PEER REVIEW: ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
Management of Erectile Dysfunction in Ireland An interview with Theresa LowryLehnen (PhD), CNS, GPN, RNP, South East Technological University
syndrome and cardiovascular disease, cardiac assessment is warranted in men with symptoms of ED.” Aetiology of Erectile Dysfunction
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition occurring in males over 40 years of age, although it can occur earlier. It is estimated that at least 150 million men globally have ED. It is difficult to obtain accurate values for the true prevalence of erectile dysfunction however, as many patients fail to seek medical attention, and many clinicians are reluctant to ask patients about their sexual health. We recently spoke to Theresa Lowry Lehnen, RGN, GPN, RNP, BSc, MSc, M. Ed, PhD Clinical Nurse Specialist and Associate Lecturer South East Technological University to understand more about this condition and its impact on males in Ireland. ED can have a substantial negative impact on a man’s quality of life, Theresa reflects. She says, “Erectile dysfunction is the inability to achieve or maintain an erection for satisfactory sexual performance, and affects a considerable proportion of men at least occasionally. It is often treatable, however, if left untreated, ED can be a source of severe emotional stress for both the man and their partner.” Theresa notes that erectile dysfunction is often an under recognised, yet important, cardiovascular risk factor. She says, “Owing to its strong association with metabolic
Although most men will experience periodic episodes of erectile dysfunction, it tends to become more frequent with advancing age. “Many factors can contribute to sexual dysfunction in older men, including physical and psychological conditions, comorbidities and polypharmacy,” she adds. “Aspects of an ageing man’s lifestyle behaviour and androgen deficiency, most often decreasing testosterone levels, can affect sexual function. “Studies have shown that the percentage of men who engage in some form of sexual activity, decreases from 73% in men aged 57–64 years to 26% for men aged 75–85 years. The aetiology for this decline in male sexual activity is multifactorial, and is in part related to female partners menopause at approximately 52 years of age, leading to a significant decline in female libido and desire to engage in sexual activity.” While ED is associated with ageing, many studies and largescale surveys have concluded that ED is a major health concern among young men. Theresa adds, “One study in 2013 reported that 1: 4 men seeking medical help for erectile dysfunction in the real-life setting, is < 40 years of age. Another study in 2016 concluded that 22.1% of men < 40 years of age had low (<21) Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) scores. “In the past, erectile dysfunction was almost always considered a
AUGUST 2022 • HPN | HOSPITALPROFESSIONALNEWS.IE
psychogenic disorder. However, evidence now suggests that more than 80% of cases have an organic aetiology. While most patients with ED have organic disease, some do have a primary psychological cause, particularly younger men. Even when ED is organic in nature, there are almost always psychological consequences regarding relationship issues, cultural norms and expectations, loss of self-esteem, shame, and anxiety and depression related to sexual performance.” Erectile dysfunction is multidimensional in nature, and Theresa says it can be broadly divided into endocrine and nonendocrine causes. “The condition can be caused by any disease process which affects penile arteries, nerves, hormone levels, smooth muscle tissue, corporal endothelium, or tunica albuginea. It is closely related to cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidaemia, hypertension, and endothelial dysfunction,” she explains. “Erectile dysfunction and vascular disease are thought to be linked at the level of the endothelium. Endothelial dysfunction, results in the inability of smooth muscle cells lining the arterioles to relax and prevents vasodilatation. The endothelial cell is known to affect vascular tone and impact the process of atherosclerosis and impacting ED, CVD and peripheral vascular disease. Cardiovascular disease and hypertension are very significant risk factors for erectile dysfunction.” Besides cardiovascular disease, there are strong correlations between ED and hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypogonadism, obesity, smoking, alcoholism, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) with lower urinary symptoms (LUTS), depression, and premature ejaculation. Diabetes is a common aetiology of sexual dysfunction, because it can affect both the blood vessels and the nerves that supply the penis. Men with diabetes are four times more likely to experience erectile dysfunction, and on average, experience it 15 years earlier than men without diabetes.
“Obesity is also correlated to the development of several types of dysfunction, including a decrease in sex drive and an increase in episodes of ED,” she continues. “Neurogenic erectile dysfunction is caused by a deficit in nerve signalling to the corpora cavernosa. Such deficits can be secondary to spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, lumbar disc disease, traumatic brain injury, radical pelvic surgery and diabetes. Men being treated for prostate cancer with treatments such as radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy or the use of lutenising hormonereleasing hormone (LHRH) agonists and antagonists often experience ED.” Numerous medications are listed with erectile dysfunction and/ or a decreased libido as a side effect. Drugs that can cause ED include hydrochlorothiazide’s and beta-blocking agents. Medications used to treat depression, particularly the SSRIs such as citalopram, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline, can also contribute to ED. The severity of erectile dysfunction is often described as mild, moderate or severe according to the five-item International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) questionnaire, with a score of 1–7 indicating severe, 8–11 moderate, 12–16 mild–moderate, 17–21 mild and 22–25 no erectile dysfunction. The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) Questionnaire The IIEF is a multidimensional validated questionnaire with 15 questions in the five domains of sexual function (erectile and orgasmic functions, sexual desire, satisfaction with intercourse and overall sexual satisfaction), and there is also an abbreviated format of five questions in the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Investigations and Diagnosis Theresa continues, “A thorough medical history, detailed sexual history, and physical examination are required before commencing treatment or further investigations. It is important to distinguish between psychological and