JAN 2024 | International Aquafeed magazine

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International Aquafeed - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - January 2024


GOODBYE 2023 - HELLO 2024 At look at the highlights of 2023, and what is in store for 2024

- Potential closure of Dogger Bank: Impact on European Aquafeed and Food Security - Netting revolution: Antifouling without negative effects - Charting Aquaculture’s Course: Sustainable growth and talent dynamics - Salmon health risks: New diet supplement emerges as potential solution

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January 2024

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Making a resolution for the coming year need not involve a complete change to the way you or your business has been functioning but should be a look back at the previous year to see where you might have fallen short - in areas such as management or production - and identify the reasons for failure. This is necessary in order to set a course that will more likely achieve your goals based on your enhanced knowledge.

You will notice we are publishing a timeline for each Journal article published to show that we are committed to bringing most relevant and the latest research through a peer-review process to your attention in a timely manner.

Also for 2024 …

In keeping with our mantra to follow our resolutions in a pragmatic way I’m pleased to report that we have drawn into our stable of titles Roger Gilbert Publisher – International Aquafeed the International Aquafeed Directory. and Fish Farming Technology Since I have been publisher of International It does not require a complete revolution Aquafeed magazine I have always supported the in the way you approach your business International Aquafeed Directory and treated it operations! as a sister publication to IAF despite the fact it has been published by As my sport’s coach never stops telling me; you fail backwards to another company. succeed forward. At the close of last year, we were given the opportunity to become What does this mean for your trusty International Aquafeed more involved in the Directory as both publishers felt that the magazine you might ask? publication itself would benefit its readership and potential readership Last year we brought our language editions (except for Chinese) from the greater circulation, distribution and digital expansion offered from bi-monthly to monthly which meant our Spanish and Norwegian by IAF. readers could benefit from the service our English-edition readers My thanks must go to the team at the Aquafeed Directory for their receive. long-term dedication in maintaining and expanding, what is a unique This year we want to go further by building on that development by and extremely informative directory over many years. separating out our Fish Farming Technology magazine (which until The transition will be as smooth as possible with the 2024-25 edition now has been a supplement to IAF) from the aquafeed side of the on course to be published in July this year. publication. You will notice from this edition how we are proposing to do that: And finally we have highlighted Fish Farming Technology magazine on the front While there are many reasons for despondency as challenges cover to show we have a ‘magazine-within-a-magazine.’ We explain confront us from all sides, there is good reason for optimism, and highlight the concept on this double-page spread before introducing especially given the increasing role that aquaculture is now playing in our International Aquafeed magazine with its own cover and content consumers’ food choices and the recognition by governments of the that is then followed on page 27, with the cover of our Fish Farming growing importance of aquaculture in addressing local protein needs. Technology magazine which appears in the centre of the book. Our task in 2024 is to keep you informed of the latest developments Our Technical Editor from Norway, Eric Hempel, leads off the FFT and advances being made in the aquafeed and fish farming sectors magazine with his editorial comments and, as this magazine is in the where nutrition and technology are involved. centre of IAF, we revert back to the IAF magazine from page 42 where I would encourage you to join in one of our conferences in 2024 – we feature an article on ‘Salmon health risks.’ often held at industry gatherings such as expositions, and to consider While FFT shares its content on the IAF website, it has its own signing up for our Online Milling School – Aquafeed Course (there e-Newsletter which I invite you to sign up for. will be two six-week courses in 2024 with validated certificates issued To maximise circulation and exposure we will be publishing a at their completion) at www.onlinemilingcourse.com. International ‘combined’ magazine throughout 2024. Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology works with Progressus of Thailand to bring the industry these in-depth online training courses. The whole of our team here at IAF - from the editors, columnists and A Journal for our times … contributors to our editorial and sales staff not forgetting production You will find in the later sections of IAF our latest Journal article and distribution – we want to wish you a happy and prosperous year (Optimising Starch Transformation in Aquafeed Extrusion for ahead. Enhanced Water Stability and Performance from page 44-48) which Let me know how we can do better and don’t forget that we are not has received its own DOI number (doi.org/10.61985/AJ2401). Our Journal articles, which include Original Research articles, Features and only in print but have strong and robust digital platforms, Apps, videos and social media combined with several annual conferences that you Mini Reviews – all peer-reviewed, are now not only published here in print but are available as open access documents to read and download can take advantage of as well. Enjoy the read and achieving your resolutions! through our ‘Journal’ tab on the aquafeed website.

www.aquafeed.co.uk Our up-coming conferences - find out more on page 18

Petfood & Aquafeed Extrusion Conference

13 March 2024 10:00am - 12:00pm Bangkok, Thailand

11 March 2024

BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand

March 11 th 2024

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Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Joy (Jyothsna) Nelloolichalil joyn@perendale.co.uk International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.com Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.com Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erikh@perendale.com

Editorial Advisory Panel - Dr Abdel- Fattah M. ElSayed - Dr Alessio Bonaldo - Dr Allen Wu - Prof Charles Bai - Dr Daniel Merrifield - Dr Domique Bureau - Dr Elisabete Matos - Dr Eric De-Muylder - Dr Noor Khan - Dr Pedro Encarnacao Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Shannon Parsons shannonp@perendale.co.uk Niamh Cassidy niamhc@perendale.co.uk

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International Aquafeed - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - January 2024


EDITOR: Professor Simon Davies


Diet supplement could turn back the clock on salmon health risks


Overfishing in the Mediterranean and Black Sea falls to lowest level in a decade


Lorica Shrimp Feed strengthens natural defences in shrimp, research finds


Skretting acquires significant share of Volare’s upcoming production volume


GOODBYE 2023 - HELLO 2024


Potential closure of Dogger Bank



International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 7


reetings and a very Happy New Year for 2024. I am sure we will see continued growth this year of our aquafeed sector and many more technical and scientific discoveries towards elevating our knowledge and skill base for the aquaculture industry. I think we are in for an exciting year ahead and I am ready to report here as usual as I have for the last 15 years as Editor for Perendale Publishing Ltd as of this January. Last month in Dubai, UAE we saw a gathering of world leaders at the COP28 global summit on climate change seeing an assemblage of experts and some 10,000 stakeholders with concerns to address the pressures on the environment and ecosystems of our endangered planet. The conference was opened by His Majesty King Charles III who gave a wonderful balanced speech to encourage politicians to act cohesively to address climate change and related issues affecting us all. The King’s interests in food security and how we farm our crops and animals is legendary and very close to his heart. COP28 included scientists working on the oceans and seas with expertise of how projected elevated temperatures can affect our fisheries and of course aquaculture in the coming decades. In our area of aquafeeds, we depend so much on wild fisheries not just for food but also industrial fisheries for our fishmeal and fish oil to a large extent for many species. External socio-economic, political events and abiotic factors can have very serious and long term damaging impacts on our food supply chain and is indeed very complex. COP meetings focus on developing and implementing strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the existing and anticipated impacts of a changing climate. These strategies can directly influence food security by addressing issues such as altered precipitation patterns, temperature extremes, and sea level rise. The latter will have direct effects on coastal aquaculture based operations and especially island states such as in the tropics. The role nations can play is paramount in addressing climate change and its implications for global food security. There is also much focus on deforestation and increasing crop production directed to humans and animal production systems. For example, soybean meal is a significant component of aquafeeds, especially in fish and shrimp farming. The soybean industry has been associated with deforestation in some regions such as in Brazil, contributing to serious long term environmental concerns. Nations can promote sustainable soybean cultivation by enforcing regulations that discourage deforestation for agriculture, supporting certification schemes (e.g., Roundtable on Responsible Soy), and encouraging the adoption of alternative protein sources in aquafeeds. Research into innovative protein sources and technologies is also crucial and we have reported in IAF many developments to use alternative plant based ingredients from more sustainable practices and also technically advance novel proteins such as SCPs like bacterial cell proteins, algae and of course insects. Deforestation is a major contributor to climate change, as it releases stored carbon into the atmosphere and reduces the planet’s capacity to absorb greenhouse gases. We must preserve and protect our tropical rainforests as a vital carbon sink mechanism that is under increasing threat of further diminishing. Countries can play a crucial role in combating deforestation by implementing and enforcing strict land-use policies, promoting sustainable forestry practices, and investing in reforestation efforts. Nations should therefore adopt climate-smart agricultural practices, invest in research and development of resilient crop varieties, 8 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Professor Simon Davies Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed

and provide support to farmers for adapting to changing climatic conditions. Policies promoting sustainable agriculture and efficient water use are also critical and will be of increasing importance to aquaculture and our reliance on oilseed derived proteins and cereals as ingredients in our future strategies. This support may include funding for technology transfer, capacity building, and infrastructure development. Our continued use of fossil fuels to process and transport our aquafeed ingredients and finished feeds is costly and energy dependent. Attention to more efficient energy processes and transition to renewable energy sources to drive our aquafeed industry must be considered to enable a reduction in our carbon footprint. This is one good reason to undertake comprehensive Life Cycle Analysis (LCAs) of ingredient commodities as many commercial fish feed manufacturers are advocating. Aquaculture is an important component of global food security, providing a significant portion (>50%) of the world’s seafood. Discussions at COP should include plans to make aquaculture more resilient to climate change impacts, such as changes in water temperature, ocean acidification, and extreme weather events. COP meetings must address the role of oceans, including the importance of maintaining healthy marine ecosystems for food security. Blue carbon initiatives, which focus on the role of coastal and marine ecosystems in carbon sequestration, may be discussed as part of broader efforts to mitigate climate change. Emphasis of the blue-green economy will be crucial for implantation of a sustainable agenda. As the aquafeed sector is integral to many of these aforementioned areas, we need to engage more, and we stakeholders should attend future COP meetings to make our case for aquaculture and feed commodities stronger. In our magazine we often include health related topics for fish and shrimp within our main section but also associated technology in system and engineering design that allows optimal production and welfare. Our diets for various species must be balanced in nutrient terms but the delivery of feed and its production characteristics are also important. Therefore, the integral technologies of milling and pelleting is crucial to achieve desired effects in fish farming practice. The science and art of feed making comes together in synergy and so the nutritionist, feed formulator must work in tandem with the feed milling companies and equipment manufacturers to keep abreast of developments. In this respect, International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology is the prime magazine at the forefront of the aquafeed sector and our audience remains robust and expanding in all directions. Happy New Year and enjoy our content. Continue your journey with us in 2024 and beyond!

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aquafeed news

Diet supplement could turn back the clock on salmon health risks A diet supplement already consumed by humans for its anti-ageing benefits could be used to help salmon digest feed and improve their natural disease resistance, with feed trials kicking off next month. A team of aquaculture and veterinary experts are looking at the impact of adding superseding – a compound found in vegetables, cereals and soybean products – into fish feed to support the breakdown of fatty acids and maintain optimal immune function in adult fish. The project is being led by the University of Edinburgh’s Roslin Institute and recently received over UK£150,000

Overfishing in the Mediterranean and Black Sea falls to lowest level in a decade The percentage of overfished stocks in the Mediterranean and Black Sea has fallen below 60 percent for the first time, following a decreasing trend that started a decade ago, according to a report launched today. While overfishing remains a concern, The State of Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries 2023 report

in funding from the UK Seafood Innovation Fund (SIF) with additional support from the Sustainable Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC). Seafood producer Mowi and the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture are also partners in the research. Supplementing feeds with spermidine could ultimately maintain the sharpness of the salmon’s immune response and natural ability to fight virus-induced diseases such as cardiomyopathies, for which there is currently no vaccine available. The supplement, which is sold as an anti-ageing ingredient for people, will help to break down-stored fats, giving the fish more energy and helping to maintain the balance between omega-3 and omega-6, which is important for anti-inflammatory processes.

(SoMFi 2023) records a drop of 15 percent in this figure over the last year, an improvement consistent with a continuous reduction in fishing pressure, which has fallen by 31 percent since 2012. The report is the flagship publication of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM) of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). For the first time, this year’s report also includes data on the region’s marine aquaculture sector. The GFCM, a regional fisheries management organisation, is responsible for wild capture

10 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

fisheries and marine brackish water aquaculture across the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Fisheries and aquaculture together produced nearly 2 million tonnes of seafood in 2021, figures in SoMFi 2023 show. Economically, the two played an equally important role, generating revenues of more than US$20 billion and supporting 700,000 jobs along the value chain. “This special edition of SoMFi paints a complete picture of this vital sector, reinforcing just how important it is for livelihoods, food security and nutrition in our region,” said GFCM Executive Secretary Miguel Bernal.

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Lorica Shrimp Feed strengthens natural defences in shrimp, research finds Skretting first launched Lorica, a high performance diet for shrimp, in 2016 and since then it has grown to become their best selling health product since 2020, accounting for 43 percent of their health product sales in 2022. Lorica has been shown to strengthen the natural defences of the shrimp and support the immune system with farming performance showing an improvement for those that use the feed, when it comes to survival and growth of the shrimp. This along with the fact that many of their customers have stayed loyal to them, and Lorica specifically for the past seven years, proves that Lorica does just what it promises. Lorica was not the first shrimp diet to be launched, however it had undergone much more thorough testing than its competitors, with an extensive R&D process that was conducted in various laboratories. They began by screening ingredients in vitro labs, followed by vivo testing where their workers selected key ingredients and evaluated them based off of their synergetic action before finding the optimal combination for the trials to begin, which took place in Ecuador and Vietnam. This was not all done by Skretting alone however, as the University of Arizona and ShrimpVet Laboratory in Vietnam collaborated with them along the way. Skretting says that their marketing and R&D teams have not stopped since the launch of Lorica in 2016 and that a new generation is in the pipeline, this time using ingredients from their partners at Nutreco Exploration. 12 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Skretting acquires significant share of Volare’s upcoming production volume Skretting, a global leader in aquafeed solutions, and Volare, a Finnish insect ingredient producer, have agreed on a commercial collaboration where Skretting has secured a substantial capacity in Volare’s forthcoming industrial factory in Finland for their Norwegian salmon feeds. Volare’s insectbased products offer an environmentally friendly solution to the evolving needs of aquafeeds, aligning with Skretting’s ambitious sustainability targets. By incorporating insect protein from Volare, Skretting aims to further enhance the sustainability and nutritional value of its aquafeed products, contributing to a more resilient seafood industry. Given that around 75 percent of the salmon farming carbon footprint arises from feed, and 95 percent of the feed footprint originates from raw materials, partnerships are essential for industry-wide change. Skretting is committed to ambitious targets on increasing the share of novel sustainable ingredients in its feeds, and the collaboration with Volare contributes to fulfil the Norwegian government’s newly set sustainability goals for the feed sector. Volare’s innovative technology ensures low energy consumption, eliminates the need for fossil fuels, and produces zero wastewater, further enhancing the sustainability of the collaboration. Volare’s ingredient will reduce the CO2 emissions and reliance on wild fish in aquaculture. “We are constantly looking for novel sustainable raw materials, and this is a welcomed addition to our current supply of insect meal. We need more volume, and this new Nordic supplier and their work to scale up the industrial production of ingredients is good for our industry. We are looking forward to the collaboration with Volare and their focus on sustainable and high-quality products. This aligns perfectly with our values and goals”, says Erling Johansen, purchasing manager for special ingredients at Skretting Norway. The collaboration leverages the advantages of a Nordic partnership. Typically, the feed industry does not make advance commitments, but for important new sustainable ingredients companies are willing to break the pattern and commit to further improving the industry’s sustainability results. “Skretting’s expertise and attitude have been impressive. Witnessing how well they understand their customers’ needs and how we can contribute to serving those needs has been inspiring. We look forward to a long-term partnership, creating a largescale impact together”, says Jarna Hyvönen, Chief Commercial Officer at Volare. Skretting and Volare envision this collaboration as the initial step in a long-term partnership. Volare already has an operational demonstration facility in Finland and will start delivering ingredients to Skretting in 2024. Volare will commence the construction of its first large-scale factory in 2024 and plans for multiple factories across Europe by the end of the decade.

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Brett Glencross

recently attended a meeting with a couple of the world’s best lipid nutrition experts and I put to them the simple question: Is there more to fish oil than energy and omega-3’s? The answer I got back was a little surprising in that “it depends on which omega-3’s are you talking about; short-chain, long-chain, or the very-long-chain ones”. It was the opening of a Pandora’s Box of sorts, and so the conversation went on to clarify things. Short-chain (SC) omega-3’s are those fatty acids we often find in vegetable oils like linseed, camelina and canola oils. The typical fatty acid here we are talking about is 18:3n-3, known as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA as it is often abbreviated to). This fatty acid has 18-carbons, 3-unsaturated bonds, with the first of them 3-carbons from the terminal (or omega) end of the carbon chain. It was argued that this fatty acid (ALA) was in reality, the true “essential” omega-3 fatty acid, as virtually no animal can make this one, only plants can do that, so for animals it has to be obtained via the diet. But its levels are low to non-existent in fish oils, so it clearly wasn’t the one we were focussing on in our original question. Long-chain (LC) omega-3’s though are those fatty acids that have 20- or 22- carbons and contain two or more of those unsaturated bonds. There are about half a dozen that are found naturally in fish oils, but the fatty acids here we are (usually) talking about include 20:5n-3, known as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA as it is often abbreviated to), or 22:6n-3, known as docosahexaenoic acid (usually abbreviated to DHA). These are the fatty acids that are most often talked about when we mention “essential” fatty acids, as in most animals they have significant levels of biological activity affecting a whole range of physiological mechanisms (usually for the better). But there are some animals that can make these long-chain omega-3

Is there more to fish oil than energy and omega-3’s?









fatty acids from ALA, but for most animals it is clearly more beneficial if they are obtained via the diet. And as for our original question. Yes, for these fatty acids their levels in fish oils are relatively high and they are widely recognised as one of the best sources available for these nutrients. So much so that fish oils are now traded on a combination of their energy value and EPA+DHA value. So, that kind of reaffirmed the original question nicely. But, what about these very-long-chain (VLC) omega-3 fatty acids? Well, these are those fatty acids that typically have 24- or more- carbons and contain two or more of those unsaturated bonds. There are lots that are found naturally, but the level of these fatty acids is generally less than 0.2 percent of most fish oils. Among the more common ones are 24:6n-3, 26:6n-3 and 28:8n-3. Why haven’t we heard more about these? One comment I got was that most labs turn their gas chromatograph (the machine that measures fatty acids) off once they get the DHA data, and these VLC things come way after that. So, for they most part they are just ignored. However, among the few studies that have followed things further they find that these VLC are often constrained to certain tissues like brain, eye, or testes where they are parts of important structural lipids (fats) that are assumed to have some important role. Most studies on these things have had such a small amount to play with that the studies are often constrained to cell culture trials and the like. In those studies, the VLC show some interesting properties in affecting things like wound healing. But notably these VLC omega-3 although not abundant, fish oil remains the best source of them. So, maybe in the future fish oil will continue to be valued on their energy+omega-3 content, but just what constitutes that omega-3 might evolve.












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📞📞 +44 7764 465 897 International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 15

GOODBYE 2023 - HELLO 2024 2023 was an eventful year for International Aquafeed. We were fortunate to attend numerous industry events around the world, cover interesting stories and talk to prominent figures within the industry. Additionally, we launched Aquafeed Journal in 2023 and are proud to have made contributions to the aquaculture scientific community. Each interview, every event attended, and all the stories we’ve unearthed have contributed to a tapestry of knowledge and inspiration. As we bid farewell to this remarkable year, we eagerly anticipate the untold stories, unseen innovations, and unexplored territories awaiting us in 2024.We thank our readers for choosing us in 2023 and we hope they continue to do so in 2024 as well.










16 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 17


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5:21 pm

Live from Pet-Aqua 2023, São Paulo - From left (front row) Roger Gilbert, Publisher and moderator IPF; Dr Fabiano Cesar R&D Manager at ADIMAX, and Michel Pereira Michel Bauer Pereira Global Application Manager for Aqua & Pet at Andritz, and Keith Erdley, Process Technologist at Wenger. From left (back row) Marco Prati, CEO of PLP Systems, Ed de Souza, Extrusion systems process Director at Wenger, Joe Kearns, editor at International Petfood magazine, Thomas Runde, CEO and Sales Director of Tietjen, João Fernando Alber Koch, Global Technical and Product manager

INDUSTRY EVENTS ROUND-UP 2023 2023 was a big year for Perendales coneferences. Starting with VIV Asia, during March in Bangkok Thailand, featuring our Aquatic Asia conference, Build my Feed mill conference, and Aquafeed Extrusion conference. We also hosted several conferences in October, during VICTAM LATAM , in São Paolo, Brazil. This included the first edition of our Pet-Aqua feed production conference, Our new Feed Milling Maximised seminar, and an exclusive live additional session for the Online Milling School. Our final conferences at the end of the year were at VIV MEA November in Abu Dhabi, including the Aquafeed extrusion and nutrition conference, Aquatic MEA, and Build my feedmill MEA.



MAXIMISED A unique seminar which presents three keynote presentations along with eight quickfire updates on equipment and technologies used in modern-day feed milling that improve efficiencies while maximising output. This seminar is open to all and is targeted at feed millers who wish to learn about the latest technical equipment while also hearing from leaders in the feed sectors.

NEXT EVENT TBC 18 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed



The one day extrusion conference

With a focus on the extrusion of feeds and the related equipment used, the one-day conference will feature a variety of speakers covering all the key-areas of the industry to give the latest extrusion information.


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Petfood & Aquafeed Extrusion Conference

11 March 2024

BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand

13 March 2024 10:00am - 12:00pm Bangkok, Thailand part of

For more information and to register visit:


The Build My Feedmill conference is based on a flow chart of a typical feedmill and will cover many aspects of feedmill operations. Taking attendees through every process within a feed mill, it provides an excellent opportunity for companies that supply feed manufacturers with advanced equipment and other services, to explain their most technically advanced innovations and why they offer advantages in the feed production line.


AFTaN Awards – or the Animal Feed Technology and Nutrition Awards to give it its full name – has been introduced for the first time at Victam International 2022. The Award attracted a wide range of applications, many of whom were keen to demonstrate and compare their products and services with others.

Aquatic Asia is a one-day conference program featuring a variety of industry experts delivering brilliant presentations about the latest updates in both fish and shrimp nutrition. Join us and a panel of top industry speakers on

March 11 th 2024

at Room MR 224, BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand for the Aquatic Asia Conference - the premier event for the aquaculture industry.

Petfood & Aquafeed Extrusion Conference is co-organised by VIV Worldwide, International Aquafeed, International Petfood and Dr Mian Riaz of Texas A&M University. This rendition of the conference focuses on the extrusion and related equipment for pet and aqua feeds. The one-day conference will feature a variety of industry expert speakers delivering innovative presentations on how users can make the best use of their extrusion machinery and aqua feed systems.

Conference theme: Future World Feed Through Aquaculture For more information and to register scan the QR code or visit:



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www.ivsdosingtechnology.nl International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 19

Potential Closure of Dogger Bank

Impact on European Aquafeed and Food Security


By Dr James Hinchcliffe, Biologist, Marine Ingredients Denmark & European Fishmeal, Denmark

he UK’s potential proposal to fully close the Dogger Bank to EU fishing for Sandeel is set to impact the EU fishing sector, extending to the aquafeed and salmon industries. Apparently driven by a conservation goal for the marine ecosystem, this will notably strain European aquaculture, intensifying challenges within the global food

security landscape. This article explores the intricate dimensions of this impending closure, assessing its relevance for conservation and its broader implications for the European feed industry and food security. Sandeels, small schooling fish abundant in the North Sea, play an important role as a forage species in the marine ecosystem. They serve as a primary food source for larger fish like cod and haddock, as well as seabirds such as puffins and kittiwakes. Moreover, Sandeels form a crucial link in the marine food web, transferring energy from plankton to higher trophic levels and this underscores the critical need for the sustainable management of this fishery, not only for seabirds but for related fisheries. For commercial fishing, the Sand eel populations are categorised into seven management areas. The proposed bans would imply a complete closure of British waters to Sandeel fishing in the management areas one and four (see map for details).

EU response and scientific management

The response from the EU to the British consultation on spatial management closures emphasises the importance of a sciencedriven and proportional approach in managing Sandeel fisheries.

20 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Regrettably, it seems that EU responses are not taken into proper consideration even though stakeholders have a proven record of sustainable management of the Sandeel fishery while protecting the marine environment. The current management system relies on scientific advice from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), who provide scientific advice for EU fisheries. This approach gains further endorsement through environmental certifications like the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and MarinTrust, both of which have previously certified the Sandeel industry, ensuring environmentally sound operations with minimal ecological impact. ICES, MSC and MarinTrust have all emphasized the importance of precautionary measures in Sandeel fishing, including catch quotas based not only on maximum sustainable yield but also on modeling to safeguard the broader ecosystem. ICES follows a comprehensive approach, providing guidance on the TAC based on an escapement strategy, which stipulates that a fishery should be permitted only if the stock assessment indicates that the spawning stock will exceed a precautionary spawning biomass level (Bpa) in the following year. Thus, by avoiding excessive fishing pressure on large biomass and leaving smaller biomass unfished, this management strategy minimizes densitydependent declines in Sandeel recruitment and mitigates potential impacts on other species. Following on, to account for the inherent uncertainty in predicting future Bpa, especially for shortlived species like sandeels, ICES also establishes an upper limit on fishing mortality known as the maximum fishing mortality (Fcap). This multi-faceted approach reflects the intricacies of managing sandeel fisheries for long-term sustainability. Adhering to this advice demonstrates a commitment to responsible and sustainable fishing practices. On November 28, 2023, ICES responded to a special request from the UK and the EU, focusing on ecosystem considerations for single stock advice related to forage fish species such as Sandeel, Sprat and Norway pout. The report reviewed the methodologies and principles guiding ICES ecosystem considerations for small pelagic species and is poised to shape the ongoing dialogue between the EU and the UK over the closure of the Sandeel fishery in British waters. In brief, the report underscores that when ICES establishes a quota for a specific species like Sandeel, it considers the consumption of Sandeels by other predators. This evaluation employs an ecosystem model to estimate the number of predators in the ocean and their expected prey consumption. The method used is praised and judged to be near the best possible and the robust historical

Temperature Balancing Conservation and Economic Impact Adapted Within Europe, over 99 percent of the total UK and EU value TM Feeds landed from UK waters has been landed by EU vessels, mainly

Denmark where historical records demonstrate annual landings of approximately 100,000 tonnes of Sandeel. This underscores the profound historical, socio-economic, and ecological significance of this region and emphasizes the need for a delicate balance to ensure the preservation of both ecological stability and the socioeconomic aspects associated with Sandeel fishing. An overview of Sandeel landings from Denmark, the primary harvester of Sandeel in the EU, between 2015 and 2023 reveals that these landings originated from five out of the seven Sandeel management areas. Area 1 has a historical record of yielding the highest landings, with an average TM annual yield of 85,000 tonnes,

Temperature Adapted Feeds


remaining a significant contributor to the European Sandeel quota. The possible upcoming closure of Sandeel fishing in UK areas is poised to have a significant impact on both EU fisheries and European aquaculture production in countries such as Norway, Scotland, and others. European Sandeel fishing has historically been pivotal for the global fishmeal market, supporting industries reliant on fish-based products. An abrupt cessation of this practice could disrupt supply chains. Of all the raw material that has been used in EU fishmeal and fish oil production since 2015, 11 percent of it comes from Sandeel landings sourced from area one and four, or 167,000 and 46,100 tonnes of fishmeal and fish oil. This equates to 22,500 and 5,500 tonnes of fishmeal and fish oil that can be produced per year from these two management areas on average.

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data-set available for the North Sea was especially highlighted. This is an example of ecosystem considerations in a singlespecies management. So, while forage fisheries may affect prey availability, the limitations of the available scientific evidence for localized impacts underscore the challenge of fully understanding the effects of fisheries closures on predator demography. For the bird species guillemot, razorbill, and puffin for example, a recent study from Searle et al., (2023), showed there’s no clear evidence of negative or positive effects from forage fisheries or their closures.

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International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 21

Implications on fishmeal production & aquafeed


The production of fishmeal and fish oil has been significant, forming a cornerstone of the global fishmeal market and supporting various industries. The potential loss of this vital fishmeal production source is highly concerning, particularly due to its unprecedented impact on food security, especially concerning farmed salmon production which has a huge role in the growing demand for sustainable protein. Fishmeal and fish oil are vital components in aquaculture feeds, Fishmeal and fish oil are essential sources of limited nutrients like methionine and the omega-3 fatty acids, EPA, and DHA. The decline in fishmeal and fish oil availability across Europe because of the closures of British waters to the Sandeel fishery could disrupt the supply chain for farmed fish, posing a challenge to

European and British food security. From an average season it is estimated that the Sandeels landed in areas one and four will contribute to the production of 48,500 tonnes of Atlantic Salmon from 53,400 tons of feed with an average 10.3 percent fish oil inclusion. Additionally, in this theoretical example, there is a surplus of 16,000 tonnes of fishmeal available to be sold and utilised in other sectors such as feeds for highly lucrative crustaceans such as shrimp and resilient, lower maintenance fish species such as tilapia since fish oil is often the limiting ingredient in aquafeeds. This takes the actual production of responsible and nutritious seafood produced way beyond the initial 100,000 tonnes of Sandeels that are landed from these areas. To compensate for the high-nutrient density and palatability stimulating characteristics of fishmeal and fish oil ingredients, the aquafeed industry would either need to pay more for the increased price of fishmeal due to the decreased availability in Europe or find additional ingredients to provide these crucial nutrients in the future. An analysis of formulations across various species indicates that plant proteins and oils are now providing the bulk of the nutrients in aquafeeds, while fishmeal and fish oil provide those strategic nutrients that are hard to replace. However, recent studies have shown that this increased use of plant resources worsens the environmental footprint of aquaculture compared to the use of marine ingredients. Furthermore, sustainability concerns arise regarding the consumption of food-grade plant resources like soybean protein and rapeseed oil in aquafeeds.

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The TwinLab-F 20/40 scores highly due to it being a compact extrusion solution with integrated drive. This space-saving and economical solution texturises the widest range of different materials. Develop new formulas and standards or simulate processes exactly to scale. It is a standalone solution for food extrusion at lab scale as it modifies and texturise various materials, such as for example proteins, starch, fish feed, cereals and pasta. With a rotational speed of up to 1200 rpm, this extruder offers the user greater flexibility when it comes to energy input and throughput. What’s more, the cylinder is split horizontally and is hinged at both sides, which makes the segmented screws easily accessible. The sample is inserted and then extruded by the twin-screw extruder. During the analysis, sensors and controllers measure relevant values, such as temperature and pressure. www.brabender.com myaqua.info/MFnq

Holmen NHP200 Series 2 by Tekpro

The Holmen NHP200 Series 2, is our flagship pellet durability tester used worldwide for calculating the Pellet Durability Index (PDI) of feed and wood pellets by simulating the pellet transportation environment from mill to trough. Once a sample of pellets is loaded into the machine it removes any fines, weighs the sample, tests the pellets by agitating them with air at a fixed 70mBar pressure, weighs the remaining sample and calculates the PDI. This automatic solution removes the chance of human error, providing an accurate and reliable test method. The reduction in human input also allows other tasks to be completed while a test is done, ideal in a busy laboratory or where a wide number of staff carry out the testing. The average test lasts only 4 minutes and the test time is automatically set according to the pellet diameter entered. Suitable for pellets 3mm-12mm diameter. www.tekpro.com myaqua.info/ywSz

24 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Weighing Scale by IDAH

IDAH weighing and dosing systems are for precise weighing of bulk solids and monitor incoming raw ingredients, ensuring precise recipe formulation with bulk materials. Accurate and reliable system for handling powder and granular material to allow precise weighing. Can be used for material dosing of materials from bins. Controlled with auto batching software. This weighing scale is designed for a wide variety of applications in weighing bulk solids, powdered, and granule materials. This weighing scale can be connected to the material batching system and automatically operated based on the formula in food, pet food, aqua feed, and animal feed industry. Features and Benefits: • High-end load cell reduces maintenance cost • Gravimetric batch dosing system to fit different processing requirements • Round shape hopper design for ranging 100~500 kg • Square shape hopper design for handling over 500 kg • Closed design hopper for low-dust operation https://idah.com myaqua.info/tCuB

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Fish Farming Technology - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - January 2024


Fish Farming Technology - Volume 27 - Issue 1 - January 2024


EDITOR: Erik Hempel


Uniting industry leaders on how to transform African aquaculture


Aquaculture successes celebrated at 3rd national forum in Dili


Coastal BC Fist Nations release new plan for in-ocean salmon farming


Scientists make guide for assessing gene editing


Stolt Sea Farm begins work on major expansion of flatfish hatchery


Newly launched software platform aims transforming aquaculture operations.


Netting revolution


Charting Aquaculture’s Course



January 2024



n 2021, a total of 36.6 million tonnes of seaweed were produced in the world. Of this, 97 percent came from aquaculture. And 99 percent of the production was in Asia. Africa accounted for 0.3 percent, while the Americas (north and south) and Europe accounted for 0.2 percent each. Investors have begun to be interested in this field, and recently, a report on the prospects for European kelp production was published by Systemiq: “Hidden champion of the ocean – Seaweed as a growth engine for a sustainable European future”. The report is quite optimistic about the potential for seaweed production in Europe, and other regions. It estimates that it is possible for Europe to increase production to eight million tonnes (fresh weight) by 2030. In my view, that is grossly overoptimistic. However, it is certainly possible that a major increase in production could be achieved. It is estimated that the market for seaweed products will triple by 2050. Much of this growth will go to human food products and feed in aquaculture and agriculture. And there are a number of advantages with seaweed. It grows much faster that terrestrial plants, it does not require freshwater resources which are under great pressure anyway, and the growing of seaweed does not require any chemicals or antibiotics. But production growth will have to come from aquaculture. Today, just over 1.1 million tonnes comes from wild harvesting. While Asia now accounts for over 99 percent of the total aquaculture production of aquatic plants, Asia’s production is declining. Some claim that Asia has reached the limits of what it can produce. Consequently, any growth in production of aquatic plants must come in other regions of the world. Aquatic plants absorb large quantities of CO2, which makes seaweed aquaculture an interesting activity also from a climate point of view. At the SINTEF research organisation in Trondheim, Norway, the JIP Seaweed Carbon Solutions project has been launched. The project will design, build, operate and assess offshore large-scale seaweed production for carbon capture and storage. This will be done by developing solutions for atmospheric greenhouse gas reduction through industrialised offshore seaweed farming and conversion to climate positive products or solutions. Removal of CO2 by seaweed farming will be ten percent through biomass sedimentation during farming, and 90 percent through active deposition, either fully grown biomass at deep seafloor or as seaweed-biochar in soil. But there are some serious obstacles before the visions become reality.

Erik Hempel

The Nor-Fishing Foundation According to Frode Blakstad and Jørn Pedersen of consulting company INAQ AS in Norway, there are some interesting similarities between the seaweed farming industry today and the salmon farming industry 50 or 60 years ago. Today’s salmon production would not have been possible without the tremendous technological development that the industry has gone through. In the beginning, the farming methods were primitive and manual. The kelp industry today is exactly that: primitive and manual, with mainly small production units and low profitability. Any growth in the seaweed industry on the northern hemisphere will not be possible unless there is a massive technological development that will lift the sector to an industrial phase. Most of – practically all – production is using very traditional, basic technology that require a lot of manual handling. There is a need for automated processes for farming and harvesting. Studies have shown that it may be very difficult to achieve profitability with the traditional, manual methods of production. Large-scale automated production and harvesting methods will have to be applied in order to reduce costs and improve profitability. Consequently, there is an important task at hand for the technologists in the industry. It is also pointed out that a proper regulatory framework needs to be developed and adopted by coastal nations. Expectations are high, and as Frode Blakstad states: Seaweed is a sleeping giant in the aquaculture industry. We just need a lot of new technology. Starting in January, Perendale Publishers will add another publication: Fish Farming Technology. This publication will focus more specifically on technology developments in the fish farming sector and is a result of the steadily growing interest in fish farming in the world. Enjoy reading!


aquaculture news

Uniting industry leaders on how to transform African aquaculture The Global Salmon Initiative (GSI) in partnership with FutureFish and funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, recently hosted a first-of-its kind leadership roundtable for the African aquaculture sector focused on identifying opportunities to mobilise greater investment into sustainable and equitable development of the sector. The meeting held alongside the recent World Aquaculture Society (WAS) conference in Lusaka, was attended by business leaders from local companies Chicago Fish Farms, de Heus, Flosell, Lake Harvest, Tropo Farms, Victory Farms and Yaleo as well as key industry investors Aceli, AquaSpark, Aquarech, Eden Group and Gatsby Africa. “The Global Salmon Initiative model has taught us over the last ten years, that when we unite business leaders under a progressive vision, we can identify common barriers and we can act together to greatly accelerate progress. This Lusaka meeting has now shown us that the GSI model of collaboration has broader application and clearly has the potential of accelerating the development of

aquaculture in Africa by mobilising the collective insight initiative and will to action of local business leaders.” added Avrim Lazar, GSI Convenor and meeting facilitator of this roundtable. Following the discussions, the attendees have outlined a number of initiatives which they hope to take forwards to help strengthen the business case for the continued development of aquaculture in Africa.

Aquaculture successes celebrated at 3rd national forum in Dili

Coastal BC Fist Nations release new plan for in-ocean salmon farming

Around 200 stakeholders have converged in Dili, TimorLeste, for the third National Aquaculture Forum to share research and development experiences and foster partnerships for sustainable aquaculture development. The two-day forum, on November 30 and December 1, was hosted by the partnership for Aquaculture Development in Timor-Leste Phase 2 project (2020-24) funded by the New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade who have continuously funded aquaculture development since 2014, with complementary funding from United States Agency for International Development. The PADTL2 project is implemented by WorldFish in partnership with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Forestry. The aquaculture forum brings together government officials, development partners, researchers, fish farmers and private sector operators. The event aims to foster collaboration, learning and the continued scaling of sustainable practices within Timor-Leste’s growing aquaculture sector.

Coastal First Nations from British Columbia (BC) went to Parliament Hill recently to release a new, positive plan for modern, sustainable, in-ocean salmon farming in their traditional territories. The Coalition of First Nations for Finfish Stewardship (FNFFS) has developed a Nations-led, science-backed and industry supported plan for salmon aquaculture that is responsible, realistic, and achievable, and will drive the following five outcomes for their rural communities - wild salmon revitalisation, economic reconciliation an indigenous-led blue economy, social and ecological well-being for their territories and communities, food security and affordability for their communities and all Canadians. Nations that participate in the Coalition span from western and central Vancouver Island to BC’s central coast. They have been working alongside the Department of Fisheries, Oceans and the Canadian Coast Guard (DFO) and the Province of British Columbia to develop a framework for the modernisation of salmon farming in the traditional waters. The plan announced today ensures that the future of salmon farming in BC is led by the Nations in whose territories the farms operate, while retaining good, sustainable, year-round jobs and building economic and scientific capacity in Indigenous communities. It also integrates the vision for a new Indigenous Centre for Aquatic Health Sciences (iCAHS) based in Campbell River, BC.

30 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture with KAESER reliable as the tides


aquaculture news

Scientists make guide for assessing gene editing It all started with finding a solution to prevent salmon lice infection and harm. The cooperation between scientist from a range of different disciplines and backgrounds is now providing lessons that will help improve the welfare, health and sustainability of many other animals and plants. “We are trying to understand the genetic mechanisms that affect how salmon become resistant to lice,” says Robinson. Robinson is Australian and a senior scientist at Nofima in Norway, and he has just settled down in a chair in an office in Scotland. Accompanying him is Diego Robledo. He comes from Spain, but he conducts research at the Roslin Institute at the University of Edinburgh. The project that Nick Robinson leads really is international. “Our genomic research is helping us to understand which genes are involved in providing resistance against sea lice in the Pacific salmon species, and the next step in our project is to test the function of these genes in Atlantic salmon using gene editing. Early next year, we will be

ready to introduce gene edited Atlantic salmon to sea lice in a closed biosecurity facility. We want to see whether small and precise changes disrupting the function of these genes can cause the immune cells in Atlantic salmon to encapsulate the lice and kill them, like occurs in coho, or to prevent attachment like occurs in pink salmon”, says Nick Robinson. He emphasises that there is no question of the project editing genes in fish that are going to be grown in the ocean, sold, and eaten. The scientists will test which genes can affect whether salmon are able to repel lice infestation. “The benefits could be large in the future if it is possible to use the knowledge gained from the project to produce a resistant salmon. Lice create wounds that would become infected. If we can help the fish to become resistant to lice, it has benefits for fish welfare. By potentially changing the whole epidemiology of lice infection on farms we could also relieve the lice pressure on wild salmon”, he says.

Master in Sustainable Aquaculture

32 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

aquaculture news

Newly launched software platform aims transforming aquaculture operations. Stolt Sea Farm begins work on major expansion of flatfish hatchery Stolt Sea Farm commenced work to expand its sole hatchery in Galicia, Spain by end of November. The facility in Cervo, already the world’s largest flatfish hatchery, will allow the company to fulfil much of its planned production growth for the coming years. Stolt Sea Farm (SSF) announced its plans to expand its hatchery operations in August 2023. The work follows the recently completed expansion of its sole broomstick facilities and is a key step in the company’s production growth plan. In the last three years, SSF has doubled its annual production capacity for sole to 1700 tonnes and the upgraded hatchery will support its plans to double capacity again in the next three years, ensuring SSF is on track to reach its overall annual production target of 23,000 tonnes of turbot and sole by 2035. President of Stolt Sea Farm, Jordi Trias, said: “This is a date that will forever remain in our memory; it is a truly special moment for us all at Stolt Sea Farm. Expanding broodstock and hatchery capacity for sole is an essential milestone in our quest to continue as a leading producer of this species. It also demonstrates the confidence we have in the strength of our business and our commitment to satisfy our customers’ demand for high-quality, sustainable sole.

Innovasea has recently launched a cloud-based software platform aimed at transforming aquaculture operations. This innovation, called Farm360, grants fish and shrimp farm owners control and insights into their daily operations. The platform’s key features include real-time data collection, enabling precise tracking of feedings, fish health, and environmental conditions. This data-driven approach ensures up-to-date monitoring, allowing farm operators to make timely decisions and optimizations. Farm360 aims for an efficient stock management system, updated daily. This feature facilitates precise production planning, helping define harvest and stocking plans while creating accurate budgets. Such planning empowers farm owners to optimise production, cut costs, and maximize profitability. Another aspect of Farm360 is its full traceability, ensuring transparency, credibility, and compliance within the industry. The platform’s business intelligence capabilities automate reporting and data visualisation, providing farm operators with actionable insights derived from collected data. This aids in smarter decision-making and accurate long-term forecasting, facilitating better business planning for sales and production.

International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 33


Netting revolution ANTIFOULING WITHOUT NEGATIVE EFFECTS by Pål Korneliussen, Country Manager, Garware Technical Fibres, Norway The fish farming industry is facing increasing demands for sustainability and environmental awareness. One of the most pressing issues has been the release of copper from fish farming nets, which has the potential to negatively impact marine ecosystems. Traditionally, fish farming nets have been treated with antifouling agents such as copper (cuprous oxide) to prevent the growth of algae and other marine organisms. However, the painted nets flake off, resulting in copper sedimentation which is toxic for many marine organisms. Emissions from nets have therefore been a growing concern for both researchers and environmental activists. In response to this challenge, Garware Technical Fibres took the initiative to develop a new type of nets that could reduce fouling without the need for impregnation. Their innovation involved extruding metallic copper into the fibers of the nets, providing a slow release of copper ions into the sea to achieve antifounling while minimizing environmental impact. It’s important to note that metallic copper is not the same as cuprous oxide used in impregnation. Copper is stable while cuprous oxide is very unstable, which is why it is more effective against fouling organisms but also hazardous to the environment in high concentrations.

V2 Nets: A Technological Breakthrough

The research and development team at Garware Technical Fibres set out to create a High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) thread containing metallic copper within the fibers. This proved to be a 34 | January 2024 - Fish Farming Technology

challenging task as copper, as an impurity source, could weaken the strength of the thread. However, after much trial and error, they managed to develop a strong HDPE thread with copper content that could be used to make nets, ropes, and lice skirts. Garware Technical Fibres has received a European patent for its V2 technology, where anti-fouling agents are integrated into the netting itself. This technology involves ‘baking’ metallic copper into the polyethylene thread (HDPE) through a highly specialised extrusion process. Copper emissions from V2 nets are minimal and have no impact on natural copper concentrations in seawater or the seabed. The independent agency STIM conducted a test where they took samples of the seabed under V2 fish farming nets before, during, and after a production cycle. The samples showed no increased sedimentation of copper in the seabed.

Successful Tests and Breakthroughs in Norway

The first V2 nets were tested in the sea in Scotland in 2018, and the results were very promising. Fouling adhered less to the nets, making them easier to clean in the sea. This led to reduced cleaning needs, which, in turn, reduced disturbances and impurities inside the fish pens, improving conditions for the fish. Similar results were observed in Canada. The real breakthrough for V2 nets came when the Norwegian fish farming company Salmar tested two V2 nets in the summer of 2020. Salmar experienced a significant reduction in cleaning compared to regular HDPE nets, leading to reduced cleaning costs. Less cleaning, in turn, reduces impurities in the sea. This


is important because impurities and pieces of fouling can lead to poor gill health, loss of appetite, and slow growth in fish. Cleaning itself is also stressful for the fish. After the test Salmar was so pleased with the results that they immediately purchased over 100 V2 nets from Garware. The nets were deployed in central and northern Norway, and in the years since, Salmar has continued to replace their old nets with V2. Service stations that take in the nets for maintenance also report significantly less need for repairs of holes in V2 nets compared to traditional nylon nets. This results in further savings for the fish farmers.

Advantages of V2 Nets

Users of V2 nets have reported a significant reduction in the need for cleaning the nets in the sea, with an average reduction of 40-50 percent compared to conventional, non-impregnated nets. This reduces stress on the fish and provides better environmental conditions within the fish pens. In addition, Garware Technical Fibres has conducted research showing that V2 nets have antiviral and antibacterial properties. This makes them even more attractive to fish farmers looking to improve fish health and growth. V2 nets have already become a success story in the fish farming



Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Fresh Water & Marine

industry, and interest in the technology continues to grow. Garware Technical Fibres has already delivered approximately 500 of these nets to salmon regions worldwide, with over half of them going to Norway. Nordlaks’ Havfarm is one of the most prominent examples of the use of V2 nets. The project has attracted attention for its innovative approach to fish farming technology. The offshore facility is a staggering 386 meters long and has six nets measuring 47x47 meters. The nets are made of V2 material with extra high tensile strength to withstand the conditions in more open waters. Nordlaks’ experiences have been very positive, and they have now had several production cycles with excellent results. V2 nets from Garware Technical Fibres represent a revolutionary solution to one of the most pressing issues in the fish farming industry. By integrating metallic copper into the nets, the company has managed to reduce fouling, minimise environmental impact, and improve conditions for farmed fish. With successful tests and positive feedback from the aquaculture industry, the future looks bright for this groundbreaking technology. Garware Technical Fibres has set a new standard for sustainability and innovation in the fish farming industry, and their V2 nets are an example of how technology can help address the most complex challenges of our time.

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Fish Farming Technology - January 2024 | 35


Charting Aquaculture’s Course Sustainable growth and talent dynamics by Angus Collett, Partner, Millar Cameron, UK Aquaculture is considered one of the most sustainable sectors to produce protein and has leading companies in the space dominating the top ten most sustainable food production companies it plays a vital role in many communities providing jobs and economic stability. The aquaculture industry being in its relatively early stages of development in comparison to other protein production sectors (poultry, pork, and beef) leaves much for development and that combined with population growth and growing pressures on wild catch, it has a huge opportunity to grow if managed correctly. It is not always a positive in the sector, although there have been major developments, there are still core challenges with disease, escapes, and traditionally higher costs of production than other protein sectors. The recent two years have been exciting and challenging within the space, there have been great developments forward within the Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) but there are some lessons to be learnt, and there still needs to be further work to make this a commercially viable option. There has been a significant cost increase in production across the value chain, whether it be feed which can contribute to between 60-80 percent of production costs of aquaculture organisations depending on species and companies, or labour or supply chain. That combined with the lower buying power due to 36 | January 2024 - Fish Farming Technology

increased cost of living has resulted in the sector being hit from both sides. This does not include the higher tax rate increase in Norway affecting some of the largest aquaculture companies which has an inverse indirect impact on the sector whether it be through investment opportunities, growth projects, procurement, and suppliers. It’s not all doom and gloom, there are many companies within the Salmon, Shrimp, or Tilapia spaces that are diversifying and looking at ways to add value whether it be through production, supply chain, or extending Value Added Product lines to support the margin requirements.

Diversification of the sector

For the industry to progress and develop, like other industries before, it will need to evolve and diversify. That could be through fine-tuning existing production methodology or developing new production techniques whether it be RAS or Offshore Aquaculture, incorporating the latest technologies such as AI, the production of new species like Seaweed or endemic species to specific regions or within the feed, and exploring alternative protein through Omega 3 or Insects to support sustainable production of fish. One way for organisations to diversify is through the acquisition of companies, products, or services to increase their offering and consolidate key areas to improve

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY efficiencies across the group. Although there have been developments regarding gender diversification in the industry with an increasing number of females having an interest and joining the space, it is still largely male-dominated. To address this and make it a more attractive career, I believe this needs to be addressed at a grassroots level and made aware through universities or educational systems that this is a viable career choice for anyone interested.

Recruitment strategy and challenges

Although traditional recruitment strategy can be seen as a standard process, key areas can differentiate between search partners. One of the fundamental areas would be having a genuine interest and understanding of the industry that allows me to have a deeper grasp on the industry, core challenges, and strong network, I am very fortunate to have studied aquaculture and worked in the sector for close to ten years. Not every search or organisation is the same, it is key to tailor the search process and methodology to align with the organisation and what it is looking to achieve with the hiring process as there must be alignment not only with the candidate but for the candidate to integrate with the company, the geography in which they will be operating in and ability to take on the position and the responsibilities of the role. To an agreed timeline for the whole process, we start with taking a very detailed brief regarding the organisation – where there are as a business currently and what they are looking to accomplish in the short and long term, the location – is this a single status type role or family-friendly, regional challenges whether that be uncertainty or security or remoteness etc, are there schools in the area or ability to support a

family environment, the position itself – understanding its responsibilities, where they would like the candidate to come from – background, what they want candidates to bring with them – accomplishments, what key areas this role will be measured by in the first year and what they are looking to attain with this individual coming onboard – abilities, type of person who would fit into the role and organization based on what they are looking to achieve – characteristics. It is always good to determine for each role the nice to haves and non-negotiables for the role for candidates for the role. From there, we go to the market and this is done over a three prong approach – look at our internal network and database of prior candidates we have worked with that we feel would be appropriate for the role, - we conduct a full talent map, identifying candidates in the market based off the brief allowing us to identify and speak with candidates that are actively in the market but also passive candidates that weren’t actively looking, - we also conduct referrals from candidates/clients that operate close to the market and have also a good understanding of people in specific regions or positions. Once identified, we take the candidates through a three stage qualification process to understand their level of engagement, whether that be for relocation to a specific region, level of interest in changing positions, and ensuring economic alignment for a change. We then take the progressed candidates through a deeper interview-like qualification process to discuss their background, accomplishments, abilities, and characteristics about the company, and the region they will be operating in and measure them against the requirements to be successful in the role. We then submit an agreed shortlist and support the interview process with the client, take references, and depending on

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"For the industry to progress and develop, like other industries before, it will need to evolve and diversify"

the client and if of interest we can also conduct psychometric testing, and at the end of the process we support the offer management. Some of the core challenges in the talent space are areas where the evolution of industry has outgrown the talent available this is especially seen within RAS where there is a talent gap causing a bottleneck. This is from limited production and proven expertise, especially at that senior or executive level resulting in talent being identified from other sectors and combined with aquaculture professionals to provide biological knowledge. This has resulted in many organisations looking at exploring engineers from universities to develop their aquaculture knowledge in-house to support their ambitions and universities developing programs to support this transition. So there is a lag in talent but in the upcoming years, it looks like it will be addressed.

What the future looks like

As the world becomes smaller with the ability to have more choices regarding products, the customers have more power to determine where they would like their products from and how they would like them produced – sustainability and animal welfare being top of mind. This has resulted in organisations rethinking their production methodologies to enhance fish welfare, growing fish closer to markers to reduce supply chain resulting in a reduction of CO2 emissions, using of latest technologies to improve production efficiencies, or looking at other sectors such as seaweed and molluscs, fish health or within feed with the use of alternative proteins, or omega 3 extracts or insect to make it more sustainable. I do feel feed has the potential to make a huge impact within the aquaculture industry can industrialise the alternative protein feeds and make it price competitive with traditional feed while still keeping the integrity of the feed and food conversion ratios at a good level. From a talent perspective, as a growing industry, there will be a need for talent to support that growth. Being proactive rather than reactive in the market will help with any talent challenges, that may be through having succession plans and development programmes in place, pipeline management for potential future growth plans, up-to-date talent maps, and salary benchmarking to ensure you are competitive in the market. Working closely with universities to develop programmes through internships, supporting employability, or exchanging IP to enhance current capabilities. This doesn’t remove any risk relating to talent but does increase the potential funnel of talent and add a stronger support structure around talent to reduce risk. In a very competitive market, there will always be movement of talent from one company to another. The retention of key talent is key, so having a clear map and understanding of what needs to be achieved to progress internally and having the ability to upskill through programmes – internally or externally whilst being competitive in the market with salary and wider packages will help with keeping good talent. 38 | January 2024 - Fish Farming Technology



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Aquaculture case study

Salmon health risks New diet supplement emerges as potential solution

Rather than the fat reserves being used for energy and muscle growth, they instead build up in the body and can block the immune system, making fish more susceptible to health issues. A team of aquaculture and veterinary experts are looking at the impact of adding superseding – a compound found in vegetables, cereals and soybean products – into fish feed to support the breakdown of fatty acids and maintain optimal immune function in adult fish. This diet supplement already consumed by humans for its anti-ageing benefits could be used to help salmon digest feed and improve their natural disease resistance, with feed trials kicking off next month. The project is being led by the University of Edinburgh’s

As the sector continues to move towards a spectrum of more sustainable plant-based feed ingredients, vegetable and algal oils are becoming increasingly common ingredients in farm-raised fish feeds. However, like humans, as fish age it becomes more difficult for them to break down their fat reserves into free fatty acids to be re-used, in a biological process known as lipophagy.

Roslin Institute and recently received over UK£150,000 in funding from the UK Seafood Innovation Fund (SIF) with additional support from the Sustainable Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC). Seafood producer Mowi and the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture are also partners in the research. Supplementing feeds with spermidine could ultimately maintain the sharpness of the salmon’s immune response and natural ability to fight virus-induced diseases such as cardiomyopathies, for which there is currently no vaccine available. The supplement, which is sold as an anti-ageing ingredient for people, will help to break down-stored fats, giving the fish more energy and helping to maintain the balance between omega-3 and omega-6, which is

42 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

important for anti-inflammatory processes. The potential impact spermidine has on humans has also been explored in numerous studies, including an ongoing clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of the supplement in maintaining immune responses in elderly humans to the Covid-19 vaccination. Kanchan Phadwal, research fellow at the University of Edinburgh’s Roslin Institute, said: “Just like humans, as fish get older and grow to their full size, their systems slow down and become weaker. Fatty acids are essential for nutrition and disease resistance but retrieval from their storage in fat tissue can be difficult, particularly when derived from plant-based oils and as fish age. “The spermidine supplement we are planning to use will give fish a helping hand to extract the healthy fats, regulating the immune response and boosting health and wellbeing overall. It is already delivering great results for humans, and we anticipate it will have a similar impact for aquaculture.” Heather Jones, CEO of SAIC, added: “As the sector seeks to minimise its environmental impact, sustainable feed ingredients are increasingly becoming the norm for aquaculture. But this must be balanced to ensure that we are delivering the best recipes for fish health and nutrition. This research is a great example of thinking differently, applying the ‘One Health’ approach whereby efforts are made to transfer knowledge about the health and wellbeing of one species – in this case, humans – to another, salmon.”

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The Aquafeed Journal


Volume 2 - 2024

The Aquafeed Journal Peer Reviewed article

Optimising starch transformation in aquafeed extrusion for enhanced water stability and performance Robert T. Strathman*1 and Garrick Yan2 1 President of Famsun USA Design & Engineering, Inc, USA 2 Manager of Famsun Group’s Global Applications Center, USA *corresponding author : 9225 Indian Creek PKWY, 32 Corporate Woods, Ste 820, Overland Park, KS, USA, 66210 Email: Rob.Strathman@famsun-usa.com


The physical quality of aquafeed pellets is paramount for the health and performance of aquatic species in aquaculture systems. Starch, a small, but necessary component of aquafeed, plays a crucial role in creating durable and water-stable pellets. This paper investigates the complex relationship between starch transformation during extrusion cooking and its influence on water stability. Through a series of experiments involving various extrusion parameters, including three melt moisture levels and three screw speeds, the study reveals that the key to producing water-stable aquafeed lies in optimizing starch gelatinization and minimizing dextrinization. High screw speeds, in conjunction with moderate to high melt moisture levels, facilitate starch gelatinization while avoiding dextrinization, resulting in pellets with superior water stability. Conversely, low melt moisture levels at any screw speed or any melt moisture at low screw speeds lead to poor water stability due to increased dextrinization or suboptimal gelatinization levels. The research also underscores the critical role of the glass transition of starch. Starch in its semi-crystalline state is found to be more susceptible to shear degradation during extrusion.

Treatment #

Therefore, rapidly elevating the raw material’s temperature above its glass transition temperature is crucial for achieving water-stable aquafeed.


The well-being and performance of fish and shrimp within confined aquaculture systems, including flow-through, pond, and recirculated systems, are intricately linked to the physical quality of the feed they consume (Nardi et al., 2021). Ideally, aquafeed pellets should exhibit resilience against impacts and attrition during handling and maintain structural integrity even when submerged in water for durations exceeding the feeding habits of the target aquatic species. Suboptimal pellets, characterized by the presence of fines, breakage, and rapid disintegration, not only compromise the nutritional value but also leave behind residual nutrients. These leftover nutrients, if allowed to accumulate, can trigger detrimental effects such as oxygen depletion, increased carbon dioxide levels, and the conversion of nutrients to Total Ammonia Nitrogen. These ecological disturbances can adversely affect the aquatic ecosystem, leading to reduced health, diminished feed conversion efficiency, and stunted growth performance. While various ingredients contribute to aquafeed quality, starch and functional proteins stand out as the two key components responsible for producing physically robust and water-stable pellets. The functionality of starch in relation to the production of durable pellets has been widely explored (Samuelsen & Oterhals, 2016; Samuelsen et al., 2017; Samuelsen et al., 2018). However, our comprehension of the underlying mechanisms governing water stability remains somewhat limited. This investigation is specifically focused on the treatment of starch during the extrusion process and its profound implications for the water stability of aquafeed.

Melt Moisture

Screw Speed

Preconditioner Temp





Dextrose Equivalent


5CWV @100 Sec

6HWV @350 Sec


Bulk Density

Dissolution Rate














% Loss








































































































































1: Specific Thermal Energy, 2: Specific Mechanical Energy, 3: Total Specific Energy, 4: Total Mass Flow Rate, 5: Cold Water Viscosity, 6: Hot Water Viscosity

44 | January 2024 -The Aquafeed Journal

Figure 1

Figure 2

1.1 Extrusion Cooking and the Significance of Starch

Extrusion cooking is a continuous, multivariant process that subjects raw ingredients to thermomechanical conditions, facilitating physical and chemical transformations. This process yields a highly viscous, plasticized melt capable of being extruded through a pressurized barrel and die plate to form pellets. Extrusion relies on a myriad of process parameters and the unique properties of starch to impart diverse physical attributes to the end-product. These characteristics include density, cell structure, hardness, pellet durability, and water stability. In essence, starch gelatinization (SG) is a reaction observed in moisture-rich thermal operations, involving the rupture of an insoluble membrane that encapsulates thousands of tightly packed starch polymer chains. Heated water infiltrates these granules, initiating solubilization of the chains, melting of native crystalline structures, and subsequent swelling. This process generates an internal pressure sufficient to rupture the granules, releasing the starch chains and allowing a gelatinous paste to form (Lai and Kokini, 1991). However, it’s important to note that SG during extrusion often differs from conventional aqueous cooking. In extrusion, where water is typically limited, many starch granules lack adequate moisture to complete the swell-rupture mechanism. Consequently, mechanical shear becomes instrumental in disrupting and releasing the starch chains necessary for gel formation, which is critical for creating the internal pellet matrix and its binding properties. Starch transformation during gelatinization also entails a glass transition process. This transition involves a rheological shift of biopolymers, like starch and protein, from their native crystalline state to a molten, viscoelastic state (Slade & Levine, 2001). The critical glass transition (Tg) and melt transition (Tm) temperatures mark the stages at which polymeric materials shift from a semicrystalline, glassy structure to a rubbery state, Tg, and eventually to a molten, viscous fluid, Tm. These temperatures can be manipulated with the addition of plasticizers, with water being the plasticizer in the case of aquafeed. By introducing higher levels of plasticizer, the Tg and Tm decline. These critical temperatures also vary depending on ingredient composition. Studies examining the effects of extrusion on pure starch have revealed that under low moisture conditions, chain scission, often referred to as dextrinization, can occur. Dextrinization entails the breaking of starch’s linear or branched chains of glucose monomers, resulting in hydrophilic and highly water-soluble fragments (Colonna and Mercier, 1983; Colonna et al., 1984; and Gomez and Aguilera, 1984). However, Barron et al. (2000, 2002) have proposed that the fragmentation of starch granules and chains during extrusion is primarily attributed to interparticle friction, especially in low-temperature extrusion scenarios. Further investigation by Liu et al. (2010) and Li et al. (2013) studied the specific mechanisms of starch chain degradation during extrusion. Their research revealed that the relatively inflexible shorter branches of the amylopectin polymer chain were more susceptible to shear degradation compared to the longer linear amylose counterpart. Furthermore, they found that starch was most vulnerable to chain scission when in a semi-crystalline granular

Figure 3

Figure 4

form (<Tg), and less susceptible when it transitioned into a molten state (>Tm). These researchers concluded that molten starch provides chain flexibility and mobility, thereby enhancing resistance to shear degradation. The insights gained from extruding pure starch may also prove relevant in deciphering the factors governing water stability in extruded aquafeed.


A sinking aquafeed diet comprising soybean meal, fish meal,

International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 45

The Aquafeed Journal corn gluten meal, whole wheat, and wheat gluten was subjected to fine grinding and subsequent extrusion. The extrusion process was carried out using an H66 twin screw extruder with a Length/ Diameter ratio of 20:1. The screw profile used for all treatments is shown in Figure 1. This extruder was equipped with a two-pass preconditioner, a 75kW main motor, a variable frequency drive (VFD), a pressure-based Density Control System (P-DCS), and a die with three 5.0 mm holes (Famsun Group, LTD. Yangzhou City, Jiangsu Province, CHN). The aquafeed, containing 15.6% starch, underwent extrusion under varying melt moisture levels (23.0%, 27.5%, and 32.0%) and three screw speeds (250, 375, and 500 rpm). A constant dry mix feed rate of 300 kg/hr was maintained for all treatments. The average retention time in the preconditioner was measured at 3.5 minutes for treatment #1, serving as an approximation for all other treatments. Steam and water mass flow rates to the preconditioner were pre-set and adjusted to meet the desired melt moisture targets and maintain a 92°C preconditioner discharge temperature. No additional steam or water was injected into the barrel. The Figure 5

Figure 6

P-DCS was maintained at a constant pressure of 0.15 MPa for all treatments. After achieving a stable operational state, defined as a minimum of 15 minutes of continuous operation with consistent mass flow rates (±0.5%), stable extruder motor current (±5%), and a steady density profile, a three-kilogram sample was collected at the extruder outlet for each treatment. These samples were immediately spread thinly on trays and allowed to air-cool overnight, followed by further drying to approximately 9% moisture content in an air oven. Specific Thermal Energy (STE), Specific Mechanical Energy (SME), Total Specific Energy (TSE), and Melt Moisture (MM) were estimated using the following equations: Equation 1: STE: qte = (Qdm + Qss + Qws) / ṁs Equation 2: SME: qme = Pe / ṁs / 3600 Equation 3: TSE: qe = qte + qme Equation 4: MM: Xmm = ((ṁss + ṁws + (ṁdm * Xdm))/ṁs -

Where: qte: STE, kJ/kg qme: SME, kJ/kg qe: TSE, kJ/kg Qdm: Energy from the dry mix, kJ/h Qss: Steam energy to the system, kJ/h Qws: Water energy to the system, kJ/h Pe: Extruder motor power, kW Xmm: Moisture content of the melt, % Xdm: Moisture content of the dry mix, % ṁss: Mass flow rate of steam to the system, kg/h ṁws: Mass flow rate of water to the system, kg/h ṁdm: Mass flow rate of dry mix to the system, kg/h ṁs: Total mass flow rate of all materials through the system, kg/h

The uncoated aquafeed pellets were evaluated for starch degradation by-products (i.e., reducing sugars) using D-glucose and Dextrose Equivalent assays to quantify the extent of chain scission caused by the various treatments. Changes in water solubility, as indicated by an RVA’s Cold-Water Viscosity, were also assessed as an indirect measure of hydrophilic components. The degree of gelatinization was assessed using a modified enzymatic method and the RVA’s Hot-Water Viscosity.

2.2 Test Methods and Analysis

Figure 7

Luff-Schoorl Dextrose Equivalent (DE) Method: The DE Method was employed to measure the total reducing power of the watersoluble portion of each sample relative to a dextrose standard, expressed as a percentage on a dry matter basis. The DE value inversely correlates with molecular weight, reflecting the degree of hydrolysis. This test was conducted in triplicate. D-glucose and Total Starch Content: D-glucose levels were quantified using Megazyme’s GOPOD and k-testa-100A Assay Kits, reported as a percentage of total starch content. These tests were conducted in triplicate. Degree of Starch Gelatinization: A modified enzymatic method was utilized, measuring glucose released colorimetrically at 420 nm and expressing it as a percentage of gelatinized starch relative to the total starch content. This test was conducted in triplicate. Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA): The RVA, specifically the Starch Master-2 from Perten Instruments BA, Hagersten, Sweden, was employed to assess starch gelatinization and dextrinization in the post-extruded pellets. Analysis parameters included a constant impeller speed of 160 rpm, a solid-liquid ratio of 5g sample and 23 ml water, and a heating-cooling cycle of 50°C to 95°C to 50°C. Water Stability: The Dissolution Rate Method was utilized to evaluate water stability. The method quantified the loss of pellet 46 | January 2024 -The Aquafeed Journal

mass during a 30-minute immersion in static water at 30°C. Initially, 50g samples are weighed, placed in hanging wire mesh colanders, and then submerged. The samples were lifted and gently agitated for 30 seconds every 10 minutes, followed by drying and calculation of the loss of mass. The method converts the initial sample weight to a dry matter basis and then fully dries the soaked samples in an air oven to account for moisture absorption variances. The percentage of pellet mass lost during the bath is then calculated per Equation 5:.

The Parallel Coordinates Plot in Figure 4 demonstrates the impact of melt moisture and screw speed on water stability and its relationship with two of extrusion’s dependent variables: SME and TSE. Treatments 3 and 4 exhibited the highest water stability, with 6.29% and 6.50% loss of mass during the water bath, respectively. These treatments were extruded at 500 rpm with melt moisture levels of 32.0% and 27.5%, respectively. Conversely, treatments 8 and 9 resulted in the least water-stable pellets, processed with 23.5% melt moisture and screw speeds of 375 and 500 rpm, respectively. In general, high moisture levels and moderate to high energy inputs positively influenced water stability, while low moisture, low SME, and low TSE levels resulted in poor water stability.

2.3 Statistical Analysis

3.2 RVA Data Overview

Two extrusion variables (screw speed and melt moisture) were examined at three levels (high, medium, and low) to investigate their impact on physicochemical properties of aquafeed pellets. Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis (SMRA) was employed to assess the primary factors influencing water stability. Statistical significance for ANOVA analysis of each overall model was set to p<0.10. Simple Regression Analysis (SRA) was used when multiple factor correlations were not established; statistical significance set was to p<0.05. Statistical analyses and modeling were conducted using Minitab Software, version 21.3.1 (Minitab, LLC., State College, PA, USA).

Raw starch granules are insoluble in cold water and typically exhibit a low initial Cold-Water Viscosity (CWV), as observed in the raw material sample in Figure 5. However, extruded products generally display higher CWV’s due to increased water solubility resulting from starch gelatinization and dextrinization. Fully gelatinized starch is approximately 2% water soluble in 25°C water, whereas Figure 8

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1 Extrusion Data Overview

Table 1 presents a comprehensive overview of the extrusion parameters and product responses for the nine treatments. Notably, as melt moisture levels decreased from 32.0% to 23.0%, a slight reduction in thermal energy levels was observed. This decrease in Specific Thermal Energy (STE) was primarily due to a reduction in water flow, resulting in less steam required to maintain the target preconditioner temperature. Overall, STE levels remained within a narrow range of 213 to 235 kJ/kg. Furthermore, a clear linear relationship emerged between screw speed and Specific Mechanical Energy (SME), with SME levels showing a steady increase as screw speed increased (correlation coefficient r=0.798, p=0.010). Given the limited range in STE levels and the linear correlation between screw speed and SME, it’s not unexpected that this relationship also extended to Total Specific Energy (TSE) (correlation coefficient r=0.915, p=0.001). The effects of melt moisture and screw speed on SME and TSE were modeled, revealing strong correlations (SME: R2=95.47%, p<0.001, and TSE: R2=93.50%, p<0.001), as depicted in the representative model in Figure 2. Higher screw speeds led to increased SME and TSE in a positive linear fashion, while the addition of water diluted the applied energy. The bulk density, driven by expansion of the extrudate after the rapid vaporization of water upon exiting the die (Fan et al., 1994), was investigated. Bulk density was found to be positively correlated with SME (R2=93.12, p=0.002) and TSE (R2=92.86%, p=0.003). As expected, SMRA confirmed that bulk density increased linearly as energy levels decreased. At high energy input levels, bulk density increased linearly with rising melt moisture, while at low energy levels, density decreased slightly with increasing melt moisture, as depicted in the representative model shown in Figure 3. The incorporation of a Pressure-based Density Control System (P-DCS) equally restricted expansion across all treatments, given it operated at a constant pressure, ensuring all treatments resulted in the production of sinking pellets.

Figure 9

Figure 10

International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 47

The Aquafeed Journal a dextrinized starch with a DE value of 9 is extremely water-soluble: approximately 40% soluble at 25°C, leading to elevated CWV. The RVA data for the nine treatments exhibited a wide range of CWVs, indicating varying degrees of chain scission. Treatment 3, extruded at 500 rpm with 32% moisture, displayed the lowest soluble starch content. Conversely, treatments 8 and 9, processed at 375 and 500 rpm with 23% moisture, respectively, exhibited elevated CWVs, suggesting these conditions caused chain scission, resulting in pellets containing degraded, highly water-soluble, starch fragments. Hot-Water Viscosity (HWV), an indicator of starch gelatinization, is known to reach an elevated peak when high levels of raw starch are present, such as the case of the raw material. Among the nine treatments, the HWV was observed to decrease with increasing TSE (melt temperature), reflecting a reduction of intact starch granules, and reduced overall swelling during the RVA procedure. Treatments 3, 4, and 9, each extruded at 500 rpm, exhibited a high degree of starch gelatinization, as evidenced by their low HWV in Figure 5. Conversely, treatments 1, 6, and 7, processed at 250 rpm, contained the least gelatinized starch, resulting in elevated HWVs. These results indicated that higher screw speeds, associated with increased SME and TSE, promoted greater gelatinization.

3.3 Dextrinization

Chain scission, or dextrinization, occurred during low-moisture extrusion, as indicated by the significant quadratic correlations (R2=94.63%, p<0.001 and R2=76.49, p=0.013) between the two water soluble fragment indicators, D-glucose and DE, and melt moisture respectively, as illustrated in the representative SRA model shown in Figure 6. Both DE and CWV levels were influenced by melt moisture and screw speed, as confirmed by the representative SMRA model in Figure 7 (DE: R2=89.21%, p<0.007 and CWV: R2=74.74%, p=0.059). The combination of high melt moisture and high screw speed resulted in low DE and CWV, indicating minimal shear degradation under these extrusion conditions. However, chain scission accelerated linearly when operating at high melt moisture and subsequently reducing the screw speed. This was attributed to the reduction in shear rate, which lowered viscous dissipation and mechanical energy input, causing the material to drop below its glass transition temperature (Tg), where it is most susceptible to shear degradation. Conversely, chain scission decelerated when operating at the low melt moisture and reducing the screw speed, suggesting that material already below its Tg was less likely to degrade further as the shear rate declined.

3.4 Gelatinization

The modified enzymatic starch gelatinization (SG) assay yielded high SG values ranging from 86.6% to 91.7% across all treatments, exhibiting limited correlation with extrusion parameters. This finding was consistent with previous research (Whalen et al., 1997), which suggested that the modified enzymatic SG assay was less sensitive than the RVA in measuring starch status. However, HWV, the starch gelatinization indicator, was found to be highly correlated with total energy input (R2=78.12%, p=0.002) as seen in Figure 8, consistent with previous reports (Caldwell et al., 2000) associating increasing total energy input with rising starch gelatinization levels.

4.5 Water Stability

The representative regression model in Figure 9 confirmed that starch gelatinization and dextrinization were the primary factors

influencing aquafeed water stability (Water Stability vs. D-Glucose and HWV: R2=97.06, p<0.003 and Water Stability vs. DE and HWV: R2=91.13, p=0.005). Water stability improved linearly with increasing SG levels, indicated by the reduction in HWV. Additionally, water stability improved quadratically as chain scission decreased, as evidenced by declining D-glucose levels. The impact of melt moisture and extrusion parameters: Screw Speed, SME, and TSE, on water stability were modeled (SS: R2=83.39%, p=0.074, SME: R2=82.55%, p=0.024, and TSE: R2=74.89%, p= 0.058) as shown in the representative model in Figure 10. These models validated that high screw speeds and high energy levels, combined with moderate to high melt moisture, optimized gelatinization and minimized dextrinization, resulting in water-stable pellets.

Conclusions 4.1 Implications for Aquafeed Production

The results of this study offer valuable insights into optimizing aquafeed production processes. To enhance the water stability of aquafeed pellets, it is advisable to extrude at higher screw speeds along with moderate to high melt moisture levels. These conditions promote starch gelatinization while minimizing chain scission, leading to the production of pellets with superior water stability. It is worth noting that sinking feeds can benefit significantly from the use of a density control system, which effectively counterbalances the increased energy input and the likelihood for expansion resulting from these optimal conditions. Furthermore, the extrusion process can benefit from a throttling valve to allow independent management of Specific Mechanical Energy without necessitating adjustments to other parameters. For instance, to prevent the dilution of energy levels due to added moisture, the valve can be adjusted to increase total energy input resulting in higher gelatinization levels.

5.2 Implications of Starch Transformation

The glass (Tg) and melt (Tm) transition temperatures of the raw material are pivotal factors that significantly influence the behavior of starch during the extrusion process. When the material remains below its Tg, it possesses a glassy, solid-like state. Conversely, exceeding its Tg initiates a transformation into a rubbery and pliable material, eventually transitioning into a viscous and elastic melt upon surpassing its Tm. A key finding of this study lies in the impact of extrusion temperatures, facilitated either by rapid elevation or the introduction of water to lower the Tg and Tm, which provides starch chains and their branches with increased mobility, rendering them more resilient against shear degradation. This phenomenon is of paramount importance to producing sinking aquafeed, especially regarding the practice of operating at lower screw speeds to minimize pellet expansion. This common practice results in lower extrusion temperatures, which, in turn, heightens the risk of chain scission, lowers gelatinization levels, and ultimately compromises water stability. In summary, this study underscores the critical role of extrusion parameters and the intricate transformation of starch in shaping the physicochemical properties of aquafeed pellets. Such comprehension equips the aquafeed industry with the knowledge needed to produce high-quality, water-stable pellets, thereby making significant contributions to the sustainable growth of aquaculture. References are available upon request

www.aquafeed.co.uk/category/journal-articles/original-research 48 | January 2024 -The Aquafeed Journal

The Aquafeed Journal Peer Reviewed articles

Aquafeed Journal is a new online publication by Perendale Publishers Ltd, United Kingdom, with a distinguished track record of technical and trade magazines in the agricultural and aquaculture sectors. This new peer-reviewed scientific journal will serve academia and the commercial aquaculture industry with high-quality papers relating to aquafeed science and technology for different species of farmed fish and crustaceans. It is envisaged to address fundamental nutritional requirements for effective and optimal production and applications to advanced feed formulations. This will include essential amino acids, proteins and energy sources as well as key vitamins and minerals pertaining to fish and shrimp growth, feed efficiency and health.

Find out more at:


Industry Events 2024 2024


14 - 15 Aquafarm 20 24 Pordenone, Italy www.aquafarm.show 18 - 21 Aquaculture America 2024 Texas, USA www.was.org 2024

March 3-7 World Fisheries Congress 2024 Washington, USA https://wfc2024.fisheries.org

11 Petfood & Aquafeed Extrusion Conference Bangkok, Thailand www.aquafeed.co.uk/companies/ petfood-aquafeed-extrusionconference/

Petfood & Aquafeed Extrusion Conference (PAEC), held at VICTAM Health and Nutrition Asia 2024, will be on March 11, 2024. With a focus on the extrusion of feeds and the related equipment used, the one-day conference will feature a variety of speakers covering all the key-areas of the industry to give the latest extrusion information. Co-organised between Perendale Publishers Ltd and VIV Worldwide, PAEC will be held at BITEC, room 223 at 10:00am. To be a sponsor and speaker email Dr Mian Riaz at mnriaz@ tamu.edu. More information can be found at https:// millingandgrain.com/companies/petfood-aquafeedextrusion-conference/.

20-23, VietShrimp Ca Mau City, Vietnam https://vietshrimp.net/ 2024

April 23-25 The Global Seafood Marketplace Barcelona, Spain www.seafoodexpo.com


May 8-11 International Indonesia Seafood & Meat Expo Jakarta, Indonesia https://iism-expo.com/ 8-11 Indonesia Cold Chain Expo Jakarta, Indonesia https://iism-expo.com

12-14 Health and Nutrition Asia 2024 Bangkok, Thailand https://vivhealthandnutrition.nl 12-14 VICTAM Asia 2024 Bangkok, Thailand https://victamasia.com 13 Build My Feedmill Bangkok, Thailand www.aquafeed.co.uk/companies/ build-my-feedmill/ 14 Flour Milling Maximised Bangkok, Thailand www.aquafeed.co.uk/companies/ flour-milling-maximised/

14-15 Aquaculture UK Aviemore, Scotland https://aquacultureuk.com

5-7 19th North Atlantic Seafood Forum Bergen, Norway https://nor-seafood.com

21-22 Blue Food Innovation Summit London, England www.bluefoodinnovation.com

10-12 Seafood Expo North America Boston, USA www.seafoodexpo.com

27-31 International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF) Puerto Vallarta, Mexico www.isfnf2024.com

11 Aquatic Conference Bangkok, Thailand www.aquafeed.co.uk/companies/aquatic The Aquatic conference, held at VICTAM Health and Nutrition Asia 2024, will be on March 11, 2024. With the theme being ‘Future World Feed Through Aquaculture’, the conference will focus on the future of aquaculture and feed within the industry. Co-organised between Perendale Publishers Ltd and VIV Worldwide, Aquatic will be held at BITEC, room MR 224 at 10:00am. If you are interested in sponsoring Aquatic and would like a chance to speak then please get in touch with either Severina Proskurnova at severina@vnueurope.com or Tuti Tan at tutit@perendale. co.uk. If you would like to attend the conference then please register your attendance through this link: http:// myaqua.info/cPIZ.

50 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed


17-21 116th Annual Meeting of the National Shellfisheries Association North Carolina, USA www.shellfish.org/annual-meeting 19-21 AQUASUR 2024 Puerto Montt, Chile www.aqua-sur.cl/en/

June 18-20 Seagriculture EU 2024 Torshavn, Faroe Island https://seagriculture.eu 20 -22 Aquaculture Taiwan 2024 Taipei, Taiwan www.aquaculturetaiwan.com 24-26 4th Edition of World Aquaculture and Fisheries Conference Paris, France www.worldaquacultureconference.com


2023 Taipei Aquaculture Taiwan 2023, held from 1-3 November at the Taipei Nangang Exhibition Center, Hall 1, 4th floor, stood as a testament to innovation, global collaboration, and cutting-edge technologies in the livestock industry. Co-hosting the Asia Agri-tech Expo & Forum, Livestock Taiwan, and Cold Chain & Agri-food Tech, this annual event attracted a record-breaking gathering of industry leaders, exhibitors, and enthusiasts from across the globe. This year’s event surpassed expectations by hosting over 17092 visitors and 216 exhibitors hailing from 48 prominent regions including China, Denmark, Germany, India, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, the United States, and beyond. Spanning across a sprawling display area of 450 booths, Livestock Taiwan 2023 provided a panoramic view of cutting-edge breeding technologies and solutions that set the stage for global industry transformation.

Innovation Highlights: Pioneering Technologies Unveiled

The event showcased an impressive array of pioneering products and solutions from esteemed international brands. Renowned names such as Moba, Nabel, Kyowa, and Sanovo dazzled attendees with groundbreaking advancements in egg processing equipment, unveiling the world’s first egg tray packaging machine alongside innovative egg washing and grading equipment. CJ Bio team

52 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Top-tier brands from Denmark, Japan, Germany, Taiwan, the Netherlands, and more showcased modernised farming equipment, including automated feeding systems, environmental control mechanisms, feed machinery, and animal welfare facilities. Brands like Big Dutchman, Jonhson, Skov, Baader, Kuang Huei, OHYA, Universal Machinery Trading, Ya Suh Dar, and Crownmate exemplified optimal solutions for livestock management.

Health and Wellness: Ensuring Animal Well-being

The event congregated over 100 global brands specialising in aquafeed, animal health, additives, and vaccines. Notable exhibitors such as Cargill, Alltech, Vetnostrum Animal Health, Total Nutrition Technologies, Anibio, Shiuh Ger, In Jean Industrial, and More Wsee collaborated to enhance animal intestinal health, prevent diseases, alleviate stress, and improve meat conversion rates.

Revolutionising Management Techniques

Aquaculture Taiwan 2023 highlighted strides in smart livestock management, focusing on reducing manpower while enabling precise remote monitoring of production conditions. Innovations like the Cargill-Mycotoxin Control Platform, Wistron-AIOT Poultry Weight Scale, and Globalsat Worldcom’s Physiological and Environmental Monitoring for Grazing Cattle reflected the industry’s commitment to leveraging technology Dr Christian Luckstadt and Kevin Teh, Addcon with Roger Gilbert

Roger Gilbert with Herison Cunaidi, Manager, Aqua Fortuna Biotech

Roger Gilbert with Sabine Liu, General Manager, Informa Markets – Taiwan

Sangwook Kang, Deok-Ju Park, Tae-Won Yoon, Entomo

KG Bio team with Roger Gilbert

Roger Gilbert with Eliza Lin, Vice President, Giant Bio Technology

for efficient production. The three-day exhibition featured a lineup of the speakers delivering professional seminars. Topics ranged from ‘Animal Precision Preventive Medicine’ encompassing diagnostics, biosecurity, nutrition, vaccination, and education, to presentations on waste treatment methods and growth enhancement in broiler performance. Notable personalities like Su Xiaozhen and Baiqiang Xing Ye Co Ltd. enriched the event with their insights and expertise. More than 100 IMV (Innovation, Marketability, Value) technology products were presented and competed, showcasing outstanding innovation in agriculture, fisheries, and livestock

sectors. Moreover, over 50 livestock product exhibitors sought domestic and international collaborations, agents, distributors, and executives, emphasizing the event’s role as a platform for fostering industry partnerships and growth. Aquaculture Taiwan 2023 concluded as a resounding success, cementing its position as an indispensable international exhibition for the livestock industry. The convergence of global expertise, ground-breaking technologies, and a commitment to excellence showcased the event’s pivotal role in driving the industry forward. The next Taiwan Aquaculture Exhibition will be held at the ICC Tainan, Tainan Exhibition centre from June 19 to 21, 2024

International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 53



3rd & 4th October 2023

São Paulo

Part of Brazil Victam 2023


CONFERENCE REPORT At VICTAM’s debut LatAm event in São Paulo, Brazil, VICTAM and Perendale Publishers conducted a Pet-Aqua Feed production conference, on Oct 3-4, 2023. In the two half-day conferences, attendees had the opportunity to hear from industry experts on the topics of aquaculture feed and petfood production. Due to these two processes utilise similar techniques, the conference was able to cover a wide variety of topics. Topics ranged from nutrition, feedenhancing additives, raw material handling, grinding, weighing, mixing, plant design situations, extrusion, drying, cooling, and coating. These subjects were covered in a way that indicated the differences between pet and aquatic and was designed in a way for the audience to understand the process, learn what is new, and the possibilities in the area of pet and aquatic feed production. The first day began with a welcome message from Roger Gilbert, Publisher of Milling and Grain Magazine, Fabiano Cesar Sá, R&D Manager at ADIMAX, and Joe Kearns Editor of International Petfood magazine. The day kicked off with a presentation from Keith Erdley, Process Technologist

for Wenger, on Differences in Plant Design for Pet and aquatic. Dr Patricia Contente Moraes, Aquaculture Professor in Brazil, presented on the use of diets according to a Circular economy, followed by Renato Almeida, an Aquaculture Product Manager at IMEVE, who spoke about Probiotics in Fish feed, their benefits and applications. There was an opportunity for a coffee break and socialise midway through the session, and the second section of the conference continues with Thomas Runde, CEO and sales director of Tietjen, who presented on about griding, sifting and particle size control, and its optimal raw material preparation for aquatic feeds and petfood. Giuseppe Bigliani, Director of Sales Latam, at AGI, covered raw material handling, initial plant designs, and mixing and weighing in his presentations. Marco Prati, CEO of PLP Systems, gave a presentation on powder additives dosing in pet and aqua feed production, and Andre Mello, Key Account and Sales Specialist for Aqua and Pet at Andritz, presented on coating in petfood. The second day began with Dr

54 | January 2024 - Fish Farming Technology

Fabiano talking about the Research and Developments in the Petfood industry. Then Ed de Souza, Extrusion Systems Process Director at Wenger, covered the topic of the extrusion of petfood’s and new developments. Robert Strathman, the President of Famsun-USA Design and Engineering from Famsun presented on Safe Production of Pet and aquatic foods. Michel Bauer Pereira, Global Application Manager for Aqua & Pet at Andritz presented on energy optimization in aqua feed, and Keith Erdley gave another presentation, this time regarding the drying and cooling of pet and aquatic feeds. Marco Prati gave a presentation on coating petfood’s, whilst João Fernando Alber Koch, a Researcher from Biorigin, finished the session with a presentation on responses provided by Bet 1,3/1,6 glucans in fish diets. With the assistance of Fabiano Cesar, both days offered opportunities for question and answers to the speakers, and many discussions were had. The conference was an overwhelming success, with the room reaching full capacity both days.




Scan here to register



www.vivhealthandnutrition.nl Fish Farming Technology - January 2024 | 55

Industry Events


The second Aquaculture Africa Conference (AFRAQ23) took place on 13-16 November 2023 at the majestic Mulungushi International Convention Centre in Lusaka, Zambia. Themed ‘resilient value chains in the blue economy’ AFRAQ23 attracted nearly 1200 attendees from industry, academia, government, development partner delegates spanning from 73 countries around the world, but mostly Africa. The event also happened at a time when WAS-AC was celebrating five years of existence. The Chapter was formally established in November 2018. The event was graced by the Minister of Fisheries and Livestock, Makozo Chikote and other senior state dignitaries from Zambia and other African countries. Guests from WAS, FAO, WorldFish, Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA), Southern Africa Development Co-operation (SADC), Africa Union (AU) also attended the Opening Ceremony of AFRAQ23. Other highlights during the Opening Ceremony include the inaugural WAS-AC honors and awards ceremony, which saw Dr Sherif Sadek (Egypt) being recognised for his role in serving as first Chapter President (2018-2022), as well as Chairperson of the inaugural Aquaculture Africa 2021 (AFRAQ21) held in Egypt in 2022. Dr Sadek is a renowned aquaculture expert, supplier and shrimp production operator from Egypt. Other special honourees during the occasion include the AUDA-NEPAD for its role in hosting the Secretariat of WAS-AC; the South African government through the Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries (DFFE) for its role in supporting the establishment of WAS-AC since 2017. Aller Aqua, the Chapter’s founding Gold Sponsor and Gold Sponsor to AFRAQs was also specially recognised for its industrious role in developing aquaculture in Africa. The government of Zambia received a special appreciation award for its contribution to hosting AFRAQ23.

56 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events The conference

The conference scientific and technical programme was well packed with multi-sessions that resonated to the conference theme of ‘sustainability’, balancing global and African perspectives – thanks to the efforts as led by renowned Programme Chairs, Professor Peter Britz (Rhodes University, South Africa) and Prof Cyprian Katongo (University of Zambia – which was also the hosting institution). The programme featured 44 sessions, 225 abstracts and 49 posters. What was most unique at AFRAQ23 was the presence of a number of developmental organisations who hosted a number of special side-sessions and workshops covering some various key thematic areas. These include AUDA-NEPAD, FAO, World Bank, WorldFish, Aquaculture Network for Africa (ANAF), the American Soybean Association’s World Initiative for Soy in Human Health Program (WISHH), the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), COMESA, SADC, Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF), WAVMA and others. The presence of major industry players such as Aller Aqua, Yalelo, Lake Harvest Aquaculture, Aquaspark, Grand Group for Fish Feed, Chicoa Fish Farm Mozambique and others, as well as several SMEs in aquaculture from Zambia and Africawide was noteworthy. Like in all WAS global events, the technical and scientific programme was complemented by a major international trade show which featured 55 booths from 22 countries, including a Zambia aquaculture pavilion which showcased the country’s aquaculture industry and some projects. An aquaculture tour concluded the AFRAQ23 programme with delegates having the opportunity to visit some active aquaculture sites in Siavonga/Lake Kariba and around Lusaka. The WAS-AC Executive Board of Directors also had the opportunity

to convene its Annual Board Meeting, where decisions on the way forward for the Chapter were made. This also saw Ms Foluke Areola from Nigeria being inaugurated as new President of the Chapter for the 2023-2025 term, taking over from Dr John Walakira (Uganda). WAS-AC also physically launched its Africa Student Forum following recent WAS student policy and strategy changes and launched a platform for Portuguese speaking countries (PALOP). No doubt, there was just something for everyone at AFRAQ23 as the event catered to the broad range of interests in aquaculture providing a learning, information-sharing and networking opportunity for entrepreneurs, business, scientists, technical specialists, educators, students, policy makers and public officials. The conference was hosted by the Government of Zambia through the Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock. The WAS AC is thankful to all attendees, various session sponsors, exhibitors, collaborators, media partners and everyone who contributed to make the event a success.



The print edition the trusted information source for the industry


Animal proteins and fats as sustainable feed materials

For more information, visit us online:



www.ge-pro.de International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 57


LatAm twenty twenty five

The VICTAM events are by far the world’s largest dedicated events for the animal feed processing industries. With VICTAM LatAm, now VICTAM also has its Latin American platform, where the focus will be on the opportunities in Brazil and its surrounding countries. As in other parts of the world VICTAM will be launched in paralel to GRAPAS LatAm, the event for grain, rice, soy and flour milling and processing. Above this, in Latin America VICTAM partners with the North American grain processing and handling association GEAPS, who launches its event GEAPS in co-location with VICTAM and GRAPAS. Together the three events are the place to be for feed and grain processing and handling. The exhibition is a ‘one-stop’ show for the decision-makers within these industries. Each visitor will be able to find what they are looking for, all under one roof over three days. The event also focuses on a series of highquality industry conferences and business matchmaking with colleagues and clients.

September 16-18, 2025

VICTAM insights - January 2024 | 58

VICTAM insights - January 2024 | 59

aquafeed.co.uk/web/companies Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group). Aerators

Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/okuN

Additives DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/uJDB

Cablevey Conveyors +1 641 673 8451 https://cablevey.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/EKbO Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com myaqua.info/aXKo

Computer software Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/mSNu

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/qREy

Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/iZqf

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/Esjj

SAS Laboratories Phode +33 5 63 77 80 60 www.phode.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/XtAr

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/eCVS

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com PROFILE: aqfeed.info/e/1610

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: myaqua.info/JEzZ Faivre is a French company, and one of the world leaders in the conception, manufacture and production of aquaculture machines. Since 1958, thanks to their knowledge of the market and strong experience in aquaculture, Faivre has developed high quality products to satisfy all of your needs, from one product to the full installation. Strength, effectiveness and simplicity are the qualities of their production. myaqua.info/JEzZ

Coolers & driers

Jefo +1 450 799 2000 https://jefo.ca PROFILE: myaqua.info/mQBf

Analysis the market place

Drum filters

Conveyors Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: myaqua.info/JEzZ

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/plVJ

Elevator buckets Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/rCyw

Bulk storage TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/YZlV

60 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Elevator & conveyor components

Liptosa +34 902 15 77 11 www.liptoaqua.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/iZqf

4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com myaqua.info/vPJh

TekPro +44 1692 403403 www.tekpro.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/QcZG

ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/DhbW

Tietjen Verfahrenstechnik GmbH +49 4106 6333 0 www.tietjen-original.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/wiyw

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl PROFILE: myaqua.info/zjHK

GePro +49 54415 925252 www.ge-pro.de myaqua.info/UzqV Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/mqSu Jefo +1 450 799 2000 https://jefo.ca PROFILE: myaqua.info/mQBf

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/prYd

Fish Graders Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE:myaqua.info/JEzZ

Fish pumps Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: myaqua.info/JEzZ

Grinders Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/mqSu

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/zQxZ

Pulverisers IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/eCVS



Tietjen Verfahrenstechnik GmbH +49 4106 6333 0 www.tietjen-original.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/wiyw


Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/FkMu






Comprender el comportamiento de los peces para alimentarlos manera más de eficiente


- Dietas bajas en harina de pescado

- 调理和造粒:注重 确的过程和选择 寻找正 正确的 饲料原料


2023 2 - Febrero 26 - Número

- Innovative use in phytogenics - MEGATHREATS: Dangerous Trends and Implications for Aquaculture

在后抗生素时 动物和鱼类 代饲养 - 新冠肺炎时代的 在适应性安全网 恢复力: 中着陆 - 气候变化:它将如 何影响 海产品行业

卷第 1 -

- Kvinner i akvakultur - Net9-systemet: Teknologi med potensial til å firedoble skotsk produksjon

- Volumen

- Vitamin C i akvakultur ¡Vea nuestro archivo y ediciones de idioma en su móvil!

La fortaleza de Escocia en acuacultura - Optimizar la acuacultura para alimentar al mundo - Proyecto de impacto social para acuacultura a pequeña escala la - Eficacia y calidad producción de de la piensos Un caso de estudio en Egipto: - Clave para aumentar el rendimiento, la salud y la sostenibilidad del camarón - Inteligencia artificial & el pez www.aquafeed.co.uk limpiador www.fishfarmingtechnology.net

6 - Julio

- El cultivo del abulón: Prepararse para los retos y perspectivas que se avecinan

- Bringing nature to shrimp feeds: How can plant extracts contribute to disease management - Barramundi Resilience: Navigating Climate Challenges with Adaptability


- Optimización de las dietas acuícolas con metionina

- Akvakulturledere på leting etter å avdekke fremtidens fôringredienser - Insekter til fôr og mat


26 - Nummer 3 Mars 2023

- Detección de alimentos funcionales mediante métodos de cultivo celular

International Aquafeed - Årgang

- Algal carotenoids as pigments for salmonids - Extruded aquafeed: A new technology for improved quality control - Shrimp farming: Developing an easy to manage & predictable technology package

- Impulsar una nutrición acuícola sostenible

Orgulloso partidario de Acuacultura sin Fronteras UK CIO

MARZO 2022

www.aquafeed.co.uk www.fishfarmingtechnology.net

MArs 2023

Stolt støttespiller for Akvakultur uten grenser UK CIO

Orgulloso colaborador de Acuacultura sin Fronteras UK CIO

FEbrErO 2023

- 第25 -


- 精准养鱼

- 贝类养殖中的远 利用大数据和无 程监测: 习更好地预测生 监督学 生态系统影响 产力和

无国界水产养殖 的骄傲支持者英 国首席信息官

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- Volume


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25 - Issue

Trusted publications for your industry International

Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

Organiske syrer og essensielle oljer øker tarmhelsen for regnbueørret

- September 2023

- Crear impacto social a través de la actividad acuícola sostenible

Desarrollan soluciones para una industria acuícola más ecológica

- Volume 26 - Issue 9


- Sustainable fish ingredients: How cereals are being valourised & repurposed for aquafeed


International Aquafeed

THE NORWEGIAN SALMON EYE: A floating exhibition devoted to aquaculture

25 - Issue 9 - September 2022

Moisture analysers



25 - Issue 3 - Marzo 2022

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl PROFILE: myaqua.info/loTI

Alltech +44 1780 764512 www.alltechcoppens.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/mTpk

Biorigin www.biorigin.net PROFILE: myaqua.info/SGjW

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/Esjj

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr PROFILE: myaqua.info/JEzZ

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/AnqC

Anpario +44 1909 537 380 www.anpario.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/uyJL

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl PROFILE: myaqua.info/loTI

Fish counters

Feed and ingredients Adisseo +33 1 46 747104 www.adisseo.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/iGee

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/qREy

International Aquafeed - Volume

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/zQxZ


International Aquafeed - Volume

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/plVJ

PTN +31 73 54 984 72 www.ptn.nl PROFILE: myaqua.info/Zapi

Van Aarsen International +31 475 579 444 www.aarsen.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/sBGT

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/eCVS Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/prYd

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/eCVS

Feed Mill

Equipment for sale

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/qREy

Pellet mill

Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr PROFILE: myaqua.info/vqCK

Enzymes DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/uJDB

Symrise https://aquafeed.symrise.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/fEOD

- Sistemas terrestres de acuacultura de recirculación - Navegando tiempos disruptivos - Pepino de mar: Investigación 在您的手机上查 de la maricultura 看我们的存档和 de Holothuria 其他语言版本! scabra en Indonesia

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See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

JULIO 2022

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www.aquafeed.co.uk www.fishfarmingtechnology.net






Packaging FAWEMA / The Packaging Group +49 22 63 716 0 www.fawema.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/oeDC

Paddle Mixer IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/eCVS

Palatability enhancers

61 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO




To include your company in the International Aquafeed market place in print, and a company page on our website contact Tuti Tan +44 1242 267700 • tutit@perendale.co.uk To visit the online market place visit: www.aqfeed.info/e/1130


14-15 MAY 2024


62 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/YZlV

DSM-Firmenich +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/uJDB

In Animal Nutrition and Health The DSM Animal Nutrition and Health business group offers customers a true end-to-end portfolio of products, solutions and services for sustainable and profitable animal farming. The company’s three dedicated business lines cover Precision Services, Performance Solutions + Biomin® and Essential Products.

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl PROFILE: myaqua.info/loTI

Weighing equipment Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com PROFILE: myaqua.info/prYd

To visit the online market place visit: http://myaqua.info/qayv




Precision Services Greater precision in animal farming is key to a more sustainable and profitable future. Their Precision Services use the latest data analytics and diagnostics to improve animal health, lifetime performance, resource use and environmental footprint — while mitigating risks and unlocking more value. Improving the sustainability and profitability of animal farming is secured with, aqfeed.info/e/1605


在后抗生素 动物和鱼类 时代饲养



Comprender el comportamiento de los peces para alimentarlos manera más de eficiente

- 新冠肺炎时代 在适应性安全 的恢复力: 网中着陆 - 气候变化:它 海产品行业 将如何影响

- Dietas bajas en harina de pescado 2022

- 调理和造粒: 注重寻找正 确的过程和选 择正确的 饲料原料

6 - Julio

2023 2 - Febrero 26 - Número

- Innovative use in phytogenics - MEGATHREATS: Dangerous Trends and Implications for Aquaculture

- Optimizar la acuacultura para alimentar al mundo - Proyecto de impacto social para acuacultura a pequeña escala la - Eficacia y calidad producción de de la piensos Un caso de estudio en Egipto: - Clave para aumentar el rendimiento, la salud y la sostenibilidad del camarón - Inteligencia artificial & el pez www.aquafeed.co.uk limpiador www.fishfarmingtechnology.net


- Kvinner i akvakultur - Net9-systemet: Teknologi med potensial til å firedoble skotsk produksjon

- Volumen

- Vitamin C i akvakultur ¡Vea nuestro archivo y ediciones de idioma en su móvil!

- Barramundi Resilience: Navigating Climate Challenges with Adaptability

卷第 1 -

- El cultivo del abulón: Prepararse para los retos y perspectivas que se avecinan

- Akvakulturledere på leting etter å avdekke fremtidens fôringredienser - Insekter til fôr og mat

La fortaleza de Escocia en acuacultura


26 - Nummer 3 Mars 2023

- Optimización de las dietas acuícolas con metionina

International Aquafeed - Årgang

25 - Issue 3 - Marzo 2022

- Detección de alimentos funcionales mediante métodos de cultivo celular

- Bringing nature to shrimp feeds: How can plant extracts contribute to disease management


- Crear impacto social a través de la actividad acuícola sostenible

- Algal carotenoids as pigments for salmonids - Extruded aquafeed: A new technology for improved quality control - Shrimp farming: Developing an easy to manage & predictable technology package

- September 2023

- Sustainable fish ingredients: How cereals are being valourised & repurposed for aquafeed

Organiske syrer og essensielle oljer øker tarmhelsen for regnbueørret

Desarrollan soluciones para una industria acuícola más ecológica

- Volume 26 - Issue 9


A floating exhibition devoted to aquaculture


International Aquafeed


- Impulsar una nutrición acuícola sostenible

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MARZO 2022

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- 精准养鱼

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DSM use their bright science to deliver positive transformations at scale for as many people as possible today and for generations to come, operating within the constraints of the world’s finite resources. DSM aim to redefine how they live and work in order to create a fairer, more prosperous and more sustainable society.


International Aquafeed - Volume

Royal DSM is a global, purpose-led company in Health, Nutrition & Bioscience, applying science to improve the health of people, animals and the planet. DSM’s purpose is to create brighter lives for all. DSM’s products and solutions address some of the world’s biggest challenges while simultaneously creating economic, environmental and societal value for all its stakeholders - customers, employees, shareholders, and society at large. DSM and its associated companies employ approximately 23,000 people around the world and deliver annual net sales of about €10 billion.

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63 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

the interview Danny Chang

Sales Director, CPM (IDAH), Taiwan Danny Chang holds a master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from University of Southern California. After graduating in 2011, Danny started his career with IDAH, which joined CPM’s family of brands in 2023. Danny was named general manager in 2013 as his background and years of experience in the industry helped him develop strong production knowledge and market insights in aquafeed and other protein products. In that same year, he also received United States Patent for inventing counter-rotating twin screw extruder for aquafeed. Under Danny’s guidance and IDAH’s nearly 50 years of experience in food, feed and biofuel, the brand has become a leader in shrimp feed solutions in Asia.

You have a rich career in the industry. How did you first get interested in the industry? As the second generation in the feed machine business, I was exposed to the feed machinery business at an early age. I was able to participate in many company meetings and numerous customer visits that sparked an interest to understand more about the industry. I joined the company after graduating with my master’s degree and started getting hands-on experience with the development of the technology. What are the major trends that you witnessed recently in the industry in terms of consumer demands? The interest in reducing raw material cost and the incorporation of novel ingredients for different feeds have been a continuous demand from the feed industry. After COVID, a new trend has started where customers are looking for more affordable options, higher ROI and energy saving technology. These challenges have started a new wave of research to fulfill the demand. Collaboration is often essential in driving innovation. Can you share your thoughts on the importance of partnerships and knowledgesharing within the sector, and how these collaborations have influenced your leadership style? Understanding the demands from customers has been important to our recent innovations. In order to make the development efficiently, we created an innovation center where we can run trials and design experiments on lab machines. This is a place where customers, experts in the industry and our engineers can work together and make our ideas into reality. In the last five years, IDAH is constantly undergoing revolutionary breakthroughs in research and development, using scientific data to develop new techniques and technologies in producing robust and tailored machinery for food and feed industries.

What career opportunities and pathways do you see emerging in the feed machinery industry in near future? The trend of the industry will start to shift. Previously, one machine has been used for more than one purpose. In the future, the types of machines in one production line will increase and you’ll see one machine for one purpose. The production line will allow wider range of ingredients to be processed and also improve the final product quality. The challenge is the operator will need to control a complex system composed from many types of machines, while at the same time minding the efficiency in production and maintenance target. Does efficiency and sustainability go hand in hand in feed industry? A production solution that is efficient should also be sustainable. For example, a new development carousel dryer-cooler system for shrimp feed uses much less total air volume, thus, lowering the air exhaust volume. Lower exhaust volume means lower cost needed for odour treatment. So this dryer-cooler system is a much efficient system and at the same time creating less pollution. Where do you think the industry will be in 2050? Will it be able to meet the needs of the growing population? According to United Nations the world population is expected to reach 9.8 billion people in 2050. One of the basic necessities of humans is food and the demand for food will drive feed business to continue growing. With the concern of sustainability in every aspect, Aquafeed becomes one of the most prominent answers. Aquafeed production is highly resource efficient with feed conversion ratio (FCR) at around 1.1 (compared to ruminant with FCR ranging from 4 to 10). With prospering of the aquafeed, a series of developments for better feed production solutions, smarter feed plants and upgrading older machines are the target that we need to achieve in the near future. 64 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed

International Aquafeed - January 2024 | 65


THE INDUSTRY FACES GABRIELA HEIM TO BECOME COMMERCIAL MANAGER OF BIOMAR CHILE BioMar, a world leader in the production of aquaculture feed, is proud to announce Gabriela Heim as the new Commercial Manager of BioMar Chile. With an outstanding career and extensive experience in the commercial field, Heim will assume her new role starting April 1. Gabriela Heim stands out for her ability to lead commercial teams and develop effective strategies to drive business growth. Before joining BioMar Chile, she held key roles in renowned companies, such as Alltech, where she played a fundamental role in expanding commercial presence and establishing strong relationships with clients. Since joining BioMar Chile, Gabriela Heim has played a key role in the commercial team, demonstrating outstanding skills and a continuous commitment to the company’s high standards of quality, sustainability and innovation. Her promotion not only reflects her professional competence, but also her dedication and significant contribution to the BioMar team. “I want to congratulate Gariela Heim for taking on this new challenge as Commercial Manager at BioMar Chile. Her vast experience and commercial skills will be of vital importance to strengthen and consolidate our relationships with our clients and strategic partners. We are confident that her leadership and knowledge will contribute to the continued success of our company.” commented Derek Kohn, General Manager of BioMar Chile. Gabriela Heim will assume responsibility for leading BioMar Chile’s team and commercial strategy, strengthening relationships with existing clients and exploring new growth opportunities in line with the company’s vision. “I am excited about this new stage in my career at BioMar. I appreciate the trust that has been given to me and I look forward to continuing to drive commercial excellence, working together with the BioMar team and collaborating closely with our customers to contribute to the sustainable growth of salmon farming.” said Gabriela Heim.

HARRY TZIOUVAS PROMOTED AS BENCHMARK’S COMMERCIAL LEAD Benchmark announced the promotion of Harry Tziouvas to the role of Commercial Lead UK and Global Land-Based. Formerly occupying the position of Global Sales and Technical Manager for salmon, Tziouvas brings a wealth of experience, previously serving as Senior Biologist for the Scottish Salmon Company (now Bakkafrost Scotland), overseeing fish health management across marine and freshwater sites in the North region. Joining Tziouvas in his commercial team is Alex Kulxzyk, recently appointed as Sales and Technical UK associate. With a background as Site Manager at AquaGen’s Holywood Breeding Centre and a BSc in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management, Alex brings valuable expertise in leading production sites and fostering strong customer relations. Alex’s addition reinforces Benchmark’s commitment to delivering exceptional services to its Scottish and Irish customers.

ACE AQUATEC APPOINTS NEW HEAD OF SALES Ace Aquatec have begun the new year by expanding their team, with the addition of Ben Perry as Head of Sales. Having worked across freshwater and marine finish production, animal health and genetics for over 15 years, Ben brings a wealth of knowledge and passion for the aquaculture sector to his new role. He comes to Ace Aquatec from Benchmark Holdings Ltd, where he held the role of Sales and Technical Manager and most recently worked on developing the company’s genetics business in North America, supporting both land-based producers and net pen farmers across the region. His experience of developing new aquaculture facilities and recruiting effective production and research teams aligns closely with Ace Aquatec’s innovative approach as they develop and expand their range of high-welfare technology products for the industry. Speaking about his appointment, Ben Perry said: “This is a great opportunity to combine my clinical knowledge and practical experience with a purpose-driven, innovative mission to provide intelligent, ethical aquaculture products to customers. I’m excited to build on the excellent work already being done by Ace Aquatec to bring their market leading technology to clients across the globe, enabling our partners to achieve the highest welfare practices throughout the production cycle, while optimising growth and efficiency for future success”. Tara McGregor-Woodhams, Chief Sales and Marketing Officer at Ace Aquatec, added: “We’re delighted to have someone of Ben’s calibre on board as we continue to scale our brand globally. With a strong background in aquaculture, he is the perfect fit for a welfare-focused and passionate brand like Ace Aquatec. As our industry enters a new era of technology transformation driven by AI, Ben’s deep understanding of what drives customers’ success will be invaluable in this exciting time of disruption.”

66 | January 2024 - International Aquafeed



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