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Industry

Asia Pacific THE INDUSTRY MAGAZINE FOR ASIA

INTERROLL DRUM MOTORS RECEIVE EHEDG CERTIFICATION FOR HIGHEST HYGIENE REQUIREMENTS

8 TOOL HOLDERS PROVIDE THE VITAL LINK TO MACHINING PRODUCTIVITY

14 E-MOTION ON THE BIKE

22

AGV NAVIGATION: WHAT ARE THE POSSIBILITIES?

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IN THIS MAGAZINE… 6  Interroll receives sorter order from Actemium Lyon Logistics for French postal hubs 8  Interroll Drum Motors receive EHEDG certification for highest hygiene requirements 9  Microport is new Taiwanese distributor of Softing Industrial Automation 10  Mobile Solution for Configuration and Parameterization of Field Devices in the Process Industry

11  Seco Tools Website Users Gain Access to Advanced Online Services 12  Rohde & Schwarz enables the development of next generation automotive radar chips with a new high-precision test chamber

14  Tool Holders Provide the Vital Link to Machining Productivity 18  New JC898 and JC899 Prevent Delamination in Hybrid Stacked Material Machining 19  For long chain service life 20  Ixxat Smart Grid Gateways – advanced connectivity with maximum security 22  E-Motion on the bike 24  GPS for the milky way 27  New Anybus® Switches and Wireless Routers open the door to the wireless infrastructure of the future

28  Mitsubishi Electric’s Graphic Operation Terminal GOT2000 Series to Add Rugged Model for Use Under Extreme Conditions

30  AGV navigation: what are the possibilities?

Send your press releases to: editor@ipmediaonline.com To receive Industry Asia Pacific magazine free of charge, please subscribe online at www.industry-asia-pacific.com Industry Asia Pacific is the English-language magazine for engineers, published by INDUPORTALS MEDIA PUBLISHING. It contains the latest product and company news for industrial markets. Industry Asia Pacific edits its articles with the greatest of care, however we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information presented in them. Our teams disclaim all responsibility concerning the content of this media or how it might be used. www.ipmediaonline.com

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ADVERTISERS: MEPAX 3 • NORD 6


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32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

THE INDUSTRY MAGAZINE FOR ASIA

INTERROLL

INTERROLL

SOFTING

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8

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SOFTING

SECO TOOLS

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ROHDE & SCHWARZ

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SECO TOOLS

KOLLMORGEN

IWIS

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HMS INDUSTRIAL NETWORKS

20 HMS INDUSTRIAL NETWORKS

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FAULHABER

FAULHABER

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC

LEUZE ELECTRONIC

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I N T R A LO G I S T I C S

INTERROLL RECEIVES SORTER ORDER FROM ACTEMIUM LYON LOGISTICS FOR FRENCH POSTAL HUBS

Systems integrator Actemium Lyon Logistics and Interroll win the bid for three sorters for French postal players La Poste, DPD and Viapost. The order makes the 400th sorter order worldwide for Interroll.

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hree of these sorting systems will be installed for three different entities within the La Poste group in France: La Poste Roissy Hub (August 2020 - Roissy), DPD (July 2020 - Billy-Berclau) and Viapost (June 2020 - Argonay). The rising e-commerce is leading to a steady increase in parcel volumes worldwide, more diversified packaging, as well as higher expectations on the delivery time. These trends are posing new challenges for La Poste’s logistics companies, in particular when it comes to the processing and sorting of packages.

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To meet these challenges in a flexible and efficient way as an integrator, Actemium Lyon Logistics developed a concept to apply the latest conveyor and sorting technologies as well as state-of-the-art Warehouse Control Systems solutions for the three sorting platforms. “These new orders also came on the basis of many years of successful collaboration between Actemium Lyon Logistics and Interroll,” said Nicolas Jaffeux, Postal and Express Department Manager Actemium Lyon Logistics, and Bruno 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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Maisonneuve, Business Unit Manager of Actemium Lyon Logistics. “Actemium is an active partner in Interroll’s ‘Rolling On Interroll’ program.” 400th sorter order for Interroll Interroll offers horizontal and vertical crossbelt sorters for fully automated sorting processes in the courier, express and parcel service providers market. Throughput rates of 2,000 to 15,000 units per hour make the Interroll Crossbelt Sorter a highly efficient sorter for goods of all types. With the addition of a new infeed module, Interroll has expanded its modular platform solutions for particularly efficient material flow. It is perfectly designed to work with Interroll Crossbelt Sorters. The new infeed modules combine higher infeed speeds with reduced space requirements to offer a substantial potential increase in goods flow in automatic sorting systems. In addition, their very low noise level guarantees a comfortable working environment for operators working in the vicinity of the installation. Finally, the mechanical design of Interroll’s mechanical crossbelt sorters limits energy consumption to a strict minimum,


while offering very high availability and flexibility in its use, ensuring a low environmental footprint. “With Interroll’s flexible sorting solutions and the collaboration with Actemium Lyon Logistics, we look forward to further contribute to the performance and flexibility of postal companies worldwide,” says Gilles Calvez, Managing Director of Interroll France.

About Actemium Lyon Logistics Actemium is the VINCI Energies’ brand dedicated to industrial process operating throughout the entire industrial life cycle. Actemium designs, builds and maintains the

Smart solutions to optimize your logistic process As a specialist in designing and integrating intralogistics solutions, Actemium Lyon Logistics is responsible for projects for automated commissioning systems, packaging and dispatch lines, conveyor and sorting systems with a high cycle frequency and software products for supply chains. Its experience, the availability of its teams and the services provided by the VINCI network enable Actemium Lyon Logistics to guarantee that it can perform 24/7 maintenance on sorting systems created or optimized at its customers’ premises in France and Europe. The teams are used by the most important stakeholders in the sector of e-commerce, courier services and industry companies throughout Europe: Etam, FedEx, Geodis, La Poste, E. Leclerc, Spartoo, Showroomprive.com, TNT, XPO, etc.

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About La Poste Group With its multi-activity strategy, La Poste Group is transforming in line with its historical values. These drivers include local solutions, a bond of trust and regional networks. Indeed, Le Groupe La Poste operates both in France and abroad. The Group achieved EUR 24.7 bn revenue in 2018 and employs more than 250,000 people. In addition to its 17,100 retail outlets in France, Le Groupe La Poste is now present in 44 countries, across four continents. As it looks to evolve and transform, Le Groupe La Poste has opted for a multi-activity business model with mail, banking, parcels, a network of retail outlets, digital tools and more. All are guided by a single objective: to make Le Groupe La Poste the leading provider of local services for everyone, everywhere, every day.

customers’ production equipment in order to improve their industrial performance. Relying on a profound expertise in process control& automation, electrical & instrumentation, mechanical & piping and process utilities. The Actemium business units, segmented by industrial process, constitute a unique operational network model, offering both a local and a global approach. 2,5 BN € turnover / 21 000 people / 380 companies / 40 countries

www.interroll.com

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I N T R A LO G I S T I C S

INTERROLL DRUM MOTORS RECEIVE EHEDG CERTIFICATION FOR HIGHEST HYGIENE REQUIREMENTS

he European Hygienic Engineering & Design Group (EHEDG) has certified Interroll’s current drum motor platform after extensive testing for hygienic industrial applications. This official confirmation provides the international food, pharmaceutical and packaging industries with a compact, powerful and energy-saving drive solution for material flow that meets the highest hygiene standards.

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he EHEDG is an international association consisting of research institutes and universities, health authorities and government organizations as well as food manufacturers. Its aim is to ensure safe food in all areas of food production by improving hygienic technology and design. With appropriate certification, the user can be sure that the selected product has been designed to meet the highest hygiene requirements, as is the case with Interroll Drum Motors.

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“With EHEDG Class 1 certification for our innovative drum motors, customers and users enjoy important benefits in building material handling solutions. Our drive solutions offer proven added value by meeting the most demanding hygiene requirements, significantly reducing the risk of contamination and making cleaning very easy. In addition, the hygienic design of Interroll Drum Motors is a standard feature—and does not have to be achieved through costly design changes in the respective projects,” explains Dr. Hauke Tiedemann, Managing Director of Interroll Trommelmotoren GmbH. 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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In addition to EHEDG certification for hygienic use, Interroll Drum Motors also meet the material requirements of the US Department of Agriculture / Food and Drug Administration and EU Regulation EG 1935/2004 for use in the food industry. As compact drive solutions for industrial applications, Interroll Drum motors also feature standard IP66 and IP69k sealing systems. In addition to the hygiene benefits, Interroll Drum Motors are highly efficient during operation: They reduce energy consumption and cleaning times by up to 30 percent compared with conventional solutions. www.interroll.com


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MICROPORT IS NEW TAIWANESE DISTRIBUTOR OF SOFTING INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

Microport headquarter main internal team.

Microport, a leading Taiwanese provider of electronic product solutions and after-sale services is now a distribution partner of the German based Softing Industrial Automation GmbH.

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ffective immediately, Microport is responsible for the distribution of Softing Industrial’s diagnostics products. These include mobile solutions for device configuration, network configuration and diagnostics, and mobile and stationary devices for installation, plant acceptance, and maintenance. Founded in 1979, Microport has developed into a leading electronic solution provider in Taiwan, providing excellent electronic product solutions and after-sale services to customers from the industrial automation and automotive sector. Customers include many prestigious OEM/ODM companies.

David Yeh, General Manager at Microport: “Having Softing in our product portfolio completes our capabilities and offerings to customers. We, as a team, strive to fulfill our customers’ needs through our best solutions and services.” According to Ingrid Wang, International Sales Manager at Softing Industrial, “Microport has been a very successful training center and distributor for Fieldbus technologies. We are pleased to work with Microport to serve our customers in Taiwan.” https://industrial.softing.com

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Headquartered in Haar near Munich, the German Softing Industrial Automation GmbH is a world-leading provider of industrial communication products and technologies used with devices, controls, and systems in manufacturing and process automation applications.

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MOBILE SOLUTION FOR CONFIGURATION AND PARAMETERIZATION OF FIELD DEVICES IN THE PROCESS INDUSTRY

The combination of Softing’s mobiLink interface with the Field Xpert SMT70 or SMT77 Tablet PC from Endress+Hauser offers users a simple and safe system solution for configuring and parameterizing field devices.

Endress+Hauser is now offering its Field Xpert together with Softing’s mobiLink interface as a practical bundle for parameterizing and commissioning field devices.

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he combination of Softing’s mobiLink interface with the Field Xpert SMT70 or SMT77 Tablet PC from Endress+Hauser offers users a simple and safe system solution for configuring and parameterizing field devices for the most important process automation protocols - HART, PROFIBUS PA and FOUNDATION Fieldbus. The bundle includes a Field Xpert SMT70 or SMT77 tablet with pre-installed CommDTMs (HART, PROFIBUS PA and FOUNDATION Fieldbus), a mobiLink interface that establishes the connection to the tablet via Bluetooth, and optionally a license to use mobiLink for the configuration of FOUNDATION Fieldbus and PROFIBUS PA field devices. mobiLink is now available from Endress+Hauser under the name FieldPort SFP50.

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Dr. Rolf Birkhofer, CEO of Endress+Hauser Digital Solutions: “mobiLink is seamlessly integrated into our Field Xpert, which can be used as a powerful Tablet PC for the device configuration in Zone 2, Zone 1 or in non-explosive areas. It provides easy access to all field instruments and is a simple, touchable tool that allows field instruments to be managed throughout their lifecycle.”

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Peter Juengling, Key Account Manager at Softing Industrial: “We are proud to be able to look back on a long-standing partnership with Endress+Hauser. We already offer a range of interface products that connect to the Field Xpert SMT70 or SMT77 tablet for the device configuration and to Endress+Hauser’s FieldCare SFE500 Plant Asset Management Software. With mobiLink we simplify mobile access to field devices for plant operators, system integrators, device developers and other users in the process industry. Together with the Ex-certified tablets from Endress+Hauser, we now have a cost-effective and easy-to-use all-in-one solution. https://industrial.softing.com


MECHANICS

SECO TOOLS WEBSITE USERS GAIN ACCESS TO ADVANCED ONLINE SERVICES

Seco Tools meets its customers’ needs with a complete suite of online services at www.secotools.com. Users may access a full web store and electronic data interchange (EDI) service. The website also has a suite of online applications and up-to-date industry news and insights. Seco Tools designed its website to help users achieve the highest level of productivity for their manufacturing operations.

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eco Tools offers the Suggest application and an advanced search function. This tool allows users to find the most optimal tools based on their own processes, materials and capabilities. Re-ordering tools is as easy as logging in and selecting a previous shipment to reorder the products. Full EDI services speed up processing time by integrating users’ systems directly with Seco Tools’ databases.

Seco Tools is constantly adding new applications and features to its website. This helps customers learn about and purchase manufacturing solutions. www.secotools.com

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Industry-specific subpages show that Seco Tools understands the specific challenges customers face. Interesting articles, videos, and downloadable content help manufacturers keep up with the latest news and machining strategies. The website also stores customer data. Registered users can use the website to see their machine test reports online.

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MEASUREMENT

ROHDE & SCHWARZ ENABLES THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEXT GENERATION AUTOMOTIVE RADAR CHIPS WITH A NEW HIGHPRECISION TEST CHAMBER

Rohde & Schwarz has developed the leading-edge R&S ATS1500C antenna test system, a test chamber for high performance radar testing, offering an outstanding indirect far-field testing performance. This innovation allowed Uhnder to mature the technology behind the first 4D digital automotive radar-on-chip with 192 virtual channels.

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utomotive radar is one of the key technologies that drives progress in the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) needed for future generations of driverless vehicles. At productronica 2019 in Munich, Rohde & Schwarz provided an early preview of its new solution for testing state-of-the-art, next generation automotive radar sensors. The test system consists of the compact new R&S ATS1500C automotive radar test chamber for the far field testing, in combination with the R&S AREG100A automotive radar echo generator for precise radar target simulation at various distances. Together, they form a unique and innovative indirect far-field testing solutions for reliable and reproducible verification of radar sensors throughout the R&D and validation phase in a user-friendly and extremely compact lab setup. The solution enabled the precise calibration and verification of Uhnder’s new, fully integrated 4D digitally modulated automotive radar-onchip (RoC).

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The R&S ATS1500C features a highly accurate compact antenna test range (CATR) reflector, generating a 30 cm diameter quiet zone for testing in the frequency range from 77 81 GHz. Its high-precision 3D tilt-tilt positioner permits testing of premium automotive radars. A carefully designed absorber layout eliminates ghost targets during the simulation. As an innovative startup, Uhnder is launching a unique automotive RoC, introducing new levels of performance and integration with a mission to redefine key technologies for safer ADAS driving. The new technology behind Uhnder’s 4D digitally modulated radar chip offers groundbreaking performance by integrating 192 virtual channels – a major leap from the 8 to 24 virtual channels used in today’s standard radars. A higher number of detections per frame makes it possible to track and classify objects with a processing power of more than 20 TeraOPS, despite using fewer than 8 watts of power. The Uhnder RoC also pioneers high contrast resolution (HCR) technology, which provides


NEWS

significantly improved range and angular resolution and makes it possible to separate small radar reflectors from large reflectors in proximity. This permits a more accurate and safe reaction time than with the current radar chip technology and paves the way for advanced ADAS functions for today’s vehicles and future driverless vehicles. Holger Gryska, Market Segment Manager Automotive Radar at Rohde & Schwarz, says: “The joint effort with Uhnder shows how T&M expertise and industry-leading experience can generate true innovation. Both companies are known to be pioneers that excel in their fields, further advancing technologies on the road towards fully autonomous driving.”

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Ralf Reuter, Fellow and Senior Director of Customer and Applications Engineering at Uhnder, says, “Rohde & Schwarz was our partner of choice for developing this new technology. Our 4D digitally modulated RoC has special testing requirements and having a partner with the necessary expertise, precision and agility was vital for us. We were able to meet and even surpass our performance targets for our product and take the next step towards the truly driverless future.” www.rohde-schwarz.com/automotive-radar/test

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MECHANICS

TOOL HOLDERS PROVIDE THE VITAL LINK TO MACHINING PRODUCTIVITY

Shrinkfit Holder

Precise machine tools and advanced cutting tools together provide outstanding metalcutting productivity. However, the link between the cutting tool and machine spindle – the tool holder – is crucial in fully achieving that productivity.

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ooling manufacturers offer a wide variety of tool holder styles, with each engineered for optimum performance in certain machining applications. A machining shop, therefore, should base its choice of tool holders on its specific operations as well as on the parts it produces. Nevertheless, while shops seek to acquire the most advanced machine technology and cutting tool materials, they often place minimal importance on selecting, applying and maintaining tool holders that best fit their specific production needs.

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All Holders are Not Created Equal No one tool holding method is appropriate for all possible applications. A tool holder engineered to carry out highspeed finishing operations typically will lack the rigidity and strength needed to be effective in, for instance, deep roughing of raw castings. Conversely, a holder meant for rough machining usually will lack balance qualities that would allow it to run smoothly at high speeds in finishing operations. Addition, the robust design and bulk of a roughing holder can limit its access to fine or deep part features. Tough workpiece materials require tool holders with enhanced strength and rigidity. Additionally, a 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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toolholder’s abilities to damp vibration as well as deliver coolant are also important selection criteria. Use of an inappropriate tool holder can result in dimensional errors and scrapped parts along with excessive wear on machine tool spindles, shorter tool life and an increase in tool breakage. In noncritical jobs, a value-priced tool holder may produce satisfactory results. But in operations where repeatable precision is mandatory – and especially when scrapping an expensive workpiece will lessen part profit margins – the investment in application-focused, topquality tool holders provides low-cost insurance against such unanticipated losses. For some shop managers, long versions of tool holders used across a range of applications is a valid cost-saving strategy. However, always applying the shortest holder possible will maximise rigidity, minimize surface-degrading vibration and preserve tool life. Tool holders represent less than two percent of total production costs. Even cutting that cost in half produces negligible savings, while a scrapped workpiece or broken


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Power Milling Chuck

tool has a measurable financial effect. Premium tools and holders can boost metal cutting production rates for immediate return on the tooling investment. Particularly in industries such as aerospace component manufacturing where stability of the machining process is paramount, many manufacturers focus above all on acquiring premium tooling to avoid producing defective parts and wasting time in troubleshooting activities and production stoppages. Aerospace manufacturers typically take extended time to validate new holder concepts before certifying them for production. Workpiece Factors Influence Holder Selection Factors influencing toolholder selection include the machinability of the workpiece material in each job as well as the configuration of the final part, which may determine the tool holder dimensions needed to reach certain contours and/or features. Yet, tool holders should be as simple and easy to use as possible to minimize the possibility of operator error.

A machine tool’s basic elements play a key role – a fast machine with linear guideways will take best advantage

The machining strategy in use will also guide toolholder selection. For example, shops can choose tools to maximise productivity in high speed cutting (HSC) operations involving lighter depths of cut, or in high performance cutting (HPC) situations that focus on generating high metal removal rates on machines with adequate power but limited speed capability. Low, repeatable runout can help ensure constant tool engagement and thereby reduce vibration and maximise tool life. Balance is crucial, and a high-quality toolholder should be fine balanced at G2,5-25000 rpm quality (1 g.mm). Machining shops can perform their own research and consult with their tooling suppliers to determine the toolholding system or systems that will cost-effectively fill their production needs.

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Regardless which tool holding technology is applied, a machine tool’s rigidity, spindle power and ability to generate tight tolerances will dictate what operations are feasible. For example, attempting to produce micron-scale tolerances on a worn machine is a waste of time.

of toolholders designed for high-speed application, while machines with box ways provide support for heavy machining. A multitasking machine will fully exploit the capabilities of toolholders that can accomplish both turning and milling/drilling operations.

Each Holder Has Its Niche Whether simple Weldon, collet, heat shrink, mechanical or hydraulic type, Tool holders should also be matched to specific operational requirements. Simple endmill holders for Weldon shank tools, for instance, are rigid, easy to use, can transmit high torque and provide safe and strong clamping 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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with a strong anti-pull out action. They are well suited for heavy roughing but lack precise concentricity. In general, they are inherently imbalanced and do not productively apply for applications using high rotational speeds. Collet chucks and interchangeable collets are the most common form of round-tool holding technology. Costeffective ER styles are available in a wide range of sizes and offer sufficient grip for reliable light milling and drilling operations. High-precision ER collet holders feature low runout (< 5 µm at the tool tip) and a symmetrical design that can be balanced for high-speed operations, and reinforced versions are available for heavy-duty machining. ER holders facilitate quick changeover and can accommodate a range of tool diameters. Heat shrinkfit holders offer strong clamping force, concentricity of 3 µm at 3xD and excellent balance qualities. Their small, simple nose configurations provide good access to tight part features. Reinforced versions can perform moderate to heavy milling, but gripping force depends on the ID tolerances of the tool shank and holder. Shrinkfit tools require purchase of a special heating unit, and the heating/cooling process consumes more setup time than simply switching collets. Mechanical milling chucks provide strong gripping force and high radial rigidity via multiple rows of needle bearings. The design enables heavy milling and quick tool changes, but runout can be greater than that of collet systems. Mechanical chucks generally are larger in size than other toolholder styles, which may restrict tool access to some part features. Hydraulic chucks that use oil pressure to generate clamping force have fewer internal elements than do mechanical chucks, and as a result have a comparatively slimmer profile. Hydraulic chucks feature low runout and are effective for reaming, drilling and light milling at high spindle speeds, but are sensitive to heavy radial loads.

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Just as important as how a holder secures a cutting tool so too is how it mounts to a machine tool spindle. The spindle or taper end of a tool holder determines torque transfer capability and establishes tool centering accuracy. Traditional BT, DIN and CAT tool tapers are effective on smaller machines but may be limited in high-speed capability. Versions that provide contact on both the holder taper and face provide increased rigidity and accuracy, especially in long-overhang situations. Larger taper sizes are required to reliably transmit greater torque. An HSK-E32 holder, for instance, cannot replace an HSK-A125A in a heavy machining situation.

While there are proprietary tool holding systems that use unique holders and collets in innovative ways to achieve impressive results, a shop must calculate their benefits. These systems typically involve greater cost and limited tool choice being from a single supplier. Cost and Other Considerations While the basic cost of hydraulic or mechanical type holder is higher compared to that of a collet or shrinkfit holder, other factors are involved, such as the expense of the shrinkfit heating system, and the time required to change tools. It is also necessary to have a shrinkfit holder to fit each tool diameter, compared to accommodating different diameters by simply switching collets in a collet chuck holder system.

Choice of the holder taper style is often determined by regional preferences. HSK emerged in Germany in the mid 1990’s when 5-axis machines grew in popularity. CAT tapers are predominantly in the United States, while in Asia BT shanks are popular, frequently in taper/face contact versions.

Machine operators and tool maintenance personnel also play an important part in successful tool holder application. As with machine tools and other manufacturing equipment, toolholders require correct usage and maintenance to maximise their benefits and use them to their full potential. For example, the operator must insert the tool shank into the holder to its full length, because improper seating will lead to accuracy-destroying vibration or even ejection of the tool. Following tool assembly specifications is critical. Operators should not use an extension handle to apply excessive torque when tightening a chuck, which twists the collet and results in a misaligned tool.

HSK is very common for 5-axis machining. PSC (polygonal clamping system: Capto) and KM connections are used mainly on multi-tasking machines and are now ISO standards. Both KM and Capto are also modular systems, permitting assembly of specific tools in different lengths by stacking extensions or reducers. Tool holder styles that

Tool maintenance is also important but is often ignored. Operators should always clean holders before use and inspect the machine tool spindle as well. Holders should be stored clean and dry, with caps to protect the tool taper. The fluid pressure of hydraulic chucks should be checked regularly.

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make it possible to turn, mill or drill parts in one fixturing are growing in popularity as multi-tasking machines increase in use.


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A Holder for Every Need

Hydraulic Chuck

Conclusion Machine shops need to recognise the importance of toolholders in the machining system and learn how properly matching the right tool holder to their specific machine tools, machining strategies and workpieces can boost productivity and reduce costs. At the same time, tool holder manufacturers are offering more comprehensive selections of holders (see sidebar) engineered to meet individual operational needs. Future improvements go beyond holder hardware itself. Tool management using software and RFID tags is an element of data-based manufacturing and is becoming more common. Advances in toolholder technology include sensor-equipped holders that permit monitoring of the forces on the holder in real time. The collected data enables in-process adjustment of machining parameters either by the operator or even automatically via artificial intelligence (AI) in link with the machine control unit. These and other new technologies will further reinforce the productive contributions that toolholders provide in machining operations.

www.secotools.com

For example, Seco Tools provides different shrinkfit tooling options that feature a variety of gauge lengths and nose profiles. HD shrinkfit chucks are engineered for heavy roughing applications, while DIN shrinkfit chucks are a first choice for semi-finishing and finishing in high speed cutting operations where quality is a priority. M&D (mold and die) shrinkfit chucks are designed for finishing and semi-finishing in deep cavities such as those common in mold and die or aerospace manufacturing. Similarly, Seco Tools supplies both ER and HP collet chucks. The popular and versatile ER chucks enable users to clamp a range of tool diameters by fitting one chuck with collets of different sizes. HP collet chucks are designed to produce good workpiece surfaces in high-speed finishing and light roughing applications. The holders have a damping effect to minimize machining vibration and are tool breakage “friendly” because simply replacing the collet and tool permits machining to resume immediately. For heavy-duty operations, pre-balanced power milling chucks from Seco Tools are capable of high metal removal rates and are alternatives to shrinkfit or Weldon holders. They are easy to implement and can hold different tool diameters with the use of reduction sleeves. Also providing tool holding versatility through expansion sleeves, hydroexpansion chucks have runout of less than 5 µm at 3xD and are fine balanced for high speed cutting applications. The integral oil reservoir acts as damping agent that helps optimise surface quality. Seco technical sales staff are fully trained regarding toolholder features, capabilities and application, and additional support is available from regional experts. Knowledgeable and experienced technical support helps customers select holders best suited to their specific parts, equipment and machining strategies. Seco catalogs also provide a detailed technical guide to help users to make the most productive and cost-effective choices. 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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MORE INFORMATION

By: Yves Heitz, Corporate Product Manager Tooling Systems

Seco Tools continually seeks ways to expand the range of tool holders it offers to meet specific customer needs. In 2000, Seco Tools bought French toolholding systems company EPB, which has extensive experience in the design and manufacture of tool holders, boring heads and damped tool holders. The resources of EPB enable Seco Tools to offer a wide variety of holders engineered to handle particular machining applications.


MECHANICS

NEW JC898 AND JC899 PREVENT DELAMINATION IN HYBRID STACKED MATERIAL MACHINING For aerospace shops struggling with holes making and milling operations in hybrid stacked materials, the new JC899 Hybrid Stack finisher and JC898 rougher from Seco Tools are ideal solutions. The finisher, JC899, features a patented two-in-one geometry that eliminates problems with delamination and fiber pulling out when working with stacked materials such as carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) combined with titanium/aluminum.

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ogether with the JC898 rougher, the JC899 finisher offers three to six times more tool life over conventional drill/reamer combinations and generates pollutionfree holes and side walls with perfect surface finishes to deliver up to 300 percent greater process efficiency. The JC898 offers an advanced frontal teeth design ideal for helical interpolation which reduces cutting forces and minimizes the risk of delamination when working with hybrid stacked materials that can put lots of pressure on Z-axis drilling operations and generate chips that can damage the machined hole’s surface finish. The new tools achieve faster, cleaner holes and side wall finishes without the extra time-consuming step of removing chips that lodge in between the stacked material layers.

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The patented JC899 finishing tool utilizes a two-in-one geometry to eliminate chip pollution, removing the need for manufacturers to unstack and clean hybrid stacked materials after machining. The diamond-based STAX coating ensures reliable processes and high-quality products, while the double geometry’s left-hand helix prevents delamination, fiber pullout and chip marks from damaging the workpiece’s surface.

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As opposed to boring tools that involve time-consuming benchwork and complicated measuring for proper part repositioning, the JC898 and JC899 eliminate such postmachining work to significantly simplify CFRP-titanium and CFRP-aluminum hybrid material holemaking operations. The resulting processes are twice as fast as those performed with alternative solutions and tool life has been doubled as well. In addition, the JC898 and JC899 offer numerous advantages for helical interpolation and side milling applications, increasing process stability and speed at the same time they minimize the need for post-machining operations and benchwork. By reducing stress imparted to stacked materials during machining, these tools improve workpiece quality, particularly for CFRP-titanium applications that are otherwise likely to produce burrs. The JC898 and JC899 handle lengths or stack heights ranging from 15 to 60 mm. The JC898 is available in diameters of 8 or 15 mm, while the JC899 is available in 8.5 and 14.8 mm (finisher) as well as in a 0.375” diameter. www.secotools.com


MECHANICS

FOR LONG CHAIN SERVICE LIFE

Dual composition of the CLA lubrication system from iwis. Valuable lubricant savings due to the particularly resistant iwisapplicator.

Economical, clean, absolutely precise: iwis presents the new CLA lubrication system for chain drives.

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egular maintenance and lubrication are essential to ensure low wear and extend the service life of a chain drive. More than two thirds of all chain failures can be avoided with proper relubrication. Which was reason enough for Munich-based chain manufacturer iwis to extend its chain-related portfolio to include a new, serviceoriented product: Thanks to the use of a special applicator, the new CLA lubrication system from iwis (CLA = Chain Lubrication Application) permanently delivers lubricant to the chain drive and other components – and in this way ensures a long chain service life economically, cleanly and with absolute precision.

The CLA pumps can be operated separately with time control or can be simply integrated in the machine’s PLC. The compact size simplifies the task of retrofitting the device in existing plant and machinery. Thanks to a pump pressure of up to 70 bar, the distributors are able to supply as many as 16 lubrication points with sufficient oil without contaminating the environment and wasting valuable lubricant. The special applicators, which are made from PU foam, are extremely robust and are available in many variants, including custom designs. MORE INFORMATION

When developing the new lubrication system for chain drives, iwis Engineering, the in-house R&D department, concentrated on maintenance – The objective was to extend the service life of the chain by ensuring that the chain is lubricated properly. And the result is a highly efficient minimum quantity lubrication system. The special applicator, which is made from a high-performance material, acts as a reservoir via which small quantities of lubricant are continuously delivered to the employed chain drive at the precise locations where it is actually needed. This prevents the operating roller chain from not being supplied with

enough lubricant and also prevents unnecessarily large volumes of oil from being dispensed onto the chain and its environment. An environmentally friendly, “green” solution that also lowers costs and reduces the risk of contamination of plant equipment.

www.iwis.com

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S M A R T FA C TO R Y

IXXAT SMART GRID GATEWAYS – ADVANCED CONNECTIVITY WITH MAXIMUM SECURITY

Ixxat SG-gateways enable data exchange between IEC61850 or IEC60870-5-104 based energy networks and common fieldbus and Industrial Ethernet systems. HMS Networks now introduces new functions, including Mediabreaker functionality and support for IEC60870-5-101, DNP3, OPC-UA and MQTT. The user management has also been improved and a version with Ethernet switch is available.

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he energy sector is developing fast, driven by the transformation to renewable energies, electromobility and the move from pure energy consumers to prosumers (producer and consumer). The changes result in high demands on communication within the energy distribution networks. Highly flexible and secure solutions are required to adapt the existing infrastructure to the new conditions, including mitigation of the increasing risk of cyber-attacks. The new, extended Ixxat® SG-gateways from HMS meet both the need for more flexibility and for more security.

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Media break in line with TSO security requirements Ixxat SG-gateways already support secure data transmission via VPN and the IEC60870-5-104 protocol. However, according to the TSO (Transmission System Operators) specifications, the transmission medium must also be changed to add a further security layer and thus prevent malicious code from being passed on to the terminal device. The integration of the IEC60870-5-101 protocol enables the user to connect his 101-compatible devices to the control rooms of the respective operators in accordance with the TSO specifications. Ixxat SG-gateways enable the easy “break”between Ethernet-based (IEC60870-5-104) and serial (IEC60870-5-101) communication. With only one Ethernet port and one serial interface, the specific MediaBreaker version is optimally adapted to this application. Due to the media break integration, the IEC60870-5-101 protocol is now also available via the serial interface. This enables connection of old devices to modern control rooms and controllers without having to replace them by new ones.


NEWS

Ready for the future with OPC-UA and MQTT Ixxat SG-gateways now also offer functions for data aggregation and simple controlling tasks. Thanks to the new support for the popular OPC-UA and MQTT standards, SG-gateways can be used to feed data from various energy and industrial networks to established services from Microsoft, Google and other providers, where the data can be evaluated and reacted upon via a secure bidirectional connection. OPC-UA and MQTT are now available for all SGgateway versions at no extra cost. Integrated Ethernet switch With the new SG-gateway switch version, it is possible to connect up to 4 devices directly to a second Ethernet port and to distribute the communication (i.e. energy protocols, OPC-UA, MQTT or Modbus-TCP) in a flexible way over two separate networks. This eliminates the need for external switches.

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Prepared for easy worldwide use The SG-gateways now also support the DNP3 protocol which is widely used by companies in the energy sector in the UK, Australia, the USA and other countries. Furthermore, users can also benefit from an updated user interface for even easier configuration and management of connected devices. www.ixxat.com/energy 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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S M A R T FA C TO R Y

E-MOTION ON THE BIKE

It goes without saying that the bicycle is a part of locomotion culture in Germany. 97 percent of people in Germany can ride a bike. They use bicycles not only for bike tours in their free time but also on a daily basis for shopping or commuting to work. Due to rising petrol costs and the constantly congested roads at peak times, residents of large cities in particular see the bicycle as a true alternative to the automobile. FAULHABER drives are installed here in various components. Bike sharing gains ground One doesn’t need to have a bike of his or her own in order to use one. Especially in cities, a bicycle can today be hired quickly and easily. This saves the cost of purchasing and maintaining a bike and minimises the risk of theft. The rider also enjoys health benefits and helps to reduce CO2 emissions. Sustainability is another advantage of bike sharing worth mentioning: the rate of use is approximately four times higher than an individually used bike.

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Locking systems by FAULHABER To organise the use of hire bikes, bike sharing providers rely on drives from FAULHABER. For the locking systems of hire bikes, small FAULHABER gear motors are installed in the front fork. Depending on the usage system, the bike sharers can then hire a bicycle at fixed hire stations or even without a station using a smartphone app. There are now various

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bike hire companies that offer bicycles as well as pedelecs at their stations. Riding with a tailwind A pedelec (pedal electric cycle) assists its riders with an electric motor. The degree of assistance can be set individually and is dependent on the pedal force or cadence of the rider. A bicycle with electric assist is legally equivalent to a regular bicycle. Riders therefore require neither a license plate nor a driving license. The pedelec market has grown significantly in Europe since 2008: in 2016, 1.6Â million such bicycles were sold here. Germany leads the market in this sector. Bicycle drive systems from SchĂśnaich Basically, a pedelec functions like so: a sensor registers that the rider is pedalling and passes this information on to the controller. As a control unit, the controller regulates the battery and ensures that it sends the required current to the


Bicycle drive systems.

motor. As soon as current flows, the pedal assistance of the pedelec engages. Used as the bicycle drive system for pedelecs, FAULHABER motors ensure the optimum drive. Because the motors from Schönaich are very small in spite of their high performance, they can be installed so cleverly that the pedelec cannot even be recognised as such from the outside. The 3274 … BP4 brushless DC-servomotor in combination with a planetary gearhead is integrated in the frame and the corresponding battery “disguised” as a water bottle. This variant of an electrically assisted bicycle achieves a peak of 330 watts for a duration of approximately five minutes at a time.

students in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Freiburg. The intelligent bicycle pedal offers a number of functions that help cyclists track their journeys – from performance and route tracking to theft reporting and even an interface for Internet and smartphone. The students won the Cosima competition with this project in 2017. One of their main sponsors is the FAULHABER company. www.faulhaber.com/en/markets/consumer/bike/

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Getting into gear DC-micromotors of the 1524/1724SR series also ensure the right drive when shifting gears on the bicycle – both with standard bicycles as well as with pedelecs. Electronic shifting systems guarantee efficient riding and increase comfort and safety. At the same time, they reduce wear on the shifting components. Gear shifting is performed with the help of the small servomotors. Outlook The future of the bicycle remains exciting, as further electronic components will change cycling. What direction that could take is demonstrated, for example, by the SmartFaraday Pedal project, developed by a team of 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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S M A R T FA C TO R Y

GPS FOR THE MILKY WAY

MO33 Galaxy © eso.org

What is going on in the neighbourhood? We all want to know, whether we admit it or not. Applied to the whole of humanity and Earth, the question is: What is going on in the Milky Way? We know surprisingly little about this, because we literally have a hard time seeing the wood for the trees. But the MOONS project initiated by British astronomers aims to change this. Technology from FAULHABER will play an important role.

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Galactic lack of knowledge When it comes to exploring our own disc-shaped spiral galaxy, astronomers have a fundamental problem: While Earth is not right in the midst of it, it is still located on the disc of the Milky Way. So if they want to look at the centre from this vantage point, or even beyond it to the other side, the view is obstructed by countless stars. And from our terrestrial perspective it is very difficult or even impossible to determine where on our mutual disc they are located. One of the regions we know very little about – of all things – is the dense part in the centre of the galaxy, where countless stars and gas clouds cluster around a presumed black hole.

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But a major astronomy project is about to close many knowledge gaps. Eight institutes from several countries are involved in this undertaking. The project was commissioned by the European Southern Observatory (ESO). This scientific organization is operating some of the world’s most powerful telescopes in the Chilean Atacama Desert. This includes the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory with a mirror diameter of 8.2 metres. The goal of the project is to equip the VLT with a new instrument to capture the optical signals from space. The instrument in question is a spectrograph, which is capable of simultaneously capturing a large number of cosmic objects in the visible and infrared part of the spectrum. Its abbreviated designation gives the project its name: MultiObject Optical and Near-infrared Spectrograph, MOONS. It is coordinated by the United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) in the Scottish capital of Edinburgh.


FPU PROTO © eso.org

VLT DWG MON © eso.org

Spectrum instead of photo “With a high-quality photo camera you can change the lens. But with an astronomy telescope it is the opposite – the VLT has an outstanding lens, and we will simply replace the currently connected ‘camera’ with our MOONS,” explains Dr William Taylor, scientist at the UK ATC. With its new technology, MOONS opens up entirely new possibilities in observing space, even though it does not produce largesized images in the traditional sense. Instead, it captures minute details. This is how it works: The huge lens and mirror of the VLT are pointed at the part of space that is to be observed, similar to before. Now, the ends of exactly 1001 optical fibres in MOONS are aligned to individual objects within this cosmic region. Instead of capturing the entire selected area like a camera, the new instrument focuses the fibres on certain points in the Universe. And even these points are not just photographed, but instead their light is separated by prisms into the individual components, i.e. different wavelengths.

Thousands of objects in view Prior technology allowed for a maximum of about one hundred objects to be observed individually, and only in the range of visible light. MOONS not only multiplies this number by ten, but the depth of information also increases manifold. Within the Milky Way, this will enable us to look much more precisely between the trees and get a much clearer picture of the entire proverbial forest. “One of the objectives of the project is to create a 3D map of the Milky Way, which would allow some sort of GPS navigation throughout our galaxy. The MOONS technology with its unprecedented resolution also enables us to look very far, and thus also very far back in time. We will be able to approximate the Big Bang to within a few hundred million years.” This will give scientists insights into the Universe’s infancy. And while this is already possible today to some degree, MOONS will give us a much clearer and detailed picture, according to Dr Taylor. “We will be able to map the Universe to an unprecedented depth.”

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“Scientifically speaking, this method yields much more information than an image,” explains Dr Taylor. “For example, we can learn about the chemical composition of the object. Furthermore, this allows us to calculate its dynamics, i.e. the velocity and direction of movement. Because MOONS captures the near-infrared spectrum, we can precisely analyse the redshift that the light from distant objects travelling to us is subjected to.” When a star moves away

from Earth, the wavelength of its light becomes longer. This is how part of the visible light shifts to the invisible infrared range, which is still close to the visible spectrum.

The astronomers aim to target several million objects over a period of about five years. To reach that aim, the 1001 optical fibres of the spectograph have to be pointed at the cosmic targets quickly and mostly automatically. This is 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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S M A R T FA C TO R Y

Moons at VLT © eso.org

achieved with an equal number of fibre positioning units (FPUs). Each FPU has two stepper motor drive units fitted to reducedbacklash spur gearheads. The one in the back moves the central axis (Alpha) of the FPU. Eccentrically mounted on this, the front motor-gearhead drive unit (Beta) simultaneously moves the fibre tip. The combination of the two axial movements allows each FPU to cover a circular area, within which the fibre can be randomly aligned. This area partially overlaps the areas of adjacent FPUs. That means that every point within the capture zone can be controlled. To meet the challenging requirements in terms of positional repeatability, which is a must to avoid collis between FPU end tips, the drive system solution has to be extremely precise. To ensure the required precision and to avoid collisions between the FPU tips, the systems must operate with high repeatability. The high-quality stepper motors come from FAULHABER PRECISTEP; the zero backlash gearheads from FAULHABER Minimotor contribute to the positioning accuracy. FAULHABER subsidiary mps handles the mechanical design of the modules. MORE INFORMATION

Tailor-made aiming device “We received very valuable input from all three participating companies of the FAULHABER Group,” reports Dr Steve Watson, who is responsible for the FPU development at UK ATC. “Without their unique know-how, it would have been impossible for us to develop this core module in this form, and above all in the kind of numbers we needed. In addition 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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to the alignment speed of the optical fibres, they must also be highly precise. We achieve an accuracy of 0.2 degrees and a reproducibility of the position down to 20 microns. Given the length of the FPU and the modular design, these are excellent numbers. And the units stay properly aligned to the focal plate on which the modules are arranged throughout all positions.” The high precision and extreme reliability of the components allows the control to be kept simple, which is another requirement to operate the spectograph flawlessly. Complex electronics and control logics would severely impede the quick and simultaneous control of 1001 units. Thanks to the high quality of the components, precise alignment is achieved by means of simple open loop control. The technology must also be very sturdy and virtually maintenancefree in order to perform its tasks without interruption over the planned ten-year service life of the system. Project manager Dr Alasdair Fairley is already looking beyond such technical concerns: “We are making good progress with the MOONS. We expect to be able to install the spectrograph in summer 2021. Commissioning will take about half a year, so that we can probably start mapping at the beginning of 2022. We are confident that the FPU will remain fully operational for ten years without maintenance.” www.faulhaber.com/m/spectrograph/en


S M A R T FA C TO R Y

NEW ANYBUS® SWITCHES AND WIRELESS ROUTERS OPEN THE DOOR TO THE WIRELESS INFRASTRUCTURES OF THE FUTURE

HMS Networks now presents a new line of Anybus® Switches and Wireless Routers for next generation industrial wireless communication. Preparing for the arrival of 5G and the vision of smarter and more flexible factories, the products combine high capacity and reliability with more mobility and less latency to wireless networks.

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actories are getting increasingly automated and flexible, and true industrial grade mobility can only be achieved through robust wireless connectivity in all parts of the system. Anybus Layer 2 and 3 Switches and Wireless Routers address this topic by offering high capacity and low latency communication. With advanced features for network segmentation and protection, redundancy and data traffic analysis, the Switches and Wireless Routers enable high grade integration between OT and IT systems, including industrial Ethernet protocols such as PROFINET and EtherNet/IP.

The Anybus Wireless Routers target industrial applications with high-speed WLAN and LTE connectivity. Advanced routing functionality allows network segmentation and protection of mission critical data. An extensive range of redundancy technologies ensures uninterrupted operation. Thanks to a rugged design and a high industrial temperature span, the products are suitable for a wide variety of industrial applications.

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The new line includes wireless routers for LTE and WLAN which can be used world-wide, independent of regulatory domains. Upcoming additions will also include 5G-ready cellular routers.

“Our ambition is to not only provide industrial grade networking hardware, but also to be a strategic partner to our customers in their strive to build secure and resilient industrial networks,” says Emma Sundh, product manager at HMS Networks.

The intelligent Anybus L2 and L3 Switches provide full Gigabit and ultra-high throughput. Multiple redundancy and cyber security features enable users to build highly reliable and secure networks. www.anybus.com 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC’S GRAPHIC OPERATION TERMINAL GOT2000 SERIES TO ADD RUGGED MODEL FOR USE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS

GOT2000 Series Rugged Model (GT2507T-WTSD)

Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (TOKYO:6503) announced that its Graphic Operation Terminal GOT2000 Series, a type of human-machine-interface (HMI), would add a Rugged Model to enable workers to monitor, operate and adjust machines that operate under extreme conditions, including very high temperatures, extra-bright lighting, strong vibrations or shock, and high water pressure.

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Product Features 1) Extra robustness and visibility for use under extreme conditions - Aluminum front panel for strong resistance to vibration and shock (more than double that of GOT2000 Series standard models). - After installation the front panel is rated at IP66/IP67*, allowing it to be washed down with high- pressure water - Withstands extreme ambient temperatures from -20 °C to +65 °C compared to 0 °C to 55 °C for standard models. - Wide 7-inch TFT screen (WVGA: 800x480) with 65,536 colors for impressive displays. - Improved screen visibility and extra outdoor durability (approx. 95% UV resistance). * Level of ingress of foreign bodies as defined by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): The first digit following IP is the resistance to solid objects, from fingers to dust, the second digit is the waterproof level, and the last F means oilproof (IPx6F: withstands strong water jets, IPx7F: withstands temporary immersion in water). 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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2) Multiple communication interfaces for IoT worksites - Built-in Ethernet communication interface (Ethernet 2ch) for IoT integration. - LAN module (optional) for wireless communication with PCs. 3) Various functions to help reduce total costs and improve productivity - GOT mobile function** to visualize overall state of facilities in real time using one or more remote devices (PCs, tablets, etc.) to reduce total costs at production sites. - Audible warning function to help shorten downtimes and prevent misoperations. ** Requires optional license (GT25-WEBSKEY) Purpose of Launch Human-machine-interfaces (HMIs) are used at many production sites to display/monitor the operational data of production facilities and to operate/adjust equipment. Mitsubishi Electric’s GOT2000 HMI product line, first released


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Performance Specifications

in 2013, has been broadly adopted by manufacturers of semiconductors, flat-panel displays, and automotive and electronic devices. HMIs are also increasingly being used in outdoor locations such as parking lots, construction sites and mines, applications that require extra-robust and sturdy designs for use under extreme conditions. The new GOT2000 Series Rugged Model is designed to withstand extreme conditions in a wide range of categories, including operating temperatures, brightness, UV resistance, vibration, shock and water ingress. Contribution to Environment Helps save energy at production sites by improving productivity. https://www.mitsubishielectric.com/fa/products/hmi/got/ pmerit/got2000/tough/index.html MORE INFORMATION 32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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AGV NAVIGATION: WHAT ARE THE POSSIBILITIES?

Navigation and safety monitoring of the transportation path with the RSL 400 safety laser scanner.

Various technologies are available on the market for bringing an automated guided vehicle (AGV) to its destination. Let us first of all say: many roads lead to Rome. There is no right way and no wrong way. Decisive is alway the application itself – that means the question of where and how the given AGV is used.

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here are different processes and technologies for navigating an AGV from point A to point B. The various possibilities range from contour navigation (natural navigation) to laser radar, optical or inductive guidance to grid navigation. Which technology is used depends above all on the specific application. The price of the AGV itself can also be used as a rough guideline. The costs for the navigation technology should not exceed 5% of the AGV price. For example: for a EUR 10,000 AGV, contour navigation and laser radar do not come into question as their cost lies above the threshold of 500 euro.

Another decisive criterion for one or the other variant is whether the given AGV is a drive-under vehicle or a platform vehicle. Drive-under vehicles are those that move under the load to be transported and lift it up. Their design makes them unsuitable for, e.g., laser radar, fundamentally excluding this process for such AGVs. Platform vehicles are those onto which the load is pushed and that transport their cargo on the vehicle. Against this background, the individual navigation possibilities are considered in detail below with regard to their possible fields of application.

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Contour navigation (natural navigation) Contour navigation is also referred to as “natural navigation.” These are the most technically complex as well as the most expensive types of navigation systems. They are unmatched in terms of flexibility and accuracy. Should it be necessary to change the transportation path on short notice, this can be performed for contour navigation very easily and quickly at the click of a mouse in the higher-level software, the so32 | Industry Asia Pacific | January 2020

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Author: Matthias Göhner Industry Management Intralogistics. Leuze electronic

Optical guidance with the OGS 600.

called fleet management. Because the sensor on the AGV is usually mounted close to the floor, this navigation variant is suitable for automatic high-lift trucks and tractors as well as for the drive-under or platform vehicles described above. For this type of navigation, neither further tools – such as reflectors or optical or magnetic traces – nor markings or codes are required. Laser radar Navigation by means of laser radar is similar in flexibility to contour navigation. This navigation variant does, however, always require an additional optical connection of the sensor to the reflectors. Each sensor must therefore be mounted high enough on the AGV that it always has a clear view of the reflectors. If the connection to the reflectors is interrupted, e.g., when entering a shelf aisle, the AGV must switch to another type of navigation. This makes it more difficult to change to another room if necessary, limiting the flexibility.

Grid navigation With the so-called grid navigation, information is embedded in a specified grid on or in the surface that is traveled, e.g., 2D-codes or transponders. With the help of the information ascertained while traveling over the individual grid points – with a 2D-code these are, e.g., the code information and reading angle – the AGV can navigate between the individual grid points and thereby reach any specified point within the grid. This type of navigation is suitable above all for clean surfaces and surfaces not subject to heavy loading. A general evaluation and recommendation for the suitable navigation variant can only be determined in combination with the function of the AGV within the given application. At the present time, however, there is a clear trend towards contour navigation with integrated safety function. www.leuze.com

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Optical and inductive guidance Optical and inductive guidance are usually very simple systems that follow a predefined trace. As a result, they are very limited in terms of flexibility. On the other hand, however, they represent a very cost-optimized solution. Because the sensor on the AGV is mounted only a short distance from the floor, such a form of navigation is independent of the selected vehicle type.

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