : flC.(!; : (l.,lf1 : 1�fro• : u--1\,..��w- : +hta7i : �ar : fl°1tt:,· : ..,..m1'!,,t\ :: f{l·ir;' I flCf: : nou)!ootfW- : fg-;,,&.:,.. : OIJ..til ,f;C : 11'/ 11"lf : avwl:,... : fvf; Ii,ti i 7i1 : llJ{lf : ft\ flT1 : {l ;J--'i' : f"I A : fll\ cn,r.f1 = n:1-- = l10Dlilll" � nt..T � °19°rf:1 = /\fl1h = ltilcf'9°tn = tic;J-- = O{loo -: n °1fl� ti r : fflt\ fl:,..-; i:1 : (l1IJ11:,.. : tnfl.,:J "IT : 1,1�) :,.. : t\ '? A : h- fl1f = OT/ I\:,,.: tlf:fl..,,�ro-: rf-- h'17i : fi't1�1 : (tlD4 : fd/A: f,J-f;t- : ltttAC:.: f,(tfJJA? f""'ltt;,j.f: (Lrf"il: },1Yu'T : fJtt1J!..�1 � (trod : fff//;\: fli\C{lr)--�:,,, : OD•OT : lJf,m-01' t 0}9°,f;"} : i'IJ'flh<j:A l 1'1: f(l·«; : PC� : lil -<11°1 : f f.\.rf'lhflm-1 : {l;J..: l'tlJAC:: t\U·/\..t--'1w· : i7i : lic;r : niloo• � i'lil�il"f.. : i\ oo {lm:,.. : f,1../\A. t f,tJtll/ : fouj!ootfCD·"} = 'i·ht -fi rll&..:,-C : °t1ll l:C : (Jll/tf'1f : OD:J 0J 9° : t,.,ef../\.9°1 ? htLtJ9° : fl/\f, : fOT/.,,fil1 Coom. I 1'i : TIO· : i\,f�vt-j!ovt. g lj:C�: Cl�rf: : r�1?,"} : t10V"1'J1'i : u--),;r : ill\ '1--l�m• = /lWJ!.fu� : ililt.. /\1. m· = m•la), : 'h{th..(lT : �l{l = U·/\rf--'1w· = +hlJ7i = . ' -fhti] } : f.t•;r = &.. � qo : l,1..�_e�ti t Flr9'° ·• 1'" }�,e,,.,1rn:,, : 'h1�.. rr9° : ou,,fl, t;: h�h.l;J"I� : Y:l{t : f�1JtiB : li O'l : "'111,:J;f : (1 :,--: t\U•t\ ..1''1w-: rf"hll7i : tic;t- : : :, .. : 'hl-f1f 1-(to :, .. : f"'/1'1{ . '} h l�f.(lT : UCJ..f1lf : ,,...16..... : "''' � i--ilfii:i: O'P/llD• : 9'° . : - ,,... ....

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il = f : 1{ i\6. .. ,. = f ro r 10 11 i'l.• n l = /\ . � 7 , :: fli: · l\ 1· s OC -'Lh i, 1 ' ll , ,,,1 :(lD , , 1 Th fh = m ' ll � l"t�1- '!-re ' h�c(l ' nn:1-�'. i'i : , :,.1..,11 , 41,h11c ' v- •t� f, ' f4-1 1t'10J-'} ' l"t- ' OIJ/"t-:i• ' .,,mll ' "'IH;,].f ' 11.+9" ' llO•l\+:;:w. ' ·1-h (lm = 1 = � ll.f'1 tic;r "°" = • v,7i Oll . � 1 f 1 "n 11 :, f = m = (l (J)c ,1 .. .-, l �r(t : 09°1T1l 1�:,. LP : OD . � m O = 'i!c_ei : 11:,. 1 u t; : ,t '? 'lC ·: IL 'fc : hf,1' 'h1J!...+t./\1 1 h+LPt-- : htLtJ : f {1/\m : f(J)c"},fl .. (A'JD: ti'/ I\:,.. J � (De :2 irJ:'}: r : f�C : {1 :, {lODf,.t.? .. � !?f 'h,111 : fl\hn - ,f·•m. 4:r:i: rhtiit- I OD,0-r : D f : ·h i \. 1lt}. u r : f: :: OD�, f .l ti t , 'i-c&i llr 1 .. Jtl\'lT f• : f : : 1 ODlf1 m1'rl:t lh ,} 1 ?0:,,1 , An'i"' = �(De = O.A'J° = ohti'fr- = P;t- = 1tf, = !!°1'!° = rt.. = 'h1.i;.elPt. = ni tl,{l}« : hrf'hllhll : {l�I\ • f,t1:J-- : {lODJ!'?-C : P'&.tD·1 : 1i9° : ,flf\o : {l oocpmfr: :,,, s A(l'.1 : ODhl\hf : iLff.C'? = h.f,'f-A'J° :: r: --f A: l1°1i\:;" = u-..n.,l"'f(Dc: ' fl; •: f J', ih i'{l f(lt» ar'i!» rf"h'17i: 'lfloo : h '? : ,o:,. : fl.If'}: hf, fA'J° :: rtit-r : � : <1>1 : Ittr.!ft : q_ '/°. O�'PC : l\hfi4C: fhP,.{l: h.O'l: "111 .;J_]i: 11:,-- : }1'},f:(} : hK°,"h6..r : 01/,.).{lrf:c � -f = ou 1)tm(lip i flmro• = 7"htf11 : l)f,hfl£: : r;,11 1 fl 1, o. ·f f°l A : l\Cil-f = , 11,lh?-1 : ,n'? : {lOD"}{l = U•flirf--";ro• : +h' 17i: fl h'10: : OP1°lP'rf:1'i"' : flj:. n;:1-- = tif, = = rt- - = i1Pif,LPt--n. 1 �,-,;1,,D· : >t'J>thnc = �c.� : '1+. f(l mm«1 , 11'/1� : flP'A llJ)c : "li� � h.'l'? 1 - = h.�C(I I P't- -ar1 : il.ft4'mft: P;t-m«1 : f+lh·fl h•'r : 0�1 : AP'i" :: hX-"1t...:1.. : Dt)..fl,f:C : :t-PA� : �(De : 011'//l--r : f+fl/lOJ•'} : • i,111 : ODhl\hf : iLfF..C1m· : ill\UIJJ!,l-A : fOI/H;J� : '1 :t-9° : ht;::C.,(!.. : a.� : . ,,,11-J : ro•liJJ' : tic;J-- : it1il--Y.. : fhtio-1� : fl:J--: 611-9'1C : /lU· ll+c;ro• : +hti7i : fliltJOc : il/\(lm � h� = fll : J,11J : foo+ 1\/l'i! : ,f--OJ flC : t.?iOD(D• = +i1rf--'P A :: lllltllJ : fh"17i : fl;f"":ft,n1f•(l: i'11A'?ft.o-l--: .filt..A,;JA: ...,..,fl(\o: n,1,1-: {llJlJJ I l.:,.. = '19° ,f: = +h�k-T : f ,l"'ro(lf...{l:,. : fl;J-- : illli'tArf'l'i : {l;J--tD·9° = f,f--(lm(Dc: ' r . /lu-ll+i:1a :..-,. hti7i='?A=h-'11f = il/\rf'l = fh,lttf. = .e1•;J-- = fl:J" = O,n"l = r--t-m04' I .. : f°l A :: th·fl, : 0 : fl:, J: ll/l tr'l ;: fh '1 if..1 : J!, ti ;J-- : t\ ?.oo/\h,,.. (D• : 11 ,: : rit,l{l ttn11 = UIJH;,� = a,:,. = '14:'l'C = 1i:i'if.criiix = f(tn1w· = ti(::=',. = oa,°l = t.,:,.. = 'P-' f/h /\OJ• = ilfttr'l ¼2 (IJ«,r::,, : u..f\+<1ar : i·ht'l"li = f°l/,\ = lrfl1! = °h1J.'.DD1f',.: oo,n1: fhltif.'}: J!,J·l;J--: 1'1P,_e.',t}(l-)-- : ij:C .(!.": {l,,f:: "11111: fl�I\: n'P.;.'} : lll\.tl(l(l.,..t; : foo�+.19° : U-- );;r : 11.'PlD •(O : rwt. (1•1· : n..lf'}f> : t fh'l"li1 : f,Jl;f-- : h1f...'lfll. : h1.';.. fillh1l ; 'l"lC : '?'t : hl>fif• : Ot..j');...: (1'1fif: 'P;, : '19° rf:1 : u../\+c;(Dc : ,f•· h'17i : h�flv:,. : 0./\:,, : _e.o : 'i:C� : 1t.el1hht\ (IJ«9° ! �c;:ar : +h'17i : fh 'l7i1 :: fl;f-- : /\ u,f·l l· --'i: (De : ...,..tilt"li : h1,'t(l'I': f11� O T : lDf,9° = {l(IJ«A : f--t-ilUI/UI/{lT : 9°19° : 11"/ilt.Yi : ill\A'l'l(lt,\1 : OtLIJ . r : . , , 1-.i:J.1. = fn- r; ncx: , +mJ'-1! , t\.lf1' = hf, 1.·Ar 1. 11.t. A"1 , v·l\. i; a ' ;� 1)7i : O°h1f...tLU ' ;',l\fu'lT : (Dc{l'}' : !1'llD·"} : OJ11 : fl;:',l\&,'1'1-- : h{]IJ{llf f°thllhfl(j)c : �1C : fl\9° :: h"l7i ' O-ll+l1m- ' Th'17ir; , V'il.T�Or , -f•hlt7i • I\J'.ll'l•ll'f' 1 1 t h."lt. ' 11.m.e.'P ' ou-fl-f: , f-f•mfl4'll:i• , }m• , -Olt'i' A :: v-l\-l•l10J•' , h�A t­ (lll+l1w-' +hlt7i l l\hlt7i ' f-lli}-1:1'' h."lt- l llh1'��:,. l f,ht.ll-' ,fit\ l:,-, h"l7i ' O�-l-d,' 11"1.'r: P'� ' P'C'¼:;., ih"l ' 11-1:'l'C• !!£�!: ' h'i ' !l!'.tli ' oo_,,, ;,.,_, h. t- ' }: 1fC1fC : fl...f<l>c,n : f_.m(lt;A : ,flf \.'i"A :: J!,U : tj":(:,� : Jf&, • V vt lJr 1 11 = !tt : <l>'J = Ii1t2D = '¼. er. u,f\+. : m1'il- : '1/\--n. = �1,(ltn : :

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- 268 -


'

a

IIlGH COURT

Addis Ababa, Commercial Division Judges:

Ato Negussie Fitawake Captain Eyassu Gebre Hawariat

Ato Abebe Awgechew ZEWDIE MEQUANENT v. (1) THE NATIONAL COFFEE BOARD (2) N. LAZARIDIS (3) THE MUNICIPALITY OF ADDIS ABABA Civil

Case No. 158/58

Property-Ow11erslzip-Title deecls-Expropriation-Rev. 1467, 1471, 1472, 1478.

Const. Art. 44

Civ.

C. Arts. 1463,

Civil procedi,re-Violation of court order-Costs-Civ. Proc. C. Arts. 463, 464.

Complaint over interference with ownership of land and issuance of a title deed to a non­ owner. Held: Land ordered restored to plaintiff and title deed invalidated. I. The issuance of a title deed to a parcel of land does not of itself confer ownership of that land on the person to wl1om the title deed is issued. . 2. Where land is required by a government agency on a compulsory basis, the procedt1re laid do\vn for expropriation by the Revised Constitt1tion and the Civil Code must be followed and compensation must be paid.

JUDGI\IIENT The facts of the case are as follows: The plaintiff in his complaint stated tl1at he bought a piece of land with an area of about 7500 sq.uare meters from Ato Debebe Aya11a on December 21, 1957. The Ia11d is found in the Bole Woreda Gizat, near Nefas Selk. Defendant No. 3 iss11ed a title deed to Defendant No. 2 pursuant to an order that 30,000 square meters of land be transferred to Defendant No. 2 from the land of Defendant No. l for the purpose of building a factory. Part of tlJe land owned by plai11tiff \Vas also transferred to Defendant No. 2. Defendant No. 2 destroyed tl1e fe11ces erected by the plair1tiff and started building l_1is factor�. Tl1� reafter the plai1 1tiff s11 d e the defendants citing Article 44 of the Revised Const1tu�ton and Civil as Code Articles 1463 ' 1467' 1471-2 and 1478. The plaintiff produced · ev1dence a contract . tl1at by v1rt11 e of of _ He argued sale I 957. 21, n1acle on December Artie!� 44 of the Revised Constit11tion and Articles 1463, 1467, 1471-2 and 1478 of the Civil Code, no unless it is decided tl1at person property of his n1ay be deprived the property · · · · pa1· d t th e 1s 1s neecled for public utility and Just compensat1011 person whose prop erty is expropriated .

° ·

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - No. 2

ugh he v1as served with the tho n eve ear app to ed fail 1 . No . summons . Defiendan.t t t t a e11. o f d_e1en s e1n "' is ch c� in L. �o mit sub ��t end Def ted on M ay 13. for y rne atto The , 11 cer not con his s doe nt clie n at1o lit1g and the requested tha 1966 ' Stated that · · t er, owev in H d a11 . se · ism1s a · d · dd · be l it1ona · client statement of the suit against his �y for_ D�fendant _ No. 2 argu attorn the 1�66, 28, er ?ct�b dated defence ed tha t . n g�v� his cJ1e11t a title deed No. had ba Aba s 1 _ Add o� lity icipa Mun since the 1953 . 8 _ _ y 1str the of 1v1in , by Pen letter No. 5257 56 pursuant to the perm1ss1on given 1 , rs of mete e Ian_? f squar r 000 , 0 3 in Defendant N·o. 2 to buy � build g a . facto ry, �� bad a legal title over the land. He also argued tl�a� his. cl1e11t had . paid E $ 120,0 00 for the land and requested the �o�rt to_ cancel the 1nJunct1on order 1t gave prev ious­ ly enjoining his client from building his factory on the property he had bouoh 0 t in good faith. The attorney for Defendant_N�. 3 in his st�ten1ent of _d�fe11ce dated May 20, 1966, requested the court to d1sm1ss the case since the M1111stry of Pen has per­ mitted by letter No. 3245.8.66 of February 12, 1966, the National Coffee Board to take over 22�,00? square meters of land in the sai� �is_trict for public utility and, moreover, 1t 1s ordered that the case of those 1nd1v1duals who claim that they have the right over the land be considered by a committee under the cbair­ m.anship of the Lord Mayor. We have examined the argun1ents made by both parties. It is not denied that the plaintiff's land is included in the piece of land given to Defendant No. 2. The contract of sale produced by the plaintiff clearly sl1ows tl1at the land belongs to the plaintiff. Therefore it is proved that tl1e land under litigation belongs to the plaintiff. Article 44 of tl1e Revised Constitution provides that, ''No one may be deprived of h.is property except upon a finding by n1inisteria1 order issued pur­ suant to the requirements of a special expropriation law enacted in accordance \vith the provisions of Articles 88, 89, or 9 0 of the present Constitution, and except upon payment of just compensation determined, in the absence of agreement, by judicial procedures established by law. Said ministerial order, to be effective, shall be approved by the Council of Ministers and published in the Negarit Gazeta." The procedures for expropriation of private property are provided by Civil Code Articles 1463, 1467, 1472, and 1478. This explains that no one may be deprived of his property unless it is in accordance with the law. Let us now examine how tl1e land under litigatio n was given to Defendant No. 2. Tl1e National Coffee Board) since it wanted its head­ quarter� to be situated near the railway on Bishoftu Road, applied �o the �n1pe��; requesting that the land occupied by the Telecommunications station, which \\ soon to be abandoned, be estin1ated and given to it. In addition, it requested that the land owned by individuals in this area be given to it for public use �P0? paymen� of the comp�n�ation to the individuals in accorda11ce with the ]a\\'. It �: not denied that the M1n1strv· of Pen ordered' by letter No. 3245. 8. 66 of feb ru arf 1 1966, that the requested 220,000 square meters of Ja11d be given to t h e Nat1ona 1 d a e tl Coffee Board after the Board deposited i 11 a ba11k the estimated price of i ] n � t s wa e�ty The Ministry also ordered that the case of those perso11s wl1ose prop · s 1 . . te . r h let s be expropriated be studied and decided through the Lord Mayor. T 1 presented to the court as evidence "l ill d, · · ar . o Tbere IS. no evidence prodt1ced showing that the Nation al C ?fiiee B of rjce accor<lance with the letter of the Ministry of Pen, deposited the estimated p got . d n a the . land in ard a bank, obtained the land from the Telecommunications Bo a title deed in its name for th e land.

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I

ZEWDib MEQUANENT v. COFFEE BOARD

Coffee Board }?resented no. evidence showing that it had deposited nal Natio The land 1n · a bank; 1t 01lly produced evidence to the effect tl1e of price ated · the es t·1ro n ve e gi to rt. to b · d n Ia e th d ste ue req that •t No. 2 pr�d_ u ce� Defe�d title a11t de�d No. 19538 as evidence to h thoug �ven the Mun1c1pal1ty and paid E $ 120,000 for the land in from 1t 1ed obtai1 he that sho Wdance with the order .of. the Ministry of Pen by letter 5257/ Number 56 . . ccor a tl1e Mun1c1_pa1·1ty a 11owing 1 11.m to buy 30,000 square meters of to sent \Vas hich [act?ry, tl1e c?ffee-clean1ng copy of th� order was not presented a g buildin for . :nd evidence. On the title deed the National Coffee Board 1s mentioned as the seller tl�e. buyer. I-low as_ was it that the National Coffee Board 2 No. ndant Defe :�d . a to ate 111d1v1dua� pr1 pany, m co. n n _ of mely Defendant No. 2, ty proper � � � the sold ted est1m l1e of price t�e. la?d 10 a bank ai1d obtain­ g 1 deposit11_ � � first ut witho ina the title deed for 1t? flow was 1t that the Munic1pal1ty gave tl1e title deed for th� land under litigatio11 to Defenda11t No. 2? Is it not a violation of the -first order of the Mi11istry of Pen? 1-lowever, at the beg.inni11g of tllis litigation this Court gave an order of injunction 011 April 22, 1964, enjoining Defe11dant No. 2 and the !v1unicipality of Addis Ababa from doing any work on the property of the plaintiff and from delivering tl1e title deed for the land to Defendant No. 2. Tl1e proper Police Commissioner was informed for executing this order. However, viola­ ting this order of tl1e Court, Defe11dant No. 2 destroyed otl1er fences constructed by the plaintiff and started building l1is factory. The Municipality also gave the title deed to Defendant No . 2 i11 his name. There cannot be a greater offence than disrespect and neglect of a court's order give11 in accordance with the law. Those persons who did not respect the order of tl1e Court must be responsible for the infringement of the rights of the plaintiff. Defendant No. 2 argued that he obtained the la11d in good faith. But tl1is can11ot be a good defence, for he conti­ nued building his factory on the plaintiff's property after this Court gave a11 injunc­ tion order enjoining hirn from doing any work on plai11tiff's property. Defendant No. 2 can11ot get any right over someone's property illegally. The order given by the l\-1inistry of Pe11 on February 13, 1964, letter No. 3245.8.66 to the Lord Mayor of Addis Ababa \Vas not respected. The provisions of the Constitution and the Civil Code were also violated. Defendant No. 2 cannot raise the defence that l1e obtai11ed the land in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Pen and hence in good faith, since he continued building his factory in violation of the order of this CoL1rt. Therefore, both Defendant No. 2 and the Municipality are guilty of serious offences. We have invalidated title deed No. 19538 since the plaintiff's land is his private property protected by the law a11d it \Vas not e xpropriated in accordance with the Jaw and was given to Defendant No. 2, a private company. Since Defendant No. 2 destro yed the fence constructed by tl1e plaintiff after the injunction order of this court, we order that I1e hand over the land to the plaintiff in the condition it was before. However , this judg 1 nent does not bar the plai11tiff fro1n selling the land to Defendant No. 2 upon pay1ne11t of tl1e 1narket price for the land. No evidence �as produced to show tl1at Defendant No. 1 ordered that the plaintiff's land be 1 v�n to No. . Board Coffee al Natio 2. the e involv not ore, Theref does J this case ? . Iaintiff may demand compensation for the damages caused to him by Defendants No: 2 and 3. We order defendants pay the costs of the liti­ e of thes that both g�tton to the plaintiff. The arnount \Vill be decided when the plaintiff provides u.s W� t� the itemis ed bill of costs, in accordance with Articles 463 and 464 of the Civil Proc edure Code. Tllis judgment is given in the presence of all parties. April 27, 1967 - 271 -


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ARTICLES THE ROLE OF THE COUNCIL OF Mll\1ISTERS IN THE LEGISLATIVE PROCESS Fact1lty Alumni Association Annual Luncheon, 1968* · Law the to delivered Speech A by If. E. Ato Seyoun1 Haregot It gives me a special pleasure to be here today and to deliver a short speech on ''the role of the Council of 11inisters in tl1e legislative process.'' This is an opportune time for n1e, as a lawyer, to express my pleasure at the increasing number of lawyers tl1at this gro,ving Haile Sellassie I University Law School bas produced within a short period of time. It is 11ot necessary to state the in1portance of the legal profession in a nation's development to you, lawyers and supporters of the profession. That our country has bad a long history of jurisprudence and regard for jt1stice is ,vell known to you. And I believe that tl1e commo11ly held view that there is a widely diffused knowledge of the law among the people has been well demonstrated by the alert­ minded and able lawyers that have graduated from the University. Before speaking about the Council of Ministers' role in the_ law-making process, it will be more appropriate to state what the word law includes. I. Laws in Ethiopia In the Ethiopian co11stitutional system the word law includes the following: First, proc.lamations: A proclamation according to the Ethiopian Constitution is a Jaw of the Empire enacted pursuant to the provisions of Articles 34, 71 and 88 through 91 after having been studied by the Council of Ministers, discussed and voted upon in Parlian1ent a11d approved by the Emperor. Second, decrees: A decree is a Jaw that is enacted by the Emperor after having been studied by the Council of Ministers, in cases of emergency that arise when the Chambers are not sitting, pursuant to the provisions of Article 92 of the Constitution. Third, orders: An order is a law enacted by the Emperor on the advice of the Council o.f Ministers pursuant to the powers and prerogatives conferred upon the Em�eror i11 accordance with the provisions of Articles 26 through 36 and other pertinent provisions of the Constitution. _Fourth, regulations: A regulation (ministerial decree or order) is a law that a . M�ster or chartered organization enacts by virtue of an authority given to him or it under a proclamation, decree or order. Before consideri11g the role of tl1e Council of Ministers in the making of these laws, let us first look at what some people think the Council of Mirusters does �Ed. Note - This ar ticle derives from a speech delivered by H. E. Ato Seyoum Haregot, Mini5ter � th� �rime Minister's Office, to the 1968 Annual Luncheon of the Law Faculty's Alumni ssociat1on, revised for publicat n in the Journal io .

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th in k that only Parliament can a r e m o . � r e tt a m is th to initiate and with regard � . only executes the laws that hav sters Mini of ncil Cou the that and e a1r ad ass 1 aws may be raised: What role can the Co � y ion Pb.een passed · Therefore a quest . unc1 o 1 f ss ? ce ro p g in a k -m w la Ministers play in the that has �y p�ilosop so �ar been in use is political in device major A the 1 t par ree 1 s� A _ r �t cco into d ers pow 111g to . this philo sop separation of governme11tal . h d 1de � d1v e. int t� e ree ar th f?llow 11�� branches: the political powers of a c��ntry th� tl1e Jud1c1ary. This political theo . legislative power, the execut1 ve power and accepted and practised almost througl1out the world. The Etl1iopian Consti tutio �{ ;ss based on it. It should, l1owever, be clear . at the outset tl1 at this political theo does not make the P�rliam�nt, �he exec�t1ve and_ the judici�ry_ independent unrelated in the execut1?11 o� tl1 e1r. respective funct1oi1s. �nd 1t 1s here that great caution has to be exercised 1n ��v1ng a cle�r understanding of the working of the theory. The exact aim of the pol1t1cal theory 1s to make the three political branches work by keeping their balance, :V \ ithout any 011e being able to have control over the_ other. In _oth�r words it prohibit�, for exa1npl�, the executive f�om usurping entirely the leg1slat1ve power from parl1am�nt, and inversely the parliament from usurping the executive power from the executive. If this is not avoided, then the funda,mental aim of the theory fails.

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Having said this about the theory of separation of powers, let us now look at ou.r main theme, the role of the Council of Ministers in the legislative process. IT. The Council's Constitutional Legislative Role

Looking at the Constitution we find articles d�aling w i th the Cou11cil of :tvfinisters' role in the initiation and promL1lgation of laws. Article 71 of the Constitution reads: ''The Ministers shall discuss in Council and, through the Pritne Minister, submit to the Emperor all matters of policy there-in discussed. In all cases in which legislation is dee1ned to be necessary or appropriate, the decisions made _ in Council and approved by the Emperor sI1all be cornmunicated by the Prime Minister to Parliament in the form of proposals for legislation." If the decision of the Council is in relation to a clraft procla1natioo, this Article empowers the Cou11cil to initiate the legislative proposal to be forwarded to Pa,rliament. Thus the Article shows the Council's role i n the legislative proces5• Since Article 7 l - in the context of_ the law-m1kin� process_ - requires t_l1at ac;i�� be taken ·by the Ernperor' the Council a11d the Parl i ament 1t refers JJar t , ctilarly ' . does ,f 11115 · · t er s proc 1amat1 ons. Although, as has bee11 said above, tl1e Counc iv.t I l of � discuss pr?posals of legislation before they are submitted to Parlia1nei1t, t�1e �mperoJ can, ?Y. vt�tue of Article_s 34 and. 86 (a) of. tl1e _Co stitutior1,_ propose leg,� la t io� ��s­ i � of sub�it it d1rec_ tly to Parl1am�11 t w1tl1out h1v111g 1t discu l nc ssed 111 tl1e �o u , tion u tit ters. ln practice, however s1nce the pro1nulgatio11 of tl1e 1955 Revised Cons no proposal of legislation' has ever been communicated to Parlia1ner1t witl1o ut liaving been wscussed by the Council of Ministers as Articl 71 reqt1ires. e the s e It _seems to me appropriate to exami r1 e now whether Article 71 em o v\ r rs. p de r Counc1l of M·1·n·tsters t o_ 1n1t1a d ° an s ecree · · · d te as . other . sucl1 legisl oposa ative ls, p olicy'', 8. in�e 10 accordance with of Article 71 the Councilr can discuss any ''matt�r p0hibits s reason_ able to conclude i that there is nothing in the Article wl1t ch Jr pri01 e ��e e ·Council from proposing and t ugh thro presenting to the Emperor

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orders as well. ·It must, however, be noted that this concluand ees decr · . er · .Mi.n1st · · · e rt1c h t. e , 1 · · 1n 1t A d state · 1s concluded by interpretation. Followpl1c1t ly ex not . 1. Council of Nl�nisters bas in the past presented decrees � 0: � the r tion preta inte t is upon and His Emperor approval such laws have �een J?Ublished the to_ rs orde :Od Negar1t Gaz�ta. But �ow Order _ No. 44 of 1966 bas explicit _ ly given this . _ .10 the M1n1st ers. will of I deal with this in part three Counc il the to powe r Apart from this, Articles_ 115 an?.1_ 18 explicitly state t�at the � n!'1ual budget and En1p1re are 1111t1ated by the Cou11c1! of Ministers. Article 66 t�e of funds onal _ additi ent, promot1 appointm the �n, transfer, suspension, retirement, dismissal that tates Government officials un er the all of ? e disciplin _ !nd . r�nk of Vice Mi11ister shall be made by _ the Council of Mi�1st�rs and approved and proc­ regulations by rned gove of Also Article 44 the Emperor. Const1tut1on states that no one may the by ed laim :fi except. t1po11 a property �is of ed �di�1g by ministerial order issued pursu­ depriv be ant to the requirements of a special expropriation law approved by the Council of Ministers and published in tl1e Negarit Gazeta. Tl1e above sho,vs that the Council of Ministers, by virtue of the Constitution, does play a significant role in tl1e legislative process. ID. The Council's Delegated Legislative Role

The Council of Ministers' role in the legislative process does not emanate only from the Constitution. It also has a delegated legislative role. A. Delegation Given by the Emperor In accordance with the Emperor's speech in March, I 966 and Order No. 44 of 1966 publislJed in the Negarit Gazeta, the Prime 11inister was authorized to form his Cabinet by nominating his ministers to the Emperor, for appointment and investiture by His Majesty. I n addition to this, the Order states that the Ministers shall collectively form the Council of Ministers and shall be respon­ sible for all decisions taken by them in Council. Under the Emperor the Council of Ministers is responsible for the conduct of state affairs. Tl1e Order author­ izes the Cou11cil of Ministers to n1ake decisions concerning all matters brought before it, leaving only 1natters of major policy to be comn1unicated to the Emperor through the Prin1e J\1i11ister. A question that may be posed here is: With respect to the legislative process, what additional powers did the Council acquire in tl1is O�der. \Vhich it did not possess by virtue of the Co11stitution? If we accept . the w1de interpretation given to Article 71, i t can be said tl1at the Order has not given any additional pO\\'er to the Council of 1\1inisters. However, it can be said that �be Order explicitly gives the po\ver tl1at otherwise can be obtained by a wicle interpretation of Article 71. Wl1at are these additional powers or functions which the Council explicitly acquired by the Order ? I. 1-\rticle 71 of the Constitution has given to the Council of Ministers the po,ver to propose la\l/S I-Iowever, as I have already said, although it has not been exercised . so far, the E1nperor can by virtue of Articles 34 and 86 (a) of the Co.nstitution, propose laws a11d submit t1Jem directly to Parliament wit11out having then1 discussed in the _ Council of Ministers. Since the pron1ulgation of Order 44, by which ti�� Emperor has _g1 ve11 the Co11ncil of Ministers under I-lin1 the power to n1ake dec1s1ons con­ cerning tl1e conduct of Council of Nlinisters bas been empowered state the aflairs to disc11ss legislati on proposed by ti1 e Emperor before it is con1mu11icated to Parlia­ ment. It should, however be 11 oted that the proposal of legislation cannot be communi cated to Parliam'e11t without being approved by the Emperor. - 283 -


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. ncy t rge tha eme of e when the Cba aris s case n i t tha es stat 92 cle mb ers ar e 2• Art1 s ns1s c e t t ecre · · d w1t un · I t he Constitution. p�oc h . can ror Empe the sitting 1 � � not � How t ey ave f ter een a d is me ; �us�ed in the Cou il ever, these decrees are procla1 nc o r. s T h ero ow mp E t h e t h is )' b It is enough to quo of Ministers and approved te e: re ec d a f that part of the preamble o ed Revis Our of Constitution and on the 92 le Artic with dance accor ''In advi ce ' e s as cre low De fol e W rs ' of Our Council of Ministe

88 and 91, if the Emperor rejects a proposal of 1 . 3. According to Articles . egis· · k to P . b ac� · arl1ament w1t_h His observ lation approve� by Parliament,_ H_e can send It a. tions. In pract1�e! however, this 1s done after the matter l1as been discussed in the Council of M1n1sters.

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. 4. It h�s already been mentioned above that_ the �mperor can _enact laws by virtue of Articles 26-36. These laws are also published In the Negar1t Gazeta after they h.ave been discussed in tl1e Council of Ministers and approved by the En1peror. For ex.a1nple, it is by a11 order issued by tl1e Emperor in accorda11ce with Article 27 of the Constitution that the organization, I)OWers a11d duties of all Ministries executive departments and the administration of the Government are determined� That this is pron111lgated. after it has first been studied in the Co11ncil of tviinisters is shown by the preamble to such orders: ''In accordance with Article 27 of Our Revised Constitution and on the advice of Our Council of Ministers We hereby Order as follo\vs." Laws tl1at are proclaimed under Article 29 are not diflerent from tl1is. Article 30 deals with international treaties, a11d while son1e of these are proclaimed directly by tl1e Emperor, others have to be approved by the Parliament. Article 122 states that such inter11ational treaties, on equal footing witl1 tl1e Constitutio11, are the supreme law of the Empire. Also, these international treaties become effective and thus the supreme la\\' of the Empire after they have been studied in the Co uncil of �1inisters a11d approved by the Emperor, or approved also by tl1e Parliament as the case may be. B.

Legislative Power Delegated by both tl1e Emperor and Parliament (By a Proclamation)

If we examine each of the proclamations tl1at are IJrocl aimed IJeriodically v.,e find that they empower the Minister concer11ed with tl1eir execution to ma ke reg ula­ tions for the proper carrying out of the proclamation. Tl1ere are also case_s where the proclamation empowers the Cou11cil of Ministers itsel f to issue regulations for to sent are the execution of the laws. Under these circumstances all regulatio 11s . the Council of Ministers for approval. However in c�ses wl1ere tl1e procla mat� on · ' u u on e e has_ author1z its · ed . the M111 xc ·h · · . or chartered organiz_ation co11cerned wit· 1st�r _ s \Vithto issue regulations, the M1n1ster or the organization can make the regulation o n1e s still · out h aving approval fr?m the C:ouncil of Ministers. There are, l1ow_ever, n whe . n eve, cases where t�e Council of M1n1s ters is required to approve regulations the Proclamation has authorized the Minister concerned to make the111· Exam�vles il 0 these are laws deal ing with taxes revenues general payn1ent of rates, � c�cil ou rig, hts.. �1 regulations dealing the y with ;uch cases' must be approved b of M1rusters.

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s aw L of g in ft ra D e Th IV. that the Council of Ministers plays a sign ificant role in seen have we far . So o f Proclamat1ons, tment ena Decree , Orders and Regulations. and n � atio � initi . _ the M1n1ste rs of proceed Council to do this? Who drafts the la\vs? Is the does w H n tio za fo r this? ni ga or te ua eq ad an tb�re A draft law is con1municated to the Council of Ministers through the concerned Minister after it is p�epared. b _y t �e concerned Ministry, organization, or the legal s M1n1ster office. me Wl1�n the Cou11cil of Ministers makes Pr the of t � rtmen depa _ _ _ a decision \Vh1ch req111res a propos,tl o.f leg1slat1on, the Council requests either the Ministry concerned or the Office ot· the Prime Minister to prepare the draft. A draft law wl1ich has been th11s prepared is co1nmunicated by the Council of Ministers to its Legal Comn1ittee for further study. The Com1nittee has as its permanent meinbers the Mi11ister of Justice, the I-Iigh Coin.missioner of the Central Personnel Aaency and the Pension Con1missio11, and one person fro1n the Prime Minister's Office: The Mi11ister who proposed the draft chairs the Committee to study the draft legislation. Wl1en the Com1nittee thus does its work, it gets all staff services from the Ministry whicl1 is concerned ,vith the legislation. If the legislation requires redrafting, it is done either by the Ministry concerned or by the Prime Minister's Office. The draft legislation thus studied and approved by the Committee is sub rn .itted to the Council of Ministers for fi11al action. If the dra.ft is approved by the Cot111cil, the draft is then sent to the Emperor in accordance with Article 71 of the Consti­ tution for approval a11d comm11nicated to Parliament through the Prime N1inister for further action. When the draft legislation is an order or a decree, it is sent in accordance with Article 71 of the Co11stitution. and Order 44 to the Emperor for approval and goes for publication to tl1e Ministry of Pen through tl1e Prime 1-1inister's Office. However, when tl1e draft legislation approved by tl1e Council is a regulation, it is co1nn1t1nicated to the Prime Minister's Office throl1gh tl1e Minister concerned, for publication. Tl1e Prime Minister's Office passes it to the Ministry of Pen to be published in the Negarit Gazeta.

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tD1l"-°T I oot;1�:flD'1 s h'J°'l1 : 9°1 : q_e� ..,: : '11�1..t\ : or... } �m-: +.rrc : 1 : � } : h1 f : : ,:JO.'i" lD(t' <�'P'I" O'� fUDi\f: nowt.,:,, ' 1D4il1': 'h1�tP/.1'1 ,\(IP 1 .1'1.';.'iC : filt.A,:JA : -Ot\'i"A :: n ':tJJ»O"l/t'J° = fOJ"ilt\� : on:, 6li),(& : "•"I : 4!1'�1· = fi'ilUl/tJDc'i" = ftPJ.e�l?- = t;•fro· = 111\.., = 01Juo1 : r,,1>:.. = <h'l'C = :,-c f ro = : • : �:,; : O(tmm.. = 1.,11,: fJ·I.U"}: �f. : OJ , J,, lDf,'J° ·C�O'f. Olf'I : � : A 'J° ' --'J° = oowt..:'f- = O"'l�t..«? = :, 1 = 4:Tc = �:,; .. ..,.. 4?1'C c (lm�11 f ° } .1 : h1�1f�: ,\(IP(D(t' f,t..P,A :: "h 1.'ttJ : 04?'PC = {;fQ"Q � lD·O'r: '(1:,-.:' roitt ,v."}: :J>A: :,-c,-.'J°'i": f<k'PC: G!�r1'1' I G!'l!!!1 : °l'J;i:i:,:,..: DTJw:,,: 'l1 1· 1' ftP/.t\(D•: :J>A , n4?1'C = l;!�I = lD-l\'1' = 9"1 = ,}-c•1,9° = 1,1-Pil\m-•,; = O<krrc �!�i 1 ?;!@t : 'h'i": l;!©iJ. : ootit1A: ft\OJ-1 : '?"}�i,:,... : {lODUDJ»t.:1,: Ill P,"}: 1,:.fflf,\:: 'h'}"l.'tU: fro1lt\� : ou:Plil>J.W·'l = th°l = :,"Cr-'J°: /\UJ/1J.t..t.1,: t\.,l�: roil-1t�:'f,1: f,:J�-: m'1�1: tttii>: .1,;: ODePt,:J�<e:: i',�i'f-1: n:Pc�n P ,. ', il : ID· ll : � l•: i\.ll : f��i! : OD'?f...f.\ : ro;:eA : ruic.·1 ..,..,rt OD11t11l l1D4: 4?'T 'C: l;£?!2 : f{1:'f··1: ouf:t.C.: 00h"thA: i u'?QC: frl•ODlhnff: �W·:: 'h1f..lttr9°: +.'l'C: tf.@n : illli':Fflll: ftJ'l/cf?(lA: ro1y:A: f,c,·1t-A:: .eu9'1: .. 'h� ti. u = o--tt.:,.. = <k'r c:-:;. = h.1,_ : q ..e� :,.. : :,-c1,ro :: fLfl llJ :fro h,�OTJ•.-1 q: ,,r{J1J t\t1;t-A � 9°h1 y.-J:9°: Oh.,.f-l:}1o9° : '?'ifJ>:,...,,-..: ou9 l..C: l,'}.�f..&.,11C: �m•:: n ..,..m:JJt\j\c:,- : di1°:.f : P'(: : 'll.1 �Ii,U : '1l\ :: OiJ,,e..9°f..°2,f : fl ODf..'l il: : hifl!!l� = h.'P:f.- ;;c: hf..:F A9°:: h.1�" : fIU!�t : q: 'l° = i't'P}!a: hi',; .. � roiz.ODti(lA '11+� = (4!'1'c) = n..'flro.. = rr llrf-:9'' = 4!'1'c:7f- = fOJ:J.'i1'ic:r ill\ h1�-: �1<: = h 11;.."} : (l lf"}: hit' }�: OJf.lbl\lD· : fi9°n'J ,,r.-l...: flooit.r:: h�: .rfl.: 1'i ,,P4:: 0'1Y:l"l: ! ilt./;\.,:JA &: U•flrl: "}: </!T�-:;, f ,lcJ, cp(D·• : i'tiS:: ,, lD·•: �m-- ? 1'1P.1,,:1�i; = 1' 1P,f.,l?- = :ril!lA. ? ouv,t,.;J--'f! = r,:1c:. = 11.«J>t-l,fl :fa,. ? fOI/.t\-:,..: 'r.r <f:SJl :1· -: ODmrer : it ll {} :f OJ·:: t\� tL tJ: IJ'.rcf:91-:,:: r01/.(lm(D•: ooAiJ = h.ll--;r : f,lf'iA i f..U?° : ,f•ODtati_e : :,.. C1·9° : ll..flllJ:fm· : f,1'1A = f°2.ttro-"}: itlll?DDC: m-Y::, = ff..C1'PA :: flro1)!1l�: OD:,,li6J. = ,l1'?: flh·A OD�lC'i = au;,t;Q,:'f'• : itf.,i1n:,..?° : 11/r' , 00',v.1:,-.. = 'P,:1 : fttro·'," : m.4'°i lf'i: 1l'i'17(1}«: ftLO--: 9°h1,,f:,. .: f"'i.lJ'',(1)«: ftD1)!1l.;: : oo:P66J,tD·i : 'h1.'t .tmc = f f..l1ro•: f,f"flf'i" r m:1>°7.: ftr�ro-: fl't&.llJm✓,. = (fitODllJffi•) P'� = P'COT : 'IID· :: f,U9°: flll/..fOPflh+'l: Oro1)!1l�: OP:t,61i/,ro·: ro•il'I' = f,"11·fll,1·'i: f-t·m .:J>ll/l = it+�l1l : ft\,t\ID· : 7'-P,J!,: hooi",h..4· : f,f"{\IP/ 0'/'i : f..f•tJ,',l)Ol: 'If'? ;e.:,.: f(Df'): A�: ,r«;,t;: ODfF).'}: �{D• :: {\'J°l'Jll,: h1Y.."" : ,,01,·: ('lD1lt\�: oo:,,tiliJ..: ,lt"l : lcf!'P: OrollJO:,..: 1.tL: rof.,'J°: lltl..f: O�I\: ,l1'?: Jctm·at. OJ' : t\,..,,.,.,..,. = tPJ?f?f,,f = OT/t1rllJ-t:1 = tiro4> = h'i� = ,,rll = 'rl,l·'i = 9°covtr '11\S!l'l • 9 1.c s Oil 1 <f'C : OILO- = 00 ?f?fA : fi.-f"f..l10:'f- : n'i=A : OJ"il'r : '?61J•:,�t; : 011 1 00 r 'h = ll C"lm� 'i?ft = floulf"} = tt.e1··t\?°:: roiz...rta11.,,1 = �1c = f."l'I'' )!fl.�: OPcpiil>]. : :tt«? : tJril'P: "n.11..l·LtJ : f/ltD·1 : Tl:,•: f,,f..l1: (llV": t,t\a: 'i�- = �m-:: a.1- 1 : fl4'4>ro- = (lro•: n ou,: o•Jtf = llm'Pl\i\W·: )lij:� = m:�; ; li1P,1� = hi'll.�: ,-.P,f-'f: fil\,f"+C: ro 1)!A: f"l"t..�00{1:,.. = (llP' · m i,'e.. I" h1�..L�9°n:,-- : f°tff...c1ar : il9°9°�:,- 1 m"}:e_t\:-"} : llt.?iOD� : (llD·: {ID h..r = fl..tr�to- = J!i.1--1\A = 111\o = �nc == fA� = n�A I t,1+1,.l- = (1'1f.. ,. i!�i(,h) = r+1.4,,:,. = 1'�tLu'l = r+ll"- = 7'->=f-'f. il"'lltf:,, = �nc o�": �tD O> 'J1:A : r+t.�ooo:,. = (lro-: ff...l1lD• 1 il9°'J°�'T i: ODhl\hJ': '1'."}�f,lf"t . 1

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po/.. ,flit : {l;f" : l\f, : noob4-.t.A : flt!\ i : A� : 'l O-il. : btj:f\o'f : ooJ!"fl;t-A 11 ,hi,.: ° : (llJf_-0: 1"'?'1C : flf..111 : 'h'l-'t;rm:P : A� : A� : CiJ(ll: +'1'1' .-;? J;..9 . . f. I : : h f ', � OD� ,. f,.1 1 : ',1 , q n. (f : : , {D• '} ih'? : h, ,o:,. : fl,ff\o: {\"'/ : f J � 'PA t 00 : : flh�A ,-,. : 1'11,."'l.l� : f{ + Atl- 'iA :: 'htLU : f..'?'I° : ai,-.., : ftool); 1 0 " :,.c; : (\OO,f-l1°'J° : 'h')Yv:, : h1'f.. /,.l� : 'h1'0Dt\b;rt\1' :: f:C�rJ: : fltLU I ,. il. : h�A : h iJil. : : fl°t : ro 1'C 'l : 110:,. 1! 1 O tt P. l-1\ · n f: fll'J ' : : C :, . l . : 1: t.'1 : : : ' ODl�T : illl9°1'i·A : ',(De :: lltLU : 009° = 1'C {\ ovovt-:itJ� 'ii\"'/ fH 4! .. o --rc: �!�ii (t : • f\ 1f. = } = ° = on 1111•n " 1 '1 1' nck A. • 'h't�:,• l\ODm��'l° : "h.'i ) : tf -- : " f r" : l\ : : A '? A } :, "h.1DDAbT :: 'h'ltLU : cf!'I' 6Lb °I ?t 0¢'PC : itt(t): {/IJtih ,. ll -n , 00 e"f : 011ill� = ODq Q;J. = ,'h"l = 1i t1,� = ro•il'f' = ,.rl\:far: 1, 4'"'1oo'I' : (IOc/r 1 (ID"J /\ 6liJ, s ti f·L tJ : h1_e.. OILh "I" I\ (D• : ll. (I 1' : f,:FI\ /;\ ::

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ON :INTERPRETING THE ETlIIOPIAN PENAL CODE bv Peter L. Strauss* .,

I. INTRODUCTION

1

The a.in1 of this article is to set out a11d discuss some general principles of ,nterpreting the Ethiopian Penal Code-that is to say� of usi�g it. Even now, ten _ years after it can1e int? effect, many people have difficulty 1n understanding and _ using tl1 e Penal Code _1n a. stra1gbtf�r�varcl \Vay: I� seems complex, and many of its fundamental conceptions are unfan11l1ar to Eth1op1a11 lawyers. This article, discuss­ ina at length how tl1e code is built, may help redt1ce its apparent complexity and th�s facilitate its day-to-day applicatio11. Since the article is about interpretation in general, it does not attempt to discuss in detail particular concepts, st1ch as ''neglige11ce," or cri1nes, such as ''hom­ icide." The one exceptio11 is tl1e ''Principle of Legality," embodied in Article 55 of the Revised Co11stitution a.s well as in Article 2 of the Penal Code. This principle places restrai11ts on the for1n and man11er of interpretation of the Code, and thus bas obvious relevance to o·ur tl1eme. For the other doctrines of tl1e Gen.era! Part, the first place for a11 Etl1iopia11 lawyer to tur11 is the commentary of Dr. P .hilippe Graven, .411 Introductior1 to Ethiopian Pe11al Law (Articles 1-84 Pe11al Code), publisl1ed * Faculty of Law, HSIU 1966-1968. l • \Vorks of general interest on tl1e sl1bject of penal law i11terpretation: J. Andenaes, The General Part of tl1e Criminal La1v of Norway, (Sweet & Maxwell, London, 1965), p. 96 ff. J. Graven, "Les principes de la legalite, de l'analogie ... ,'' RevL1e penal suisse, 1951, p. 377. Hart & Sachs, Tlze Legal Process (Tentl1 ed., I-Iarvard University, 1958), Ch. VII. Legal, "Les pouvoirs d'interpretation du juge penal en France," Revue perral si,isse, 1959, p. 94. Legros, "Considerations sur Ies lacunes et l'interpretatio11 e11 droit penal,'' Revue du draft penal et criminologie, Vol. 47 (1966), p. 3. S. Ma h�oub, La force obligatoire rle la loi pe11ale pour le juge, (Libraire geoerale de droit ... , _Paris, 1952). Radin,_ '_'Statutory Interpretation," Harv. L. Rev. Vol. 43 (1930), p. 653. G. Wil11am s, "Language a11d the Law,'' Law ,Q1,arterly Review, (1945-46), Vol. 61, pp. 71, 179, 293! and 384; Vol. 62, 1), 387. W0 ks especially relevant to interpretation of tl1e Ethiopian Penal Code: J J a en " l1e Penal Ethiopia," J. Eth. L., Vol. 1 (1964), P• 267. of Cocle of Empire the T , v r · 1· Graven, "L'Ethio pie moder11e et Ia codification du nouveau droit," Revue penal suisse, 195 7, p. 398. J. Graven, "De l'antique at1 no11veat1 droit penal etl1iopien," La vie jucliciare (Paris), Nos. 5�6 (Oct., 1954). 44 . g1e . et . 1no!o . ,1at10 . 1zale cle cr1m J. G raven, Vers . . , . un nouveau clroit penal ethtopian," .Rev11e 1nter _e poltc technique) 1954, p. 250. . P. Grav �n, An lntroc! l Code), (Faculty of Law, Peria 1-84 uctio ,1 to Ethiopia,, Pe11al LaH' (Arts. Addi� Ababa, - 1965 ). . . A collec tion °,f unpubli dm� shed docltments relating to t]1e Ethiopian. Pen�l Code 0� �95 7, inclupre ­ l d � expose de motifs, mint1tes !1° on, si mis om � on cat1 d1.fi Co <; the of . of the n1eetings Addis y, rsit uve Ur y nar I s1e las Sel fts ile dra Ha , w, in La of the y � Arcl1 ives of the Fact1lt aba.

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JOURNA_L OF El'f-IIOP.li\N LAW -� VOL. V � l\fo. 2

. by. th.e Faculty of Law i11 1965; a11 A111haric version of tlle , Eng co • 115h 1 y 111 .. m neu tar · 1 D It act ' F" th t · e r. a y. G on · 11 rave ti para e pr. is of the se cour .1 s 1110w the so� of the • 111 . _ •. · g I a e on or tim r s 1 wa en1ployed at the d an n ma fts dra l ipa nc pri Code's Ministry of J·ustjce. 1 foo tno tes as man tl ed wi lac ily av he as 1ot 1 is s low y fol of t . Wha th e arti · es cl · ct . ge� It· pa ese h 1ne see t 1n t ha t frequerlt wllich have previously appeared refi re es _ � us ng conf e mor tl1an be � l, u f' ght help i n1 _ .i ulted � co11s and ces sour that a I ts­ 10 the tex t. Except for a few specia) the 111 ed ong bel ion t a lan exp or cases ' such cussion es sourc used the have tio11s, bee11 i 11dicated as a quota direct of ion t u attrib as group at the beginning of each subdivision of tl1e article. 1 arises whe11 a lawyer or onl) interpretation of jt1dge has a pro bproblem The · • . ave_ co:ne to h is a tte11_t1on, and he wants to know lem before him.. Cert ain s:-:1acts h what the legal consequence� or 1mpl1cat1ons of _the1n i:n1gl1t be. Given a code system sLtch as Ethiopia now eOJoys, 111s first reaction. will be to look in the relevant code(s) for some indication of the a11swer to his proble1n. He 1nay find that the langu.age of the statute see1ns perfectly clear, and app ea rs to give an exact answer to 'his problem . Then, he need go 110 f11rther. But if the language is not cle ar or directly 011 point, be will have to go farther and atte111pt to reason 011t, using such aid.s as are available to him, wl1at is the law applicable to l1is case.

This article is about all three st ages of tl1e process: looking for the relevant law in the Code (and how to tell what is releva1 1t); deciding \vl1ether or not the meaning is ''clear''; and some of the means w11ich ca11 be used to reason out a sensjb]e answer if it is 11ot. The organization of the article stresses the )ast two questions - what is ''clear," and what ca.n be done where a provision is not clear. Thu.s, it may seem to pass lightly over the vital questio11 of finding the possibly relevant law. O·nce t he reader understands l1ow the Code is put together, however, and bow that structure can be used in solvi11g any particular prob)em, he will also have a much bette r sense of I1ow and wl1ere to find tl1 e possibly relev ant law. Th.at is, in Iear·niug about interpretat ion, the reader will at tl1e san1e ti�e be irnprovi11g his skill at finding and identifyin g tl1 e p rovisions which he has to inter­ pret. There are a number of special factors working i11 Ethiopia which liin it _ an? shape the directio11 of this i11qt1iry. Perhaps the n1ost i111portant is tl1e severe limi­ 1� fiu<l !o ants tation on the resources available to the Iaw�er or judg � wh� \.� �� about the law. Ideally, research tools would 111clude the follow111 g. versions of n 1 the a 1 encl r enal Code in each of its three Ia11guages-A 1 nharic, E 11glish and F f , P guage in which it was drafted; historical materials expla11atory of the ptirpose_ 0 tor r pr�pa a as the enacters or the expected fun.ctio1 1 of code provisions - such � drafts, explanatio.ns written 'by the d.rafter fo r the Codificatio 11 Comrn issio,i, aii s rec �rds of the debates in the Codific,1 tion Com111issio11 and the Parliai?ent ;. ca:ie decided by the Supren1e and High Cot1rts on qt1estio11s whicl1 have �n�eii 1.0 e U stic a op past; com mentary on the Penal Code by perso11s fa111iliar with Et�i i n J c m­ o d an ao<l/or the sources which were relied upon in drafti11g it; a11d materials o­ Eth,i �enta:Y �om foreign jurisdictions explainin.g either releva1 1t co11cep ts new s ion t� vis . o plan Justice or the cod.e provisions from which Ethiopiar1 Penal Code P were drawn. ers 0t11 . · So�e. of the most important of these materials a re simply unavai1able · • e thorutr a.re a'Vatlable 0nly at the req or , . Ababa ·on of Addis Unive rsi ty Law Library in tt'b ept.I :0u ' ·su k·:no�Ied ge of a foreign language to be understood. With th e exc 376 ,,

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

articles appeari11g in the J'ournal of Ethiopian L.a w, there and case s . ang , codes . Js. w·1th the same . uage ma ter1a tbe . lly no An1 har1c-I exceptions' there are 00 a · most or all r v1rtu t t ec o n Id exp fi d u �n c? ?ne courts in the Empire. which s erial . · mat ]aeo!a1 1 11n1ta t_1on of r�sources 1s t hat one must expect that, at least this of ce catl The si·gnifi ent lawyers and Judges will have to rely almost entirely on the lan­ pres e h f� � and stru�ture of the Penal Co�e itself, with_out b_eing �ble to obtain substan­ ag For this reaso11, this article will concentrate 011 how sot1rc es. other m fro . . �t1al heIp · b d �a11 e . 1se 111 1nte�·preta!1on. structure It will .not discu�s s�ch an_ d uage � lan . Code g and ?1ffict1lt q_uest1ons as .. Wl1at we1g_ht 1s t? be _given t? historical nt orta . iro · . statutes? Are of tat1011 previous 111terpre dec1s1ons 111terpreting a Code the in als 1 r pt e ma ·ICh ts · court w ater h a · I k as ed upon to Interpret the same provibii1ding rovision sl1ould be attache� to scl1ola�ly commentaries on Code e importanc What �on? of other countries fro1n laws which the Code provisions were on or sions provi drawn? A particularly regrettable limitatio11 flows fro1n the likelihood that the E11glish and French versions of tl1e Code are not widely available and would 11ot be widely understood. In n1ost cases, Amharic code provisions will have been prodt1ced by translation from an Englisl1 or Fre11ch draft, or perl1aps both. Inevitably, tlJere are discrep ancies. Altl1ougl1 the An1haric version controls, both by law and because this is the language whicl1 111ost judges and lawyers best understand, our law stt1de11ts assure us that the English and the French versions are often more precise and more readily understood. In many cases, this 111ay be because Amharic as a lan­ guage lacks a settled and precise body of legal terminology. As a res11lt, transla­ tors may have to use vague terminology, or long descriptive phrases which lose the exact meaning of the original text. Thus, it is not surprising that a compari­ son of provisions in tl1eir three different ling11istic versio11s will often assist greatly in understandi11g the1n. a 11d

Such a con1parison 111igl1t also suggest i11tended limitations of applicatio11 \vhicl1 had not been incorporated clearly into tl1e A1nharic text, as for exan1ple, i11 the case of Penal Code Article 472. The English text of Article 472(1) states: . "(I) Whosoe,1er conspires with one or 1nore persons for the purpose of pre­

paring or committing serious offences agai11st p11blic security or health, the perso11 or property, or pers11ades another to join st1ch conspiracy, is punishable, provided that the conspiracy materialises, with simple in1prisonment for not less than three months and fine. "For tlze purpo.res of this Article, 'serioz1s offe11ces' are offences },vhich are pu11ish­ ab/e with rigorous in,zprison,nent for ive years or more." f The italicized portions are 0111itted i11 the Amh,1ric. The French text is similar to �he English text, and there is no available record to show that the A11lharic ve_rsion reflects a Parlian1e11tary ame11dment of the original draft. I-low a judge m�ght or must deal with such again, however, sometl1ing best put is cies epan discr asid e until a later time. · We m ust also ch is that at the present wlli , tor e fac tak r tl1e t ano into ot1n acc I e most of the judges and advocates who must administer the Penal Code have �� a an� fo_rma� legal the n e _ tak �e ha de Co tl1e of rs fte dra eflucation. The ? s this diflic.�Itie very is ten writ e hav they t t 1tua s _ ,�l1a 1on creates into account, for run explanation a11d er 1111d e som be_ _ st mu re the l, St1l clear i11 its organization. � stand!g of how to approac11 these explanations, of how the organization works, of - 377 -


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t ir tl1a tl1e d l< ecte wor exp e uld Cod wo the be of s fter ttndersto od b dra . . e th . . how . . . . . y • ortant 11ot only to set 1t. A nd 1t 1s 1mp g lyin app for ible ons esp Out app . . t· hose r ro. avo1 to re . 1 d • so a 1 ee n ta. b11t t1pon 11, . 0 retat1 interp tech i 1 of iques of It1te . • te means . pr1a b 10 cou ntries _e )' ma h ey t ed ept acc r �ve how . pretation _ . . :Where legal educati on �-is ecl. 1cat , l11�t eed sop !�d or 1t �1ay be dotlbly i pl:x co1n are ch whi _ ead widespr tant to restrict ourselves to. s�n1ple tech� 1 1q11es of 111.te1·1)retat1on when dealingm�ftt tl1e co1nn1011 1nan, too, must und law, nal the criminal law. In the cr11111 e rstand . . 1 de11; I1e may go to . Ja1·1 1·r he makes · what is permitted a11d what 1s forb"d a m· . 1stake. severe. It sho11ld There is a final limitation, perhaps the most be clearly u i1der. . '' I '' r11 es of 1nterpretat1on, and that it is as 1ngs t. h. 1 1 s11c no are stood that there t the goal of this article t? help judges and. lawyers rea.s011 to w?at is ''tl1e prop��' or ''the correct'' -res°;1t 111 the cases t�ey _ 1 nay_ l1ave to deal with. Fringe areas of u.ncertainty, as we will shortly see, ex1st 1n virtually every statute. In these areas the l�gislature has 11ot clearly decid_ed or per�aps even. co11sidered the appropriat� r oean1ng of the law; cons�quently, 1n th:se fr1n�e ar�as, a11· r a11swer would be per­ , missible and tl1erefore technzcally ''correct. Certa1nly, 1n mak1ng the choice a lawyer may find one or another interpretation bette1· for reaso11s of social policy or the like. But tl1e point is that tl1e choice is open for him to make and, whether he makes it intelligently or 11ot, one cannot say a priori tl1at his choice is impermissible or wrong. Thus, it would be more accurate to state tl1e goal of tl1 is article as the following: to l1elp j11dges and lawyers avoid imprope,· or unjustified results, by suggesting gttides for determining \Vhere legislative solutio11s really are uncertai11, and what considerations might ·be l1elpful in 1naking the 11ecessary cl1oice. It can do no more. Common sense and a feeling for ''justice'' are tl1e ultimate tools on whicl1 a lawyer must rely, and, i11deed, the criteria by which l1e and the results his deci­ sions produce will tl1emselves be judged.

Il. FINDING THE POSSIBLY RELEVANT LA\V 2 For the moment, we concern ot1rselves witl1 tl1e linlited qt1estio11, 110w to �nd within the Penal Code tl1e law which might possibly bear on a proble m. It. requ1 res a preliminary investigation of the principles on whicl1 tl1e Code is organized;. \Ve will return to a more detailed i11vestigation of these principles wl1en we co11sider the question of interpretatio· n as such. What we are looki11g for now is a _way of : determining by their langi1age or placing, what provisio11s of the Code 1n 1gl1t be relevant to a legal proble1n. . We could take as an exarnple tl1 e followi11g factual situatio11, to wbicll \1/e w1IJ fr�quentl� rett1rn later 011. Certain people of Etl1iopia., s11ch . ,1s tl1e Afa{i, a�! . . nomadic Their dwellings are co11structed of sticks a11d 111ats whtch can eas Y e · r1 to d ie a \\' removed from one site, packed 011 the b�tck of a camel, :ind carr 1 o re11 place. Suppose that du.ring daylight hours an A far is in the course o f vu ; 1e w p, the parts of his dwelling from his camel's back and putting them u n ed thief emerges from the scrub a11d tries to carry then1 away. The tl1ief is urlari�ted a o· <l does not threaten the Afar personally·' he si111plv· tries to take the li nconstr ut hi's • pieces from the ca1nel's back and run oJI wit 1 then�. Seek1i1 g t? protec thi· e � f The . . thief property, the Afar grabs up his spear and uses 1t to pierce the . any •r · 1 · t ' ' d1 ?s. How would one find the penal law relevant to th.e q·uest1on f wha crime the Afar has committed?

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law 11g dep of find ends a good deal on knowing in the j ss proc e the . h . . houg , All like 1s ly law to con side the r facts significant, knowledge of the wha t first p lace,p rinciples of tl1e Penal Code is also important. The Code is in fact ' ' · stru ctur a1 Th · d. 1s org�� 1· �at1· on consists · IIy_ o �· gan1ze · log1ca of a series of suband ully ref a v�ry. c . The first spec sub d1v1 1fic1 s ty. 1on of the Code, into three Parts easi 11g incr of s 1vi ? ���:bly already familiar: Part I, tl1e General Part, contains principles wllich 1s ) n11mber. of pe11�l offences; Part II, the Special Part, a lly to a l_a �ge gener apP Y n of relatively serious offences - the ones we are most defin 1t1o ic speci f the to think of_ as � 'crime_s''; Part III, the C?de . · of Petty ��e 11�es, describ�s crim­ little 1n1portance, very often v1olat1on of 1Ul111stenal regulations or . 1 o111 of s A". e nce ina 1· gh t pe11a1ty. part I_ II also states some ge eral s very 1 h . t w1_ ttended and � � . the like _ l l � applicable to th� se petty cr11nes. Each of these Parts 1s itself a spec1fic s iple _ _ _ rinc bd1v1s1 011s are subd1�i ��d, and s� f�r�h until _one gets to w�at is u its ivided, � fubd _ . ener ally speaking. the �.m,tllest subd1v1si o�, the 1 !1d1vidual article. Each subdivision icles 1ncl11ded - l1as a t i tle, wl11 ch reflects the place of that sub­ art Code the _ �f scl1en1e. statutory There 1s thus a formal structure of relation­ overall tl1e within ision v di ship s \Vithin t�e Co�e, wl1ich. i�. explai11�d or indicated to a s�1bsta�tial degree by tlle naining of its various sul,d1v1 s1ons. Tl11s formal struct11re was 1ntent1onally created, and created for just this purpose - to l1elp illustrate the 1 11eani11g, purpose, and interrelationsl1ips of various Code provisions. Understanding this important fact will help to identify the pro,,isions relevant to a.r1y legal sit11ation; later we wil l see how it should also help to understand tl1e possible pur1Joses and mea11ings of tl1ose provisions wl1e11 tl1ey are at issue. The Penal Code's Table of Conte11ts is the first place to look i11 seeki11g pos­ sibly relevant Code provisions, for it clearly sets out the organization of the Pe11al Code and the titles of its various subdivisions. Ofte11, the best first step will be to look for the specific offe11ce(s) \Vhicl1 may be involved. Tht1s, we can immediately e liminate the 247 articl es of tl1e Ge11eral Part fron1 t h e first stages of our search, since specific offences are not described in Part I. In tl1e prob lem case of the Afar, set out above, we can also eliminate Part III, the Code of Petty Offences; if killing the thief was an offe11ce, it very likely is treated as a ratl1er serious matter. The search is thus 11arrowed to Part II of tl1e Code - only 442 of the Code's 820 articles.

�r:ty

Part II is itself divided ir1to fo11r ''Books'' each with a title i11dicating a broad kind of specific cri111e. In tl1e case of the Afar, the 011ly Boo.k likely to app l� �s Book V, ''Offences Against Individ11al s and tl1e Fami ly''; the tl1ief :W �� . an 1 nd1v 1 dual, not ''tl1e State'' (Bool< III), ''Public Interest or the Commuruty (Boo� IV), or ''Property'' (Book VI). N·ow only 126 potentially eligible arti�les re_ main. Book V is itself subdivided into four ''Titles''; Title I, ''Offences against life or �er_ son," seen1s the most promising. The thirty-one o.ffen� es o � �f tl� I a�e further d1v1ded among three ''Chapters''; Chapter I, ''Offences against life, m1ned1� tely tl gests its�lf as most relevant. Chapter I is_ com prised of two sect101:s: ,�: � � � c1de a11d i ts forms'' a11d II, ' 'Offences aga11�st life unborn . - Ab�rt1on , � u n � S · 100 II an tl1us c les. Of t�ese, arti t a11 relev c ibly poss be 1 seve1 put ng leavi rtsicle �wo can qtiick.l y be elin1inated si1�1ply by .... gla11cing at their titles: Article 525, ''In5tigat­ �n g or aidir1g ar1otl1er to co 1n1nit st1icide'' a11d Article 527, ''I11fa11ticide." Tl1e other ve must be reacl.

On reading them, one e''; i�i� Hom l atec gr�v ''Ag , 522 icle Art te 1ina can quicl<ly elin in the facts ng, killi the ated edit prem n give had r Afa one the could l1arc ' · lly tl1ink or that· th ere was a11ything else to show that he is ''exceptional1Y crueI or danger- 379 -


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' d le; a11 !� ip tic 11c Ar s : ''� 3, 52 1, 52 i 4 le tic _52 Ar g in d ad an re m fro 6 52 t u B· _ ,, ous.. e l era sev . ,, 1 ach st10 que e 1c1d 1s hom of e aris . m for : r a la Wh ticu par t 1s cause''? · . w1 · th a dealing · e d e d fin · 111 .A.1.tic1e 523 a crime cnn1e the . Is , nce''? ge ''negli .nt nti , ? o f . n ten . n 1 ecessi y of state . i lf s t a s ''? t ''legiti 1 '' What i i n ? her? n ma l' o ; ,: e t e c e -de1e tion neg 1ge.uce • · nce"? . 1ng 11. we Ai, d h s 1ar 1s . '' h the e' s ous wa · '? ing kill To the of som me , ' ti e exten t · he t At · · · · h ' h w1 we · 1 1 d 1 ea_ 1c · w h shortly But the wit · on, tat1 rpre 1�te of ns stio que are these . e xis: there 1nay still be other possibly . ence of 60 many questions sugges.ts that t re 1 e t van . . . . e t b h e e1ore . d tas k f , . cd e1 o cons1 and r interp etation as such p.rovisi ons to be found begins. It is at this point that an uode1·standing of Part I, the Ge11eral Part beco mes important. As already stated, _this p�rt co11tai1�s rules of ge11eral applicatiod through.­ out the Code, a.nd so one 1rught think that 1t woL1ld suggest tl1e answers to some if not a11 of the question.s raised above. The General Part is itself carefully orga11ized. It is divided into two Books The first deals with questions influencir1g the q·uestion of guilt - ''Offences and th� Offender'' - and the second, with the question of punishn1ent. Each of these books is then subdivided, in a logical way, into Titles, Chapters, Sections, Paragraphs and Articles. To illustrate how, this organization can be used for law-finding, the struc­ ture of two of the Titles of Book I is set out below: The parenthetical questions are intended to show the material dealt with.

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Chapter I - The Criminal Offence (T11 what circun1sta11ces, where a11d when is an offence con1mitted ?) Chapter II - Degrees in the Co1nn1ission of the Offence (\Vhen is an offence begun to be com.mitted, and can it the11 be withdraw11 fron1?) Ch.apter III - Participation in an Offe11ce (What persons are participants in guilty of - offences?) Chapter IV - Participation in Offe11ces Relative to Publications (What are the special rules of personal liability for illegal acts of p11blication?) Title m: Conditions of Liability to Punishment in Respect of Offences Chapter I - Criminal Responsibility (What perso11s are exc11sed, and to what extent, from criminal liability on a.ccount o·f their physical or mei,tal con­ dition?) Section I - Ordinary Responsibility (Adults) Section II - Infants and Juve1tile Delinquents O f' y uilt g Cha�ter . II - Criminal Guilt (What state of n1i 11d renders 011e, Justifies, or excuses i11 part ap_parently criminal co11cluct?) d . , is nun f Section I - Intention, Neglige11ce and Accident (What state o necessary for criminal guilt to exist'?) d 1 ns 't'o 1 con Section Il - Lawful Acts, Justifiable Acts a11d Excuses (What permit, justify or excuse otherwise 11nlawful conduc t?) ns o diti n c Section III - Extenuating and Aggravating Circ11n1stances (What o nduct?) call for partial reduction or increase of the penaJty for unlawfu1 co t b �f '.fitile fl, th?U, deals with relatively objective questions of criminal liabiliZ0 aGts, · 00,mmt:tted by whom, in what circumstances, are necessary to a

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more subjective questio11 of blameworthiness: was he it deals � � � III . Title tbe . t g uil , when he al acted such that he deserves to be punish1nd1v 1du the of d in · m of state t? n te ex t a h w to 50 •r d ' l an d e' if possibly there is more l aw in the Code on the see to then , , okin g 111 lo case, one can make some prediction where it is likely 's . s noted in the Afar · · '' '' Issue ca ap us pa re nt 1 y re quired by A.rticle 522 seems an l at1?ns b!· P o f e r e l1 T � . d n ti o f _ _ to. be henc like l y e to l 1ty, be liab1 descr ibed of in Title II rather than tion d i con tive 0 Chapter I o f Title II Article 24, ''Relationship of Cause _ ?J ec ll ii1 fi11ds one ed, Inde Ti�1e I Eff�ct." Questions of negligence, inte11tio11, necessity and self-defense - having and, pos�ibly, excuse .- one co· ul d �xpect_ to find dealt n1ind of state with :; do II. Looking at tl1e titles of the articl es In that Chapter Chapter III, Title iii 1'tl ; � easy to n1ark the follo\vi11g. ones as �ik �l y to be _relevant : Article 57, Principle� i . _ Criminal Fa11Jt and Acc1den �; Article 58, c;r1m1na l Intent10 �; Article 59, Criminal Negli­ gence; Article 64, '.A.cts Re 9u1red or Authorized by La_w; Article 71, N�cessity; Article 72, Excess of Necessity; Article 74, Se l f-Defe11ce; Article 75, Excess 1n Self-Defence. finally, one can guess that a defi11itio11 of tl 1e term ''house," which might be iniporta11t for applying Article 524 i� the Af�ar's �ase, is unlikely t? be found in the General Part. Althougl1 tl1e word 1n1gl1t appear In several places 10 the Code, and a t1niforr11 definitio11 could be of substantial i111portar1ce as will short ly appear, what is involved is hardly a general princip l e of pe11al law. A definition of ''house'' wiU not l1elp us to determi11e, i11 general , the subjective or objective conditions for guilt in pena l cases, nor will i t be of ger1eral use in determining the degree or measure of pu11isl1ment. Accordingly, it has no place in the General Part. It remains to take this body of ''possibl y relevant l aw," four Special Pa1·t articles and a 11un1ber of Genera l Part articles, and interpret them - use them in the case at hand. Or1e would have to ask whether the meaning of each of the articles, or al l of them togetl1er, is entirely clear; what the relationships between them are; what is the appropriate legal outcome. What foll ows is addressed to these interpretationa l tasks, first as regards individual Code articles, and then in the larger context of the Code as a who l e. ID. THE VERBAL LIMITS OF A LEGISLATIVE RULE 3 . Once he has found a possibly relevant provision, the first question a judge �s likely to ask is, ''What meaning cot1ld the words of this statute have?'' In a part13 · The principal \Vork dra"''- Il on for this section was: G. Willia ms, "Language and tl1e Law," Law Qt1arterly Review, (1945--46), Vo l. 61, PP· 71, 17 9, 293, and 384; \'ol. 62, p. 387. See a so: 1 rdenae s. , work cited above at note 1, pp. 102-103 and 110. · Frank, Courts on Trial (Princeton University, 1949), p. 295 ff. 24 e 71, 160-1 pp. -0- 260. nd, esp. III, r Ch. g L n, (B ), 1932 ve lation islati Reg1, osto e A F u art &_ Sachs, worl< cited above at note 1, pp. 1156-58, 219-21. E· Levi, "An Int oduction to Legal Reasoning," U. Chi. L. Rev., Vol . 15 (1949), p. SOl, r 503, 520.

al Leg nt rre Payne, "The Intentio n of the Cu es," tut Sta of n atio ret Legislature in tl1e Interp Proble,ns, J95 6, pp . 96, 99-100, 105. Radin, work cit . Press, 1964), . ersit 1· S!one, Legal ed above at note J, p. 866. y System a11cl Lawyers' Reasonings (Stanford Univ pp. 31-34.

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e tak the f orn1 of tl1e questio nly mo com l wil n tio ina erm det iJ, e this ''Co u1a uld '' ? se is ca th to ly p p a te tu a st is th f � s' �� � � e �h seen ten . o easy . m 1 The may tion ques l f legis this ature to . er answ . ay have The . t ose h h o f h h one n be l� \Vou \V IC may case co1 the e or wit i n an . spoken clearly, Y h n t at te. s tl1e the . ill, of S ds st1 t1 wor que t . the 011 of is o e w 1ch . . reasOn.able meaning s h k to e see. . 1 e tim c y ver e:er �sco ge jud or what legal rule yer_ law a ts confron to a 1s l�w sion profes Th� him. of words. Words are apply to the question before d a1 the , at1on un1c m . 011ly com 1 n s an 1nean hum of ns com mea tial n1o essen ly .used an . . . f o or 11ot� 1t e · h t s . c1ou cons . .fi1rst step a lawyer take 1s he ther Whe . ation legisl in to ascertain the meani11g of some statutory rt1le 1s to read it and ask himsel} what the words mean. One may ask, of course, whether an� to what ext�11t the words of a statute n1atter. U_nder _some governments, the wl11m of an offic�al ma.tters n1ore than any words wntten 1n laws. The world has known systems 1n wl11ch legal issues were settled by refere11ce to custom, previot1s court decisions, or what the judge believed to be ju.st. This is less arbitrary than the first case, b·ut is still a situation where written rules are not paramount. Even if one were to agree that, in general, written rules goven1 , there would be the question how far one can reason with tl1 e statutes enacted. For example, if a statute forbids threate11ing someone witl1 ''a knife," ca11 one apply it to a case where someone is threatened with a. gu11 ? Both are danger­ ous weapons which could cau.se a perso11 severe fright; ca11 one t1se tllis a11alogy to apply the statute to a case tl1e wording of tl1e stat11te overlooks? The Ethiopian Constitution n1akes it very clear that neither whim nor judges are, in the first instance, tl1e proper source of law. It cl1ooses a l egislative systen1 i n which the pri111ary respo11sibility for stating rt1les rests in the En1peror and Parliament. The enactment of tl1e code system, in which all laws are put in writ­ ing, is a natural outg.rowth of tl1at choice. One can say that in Ethiopia the words of statutes are at least the starting poi11t for any discussion of a legal issue.

This leaves tl1e question \Vhether the words of statutes, by tl1eir possible 1nea11-

ing, also limit the discussion of a legal issue-whether ''a knife'' ca11 also include ''a gun," if the purpose of the stat·ute see1ns to require or pern1it th_is. 111 the case of the Ethiopian Penal Code, words do impose st1cl1 limits on courts, for reasons that will be examined in detail later on. 4 The application of a pe�al statute is, in gene.ral, limited to the cases in.dicated by its words, give11 a meaning which they will bear. Since this is the case, it is ol1viot1sly qt1ite in1portant to know what tl1e meaning of any given word o .r collectio11 of word.s 1nigl1 t be . This will often be a much harder question than migl1t at first appear. For 1 t 0f s ·1s gener�11Y recognize · · e mean c1s 1mpre a11 d h t · at alwa. y s not words a .re often if . 800 1e1, en 1 tl commun1cat1 011. They m.ay mean one thi t 1g to tl1e person who speal(s . n111on · · . co1 _ n 1 g thing else to one who hears them, ru1d have still a tl11rd 1nea111n .. 1 01ay usage. Yet the law may ma·ke sharp differe11ces; freedo1n or years in Jal ords ost n turn on the meaning they are give11. Tb. e imprecision exists becat1se , w e 0_ describe general concepts ' at varying levels of abstraction · There is a ''core in �on · tl rac I abst · ing'' O·f c1ear 1nst�nces ar i to which most me11 wo11ld agree that part1ct •

4;. 'iEhe discussia.n begins at Section IX within, p.

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there might be substantial disagreement whether it wl1e re area , '' ilge ''fri . a . , es appl� or 11ot .' and another clear area where most would agree it did not apply. apP]1es one could take the word ''house," wltich could be significant ple exam ,l\s anplicatio11 'of Penal Code provisions, for example Article 524(a). This Article . . . ap · . the r10r an .. th er o . 11� . s r�s ''k'll 1_ 1st 111g t.he v�olation, by force or \Vho so r pe ? a · o . a�JJh·es t of the privacy of l11s l,ouse or o t1tbu1l d111gs, there being no true s tate of tricke �{' ...'' ''House'' is a fairly precise word and there self-defe 11ce inate leoiti or n:ces Sl y agree to as me11t what of is a ure ''hous e'' n1eas and �hat is not. g; r la b , 1 . . . e ' will • f'. ch1ca b u1'ld'111g, 1n w 111c.h a 1am1ly 1n is living, is within the one-roo t al1e11 . A pernl , ' of ''house.'' Th at ts, aI1nos t eve1yone, · · 1·r not everyone, would agree aning e m c ore a ''l1ouse.'' A11d almost everyo11e would agree called be co11ld. 11ctt1re tr s a uch . t hat s . . wh1ch �n1mals were �ept for_ the d, w1' th �ut a roof·, 111 11 f cornpo ced n e � a that to e11cot1nter beg111s 011e uncertainty, however, ''l1011se. cons 10 1 dera not is .. ght ni . · . . . b t 111g u1 d 1 · · apartme11 1n th e city is a ''l1ouse. '' Plainly arge 1 ft 111 at l f a .1110; \Vlle ther • · ':he ther an Afar's · 1s one is in the fringe area of . di_·sagr�eme11 t· w hei1 the 1sst1e d\velljng, or a ten t, or a building 1n tl1e course of cons truction is a ''ho11se." Certainly, there \Vould be room for disagreement 011 this issue, if more than one 1nan \Vas asked for l1is opinion. Parliame11t would doubtless have discovered such disagreeme n t a1no11g its 1nembers if it l1ad stopped to consider the issue-which it almost cer tainly did 11ot-and lawyers will discover that they disagree on the isst1e if it ever becomes importan t i11 cot1 r t, wl1ich it 1nay not.

Althougl1 e\1e11 a fairly precise word like ''house'' l1as a fringe of uncertai1Jty, it is not hard to find otl1er \vords, also sig1Jificant for some Penal Code purposes, where the fri11ge of uncer tai11 ty is q11ite large. These more abstract words, su.ch as "gang," ''11un1ero11s," and ''begi11," evoke very i11definite responses in the person ,vho h e ars then1. It may be very sigi1ifican t to k110\v whether a person was a n1ember of a " ga n g'' or no t, or acted together \Vith ''nu1nerous'' other persons. Bt1t bow many are ''nu111erous' ' or a ''gang''? One is not. Eighteen certainly are. But what abou t two? three? four? five? six? seve11? It can confide11tly be expected that among the read e rs of this article will be people \vho choose each of the above :figures as "the point" a t which the abstrac tio11s ''gang' ' or ''numerous'' begin to apply. Finally, tl1ere are some words which are so abstract as to be almost all fringe, io p_resent no areas of certain agree1nent. These are words whicl1 call 011 our e?l ot,ons, such as ''unjust," ''in1moral," ''reaso11able," ''good," and ''evil." The bistory of mankind has bee11 a his tory of often violent and rarely rational disagree­ �ent about what such words n1ea11. Tl1ankfully, such words do not appear often in the Pena] Code, a11d when they do, they find some explanation in the words aroun<l then1. We shall I1ave ter to ask \vhether it is ever permissible to la reaso11 us e them in penal legislation. s _ The conclusion t words, uses legislation o whenever be that drawn is now for as ,t must, it men will different necessarily which in areas creates fringe these d ' un erstan d i· ts • · e s \Vord t ' cases, there w1·11 b mos ps 1n perha ent , differ many In . ways . . agree men t that . there will te statu the y ever t s for But atute y. appl does not or does b a es to which that sta tute could be applied or not, depending entirely upon s h�wc the words which compose i t are understood. In such a case, no meaning 5

The d'iscusst0

0 is at Section X-B witbi 11 , p. 433 ff.

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e . looica tur the isla leg at wh s ha. h wit said can be Out t n e sist n co lly A . • which is o . of t h e e er I th n m e a c ngs cho eam a has � � ch whi ge jud question . The �; � � : the statut es t b s e 1c e w e d ext� _ j cont dec to · . the has 1 He has. obs the statute . permissibly the of parties or the · ions expectat like. the do Of to t n cour ' mea . se l r the . was. . l c 1aL I .. ' �01ces n d that he 1s c h_oos1n g, are sta der n u. open not does to judge li im, and � n not be said that l1e 1s a c 1t each, of .· es quenc conse the be may doing h'15 Job What 111 dly. bl' · · it d g n 01 be ill w he r fo ll, we ry ve first tasks of interpretatio11 is to be se11sitive to the fr· Thus, . one of. the 1nges ·a statute al�ays h as - to be aware of the range of permissible of uncertamty which . choice within the possrbl_e mearungs of the . statutor?'. words. Suppose that the Afar of the previous hypothetical was charged with hom1c1de a!l-d argued that he should be charged under Article 524 rather than son1e n1ore serious provision, because h was defending the privacy of his ''house.'' One judge 111ight say, ''This is a house!"� another, ''This is .11ot a house." They would simply be shouting at each other if they did not realise that the word ''house'' itself gave 110 a11swer in tl1is case _ that eith.er choice was open to them, a11d that they wot1ld have to find some basis other than the word ''house'' to decide what meani11g the statute sho11ld be given, that is, whe ther or 11ot it should be applied to the Afar's case. These ''fri11ge areas'' of uncertai11ty i n the meaning of words provide one source of unce rtainty in statutes, but not tl1e only one. We l1ave been assuming that one word, lik.e ''house'' or ''numerous,'' represents only 011e abstraction, and have sa.id that uncertainty comes at the edges of this abstraction, where not all men will agree whether it applies. But one word frequently represents more than one abstrac­ tion, or co re meaning, and in such a case the interprete r is faced with the additional difficult task of determining which or how many of these several n1eaniogs should be given to the word. The abstract concepts of the law, such a.s ''i11tent" or ''act,'' are very of ten such words, just because there has been so much ar��ent and disagreement about what they ought to mea.n. In the context of a cr1m1nal code, the word ''intent'' might mean a wish to accomplish a certain forbidden result, a willing11ess to do so, a wish to violate the law, a willingness to do so, a wish to do ''evil'' or inflic t ''har111," a willingness to do so, and so fortl i. The interp rete r must decide - that is to say, c/1 oose - how 1nany and which of the accepted definitio ns are to be used. Where the word is an in1portar1t .0�e, th� statute will very often help him in this by seeking to define it. Definit ioiis 0d ''intent," for example, are g:iven in Article 58. Still, tl1e judge will often be fa�e with a choice of possible meanings. Even if he is unaware that h_e h�s a cl101�' e t th m _ plies the fact that he decid.es the case in a certain way necessaril)' i � n ect e r and accepted any lt, definition rest1 J �b t�ingy that is logically necessary for his . · logically inconsistent with it. He cannot decide · wit defin1t1on · t hat 1s · hout attr1 u some meaning to the statute before him. lose not Id 1ou In concentrating on the inherent vagueness of la11guage, we s l r the r r 0th� sight of the fact that we often do manage to communicate with each �ssi­ lly well. We believe in and act on the premise that clarity of expressi on usua JS p ere th re whe g, ble. Most· cases will probably· involve the ''core'' of statutory meanin at · • s ' ca e will be little disagreement about wha t the legislature has said regar ding the Ja,v the e ?and· The fact that this article concentrates, as it must, on cases wher 18 unclea .r should no t make us lose sight of this truth. b le a oid v una M?�eover, not all cases of imprecision in statutes is caused by t no bas I . im ' ,preeis1on of lan guage. There p Y sun ure legislat m.ay be cases where the 384 -

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of expression. It may not have been able �ode po�si ble rest clea e to til d te adop r ex�mpl�, whether three, four, five, or six constitu­ issue -to som e on _ ely s reci e agre pas s to its disagreement on to the courts dec ide d and _ in the form '' ang �' g ted a uncertain word. It may 11 ot ha ve bee11 aware that the wording it adopted 0f an d could h ave · been ma_de more preci�e ?Y a definition a va�ue , . or uous � wa5 a mbigcarefttl wording. It may have engaged 1n careless thinking about tile . ore 1 n r 0. ·ons of tl1 e proble m be fore 1t..·1t may l1ave decided co11sciously to make its dimens t perhaps to frigl1te. 11 people into obeying it ' or to leave , 1 1ncerta i11 d 1 31 11 ue rule v,a0 for the courts to adapt t he ru1e as society changes. For any of these reasons 1 1ay l1�ve passed 011 to tl1e courts more work than, in the abstract: 1 ure gislat ����e . o d to e is w r o d e ir u q e r it was Ther e is substantial agree1ne11 t i11 111odern tl1ought, l1owever, that son1e legisla­ 111 tl1e first pl�ce, if words by their nature are u11avoidable. is n mprecisio i tive 1 c�s co11structed out of �ords will �ls_o, 1 1ecessarily, have areas of sente1 ecise, impr t ure . can to a certa11_1 exte1_1t el1m1nate these areas of impre­ le¥1sla A . ecision impr cision by preferring precise \\'ords over 11nprecise ones, or by ado_pting definitions which point in the direction of its tl1 inking. It ca11 11 ever completely eliminate 1 er, a11 d at some point the job of explai11ing what it meant would 1 owe\ l cision, e impr begin to take t oo 111a11y words. Such explanations would take ti111e perl1aps better oiveo to otl1er tasks, and co11ld tl1emselves be a source of confusion. Secondly, a legislature r1ec e ssarily works i11 tl1e abstract. It does not l1ave the advantage of the concrete cases wl1icl1 come before tl1e judge, but cleals with the ge11 eral problems of society that are called to its attention. It would be unreasonable to expect the legisla ture to consider and decide i11 advance every l1 ypothetical case that 1night arise under its enactment; it is hard work e11011gh to fra111 e language which \viii deal satisfactorily witl1 the major problems \Vith whicl1 it is co11cer11 ed. Statutes which atte mpted to do n1ore would be unmanageably large, and might introduce more difficulties than tl1 ey solved. One co,nes to the co11clusion, then, that not only do difficult problen1s of in terpretation arise 1nore ofte11 tha11 one migl1t think, but that this job is an entirely natural one for co11rts to perfor111. At 011 e r>oint, political theorists were fond of saying that ''The courts sl1ould be 011lv the mouth that speaks the law," and that judicial creation of law was a11 abuse - of po\ver to be s t er11ly avoided; 6 the legis­ lat�re deterrnin ed tl1 e Ia \V, a11d the co11rts n1erely a1)plied it to tl1 e facts of cases which came before tl1e111. \Ve see 110w that this cannot always be tl1e case. The !egisla!11re's pronounce1nents, 11ecessarily, \Vill leave areas of choice, ofte11 substa11tial, in \vbich the judge 1n11st decide what tl1e law is to mean. The inability and uodesirability of tl1e legislature to perceive and settle every conceivable case in advance, the necessity that i t fran1 e to fit a fe\v clearly seen ''mait1 cases," enactments its also imply that there \Vill wl1 ich the judge must choose what is be in cases man;' t� b e the la\v. In some cases - most if tl1 e legislature bas do11 e its job well - it WIil . be c Iear ' e _1s that the law does or does that a particular structur , apply not _ or 18 not a ''hous e." I11 otl1 ers, however, the law \Vill be unclear - the Judge will 6- Glaser "P · · · coct·Ifi'e et en dr01·t coutL1n11·er ' " ' nncipe de la Iegalite en 111atiere, notanm1ent en dro1t vue du clroit . � See :O the works p�nal et. c!·i1ninologi�, Vol. �6 (1966), p. 899 notably· ff., 421 cited p. IX-B, \V1th1n Section at Mah , wor k cited above at L1ote I l1istorical introdt1ction and p. SO. Thorsoub l ina in1 Cr te in es • tut Sta "T of on he cti tru ns Co �! in l Pr ciple of Legalit; and Teleologica fa , w Scandinavian StL-1dies i11 Law, 1960, p. 211, 213 ff.

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_ choose to is e g a concerned, u either g n la y r t� tu ta s s a for applicat· r a f so be free, 1011 g in more for jail to man a d or n se y cb , e ic o h c is h e y B . er Years or against it w i or . w la e th s e k a m e h , im h by freeing

the e_ that judg seem who ld wou it seeks to fitld in then true, is this . If sta _tuevery case to 1s r answe g closi11 I1is eyes to rea - language a rigid, single tory 1 1tv 1 es t prov ers u e "d t t h h · a s ansv.: t e 11t b wh1c there are also c ase There may be cases for · J•s latter the cases 1s presented, it is usel for which it does not. When 011e of ess to · r tl e ''t u · 1e d e 1n '' · fi d · 1oun 1rut1on of a disputed w think that the answer w1·11 be " or , rather, one; provided the has job of the judge is to as� unless the legislature How shall J define this word? That is, as stated above, he first seeks not t l ' one . and only_ true_ meaning of the sta�ute,. but to discover wl1at is the range �� has to cl1oose one to dec·d . possible meanings 1n the case before him. He then the case. Before making �he cho,�ce, he n1ay ask, i11 the words of a Sw�dish jur�st: ''Where do I go for guidance? 7 I.V. LEGISLATIVE PURPOSE AS AN AID TO UNDERSTANDING STATUTES AND MAKING CHOICES 8 Almost instinctively, the interpreter's first respo11se will be to ask ''\VI1 at is this statute all about? What was it meant to do?'' That is, he will make several important assumptions: (I) that legislative activity is p11rposeful, that is, undertaken to accomplish some social ends or goals; (2) tl1at the lang11age and form of legis­ lation are chosen to reflect these purposes; and (3) that applicatio11 of a statute should be limited to the cases indicated by its p11rposes, so that, in connection with our earlier assumption, for a statute to a.p_ply, its words and purposes ·should both bear on the case at issue. These assumptions are important enough to merit e·xamination. The first, that legislative activity is purposef11l, reflects a commonly shared attit11de towards life in general. \Ve believe that tl1ere is son1e reason in what we do-some goal towards which our activity is directed. Legislatures, in particular, a�e constituted to formulate directives-laws-on important issues of social policy. It is

7. Schmidt, ''Construction of Statutes,'' Scandanavian Studies iti La»', 1957, p . 157. 8. That legislative purpose should be consulted in determining statutory meaning is no\v a ����­ monpla.ce observation! which woul� be made or assu1ned by �ny reput able_ , com.I?��oduc� The argument today 1s over how this should be done. Tl1e follow1ng works give an in tion -�o �ome of �he techniques more commo11ly propose d: . . i 77. 58 P Ekelof, 'Teleolog1c�I Const�uct1on Studies 947), , 19 La�v, ri · of Statutes," Sca,zdinavian l l ( Frankfurter, ''Some Reflecttons on the Reading of Statutes," Co/1,m. L. Rev., Vo . 47 p. 526. , le · i n G eny, Methode d'interpretatio,1 et sources en droit prive positif (Librairie Ge era · · · Par s, · 2 vols., passim. J. Graven, ''L'analogie en. droit penal suisse," Revr,e de scierzce cri,11inelle, 1954, P· 653 1 Hart & S�chs, work cited above at note 1, Ch. VII, passim. P,e1 L • . m Kantorow1cz & Patterson ''Legal Science -A Sun1n1ary of Its Methodo logy," Co/u Vol. 28 (1928), p. 679. Mahsoub, work cited above at note I, pp. 54-66. Pay�e, work cited above at no te 3, passim. . Rad� ''A Short Way With Statutes," Harv. L. Rev., Vol. 56(1942), P· 38B. Schimdt, work cited above at no te 7, passim. _ Stone, work cit ed �bove at note 3, pp . 31-34. lnoliilStedt, w0:rk cited above at note 6, passim. ..

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would be ground for serious criticisn1 of a Iegisit do; to tl1e1 n t pec _ . e e b x v, ,v a t ' it were fou11cl d01·ng some th1ng eIse. Al. mos t as s0011 as we see a statute, Jature 1f,,what is this for? Wl1at purpose does 1t have?'' ,ve ask t the word � �nd form _of legislatio11 are chosen �ha ion, assump� o11d The sec 1e o c tl t t e ob�ect1on - as 111deed is the first _ that � u b s 1s s, se o rp u p ts · l . t . . l0 re fl. ec"'S or even 1rrat1onal. If the assumption were not ev1ot1s, d I are o res islatu e soroetin1e t, · a an eg1s t ure, I not t he assumption, would be generally · I d I 1e t ver, howe . true 0ene 1 ally ' · t I1�· s 1s · par t _ o f wh �t we exp�ct a eg1slature · ought to do. e d to bl an1e. Aga.1n, 1 _ act 011 this assumpt1011, and treat the words and h eld d w hei1 cot1rts consistently ee nor111 i ' f sta tutes as if tl1ey e111bocly its purposes, they help to make the assump0 . • f. 1 kl e earn w1 Y · 1 qt11c 1 to ma ke the words and . form of its leg1sl:: 1 tur The . valid ·r . . . • 11011 . es e 1· 1t ts awar of th 1s court practice and wishes statutes confor1n to its purpos ed. rc fo e en b to s se o rp pu its legislative tl1at purposes are ·bindi11g 011 courts, like the asst1rnption, third T he · assun1ption that legislative words are binding on courts, reflects a certai11 attitude on the proper relationship bet \.veen courts and legislature in the Ethiopian govern­ mental structt1re. Si11ce it is in tl1e nature of a limitation on judicial freedom, \Ve postpone exan1ination of it u11til later in this piece. For the mome11t, it will simply be accepted as a necessary elen1ent of interpretational choices.

Bef ore seei11g how one 1nigl1t discover legislative ''purposes," it is important to define the. term as it is t o be used in this article. By ''purpose'' is mean t the end or goal \Vhicl1 the legislation in question has in sigh t - the overall regulatory impact \Vhicl1 it appears the legislature 111eant the statute to have. Thus, Article I of the Penal Code states that tl1e ''purpose of the criminal law," using the word in this sense, ''is to insure order, peace and tl1e security of tl1e State and its in­ habitants for the public good." This use of the \Vord pt1rpose, and a11y disct1ssion of legislative purpose, is to be distinguished from what one sometimes hears referred to as "legislative inte11 t ." Very ofte11 one hears what n1ay be a permissible question, . such as ''What wot1ld the legislat11re l1ave done abo11t this problem if it had tl1ought of it?" turn i11to a very dubious one, ''Wl1at did the legislature intend to do about the problem before us?'' In the last questio11, the speaker is implying that on some specific question \Vhose answer is unclear from the statute itself, the legislative body actually intended to provide an a11swer, which, if only it could. be fo�nd, \vould solve the case. This notion that there is some preordained answer \Vhic_h has only to be fou11d is a very appeali11g one, for jt1dges do not like to a�mit that son1etimes tl1ey mal<:e la\v by their decisions. Nonetheless, it must be r ected. We have already seen t hat legislatures very freqt1ently do not even think f � ' much less solve, specific problems wl1ich may present themselves to judges but 101ct no clear answer in legisla.tive words. Whether, indeed, one can ever speak of a ar!le bodY o f · '' o� a spec1· fi e · n1en, or a 111ajority of them, as �av1ng an , :intent question not c early settled 1 1 1 b 1ard e It w1 dubious. . very by 1s words a statute's 1 fo :; n�g� r tlie judge _to d.etermine the regulatory policie� and goals of an enact­ n the large, without tment e11ac the that lf himse to d preten his trying to provid;s only ch has already shown could resear bis b e answered · one answer •to a problem which · . · s ning mea !n "bl e · 1ss1 perm sever 1 fron al rting depa rent diffe t hou t wr s way of the sta tu te s words. !u<leed, an inquiry the 1 te into legislative purposes will often do no mor� t�an help indica�e rpreter to identify the clear cases of application and non-appli�ation, an<l some consi derations \Vluch may be helpful for resolving the cases in be tween. - 387 -


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. . so, first because purposes will often be stated or revealed at This 1 1 e el of � very be a ful ot l1elp 11 will in they solvi 1 ; that · 1g �eat g any parti genera 1ty so l ar cu ose 1 purp of tl1e s the that Pe1 C ple, al exam for ode say To i to co11tr , pro blem. . 01 t h e se s 1at t purpo 1 · even o f . o tl1e · ior, behav r provi ·· c u·onable social sion regard,ng . . . o. b�e . . . . va ry b as 11 al 1s 1� 1g d 0 eg t1 rees of �ulpability �a a n o h 1s u 1g 11 st d to i is e homicid re a ·g rdnot very ul 1s helpf , being for 11 huma g a solvin killin the par ttcula · · g of the · •ng 1 · r c es a11_ n rt1 . A · 1 523 d O ee 524 tw be p_ hi nly ns io lat re as e purposes of problem of th siderable specificity _c�� _be 1nf�rred from a �tatt1te will these purposes help mater���­ Y er. ret the e erp fac int ich wh 1es 1l1t ss1b po tl1e e to resolv Second, ju.st as \Vo:ds are imprecise ai:d ;111ay �ern1it a w�de variety of inean ­ ings so are purposes likely to be u11certa111 1n their forml1lat1011 a11d scope. v ofte�, if not always, a legislature will be seeki11g multi�le and partially conflict��� goals; or mem�ers_ �ay h�ve been forced to co111pro1n1se or obsci1�e t11e policie; they prefer as 1nd�v1duals 1n ord�r to_ reacl1 a.gree111ent; or tl.1e legislature simply 1nay not have considered the relat1onsh1ps a11d consequences of tl1e variot1s policies it enacted. In the Penal Code, for example, t}1e purpose of i11suring ''tl1e securitv of the State'' n1ay often co11flict \Vith tl1at of assuri11g ''the security of . . . its j;. habitants." Among the events wl1icl1 the latter would wish to be secure from are unwa,rr· anted punish1nents, or the risk of being put 011 trial althougl1 innocent of wrong-doing. In tbe short run, at least, measures to insure the security of the State might substantially infringe 011 these i11terests. Thus, there is an almost neces­ sary inexactness and ambigt1ity about legislati, e policy, \Vhich sl1011ld make the interpreter hesitant to forn1ulate purposes too precisely, or to exte11d any one pur­ pose he m.ay find in a statute to its maximun1 possible extent.

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These cautions, however, should not be permitted to obscure tl1e basic poi�1t - that within the limits of common sense ancl jl1stice, those who are engaged 111 the business of interpretatio11 instinctively and universally find it meaningftil to ask ''Now what is this law all about? Wl1at policy was it enacted to enf orce? What problem was it addressed to? What change or rest1lt was it to brir1g about?" ln e h r et wl 1 a case where statutory language alone is i11st1fficient to answer tl1e question a particular statute is to be applied or not ' an investigation of statutory purpose carefully considered, may at least serve to narrow tl1e areas of doubt; 1· f 1·t does 'd a udge not p�od�ce a single, ''correct'' �nswer, it m_ay at least assist the j t?. v�is an obJect1onable result and provide s01ne hi nts as to how he may exercise freedom to choose among the per1nissible ones. . t killed ho A w ar To take a concrete example, suppose again the the cas e of ck b a th anot �er man when he found the other taking parts of his dwellin� �rom ; be of �s camel. The Afar has been charged under Article 523, but �ns is�s lle ano ce r f b on, v1olati convicted only under Article 524' because I1e was ''res isting the Y You tl1at or tnc · kery, of the privacy of his l1ouse . . . . '' Let tis sti�pose also urges, ',. A far tile g agree that the words of the statute could be given the n1ear1111 and are wondering whether they should be given that meaning. 4 . . Article 52 A reading of the two statutes i1iforms you t11at both Article 523 and n h a t deal with homicide, and that Article 523 ,vill apply in ''circumstanc�s o�her er lo\v th0se specified in Article 524. '' T.he penalty provided by Article 524 is qtitt':J ; vant ele i os than that stated in Article 523 (although you know from your searcl1 f0: p : t? {iating r la� . that the latter penalty might be mitigated under the proV15ion t be if h i legttrmate self-def. ence, A clear case in which Article 524 would apply ro g to tried the Afar had erected his dwelling and was living in it when tl1e deceased

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Artic!e 524 would 11ot apply, and A_rticle 523 would, which in case r clea A . de j 11�ru be if the dece_ased ,vas tryi ng �o take_ th� . Af�r'� u?loaded camel. W �at n:ught had l1ave 1n making this d1st1nct1on? What character 1s. ture legis la the ·ght · 11 · n se · o urp ,,1 t 11op1a u socie ' n ty · · 1 E 111 as p have distin ct from a ca.me!' wliicb , se' o 1 · a · · · does · defence must be exucs t 1at l req111re I v10 ent to acts 1n ture its legisla the d ea I \vould . the clegree of excuse for violent acts in the while degree, ble sidera con c used to fa property is left in11cl1 less certai11? otller defence o of . tl1e possi?le an_swers to tl1 ese . questio�s: There may few n a ly o are Here 1 nect1on w1tJ1 h�use-br_eak1ngs which liad come co1 1n n1t1rder? of rash a . 1iavethbeent n n of tl1e . leg1s�att1re; 1 ey w�re dealing ,vitl1 a problem of general tl tio te to e a legislatt1re 11 11ght have considered tl1at a ''house'' was tl1 e kind of The e. renc occu t :r y havi 11g the greatest mo1 1 et,1ry valt1e to Etl1iopians, and that a killing in �:�ln se of it \Vas tl1erefore s�bstantia]ly exc11s�ble. Or, it n1ay have ?onsidered_ tl1 at r 1 eed f�r privacy, an� would c_ons1der any intru­ Ethiopians l1a.d a deep e1not1onal . 1 sion into the place. wl1ere tl1 e� .were dwell111 g. as provoking; a k1ll1ng thus provoked. shoulde be substantially exc11sed Or, the leg1slatl1re may have been aware, because of on or n1 ore of tl1 e above co11siderations, that n1a11 y Ethiopians considered st1cl1 killings completely j11stified, a11d they have ,visl1ed to 1nake it clear by a. special enactment that this \Vas not tr11e; tl1l1s, by enacti11g Article 524, it n1ay have been announcing special limits 011 the application of the doctri11 e of legitimate defence to tl1e d efence of property - it may have bee11 emphasizing tl1at s11ch acts were to be punisl1ed, rather than that they ,vere to be punisl1ed 011ly ligl1tly.

In order to 111 ake wise cl1oices among these or other possible J)olicies, any of which might be e1nbodied i11 tl1e provision, it is necessary to know s01netlli1 1g both about tl1e ge11eral c]1 aracteristics o·f Etl1iopia11 society a11d abo11t the framework and assumptions of a code. Tl1 e at1 thor 1<:nows far less abo11t tl1 e former than his Ethiopian r eaders ,vill. It is to tl1e latter considerations, wllicl1 1nay prove helpful in determining b otl1 purpose and mea11ing, tl1at the article now t11rns. V. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OF STRUCTURE 9 A. The Penal Code Was Enacted in Code Form.

The statement tl1at the Penal Code was enacted i11 code form might not seem to have mtich significa11ce for i11 ter1Jretation of any particular provisio11. 111 fact it doe s, becau se of wl1at is i111plied by tl1 e llse of ''code'' form. As used i11 Ethiopia and �urope, this form is us11ally reserved for a body of laws which are drafted at 0e 1n1 ? � e, by one person or a closely cooperating body of draftsme11, witl1 the intent ion of stating clearly and systematically all tl1e rl1les applicable in a given area �f Jaw - for exainple, 1Je11 al Ia,v. Tl1is description certainly fits the Ethiopia11 Penal ode, and may be contrasted with tl1 e sit11ation reflected in the Consolidated Laws 9 · Specific I catio · n for the positions take11 in this section vis a vis tl1e Et l11op1a J.ust'fi . . n Pena 1 cod e may be found in: G raven work · d abov� at ?ote 2, p. 281 ff. �tte ' Expose ?e motifs, collect1on c1tecl above at note I. See also . ed abov Mahsoub k wo r cit .. e at note I, p. 57 ff. Sereni ' e od s. Pres sity iver (Un ,z oleo Nap e Cod Tlie a ( z w e d , i tl ed.) e , 1 Scl e Law art Cas 1 n n New orib' 1 C56) Stone ' work ci�ted, p. 55. above at note 3, p. 212 ff.

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re drafted at 111a11 y ws we La d ate lid nso Co the . in es tut sta d'ffi • . The 1 . 1. op1a e rent f E h s r a ry ve ve co to ers . , div en sn1 e aft dr of dy bo s die bo f t of u b�ects ren t e . � if . d b . tunes, Y t h I 1 t a i� or e eg is, t ·I In at Th . 1�se laws was de er. nn ma n1 do ran ly ial ent ess aJin in an ing no n1ak was a11d icul part e, aros ar they efo as f rt to aCi.: lems prob · . all , sm . . tuevge w1·th b d a roa area of law. The co 111 ge era cov gh rou tho or , ncy iste s con . . t · un1•ry , . . ras n . t . i .1 s h ar c t1c s 1e er.1 t 1c act a o f de _co an a amorphous b ody 1 . between the characteristics of ls r evea a s ber Law nt11n ed l1dat o 1s_ of helpful assu mp­ 1 C? the as ucl1 s tes . of statu 11g a code. t1 re rp te .1n 1n e ad m be ay n1 ich wh s tion l. It is fair to attribute consistency to the Penal Code, and thus to seek con sistency in results under the Code. The Penal Code was drafted i11 011e effort by a b?dy of draftsmen, principally one man, in an attempt to state clearly and concisely tl1e co1nplete system of penal law which was to be applied in Ethiopia. This ef!ort suggests, further, that the draftsmen would have attempted to co1 1struct a rational framework for their c ode. One would expect that this framework would produce answers for the major problems of crin1inal law, and tl1at these a11swers would accord with Ethiopian notions of justice and fair play. 01 1e \Vould expect that tl1e frame\vork would not produce contradictory or conflicting ans\vers for the san1e problen1, and tl1at cases which Etl1iopians regarded as similar wot1ld not be treated in. conflicting ways or lead to contradictory results . That is to say, give11 011 r k110,vledge of the circum­ stances wl1ich produced the Code, we feel jt1 stified i11 treati11g it as a rational system, one which will lead to results which are not co11tradictory and which can be explained in a manner conforn1able to Ethiopia11 notions of justice. If we could not do this, we would think tl1e drafters had do 11e a poor job indeed. It is what they were asked to do.

If consistency i s one of the characteristics of tl1e Penal Code - or, to put it another way, if t/1e acl1ieveme11t of a co11siste11t system of !ctw is 011e of tfze purposes behind e11act1nent of the Penal Code - then in interpreti1 1g the Penal Code one should both reason from an assumptio11 of co.nsistency in its provisions a11d seek consistency in applying it. This means, first, that one s11ot1ld 1 1ever try to interpret a Penal Code provision in the abstract. It must always be exami11ed in its r�la­ tionship to tb. e other provision.s of the Code, in order to see \Vl1at part it . n1 ight play in the overall scl1eme. We have already seen this process, in part, in our discussion of the relationship of Articles 523 and 524 i 1 1 con 11ectio 11 with tl1e case of the Afar. That is, we assun1ed tl1at Article 523 a11d Article 524, both of \Vliicl1 a�e c?ncerned with a form of ''homicide," are co1 1cer11ed witl1 di_fferent ty pes . of 11 cide, and that there should be an t1nderstandable a11d c1scerta1nable basis for d ing what homicide falls tinder wl1ich provisio11. A. seco 11d i111plicatio 11 wl1icb 111 a� be. . drawn from the Code's i 1 1ter11al co 11siste 1 1cy is tl1at if the mea11j11g of 011 e P� o vision of the Code l1as been es tabl1. sl1ed or :1s clear, one ca11 reason f roin the s hu r. 1 tl meaning of that provision to what ot1ght to be tl1e meaning of a 11o e � , 0f · p · ,, I · shi n knowing atio tl1 e n1ean.1ng of the wo .rd ''house'' in Article 524 a 11d the re · 10 Article 524 to Article 523 may l1elp to establish tl1e me,t11i11o0 of tl1e wor cl ''house 0 ca · 1e 542 and the · T . one . ' • us, Artic relat1 onsh1p of Article 542 to Articles 538 and 539. h pr�perly look for patt�r11s, for a structural framework, or for cororoon features fo form hie�. may help to elu�1date the Code's mea1 1i11g. Article 524, a11 extenuated le rtic ;onucrde, A es refers to resisting the violation of the privacy of a 11ouse, as ?0 . t tha t fa. c 542, an extenuated form of tl1e inlury. There _ this i11 n suggestio d i s a strong te re rp . 'J the provi··sions · 111te e d b s h ould sho ul be given the same meaning - tha t the y . eons1stently.

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be . 1·e�ched under !�e C?nsolidated Laws. If n?� could ns clusio con e sam The . 0 of 1956 had a prov1s1on s1m1lar to a prov1s1on 1n another Procla· m..a. rnat10 1a c a pro have to be very careful about reasoni11g from one wo1 1ld one 963 , J f sa tion, y ho r even if tl1e two Proclamations dealt with the same subject. Were 10 th� J: ; by the same p �rsons? Was consistency an object? Is there a c mmon e � r conte xt? The a11swe social r to each of these questions is theY or work ame f structuraI 1 1egative, ancl tl1us to ref11te a 11y hypothesis of con1mon mean­ tl1e . ill b; 1! kely t�v find that tl:e ?ypothesis of co11sistency . is valid and helpful in the case e _ f I 1 g. h � t e Per1 aI Code, 1t 1s because of the peculiar and important process which ;ave it birth. his suggests tl1,1t ,111y case _\vhere u�ity of . effort was lacking may be an T . ortant except ion to the l1ypotl1es1s of co11s1stenc. y 11 1 the Penal Code. For example' ' 1rop . . 1at1ve . d · l b ame11 eg1s ee11 d to me11ts l1a tl1e Code, tl1ere either at the that knew ne ·r tl1ere,1f t er, one cot1 ld 1�ot be certain of consistency in the or draft e 1 tJ of �im� _ ess l 1111 serious a a111e11d111e11ts, and thor?ugl1 effort �o produce areas affected by tl1e l 1e Pe11al Code bears evidence that in the past t U11fortunately, made. been ad •t h �uch efforts have beer, l,1cki11g. The draftsman originally provided in the General Part that tl1e conse11t of ar1 i11jt1red perso11 v1as a defence to a criminal prosecution, except i11 certai11 specifiecl ca.ses. Otl1er provisions of t l1e Special Part, for example Article 542(1) (c), \Vere \Vritten to reflect tl1ese exceptioi1s. It was st1bseque11tly decided to change the General Part provision to make consent t10 defe11ce; tl1is decision is reflec ted in Article 66, whicl1 states tl1at ''the co11sent of an i11jured party . . . does not relieve tl1e offender of cri1ninal liability." It appears, however, tl1at Special Part provisions such as Article 542( l) (c) \Vere never rewritte11 to reflect this c11ange. In such a c ase, \Vhere the l egisl ature has appare11tly aba11do11ed the effort to produce consis tency, it \vould be fooll1ardy for a11 interpreter to assu111e he can find it. Of course, he may still find reaso11 to atte111pt to minin1ize the legislative error by seeking to produce co11sistency, if he ca11, throt1gl1 his i11terpretations. But this will be an entirely creative role. 2. It is fair to assume that language usage is consistent throughout the Code.

The assu111ption that lar1gt1a.ge usage \Vil l be consistent throt1gl1out a code is only_ a particular exa111ple of the overall ass11mptio11 of consiste11cy, but deserves special. mention because of its i111porta11ce. What tl1e assu1111)tion mea11s_ is that_ if a par ticular \Vord - say, ''house'' - can be esta.blishecl to have a certam meaning when_ it is used a.t one poi11t i11 a code, it is at least likely to l1ave the same meaning at any otl1er point i11 that code. . We saw before tl 1at most if not all words have a fringe of uncertainty about :\eir meaning. Differe11t 111en \viii u11dersta11d. tl1en1 in different ways. It is at least : el_y,. I1owever, that a11y 011e 1nan - or grot1p of men worki11g cl osely together on : rigid ly draf ted legal _t doc11ment - will attribute a fairly fixed meaning to any � ic�lar word; each ti111e l1e uses tl1at word, he will use it in tl1e same way· owing that statutory a11d word ssion 1siste11cy of expre co1 s111 clraft for en strive · usage as th · �ssu �p t·10n. · ey do, i11creases tl1e co11fidence tl1at can be pL1t 1n t_l11s . Agaid' _the assu 111 different 1g 1 ar1 appe o word mpti a n t cou abou d l e mad not e b 1·tems of · · c · ed a\vs; i11 this case it will th.� onsol 1dat er rent t di· 11� a tten wri eer1 b e l1av times b y � . _ ibute attr r e to iff son � rea ent no 1s 1 re me1 the t tha for so ere es, d1ff pos 1t 1 pur a unifor 1ty m of meaning. s� uld be poi d e, On es. nc ue nse co le ub do s ha 9 1te o11 ot1t tl1at th is assumpti alre a� y � . � n, Is tl1at if the mea11i11g of a word is uncertain in a particular context - 391 -


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. ·he Code its meaning can be discove red from tl1e 111ean.ing Wllich th e 10 � sam is ter ng bet a1ii e me its h blis if esta e, Cod ed the in by ere wl1els� these o t�1er \vor h s a 111ea.ni11g is give11 to a word e 011c t tha is 1ce ue1 seq con ond sec appear1n . . . uses. T�e (e lil I t· 1s b Y o n1ean1n e at car:1ed over in foll h t _Code, the in point � at one . owi ng e cl sa1n the . wor re whe rs. pea p e a. Cod . g 1 the s Thu 11 · , the . · Other poi·nts caSes to . pr111c1p . . . . . l e i ce fr stan ass 0111 aw r d past 011e int s e help ta 011ly rpre ·' 1.t also tion s Of consiste11 cy not . . · · ·tion 1s 11k eIY t o be �xte11 de d to otl1� r nterpreta i _ own o�e's pa.rts of the warns that . . . Code. Thus, 1nterp retat1011s sho�ld_ not �e 1ua�e. 111 view of o?e provision only, but should take account of the pr1nc1ple of consistency by co11s1der1ng all appearailces of tile point in issue thro11ghout the Code. Wl1at effect one must ask will an ' ? de Co the i11 e her ew interpretation have els It cann_ot b� too_ often repeated tl1at, as . is the ca�e f�r every other sugges­ tion made 10 this article, tl1e correct11ess of th i s ass11mpt1on 111 any particular case is only probable. It is not certai11. Drafts111e11, like the rest of us, are human. They make n1istakes. Eve11 though they worlc l1ard for co11sistency, so that it is usually app ropriate to assume tl1at \.Vords a re consistently used, tl1ey sometimes fail and lapse into inco11siste11cy. This da11ger is partic11larly g reat i,or certain word; expressi11g legal conclusions, such as ''p roperty," ''act'' and ''intent." These words have a great variety of accepted n1eanings, \Vhich depe11d l1eavily on the context in which they are 11sed. One sho11ld alwa.ys b e ver)' careful to see whetl1er the draftsme11 have st1ccee ded at tl1e ,,ery difficult job of usi11g s11ch words clearly and consiste11t]y. Moreover, i11 Etl1iopia tl1ere is the special consideratio11 that the Amharic codes on which the courts rely are tra11slation.s fron1 an Englisl1 or Fre11cl1 original. The draftsman's ha.rd \\'Ork to obtai11 co11siste11cy in 11sing la11g11age ca11 easily be lost if th.e translator or tra11slators are not sensitive to this proble111 and do not tl1en1selves work hard for the san1e goal. 3.

At least initially, one n1ay seek solutions to all problems within the fran1e,vork of the Code. Si11ce a Code is intended to be a co1nplete staten1e.nt of the la\v on a pnrti­ c11la r subj ect, on.e 1nay ass11me, at least initially, tl1at tl1e re are 110 large gaps or 11oles in it - that every problem il1 tl1e area of law to wl1icl1 tl1e code r elates can find so1ne solution within its framework. As a11 atte111pt to set do\vn a co111prel1en­ sive body of r11Ies, a _co?e . is lil<ely to take accol1nt of � 11 tl1e 111ajor probleni s 0F t . that subJect, at least 1f 1t 1s as well drafted a.s tl1e Ethiop1a11 Penal Code \-vas. · follows · that in solvin_g a legal problem 011 tl1at s11bje�t, one ca1� star� 0� ti�� . . assumptio11 that a soluti on may be reaso11ed out or .found \V1tl1111 the f1a111 e'r\ or the code.

. · · · n Pe11al ode · 1s C , ' Th1s ass111npt1on I 1101J1a part1c11larly strong in the case o f tl1e .E"'t · er 1 e 1 in Vi l1ich the drafter has essayed a. co.mplete state1ne11t of· doctrine i11 tl � G r� ? . ta1n . ce1 . . .. . I le 11 a .r t a p , 1011g . wi t·h the catalogt1e of cr1n1es 111 tl1e S1)ec1,tl Part. Thti s, w • � r 11 t10 Etiropean Codes leave a variety of cloctri11al issues to cot1rts _for _ ela bo ra � �o see e example, the defences of 11ecessity Cod an a11d responsibility - the Etl11op1 tin isli­ p of elaborate a r11le on all issues wbicl1 111igl1 t arise regardi11g g11ilt or degree ment. es dO' ·u · · at J It wouId b e a mistake to ta.lee this observation so fa.r as to deny .th As ess en ha. ve aiiy creative role, to state that i t 11cles ju.dicial crea v : 0·1 of excl Code th. e d . · . r.: c roe iu . . already h as _ been noted, the leg. slature 1s t erie 11np f· w1tl1 a11 wo1·k111g qUl . re � be c@. munication, language. The t 00. could and , forese l1re leg1slat 11ot s e do � d ju � he ge ec 0 foresee, every . t 5 1 It ll possible case to which its product nught apply. 1

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will have to decide them. All that can and should anc l cas es, suc h et ill who � g that the attemp t at co1� pr�he_nsiveness and coherency offers an incentiv e is i sa d be . ale for seekjng results With1 11 its terms. and ration. et the code to avoid redundancies between provisions. interpr to fair 4. It is collectio1 1 of statt1tes passed at many different times and for inany le simp 10 a Cons olidated Laws, one might almost expect there to the , as such . ons reas . . . d1fferent a b 11 e cy ween d f _ un · t prov re d 1s1on s. Tl1 e Iegislature passii1g 011e unt o amo tain cer be a of anotl1er, passed :n1a11y years before to deal with a. aware be 0t 11 t niicrh _ te O . statu . Even 1"f ·th. ey were aware o f It, th_ey might not see how proble�1 erent diff slio-htly would t 1 11k tl1� t\Vo could conflict. In the presence of ot1ts1�e 1e t l fro°:1 � so� eone 1 s1der \Vhetl1 er o_ n e statute was n1 eant to to �01 have t . I lllgl1 _ o ne ct, confli . such a 01: 1n wl�ole; _ it could b_e �ery difficul� to detern1ine what part 1n r otbe_ the al repe 1 1J to b�, 1f 1t had any Intent 01 1 that issue relat1011sh tl1e1r ntended i ture legisla the 011 tl1e Co11sol work 1 dated Laws .has been in deter1nining tl1� of bulk The all. at just such diffict1lt qt1estto11s. Unlike a collectio11 of statutes, a code is writte11 all at one time. Tl1e drafts­ man, who intends to be clear a11d concise, ,vill have intended each provision he \vrote to h ave s011 1e t111ique f't111ction. He would 11 ot k11 owingly include some super­ fluous provision or repeat s01 11 etl1 ing already JJrovided for, since the only effect of this would be to confuse. Tl1t1s, j·ust as the unitary character of a Code ancl the effort its aut l1ors have made to achieve consiste11cy justify an assu111ptio1 1 that \vords are used in the same \\1ay throughot1t, these san1e factors jt1stify the asst1111ption that apparent redu11dancies betwee11 provisions are u11inte11 ded a11d may be eli1ninated by interpretation. Tl1us, wl1 en one fi11 ds two a.rticles \vhich seem to govern tl1e same facts, one n1ay look: for a11 i11 terpretatio1 1 which \Vill give to each a separate area of application. .

For example, Article 594(2) at1thorizes rigorous in1priso111nent for tl1e person who "deliberately performs (a11 i11decent) act in (the) prese1 1ce (of an infant or young person)." Article 608(2) provides only for simple imprisonment for the perso11 \vho "knowil1g/y performed (an obscene) act . . . in tl1e presence of i11 fants or young person�." It would seem that these provisions were redunda1 1t, or aln1ost so, since in ordinary usage the words ''deliberately'' and ''knov.-1i11 gly," which 111ark the 011ly real :erbal difference betwee1 1 the two provisio1 1s, have approximately the same mean 1ng. By hypotl1esis, however, \Ve mt1 st assume that these artic]es were meant to have separate functions - as indeed the differing penalties also sL1ggest. We must look for those fu11ctio11s s�n1 eplace ' otl1er tha.n the language itself . . One must, however, disti11guish this case, where apparent redt11 1da11cy should be avo icied by i11terpr etation, from cases of i11tentio1 1al partial overlap an1ong closely e!ated ;a ls provisio11s. The langL1age of Articles 594(2) and 608(2) is so si111ilar that 011e b t to see any elerne11 t wl1 ich 111igl1 t be reqt1ired for tbe offence under the 011 e, t n t tl e other fro in ea�l1 d separate at somewh ,v l are i r ? � moreove ; t articles o t 1e , 0 e in l r_ tl1e Code's organizatio11 ' which i1 11plies tl1at they are not clearly related in f ncti u .on Th 'i s appare11t, ·bY Inte t�t·�on re p r_ · d · 1de avo be uld sho ble y ica anc xpi t1nd i11e red · jf it i at all possible to do so · On tl1e otl1er l1and' Articles 630 and 635, describing s . · k i·nd of part1a ord1nary and agg ap r ove · 1 1 the o� ated rav a xa ple 111 ft, tl1e e are good , Which the draft e e. cttir H stru s e Cod sma the n into ced 1 has e 1 ofte1 i11 t ntionall ' y introdt . h a f orsee n that tl1eft 1nay occasionally be committed t11 1cler SllC b c1rc · as t ances s s um · . to merit unu sually severe pt1nisl1111 e11t. It is still theft- that is, all tile elements of

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d ate rav . by agg is the it but sen pre d ce sfie · sati of one or be st inu 630 e . 1 A rtic mo· ie e A rt1c . . · I 635 Tb y 'b d b us, e any cri des so nts per me ele 11 nal . Who could of the additio be 63 cle could Art a c lso 11der be 5 theft i u conv vated aggra t c ·· V icted for con. 1 . ed or · 1 ordi f r or l1to e sec m so. pro son rea e . th . 1f s , cho 630 e to cha rge . icle Art er und ft tlle ry . . a . n. . . hun h , r I ap ere ove t 1n an h 1s e re The se sen . nce offe that two with the ordinary 1ed to appl be the could sa1ne i cri minal acts. sions, with differing penalties, , ts y, e danc wher redun two lete comp tes statu of seem to 1natch however ' is not a ca.se · · sl 11· p between the two · �·el at1on identically in their coverage; th ere. 1 s an ob v1ous proh 1 d n eed, even t11ough the provisions to explain the overlap . w i ch seems to exist. . · h I?roperly falls under Article secutor could bring . under Art1cIe 630 a pr?secu�1on w l11c 635, we might consider that he was abusing his powers 1f l1e often follow ed th' practice. Where this parti�l overlap among closely related pro�isions appears, the:! will always be some unique element, such as the aggravating circumstance s of Article 635, to show the intended disti11ction.

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B. The Organization of the Code 1.

The formal structure

As we have seen i11 Part II, i11 drafti11g the Code the draftsmen created a structural framework, or orga11izatio11, within which to express their conclusions regarding criminal policy. This organization consists of a series of subdivisions of increasing specificity, each with a title reflecti11g the place of that subdivision within the Code's structure. In Part II, we saw l1ow to use this strL1cture to find possibly relevant law; here, we will see how it can be used to help t1ndersta11d-interpret­ the law. The organ.ization can be used in this way because tl1e place of any article in the structure of the Penal Code gives important indictltions of its purposes, through the titles of the subdivisions to whicl1 it belongs. As at1 example of how th_ese indications can be used, let us consider furtl1er the apparent conflict between :Artie.le 594(2) and Article 618(2). A full description of the place of each of these articles in the Penal Code could be given as fallows: _..\rticle 594(2) Pe11al Code Part Il, Special Part

Book V, Offences Agai11st Individuals and the Family Title IV, Offences agai11st morals and the family Chapter I, Offences against morals Sectio11 I, Injury to sext1al liberty and chastity ns. o pers ng you Article 594, Sexual ou.trages 011 infants or Article 608(2) Penal Code

Part Il, Special Part Book V, Offences against Individt1als and the Family Title IV, Offe11ces against morals ancl the family Ch.apter I, Offences against morals Section IV, Offences tending to corrupt morals . . rals o ro Article 608, Public indecency and outrages against . . . . es har e cert�10 . Rto� th�s de�cr1ption, one might conclude that the two articl � e fa1n1IY, . _ th an �ltflil(!ls uals es: t0 1den:tify an.cl prohibit specific offences against i11div1d --e--

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

morals. In their more particular purposes however t aga ins iices offe 1a r� m . c art � in p ttc�es ee to be _distinct: the fu1:1ction of Article 594 appea r. s to be t o deai ual l i berty and chastity of individuals in parti·the. ar wb'ch are injurious to sex . ' . (:' . cts I b a ast1ty of 1n1ants. or young persons·' the function of h d c an ,y1t ty liber al exu . 5 e . th 1 r h 1 d ea acts 1t wh1ch maJ, be injurious to the morals to . cu � be to � ars appe Artieie 608 at large - th�t 1s, wh�ch tend to corrupt t�e_m - in p�rticular, public ublic . e th of P and acts offending public rn.orals. One prov1s1on 1s quite specific and inde cen�r what the legislature characterizes as a11 actual injury to the sexual inter­ de Is 1 h other i� less much the als� specific,_ and deals with the individu icul� : t ar p _ . e5 l . 0 sexual nterests diffuse i of the the to publ i c as a whole. inJury of t . b•f· 11 y poss1 at least a . po_ssible distinction between t he language of' suggests analysis · This wl10 ''del i berately performs," and the langttage of one to relating ), 594(2 A r le· ''k11owi11gly who 011e to perf?rms," an ating l re_ indecent act in th_e , 608(2) e I A;ti� sence of a m111or. Fro1n the la11guage of the articles one would deduce that 1t t he offende: to be intentionally per·forming for_ cases both . i11 necessar)' be f:;uld i mself or a third person, 111 the presence of an infant or h on act al exu s e som �oung person, knowi11g t hat that person is there. Can one go further and say that, in some cases, this activity involves a direct injury to the sexual interests of the infant or young perso11, (Article 594), wl1ereas in others it will only threaten to cor­ rupt him (Article 608)? Tl1ere might be some cases where the infant was forced or enticed to be prese11t - wl1ere tl1e sexual acts were performed ''for his benefit," or with t he intention of involving hin1 or affecti11g him. J11 other cases, the prese11ce of the infant or you11g person n1ay have been accidental so far as tl1e offender was concerned; he ma.y l1ave l1ad no desire to l1ave tl1e infant or yo11ng person present, or to involve hin1 i11 any way, but merely failed to desist froin his activity when he becan1e a\\1are of tl1e otl1er's presence. Tl1e purposes of Article 594, as indi ­ cated by its place in the Code's table of organization, suggest tl1at it should apply to the fir st kind of case; tl1ose of Article 608 suggest that it sl1ould apply to the second.

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2. The Relationship of the General and Special Parts a. In general Pe rhaps the single great 01nission of tl1e Ethiopian Penal Code is its failure to state expressly tl1e relationship between its General Part, Part I, and its Special Part, Part II. Article 3, al. 2 states '' that the general principles embodied in this Code are applicable to (Police regulations and special laws of a penal nature) except as otherwise expressly rovided tl1erein''; and Article 690, the first article of JJ Part III _ o_f the Code, the Code of Petty Offences, states that ''In all cases wl1ere t�e pro�1s1ons of t11is Book Code of Petty Offences) are the of Part (tl1e General ei t_he� stlent or contain no contrary i11dications or do not provide exceptions, the pri nciples and rules of to petty apply sl1all Code Pe11al the of tl1e Part Ge11eral o�e�ces · • • due regard beino had to tl1e 11atl1re of the case, as well as to tl1e s�irit and purpo ses of tl1e Ia\v�'' One is left to infer the obvious, as indeed Ethio­ P1 0 courts have Gene­ the of rules a11d almost ''principles f tl1e 111iforn1ly that done 1 ra Part of the Penal Code'' also apply' t o all offences defi11ed in the Special Part. he full implications T of this rule are not unifor111ly respected, however, so that 1·t may b e helpful to illustrate the111 by means of a com1non example. Article 523, seeii b efo re in another context t state� that ''whosoever commits homicide in circum­ s ances ot1l r tha ' · h 10 aggra · A rt re· Jes 5?2 vatecl or extenuate cl circumstances, d· eaI t wit and 524 ) is � � ( punishable \Vitl1 rigorous imprisonment from five to twenty years. . ,, - 395 -


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e? e11c off M11st .tl1e intent to co al ion ent int · an e stat le c .i' t ar· Does this t . mnu .,, ,, th· · e a oes . th') Wb t d t 111 d ea· d ent uce pro n1ea to n nt inte 10 lude an • · th·ts case?. uence 1ne o- .&r . s, tl1e cle ''Ye arti is n r . stio doe q11e . e an inte11t1o stat first the to .• nat er answ e Th . . the w or d 1n , t.e 11t . ''. The Gene:al Part use not . does it thoug� even , offence, _ Whic h l : a l r e 1_ t1c ot e y an_ 111 d h �11 e t l Specia �art, stat es � we have. said applied . to th1s . al t101� er 1�ten or eith b� t mus ige negl nce e off nt. Article 59(2) 11 a that ), 57(1 cle Arti of 1s act hable pt1111s as an offe11ce ,,0n1 ·r tlie General Part adds tl1at a negligent Y 1 1a e s es t tl t th d · r gg . \VO ''�egl1gence'' inust the law so expressly prov1'de�. '' Thi·. s su be used. someplace in a statute 1f n_egligent o�ence�- are t� _be pu111shed under it, and indeed Article 526 uses this word 111 connection with l101111c1de. Both becat1se Article 523 does not use the word ''neglige11ce'' a11d because tl1at word appears in anoth e article dealing with homicide, which \Ve would_ presume A1·ticle 523 was not mean� to du.plicate, it must be concluded that AI·ticle 523 does not deal with 11egligent offen­ ces. It ther, efore must state an intentional offence; tl1at is to say, intent is a neces­ sary element of the offence. The Ge11eral Part 1·eql1ires tl1is, eve11 tl1011gh the Spe­ cial Part provision makes no direct referenee to it. Accordi11g to the official A1nJ1aric version of Article 58(1) and the French draft, the answer to the second quest .i on is also ''Yes, tl1e 11otio11 of intention includes the attitude of intention towards the specific resl1lt, in this case death." The a11swer under the English version is less certain, because of a discrepa.ncy; but as stated at the beginning of tl1is article, \Ve will assun1e that tl1e Amharic co11trols. (Indeed, one would argue it should, where it faithfully reflects the Frencl1 draft, as here.) Thus, the General Part requires not 011ly that there be ''intentio11'' -\.vbatever that may be - for a violation of Article 523, but tha.t tl1is ''i11tention'' must include the ha.ppening of a specific result, deatl1. It is possible to cite many cases in which there appears to have been no aware11ess of this effect of the General Part 11pon a freque :ntly used provision of the Special P�1rt. 10

10.

The f?llowing exa£?1ples can all be found at the f-�aile Sellassie I University Faculty of_�; ' . sh (unpubli Library, and in Strauss, Si1pple1ne11tary A-1arer,a/s 1967-68 Lmv Pe11al for Faculty of La.w, Haile Sellassie I University): . • Crown V. Osman Omar, A. A. ff.Ct., Cr. C. 255-58 (accused l)llShed deceased arter dru:ik�: with l)i.ni; ''it is evident that (acct1sed) was only relaxing and vvas 11ot trying to_ 1 1 : e the deceased. . . . The Court finds the acct1sed gttilty of violating Article 523 · · · s1111.;e 1 has caused . the death of l1i� friend tl1rot1gl1 l1is carelessness."). ailant Cro� \1 • I�!·ah1n1 Ad �1ns. Abat1ku, Fed. H.Ct. (Assab), Cr. C. 1-51 (accused str� ,ck, . t tl ���used th 1th a not la!ge stick: court co11c1ucled t11at tbe blow caused ?eath, ,i v.: i� -defei nee ' did not comn11t the act of striku1g with iL1tentio11," bL1t acted u1 excess of sel . and therefore- \1/as guilty t1nder Art. 523). . _ un �er :rovo· Crown _v. X, A�ma!a �- Ct., .Cr. C. 23 8-57 (accused. strL1ck deceased \>Vtth stick ? 3) Art. 1 �at1on; no 1ndicat10� of _1�tent to kill; court convictecl, ap1Jarentl) un�er Public Prosecl1tor v. F1kru B1�t1, . H.Ct.A.A., s;·r. c.. 762-56. (accused �11 � ao.d . - kicked r d -�:fiu un e . deceased after allegedly be1ng 1nst11ted; 110 mcl1ca t1on of 1nte11t to kill, convi Art. 523). ths, you h Crown v. Bek�le �dane, Jimma I-I.Ct., Cr. C. 7-57 (acct1sed �d d�eas ed, . b��i o kill; . were fighting w1th small sticks at deceased's instigatio11; no 111cl1cat1o n of 10 t t . b�cause of dec�ased's provocation, cl)arge reduced to Art. 524). it h ccused a Haddts Ge.bre _Igz1abber v. Pt1blic Prosecutor, SL1p. In1p. Ct., Cr. AJJ. 28 58 ( ss \Vhich deceased with a stick on the back of l1is 11eck wl1ile trying to recover son1e fra :le falling; e deceas�d allegedly l1ad st leu decea.sed apparently hit ]1is l1ead on a st0n �J� peJlant 's ? ! p as D? . evidence of tntent; ''10 v1ew proof been bas of tl1e fact that there ikilltI!l'.g the deceased (i.e., causing his de.atl1,)'' conviction tinder Art. 523 affirmed).

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hat does the word· 'intention' mean in this case?'' ' was, 'W n u estio T}1e fi-�a1 q uestion that can be briefly answered, or that will be answered in a q 0 fbis 15. °. 1.'t is 011e of those questions on· which P. G·raven's commentary can be , • • e 1 c · art1 11 · I earnin 1or 1 cg point or ana tb1s g ys1s. startin But severa l important a as ful I 1n�st h ; � be ma ?e•. First, the dr,1fter has· made . a start at a definition in Article 58, a nts o p� th : same me�n1ng t� everyo·ne who reads it, and vey co 11ot 1: \ fin tll n itio � . _ T�us de (.;ases. Tl1e autl1or 1s not yet aware of any case tl1e Ill eted interp r be to �ill l1as n been inter pre�a t1ndertake11. �econd, because the def­ tio of task s thi 1 0 � . � j 11 tention appears 1n the Ge11eral Part, a11d given our assumption of of initi� n mea11s for tl1e ''intenti o11'' purposes of Article. 523, it will also tever 1 \.v}1, y c t en ' consis · l P art to "!h ·1ch 1t. · 1� ar t_·1cI e o.f th. e Spec1a · relevant. �he ''intendother a11y for ean . tl1e cr1n1e - deatl1 for Article 523, 111Jury for Article 539, etc. vv1th m ,,ary a. y ult" � res or criteria will have to be e- as ro. 'ay other partict1lars; but the general for1nula . seco11d edge ?f· _ the co11s1�tency sword, that �he judge must the is This . saine the 111s rest1lts 1nterpre�at1on tl1e to would prodt1ce 1n ot�er cases; eye an witl1 t erpre int he must take ,1cco1111t �f tl1e. de1nands of_ co11s1stency as well as use t�e inferences ·t makes available to 111111. F111ally, a11y Judge \.Vho does u11dertake to interpret this �mportant con.cept will fi11� that the_ words of tl1e de�11ition offer him a fai_rly w_ide range of cl101ces of JJOss1ble mea11111g. If the techniques s11ggested by tb1s article are "relevant at all, tl1ey are as relevant to this tasl< as any ot}1er.

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b. ''ln case of conflict, tl1e provision of the Special Part prevails over that of the General Part.'' The above phrase, or so1netl1i11g like it, is frequently referred to as a ma.xin1 of' code interpretation. It is, indeed, perl1aps tl1e most frequently referred to maxim. This fact tends to rei11force tl1e validity of the maxim, since it means that drafts­ men, too, are likely to be aware of it. Knowing that the maxim is likely to be applied, they will put tl1e exceptio11s to their general rules into more specific pro­ visions, confident that wl1e11 j11dges fi11d these exceptions they will say, ''The specific prevails over tl1e general," a11d th11s interpret tl1e statute as the draftsmen expected. This fact, i11 tu rn, should make judges n1ore con·fident of tbe rule. The rule th11s has co11venie11ce to reco111me11d it. It also reflects a common sense notion of drafts111anship. Any general rule is likely to have a few special exceptions. �ut if, as in the Penal Code, a statu.te is divided into General and Special Parts, It � ay be quite 11n\vise to list tl1e exceptio11s i11 tl1e General Part. Referring to specific cases there will detract from the orga11ization of the whole, and may tend to ob sct1re tl1� purport of tl1e general ruJe bellind the exceptions; the reader will e unable to Jt1dge 110\.\' universa the exceptio are. se ns l . Tl1e rtile is also a sensible accomn1odation to the likelihood that the drafters ���ll not be able. to avoid. i11con �istencies co1?pletely _ i � their work, however ha�d Y try for co11s1ste11cy. In choosing the specrfic prov1s1on over the general one In ;�ch a case, 011e is 1nal<ing the co1nn1on se11se judgme11t that the drafters were 1 ely to h ave bee11 thi11king 111ore JJrecisely about the narrovver issue. · · It is · ta11t' however' to hesitate before co11clud1ng t.hat tl1ere 1s some ·1nco . very 1111por · · ns1stency between tl1e · I Part, and Ge11eral Part a11d a prov1s1011 of th e s pec1a 11. p· Graven, work cited above at note 1, pp. 152-63. •

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e r1 Th ove g . . idin xim ma the · ui ass of n io npt tio lica app n o f e e tl t 1n g lea thus . � � are de the y Co of r11 i11te a.l n s ly sion ovi r p i the si co11 t tha is ste e n m tlo� � bov nl_ e ss al ion to its ept s r exc e ref tus sta ssly , re exp s thi � ion vis pro t ass� ption P:r eci l? a e ve consistency befor e an ''inc i ach to de ma � be rt effo ry e o ev ns· that s s ire e eq i pecia Part a p rovision. shou ld ra ncy�· silence of . S l �1s �1ound. For examp.le the re 1 . ns1sten if y h p e . t h G , enera 1 wit . cy art. ' . o Tht1s' the tact th , . ever be taken t o ind1cate 1nc. · at t se . 1 1n If · not so� 1s rea , t1on to . �en ''1n . conclude that the Article 523 is silent ab�ut be should and 57-59 appli�d Art1cl�s th w1tho�t referei)c c to i w nsistent o c n i is le c . arti eted int�rpr be cons i stently with the Ge can ticle r a The . th�m despit� , intention neral . there 1s 110 reason to sup ose a contr Part without d istort ing its language, �nd ar y R l egislative purpose. <::onseque�tly, ?ons1stency n111st be favoured; A rticle 523 must be construed as .embodying an 1ntent1onal offence. It is some times possible to consider an apparently superfluous or inconsistent Special Part article as in fact explanatory of the General Part provisions it seems to contradict. That is, the Special Part a rticle may serve to illustrate or limit the operation of the General Pa.rt provision in an inst ructive way. One possible example of this may be seen in Article 524, which was discussed at son1e length above in connection with the ''ho use'' of an Afar tribesn1an. We may now be in a better position to suggest answers to som e of the qt1estions put there.

The Gene ral Part of the Penal Code includes provisions on legitimate defence and excess of legitimate defense, Articles 74 and 75. These articles recognize that de·fense of property n1ay be ''legitimate defence," entailing no punishment, or ''excess of legitimate defence,'' entailing apparently complete freedom on th.e part of the judge to reduce penalty. Whether it will be one or tl1e other depends on a judg­ ment whether the person ''exceeded the limits of self-defense by using disproportion­ ate means or going beyond the acts necessary for averting the danger.'' Acts with­ in these ''limits'' are not punished at all; acts outside then1 are punished to a degree which appears to be entirely at the discretio11 of the judge.

Dr. Graven, in his comme11tary on the Penal Code, bas complained that Article 524 un.necessarily duplicates Articles 74 and 75, and by providing a specific range of penalties, is inconsistent with them. One readily sees that the crime defi�ed by Article 524, killing ''in resisting the violation, by force or trickery, of the privacy of his house . . ,'' could as easily be characterized as an act of legiti1nate def�nce, or . perhaps in excess of it; the individual kills while defending property aga1nst the unlawful assault of anothe r . Thus, it would appear that tl1e Afar ir1 our hrpothe�f ical could as easily be prose cuted under Article 523 and then raise tl1e issue. legitimate defence. If he did this, � j.udge interpreting Articles 74 and_ 75 might d�ci�� that he had not ''exceeded the l11U1ts," and so c ould not be punished at all, that he had ''exceeded the limits," and so could be punished by an)' penalty . f:om a $ 1 · 00 fine to 20 years rigorous imprisonment. Since the General IJart provision� seem adequately to cover the case, Dr. Graven concluded that Article 524 w�s un, necessary; it is inconsistent with the Get1eral Part to the extent that it pro,ri<les a more restricted ra.nge of pe11al alter11atives. 12 d . 4 75 aL1 . . 7 . es 1 A more helpful approach 1n the author's view 1s to look at Artie . ate · and ask if it is very clear w'11at they mean. Whe/e are the ''limits'' of Iegi.tiin l2. Id., pp. 216-17, 229-30.

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exercise his discretion if he finds they have to jud ge a is Ho w bee ? n e defenc d? Have they been exceeded if an Afar k ills a man who is trying to stea l · ede e xce of his camel? If he kills a man who is trying to enter bac k the 1 fron h!s ho us e house? If be kills a man who is trying to steal his camel? Jt · · should · b is e rected questions were to be answered by reference to A .rticles 74 these if that ent be appar 1·g ht be a grea t d�a I o f d'1s�greement a� to what th e answers � e_ er th e, n lo . and 75 a \Vith this 1n mind aga look at n Art , icle i 524. Is 1t accurate to say that be. . · d · I shoU case �r. cas�s 111 w h_ 1c.h n1any Eth'1op1ans - possibly including judges a ibes r desc .· is 1ng 11 1 retal1at 1 on _was completely justified? In the author's k1ll that feel uld . � wo would be accurate. That being so, it appears to him staten1ent a sucl1 ment . d J�a� the function of Article 524. and other articles like it, is not to contradict Articles t/1em. The rather abstract la11guage of the General Part explai,z to bi1t 75, and �l ''disproportional means," ''beyond the acts neces­ lin1its," tl1e ded ''excee nsvisio o in diffe�ent understood ways be by different persons or in easily could _ f:ry" different parts of the co_untry. A� was me11t1oned at the beginning of this article there is 110 settled and widely ava1l,1ble body of cases, commentary, or otl1er source material wl1ich n1igbt help to prod11ce u11iform results in cases decided at different times a11d places. To make the language of the General Part more concrete, what the legislature l1as done is to fix a reference point. It has taken a very common case, and l1as decided it. It 11as decided that this case represents an excess of self­ defence, and that it deserves tl1e stated range of punishment. This both fixes and empl1asizes a 1noral nor111 - that killing in tl1e defence ,merely of property is not justified; it also serves to explai11 the general articles abo11t legitimate defence in a way that sl1011Id help a judge to 111ake decisio1 1s under them. As an example, co1 1sider tl1e case of an Afar who kills a n1an who is trying Lo steal his can1el, not lus ]1ouse. He is prosecuted 1111der Article 523, and pleads legitin1ate defe nce. Has lie ''exceeded tl1e limits''? A judge can look at Article 524 and reason from it that tl1e legislature has concl11ded that someone wl10 killed another in defence of l1is l1011 se exceeded the limits of legitin1ate defence. fle might the11 conclude that, from an Ethiopian and probably the legislature's point of view, �illi11g someone while defe11ding your house is more excusable than any other killing 111 the defense of property. If killing in defence of a house is more excusable than killing in defence of a camel, and still is pu.nishable as a1 1 exceeding of the ''limits," then the Afar's act in killing someone who was stealing his ca1nel n1ust have exceeded the ''limits." One Ii1nit is k 11 own: the taki11g of life in defence of property :xceeds it. If the judge wants to know, ''flow severely shall I punish him?'' Article .)24 again serves as a gt1ide. I-Iere is a case where, by hypothesis, the killing is � ther �nde�standable; the legislature has provided a pe1 1alty of up to five years :imp_le imprisonment. If tl1ere were no extenuating circ11msta11ce, on the other hand, the udge \vould conde1nn the five to twenty years rigorous imprisonn1ent. to Afar J It would b e reasonab le would it not to fi11d a penalty in between - calculated by some kind of comparison, however difficult, among social attitudes towards killing over a house, killing over a can1el, and killing without excuse 9 It is interesting to 11ote of treat_ing ch, approa retive p inte1· . tl1is ing adopt i11 that Art1cle 524 al ctic pra any on, as simply an exa visi pro l era oen ible flex le lily mp , hio . of a b '' � consequ e nee of t�e 1ouse 1:11 ''l d wor e t h f o 1n? n1ean the o questi about ns raised Artie!e , 24 s b�ck 18 el cam the has on ng ell1 ; d\v app dis -11p . led ed rol ear the en Ev if , not a · house'' for the purposes of Article 524 the same result can be obtaine�­ e., a se imi1tence to the san1e 1111mber of years 'of simple imprisonment can � os ed - by n usi g Article 523 ancl the applicable general principle of excess of leg1t1n1ate

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JOURNAL O F ·ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - No. . ' . ng as as avi o e n . I1 le rp tic pu Ar 524 ing ose see by the d ed I r. n ·e. , . 1 nd1c- at10 . . . . seJ:rr..de1ence. · 1 iot n of . ret g 1sc cin a ten tln sen d f er . o se rci tic exe Ar the le for 75, I•t· b ecom . a·terllllnal point es re ng mo h a111 n1e c • f c tI mu 1 a n1 1or 1n n · stio que n tha the ''W . poss1'ble to put ·· . . t a s his a the ce s rtan doe t mpo 11t f o· exte i t wha his ''To b es, I '? prop . 1 n eco '' erty to this house . t s em e n o t ft s � · ·o w Th l e en · ?'' b 1 o d t. c y a I _ � � in im dis!inctions inuc cr is b se cu ex n . a m h wh c s on i e, bstant1al occu. r 1 whic� 1 _ 0 l f 11 libert � rp questi os t ons of sh a er than � � Y 1t may be l1ere, to turn a legal questio n as possible, 1s t 1 When depend. fro one m · · · ' · ' e hous '' '' o 11 t t o no 1 n or e o se of sharp distinctio. ns - ''hou .f bow much Pu01s. h• ment s.hould be imposed, one ma_k es po_ss1_'ble . a n1o�e 1nean111gful correspondence between the law and the facts of l1fe to wl11ch 1t applies.

3.

Interrelationships of provisions regarding particular crimes

There are other, unexpre s_ sed organizing principle � wllic� ca11 be deduced from a study of the Code, and which may also be helpft1l 1n solving particular problen1s Only some of them will be mentioned here, and the n1ost i111portant point to b� 11oted about them is . this: like al1nost _all ?f the sugge�tio11s of this article, they proceed from assumptions about the rat1011al1ty and co11s1ste11cy of code drafting_ assumptions which were s.hared by and acted upon by the drafters of the Code. The ultimate and overriding principle of code interpretation is that one always be a\vare of the context in which a code provision appears, a11cl ready to use that context to illumine the provisio11 in any consistent a11d rational way. One such principle is that particular types of common cri1nes, sucl1 as ''ho1ni­ cide," ''injury," or ''theft," are often grouped togetl1er in such a way that it will be helpful in determining the meani11g of any one article to st11dy the whole group. Even in dealing with as limited a subject as hon1icide, tl1e legislature is faced with a co11tinuum of possibilities. One person kills out of reve11ge, another in a barroom fight, a third in response to an insult, a fourth while driving 11is automobile, and so forth. A reading of all the provisions may suggest the ge11eral pri11ciples �y which the legislature tried to divide this continut1111 into particular crin1es, and th�s help in placing a doubtful case or detern1ini11g tl1e meaning of a doubtful pro�I­ sion. There m .ay be a general article- Article 521, in the Cclse of l1omicide - ,vhich will provide common definitions and help to indicate tl1e legislative approacll. One can expect that the individual provisio11s will be arranged i11 some logical 0rder, such as from the more serious offence to the less serious; .f 1·on1 tl1e n1ost comn1�� offence of' the given type to the less commo11; fron1 tl1e general offe11ce to parrl­ cular varieties of it. rce the The. orga.nization of ''l1omicide'' offences , for example tends to .reiiifo d . . r s, ,vo ' t is 1n�ade � 11 1ts con�1us1on already r. each�d, �hat !though �� me11tion of ir1t�n � _ 1e articles Art�cle _ 523 ?eals only with 1�tentto1 al hom1c1des. T he pe11alt1es prov ided. in tl e s : s J h t e beginn1ng with 522 and. e_nd1ng with ·5�7 generally go !rom tJ1e °:�re to· _ severe, as we shall see 1n more detail shortly thi.s gives son1e 1easor1 to beJjeve ' to · · ore h 111 · e that the offiences are liste� in an o�der which gen.e�ally go�s froin t s . le . artic e s t�e less serious, 1n th� legislature's view. Th� success101� _ of �1tle of _,_th� � . . gives the same 1mpress1on: ''Aggravated Hon11c1cle - F.fom1c1de 1n tile First Degree"; 0a · 1 · A a · · · · · i or ''Homici de 1n the Second Degree''· ''Exte11uated Homicide''· ''Inst igating ; 5?1 ' . . . . le ,,.. , Artic another to commit Suicide''· ''Homic1· ' de ' ' e. d tici 11 ·' • ''lnfa Negl ige11c as e'' by • ' ' · d e 1 01n1c • • • • Wih1 �h proic-esses to state the ''prm 1 l 11es de r , hom1 c1de fi c1ple' ' egard ing tl1at dds a 6 l r:��m� ut�e death of a human b �ing intentionally or �y negligence �nd ona nti te in e fiaiu1re ancl extent of the pur ts u com n ushment awarded· to him who t,

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acc ord i11g to whether the homicide is simple ine d det erm be ball . 0 r ag' s ' . . de . ·c1 c1rc um t anc . ,, e t h es y b sl?e �1fie d h nua ted 1n the �all exte owi ng Articles. . or � d o�!t e t enc e !h�t hom i 1de must be either inte11tional gra_,' infe our tha t rst, fi us, or � Th15. tells correct; second, tha�� our 1.nference that the degree of punishment re­ . is t eil negh g cr1 1 11e 1s correct; and third, that tlie the of usne ss serio legislature has the ts sen pre _ h th ree ki1 1ds of inte11tional homicide: simple, aggravated and extenuated. . . dealt ,vit . . ' II t 1 e d ggrava om c1 e A '' d I " ''A ; rt1c · e l 1 wit 524 deals with ''Extenuated deals 522 e . l ;\rue_ bet\v these ee1.1 com artic es les and 523 e impo ses a penalty which is Artic l ' . ·de' ci . }Ionu ' of Artie 11 t 111ore ·tl1a11 t b at of· A rt1cle 524. Tlie inference is b 522 I e · tl,at n tha h at t.l1is is the missi11g c,tse of ''i11tentional homicide'' which ''is simple." 't !�:�ng e od C 1e tl n hi it w s ce en er ef -r 4. Cross A nother occasionally l1elpful organizatio11al feature is the use of pare11thetical tl1e Code's text. These references 1 nay be taken as in cles art other i to ces eren r:f indication by the legislature t hat tl1ese o ther articles are relevant to tl1e article are 111acle, so tl1at a reading of the articles it refers to � 1 ,vL1ic11 tl1e refere11ces 1d it. Not i11freq ue11tly, these references a.re to an entirely t1ndersta1 to one help �ay different part of tl1e Pe11al Cocle, a1 1d tl1us 1nay l1 elp reveal rel,1tio11ships which the organizatio11al s t ructure of the Code would otl1 erwise obscure. In other cases, the references r11ay be to a series of provisio1 1s for which the article 1 11 aki 1 1g the reference serves in some respect as a ge11eral article. An exa111ple of the latter type of JJrovisio11 is Article 598. This article, enti tled "Aggrava tions to the Offence," co 1 11es at tl1e e11 d of the section relating to ''I 1 1jt1ry to Sexual Liber ty a11d Cl1as tity," co111prisi11g Articles 589-598. 1\rticle 598 states tl1at "in all cases i11volving a c11 arge of sex11 al outrage'' the pt1 nish1ne11t is to be q11ite severe i11 the prese11ce of e11t1merated circ11mstances, i11cl11ding ''(a) where the offen­ der uses violence, i1 1ti111idation or coercio 1 1 or i 1 1 any other way re11ders tl1e victin1 incapable of resisting (Ar ticles 591-595) or subjects his victim to acts of cr11elty or s adism." Ra1Je, Article 589, and .forced abnormal l1eterosext1al sexual behavior, Article 590, are both ''cases i11volving a charge of sexual outrage," si11ce both fall i11 the the section t o whicl1 Article 598 a1 )plies. Both Articles 589 ,1nd Article 590 req11ire as a11 element tl1at tlJe offe11der 11se viole11ce, inti111idation, or coercion t o require a victim to sub1nit to the sexual act described agai11st l1is \Vill. Tl1e questio 1 1s \Vhich n1ight then arise are \\1hetl1er violations of A1·ticles 589 and 590 are s11bject to tl1e special penal ties of Article 598, becat1se o.f the quoted langt1age of Article 598(a); or ,vhether, on t�e ?tl1er l1and, tl1e pare11tl1etical ret�erence to Articles 591-595 is 111eant to exclude application of ,i\rticle 598(a) to Article 589 a11d Article 590, insofar as it refers to violence. . ·The penalties JJrovided i 1 1 Articles 589 and 590 are different from tl1ose stated. in Article 598. Tl1e parentl1etical refere11ce t o Articles 591-595 in Article 598(a) vvo11ld see1n o s0 0rt a11_ i11terpre tation t11at tl1e pe11alties of Article 598. do not . apJJl_y i� cases �f 01_d 1nary ,,1olati o11 of Articles 589 a11d 590. Tl1e use of violence, 1nt11n1dat1on, or coercioi1 to rencler a ti 1 n i 1 1ca.pa.ble of resisting is a 11ecessary e]e1neiJt of botl1 vic offence�; it wo11ld e11t. e]ein ti11g rava agg an as also it not t n trea see1 nt to siste co11 1:1- readii1g of icles 591-595, to wl1 icl1 Article 598(a) refers, shows that viole1 1ce, etc., Art 18. no t a necessary ele111e11t of any of these offences; it wo11ld therefore be appro­ 1 �; :: _to t_reat it as an aggravating elen1e1 1t. On the ?tl1er ha11 d, tl1e u�e of crtlelt� is 111 18 110 1nore an ele11 Articles 591-595, d 1 e11t of Article 589 and Article 590 than of ·1 t .\Vo11 · · . · th s b e a J ld of case ' or · f any g t111 va gra ag as e us te r1a cl1 1 rop to co11sider s1 1 J) u 1 �:�:- outrag�. The parenth etical reference to Articles 591-59� applies only to \he 8 101 1 of violence; it does 11ot limit the applicatio11 of Article 598 where crtle ty

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avoids the apparent conflict in pen s thu It ed. loy emp . n bee · altY Pro . has or sad1sm d 111p oy I .' for . di_· ng the goa l 1s e enc · I v10 y n1 o. ere wh e cas of � : ;� co visions in the n: 1 t a pe1 t e ies o y app . to rt1cle t cour 598 t�e to violatio � sistency, while allowing ns sue �s s, use case er of h ot th� crt1elty or sadis in 590 or 589 cles Arti of n1 al t1c he c 11t e re en th pa fer re by ed e. ict str re which do not seem to be ision ies prov appl t Par to a particular cr1m1na cial Spe one than e mor . . l S. W·here act The meaning of the Penal Code's provisions relating to concurrence of o.ffen chiefly A.rticles 60-63, 82, and 189-19� �f t _h e Ge11eral Part, is mt1ch too complexc�� be set out in this article. However, 1t 1s 11nportant to 11ote that these articles particular Articles 63 and 189, indicate th�t in son1e cases_ a particular act or r�s�� will involve not one, but two or more �r1n1es, and tl1�t 1n such� cases, the punish­ ment may be increased over that which could b e 1111posed for any one of the crin1es. In considering the purpose, scope or n1eaning of a11y 011e article of tbe Special Part this possibility that it can be joined with another article to warrant a greater penalty s.hould be kept in mind. A very common case i11 which consideratio 11s of this sort might be relevant is the following: A and B get it1to a figl1t. A hits B, \vl10 falls to the ground and l1its his head on a rock. The res11lt of this is tl1at his skull is fractured and he djes. A is charged with ho1nicide under Article 523. In sucl1 cases, it is very doubtful that A has actually foreseen that B's d.eath wo11ld result from his blow, and desired or at least was willing to accept that result. Tl1at is, A appears not to have ''intended'' to kill B within the meani11g of Article 58(1). But as has already been noted, Ethiopian courts fairly frequently have overlooked tl1e requiren1ent of intention under Article 523, and have convicted perso1 1s such as A and sente11ced then1 to long terms in jail. 13 This no do11bt reflects tl1e strong feeling which Etl1iopians have against any killi11g. Nonetheless, one n1ust serio11sly doubt that the word ''intent'' can be given a mea11i1 1g which is co 11siste11t botl1 with the definition given in Article 58 a1·1d with con, ictio11 1111der Article 523 in sucl1 cases. Thus, any Ethiopian judge who agrees that ''intent'' is a necessary element under Article 523 (and Article 524, for that matter,) either will be unable to use Article 523 in such cases, or else will risk giving the word ''inte1Jt'' a meani11g wl1icl1 the words of. Article 58 will not support. . The concurre11ce of offences might come into play i11 s11ch a case in tl:e fol­ lowing way: Even though the judge may not be satisfied tl1at the �1ccused ''inteo<lloresee that ed'' to k'll 1 t·he deceased, because he is convi 1 1ced that accused did not J:' the deceased might die as a result of their figl1t he may be able to find that the accused ''intended'' to irijure the deceased ' so 'that he co111d be convicted ui,d�r Artic · le 538 or Article 539. He may also be able to fi 1 1d that the acct1sed was ''negl1gent'' in failing to foresee that the fight 111ight result in the decease �'s deatl,, ° that he co1i ld als� be _convicted under Article 526. Article 63(1) (b) a 1 1d Article 189(1) may t �en permit him_ �� convict t �e accused of both offe�ces, and seiit�i, c� 11 ­ en f rts . accordtn�ly. The poss1b1l1ty that this alternative \Vil! be ava1lable should � �our�ge 111terpreters to refrain from stretchi11g t}1e notion of ''i11tent'' too far ' tl,ere 18 this other way to deal wi th the case which trot1bles them.

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13. See the cases cited in note 10, above.

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IONS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO STATU­ PROVIS LTY Vl, PENA MEANING t4 TORY occasio11 to mention tl1e apparent relationship between l1ad dy alrea ve b �he Code for a !?articular offence and the seriousness with by vided pro .the. P\��alt: by tl1e· leg1s·latt1re. There are countless indications in viewed was ce offen t · · ba · 1 t h h1c w s relations 11p is an 1nte11t1ona1 011e, that the range of punishments thi that the C. 0d e urately reflects the legislat11re's esti1nate of the seriousness of the crime · · ' Provid.ed acc · tl presen 1e ce f o . · 1n aggrav ating · us, h T c1rcum es stances-circumstanappli it h · ic h · to w · tl 1e worse court see111 1s 111structed cr1111e to increase the · the ,b·ci1 make c :� ; ; iii tli� prese11ce_ of exte1111ati11¥ �ircu1nsta11ces - ci:cu?J.stances which in part P, a eY or J· ust1fy the cr1111e or. the cr11n111al - the court is instructed to lower the excus . . · bl. e t.o 011ences '' 1 Ir t 1s app 1ca of � not ver� senous n�ture 11111e11 1.1 1 1pr1so le Simp nalty. e P o mrnitted b y persons w110 are not a serious danger to society'' (Article 105 ); r1gor­ c s imprisonment is ''apJ)licable 011ly to offences of a very grave nature committed 7 da11gerous ),1rti�ularly to society'' (Article 10 are \-Vho ); and for ''minor 1 nders off e �� offences'' the court may s11nply appeal to the l1onour of the accused or apply the very slight penaltie� of tl1e Code of Pe!ty Offe?ces (Articles 87, 121). It is not bard to deduce fron1 this pattern that a cr1111e subject to sentence ranging from five to twenty years rigorous in1priso111nent (Article 523) was considered by the legislature as more deserving of p11nisl1ment tl1an anotl1er crime which it made punishable by one to five years rigorous impriso11me11t (Article 530). It can be observed tl1at in almost every case the legislature has provided for a range of sente11ci11g alter11atives, ratl1er tha11 imposing a single n1andatory ptlnish­ ment. The expla11ation for this i s tl1at tl1e legislature is attempting in the Penal Code to compromise betwee11 two different points of view regarding criminal policy. On the one l1and, it wishes the penalty to reflect the repugnancy of the offence and the measure of harm wl1ich has been done or threate11ed to public or private interests . On tl1e other ha11d, as reflected i11 1nany otl1er parts of the Code, es­ pecially Article 86, it ,vishes tl1e penalty to suit the individual ,vho con1mitted the crime: l1is perso11al circumsta11ces, tl1e opportunity for bis reform, the dangerousness of llis disposition, etc. If 011ly tl1e former consideration were important, one might expect fixed penalties to be imposed for each offence. If only the latter were iu1por­ tant, one migl1t expect the j11dge to be given complete d.iscretion in deciding how to treat a crin1inal, 011ce convicted. By ,vay of compromise, the legislat1rre has set upper and. lo,ver limits on tl1e 1neasure of p11nishment in accordance with its view �f the l1gl111ess of tl1e abstract crime, and delegated to the j11dge tl1e task of set­ ting a particular disposition witl1i11 tl1ese limits, according to the concrete circ11m­ stances of tl1e J)articular crin1i nal. _If, tl,en, one is faced with a case in which it js uncertain which of several oss h ,bly . applic able stat11tes 1night apply, one li11e of i11q·uiry which may be v�ry ·elp ful 18 to co11sider l1ow serio11sly Et11iopian society vie\VS the type_ of 8:ct wi!h hich the defe11da11t is charged. If the choice is bet,veen provisions 1mpos1ng . dif; erent penalties, 011e isio11 carrying the most serious prov ca11 the fairly tl1at i11fer ena ty was ea11t m · to a·pply to the most heinous o ffense' a11d so forth. F or example, ple l · b etween t us look aga111 at tl1e problem raised earlier about t he reIat1o ns h1p · A •c 94(2) an d 608 2) Article 594 a11thorizes rigoro11s impr!sonme�t; Article 60S does ni:� l� ?18 te ( : . to was e pos pu� � ds ure slat legi to n the 1 e t mer ca. for 1nd1 t tha 1 the i ? . dea l w1th a more serious offence tl1an in tl1e latter. In the earlier discussion two

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14 . · J Graven, ·work cit • ed above at 11ote 2, p. 288 ff.

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is ld chi ht g l1g un yo bro a to (a) a : ped . elo dev publi c place re we _ 1 • t1 . t as •. . .• I·1ypotbe1c fo r " w 1e ity axtiv 1 cta expe a sexu 111 , tion ess witn that him b ng havi is of a . . . . t c . t he purpose b in g y o a 11 c hil n n 1 (2) g o . t1 c c a o ip 1n 1c es rt a p to a cr o ss . ntice him a person .1 1 may soon e · · pe the place bli I·son b. ecomes a.war u p a 1n y 1t v t1 · c a · l · a u x e e of the � · '. _. engaging in s 1cal ( 1) an_d l1ypothetical thet hyp �oth . stop �o s e do_ but , en�e pres � (2) can child's �. _ . tes, h bo! tatu of ng mea Articles 594(2) �nd 608( �c wst l1ng the in with t ug� � _ be bro � _ 2)_ legislature tl1e �ea11t at h t eac� provision of But in view of th e_ assumpti�n the _ we sho· u ld seelc an 1nter:pretat 1on that will n, Code to have a uruque functio give · each of these provisions a different f unction. It wo uld seem that most Ethiopians wo uld view the �ct i11. hypothetical (1) as being of ''a very grave nature'' and the perso11 wh o comnutted 1t as being ''partic ­ ularly dange rous to society." Here is a person ,vl10 has deliberately sought to involve a young person in sexual activity. On the other hand, Et hiopians might be more likely to view the act in l1ypothetica1 (2) - at least in so far as it concerned the yo ung eye wit11ess - a.s ''11ot very serio11s'' a11d the individual who con1mitted it as ''not a serious da11ger to society.'' The involvement of the yo11ng person is aln1ost accidental; the sexual activity of the accused was not ''for the be11efit'' of the young person, or n1eant to affect him in any way. Tl1at is, tl1e rigorous im­ prisonment of Article 594(2) is appropriate in the case of h ypothetical (1), but only simple imprisonme11t, as in Article 608(2), is appropriate in the cas e of l1ypothetical (2). We have thus interpreted Article 594(2) as i1nplicitly reqt1iri11g as 011 e of its elem ents tl1at the acc used have the purpose of working a specific sex11al injury on a specific young perso11 or perso11s. This was done in order to reconcile it \.Vith Article 608(2) and to give each article a sensible role in the overall str11cture of the Code. This is the same result we reached before by co1Jsidering the relative place­ ment of t hese two articles in the formal structure of tl1e Code. Tl1e fact that two or more interpretiv e techniques lead to the same res11I t can increase o·ur confidence that th.e result is a good one. Careful attention to penalty provisions may also help the judge arri,,e at a sou11d result in a partic ular case, even where l1 e cannot be sure of the proper interpretation of conflicting statutes in the case before l1im. This may be particularly helpful in those cases where the facts are not easily brot1gl1t \vithi11 the sharp distinctions of legal definitio11s. For example, one can readily in1agine cases less clear than the two hypotheticals we posed in discussing Articles 594(2) ar1d 60S(l). In such a case it could be very difficult' even with the disti11ctio11 we have n1 �de, '-1 ...,, to dec1'de w h'1ch of the two articles sl1ould apply. But tb.at is perhaps J'k 1 e sa; 1ng that s_11ch cases �ill �nvolve ei�her a less impo�tant violati�n o�� Artic_Ie 59_ _4(2 ), more tmpor�ant v1olat1on of Article 608(2). L ess 1n1portant v1olat1ons of Artie},� 5 ·. ( _ ca_ n be punished by ''simple i1nprisonme11t for not less than three 111 ontbs ' vi �1: tions of Article 608(2) are pu nish able by any tern1 of si1nple imprison n1ent. . e · sing . oo , ch of J· udge w - ho 1s awar_e of t�1•s o�erlap avoid s1·tY e� c e_ n al ic ct an s ra y ? .. en the two arti p _ rla ove betwe the c w1tl11 les n by 1mpos1ng a sentence which falls · 1 · · simp e �pr1sonment from three months to three years - when in a part'ic ula r ca se he finds it hard to decide which of tl1e two provisions to apply. When b� 0uld the ; l !each the s_aJ?e resul_ t - t he same penalty - under either provision he a pp !� � the e vi Job of d�ciding �hich of two possibly appl pro y _ his provisions actuall icab le 1f be le a! b asis for s decision is ld u than it wo � obvio u sly less importan . � t choiee had practical consequen ces.

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consid the ering releva nce of the duration or type of been have we r t a _Thus to interpretation of the Penal Code. It is also relevant to take instruc­ unisb � :t : � the degre e of .freedo� given to �udges in particular circumstances to uo� f of punishment to impose. As has already been noted ure meas t wha deci�e. on the Special Part commonly afford judges a range of punishments fro� of o · ovisi ns r · · e th f h men pun1s t s . · � m various prov!'ded tor · ..Compar1s01;1 � P Special ose cho to _ ve importance 'ch . of the 1nd1c at1on relati some attached by the gives ions rovis p whit P� ture to the crimes concerned. Now, one may also note that there are many . . . ]ein s1 a . l serve 1 1c h to increase tbe range of punishments art w I p Genera the of ·ons . · .., visi pro · mak 1ng · over tb at range. Thus, Article 79, c h 1s d · b 1n ge JU 01ce · e 1 t · 1 guide to or avru.1 able ' '' . d o an 1rcu�1stances, th l er · · es art1c h f c· e General Part authot uating Exten eral � "Gen step, one by accord1ng to a scale set out in pun1sl1ment reduce to es judg . ��:icle I 84. Article 81, ''General_ Aggra�ating Circums!a�ces," deals witl1 ca�es in which l11gh y penalt_ 1vely t rela. the w1tb.1n scale provided for by apply � to is judge . the and 78, the Special Part d�fin1t1?n of the o�ence .. Articles. 67, 68, 70, 72, 73, 0 which the Judge may ''freely m1t1gate'' the ces n c1rcumsta. 1 specify others, among punishment, reducing it without limit.

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A comn1on sense judgment which might immediately be made is that the greater the freedom Parliament bas given the judge to reduce a sentence, the less blameworthy it con siders the situation described; conversely, the more Parliament has indicated that a sentence is to be i1Jcreased, the more blameworthy it considers tb.e case. This rather simple observation is likely to be significant in a case where the statutes p resent a ra.nge of alternatives as to how a given act m.ight be characterized. For example, Artjc]e 67 completely exempts from punishment someone who comm.itted an offence under ''an absolute physical coercion'' and authorizes such exemption ''whe11 the coercion was of a moral kjnd." Under Article 68, the court 1nay freely reduce the punishment (Article 185) accordi11g to the circ11mstances ''if the coercion was not irresistible." Under Article 79(1) (c), the court may reduce the punishment by 011e step (Article 184) if an offender ''acted in a state of great material or moral distress ?r under the apprel1e11sion of a grave threat or a justified fear, or under the 1□ffue11ce of a perso11 to wl1om he o\ves obedience or upo11 whom be depends.'' What is ''coercion''? What is tlJe line between ''absolute moral coercion'' (Article 67) a_nd ''resistible moral coercion''(Article 68)? ''Resistible moral coercio11'' and the c!rcun1stances described i11 Article 79(1) (c)? The circ11rnstances of Article 79(1) (c) and simple commissi on of the offe11ce? ?l e are again in a situation where the words used will convey different meanings to different people reading them. But Ioolcing at them as a whole, one can readily see � legislative purpose to cover the whole scale of blame\vortl1iness regarding -oercion, a11d. to direct tl1e judge to in1pose sentence in accorda11ce witl1 the posi­ �lon of tl1 e IJarticuia r offe11der on that scale. In such a case, it may be less im!�� �ant as a prac_tical n1atter to decide UJ?On an_ exa�t n1eaning of the_ p�_rticular or phrases involved than to note tbe1r relat1onsb1p to the determ1nat1on of punis ment. Confr onted by the facts of a particular case and awa.re that the pur­ ose o these f provisions is to ena.ble him to reduce sentence in proportion to the � g ree of e cuse shown by tl1ese facts the judge may be acting in a n1ore straight­ x r: , ard manner if he sets the sentenc� first and makes the characterization of the t after. f:arv,cs

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This of course, 1s · · dge · of the JU 11ot to advocate complete freedom on tbe part ' to s et sent eiices, independent of the statutory scheme. On the contrary, he must be aw are of . , . , . ' . . the IegisIature's purpose _ that a consideration sueh as ' coercion 1s t o - 405 -


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g 011 the circu111sta 11ces 11din depe se, excu al parti or -a d complete serve must er, is, rath t that poin tl1e The word ss. rene awa s use; b be . g e by this t�e � at are wh i11 ate cre l mse the e , pos pur ves this e ze rath teri r art1fi1cia l . . . . I . . rac. . . . ' · legislawture to cha . e f o tf us u f ru1 JU d ic1al not is · time It ons. ncti to d1st1 e attempt to ecis impr . . � and . f d 1t1 I as part1cul�r facts fit. wor . or11 ry 1tra b ar l ra seve of_ ch wh,1 into e rmin dete . t the legislature was The . portant J·ob' and the Job which one may. be conf ide11 . un . p . ri­ / e,1 gzv .t rirune, e 1e · d t / eg1slative attitude to}v _ marily interested to hav� done, 1s _to � the ard cular parti t facts , hn1en pun1s call for. The answer any 1f much how cion," ''coer to this question will suggest the proper category, ratl1er tha11 vice versa.

�J J

As one might expect, Article 79 �a11 b� re�� to . pro,;ide an intermediate step not only for Articles 67 and 68,,, d�al1ng wi_th c_oerc1on, b11� �or virtually all of the ''Justifiable Acts and Excuses d1scusse� 10 Articles 66-78. S1m1lar series can also be found in the Chapters on Attempt, Articles 26-31, and on Participation, Article s 32-40. The gradations in pu11ishment indicated by these articles, agai11, are a measure of Parliament's view of culpability; in a case where the language of the articles d.oes not m.ake the proper category clear, a judge could rely on the relationship between culpability and punish1ne11t to determi11e the article to be applied if he finds the judgment as to culpability more easy to make. Finally, it may be appropriate to remind the reader that the relationship be­ tween penalty provisions not only may l1elp the interpreter to determine the mea.n­ ing of substantive provisions of the Penal Code, but may also be of assistance in reaching a decision in a particular case on the pe11alty to be applied. Thus, where an article involving free mitigation under Article 185 is i11voked in preference to one involving limited mitigation under Article 184, it will in most cases be appropriate to reflect the greater degree of n1itigation - the lesser degree of culpability-by im­ posing a sentence less than might have bee11 imposed using Article 184. Thus, un­ mitigated second degree homicide, Article 523, is punishable \Vith a tern1 of from five to twenty years rigorous imprisonme11t; using Article 184, a sentence as low as o�e year rigorous imprisonment is possible (Article 184(c) ); tl1is would suggest t_l1at 1? cases where Article 185 is to be applied, a sentence to some term of si111ple impri­ sonment will be appropriate. Of course, it is trt1e tl1at tl1e legislatur e has r�rely required that sentence be mitigated to any particular degree; it has mer ely p�r�i tted it. But if it is valid to view the various alternatives for mitigation as establisl1 ing a be �so a sl1ould continuous scale of punishn1ent, as the autl1or believes it is, it generally valid to regard a particular alternative as suggesting a sentenc e with111 the . scale \Vliole comparatively narrow range which is its particular co11trib11tio11 to tl1e alrea� tion, a rpret Another example of the usefulness of penalty provisions in i11te � ecia Sp e 1 tl discussed, is the case where an exte1111ated cri1ne specifically defi11ed i11 e som r o<le Part can be used as a. guide to sente11cing similar crimes extenuated u s a w ·ven gi · · n of the General Part. The example of this ki11d of reaso111· ng provisio .s1?1 1e P that of Article 524, which fixes a range of punishi11e11t-up to five years y · · a . c pr1v . . . e h t . tmprisonrnent-for a k1ll1ng st, intere 1n defence of a particular property · t 010 . fi P ence er of a e h I · r ouse. t a was as sugges ted used that be range this could . 11 ot · e . us · . ca · killi .ng 1n defence of other property interests wbic11, be m cases · I invo v1ng l ra . e en g speCifically mentioned in Article 524, wo11ld have to be dealt witl1 in tlle een.teKt 0f Arti cles 74 and 75 . -406-


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ON INTERPRETING TH E ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

RP OSE AND COMMON SENSE - ELIMINATING ABSUR DITI s•s PU E VU . tests of any interpretation is the simple question nt imp orta the of One ,,00 been reluc ave tant to ascribe caprice or purposeles�ness \Ve e?'' � sens . ake it m enact s, we assume, has some purpose, reflected in its 1t g ryth1 n Ev re. latu � legis . . the n. Tl1e same assumption should also make the Judge 1s to ascertai the h whic , ds . wor . . · d an op 1 1terpretat1011 which embodies some a t 1 to nt reluc ta eter feature some . terpr appea rs to be there no reason, or which appears to co�tradict which for ction . �stin legislature acts purposefully, then in interpreting a statute the f sense. � mon com . always be able to explain his well, to reflect its pur.I?o�e, .the 1_11terpreter should _ 1nc t1ons 1t may en1body in terms of a believable legislative d1s t any and on pretati inter _ . _ purpose. If l1e cannot explain some feature of his interpretation in this way' it is at least an indication that l1e has done his job poorly. As an example, consider anotl1er aspect of Article 524, not yet discussed. The t\rticle refers to one who kills ''in resisting the violation . . . of his house or out­ buildings." (En1 phasis st1pplied) What does tl1e word ''his'' mean? Does it include a woman defending her property? A won1an defending her lzusband's property? A man defending l1is fatlzer's property? A tenant defending hls landlord's property? A guard defending his e1nployer's property? A dinner guest defending his frost's property? What sensible disti11ction migl1t the \Vord embody? The possible distinctions suggested by the questions above are the following: a distinction between persons of different sex; a disti11 ction between persons ow11ing a house and persons living in the house witl1 tl1e owner; a distinction between persons owning a house and persons hired to protect it; a distinctio11 between persons owning a house and persons merely living in it with tl1e right to use it; a distinction between persons owning a house and persons present by invitation. Are any of these distinctions which the legislatt1re might have wished to adopt, had it considered the iss11e? (It is good to remember, in passing, that it almost certain!)' did not consider this exact issue; consequently, inquiry into \Vl1at the legislatt1re migl1t have intended on this particular issue is quite likely to be meaningless.) Are any of the distinctions consistent with the "purpose'' of the statute ,ve earlier hypothesized: to identify an extreme and com­ mon case of killing in the defe11ce of property, a11d solve it, in order to provide a guide for judges confronted with other, less j11stified killings? A distinctio11 between ''his house'' and ''her house'' could hardly find a legis­ lative purpose to s11pport it. One m11st assume that a woman values her property and her privacy as l1ighly as a n1an. One cannot imagine any basis for consider­ ing one kjlling less j11stified than the other. Gran1matically, ''his'' can incl11de the meaning ''her." A distinction wl1ich ,vould eliminate this possible meaning bas 110 sense. Therefore, one ,:vo11ld reason, the distinction sl1ould not be made. ''I-lis house'' should be interpreted to n1ean also ''her house.'' The �ase where the kiJli11g is done by a person living with the owner - his son or his wife - or a perso11 livi1 1g i11 the house by consent of the owner SUch as l1is te11ant - also seems indistinguishable, in any meaningful way, from the _ �as � in which the ow11er hin1self has killed. Tl1e word ''bis'' is frequently used to 1nd1cate the house wl1 ere a person dvvells, regardless whetl1er he owns it. The stat�te refers to the violation of ''privacy''; in doing so, it seems to refer to that special

f�

15· Hart & Sacl1s , work cited above at n. 1, p. 1156 ff. See also, in general, the works cited above at note 8.

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JOUflNAL OF BTHIOP[AN LAW - VOL. V - No. 2

e th t bo l pla c�s wl1ere they fee y ma ns rso pe � ich wh � ty uri sec dwe U' a nd sense of at1ve leg1sl usio concl rent appa n tl1at killitlg 1-n ct '-' the ated motiv have ay . · h m w·hic e ieuc . e a e th bl ot a11 'fi 1 JUst h e er mor ki 1s nds se'' hou of ''his killing reg ard . . . . '' 1s . acy of of the. priv ' . used, one 1u1ght have more . property . Indeed since the word 'privacy . 111g rea • ' • so n an 1 dl a or • d d o t h o w app11e lc1lled 524 Article another wh t o doubt whether . o Was s to nts. e e11a d hi t I t rent ses ts hou tl1e the one of tenant's pr1v . ac y· Seekino . o to enter . . . . .1ntru ded upon. N· o sen .bl 1 e reason for exc ludin � not the landl?rd's, wl11ch 1s b e1ng _ ' rage from cove of the statute suggests the tenant, w�fe, ?r . so� of the ow11er _ itsei. _ Therefore, this d.1st111ctton should not be made. The house 1s ''his'' for wlio ever dwells in it. The relationship to a �ouse of a pe�·son who neither dv1ells in it nor owns it, such as a guard or a d1nn�r guest, 1s more ren10,�e._ One 1night speak of the house a guard guarded or a dinner guest ca°:1e �o as his house," but this \Vould be a considerable exte11sion of the character1zat1on, not ordinarily used. And the very r. e1noten.ess of the relationship suggests a basis on which a distinction cotild be made: this, pers?n will not b� defe11ding his own p�ivacy or sense of security so much as t11e privacy or secu.r1ty of another. The legislature could readily have conclu.ded that a killing by such a person would not be as excusable as a killino by a person directly protecti11g his own interests, or, at least, that in so,ne case� the degree of excuse would not be as great. This there.fore appears as a n1ore appropriate case for decision in accordance with the general principles of Article 75, wl1ich applies if Article 524 does not; the judge will decide the degree of excusability in the particular case and reflect it in the sentence imposed. Since Article 75 refers to Article 185, ''Free Mitigation," it would be tl1eoretically possible for the judge to redu.ce the sentence of the g11ard or dinner gt1est below the range suggested by Article 524. Plainly, l1owever, the sente11ce shot1ld be at least as heavy, and. often heavier, than that which \vould be imposed under Article 524. Sin�e the gt1ard or di11ner guest do not l1ave as strong an interest in privacy as the owner, they are not as greatly excused. Perl1aps it will be responded that the g·uard has his duty to the o\.vner, and is hired exactly for the pttrpose of defen�­ ing tl1e pro_perty concerned. But since Article 524 establishes tl1at the owner l1imself is not legally entitled to kill a mere trespasser; it is clear tl1at he cannot order or authorize another to do this for him. At best, the limited 1nitigation of Article 79(l) (c) would apply to such a case. at w n � · decid I� sum, the for element � of b asis ''privacy'' � provides a rational .ts ''h1s'' property and what is 11ot ''his." Since failure to make a11y distinction would involve an unnatural extension ot· the meaning of ''his," the disti11ction prob­ ably should be made. vm. A RECAPITULATION: ARSON AND DAMAGE TO PROPERTY e ag Dain 5, The complex relationships between Article 488 Arson a11d Articles 653-65 n ' ' · bee · e · hav t PropertY, prov1·cte a vehicle · h c hi w po111ts for the review many of of � ussed disc above. The problem is presented her e only in outline forro. A. The Statutory Framework 1. Article 488, Arson Part II, Special Part Book .rv, Offences Against the Public Interest or the Community . ons ti a ruc omu Trtle VII, Offences Against Public Safety and the Security of Cor Chapter I, Offences Against Public Safety - 408 -

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ON INTERP.R.ETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

. Ar son · .. 488 . le ''Artie . . . mal1c1ously or with tl1e !11tention of causing danger er so ev Wh o of collective (l) .. to persons or property, sets fire to his own property or to that of another str '?t11 u res_ of a�y kind, �rops_ or ag ricultural o r gs bu ild in be it �e r products, :�h� other ob�ect, is pun1sha.ble with rigorous imprisonment any or r timb e , 110t forests . years ten ng eedi exc (l) Within tl1ese li111its, a severe _sente11ce_ 1!1ay be passed where the offence creates substantial d�nger, or where_ tl1e . r1�k of Il1Jll_ry . to persons or property is wide­ p11bl 1c bu 1 l?1:ngs .or bu1ld1ngs used by a public wl1er e cially espe ad, service, in­ spre habited house s or _hot1ses t1sed for living _ 1 n, contractors yards or stock yards, stores or 1_ 1 1flan1 explosive _ substa11�es, forests, 111ines, oil wells or 111abl e or isions prov or refine ries, sl1ips, a1rcra.ft, or any otl1er ob_1ects particularly susceptible to fire, are affected." 2. Articles 653-655, Damage to Property Part II, Special Part Book VI, Offe11ces Agai11st Property Title I. Offences Agai11st Rigl1ts i11 Property Chapter II, Offences Agai11st Property Section III, Damage to Property "Article 653 - Ger1eral Provisions. Whosoever, a1)art fron1 (cases 11ot relevant here), i11teJ1tionally destroys, dan1ages, depreciates or renders t1seless tl1e property of another, whether objects, in1pleme11ts, animals, trees, crops, or any tl1ings whatsoever, or landed or iro~movable property, is punis11able, ttpon co111plai11t, \Vith sin1p]e imprisonment or fi 1 1e Article 654 - Aggravated Cases. Proceedings shall be instituted by the Attorney General a11d tl1e pt1nisl1111ent may be rigorous imprisonn1ent not exceeding five years and fi11e: (a) Where the offender has acted tl1ro11gh malice or \vitl1 i11tent to ca11se harm and has so cat1sed considerable damage, or where even withot1t that parti­ cular intent, he l1as inte11tionally caused considerable clamage to private objects, u11dertakings, i11stallations or plantations, or (b) where l1e has destroyed or serio11s]y damaged (an object i1nportant to the public) .... Article 655 - Aggravated Means. Where the offe11der, \Vith particular i11te11t to destroy, da111age, depreci,1te or rende r useless the propert)' of anotl1er, l1a.s employed means endangering public security, sucl1 as landslide, flooding, explosio11 or fire, the punishment provided in the relevant provision shall apply concurrently (Article 63)." 3 · Excerpts from the Ger1eral P::1rt relating to concurre11ce "Article 63 - Guilt in case of rt Combinatio11 of Offe11ces. (I) When a given offence i1111Jlying an inj11ry to persons or property, . or the use of · ·: d_angerous means, fire or explosives ... entails an injury wl1ereby the e]ements � 00 stituti ng a second offence are materialized ... tl1e Court shall apply the fo]Jow­ ing principles for determi11ir1g the g11ilt a11d the penalty: (a) if the result was inte11dec1, or foreseen and accepted by the o�ender, (Article _58 (I)), he shall be charged 1vvith both .. . and aggravation shall apply 1n accordance with

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L. VO AW L . V - No. 2 AN PI IO H ET OF L NA JOUR

�nd ), 8? 192 I dL1� regard being es ticl (Ar ons visi pro t van -had t t the rele he o the n n g ff t tut 1st1 co 0 1 vv ntio . s 111te ent 1 elem 1 the nal · of o rn e ces co binatioi1 )

• • •

the wh cri re e 1i11al result was achi cular parti . in ply a shall n ;; o avati Aggr eved � (2) by n . so .. . ar 1 as cl su , ty ri cu se c li ub p g i11 er ng da en means e cas n of i n atio r rav cur Agg Con e11t Offences. ed tiat stan um Circ _ 189 ticle ''Ar loss of entailing liberty nalties e p_ being concurrent! several of case in (b) (l) ... mpose .th_e penalty deserved for tl1e most ser· Y . . shall . i court the able applic · 1ous · . . · nt into t accou 1 1e prov1s1ons of the 1aw offence and shall increase its • length ta k"Ing • . A': se a pena It· y exceed1ng by half the or the concurrent 011ences; 1t may ...impo basic penalty ...'' ''Article 192 - Simultaneous Breach of Several Provisions. Where by one and the same act the offender committed a breach of several cri1ninal provisions ...the Court may aggravate the penalty according to tl1e provisions of Article 189 ...; it shall be bound to do so in cases of aggravatio11 expressly provided by la\v (Article 63(2) )....'' B. Putting the Problem

A review of the penalty provisions of these articles reveals the following possibilities, in order of severity of punishment: Article 653 alone - simple imprisonment up to three years (Article 105). Article 654 alone - rigorous imprison1nent up to five years. Article 488 alone - rigorous imprisonment up to ten years. Article 653 + Article 488 (Article 655) - rigorous imprisonmeD:t up to ten years plus simple imprisonme11t up to three years. Article 654 + Article 488 (Article 655) - rigorous imprisonment up to fifteen yea rs. Article 488 + Article 653 or 654 (Article 192)- rigorous imprisonment for n1 ore than ten years but less than thirteen or fifteen, respectively (that is, if ''it shal! be found to do so'' in, Article 192 n1eans that the court must impose a higher penalty than it could for one offence alone).

Suppose the following cases. For each, consider \Vhich statutes or gr?up of statutes could be said to apply, insofar as the Iangt1age of the J)rov.isions 1 s c�n­ cerned. What is t he result (penalty) for each statute or group of stat11tes wh1c� m ight be applied? Next, try to discover, by consideri11g all relevant fac tors, \.vha � J?oes be. ht ig . 111 the function or purpose of each provision or group ot· provisio11 s this reduce the. n1tmber of alter11atives available? Does it give e::1ch prov·ision a un i�ue and rational function? Does it result i 11 an overall distributio11 of� rest1lts (peiJalues) · · · · c_on_s1stent \Vtth tl1e probable legislative ev,1lt1a t io11 of tl1e ser1011sr1 ess of t·he wh-�·ch 1s various cr1n11nal acts involved? erty prop the 1: A person intentionally sets fire to a book whicl1 he knows is Case of another, in his fireplace and destroys it. Tl1e b· 'ook was 'vvor th $2 • 50. re sto ust A a person d bi! C se Z: sets fire to the shed in whi ch his neigl1bor has j en. tire Maske! teff crop. The person intended 011ly to destroy the teff crop. Beca�sk the 8hed ·1s 1so · Iated, the fire does not spread. No other damage is done or r1s created. t . Case 3: A person sets fire to a building in town. The flfe is discovered au<ltowp�· ©llt before any substantial damage i s done. I-Ie . meant by this to destroy tbe - 410--

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I

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN' PENAL CODE

ase 3 , but the fire destroys ten homes and threate ·as C . S ame ns the rest · d1e ' Case 4 · s down. 1t e r fo e b D \V to of the C. Case 1 This case is plainly within the meani11g of Article 653, since the person has prop erty of a11other. Depe11di11g on the meaning of the tl1e d dest roye y onal l tenti . tl1e p�rase ''a11y other object," it might also come within _and usly ," alici o ''m :ord Article 488. S111ce the pe1��on ha� e�1ployed ''_fire'' ''wi�h particular of g eanin m the _ prop anot of er�1 l1er, �ppl1cat1 n of A.r�icle 655 Wlll depend on intent to . destroy tl1e � the meaning of the phrase n1e�ns e11�a11g�r1ng pL1bl1� secunty'': must the means employed actua�ly endanger pL1bl1c se�llr1ty 1n t�e par_t1cular case? Must the means be so s11bstant1a1 (a fire of s11ch size) _ t hat 1t �rd1narily would endanger public security in sucl1 cases? Or has the legislature simply determined that fire is a "means endangering public security," so that the j11d.ge does not have to determine whether pL1blic secu.rity was or ordinarily wo11ld have been endangered, but is re­ quired to determine 011ly tl1at fire was i11 fact used? If Article 653 ap_plies, the penalty \Vill be up to three years simple impriso11ment; for Article 488, up to ten years rigorol1s imprisonment. If tl1e act was ''a1·son'' as well as property darnage, Articles 63(2), 189, and 192 appear to require the judge to impose an aggregate pe11alty longer than tl1at wl1ich might have been imposed for arson, Article 488, alo11e. The size of the penalties employed i11 Articles 488, 655, etc., should already make us extremely doubtft1l tl1at deali11g \Vith such tri,1ial incidents as tl1e one clescribed in Case 1 is \\1 itbin tl1eir J)Urposes. If one thinks of tl1e clear case of ''arson'' or of the use of means wl1ich could fairly be called ''aggravated," one im1nediately pictures, not the sn1all fire of a fireplace, b1 1t a raging blaze tl1at no 011e ma11 couJd co11trol. An. exami11atio11 of the placing of Article 488 i11 the structure of the Penal Code reinforces tl1is view, that the Parliament l1ere was concerned witl1 offenc­ es against the public - serio1 1 s threats to a com1n11nity or public safety as a wl1ole. Moreover, attrib11ting this I)llrpose of deaii 1 1g \Vitl1 pl 1blic ratl1er tha11 private l1arm to Article 4,88 allo\VS us to give a distinct functio11 to it vis a vis Articles 653-655, and th11s avoid redu11da11cy. If it is agreed that tl1e f11 11ction of Article 488 is to deal with threats to public safety, t,vo co11clusions sl1011ld follow: first, that it should be interpreted to reflect this functiot1; seco11d, that Article 655, which 011 occasion joins Article 488 to either �rticle 653 or Article 65,4, sl1ould be interpreted to apply 011ly when both motivati11g s1tuations - da1nage to property a11d threats to public safety - are present. Article 488 can be th11s limited if the rather i11definite word ''maliciously'' is understood as referri11g to the principal concern of the article - the creatio of :° danger of collective injt1ry. ''Maliciously'' is generally ta.ke11 in the sense of ''ev111?' ," or ''witl1 tl1e specific desire of doin o harm,'' or ''mischievously''; since the article already refers to ''the i11tention of0 ca11sing danger of collective inju.ry," th� word adds little but uncertaint y. 111 view of the purpose of the article to deal with the . r�ation of public da11ger, l1owever, one \Vot1ld be jus�ed in limiti11g the scope_ of ��1 . � word to att1t 11des of the offe11der towards public danger. Another possible linutation_, u11necessary to tl1is case but worthy of mention, is of the phrase ''any t�er ob3ect. �' Plainly, this r otlie the from , ever Ho� k. boo a ude incl ld pl1rase co11 . � bJ�cts described - b11ildings crops etc. - and our 11nderstandmg of the function of Article 488, one co11ld r 0the ''any to only es appli se phra the J)rob;.bly co�clude tl1at - 411 -


JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - No. 2

a r ,, r h lic . 11ub of a k s a ri. tirzg o cre fire rt p sup a to as tial i ,, t b r··, T.here · ob1ect so su s a · is, t1 h d · 1 \V h en a s ta tu te 111c t es at n cano a list pted acce of th· ings and . d.eed' a well in . ther, '' th� wo:_ds ''any oth�r'' ar � any r ''o. as such s wor? with e to be then ends l1ave h wl11c nt o1ta in1p gs thin to act only char r ing i refer erist as · cs 1- n com. tood ders un . . . , to per 1ere h 1 d , rre . r a1)s rei-e a lly ai ifica cert spec n gs thin size the mon with Article 655, .also, . can readily be li�:u ·te�, i11 the i� �icated manner. One might ) fi h ere re d A w wor h 1 t 1c e e 6 1 t uses ( 1t 3 since , that otherwise sim'I1 ar st r fi say' · ' 2 · 1e 655 s houId be interpreted to refer to th · Art1c uses the word ''arson," ''fire '' 10 ' ose out-of-control blazes which co11stitute a danger to pt1blic security, tl1at is to s ''arson." The second technique - basically similar and by no means excluded y the first - refers to the phrase ''means endangeri11g public security," which appea in both Articl� 655 and Articl� 63(2.) While this phr�se ca11 �e read . simply as a Iegi:� lative declaration that ''fire'' 1s a ''means endanger 111g pt1bl1c security," it can also be read as a description of the kind of fi re with \vhich the legislature was concer n­ ed, a fire which actually did endanger public security, or which by its size could ordinarily be expected to do so. The second interp retation is 1nade more likely by the other ''me ans'' mentio1.1ed - landslide, explosio11, etc. - and l1elps us to avoid the questio nable severity of the sente11ce wlrich might be imposed if Article 655 were found to apply. It is consistent with our reading of Ar ticle 488 and our understa11d­ ing that public security was 11ot even remotely threatened in tl1is case.

6'

D.

Case 2

Case I was an easy case, in the sense tl1at it was quite clearly beyond the 1 tl1is sense; probably many i1 rationale of Articles 488 a11 d 655. Case easy less is 2 Ethiopians would say that the perso11 involved was guilty of ''arson," becaus e this is the common name given to such crime s and l1e11 ce they are n1ore likely to think of Article 488 than Article 654 in this co11text. Bt1t, it is suggested, if the solution to Case 1 was corr ect, Case 2 shot1ld probably be solve d in the same way - as a violation of Article 654 , but not of Article 488 and 11ot involving Articles 655 and 63. In fact, the one Ethiopian court decision of which the author is awa re reacl1ed exa.ctly this conclu sion. In Ketema Tesfamicl1ael Liclja,n v. TJ1e Prosecutor,. Criminal Case Number 5 of I 958 in the Asmara division of tl1e Supre111e Impe rial Court (unpublished, Haile Se11assie I University Law Library), the appe lla11t ha.cl bu r11ed another's crops, and was charged and convicted of arson in tl1e High Court. �he � upreme Cour t held that the charge was mistake.n, ''b ecause, ,1ltho11gh thi� arti cle 1s about ar son it does not provide specifically fo r crimes committed . against �he property of an individ ual, bt1t rather for crimes committed agai11st collectiv e secu rity. ! he present charge .sho�ld �e �ased on A r ticles 653-654 .... '' Altho�1gh the reas _ ��­ ing thus expressed IS brief, 1t 1s to the point a11d, in tl1e autl1or's vie w, eminen Y correct. The case is within the meaning of eitl1er Ar ticle 653 or Article 654, since. tlle accused has intention ally damaged pr ivate objects. Whether l1e l1 as ''caused consid er; able . damage'' (Article 654) could depend on the objective value of the teff c roph ; s er p or on its value relative to the total value of tb.e injured party's goods, on some other measu1:e, The fire in this case \Vas large e11ough to create a :lie �htis, . er g anger ? , but was not Intended to and in fact did not create such a da� �er ioa if when Article 655 speaks of a ''means endangering p ublic safe ty, " it 15. re ;a ; e a d nly to a fire of � u l p a nt cert e ain pre � size , ily tha r mig ord t ina ht ? ��ar c:Se, �res1.ecti. �e whether 1t- actually does present such a danger 1n a partic the d han 1:!bea Article 655, and thr ough it ' Article 488, would apply. If on the other - 412 -


ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

conflagratio11 which actually endangers public a to is . uId e saci1ety , I•t wo . " renc reie . ap n o o I p t ld 655 I n th·is case. Article 488 e rtie A at could apply without . . seem th � 65 incIudes the facts of tllis case. 1�f· �m al1c1ousl y 5 Article of aid tile Article 653 w?uld lea? to . up to three �ears simple imprisonment; Article 654, 1m pr1 �on rig ment; A:rt1cle 488, up to ten years rigorous oro us y�a rs five to impri­ up and 655, if they applied, would extend the maximum imprison 6 s Arti cle 3 ent; ­ sonm years. fifteen to nt nle We are again i11 the positio11 of seeing how unl1elpful the words of a statute taken alone, w!ll son1etimes_ be. Tl1e_ st_a11d�rd of '_'considerable damage'' embodied in Article 654 1s so unspecific that 1t 1s virtually inconceivable that any two men \vould agree on exactly how n1·uch da1nage was ''considerable," or by what standard this s11ould be n1easured. If the decisio11 were simply one to be made by the judge, it ?1ight be expected . that l1e wou�d 1nake it in tl1e inverse manner we have described before - that 1s, first determine how much punishment the facts of the case before l1i1n seemed to warrant, and then characterize the amou11t of da­ niaoe accordingly. But tl1e decisio11 is one wl1icl1 determi11es whether the government can° bring a prosecution witl1out the necessity of a complai11t by the injured party, and l1ence must be 011e which is capable of being made in adva,zce of trial. Indeed, the sta1 1dard 111ay ultin1ately be no more precise than ''those cases which the Attor­ ney General thi11 ks are important enougl1 for him to prosecute, whether or not he has received a forma .l co111plaint." In the particular case of destructio11 of property by fire, it may be possible to use our search for consiste11cy a11d ratio11ality to provide an auxiliary sta11dard. As a matter of l1istorical fact, it can be asserted that the burning of crops or houses has for a lo11g tin1e been considered a quite serious offence in Ethiopia; even though tl1e value of the crops or house burned might be, objectively, quite small. This is because tl1e economic l1arm do11e to the small farmer by even a small fire could be quite seriot1s. This suggests, first, that the considerableness of clamages should not be 1neasured by a 1noney standard - so many dollars lost - so much as by the relative i11jury st1ffered by the i11jured party. A substantial proportio11 of a harvest - \Vhatever its dollar value or the size of tl1e total harvest - is ''consi­ derable'' to the injured party, and hence may be to the law. This approach is supported by the structural relationship of Article 654, within the Code. The da1nage to property with which tl1e Code is concerned at this poi11t is, generally speaking, damage to an i11dividual's i11terest i11 goods; hence, it is appropriate to consider that where provisio11s are concerned with the degree of har1n, they refer to the degree of harm done to tl1 e particular individual concerned, and not an absolute standard. An additio11al, related reason for reaching this conclusion appears if we antici­ pate our reasoning 011 Article 488, and hypothesize tl1at there will be cases wh_ere the burning of crops or ho11ses is not to be considered arson. Yet, the ex�ectat1on of most Ethiopians is that such activities will lead to relatively severe punishment. Even though cases Sllch as Case 2 ougl1t preferably to be exclu�ed fron1 tl1e cover­ �ge of Article 488, tl1e l1se of a fire wl1ich coi1ld endanger public ?afety, even thot�gh in a particular case it is 11ot inte11ded to and does not, is a serious matter which deser_ ves seriot1s punish 1ner1t. One can honour the reasonable expectation_ 0� severe p_unishment by adopti11g the es o�v inv rily essa nec fire a h suc of use t tha ion co11struct e1ther the causing or at ish­ pun Such " age. dam e rabl side ''con of least tl1 e attempting any ment will then be ude excl ld cou ch whi n, ctio stru con le. Tl1e contrary ilab ava such punishment, might threate11 to bring tl1e judiciary i 11to disrepute.

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. only to state that there are substantial reasons for excluding C . ase It remam.s . 2 . n m . a e , s a 0 . 655 11 r d t a y 63 , t 8 8 s � th le \V e c 1t ti b. r A f o propo sition e g a r e v o c from th.e h b ld d e s ou . an arded by the legis1 h ld reg u wo ich w e cas a is 2 e Cas a t that _wh i1e re � h w s n iou tl1a ser less es l Cas stil 3 is it and e crim 4' in . ous · seri a s a s e g . d d 1ch an JU ' the 1ntent. to prod11ce sue h danger and - are involved _ ger dan lic pub substantial ld ect wou exp one that a er less ked mar tly range of punish� cien suffi is e renc diffe . The es er co1n rely und u s_ 1cl� t A1· _2 Case 654 (putting aside use beca Yet, lt. resu to ment Article 653 for the moment), the cho�ce .1s_ not one �etwee11 applying either Ar ticle 654 Ar�1cle 6�4 either_ �lone, or both Article 654 apply111g between is it rather, or 488; and Article 488 together. The seco�d altern�t�ve _ is �bJect1o_nable for two reasons: first, because· it results in ther_e b:1ng no d1st1nctto� 1n �un1sl1me11t regarding Cases 2, 3 and 4; second, because 1t disregards tl1e cons1dera�1ons . proposed as the basis for ou.r solution of Case 1, and thereby calls tl1at solut1011 into doubt. The second objection merits further explanation. Tl1.e basis for ot1r solution to Case 1 was our determination, principally from t]1e place of Article 488 i11 tl1e Code's table organization, that the purpose of Article 488 related to the public da11ger pre­ sented by certain kinds of fires. Therefore, the references to ''malice'' i11 that article should be und.erstood to refer to an attitude toward such a danger. Since Article 488 simply 1·efers to setting a fire with malice or the intent to cat1se collective injury, and not to the size of the fire set or the damage it has done, the only way Article 488 could be made to apply to Case 2 \Vot1ld be by t1ndoing tl1e lin1itations on the word ''maliciously'' which we felt bot1nd to impose in Case I. The require­ ment of consistency prevents us from adopting 011e n1eaning of ''maliciously'' for cases like Case I and anotl1er for cases such as Case 2. Articles 655 and 63 refer, not to a state of mind, but to ''mea11s endangering tl1e public safety." As it relates to ''fire," this phrase cot1ld be understood to n1ean ''any fire," ''any fire of a certair1 size," or ''any fire e11dangering p11blic safety." We eliminated the possibility ''any fire'' in discussing Case I, beca.11se this meaiung would not be consonant with the evident purpose of the provisions - to permit or require an aggravated penalty to be imposed where t\vo distinct interests, public safety and property, were prejudiced by the same act. It can now be see11 t hat the same consideration requires elimi11ation of the possible meani11g ''any fi re of a certain size." Not all such fires \vill have been intended to enda11ger public safet)' or will have done so; hence, not all such fires will prejt1dice tl1e two distinct i nter­ a y 1 1_ z · fire ests which justify an aggregate penalty. Moreover, as in Case 3, a s,nall end.anger public safety. One can reach the same result in a. slightly differe nt fashion, by viewing Articles 655 and 63(2) as essentially a11xiliary to Articles 488 a11d 653:-654. It would offend common sense to apply Article 655 to a case in which Article 488 had not been violated. Since we have concluded tl1at Article 488 sl1ould not be ap· plied in this case, it follows that Article 655 is not to be applied, either. E.

I

Case 3

• • . the ,,e b a Case 3 1s 1n a_ sense the obve1:se of Ca�e 2. For t�e fi�·st time , ':e . state of mmd required, under our 1nterpretat1011 for a v1olatio11 of Article 48S. On . s e 1 ic art the 0ther band, of the

no substantial damage has been done; do any . relatmg to Da.mage to Property apply? The app1·1cati. on of Article 488 is clear enough from the facts. As wa s noted, of e ro th� words of the article require fra partic ular a only in that a fire set be ™nd; they do not require successful destruction or even, apparently, successful - 414-

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

wo nder, of course, whether the necessary ma y . On e ng. ger i frame o f mind · . end an · . the a bsen�e of e1th,er; but the gravamen de1nonstra1ed in be y easi l of the could n with �d er�a a ke part1cular purpose, and both the act act an is ce and offen . sent 10 this case re p re a e os purp The application of �rticles 653-654-655 appears 1nore doubtful. It might seem of Articles 653 and 654 tha� only su�cessful acts of property des­ g \Vord in the from prosecuted under those art1�les; A:rt1cl� 655 refers to ''particular be coul d tion truc _tl1e property of anot.her, and 1t .might be thought that tllese ·oteiit to destroy . . . �ords exclt1�e the case _where property destructio� is merely_ an accepted consequence 1 of public dange�, and not the primary motive. The consequences of 01 creat1 the of these decisio11s _ l1ave bee� 1nent1011 ed often en?t1gl1 - what 1nay be a ten year sen­ tence for violat�or1 o� Article 488 �an and pos�1bly must be extended to up to thirteen or fi.ftee11 years 1f Article 653 or Article 654 applies concurrently througl1 Articles 655 and 63. Considerations of symmetry might also be found to suggest that Article 488 alone should apply i11 a case such as Case 3. If eacl1 provision of the Special Part is to be deemed to have its o\vn specific and unique function, as we have so often suggested, then there ought to be fairly comn1on cases to \Vl1icl1 each alone applies. Cases wl1 ere a11 offender sets fire to his O\vn property or to wasteland will be too rare, 011e n1ight think, to co11stitute the ''clear case'' for which Article 488 was de­ signed. The disti11ction n1ust be one of intent: wl1ere the inte11 t is to harm the public-at-large alone, only Article 488 sl1ould apply; where it is to harm individual property, Articles 653 or 654 sl 1ould apply; only \Vhere both i11tents are present should both sets of pro\1isions be applicable and the penalty aggravated. 011e to ten years rigorous imprisonmer1t provides a.1nple enough range for punishment of the f::1cts of cases such as Case 3. The reference to ''partict1lar intent'' in Article 655 is a further indication of the correctness of this readi11g. The a□s,vers to this li11e of argument are also stro11g, however. To the author, if not to all, they are persuasive. Article 488 does have a specific and unique . function - so often repeated - of dealing with intentional threats to ·pu blic safety made with fire. Articles 653 and 654 also have a specific and u11ique ftinction - ol dealing witl1 i11te11tional damage to individual property. We have already seen that one ca11 fairly ea.sily da1nage i11 dividual property, using fire, without imposi11g a threat to public safety. But tl1e converse is not tr11e. One can rarely tl1reaten pt1blic safety ,vith fire ,vitl1 out also d.estroying private property. Even if this co11seq11e11ce �s not the primary JJurpose of setting the fire, it seems to the author that it will 111evitably be a11 ''i11te11ded'' consequ.ence within the mea11ing of Article 58. Even with­ out reference to the co11cept of do/us eve11ti1alis, Article 58(1) al. 2, one is un!ve�sally 11eld to have inte11ded ,:vhatever is a 11ecessary co11sequence of an act pr1nc1pally desi�ned for son1e other crirninal pt1rpose; for example, destrt1ction of prope�ty by fire if tl1is is necessary to e11da11ger a comn1unity by arson. 16 Thus, both intents are present, Since both Articl;z: 653 and Article 654 describe i11tentional offences, 011e can e ? prosecuted for attempt u11der either, eve11 in the case where no actlial damage 1s done. The remaining d.iffict1lty is tl1 e re.ference in Article 655 to a ''particular intent'' t<> destroy property. Tl 1 is does seem to -suggest that purpose - mt1st be uppermost for 16·· On this point, see P. Graven, worl< cited above at note 1, p. 156·

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W - VOL. V - No. 2 LA N A PI IO H ET F O L A N R U JO

es nc ue of eq i1 ns 1Jt co ce e ac th 1g e er th id ns co . gg su t Bu i est ply ap o to 5 65 . 0 11e Article . · his of e home e the n1y, n b11t n destroy to threa only ten d d e ed . h t person 1nten e g 1 on Ja1 -1 • 1 y, m nt ter ue eq , ns co ll wi ap�ly to him• � . whole town _ Article 655 and, public com mo t1011 and alarm in orde se cau to y onl ed'' tend ''in son Per . er r to . anoth . n of property . uct1o ep ted the destr acc ut_ b ty, un1 co11:1111 the on self him as a revenge � wh n, . rs ma )ea apJ this to n e pl� hav his of ce conte mplated uen seq con ry essa nec cl� r A�t1 �nde 48�. The r_es11lt is unsuppo ?n�y icted conv be to is e, crim er the gross rt­ which 1s. ct1on d1st1n either a s without a difference create It sense. on comm to able or in which the difference. suggests exactly tl1e opposite result. It sl1ould not b� accepted. It might have bee11 sensible to provide that when a co11viction for ars011 is obtained, concurrent convictions can be had for da1nage to property only to the extent that such damage actu.ally occurs - that is, that a conc11rrent conviction for an attempt to damage property could not be obtained. Tl1e author does not see however, how the reference to· ''particular intei1t'' ca11 be constr11ed to embody sucl� a rule. It follows that, given his co11struction of Article 654 in Case 2, the accused in Case 3 could be convicted of an attempt at aggravated damage to property, Article 654, concurrently with arson, Article 488. He co11cedes, ho\vever, that the c·ontra.ry interpretation is a possible one. If a concurrent conviction is possible in this case, that fact is, to the author, persuasive on the question whether Articles 655-63-192 reqi,ire imposition of a sentence greater than the maxi111um for arson (ten years) in cases of co11currence, or merely permit it. The former reading, that imposition of a sentence longer than ten years is required, nlight be thought to be a consequence of the statement in Article 192 tl1at ''(the court) shall be bou11d to (aggravate the punish1ne11t according to Article 189) in cases of aggravation expressly provided by law (Article 63(2)." The reference to ag­ gravating the punishment could be understood to mea11 either (I) increasing the punishment above what the judge would have applied for the single offence; or, (2) increasing the penalty above the maximum limit which the judge would have been required to observe in the case of a single offe11ce, b11t which he is pern1itt�d to exceed by Article 189. The interpretation that the se11tence must exceed the 1nax1n1un1 for the more serious offence is a very harsh one. N1andatory minimum se11te 11 ces always threaten injustice, by preventing tl1e judge from te111pering llis decisions to the particular facts of the case. Here, the mandatory minin1um sentence ,,,ould be very high indeed. It would be unusual to ascribe the pt1rpose of adopting sucl1 a provision to Parliament, when the Code as a whole sl1ows a consistent tendency to free the judge for· the exercise of sentencing discretion. Moreover, Article 189, . to which Article 192 refers, speaks only of the ''penalty deserved for tl1e 111ost seri�us 1 whicl i11 s · ce'' (emph.asis supplied), and does not seem to envision any case offen the maximum penalty possible for the most serious offence is auton1atic,1ll)' to be imposed. If Case 3 is the occasion for application of conc11rrent pt111isl1n1e nts t•nder Article 655, it would seem that many would 11ot think it a case wl1ich ''de serv· 11 0 way • e.d'' a sentence of more than ten years. Tl1e alternative interpretatio 111 n hinders the judge from imposing a high sentence; it simply permits biro to g� lower, as the circumstances warra11t. Thus, Article 192 should be understood to re�d wou that the judge's obligation is only to impose e l an t i . ed a sente11ce higher h have impose� for the mos serious ff it lone ted com mit o ence had it been a ; _0; ; t ! n.et ee as high as the max1mum . f call not doe s for tha t offence, if the case. - 416 -


ON INTERPRBT[NG THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

F. Case 4. interp�etation . is accepted, this case is no different or' s aut h the in legal If higher sentence - than Case 3 Those who d o warr a antin g gh altho u _ . not . . . . 1nte · . aualys1·s C f ase o reta 3 w111 surely agree, m any event, th t1on rp his with . at this . . . a0aree pr1ate one 1.c-or concurren t app11cat1on of the penalties regardin g app ro an is . 5e e to Property. ag am D d te va ra gg A d an :rso n CODE PENAL TI-IE A LIMITATION ON INTERPRE­ OF 2 TICLE AR IX . TATION? 17 Thus far, we l1ave been. d�sc�ssi11g interpretatio11 without explicitly considering whether ther � are �any legal l�1nitat1?ns ?n _tl1e process. There are such limits. They are set by Article 5) of tl1e �ev1sed Co11�t1tut1�n of _ 1955 and Article 2 of the Penal Code. Mtich of the re1na1nder . of .tl11s article will be devoted to a discussion of the principle tb�y embo�y, wh1cl1 1s known _as the principle of legality. We ca11 start this discussion by using some of tl1e techniques developed earlier in this article, but \Ve vvill find tl1at they do not take us very far. In dealing with the funda­ mental doctrines of the General Part, Book I, it is almost always essential to have some understandi11g of the sources of the doctrine and tl1e other interpretations it has received, in order to obtain a clear understanding of its fu11ctions. Since the principle of legality is of central importance to interpretation of criminal law, we will in this one case aba11do11 some of the limitatio11s mentioned at the beginni11g of this article. Through an exami11ation of its history, development, and present status, we may be better able to understand just what job it is that the principle is to perform, a11d ,vhat modifications or ca11tions, if any, are therefore necessary regarding the techniques discussed above. One lin1itation which does continue to apply is that brought about by the general unavailability of legislative materials. This denies us k110\vledge of the specific histories of Revised Constitution /\rticle 55 and Penal Code Article 2. It also means tl1at we have no opportu11ity to discuss certai11 q11estions about the 11se of legislative materials in the interpretation of penal statutes - for example, whether they may be used to correct a11 ''obviot1s mistake'' in the official version of a statute, consiste11tly with the principle of legality. Discussio11 of those q11estions has involved Europea11 jurists in heated debate. Our discussion wo11ld be m11ch more complex if they were bere; the problen1 is one which would have to be resolved in Ethiopia should legislative materials ever be published.� A. A First View of the Principle of Legality Revised Cor1stitution of Ethiopia (1955) Chapter III: Rights a11d Duties of the People,. Article 55 ''No one sl1all b e pu11ished for any offence which has not been declared by law to be pu11ishable before the commission of such· offe11ce, or shall suffer any 17 · Works extensively treating ll1e principle of legality: . l, 1955, P• 277 • . pena t Ancel, "L'An alogie en droi t penal," Revue Internationale du dro1 Glaser, work cited above at note 6. J. Graven, "Les principes de Ia legalite ... ," cited a_bove at 0?te 1. . J. I-Iall, General Principles of Criminal Latv (2d ed., Bobbs-Merill, Ind1anapol1s, 1960), Cb. 2. Mahsoub, work cited above at note 1. Thornstedt, work citecl above at note 6. Ch. 12• 1), 196 , don Lon W ns, ms eve llia (St , t, Par � l al qrirr1in l_a�v, !he Gellera � xpose de motifs, collect1on cited above at note 1.

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ed by vid the pro law s wa in force at the ich wh t tha n tha er eat t· · ,, 1 . ment gr pum'sh me . e c n e fti o e th f o n io s is m m o c e of th ) 7 5 9 1 ( ia p io th E f o e d Penal Co Part I: GENERAL PART r de en ff e O th d an s ce en ff O I: Book Title I: Criminal Law an d its Scope Chapter I: Scope of th e La \V ''Article 1 - Object and Purpose. The purpose of criminal law is to . ensure orde1·, peace a11d the security of the State and its inhabitants for the public good. It aims at_ the prevention of offences by giving due notice of the offences and penalties prescribed by law and should this be ineffective by providi11g for the pu.nishment and reform of offenders a11d measures to prevent the commission of further offences.'' ''Article 2 - Principle of Legality. (1) Criminal law specifies the various offences \vhich are liable to punisl1ment and the penalties and measures applicable to offenders. The court may not treat as a breach of the law and pu11ish any act or 01njs­ sion which is not prohibited by law. It n1ay not impose penalties or n1easures other than those prescribed by law. The Court may not create offences by analogy. (2) Nothing in this Article shall prevent interpretation of the law. In cases of doubt the court shall interpret the la\v according to its spirit, in accordance with the meaning intended by the legislature so as to achieve the pur­ pose it has in view. (3) Nobody shall be punished twice for the same act." One could justifiably infer a nu1nber of help.ful propositions from the language and context of the above provisions. Taking Article 55 of the Revised Constitution of 1955 first: This provision appears in that part of the Constitution which deals with tl1e rights a11d duties of tl1e citiz�n. Its language ?oes not relate to a_ d�ty, something wru �h a citize� is legall � . r��u1red to do. Quite clearly , rather, 1t 1s meant to describe so me r1gl1t of th citizen, som_ething in which he is to be protected. Since the requiremer1t stated ca � only be satisfied by government action, one would infer that he is to be prot ecte against government action of some kind. Pres11mably it was concluded t h at th e action could be unfair to him or enda.nger him in some way. Tl1e particular goverrl­ ment action prohibited is that of convicting a person and/or puoislling l1in1 �o� a crime without statutory authority. Then , it must have been considered tl1at c onvictiog t . . . or impr1sorung a person for crime without statt1tory a11thority was unf;ai. r, or th a de the power to d.o so was dangerous. It is 11nlikely that this jt1dgment was 011� ��os from the perspective of purely criminal policy. ''Citize11s' rights'' and consti tuti f 0 both relate to politics and political concepts that is to the rules and struct �r� a 1, ' . ' . m1n . t1on • . cr1 government generally. 1:he pr1n t al, �o c1ple announced _ 1s one of const1tu_ effects r la�. We ma� suppose its purpose to be politica _ though 1ts particula l, even will be felt m the administration of cr iminal law. -418 -


ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE tences of Article 2(1) of the Pe sen third d n a ond n al Code seem t o . · . Th e sec . co nA c as r ti 55 I ion f o t t h ruc e R��1sed Cons ti tution. Since t he me in st sa � . the Lain ,,as adopted after the cons t1tut1ona l provis ion came into Dorce, · • Penal 1t 1s appro. Cod e \'T • � t hat these sent e11ces re1e r to the same principle A eve beli • t 1eas t, they . . te to . . Pna to. con1r.orm wit . h th. e constitutional principle, sin d rpre te inte be ce the constishould one But . sup Art erio icle r goe s 2 a fur is ther than the Consti·tut·on n rule nal . . 1 1 . . . 1ut10 e at 1 h w t 1 h eg1s �ture co11s1dered to be conviction or puni sh1 a1n exp to ears app _ it that of s tatutory authon ty. It says that the cou rt ''may no abse nce the t impos e in ent JU nalties or 1neasures otl1er than those prescribed by law'' and ''may not create t hat_ the cour� is not forbidde °: to engage in ''interpr but y ," anal o by eta­ ces ��en � of the law 1s to be ''according to its _ tion of the Ia,v, a11� tl1at 1nterp�etat1on spirit, in acc?rda11c� w1�h t,l�e 111�an1ng in tended by the legi�lature so as to achieve the ptirpose 1t has 1n v1e\v. While t�l1ese phra�e� have no srngle necessary meaniiig, they appear to be atten1pts to ?efine tl1e l1m1ts of. the ''authority'' conferred by any particular. sta t ute. Jnterpreta�1on . o� tl1e stat�te_, 10 _ accordance with its spirit, intended mean1ng and purpose, 1s within these l1m1ts; Judicial creation of offences "by an alogy'' is 11ot. One possible purpose for Art icle 55 of the Revised Constitution and Penal Code Arti­ cle 2 which tl1us emerges is subordinatio n of the judiciary to the legislature in formulating Ethiopian society's rules of conduct. The judiciary is not to create offences. It is to observe the spirit, inte11ded meaning, and pu rpo se with which the legislature has endowed a statute. Tllis subordination 111u st be considered a s politi cally important, for the protection of citizens' rights. Since one can observe fron1 the overall stru ct ure of the Constitution of 1955 tl1at legislative autl1ority is pri11cipally confi ned to Parliament acting togetl1er with t]1e Em1)eror a nd tha t the courts are princi pally restricted to the adjudicatio11 of cases tinder the law, it is also po ssible to state that the courts are generally subordinated to legislative authority. This general subordination is also a matter of political structt1re, reflecting decisions a·bout the type of jobs various institutions of government are best fit to do: the legislative i11stitutions, to make general rules; the jt1dicial i11stitution s, t o decide particular disputes in accordanc e with these rules. Since a special rule for subordi11ation of the judiciary appears in the . case of crimin al law' it must have been considered that this division of au thorrty was particularly important l1ere. What is it about criminal la,v which makes division of authority between legis­ latures and courts particularly i111portant? Article I of the Penal . C?de appear s . to supply at least a partial answer to tl1is question. It states, ''(Cr1m1nal law) a11:11s at th� preventio11 of offe11ces by giving due notice ot' the offences and p_enalt1es prescribed by law a11d should tl1is b e ineffective by providing for the purushment aud reforn1 of offenders and 1neasures to prevent the commission of fur ther offenc­ �s. " This states a particular theo1·y of criminal law - that prevention of offences 18 the primary role, a11d pt1nishmen t and refor m in case of failure only se_condary. In °rder to prevent o:ffe11ces one m11st make it k11own in advance what const1tutes an offence, and \Vhat the pt1ni�l11nent for each offence will be. Court s, deciding parti­ cula� cases after partict1lar events have already occurred, could not expect to do a_n efficien t job of prevention in advance. This job requires a concise and s yste!11atic re mpi dy th� of o?t ugh thro te \Vrit le licab app n � s, a11d rule �� t1nifor1nly available ely, a . code. The SJ)ecial emphasis of criminal law on prevent1?n, . indicated by Art�cl� ts ur co of n tio ina rd bo su l, e th 18 on e is o� as ph to ;egislatures 1 reason for put ting a special em n th e area o f criminal law. unishnlents · A secoi1 d rationale p d an s me cri of on i it fin de fo r requiri11g leP-islative 18 to safeguard , and ole wh a as t n me ern gov he t the citizen again st arbit;ariness by

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is ment govern ed . requir the to When . anno J·udges its unce 1n . by . 1 . ar, . t1cu r . m pa ad 'bl t 1 e poss no to 1s 1t uct, en d cond con 1n after . the fact vance what are the rules of . t th e d • · t Im�, a ges JU r av1ou h are be not nt innoce free . to t ll be to d seeme . h t be t they migh 1f e they as � permitted to doefi� e�, dislik nal p�rso or � s � ;efr whim : . The ons. pe�s n sed ect1? �ccu prot the offences of whic� th�y conv�cted . afforded by a requ­ the 1n case _o_f cnnunal Iayr,_ beca nt importa r espec1�11 1s _ notice p_rior irement of use of the bas on case c1t1zen. In a CIVIi suit 1nal cr11D a h whic ct impa al speci the ' con legal in ict ed with �e engag n fl be ethe n a. z to likely r most z citi is en e citi government participates chiefly as _a �e�eree; �t does not dir�ctly thre�ten bis liberty� In a crjminal suit, however, the 1nd1v1dual 1s most often pitted against the govern­ ment, and the issue is alwa)1S whether the govern�ent may deprive him of his life, liberty, or pro�erty on account of s�me act . b.e_ �s alleged _to ba. ve done. May one not infer the JU_dgment that to �epnv� an 1nd1v1?ual of �fe, liberty, or pro­ perty for an act without first warrung him that this act will be so treated is unfair in itself, and involves the risk of further unfairness throt1gh judical arbit;ari­ ness at trial? An eminent English scholar of criminal law has written: ''That there mu.st be no crime or punishment except in accordance with fixed predetermined law - this has been regarded by most thinkers as a self-evident principle of justice ever since the French Revolution. The citizen must be able to ascertain beforehand how he stands with regard to the criminal law; otherwise to pu.nish him for a breach of that law is purposeless cruelty. Punisl1ment in all its forms is a loss of rights or advantages consequent on a breach of law. Wl1en it loses this quality it degenerates into an arbitrary act of violence that can produce nothing but bad social effects.'' 18 J

It could easily be inferred that the author of the Ethiopia11 Constitution has reached the same judgment. If ''prior notice'' is important both for effectt1ation of the criminal law and for protection of the citizen against unfairness by his governme11t, then it is possible to sug?est tentative meanings for the ''i11terpretation" which is permitted ail� _the ''(creation) of offences by analogy'' which is forbidden by A1·ticle 2. When a cnm1nal statute provides a \vaming that a certain act is considered criminal and may be visited with a c.ertain punishment, then that statute may be applied to p11nish that act in that way. When 110 statute provides a war1iing, either b)' direct staten1 ent or by �ording which the r_eader would. think might apply, then the court m�Y 00} pun1sh that act. ''(Creation of) offences by analogy'' wollld thei1 be tl1e �11 d 1r1g 0 a? offenc� where a person, reading the statutes, wot1ld think none ex15fed. Tlle right to interpret is tbe right to give a statute any mea11ing wl1ich tlJe reade r �ould think it reasonably �1ight. have e �en i f tl1is is no� the 1!10s� obvious :e::d � os ing, as long as the mean111g given 1s purp ve legisla u in. accordance with �pirit and in tbis sense is what the court believes to have been the intend ed nJean­ mg. the e It is .not hard to see that this ''interpretation '' .is very much the s am as r o effect the Proc ess b d 1scu sse d ave . at leng th to abo ve. Art . icle 2 thus appears . . te rerei� forc1ng some of the se1:f-i posed limits of t�e previou_s discussi. on: that in wids; � tation should respect the limits set by the possible mearungs of statutory llS.

Williams, work cited above at note 17, pp. 57576.

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respect t11e lin1its set by ascertainable statu·to sho uld on etat i rpr ry purposes· . te , chat 111 ascerta1n f · d ro be e m th e words, co11text an d formal st to are ose s rp u ructu�e' that p Code as illumined by an u11derstanding of modern Ethiopian v lt 1s alu • . es. . e . h t ' of eta1.1 ed. exam1nat1on of Art1cle 2, against the background d mor e a for e of no\V tim nt a b 1o a d . e m p lo e v e d ' 1 a c ri to j·ts b'tS B. 1-\. Brief l-Iistory of the Principle of Legality • •

1. Or1g1ns , The pri11ciple �hat tl1ere shouJd be 11eit.�er cri111e nor punishment except in Ia,v first be�an1e pronu11ent at tl1e time ot· the FrencI1 Re­ ,,,r1tte11 \.Vith ce rdari acco of tl1e e!ghtee11th end the ce?tury. A state1nent of the principle to1vv�rds tion, vollt Declar at1011 French of tl1e �he R��hts o� Man. The11, as in Ethiopia 1_ n ed includ . \Vas v1evved as one was of pol1t1Ccll r1g]1�s, . as a protection of the pr111c!p le the , today citizen against l11s gover111nent, 1nore tl1an as a rule of cr1m1nal policy only. Uiider the a11 cie,1 regi111e, tl1e pre-Revolt1tior1 gover111ne11t of France, jtidges were closely tied to the king or f et1dal lords, and \Vere thought to exercise a11 arbitrary power to define crimes and pt111isl1111e11ts i11 a way whicl1 be11efited the political lJOWer of the rtiler. That is, tl1e kir1g a11d tl1e 11obility were able to oppress their enemies and tise the crjn1inal la\1l a.s a11 i11strument of politics throt1gl1 the capacity of their judges to inve11t crin1es a11d 11u11ishn1e11ts as tl1e 11eed arose. Tl1e judges had a tool for repression a11d arbitrariness which, appare11tly, they were willing to tise. The principle of legality ,vas a specific reaction agai11st this re:pressive device, in­ tended to end its t1se by req11iri11g tl1e gover11.n1ent to a11no11nce in advance tl1e rules of conduct it would enforce by crimi11al la\V. IQ

As in Ethiopia todt1y, tl1e pri11ciple also re-fleeted a general view of the proper distribution of po\vers witl1in govern1ne11t. The san1e political IJllilosophers vvho gave voice tp the specific de1nand that j11dges sl1ot1ld be der1ied the po\ver to create crin1es at will also developed the general theory lrno\v11 today as ''se1Jara.tion of po\.vers." For protection of tl1e citize11 a11d efficie11cy in governme11t, they insisted that the roles of judiciary, legislatt1re, a11d exect1tive be caref11lly clisting11isl1ed, and that the bodies respo11sible for eacl1 of tl1ese f1inctio11s be n1ade i11depe11de11t of the others. Thus, \Vhile a specific state1ne11t of JJri11ciple was n1ade i11 the case of cri111ina1 la\V tl1at courts co11ld act 011ly 011 the basis of stat11tory at1tbority, in fac� th.is principle was belie,,ecl to apply and \Vas ge11erally acted on in other areas as \Vell. Courts were to be co11rts (deciders) not legislatures (r11le-m,1lcers) whetl1er tl1e inatter before tben1 \Vas civil or crin1i11al. Civil codes as \veil ,1s crimi11al codes �Vere adopted, and it was generally accepted that co11rt decisior1s required _tl1e a11 _ �hor­ ity of the civil cocle as 11111ch as that of the cri1ninal code. 111 their op1111ons, c?urts expressed unwilli11gness to depart from or eve11 extend a11y statutory text. . They insisted that tl1ey co11ld act and ,vere acting only as the ''111011tl1 tl1at speaks the 1a\v• '' At the same time there developed a view of criminal policy, appar ntly i de­ � � peo<lei1t of political co11sicleratio11s, vV1Jicl1 tended to rei11force the legality 11ot1on. 19 ·

flaser, work cited above at note 6, JJ. 899 ff . Ha�rave n, "� es pri11ci1Jcs de la leg alite ... , " cited above at 11ote 1, p. 383 ff. , M a h work cited � bove at 11ote 17, }J. 3� ff.. . o o Th s ub, w rk c1t�cl above at note 1, I11stor1cal 1ntroduct1011 and P· 50 ff. ornstedt, worl< c1ted above at note 6, JJ. 213 ff.

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. . w, re flecte d to some degree in Article 1 of the Ethiopian Pen,tl Code · . ct entiT..h1s vie , 1 . o goa t 1 f · h fi · · rs 1na cr11n e 1 . 1aw. It assuin d as t nces offe of n io vent e r fi d th at the be to law � : by ce 11du a be _Y a � tl1re � i t of s fli c � i:en w�rf rational, �nd �ould nt l s 1111a 'Na cr1n 1al arl e11t cle pot a If 1t. rne y wa d wh�t acts penalty for disobeying ld be wou sed lty in1po pena what for violatioi1 t and law e th ' late o vi· ,vo uld . , I was r et e 1 c l at ? 1 b 1 1� l u u ca c ld ld e x ou p ect to achieve � .� . believed that he could and w � t h ment pt1n1s or f pain o 1s act. If penalties the e r ov e pleasur of gain n.et Were w?uld always he calculate that he could not properly set, it was thought that would be dissuaded ev�11 from atte1111)ting the crim e xpect to gain; the refor e, he e Of course, it is esse ntial fo_r st1�h . a �heory __that. cr�111�s be de'fi11ed a11d penal tie� set in advanc e of the pote 11t1al cr1IDinal s dec1s1on to act.. <?nly then can tI1e crimi11al kn.ow that he will not profit. If 011e leaves defin1t1011 of tl1e crime and its penalty until after tl1e event, one has only the general terror of a.rbitrariness _ a terror felt by the g?od citizen as well as tl1e pote11tially . bad - and 11ot the pre­ cise warning that will leave the former unpertt1rbed a11d d1sst1ade tl1e latter. There was also a general bod y of belief that the task of co111plete and effective codification could be accomplished. Thes e doctrines had their i11ceptio1 1 before the m · assive impact of industrial cl1an ge and the urba11 society it brought about in Europe. Chan ge was still relatively slow, a nd social structt1res and sta11dards \Vere r elatively sin1ple. It still see111ed possible to draft codes, civil a11d criminal, to order hu1n.an existence in a comprehensive way . Becat1se comn1o n valt1es were shared, or at least thougl1t to be shared, throt1gl1out a particular society, it was thought tl1at a small bod y of carefully drafted rt1les could co n1pletely express tl1e conditions of social existence. In the particular case of the criminal law, there was an assump­ tion that the moral values underlying its prol1ibitions would be shared by all; in a stable and relatively simple society, f e w ''cri111es'' 11eeded defi11itio1 1; a11d careful use of language, it was believed, could succeed i11 making eacl1 case clear.

In the legal system as a ,vhole, tl1en, ther e was co11siderable emphasis on the division of authorit y betwee n legislature and court. Tl1e legislature was only to 1 n�k_e rules; the court was only to apply them. As a result, tl1e early codes, botl1 civil a nd criminal, were looked t1pon as tl1e onl y so11rce of law, which j11dges . �ere bound to respect; there must be the authority of a written rule for a1 1y decis ion. This attitud e was emphasized for criminal law by the pri nciple of legalit y, wlii�l1 sought to prot ect the citizen from arbitrary or repressive actio11 by the courts in matt ers affecting l1 is liberty, and by a view of cri1 11i11al policy whicl1 stress ed the need to deter potential criminals by tl1e threat of definite pu11ishment. The res�lt was a system which �oday a_ppears overly r_i�id a nd 1�aive. Cri1nes \Vere defined ;� ve.ry care�ul a nd precise deta.11. Pe nalt y prov1s1ons specified a fixed pe 11alty f�r ea the ich wh crime which fro1n was i nvariably to be imposed ratl1 er tl1a 11 a ra11ge ..., · y for · · ' · . � udge Dll�ht choose according to the facts o .f tl1e ca.se. Wl1en tl1e necessit .. d e i carr was interpr etation was recog nized at all i 1 1terpretatio11 \vhich \Vas rarel ' . y es . . . ' . ru ese h t out in accordance with strict logical rt1les. Not the least 1111portctnt o f 1 1 ?, ved was one requiring that a ny doubt regarding interpretation was to be resol favour of the accused. The judge was, indeed, ''onl the 1no·uth that speaks the la\V. y

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE 20 • t rme d oc the Growth of strt1cti �n of this rigidly lega,Listi � view of codes in general, and d of s � seed The particular, cot1ld be fou11d in the French Civil Code itself. 1n code ioal • rn rbe c�1 of that drafters code, had stressed his view that legislatures . the of one · t 5 1 a 1 , p0r

z.

the _ dev clopme11t of civil law i11terpretation: rding Rega . o e 8. 20· above at \Vork cited i:i � Ekelof, Franklin "M. Geny and Jur1st1c Ideals and Method in the United States," Recueil d'etudes sur /es sources clu droit e11 /'l101111e11r de Geny, Vol. JI, p. 30. Geny, work cite� ! above at no te 20. Schmidt, ,vork cited above at no te 7. Sereni, work cited above at 11ote 9. Stone, work cited above at note 3, p. 212 ff. Because s? many ,vork� were co11sulted in conne �tion with the development of penal law interpretat1011, an �ffort ts !11ade _belo,v to cl1�ract�;1ze tl1e exact contributjon made by each: M. A11cel, "Creation des 1nfract1ons par le Juge, Bull. Soci<�te Legis. Co,np., 1931, p. 91 (s.110\vs that in 1931, role of Europea11 jt1dges in interpreti11g penal statutes was n1uch more active tl1an traditional view of legality JJrinciple suggested). A ncel, \Vork cited above_ at: note � 7 . ( a conten1porary review of the doctrine in Europe; shows general relaxat1011 of restr1ct1011s on penal law interpretation, ancl that tl1e policy basis of tl1e doctri11e today is entirely political). M. A ncel, Social Defence (Routledge & Kegan Patil, London, 1965) pp. 115-16, 133-34 (in the context of a ge11eral discussion of modern European views of penal policy, indicates that "legality" is to be retained because of its political in1,porta11ce - protection of the individual against governn1ent - rather tl1an for any reasons of strictly crin1inal policy). Andenaes, \VOrk cited above at note 1, p. 105 ff. (conte1nporary Scanda11avian view of legality, emphasizing the need for sufficie11t vvarning to the citizen). J. Andenaes. "Tl1e General Preventive Effects of Punisl1ment,'' U. Pa. L. Rev., Vol. 114(1966), p. 949 (discusses the present vitality of deterrence notions in crin1i□ al policy). Dalloz, Encyclo_pedie J11rirlique, Droit Criminel (Paris, 1953), ''Droit Criminel," ss. 13-22, and "Infraction," ss. 2-22 (current French jurisprt1dencc on pern1issible breadth of penal law interpretation). Declerq, "L'analogie en droit penal," Revi,e c/e droit iniernational et de rlro;t coll1pare, Special Issue, 1954, IJ, 294 (brief review of tl1e current Belgian position). Gegout, "L'interpret'atio11 literale des lois penales," Recueil d'etudes sur /es sources du droit en l'honneur cle Gen;,, Vol. III, p. 305 (contrasts neutrality of judge in civil case witl1 role in cri1ninal cases; finds correspondingly less freedom of interpretation; but stjll, con­ siderable scope for Geny's tecl1niques). Giaser, ,vork cited above at note 6 (demonstrates basis of rule in political ratl1er than criminal policy, legislative trends away from the precision of expression inl1erent in "legalJ. ity," and pern1issibility of fairly vvide judicial latitude in interpretation of pe11al la\vs). Graven, work cited above at note 8 (a11 extensive revie,v of current S,viss doctrine, showing its flexible approach). . . . J Graven, "Les principes de la legalite ... ," citecl above at note 1 (sl1ow1ng ho� attitudes toward interpretation l1ave cl1aoged, so tl1at a Iirnited use of analogy and flexible statutes are no,v acceptable). · · . . P. qrav_en, work cited above at note I, pp. 9-12 (brief review of tl1e Eth1op1an prov1s1on 1n light of conten1porary Swiss viev1s ). . . . . Hall, work cited above a.t note 17, p. 27 ff. (a skeptical approach, v1ew1ng the prrnc1ple as a n1eans of lin1iting the generality of legislative and judicial expression).. . Legal'. \Vork cited above at note 1 (sl1ows political tl1eory source� o� _legality; ad:°Jt�s . ne�es­ . ity � of flexible i11ter1Jretation; bt1t con1pares legislative attitudes 1n c�v1I la��' where 1nte1;1t1on 1s to be con1JJrehc nsive and govenimei1t is "neutral" to the parties, with the exceptional nature of penal Ia,v). .. . . . . " al. and. c!vil Legro s, ".'Ork: cited above at note 1 (argues against 8-?Y d1st1nct1on bet\�e�n pc;!l la\v 1nterpretatio11; "free scientific researcl1" for tl1e1r current se11se, wrtl11n obJective Iin1its, should be the ru le for eaclJ). ., amo g . ent pm l ev� s Mah oub, \vork cited above at 11ote 1 (extensive review of ?Ist�ry and � _ _ _ � ? the matters discussecl: p. 34 ff., s Jeedy growtl1 of leg1slat1ve �cl J�d1c1al_ fl:x1b1hty _in 1 penal aspects of crin1inal lavv; p. 54 tr., modern metl1ods of penal inteipretation • p. 57 ff., 1

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW - VOL. V - N'o. 2 21 Accordi11gly ' he called upo11 s. io� est qu all er sw an or ju dges t0 . . . could .not foresee s . case a11d m to ded ro unp deal vi be w ld l1 t wou . e the ther i re��gru z e that i th n i w h e case m a decide con1es ll c before must J udges the code the .. whet1 1er . sp1r1t of , . · · _ was e h011e t mor 1t. . I . . . . 1or d {:' st vide pro and necessar . has re latu legis the or not were 1:ot . prov1cle�l �o� and. _d_eal \Vith the� that s case the e gniz reco to , view his �� the n l1c1t 11. ex1J . prov1sLons of the c w1tl e cam they that end pret than er rath Uch 8 ' 0de · . l h' see t 10\v is_ 11�t 1nno Id cou 11tly at1ng or rul�-maki appar tin1� the of es g jud But . .� :7 , g _ n t l�e doctr111e_ of.· sepa1at1011 . of powers which, they . role could be reconc�le� w1th . were ta.u.ght, set the l1n11ts to their proper fu11ct1011. Ac�ord1�gly, �bey ttirned their faces fron1 this advice, and set for themselves tl1e task of fi11d1ng direct legal autho r­ ity for each decisio11 in the code.

Toward the e.n.d of the nineteenth ce11tl1ry, a number of French scholars notably Geny, 22 provoked a swift and st1ccessful revolt1tion agai11st this very legalisti� approacl1. They pointed out what we discussed at son1e length mllch earlier in this article - that judges inevitably ''mal<.e law." Tllis was so, they said, both because language is inevitably imprecise, so that i11 choosi11g a mea11ing the judge affects the content of a rule, a11d becat1se the legislature, being ht1ma11, can neither foretell the problems which ft1ture develop111e11ts 1nay bri11g, nor take accol1ot of all the con.crete cases which migl1t arise eve11 u11der prese11t circt1mstances. It ,vas more realistjc, they argued, to co11sider that the legislat11re had i11 effect delegated authority to ha11dle these unforeseen isst1es to t11e cot1rts, than to pretend that tl1e legislatu.re l1ad definitively a11swered questions \vh.icl1 i11 fact l1ad 11ever occ11rred to it. They still co11sidered courts to be subordinate t o the legislature in rule-n1aking: a cot1rt could 11ot refuse to adopt the legislative sol11tion. to a proble1u \Vhen tl1at solution existed, and should not decicle cases against ascertai11able legislative p11rpose. But wh.en tl1e answer was not expressly provided for, tl1ey argi.1ed that it was tl1e court's express ft1nction to ''1nake Ia,v'' for that case. These sc1,o1ars evolved tl1eir O\\'n body of i11terpretive cloctri11e to reflect their views. This tech11iqt1e, known as ''free scie11tifi.c 1·esearcl1," retlects the continued theoretical subordination of courts to legislatures by its l1igl1 degree of empl1asis on ------

traditio.nal method.s of interpretation; lJ, 60 ff., teleological (goal orien�ed) inter �reta�io�; p. 64 ff., the current Swiss position; p. 75 ff., a discussiot1 of "creauon of oflence� Y ana�ogy," including the German, Soviet, and Danisl1 experie11ce). M.annbe1m, Cri111i11al Justice arzd Socic1l Reconstruction, (K. Pat1l, London, 1946), . 3M p. �?4 ff. (takes position t11at i11 a mod�rn wo�ld, _inore flexible ru le_s � r� a r.1�esSit y, society become. s more con1plex and social obl1gat1ons ratl1er tl1an 1nd1v1dual r1.ghts Pre� don1inate). Marchal _& Jas[Jer, Droit Crirni11el (Brusse ls, 1965) ss. 4-11 (curre11t Belgia11 juris1Jrude iice on legality a11d tl1e permissible breadth of statutory i11terpretatio11). . s ci. 1 gical .S wartz ch , ''O·n Legal Sanctions'' . U · Cl1i · L · Rev ·, Vol. 34 (1 966), ( o o � · 011 & Orleans . , ns, as co111pared to otl1er n1odes 0f Obta1111 o resear?l1 1nto _tl1e deterrent effect of. sa11ct1o . com·pl1ance w1t!1 la\v). r_ dete . ty Thornstedt, work cited above at note 6 (shows l1ow crin1i11al policy aspect of l�gah ining, ren�� - has !educ�d in importance; flexible Jegislati, e drafting. 11egates !11e r:����ding n, o olitica! retati �ons1dera t1ons; 111terp argues of e for relatively narrow sco1J � _th .. . at tl1is 1s n<:>t tbe modern view). t . . mus . re . . c1�ed �bo\re �t note 17 (p iti al basis of lega_l1ty 11:11 Jhes leg s atu o g W1l lian1s,, work l � i �on s Jon . � rLlC coost wo�k for certainty 1n drafting; but the pr1nc1ple does not reqt11re strict as Judge stays witl1in permissible n1eani11g of tl1e provision). QaeJ:ed, inter alia, in Sereni, work cited above at note 9, p. 62. Wenk cited -above at note 8. 1

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

po a11 licy d pu tiv rpo e se. Courts are to use existin leg isla of ns atio g 1 e0oi4 s1 ar·10n . . Cons1'der I eva re a1 n t d ere h ava a il bl . 'V'! s e, � to in.fer the legislative purpose� 1 er1a mat . r othe an d pro ble ms �1m1!ar to the one presented to the cou wi th ng dea li in rt. They or oals cons1der1ng wl1�ther, in light of the existing ca by se t�e e de cid to practical are �hen i slature wottld hav e bee n l1kely to have extended on leg the ces e or another ' . consequen . . a I·1 cons1dere d t he 1sst1e. The technique was d h cas� , that to not one to _ urpose s where t�e n:ean1ng ?f statutory Iangu�ge was unclear. se ca de ci de to ly on . be used exte nd leg i slative soluti on to a case wh ich a to used be also the statutory uld . b '' ,, It CO , w l1 er� t here w�s a con�ruence of purposes and 1 y a g n y o , a r e v o c t o n id d .. words . dec1s1?n �vot1ld be practical and Just 1n vi ew of present-day realithe of lt resu the .t1es and the o,1erall leg1slat1ve scl1eme. It can be observed tl1 at tl1is �ystem of. ''free scientific research'' is in many 1e 111etl1ods of 111terpretat10 1_ 1 described i � the previous sections tl to similar cts respe of this article. Bt1t tl1e scl1olars wl10 proposed 1t assumed - i11deed stated - that it \vould be i11applicable ir1 tl1e area of cri111 111al law . Civil codes contain explicit instructions for judges tl1at t]1ey n1ay not23 reft1se to decide a case on the ground that it is not provided for i11 the code. Tl1is is ta11 tamount to an express re­ quirement t!1at they 11�ake la:¥ when t�ey_ ca11not ''fi�d'' it rea �y-n1ade. Criminal codes conta111 another 1nstr11ct1on: the pr111 c1ple of legality, that a Judge can neitl1er convict nor punish another \vitl1011t statutory authority. Here is an instruction that if the case is not provided for in the code, it must be decided in favour of the accused. Tl1ere is a special subordination of court to legislature in criminal cases, motivated by the special political considerations already discussed. In a civil case, the court is likely to be deciding between private litigants; plaintiff and defendant each must either win or lose; no pri11ci1J]e of justice or citizens' rights seems to cornn1and tl1at the plai11tiff 111 ust al\vays lose in cases the Iegislatt1re has not been foresigl1ted enough to provide for. I11 a crimi11 al case, the court \vjlJ be deciding a clain1 of tl1e government agai11st the life, liberty, or property of the accused. The principle of legality e1nbodies the view that it is unjust to deprive the acct1sed of these rigl1ts in the case \Vhicl 1 l1as 11ot been provided for. It did not take 1011 g, ho\vever, for scl1olars of criminal law to note that this differentiation bet\veen civil and cri111i11al code interpretation co11cealed c1 11 important question: \Vl1at is tl1e u11provided case? The lang11age t1sed in the writi11g of crim­ inal la\v statt1tes is 110 more precise tha11 the la11 g11age 11sed to write civil law st�tu_tes, altho11gh tl1e latter may te11d to use more abstractions. Legislatures passing cr1m 1 nal la\vs are 11eitl1er Jess fallible nor better able to foresee the ft1tt1r e than l�gislatures passi11g civil Ia\vs. Was it necessary or \Vise still to cl1oose the construc­ tion of penal statutes most favo11rable to tl1e accused? If this ,vas not always required, then witl1in what limits w,1s tl1e court free to find that a c,tse had been decided by the legislature, and tl1 at therefore penal sanctions could be tlpplied?

The historical clin1 ate provided many impt1lses to\vard recog11ition of a broader scope of discretio11 for juclges i 11 the i11terpretation of criminal law. One, of c_o11 rse, was that already mentio 1 1ed: the realization that, for a variety of reasons, Judges 23 ·

attitude ive Slat legi he ilar sinl a i Eth gh 1ou altl a opi cle, n arti J Civil Code co11tains no sL1cl1 J uld be 111.ferred. T11e contrast 1nade in tl1e text is best brought out in: gout, work cited above at note 20. : L gal, work ci ted abov e _ Stone, work cited above at 11ote 1. at note 3, p. 212 ff.

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W L. LA N VO A V - J\Jo. 2 Pf lO H ET F O L A N JOUR i ng of la\v. A seco11d ,;vas the consequ 111ak the in hand a . erlt '. ,, _.. bl·Y h..ave ecast1nev . 1ta r • ·1 · . _ · · · . t c1v cas . 11�. s 1 e t 11n o d o 111c tide the noti r� "v P � of 11 � 0 � at1 1)ar ? · ''se � tl1e _ on inr0r ot of to 1ty rde ho1 clec at1t of tl1e ry 1c1a r JUd t111p to the ovid ed case A • 1,,e delega·tion . 1 at· Iegis . th \VI 1· . 1 w 0 11c ·,, h e • 1 t ie. t 1 h f.' f . o 1 g nci pri ni1 cke sla pl a � wa � : nce lue inf _ � of le g�li t . third . _ _ s ab 1 b 1n f10 en e1 gov c1t1 1n tl1e f o11 t tec pro � � � : �e11t. p111ally, tller� as � d Y, \ve vie � \Vas . , _ tl1e style and of polrc 111al l cr11n 111 cr1ID 111 1ges � statLites Whicl ai cI1 � ii1g strik were . seem less 111e11ts pu111sl1 1n1porta11t to the batt specific of g vvarni11 precise made l; against cri111e. The principle of legality ca1ne to . appear s �11!ewl1at less i1nporta1 1t as a safe­ guard to tl1e citizen as it st1cceeded 1n regt1l�r1z111g tl1e courts a11d, at the same time, tb.e legislature began_ to see1n . tl1e more l1l<ely s�urce of oppressio1 1 through its hegemony of t �e rulema�ng funct1011 ai1d the explos1011 of statutes consequ e11 t up­ on the I11dustr1al Revol11t1011. Cot1rts ca1ne to be looked t1pon as the protectors of the citize1 1 ratl1er tha11 l1is potential 01Jpressors, a11d wl1ile tl1is 111ay l1a\,e been due i n large 11 1easure to rules st1cb as tl1e IJri11.ciple oi� legality it no11et11eless resulted in a lesse 1 1ed e1111Jbasis 011 tl1e need for tl1e r11le. This lesse11ed e111iJbasis ,1lso resulted fron1 a. realizatio11 tl1at the political or co11stit11tional aspects of tl1e r1 1Ie i1 1 protect­ i11g the citizen from arbitrariness are of li 111itecl i 111porta11ce so far as ordi11ary crimes, such as 1n11rd.er, rape a11d theft are co11cer11ed. Prosect1tio11s for such acts, \Vhether ri gidl)' defi11ed by written la\v or not, are u1tlil(ely to l1ave 1Jolitical overto11es, and will be eXJJected 'A1l1ether or 11ot t l 1e la.w provides expressly for then1. 111 t11e area of po.liticaI crin1es, legal ity may l1ave i ts effect; si111ple put,lic2tion of repressive l a\vs 111ay lead citi ze11s into better kno\vledge of the111 and, accordi11gly, may lead then1 to bri1Jg 1)resst1re a.gainst tl1e regime \Vhich bas adopted tl1e1n. Eve11 l1ere, ho\vever, it has co111e to be recog11i zed tha. t it is the cl1aracter of the n1en who govern, as n111ch as any restrictions 011 what they 111ay do, \Vhich safeguards tl1e citizen's liberty. The doctri11e is readily a11d effectively circ11mve11ted, in a11y but a. tech11ical sense, i 1 1 a number of vvays: proliferation of sta.tutes to st1cl1 a11 extent tl1at no citizen ca11 expect to k11ow his rigl1ts or be a\vare of \Vl1at l1is gover111nent is doing; e11actn1e11t of statt1tes embodyi 11g swee1Ji1:1g a11.d vagl1e Ja11g11age 'A l1ich leaves co �rrts free to do more. or l ess a � tl1ey please; ar1d la belling _variol1S poli t!�al . n1ea­ s111es, such as ''preventive detent1on'' l a\vs, as not ''pe11al'' 111 cl1,:1ra.cter.- F!nally, . t i !he relati on betvveen respect for tl1e prir1ci ple by a govern111ent a1 1d politic al JUS .ce in that gover11ment l1as been sho\vn to be, at best, i 1 11 JJerfect. Of tl1e t\VO fascist po\vers, Nazi Germany abando11ed legality wh ile M11ssolini's Italy retained it; on 1!:e other hand, one l1as tl1e example of a polit ically ''just'' state st1cl1 as De11 mark, which permits its judges to create offe11ces ''by analogy'' i11 crin1i11al cases vvliere statutory policy appears to justify such a step. a as al crimin The criminal tl1e theory of tl1e early ni 11eteenth ce11tury vie\ved . rational man, measuring pai11 s and pleasures a11 d therefore to be i1111ttei1ced by a 1

24.

d of · k:i11 t as I I Art' · this 7 . 1� � 7 of the Ethiopian Penal Code seems to be a good exa1111Jle of (when e • e Cod provis�on. Althougl1 son1eon Penal wl10 n1istaken1y believes l1e is violating the · sJ1 ed' · pun1 · . 18 no prov1· s1on making be tl1ere l1is concluct illegal) is 11ot a cri111i 11al a11d can no t be11 avi·our Articl� 77 s!ates that l1e can be reqt1ired to give a sectrrity for l1is ft1ture good d can an t pain. of imprisonment if l1e refuses or forfeiture ,, not if I1e later breaks his bonde s � e re �uired to give up any "dangerous objects '' in his JJossession. Tl1ese are ''m a �tes,sbould . . . ''pt1rushment · s,- '' a.n d so d o not formally violate · l.e 2· Bt1t 1 •w Ul Ai..tic of the requirem ents a d bea:Jear that the lib�rty !ld property ere WI te i i bein� th ,? rf are of ved person nvol m ner not usua1 w1tlJ c� <: 1 t1zens, ru1d rather like the 1Jrocesses of _ the cr1n1inal Jaw.

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETI-IIOPlAN PENAL CODE

what was forbidde11 a11d imposed a penalty d desc ribe h \Vhic · , 1n ·. excess of . statut e f ron ta1n 1 d • h e t. e cr1me. Tl1eorists today take a a1·u1 b o be to rd e\va crer ent v 1ew. . • anY r . . n 1 cr1m . . . 1na . 1 t.11eo1y bas been tindercut, nce o f �a� �1 0a 111 nu11 � red� first of all, _ p The _ _ cr1m1nal statutes so vast. tha t no citizen could be expected of 1 rat1 01 rolJf e p to b a 1 e�1. Tl1 11s, tl1e first ass11111pt�on, tl1 at_ tl1e _ potential crim tl of ce rioti inal cotild � h �ve . l 1 e need ed lor cal�11lat1on of }11s pains a11a at101 : nfor n1 1 the JJleasures, is no btain ordinary 111a11 ca11 �bta1n �t1cl1 i11for .mation today only with great The valicl. er fono at s11bstant1al peril of its beir1 g incom.plete, or of mis­ the11 eve11 and lty, u diffic _ l 1 e fi11 ds. Seco11 cl, there are tl1ose wl10 take iss11e with tI1 e proposition what ding rea ac be to e t l1ave 1n11st effect. Precise defi11ition of crimes, they ni11g war � _ a that cr101 11als 1 lead to seelc a �ay to evade tl1e defi 11 ition wlule sin1p ly may e, argu _ _ . accon1plishing \Vl1at 1s �ttbsta� t1ally tl1e san1 e obJect1onable result. General ,vordii1g ,vill also have a. warn111g effect, as 1011g a.s tl1e pt1tative crir ninal ca11 reaso11 ably ui1derstand fron1 it that his co11duct is lik :ely to come within the words used. Indeed, the effect n1ay be greater if it i11duces l1i1n to avoid what .is forbidde1'1 by a \vide n1argi11, ratl1er tl1arl to calcl1late ,vhat is f orbidde1 1 and tl1en tread tl1e verge.

The n1ajor cl1ange wl1icl1 11as occ11rred i11 cri111.inal tl1eory, however, is eve11 more s\veeping: it l1as beer1 tbe rejection of tl1e assu 1 11 ption tl1at the or<ii11ary crin.1inal is a ratio11al, c�tlculating 1na11, a11d tl1at l1is cri111e creates a calculable ''debt'' ,vhicl1 must be repaid. Increasi11gly, 011e finds tl1 e crimina.1 viev\1ed as a weak or ab11or1nal perso11, s11bject to grea.ter or lesser degree to inflt1e11 ces fro11 1 l1is environ­ ment \vhich ,varp l1 is ability to n1alce ra.tional judgrr1ents, or ap1Jreciate or confor111 to social 11orr ns. Ratl1 er tl1an calc11late \Vhat may hap1Je11 to hi111 i 11 tl1e f11t11re, l1e is n1ore likely to respo11 cl to tl1e press11re of his past a11cl JJrese11t, to ge11elic or environ1ne11tal defec(s a.nd to ,va11ts, tl1eir prod11ct, ,vl1icl1 '' 11 ormal'' sociely n1,1y not share. Correspo11dingly, tl1ere is a gro\ving foc1 1s 011 tl1 e ''dangero11s11ess'' of the partic11lar cri11 1inal, r,1ther tl1[1 11 tl1e rep1ignc111cy of his acts, as the appropriate basis for decidi11g 110\v he is to be clealt with. That is, one no Io 11 ger is concerr1ed with the questio11 bow n1ucl1 p1111ish111 e11t 1nust be i11flicted to reclress the abstract co11 cept, rape; rather, 011e asks, l1 ow slJall \Ve deal witI1 tliis mar 1 ,vJ10 co111111itted tlzis ra.1Je. And ir1 ansv-1eri11g th is last question, tl1e i11q11iry again is recast. It is 11ot '' I-Io\v n1uch JJU11isl11nent cloes l1e deserve?'' b11t, ''l-Io\v can l1e be re-ecl1 1 cated to observe social val11es i11 the f11t11re ?'' or, if t11 at be in1possible, ''How ca11 he be IJrevented from violati11g tl1em agai11?''

The effect of this last cha11ge is partic11larly observable in provisio11s re�a_r?i11g penalty. 111stead of i111posing a fixed pe11alty for a partic11lar offence, as. was � n1t1ally �o11templated, legislatio11 soo11 bega11 to defi11e ra11ges of IJe11 alty \Vl11ch nnght . be 1n1pos ed, dependi11g on the f::1cts of tl1 e case. Tl1e provision of Article 524 a.llowrng �he j11dge to i111 pose ar1y se11 te 1 1ce trom five to t\venty years rigorous impriso111ne11t 18 � goocl exan1ple of such �ggra­ _ a provision; tl1e r11les regarding �xt�n11atio11 and vation of pu11isl1ments n1a.y be si111 ilarly explai11ed. Tl1e cr1ter1a by wh1ch Jlldg�s . were instructed to 111 ake decisio11 s i 1 1 in1posing sentences can1e to be plirased in tern1s of the criminal a11d his ''dangero11sness'' or prospects for ref�r1n. _(The_ �or­ r� spoz1cli11� provision i11 the Ethiopian Pe11al Code is Article 86.) S_pec1al dispositioµs ere 1u ,1ls as to ,vl1 om the legislature con �lt�ded prov ided 1 for 11 ial spec of cri classes w there were greater or lesser cl1 a11ces of rel1abilitation as useful 111embe�s 0f ,socie_t y · .. ­ s11s of Thu�, on tl1e one hancl, th e ity bil s�i po tl1e s, ile e11 juv ing ard reg dispositions pens1011 of se11ten nt tme trea 1 so1 pr r ove nt tme trea � al dic ine ce, and a preference for for th0s e whose the 011 . e ea dis or t fec de tal � 1 1 � me by . acts were explained in part All 0ther hand, intern ist• rqiv rec , the for e11t ishm n pu. of ment, and severe aggravation

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LA\V - VOL. V • No. 2

on the question of <lisp . . very wide discretion . all, the J'udoo-e is give a n . osit . . . 1n ion . 1e t . . 1 d d t 1t pos p1o uce re 1or1 that any meas been has � ality le of e cipl prin � . The ur� has ch whi e e b_ one be � . _a�thorized by the . imposed by . the Judge 111t1st nal JJe ly que ol1c un! any 1t cts e efl 1s, rather, oiily a er long � no _ s Thi � � _ e. legislatur _ -� tect to pro , the c1t1zen,_ the authority that cy poli l t1ca pol1 the of t men weak state f d1·aw11 be mt1st fron1 a legislative enactmen� the judge to act in any penal matter . Insofar as substantive crimina_l law is co�cerned, however, the notion of deter­ rence-and thus, the need. for notice -has 11ot yet been aba11doned by the majority of theorists. First, while the the�ry of dangerous11ess may help to explain why some commit crimes despite the law, 1t does 11ot prove tl1at otl1ers would lead lives free of crime regardless of the la\v. While we can observe that s01ne are not deterred we have no proof that none are. Second, there are 1·easons for insisting that th� proponents of this new theory demonstrate that it ca11 be applied witl1 precision and certainty. The concept of ''da11gerousness'' seems so broad a11d malleable that one must have substantial fears for the liberty of the citizen if l1e can be confined . or compelled to undergo treatn1ent on the basis that he is ''dangerous." The ad­ ministration of sucl1 a concept would inevitably depend to a tremendous degree on the character and aims of its ad1ninistrators; it could easily be put to political or personal uses. The demonstration that tl1ese da11gers can be avoided has not been m.ade. Finally, one of the assumptions of tl1e ''dangerousness'' tl1eory seems to be that ''punishment'' as opposed to rehabilitative ''treatment'' is no longer to be considered a valid purpose of cri1ninal law. It is extren1ely doubtful whether society con.Id or should give up entirely the notio11 that a clisposition in a criminal case helps to retribute or repay for tl1e harn1 which bas been done. The tl1eory of deterrence, on the other hand, carries with it tl1e 11otion tl1at at leas.t some of those who are not deterred are responsible for their acts and may be p11nished for them. Most jurists contin11e to opt, then, for a system of ''cri111es'' in wllicl1 the citi­ zen is given war·ning that certain acts will lead to imposition of a stated range of pena.lties. But the effect of tl1e considerations discussed above has been to n1 od­ ify their view of how precise a. \varning must be give11. First, there is sori:ewhat less insistence on precisio11 in tl1e form11lation of stat11tes tha11 there \Vas 1n t�e past: the statutes must be definite e11ough to make tl1 e citizeµ aware that li�s conduct is of questionable legality, but they may also be ge11eral eno11gh to per1111t judges to adjust them to cha11ging circu1nstances i11 accorda11ce with their JJtlrp�se. �econd, it is . 110 _ longer necessary, if it ever was, to req11ire interpretation of cr1111 ; inal statutes 1nvar1ably to be favo11rable to the acc11sed in cases of dot1bt. In JJlac of �s nile, _th� rule of Article 2 has been generally accepted. ''I11terpretatio11'' of tlie law 1s perm1ss1ble, but ''(creatio11 of) offences by a11alogy'' is 11ot. 3_�. The limitations on interpretation, as presently understood 25 .

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The distinctio11 between ''inter1:>retatio11'' a11d ''(crea.tio11 of) offences by 811a1og y 1 u ] ah. _a� · . been for�11Iate?, generally speaki11g, i11 one of two ways. Tl1e ear1·ier_ f orn . to 11.0� . c��ra�terized ''1nterpretatio11 '' as the a1:>plicat:io11 of a statute to a situatio?, whlch, It IS found, the legislatt1re 1neant the statt1te to apply·' a11d ',analo?Y as · tla· _e. a,P.p �. 11· Cfltion of a statute to a situatio11 to wl1icl1, it is found, the Ieg1sl ature ' ,- J

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�s · ;wefkg. eited� in note 20, above.

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ON INTERPRETING THE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE tatute would apply, but to which the policies of the s the e tat te rese fo t 00 did formulation characterizes as ''interpretation'' any ·app 11ca u : � second t The 100 . . can be brought wi• thin the mearung do apply· ute �hxch of the words used in the stat of the purpose, context, etc.); and as ''analogy'' any other appli­ by 111ated illum (as statute one based example on the conclusion that its purposes for , s�att1te the of cation ds d o 11 o t. r o \V s it h g u o h lt apply a It can be seen t�at _ t�ese two_ formulation s differ in the criteria they refer to. 1 . a J�d1c1ally deriv ed catalo_gu� of tl1e �ases a provision was 01 relies first ''in­ The tend ed" to cover, that IS on 1ts purposes. It 1s 1nterpretat1on, not analogy, to apply 1 ose cases \vhether or 11ot tl1e wor?s of the statute have a meaning tl to te statti the . . 1 tl1e1n. tl1e 01 otl1er l1and, 1t IS analogy to apply the statute \Vhich co11ld 1nclude n1eani of its words, b·ut which was not or co·uld not have ng the witl1i11 case a to been foreseen by tl1e legislature. Fo.r example, statutes passed before the invention of the automobile ofte11 used tl1e word ''vel1icle," to refer to wagons and the like. Under the fi rst forr11ulation, a11 a11tomobile would come under such statutes only by "analogy," since tl1e legislature could 11ot have foreseen that s11ch a thir1 g as an auton1obile 111igl1t co1ne i11to existe11ce.

The second formulation, on the otl1er l1and, uses words ratl1er than purposes as the criterio11 . If tl1e words of a statt1te can apply to a fact situation, it is "interpretatio11," not ''analogy,'' to apply the statute to those facts, even if the legislature did not or could not foresee those particular facts. In the case given, an auto1nobile could co1ne under old statutes referring to ''vehicle'' by interpreta­ tion, if ''auton1 obile'' ,vas wit11in the accepted mea11i11g of ''vehicle." Of cot11·se, this interp retation would 11ot be required.

To tl1e at1thor, the seco11d forn1ulation seen1s preferable. The ''interpretation''­ "analogy'' distinctio11 is important because of its relatio11ship to the principle of legality. Tl1e pri11ciple of legality, we have see11, rests on poli tical a11d crimi11al policies stressing the importa11ce of prior 11otice by gover11 ment of the crimi11al law. To be n1eaningful, tl1e disti11ction sl1011ld reflect these policies. That is, i t sl1ould have some relationshiJ? to tl1e givi11g of 11otice, a11d tl1e conco1nitant prevention of large-scale judici,11 innovatio11. By relyi11g on the possible mea11i11 g of statutory words as its criterio11, tl1e second formula.tion wou.ld permit application of a statute wl1ere :vami11g had bee11 give11, a11d forbid it wl1ere it had 11ot. This does not �ea11 a Judge s/1oi1/d apply a statute to every case its \Vorcls migl1t reach: the dec1�1011 _to apply or not \vithi11 word boundaries rests 011 co11sideratio11s of purpose, rat1onal1ty and co11sistency, disct1ssed at such len o-th above. But by enforcing word bounda ries as the outer ljmit of i11terpretatio11, o�e e11sures that the fu11ctio11s of tl1e IJrinciple of legality l1ave been respected. The firs t formulatio11 permits no st1ch assurance. Perhaps for this reaso11, the second forn1 11lation is finding increasi11g favot1r. The li1nitatio11s i1nposed even by t l1is for1nulation are less tha11 might at first appea r. First, it is 11ecessary to disti11gt1ish betwee11 tl1e creatio11 of offenc�s ''by alogy' ��dden ' and otl1_er . t1ses of analogy in the criminal la.w: C?nly the for�ner 1s �or­ by_ the pr1nc1ple of legality. To the extent the pr1nc1ple o� legalit� reqtiires ore caution i11 applyi11g cri 111 i r1 al law tl1an is ordinarily observed in applyin� 0ther �Ypes of law, st1cl1 as the 1v 1, to protect tl1e see1 have ve as Civil so, cloes Code, it C sed !�, li . If an applicatio11 of tl1e Code will ,vork to tl1e aclvantage of t�� a�_cused­ f? r example, if the acc11sed \visl1es to aro-ue by analogy that some . situation 11?t enttone � d i11 Article 79 sl1011ld 11011 etheless b� considerecl a mitiga t�ng_ circumstanc� in 8 caseit can be 1nade, if justified, without regard to the principle of legality. ..- 429 -


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ion tect p1·o and of sed l1i accu 1 n the to fro . m arb'1trary ning war ce . , ca s hi t '"' . . In . . . 0r o e k A ffi e. 11 1ce sta 1s at not 11ot 1 are g 011 bein created. . . s1•ve go.vernment act1 . · · repres T he tt o 1er_ p a11 as 11 rov!s1? 1 � r�e f of as law, witho ut � pr6v{sion may be interpreted any · e d t h ern nc w1 co · ln1 t 1s cr. 1t l na e us ca . be law sed po im ion tat ni i li special Second, one ��s� dis�ugui�b be twee� the f 01��1a� r�_asoni1�g process called "anal• oay'' and the prohib1t1on oi Article 2 aga111st the (c1 eat1on of) offences by anal0 ,, The for·mal process called . ''�nalogy'' is a process of �-easoni1lg from like to . As scl1olars have noted, 1t 1� probably tl1e ce1�tral p�llar . of l�gal reasonirlg, and reflects funda1nental democratic values. A proID1nent s1tuat1on 1n which tl1 e Pen 1 those_ stattites wlii� Code actually require s reasoning _by analogy can b�, fot111d 1 list circumstances and. then close w1tl1 a phrase sucl1 as or any s1m1lar c1rct1mstances " or ''or any other object." Article 488, already discussed, is one st1ch provision, since it refers to ''bt1il.dings or structt1res of a11y ki11d, crops or agricultural products forests, timber or anJJ other object.'' . I t ,vas suggested.. that the italicized phras� s .hould be i11terpreted to 1nean only objects l ilce tl1ose specifically described, in order to avoid application of the article to such cases as the b11r11i 11g of a book. The process by \vbjch one \Vould choose what objects are lik e tl1ose described is the process of ''a11alogy'' -a process of deriving relevant ger1eral cl1aracteristics ancl then using then1 as a criterion for :;1pplication. This for1nal reaso11i11g process is not forbidden; here indeed the statute gives warning that it ,vill be used. \\'l1at is forbidden is the ''( creatio11 �f) offences by analogy''; ,ve now see tl1at this does not mean using the process of a1 1alogy, as st1ch, but using the process to find th.at at1 offence 11as bee11 com1nitted t1nder a statt1te, althot1gl1 the citize11 would not reaso11a.bly l1ave expected tl1is decision from reading the statute's words. As presently understood, the principle- goes no farther than this. It does not require that a particular punishment be specified for each crime; only tl1at available pu.nishments and the co11ditions for their availability be establisl1ecl. It cloes not requi1·e a narro\V or artificial 1nethod of i11terpretation; ouly that i11 defini11g offe11ces the limitations of tl1e la11guage used by the legislatu.re, as \Veil as its p11rposes, _be respected. If it is understood that the principle today a.s ,lt its birtl1 reflects prin­ cipally political policy, not criminal poljcy, tl1ese lin1itations on its sco1Je sl1ould be readily perceived. So fa.r as the ''\var agai11st crime'' is concerneci, courts sl1ould be and are free to inte·rpret legislative directives as f11l]y a.s Ia11g11age and p1irpose together suggest. It is 011Iy ,,;here the sco1)e of tl1e al1thority delegated or of tlle interp1·etation sought has negative implications for the str11ct11re of go·vern 111 e111 or the political life of the citizen that caution is called for.

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C. Application

of the Principle in

Ethiopia 26

The principle of legality was first i 11trocl 11 ced i 1 1to .Ethiopi a11 law ir1 tl 1 e }"{evised ver, 'v 11 ? e clear Constitution o .f 1955. The Constitution of 1931 l1ad already 1nade , that the principal legislative authority lay \Vitl1 tl1 e E mperor and l�Iis Parlia nl entt 1 .. h a se il W � the Penal Code ot 1930 included a provisio11 to the eff ect t]1 t ca � ;;e prov ided for under the Code should be deci ded by an alogy, it also coiitrolle . �ls . lt . . . If . t · e Of thi · our us · s teehn1que by restr1ct1n C er1aI g 1t to the St1preme Imp ' 2.6.

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J. Graven, w.ork cited above at note 2. • �- Gtaiv_en, wor_k cited above at note 1, pp . 9 12. @s �� �,, de mo�ifs, collection cited above at note 1. ·ia"'1:1 •�])'(.an in 1,erutl Code of 1930, Arts. 11-12. .

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this cou rt had ready access to tl1e views of tha t . . ose sup _ p to ble th e pr1nc1. . .Jorce u11der tl1a t constitution, reasona . . ·. · 1s H Imperial . esty · MaJ . e O , lativ e mig Ls ht sl1ru eg . Pal 1 of auth or1ty bet\veen legislature and cou.rt 1011 1v1 · d' t e h · l1er � even t was in _ _ 011': se tha· respected,� the S11_p1 e1ue I111per1al Co111t would not have acted O11 sueh a ai n . . . , the 1n, 1 h t e • eg1s · 1 at11re 1 see ang s v1e\vs. .Regardless of this, the provifirst o11t with 011 . . · t1 · ques des1g11e d as � s .n1ooth transitiori from t1le era of appear s Code J 930 the sion of _ st, ,vl1�11 1n8:ny case� \Vere dec1decl thro11gh extrapolation of pritlciples �ega a fet!J the . 1 L1l fixed. of_ o s, � f11tu re �tat� �f ''legality." Indeed, tlle etat1on 111terpr than � � 0re . 01 - ?n. W?1le 1t rs 11ot nearly , sucl1 t1 r ovide p a11s1t1 s \Vl1ole a as so detailed � 1930 Code _ . cod�s, it acq�a111ted Etl11op1a11 lawyers with the code E11rope�n 1nost as e recis or p . _ forill and provided tl1en1 with a11 1111t1al basis for code reasor1ing. ;\s f11rtl1er explain�d . by t1Je Pe11al. Code of 1957, Article 2, the principle o .f legality adopted in Etl11op1,1 a pp �ars to :1ave _ bee11 the principle as it is prese11tly understood, ratl1er tl1a11 tl1e pr111c1ple as 1t rrugl1t l1ave been in the early niiJetee11tt1 century . '"fl111s, f\rticle 2 is at J)ai11s to disti11guisl1 bet\vee11 i11terpretatio11, vvf1ich is oermit ted, a11d cret1tio11 of offei1ces by a.11alogy, \v11icl1 is 11ot. ''Ir1terpretatio11'' is to be in accorda11ce ,vitl1 tl1e ''spirit'' anci ''1J11r1)ose'' of tl1e legislation, i11 accorda11ce \Vith the ''n1ea11ir1g i11te11ded b:y the legislat11re. '' 1-11at is to say, one 111ay legiti111ately give the words of a. provisio11 a11y 1J1ea11ing tl1ey will bear, if that meaning \vill te11d to effectu,lte the appare11t pur1Jose of Parlia1nent i11 enactir1g tl1e particular provision ir1 iss11e. Wl1i]e tl1e Code d.oes 11ot defi11e ''(creatior1 of) offe11ces by ana­ logy," perha1Js a regett::1ble 0111issio11, 011e n1ay 11ndersta11d by this vvord tl1e curre11t vievv of most Europea11 co1n111e11tators: a l )rocess by wbicl1 a stat11te is extended to a case not fairly ,vitl1i11 the meaning of its words, but thol1gl1 t to be withi1 1 it s purposes. It follo\vs tl1at tl1e answer ·t o tl1e question posed at the }1ead of t11is sectio11 is essentially ·negative: tl1e JJri11ciple of legality does 11ot rec1t1ire any substan­ tial 1nodificatio11s or cal1tio11s ir1 the tec]111jq·ues discussed above, so 1011g as the limits assl1n1ed in co1111ectio11 \Vitl1 those techniq11es are carefully observed; an i11ter­ _preter has the po\ver to use a11y of these tech11iques he finds l1elpf Lll.

X. THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGALITY - A :Lil\tlITATION ON LEGISLATIVE ACTION? 27 The IJri11ciple of legality, partic11larly in the version of it w11ich ap1Jears in Penal Code Article 2, appears to be directed particularly to judges..Its l:istory sl1ows _ that it was ado1Jted at a time when jt1dges were feared as potential \V1elders of a11 arbitrary po\ver over citize11s' Ii,,es. It was mea11t to e11force their s11bj11gation to tl1e legislature, i11 partic11lar by req11iri11 o- that there be a definite legislati, e ''warning'' to justify each cri1ni11al conviction ;11d crimi11al sente11ce. But, historic,1lly, this re­ lationship has tur11ed into a for1n of part11ers11i1), in which it is recognized t�at courts have tl1e fu11ction of applying the general prin.ciples an11ounced by tl1e leg1s� l� ture to specific cases, a11d. in the process, sha.pi11g them soi:newhat t o fit n1oder11 circtin1stances. In crimi11al cases, the only prohibition forbids them to apply a 1

27 · lee, regarding the existe11ce of varying degrees of speci.ficity io legislative expression: nee!, work cited above at note 17. ���ser , work . cited above at 11ote 6, pp. 902, 910-912. a I, work cited abov e at note 17, pp. 27- 28. M!hsou?, \Vork: cited above at note · 1 pp. 34 ff., 47 ff. , M nnheim, v,orl< c�te� above at 11ote 20, (J. 206. Thornstedt, work cited above at note 6. pp. 211 ff. , 224.

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it� ng; i n1 rd. fro wo le · tab \V� have seen dic pre not r nne ma . a in tha t s·tatute t h e y not onl as to so mit per es tut sta , e btit som d to rde wo requ·ire the · .o:i lature has 1eei.s es t a s t ca�es it bas not t 1 t pp o t e 1 ro p hi s er � rt a � r ei th se u to explicitly courts. � d ve e {. � t il e invo � y gatt?n o_f some legis n�cessar legisl�t1on . Since mentioned. � lati ve w hi tion c ques h · 011� es , aris dges u J. �o 1s ''Are there . or rule-making, authority an, rule ak of ! i deleg ation -� 1?g po_ wer to courts?'' r� · stitutional limits on eg slat1ve . con A there limits to what legislatures can do as wel l as to \vnat Judges may do? the author does not mean to discuss the rel ae In asking these questions, td . . question whether Ethiopian court· s are ever ernpowere d to decIare legislation constitutional. �h.at is a difficult �nd in1portant question, w�ich ca_nnot concern u�s here. If Ethiopian courts .hav� this _power _generally, they will be 1n a position to enforce any limits on legislative action wh1ch . ma� a1)pear f�om. the following dis­ cussion. Even if t?ey lack power to declare legislation ·unco11�t1t11.t1onal for delegating too mu�h author_1ty t? the_m, they could contr�l such leg1slat1ve acts by refusing to exercise the discretion given them, or constrm11g the grant as narrowly as pos­ sible. In this way, they might be able to force the legislature to be more explicit or detailed without actually declaring null and void what the legislature bas already done. Finally, one may rely on the good intentions of Parlian1ent and the En1peror to observe for themselves a11y limits which tb.e constitution imposes. If this 'discus­ sio·n prompts legislative aware11ess of any limits, and conseqt1ent self-restraint, it will have served an ample purpose whether or not Ethiopia11 courts are in a position to make the limits meaningful through enforcement. A. Retroactivity 28

7

The most universally accepted limit on legislative action regarding crimes is often, as in Article 55 of the Revised Constitution, included i11 the wording of the principle of legality itself: a legislature cannot ma.ke its rule retroactjve in time, to make crim­ inal an act which \Vas not criminal at the time it was performed. Obviously, such a rule is implicit in the notion that the citizen must be war11ed ,vbat conduct will be considered criminal, so tl1at he can decide bow he will behave. In the ab­ sence of such a rule, legislatures could play the arbitrary role it was tl1ougl1t 1u�ges once took, and define some act which had already been con1mitted as a cr1n11n al offence. Someone whom the gover·n1nent wisl1ed to see put a\vay, a politi�al op­ ponent, for example, could be quickly dispatched if this expedient \Vere possible. It should be noted that the judge, whe11 he interprets a st:1tute, is subject t.0 no limitation of retroactivity. Even though it was 11ot clear ir1 adva11ce of 1115 dec_ ision wh�ther . a partic�lar statute woulcl apply to tl1e condl1 ct in a case s nutted to h1m, if he decides the statute does apply, he will apply t_ he st_a�ute b that case. He will apply it even though the cond uct preceeded bis decision . } some months, and even though the defendant may have acted in tl1e 1nistaken beh�5 that the conduct was.not forbidden by the statt1te. I11deed, Article 78 of tl1e Pe11al �ode 1 t quite clear about this. The Court is to reduce - b l1t 11ot eli 1nir1ate - the pum sf,�!e!;e of ''a person who in good faith believed he had a right to act at1d l7ad c.e11111 e so0 p e nd ed. e te a ad qua r asons for holding this errorzeous belief." (E1n.phasis . suppli ) _A �tl ed s ent1 wz'thout ''defin1te · and adequate reasons'' for his mistake, one roust ass111ne, 1 to no reduction at all.

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2s·. An··�•, "'Creation des infractions . .. , '' cited above at note 20, p. 91. .R. �ven, wor k cited above at note 1, p. 17.

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B. Statutory Vagueness 29 which limita tion, is enfor nized ced in the United States as a recog r the . . . O An . . octr1ne, 1s tha t th e Ieg1slature ma� not phrase its proh d I na t1o st1tu 1 co.1 ibi. matter of ay 11ot delegate too muc� rule-making power to the 1:1 ly broad judge. too ns tio 1 l re �te d to ·the . doctr1ne ?f separation of powers, since )' v1011s b o is le cip This prin deal of its rule-n1�ki �g . authority to c?urts the legislature is gr_ e at a g atin , by deleg on� . of the maJoI l111es of separauon. It has refused to rate o�l1te to ening threat what conduct dec1d111g sho11ld of be punished. On the other 11 f1111ct10 its r111 erfo a11alyses of. t11e probl_em . are m?st frequently m .ade under the 11al tit11tio cons hand, A111e�·1c�n Const1t11t1on (which corresponds to Article 43 of �he ?f Clause s oces r P Due on). Tl11s. �s no do�bt because of tl1e dange rs whlch statu­ Const1tut1 pian Ethio the tl1e c1t1ze11: l1e to 1s u11sur_ e what pre?e11t cond11ct is made illegal, 1ess 1 vag11e tory val11able cond11ct or be from . 111adequately warned of wliat will desist 1nay hence and exte11t vag11e tl1e to statutory language leaves the judge free wrongful; ed r de consi be to improvise, the citize11 is unprotected from the judicial whim and fiat wbicl1 it ,vas originally tl1e ftrnction of the principle of legalitv to preve11t.

The 11otio11 that legitimate activity 1nay be deterred by a vague statute is JJa rti­ cuJarly i1npor tar1t to tl1e An1erica11 doctrine of vagueness. It ca11 be understood by recalling the observa.tio11 111ade above, that a j11dge is 11ot obliged to follo\v the rule against retroactivity in apJJlyi11g l1is interpretations of the law. The practical effect of retroactive application of i11terpretatio11 is that a citize11 will fear to engage in any acti\'ity which n1ig/1t fall under tl1e prol1ibitio11 of the statute, as ir1terpreted. That is, tl1e possibility tl1at a statute will be interpreted to apply to a11d forbid certaia co11duct \.vill l1inder tl1at co11dt1ct, eve11 if the interpretation is unlikely or is never 1nade. This eftect might be acceptable if 011ly objectionable co11duct were inhibited by tl1e 1111certai11 lang11age of a partic11lar statute or if the 11ncertai11ty was reduced to tl1e n1inimt1m by car eft1l drafti11g. The danger, however, is that la11guage \vhich is very vag11e may i11l1ibit - a11d 111ay eve11 be 11sed or designed to i11hibit activities \.Vhicl1 are legitin1ate or \Vhich enjoy special protection under the law, as in the case of religious worship and other freedo1ns protected by the constit11tion. This possibility, that the tl1reat of f11t11re inteqJretations of overly uncertain lang11age may inhibit people from e11gagi11g i11 legitimate or specially protected activities, is a �articularly t1nacceptal1le conseque11ce of vague stat11tory lang11age. Wl1ere a n. A111e­ rican court finds tl1is possibility it will n11llify the stat11te u11der the D11e _Process , �latrse as unconstitution,:1lly vagtie, 11nless it can quickly eliminate tl1e unce rtainty by in��rp�etatio �. A� migl1t be expected, s11ch 11u1lification is D?-ore likely where t�e acL1vit1es be1r1g h111dered by the ur1certainty of the law are I11gl1ly protected , as 111 the case of political activities. It may be easier to underst,1nd the r11le against statutory vagi.1eness and the reasons for it by co11sidering a specific exa1nple. Suppose that in place of tJ1e 29' Am5terdan1 Vol. , "The Void-for-Vagueness Doctrine in the Supreme Court," U. Pa. L. Rev., A

109 (1960), p. 67.

de naes, work cited above at note 1, p. 110. f a er, work. cited above at pp. 902, 910-16. note 6, � f Ba .' work cited above at 27-28, 36 ff. pp. 17, note Le , \Vork cited �bove at no . p. te 3, 52 0 ;; ff M oub, work cited 34 ff., 47 ff. Tho�� stedt, work citedabove at 11ote 1, pp. 224 . ab 6, p. at ove 11o te ff w·1 irian1s, work cited abo ve at note 17, p. 578.

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l t, cia Par Spe m rlia Pa the de, ent Co al Pen proposed to en �he of II t r Pa_ present . ac t . the rollow111g prov1s1on. Art. 248: Whoever intentionally or negli?en_tly a.cts to harn1 the state national or international interests, the public 111te.rest, the cou1munity, indi� viduals, t�e family? or I?roperty shall be p�ni_sl1able wit!1 one or mor e o f the penalties described 1n the General Part, Book II, 111 accorda nce with the needs of the case. Now suppose that some�ne charged �n�er this pro_vision protests _ . tl1at it is un­ constitutionally vague, rel_y1ng on the J?r1nc1ple of legality. If tl1e pr1n�1ple of legality were applicable only to Judg�s, an� s1n1pl_y for_bade them to go_ ?uts1de the written law the principle would be 1nappl1cable 1n tl1.1s case; the prov1s1on does con stitute wri;ten authority defining a crime, even if the definition is a very vague one. But the prin.ciple is also applicable to legislatures; it reql1ires then1 to attain a certain standard of precision and detail in their instructions to judges. A pro, ision su.ch as the a'bove would fail to meet any such standard. The area of uncertainty in its application is limitless. The citizen would not know \Vhat it was that be was for­ bidden · to do; he might fear to engage in valuable social activities; he would be essentially without protectior1 agai11st judicial whim and fiat, since the legislature has essentially delegated to the judge broad rather tha11 limited, jt1dicial po,ver to declare conduct criminal. If courts have authority to declare stat utes unconstitutio11al, tl1ey could surely declare thi,r; statute unco11stit11tionally vague. Let us consider another example, whicl1 is perl1aps not so extreme, but which n1ay help to understand ,vhy more precision is generally expected of penal than ci,1il legislation. Title IX, Chapter I, of tl1e Ethiopian Civil Code deals ,vitl1 the problem of ''Extra-Contractual Liability." Ge11erally speaki11g, this is the Civil Code analogy of the law of crimes. Article 2027(1) provides th.at ''Irrespective of any under­ taking on his part, a person shall be liable for the dan1age l1e ca11ses to anotl1er by an offence.'' An ''offence'' is then defined in several general provisions. For example, Article 2030(1) states that ''A person co1nmits an o:ffence where he acts �r refrai11s fro111 acting in a n1anner or in conditions \Vhicl1 offend n1orality or pt1 blic order''; Article 2033(1) states that ''A person commits an offence where he ttlrns to his ow.n ad,,antage po,vers conferred on him in tl1e interest of another." Although Articles 2038-2065 then state specific examples of ''offences," such as physical_assault (Article 2038), an act need not falJ within these particular provisio11s to constttute a� offence. It is s11ffi.cient that it meet one of the general defi11itio11s of ''offen ce, such as those stated in Articles 2030(1) and 2033(1 ). a If ucted. As a matter of civil code drafting' these provisio11s are well co11str· · � . d..Y ·· d'1v1· dual can show that he has been har1ned. by anotl1er person, it 16 alrea 10 s 15 t ocl,in establisl1ed that a tangible loss l1as been st1ffered, ar1d tl1at. tl1e defe �e . cause. The issue in a civil trial is who is to bear· tl1 is loss? Is t11e loss to r r o e borne by the person who suffered it '' the pltii11ti ff?· Or are there reasons · t qbtleta er the person who caused the loss the defe11da11t to n1ake it good - that is, .to , 1 5 1 ch l 1 the loss himself? Si11ce the que; tion is one of 'allocating a financial loss w i _ ; 0 15 ah�eady �ccurred, since the loss mu.r;t be l1orne and the questio11 is only who 1e rJ ? ear it, It may be fair to state the rules of liabili:ty__ in a ver� general w:Y· . rent . a ud PP e the � � then has maximum freedom to allocate respons1bil1ty accord1 n. g to Jillst1ce of the individual case. sa ces � n e ID. a criminal case, on the other hand it is not at all certain or ts, a ttemp �iat a,'lil� aGtu;a;l harm has occurred. For exa.m'ple, persons are punished for

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deration whether dam age of any sort was done . Moreove cons i r, t . eve n · • thou • . WJ e cr11 h n1n t d 1 , a . prosecution 1s not intended to m /ias occurre arn l 1 I ak.e that where. rep . ara 1 tio for 1 is to be brougl1t separately by the . sui t any d 00 1nJu re d • I1 arrn g oug • ' h it ca11 be J·o111e · d w1· � h :th e cr1m1nal prosecut_ion under Article 100 alth of the P arty, de. The p11rposes of the cr11111nal prosecut1011, punrshme11t and/or reh ab 1·i·1ta t·1011, penal Co . • • . • . · soc1a 1 order, not to redress priv 1n 111te rest 1c bl pu a cate ate injuries Th t virldi agai tly 11s� the indiv!dual d�fe�dant and seeks to· tak: dire pitte d is n! e trn � �operty. If 1t :�:e . succeeds 111 conv1nc1ng the court to penalize or p1 ty l1be life, llis 7 :\vay a ed. n<:'"' ele111e 11t of _111tro d11c loss to . the case: the defendant will l1ave will it hinl life, liberty a or :proper_ty wh1cl1 no otlier person need have up 1ve g to red requi . be event does not go to rei1nburse any victim who may exist any 1n h \1/}1ic and lost l1ave n1ay s11ffere l1e d. damag Because, first, it is the government e tever 'vvha f \il�iclt is involved ftnd, second, _tl1e governme11t is seeking to impose a nelv loss or penalty on tl1e �ccu�e?, 1nuch h1g�1e� standards of certainty are appropriate in penal legislatio11 t11a11 111 c.1v1l. In tl1e cr11u1nal area, statutes such as Articles 2030(1) and Z033(1) of tl1e Civil Cod� woul_d be n1ucl1. t_oo 11ncert_ai11; they do not define the limits of possible govern111e11t act1011 \Vrth ft precision sufficient to war11 the citizen \Vhat he may not do, and to protect l1i1n against arbitrari11ess. a11 y

I·Jo\v 1n11cl1 tincertainty is ''too much'' is an extremely difficult question. Un­ certai11ty wl1icl1 ca11 be avoided by 111ore precise 11se of language is 111ore likely to be fo11nd objectio11able tl1a11 11ncertainty wl1icl1 is largely unavoidable. Tl111s, words of infinite scope, such as ''in1moral'' or ''evil'' are particularly suspect. 1\s l1as already been suggested, tl1e answer also may vary with the type of activity which is being inhibited by tl1e peripheral vagueness of tl1e stat11te. A statute inbibiti11g, for exarnple, religious practice might be more closely examined than 011e inhibiting questio11able forms of sexual conduct. More important social values 1nay be �1t stake i11 the first case than the second; there is more to be lost if they are inhi­ bited. One suggested guideline attempts to distinguish bet\vee11 pern1issible interpreta­ tion and an impermissibly broad statute by exan1i11ing the result of the judicial process on the stat11te: if a court can elimi11ate the area of uncertainty by i11ter­ preting the statute i11 one case, tl1en the stat11te is not ''too broad." If, on the other hand, the u11certainty cannot be eliminated by interpretatio11, then the statute is "too broad'' a11d sho11ld not be applied. The· legislature should be required to try again, more carefully tl1is time. 30

The limits 011 the le!rislatt1re as \vell as those on the co11rt, the11, respond to the same co11siderations: fhe essentia.lly political policies of affording _sufficient notice to enable the citizen to 111ake a reasonable prediction about wl1at action the govern­ ment might take affecting l1is freedom, and to protect him against arbitrary infringe­ ments of his liberty. If this is a valid generalization, then_ 011e J?a� recast �he . s analy is of ''legality'' into tl1e tern1s suggested by an Arner1ca11_ cr!,n11na.I t�eor�st, Jerome Hall: tl1at tl1e qt1estion i11volved is one of the proper ''g1rtl1 of legislative statement a11d of juclicial application of such statements. 31 At what level of general30·

� rticulated ?Y the United States Supreme Court in: ombrowsk1 v. Pfister, United States Supren1e Cot1rt Reporter, Vol. 380 (1965), p. 479 ), p. 87· (1965 82 � Vol: Shuttlesworth v. Birmingl1am, rter, Repo t Cour eme Supr United States �ompare the test for distinguishing i1Jterpretation from analogy suggeSfed in. G ra�en, work cited above at note 1, p. 11. W 31. ork cited above at note 17, p. 36.

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JOURNAL OF ETHIOPIAN LAW .. VOL. V - No. 2

in search of' sol11tions impiilgi ng rate ope rt .1ty can a legislature cou a or . . . · 1 . 0 1 th e a y e f o is 1 lit · a1 1 h nc1p ex · p t orta the 11 , seen � ,, � . � ,, 1:1 ? t � both le iscitizen's liberty_?. Thus . � . Be says ific! spec it t, effec In 1 Part des. u · attit c1al jud1 .. and ��lar1zatio n, c�n_ _ lative h will le wb1c e11ab rules and tl1e ods meth citizen to prect· for rn once C Ss . . . eretene , . . . . ct hin1 1.. • ict • st again . w1 m u prote or fiat are the ess e where he stands and which will n.t·1a1 dema 1 1ds of the rule. XI. IMPLICATIONS OF THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGALITY FOR IN1"ERPRE. TATION We concluded that _11nder tb.e principle of legality, tl1e judge retains the poiver . wlu statute f a interpretation to adopt any �h. _a reader of t_l1e stat11te ,vould tli ink � possible from its words (subJect . to the poss1b1l1ty tl1at l�e will ref11�e to adopt any the interpretation, because he finds 1t �oo_ vague). �he q11est1on _ n ar1ses wl1at inlJ)l i­ _ cations ca11 be drawn from the pr1nc1ple to guide the 111ter1 Jret1ve process. A. Indispensability

of Statutory

Elements 32

We earlier discussed at length the relatio11sh· ip betwee11 the General and Special Parts of tl1e Penal Code, a11d remarked tl1at the Ge11eral Part would freque11tly define or even state elements of an offe11ce i11 a way that wo11ld not be clear from the Special Part provision alo11e. The example used \Vas tl1e require1nent of ''intention'' for a violation of 1\rticle 523, wl1ich is 11ot 1ne11tio1Jed in Article 523 itself but clearly must be ini�erred in view of Articles 57-59 of the Ge11eral Part a11d the overall arrangement of the 11onlicide provisions. By stressing the duty of tl1e co11rt to ascertain a11d respect legislative purposes i11 criminal 111atters, the pri11ciple of legality makes it clear that courts n1ust find all elements of a cri111e to be JJrese11t for a conviction to be justified - elements wl1ich are im1Jlied fro1n tl1e Ge11eral Part as well as those specifically me11tio11ed i11 tl1e Special Part. If f11rtl1er e·vidence of tl1i s elementary principle were 11ecessary, it co11ld be fo11nd in Article 23(2): ''Tl1e cri1ninal offence i s only completed \Vhen all its legal, 1naterial a11cl moral i1Jgredieots are prese11t." (Emphasis supplied.) B. Ordina.ry Usage Over Special or Technical Meanings

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33

Since the j11dge al\vays assumes legislative regularity, be is entitled to �ss �me that the legislat11re .b.as acted, in regard to any partic11lar statute, with the principle of legality and its pur1Joses in miI1d. That is to say, he is entitled to ass11rne that the legislature intended its enactment to give adeq11ate \Var11i11g of t l 1e circumstances in wb.ich it would apply. Of course he, too, is 1111der a11 i11jt111ctio11 to iiiterp�et and apply a criminal statute in a way 'vVhicl1 migl1t l1:1ve bee11 expected fr 0111 its la11guage and context. le ossib p e, availabl One of. the criteria by which the judge chooses amono o tl1e . wor·d mearungs, then, should be a consideration of those 111et1111 11gs 'vVI11. ch ,vere likely to occur to the persons to wl1on1 this \var11i1 1g was directed. If the statute

32· J. Graven, ''Les principes de Ia legalite •.. , '' cite d above at note 1, p. 393 . 33. Freu.nd, wor½ cited above at note 3, pp. 180-184. Hall, work cited above at note 17, p. 36 ff. Har� & Sachs, work cited above at note 1, pp. 121 9 ff., 1411 ff. Radin, work c.1ted above at note 1, p. 86 7 ff. Stone, work ci_ ted above at note 3, p p . 31-34.

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ON INTERPRETING TI-IE ETHIOPIAN PENAL CODE

general application, h e may properly .hesitate b -� of ute stat al :n1in e1or e . . ng g1v1 · 'l crJ..l.1-U . . 1mc 1 1s ' - or tee1 • a mearung, 1··r th"1s will. operate to the pre spec1·a1 . . of a ord · . �u d tee w .111e at11re_ propose d 1· ts statut� to hav e general a. pplicatio , so e fendant. If t he 1eg1s . I n it e d word s wh1�h cou ld be �sed 1n · the sense in which they are chos e also bly _ ress its p11rpose .. �ob a exp It would not have meant P d . to rsto o und e to tri·ck the Jly . · genera . con1m ,vo on s 1 1 son1e d us111g specia l by sense. On an the � other hand, � ro . ry _ ina . ord be d1rect e_ d _ to to a s_pec1al group_ as . is the case with seen1s ute stat a re whe prov1d� Profe�s1onal Services," for example_ it is proper to to usal e :'Ref 520, Articl e meaning ,vl11ch ,vo11ld be understood by members of that a words rtru11 unc . :��:p, even if these are 11ot the words' ordi11ary signification. This criterion is 11ot excl11sive. If tl1e j11dge is co11vinced by considerations of tl1e t�1at like, legislature tl1e or assig se, p11rpo ext, �ed a differei1t meaning to a cont _ rule t]1e s11bJect a f the likely to, l1e is free to adopt n tha. � pl1rase � � or word _ that special n1ea111n�; !1e does 11ot .violate tl1e pr1nc1ple of legality thereby. B·ut the purposes of the _ p_r1nc1ple o� legality s11 �gest th,tt 111 det�rmi11ing what the statt1te actually means 1t 1s appropri ate to co11s1der how tl1e subJect of a statute is likely to understand it. To a certai11 extent this suggestio11 resembles tl1e once popt1lar doctrines that penal statutes n111st al\vays be interpretecl to favour the acc11sed, or that the ''plain&#