JUL 2022 - International Aquafeed

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Understanding fish behaviour in order to feed more efficiently - Low-fishmeal diets

International Aquafeed - Volume 25 - Issue 6 - July 2022

- Driving sustainable aquaculture nutrition - Land-based Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Navigating disruptive times - Sea cucumber: Investigating Holothuria scabra mariculture in Indonesia

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July 2022

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WELCOME Overlooking the coast with Mount Networking Days Vesuvius and the famous Roman city In other news I have just returned from of Pompeii, which was devastated Bühler’s 2022 Networking Days held in and engulfed in volcanic ash in 79AD, Uzwil, Switzerland. Taking place over the Hilton Sorrento Palace Hotel was three days in late June, it once again a suitably prestigious setting for the featured a full programme with little time International Symposium on Fish to mix with the 1000-plus invited guests Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF) – a from around the world. meeting for aquaculture nutrition As journalists International Aquafeed Roger Gilbert scientists and researchers. magazine were there to report and the Publisher – International Aquafeed Despite the location, this was issues that came to the fore were related to and Fish Farming Technology not a holiday by any stretch of the the reduction of waste, energy and water. imagination. The expectation is that our industry - in Listening and assessing numerous scientific presentations the manufacture of fish feeds - needs to be cutting these three over four days to determine what is likely to be moving aspects of feed production by 50 percent each by 2025. our industry in the direction of greater understanding of The BND’s theme was ‘Impact’ and that is what this leading fish nutrition and fish behaviour, takes concentration. And equipment supply is asking of its customers who collectively exploring what future sources of feed materials we will put food on the tables of four billion people every day. The be needing (including additives and other ingredients) for aquafeed industry is included in this calculation. aquaculture to reach and sustain its potential, is a complex There is a growing need for us to take action now, not at some question that must be answered. future date. We need to become carbon neutral businesses. The first The location helped to put this challenge in perspective. The step is to assess your Scope 1 and Scope 2 CO2 footprint - which past and the future coming together if you will. Understanding is what you bring to your facility in the materials you use and what where we are now, based on past experiences and where we your facility produces respectively - before moving on to assessing are likely to be headed, and the role of science in getting us Scope 3, the CO2 impact your products have downstream. there whilst keeping us sufficiently nourished. We learnt that future borrowings will be measured against Feeding a growing world population was not far from the the production of carbon and how that is being offset or how it minds of those in the conference room. leads to a net-zero position. However, just moving existing sources of proteins, energy If we are science-focused, and that is what the future of and carbohydrates from one animal species to another is not fish farming is basing itself on, then we have to take global the answer. Simply put, there needs to be new sources of raw warming seriously and we need to make assessments and ingredients ‘at scale’ that can be used to feed the farmed fish of adjustments to ensure we are contributing to the reduction in the future. CO2 and other greenhouse gass emissions into the atmosphere. And of course, the questions of doing this sustainably was There are a range of topics of interest once again in this also on the mind of everyone in the conference hall, until edition so please read, enjoy and contemplate the points of Louise Buttle, a keynote speaker from DSM, helped to put that view and topics that we report upon. issue in perspective. We carry her feature on the subject on page 20 of this edition - and it’s well worth the read. This month on IAF TV I’m also pleased to report that we interviewed the organisers Dr Alessio Bonaldo of the 20th ISFNF, Dr Brett Glencross and Dr Alessio Banaldo Dr Alessio Bonaldo is an Associate Professor in the Department of (both interviews can be accessed from the links below and are Veterinary Medical Sciences at the University of Bologna, Italy was on our www.aquafeed.co.uk website). the chair of the recent long-delayed ISFNF 2022 symposium held in Sorrento, Italy from June 5-9, 2022. Our report on page 52 of the ‘Events’ section of this He talks about a policy of encouraging PhD and other graduates magazine provides a little more detail on the occasion and to pursue a career in fish nutrition with ISFNF offers them an opportunity to present their research work. in future editions we will return to some of the presentations See more at: made. But for now, it’s worth noting that Dr Glencross, in aqfeed.info/e/1500 his IFFO column, reports the decision of the ISFNF to set up Dr Brett Glencross a new organisation called The International Society of Fish Dr Brett Glencross, as the co-organiser of this Nutrition. year’s International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding, talks about the highlights of the The aim of creating this service is to provide the structure four-day event and the way forward for the and platform for the Symposium and for regional events to Symposium in terms of its future structure and operation. take place between the bi-annual international event, which Sign up for our language editions here: https:// moves between locations each time it’s held. millingandgrain.com/languageedition-codes-54556 With that in mind, it’s also worth noting that the 21st ISFNF See more at: and the first under the umbrella of the ISFN takes place in aqfeed.info/e/1501 Puerto Vallarta, Mexico in 2024. Watch more videos at: www.aquafeed.co.uk/videos


NUTRITION & HEALTH of fish feed production, and this will inevitably With it being mid-summer here in the UK, I be passed to the consumer as we see with have been keeping myself away from the sun, escalating inflation. As fish nutrition scientists UV and pollen as I get more susceptible to we may talk enthusiastically about novel climate change and increased environmental ingredients and feed additives, but we must risks. also think of the practicalities of producing Indeed, I try to practice what I preach basic least cost and optimum diet formulations regarding nutrition and health as much as to meet basic nutrient requirements. There will I advocate for fish and crustaceans. I am reminded that the principles of nutrition are quite Professor Simon Davies always be a fine balance of cost and quality. Unfortunately, we cannot escape politics uniform across the species range, with animals Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed when discussing fish. I can remember vividly and humans sharing so much with respect to the cod fishing dispute between the UK and Iceland in the 1970’s physiological and metabolic processes in general. leading to almost armed conflict between fishing vessels and the We can learn so much from applying animal nutrition such as that of Royal Navy. poultry and swine to fish as most of our biochemistry and metabolism Fish are such a powerful and emotive economic force that it was is so similar. In fact, when I did my degree in biochemistry and then interesting to see an import ban of farmed grouper produced in my master’s in animal nutrition, I was made aware how fundamental Taiwan to China. The grounds being potential toxins and alleged are the processes of nutrient assimilation within the body and the contaminating agents in the fish tissues. molecular biology underpinning the organic machinery operating to China's General Administration of Customs announced that it incredible effects. would suspend grouper imports from Taiwan citing several claims When I did my PhD in fish nutrition, I was able to put this of prohibited chemicals and excessive levels of oxytetracycline in fundamental knowledge to good effect and be able to appreciate the grouper imported from Taiwan since last December. The Mainland workings of the rainbow trout. I was captivated by salmonids and at Affairs Council (MAC), Taiwan's top government agency handling the time could not have imagined my future work on so many other species and range of nutritional research projects from assessing novel cross-Taiwan Strait affairs, has called for dialogue with China to resolve the issues surrounding the Chinese suspension of Taiwanese feed ingredients to fundamental nutritional requirement studies such grouper imports that took effect on June 13, 2022. as with amino acids, protein, vitamins, and minerals. This is an example of why it’s so important to have quality control Later I worked on carotenoids and now more recently functional and transparent operational procedures in place for food standards. feed ingredients and probiotics. In fact, although many can relate If true it suggests residual antibiotics in flesh of fish and must be to fish nutrition indirectly through access from other avenues of independently investigated. training, I think it essential to have had a grounding in the subject In fact, medicated fish feed is a very important asset if used wisely and biochemistry/physiology helps enormously. The science of fish and can be invaluable to treat specific fish diseases. However, nutrition warrants a detailed knowledge base, and I would strongly antibiotics are of particular concern if not properly employed and with recommend undertaking advanced level education before being styled growing antimicrobial resistance in animals and humans we must a ‘fish nutritionist’. search for safer alternatives. On another matter, I am so pleased to see that the 4th International Hence our interest as an industry to evaluate the use of prophylactic conference on Fish and Shellfish Immunology is being held in measures such as prebiotics, probiotics and phytobiotic supplements, BodØ Norway. The meeting of fish nutrition and fish immunology with this trade journal magazine reporting on numerous examples of disciplines is becoming important to fully understand the mechanisms such commercial products since its inception. of how probiotics and prebiotics and functional feed additives can Being based in Plymouth, I am so lucky to see the International influence or prime the innate and acquired immune mechanisms in Space Station ISS frequently passing overhead and taking just 90 fish and crustacean species. minutes to make one complete orbit of Earth. I often think how many This conference in Norway holds the core values of a scientific land, coastal and oceanic fish, and shrimp farms it has crossed over gathering and free from much commercial outside involvement. Key on its endless path. Given the different types of farming and species research findings in a quiet academic environment may prove more beneath its journey it is an incredible and thought-provoking concept productive in the forging of bold new scientific discoveries. indeed. Our precious planet seems so small. There is sadly much global turmoil affecting the food supply chain However, our magazine gets to so many places and with an and causing pressures on commodity prices and price forecasts of increasing network of readers from all domains – I do hope you enjoy soybean meal, but mainly on wheat and other grain sources. our July issue! The added costs of fuel, energy and transport will elevate the costs

6th September


ASIA 2022 4 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

A coference for aquaculture professionals Amber Room at IMPACT, Bangkok, Thailand

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY mature cod, which in turn will contribute to Around the turn of the century/ spawning in the spawning grounds. millennium, investors had great faith The challenge of the correct starter feed is in cod farming. Millions of dollars another important aspect. The cod larva can were poured into cod farming projects, gain weight up to 4000 times during its first and great advances were made in the 50 days. Traditionally, the larvae are fed with technology of cod farming. live rotifers in the beginning, and then the But then, 10 - 15 years ago, cod farming larger are fed brine shrimp. The ideal diet for flopped. Some investors lost hundreds cod larvae is a mixture of nature's crayfish, of millions and production dropped to but unlike rotifers, crayfish do not grow almost nothing. Erik Hempel easily in such large numbers as are needed But now, tens of millions are again being The Nor-Fishing Foundation for initial feeding of cod larvae in a hatchery. invested in a new attempt at farming cod However, the main reason why cod farming in the north. According to the Marine failed 15–20 years ago was not primarily a lack of advanced Research institute in Bergen, as many as 41 applications for technology, but a serious lack of understanding of the cod market. cod farming permits are presently awaiting a decision. If all of While a small amount of high-quality farmed cod can be sold these are approved, the farming capacity would increase to 170 to up-market sectors at high prices, this is a limited market. thousand tonnes. In the more traditional high-volume markets, farmed cod However, the development will be gradual, so there will be no competes with wild-caught cod, which commands a much sudden explosion in the production. There will probably be a few lower first-hand price. thousand tonnes in the years ahead, but if the industry succeeds, Back in 2003, it was estimated that the global market for highthere will be several tens of thousands of tonnes. quality, fresh cod (which is what cod farming was aiming at), So, what has changed? Have the technological advances been so was around 40 thousand tonnes per year. Consequently, it was dramatic that there is reason to believe that cod farming will now predicted that as total production approached 40 thousand tonnes, be profitable? prices would drop dramatically, and in effect making cod farming The technology and understanding of the biology have developed unprofitable. a great deal. When cod farming started in earnest back in 2003, And that is exactly what happened. a type of cod was used that turned out not to be adapted to life in The first-hand price of cod is higher today than 20 years ago. In the cages. Norway, the first-hand price for large, round cod was NOK 19.16 The biggest challenges facing cod farming appear to be disease, (US$1.91, NOK 1 ~ US$0.1) per kg in January. At the same time, the danger of cod escaping from the cages, and possible genetic we expected that the cost of production would be much lower. influence on wild fish. But it is not, at least not in nominal figures. It is estimated that the In 2004, a bacterial disease caused high mortality in Norwegian present cost of production per kg is NOK 41–43. cod farming. The bacterium Francisella noatunensis eventually Supplies from the wild-caught sector will probably go down – became the main problem. It causes disease in cod and cannot be some observers present at North Atlantic Seafood Forum in June treated with antibiotics. expected the TAC in the Barents Sea to be cut by 20 percent next There is no vaccine against the disease, either. year, from 708 480 tonnes in 2022 to 566 784 tonnes in 2023. In addition, cod can be affected by various other pathogens, both That is a reduction of over 140 thousand tonnes. bacteria, viruses and parasites. For example, nodavirus has been Consequently, we should be able to expect prices to stay very detected in cod, but it is not known whether it poses a major high. But not high enough, apparently. Farmed cod will still be danger to the fish. too expensive to replace large amounts of wild-caught cod. Farmed cod that reach sexual maturity before slaughter can Consequently, investors should exercise an extreme degree of spawn in the cages. Studies have shown that fertilised eggs caution when looking at cod farming projects. from farmed cod will escape the cages and survive to sexually



International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 5

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk

July 2022 Volume 25 Issue 6



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.com Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.com Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erikh@perendale.com Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Dr Allen Wu • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Andrew Wilkinson andreww@perendale.co.uk Caitlin Gittins caitling@perendale.co.uk


Industry News

44 Technology showcase 50 Industry Events 60 The Market Place 64 The Aquafeed Interview 66

Industry Faces

Levana Hall levanah@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tel: +44 7854 436407 darrenp@perendale.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Clarissa Garza de Yta Tel: +52 669 120 0140 clarissag@perendale.com Cristina María Roldán Otero Tel: +44 1242 267700 cristinaperendale@gmail.com Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 mohamedb@perendale.com India Marketing Team Dr T.D. Babu +91 9884114721 tdbabu@aquafeed.org Asia Marketing Team Dante Feng Tel: +886 0227930286 dantef@perendale.com

The Aquaculture case study

46 Sea cucumber

Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 nathann@perendale.com Design Manager James Taylor jamest@perendale.co.uk Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267706 tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk

©Copyright 2020 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058

COLUMNS 3 Roger Gilbert

4 Professor Simon Davies 5

Erik Hempel

8 Antonio Garza de Yta

12 Brett Glencross

FEATURES 16 Low-fishmeal diets: Beyond nutrition, which other aspects influence shrimp behaviour? 20 Driving sustainable aquaculture nutrition

26 Litopenaeus Vannamei: Modulation of gene expressions for nutrient assimilation and immune function in Pacific Whiteleg shrimp reared in ponds treated with bioavailable silicic acid

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 34 Land-based Recirculating Aquaculture Systems 38 Autonomous feeding solutions 42 Navigating disruptive times

THE BIG PICTURE Land-based Recirculating Aquaculture Systems: The sustainable solution that’s set to boost world food security See more on page 34

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Antonio Garza de Yta


Think big or die trying!

f Christopher Columbus had not been convinced that he could find a new way to reach the Far East, if the Wright brothers had not believed that they could create a machine in which we could fly, or if Tomas Alba Edison had not kept trying without resting the way of generating light through electricity, the history of this world and the way we live would be completely different. Humanity is what it is today due to the people who have thought big, who have had confidence and who have fought against all odds to achieve their dreams. Today I believe that aquaculture needs people like this, confident, dedicated and persevering. A few days ago, I was asked what the difference was between some countries and others in aquaculture, at the time I could not have a clear answer, today, after thinking about it seriously, I think it has been the great virtue that some countries had in thinking big. I remember visiting Ecuador in 2011 and people were beginning to talk about ‘The best shrimp in the world.’ At that time, many people were incredulous that such a campaign could work, but the National Chamber of Aquaculture, whereby the way the entire value chain is integrated, took the reins and as a whole, as a country, grew to really believe, little by little, they were able to become the producers of the best shrimp in the world. Today, I believe that if your shrimp is not the best, if it is one of the best. The

impressive thing is to see how that dynamic of believing in themselves has led them to produce more than a million tonnes of shrimp and export more than five billion dollars a year. Whatever it is, Ecuador is where it is today because they dared to dream, had faith and worked hard to make their vision come true. We can only applaud them and try to follow their example. Other countries such as India, Brazil, Indonesia and Egypt have also believed in themselves and have been significantly suspicious of their production, but from my point of view the future of the great developments in aquaculture technology will now be in the Middle East. I see, with great pleasure, that both Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Oman are putting special emphasis on aquaculture and have added it to their priorities at the country level, dedicating large investments and budgets to trigger what for them is part of the National security; contributing to food security through the most viable way for these nations to produce high-quality animal protein. We will have to be very attentive to the events that are coming in that region of the world. The other side of the coin is experienced by countries like Mexico where it is simply not seen how or when the activity is detonated. There is no vision, no strategy and no will. Hopefully, and the commitment of the Shanghai Declaration to make this activity a true priority at both the national and regional levels will be fulfilled. But, to be absolutely honest, Mexico is not the only country experiencing this situation, although it is the one that hurts me the most because it is the closest to my heart. This vast group of countries have to dare to believe in themselves, to work as a team, not to accept the stories that they are a poor country, or that there is no need to progress to be happy. In a world that increasingly seeks to divide us more, today we have to be more united than ever! The countries that seek to make aquaculture happen must, or yes or yes, dream, dare, cooperate, work as a team, give their all. It's time to think big or die trying!

Antonio Garza de Yta, PhD in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture without Frontiers, WAS President and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is also the Spanish Editor of International Aquafeed Magazine and founder of the International Center for Strategic Studies for Aquaculture. He is currently Secretary of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the State of Tamaulipas. 8 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Two companies form partnership to combine rope recycling efforts


ael Force Group have begun partnering with Ocean Plastic Pots, a company that strives to turn waste from its moorings production into recyclable garden products. Ocean Plastic pots turns raw material from excess tail-end rope offcuts into distinctive plant pots that can be used both indoors and outdoors. The pots are designed in Glasgow and are manufactured in Scotland, as the brainchild of former commercial diver Ally Mitchell. Gael Force’s Warehouse Supervisor Dougie Grant came up with the idea to team up with Ocean Plastic Pots, submitting the proposal through the employee idea forum ‘Force for Good.’ Along with the moorings production team, Dougie had been considering ways in which surplus materials from production jobs could be utilised, to avoid traditional methods of waste disposal. He identified an opportunity for recycling rope offcuts after viewing Ocean Plastic Pots on television. Recently, Ocean Plastic Pots has just produced its first batch of ‘Burton’ pots made from the yellow coloured SeaQureLine. The way in which each pot is manufactured means it comes out differently, but all bear a solid yellow flat matte colour. “Leftover material from our production is inevitable, just like it is in construction, engineering, or other manufacturing,” says Marc Wilson, Marketing Manager from Gael Force Group. “In partnership with Ocean Plastic Pots and through the determination of our team to help minimise the impact our operations have on the environment, we have found a way in which we can help create a circular economy.” Gael Force Group is exploring its own initiatives to extend recycling activities from production involving rope and netting efforts. The Burton Yellow Pot from Ocean Plastic Pots is available to purchase from their website.

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Climate-friendly, affordable & secure “Canadians and the world need a climate-friendly, affordable, and secure food supply at a time of significant food and living cost inflation,” says Timothy Kennedy, President and CEO of the Canadian Aquaculture Industry Alliance (CAIA). “While we are encouraged that licences have been renewed, we genuinely needed a six-year license term that reflected our production cycle. Longer license terms would have provided the confidence to further invest in innovation and technology, leading to continued operational and sustainable improvements, job creation for coastal communities, and greater food security.” Farm-raised salmon is the most popular seafood choice of Canadians. We know that 97 percent of salmon produced in Canada is farm-raised, which is key to sustainably meeting the growing demand for Canadian salmon, while at the same time reducing pressure on limited wild stocks. Salmon farming in Canada is highly regulated, achieves third-party environmental certification standards, creates long-term economic growth for rural, coastal, Indigenous and non-Indigenous communities, employs 14,500 Canadians, and generates over CAN$4 billion/US$ 3.1 billion in economic activity annually. “Global demand for fish is growing as is the demand for sustainable, low-carbon solutions. Canada should be the best in the world at farming salmon, and in doing so we can ensure Canada has a secure supply of this important food protein,” says Ms Salmon. “The decision is an important validation of peer-reviewed science and procedural fairness. We will work with governments and partners to create long-term value to contribute to Canada’s Blue Economy and secure homegrown fresh food supply,” concludes Mr Kennedy.

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he Canadian Aquaculture Industry Alliance (CAIA) and the BC Salmon Farmers Association (BCSFA) believe that the federal government's decision to renew the licenses of salmon farms in British Columbia and establish a process for the salmon farms in the Discovery Islands is good for Canadians. The decision is a key validation of the importance of the salmon farming industry to rural, coastal communities and procedural fairness, but greater certainty is needed to build Canada's Blue Economy and to secure a popular and critical Canadian affordable and sustainable food supply. The government’s own science evaluation process, and multiple independent peer-reviewed science processes, have concluded that salmon farms have minimal effect on wild fish abundance and that farmed and wild salmon can and do co-exist in the Pacific Ocean. "The renewal of licences in British Columbia is a positive first step and confirms the voices of Industry and First Nations, in whose territories we operate, have been heard," says Ruth Salmon, Interim Executive Director of the BC Salmon Farmers Association. "This announcement will give us the opportunity to work with all levels of government, including First Nations, to secure a future that will benefit Indigenous and nonIndigenous coastal communities, meet the global demand for healthy, affordable seafood, and support the continuation in protection and restoration of wild Pacific salmon."

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Canada’s Salmon farmers respond to farming licenses decision

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International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 11


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Brett Glencross Stepping up to drive aquafeed science forwards


n early June I was fortunate to attend the 20th International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF) [http://www.isfnf2022.org/2022/ home] in Sorrento, Italy. It was the first time in four years that the aquafeed science fraternity had come together (physically) to share, explore, and debate the science that underpins the sector. Not only was it great to catch up with so many friends and colleagues after a four-year hiatus, but it was also a great opportunity to take a significant leap forward in the science domain. While there were many notable scientific progresses presented at the symposium; like the development of the net-energy-concept for fish by scientists at Wageningen University in the Netherlands, and clarification on the roles of EPA and DHA in Atlantic salmon by scientists from NOFIMA in Norway, it was perhaps the step up to develop the symposium into something more than an ad hoc collective, that was a defining outcome of Sorrento. After 38 years as an informal association, the international scientific committee (ISC) of the ISFNF had unanimously voted to form the International Society of Fish Nutrition

(ISFN), and with it form a professional society. This ‘step up’ to the ISFN has more significance that first meets the eye. First and foremost, the formation of the ISFN provides an ongoing professional platform for the science and the domain. The predecessor ISFNF meetings, were generally based on an informal association without any rules, statutes, funding, or indemnity. All of which most people consider standard for events and societies in the 21st century. The ISFNF also had little role in advocacy, communications or student support, all things seen as important in the ISFN going forward. It was very clearly iterated at Sorrento, that the ‘society will become what we make of it.’ Importantly, the ISFN will be a membership-based organisation going forward. Members will elect representatives from one of three regions (EMEA, Americas, AsiaPacific) to form the International Society Committee, which will oversee the various roles of the society, but most notably will continue to provide oversight and direction to the facilitation and coordination of the biennial international conferences. So, when is all this happening? Legal formation of the ISFN, with the creation of statutes, a legal entity and so on will take place sometime before the end of 2022. In terms of membership drive though, it will largely start when we push ahead with the next international conference, which will be in Puerto Vallarta, Mexico in 2024. Leading up to that event and linked to the conference website will be the ISFN website and membership details. Things are still very much at an early stage, and this has been a step several years in the making. But notably it is a clear step up to drive aquafeed science forwards into the future.

Dr Brett Glencross is the Technical Director of IFFO - The Marine Ingredients Organisation. Over the past 25 years he has worked in various academic, institutional, and industrial roles across Australasia, the Middle East and Europe.

Salmon Evolution looks to expand farming operations


almon Evolution is starting a process to expand its farming operations in the US, whilst striving to increase its production capacity to 100 thousand tonnes by 2032. As a result, the company is evaluating potential production sites in the US, using the remainder of this year for site selection and site verifications. Pre-construction involving regulatory approval processes is expected to take two to three years, meaning construction will happen around 2025.

Current plans are to build a 31,000 tonnes facility in Indre Harøy, which it recently released its first smolts from and collaborated with green power supplier Statkraft. To allow for this expansion, Salmon Evolution has established a dedicated team of in-house and external resources, as well as establishing US corporate structure. “Although starting in Norway, Salmon Evolution has always had global ambitions. With the addition of North America into our portfolio, we will have an operating 12 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

platform on all the three major salmon consuming continents,” says Håkon André Berg, CEO of Salmon Evolution. “Over the coming 12 months we expect to demonstrate the operational viability of our concept, solidifying Salmon Evolution’s global leadership position within the land-based salmon farming industry. “Given the long lead times for this industry, we see it as critical for our long-term value creation to build and develop a tangible pipeline of highquality projects,” he adds.







Training Aquaculture leadership program The Canadian Fisheries and Marine Institute’s School of Fisheries unveils new post-graduate course The Fisheries and Marine Institute’s School of Fisheries has launched a new graduate diploma in Marine Studies (Aquaculture), advancing degree-holding students to leadership roles in the Canadian and global aquaculture industries. Beginning in Autumn 2022, the Institute’s School of Fisheries will enrol students to specialise in aquaculture development, practice and management in a multi-disciplinary program that offers current and relevant knowledge combined with technical and practical experience. The program of six courses focuses on current topics in aquaculture, finfish and shellfish aquaculture, animal health, fish nutrition and feeding practice, and engineering technology and systems operation. Students will also participate in a 12-week internship at the end of their course work, to apply their industry-ready knowledge and skills in aquaculture companies and related employers across Canada and abroad. The graduate diploma can be completed on a full or parttime basis. Each year, two seats will be designated for students meeting the program entry requirements and who self-identify as Indigenous.

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“Our program will provide a solid foundation in environmental stewardship, sustainability, animal health and husbandry, nutrition and feeding, aquaculture engineering and systems operation, and farming technology and techniques,” explains Dr Westcott. “It’s also important to ensure our graduates are well equipped to collaborate and communicate with diverse aquaculture stakeholder and community groups to achieve common goals.” Students will be mentored by faculty with extensive experience and close links to the aquaculture industry. They will also have access to a modern freshwater aquaculture facility, food science, biology and microbiology labs, and engineering technology workshops on campus. Graduates of the aquaculture graduate diploma can pursue employment at marine and freshwater aquaculture farms and hatcheries, aquaculture advisory agencies, government departments or research and academia. They may also wish to pursue subsequent master’s level programming at Memorial University, such as the Master of Science (MSc) in Sustainable Aquaculture. The School of Fisheries is building on its 35 years of experience in aquaculture, and on its breadth of academic curriculum and research in aquatic sciences and technology to offer this innovative program.

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Low-fishmeal diets Beyond nutrition, which other aspects influence shrimp behaviour?

by Amine Chaabane, Species & Product Manager – Aquaculture & Jean-François Gabarrou, Scientific Manager, Laboratoires Phodé, France


Figure 1: Total feed intake after 8 weeks

ishmeal is and has always been a big part of aquaculture feeds. Being a co-product of fished marine species that belong to some of the cultured species natural diets in the wild, fishmeal is the primary and closest-to-wild protein source in aquatic species farming. Not only it is rich in amino acids that are highly digestible for farmed species, but also has a very attractive taste and smell for carnivorous species that can trigger innate predation behavior, allowing a good feed intake of manufactured aquatic feeds. But fishmeal use in feeds has declined over the years simultaneously to technologic development of aquaculture nutrition, passing from 70 percent of fish diets to around 10 to 20 percent of most of carnivorous species’ diets today. If fishmeal remains essential to diets and the best protein source on the market, its use as a resource faces availability issues for future feed demand meeting global demand of seafood products, as forage fish stocks are not unlimited, and catches have been declining in recent years.

Figure 2: Consumption speed

This leads to two important issues in aquafeed production: sustainability (use of sustainable and traced ingredients that are not originating from over farmed fish stocks) and price, as fishmeal prices are very high at the moment. Anticipating these problematics, industry and researchers have been investigating alternative solutions to fishmeal in order to optimise aquaculture diets and meet the demand from consumers up to 2050. If new proteins are showing high promises (insect meal, single-cell proteins), their development is still at

16 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Figure 3: Immobility time

A shrimp-specific solution

an early stage and production capacities are not big enough to provide sufficient supply and cost-effective prices compared to other available protein sources. The use of plant protein, which has been the most investigated topic alongside plant oils in aquaculture nutrition for the pastdecade, is thus the only solution that can be currently considered at industry scale to replace fishmeal in feeds. Considering plant protein are already an important part of nowadays aquaculture diets, their total substitution to fishmeal has been an issue, not only for digestibility rates, but also for taste of feeds, reducing palatability and consumption of feeds. It is thus essential to provide additional taste & attractivity solutions to feeds with replaced fishmeal to compensate palatability loss to fishmeal feeds, with sustainable ingredients.

In this context, the Phodé Laboratories, a facility that specialises in neurosensorial solutions, has designed Olpheel Good, a shrimp-specific solution adapted to shrimp taste preferences and chemoreceptors to stimulate feed intake behaviour, consumption and appetite. Indeed, appetite is often left out of calculations during feed monitoring, but it is a key point to feed intake. Also, feed intake has the same hormonal messengers to stress leading to satiation state; thus, a stressed animal will not have an appetite. The effects of Olpheel Good have been tested in the Prince of Songkla University in Thailand on feed intake & stress response while included in High-fishmeal feeds (HFM) and Low-fishmeal feeds (LFM). For each treatment, 50 shrimp were assigned to 220L tanks with 15 ppt brackish water, with four replicates per treatment. When both feeds contained around 35% of crude protein and 7% of carbohydrates, HFM feeds contained 20% fishmeal while LFM feeds contained 10% of fishmeal and an extra 10% of soybean meal and corn protein concentrate. During these experiments, while global feed intake was measured after 8 weeks, two different behaviour tests have been


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implemented: - A feed consumption speed test with a feeding tray left for 30 minutes in shrimp tanks; the quantity of feed eaten by 30 minutes was compared between all different treatments - An acute stress inducing test by stirring water for 5 seconds and taking 12 shrimp out of water for evaluation of morphology and colour of antennae; immobility time was also measured after putting shrimp back in tanks

Figure 4: Red antennae

Significantly improved feed intake

As expected, treatments aside, global HFM feed intake was superior to LFM feed intake. The use of Olpheel Good significantly improved feed intake in HFM diets, and a tendency was observed in LFM diets. Also, the inclusion of Olpheel Good in LFM diets allowed a similar feed intake to control HFM diets. Regarding consumption speed, it appeared that it is higher for shrimp fed with HFM diets compared to LFM diets. A tendency to higher consumption speed was observed with the use of Olpheel Good in both diets. While no significant differences were observed between the two diets, the inclusion of Olpheel Good in both diets reduced significantly immobility time compared to the control. While no significant differences were seen with the use of Olpheel Good with high-fishmeal, low-fishmeal treatment was clearly leading to an important stress as all shrimp displayed red antennae. The use of Olpheel Good allowed a return to normal antennae for 58.3% of the shrimp included.

A very interesting solution

The substitution of fishmeal in shrimp diets at a 10 percent rate by plant protein has led to losses in feed intake, but also to an

increased stress behaviour displayed by shrimp after facing acute stress. This parameter should be taken in consideration while formulating low-fishmeal feeds: diets could face nutritional requirements of shrimp, but besides low consumption resulting in feed waste and animals not assimilating the sufficient quantity of energy, this could lead to stressed and thus weaker animals in critical events like transfers/transportation which can result in diseases and mortalities. The use of a neurosensorial additive, Olpheel Good, has stimulated feed intake by improving attractivity and palatability of feeds, but also appetite; by reducing stress induced messages and allowing shrimp to react quicker to an acute stressor. This solution could be very interesting to complete LFM feeds which provide sustainable and cost-efficient shrimp nutrition in the coming years.

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Driving sustainable aquaculture nutrition

How are we doing as an industry?


by Louise Buttle, Sustell Aqua lead, DSM Animal Nutrition and Health

quaculture is well positioned to be a sustainable provider of nutritious and affordable animal protein. In 2021, three of the top 10 animal protein companies ranked in the FAIRR index for sustainability were from the salmon farming industry, with one in the top position. Blue foods - foods produced from oceans and lakes and rivers - have an essential role to play in achieveing food security, ending malnutrition and building healthy, nature-positive and resilient food systems (sdgd. un.org). So, how much progress have we made as an industry towards improving the sustainability of fish and shrimp farming,with a focus on aquaculture nutrition? To answer the question, we must look at the basket of raw materials being used in commercial operations, since the feed accounts for the majority of cost as well as up to 80 percent of environmental footprint or emissions. From a risk perspective, reputational and sustainability angle, the raw materials basket has long been an area of focus, particularly when it comes to the use of fishmeal and soya, for example. The aquaculture industry’s progress on sustainability relies on diversifying its use of marine raw materials, responsible sourcing of soy and adding novel ingredients such as algal oil, insect meal and single-cell proteins to the raw material basket. Surprisingly, in Norwegian salmon feeds, probably the front runner in sustainable thinking, less than one percent of raw materials were classified as novel in 2020 (NOFIMA, 2022).

Is our raw material basket more sustainable today?

Fishmeal use dropped by 40 percent in Norwegian salmon feeds in the period 2012 to 2020 (Figure 1). If the reduced reliance on

fishmeal was the only indicator of sustainability, then this would be a success story. On the other hand, some challenge the use of fishmeal at all. If we look at other raw materials, there was virtually no change in the use of soy protein concentrate (~21%). And in 2020, there was only guar meal that was recognised as a new raw material – at four percent inclusion.

Marine raw materials – trimmings, metrics & certification

Diversifying marine raw material towards the use of waste streams with trimmings from the white fish industry as an example, has been an important strategy for the salmon feed companies, especially in Europe, where the use of animal byproducts is not accepted by the market. In general, approximately 30 percent of marine raw materials is sourced from trimmings in the Norwegian salmon industry (2020 company sustainability reports). The metric, forage feed dependency ratio for protein (FFDRm), fell to 0.5 in 2020 (from 0.6 in 2016), highlighting a reduced dependence on marine proteins (Table 1). At the same time, there was an increase in forage fish dependency ratio in oil – so the industry was using more fish oil – related to performance, health and welfare of the fish (as well as delivering the higher omega 3 in the salmon fillet) (Table 1). Adoption of targets and commitments on sourcing of marine stocks and ensuring sourcing from sustainably managed fisheries has been evident the last years. For example, MSC and MarinTrust certified marine ingredients and adoption of fisheries improvement programs in some markets. If we look at the raw material basket for salmon feeds, it is the vegetable proteins and vegetable oils that have a large proportion of the environmental impact. Even though we hear a lot about marine proteins, the carbon footprint of the feed is not highly driven by these raw materials.

20 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Dr Louise Buttle of DSM’s Aqua Team gave one of the three keynote addresses to the 21st International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding in Sorrento, Italy, which was held in the first week of June 2022. With her two decades working in aquaculture for company’s such as EWOS-Cargill, she has expertise in the areas of research and development, product innovation and sustainability. She is well positioned to review the ramifications for the aquaculture industry when it comes to assessing and adopting sustainability measures. The meeting in Sorrento attached over 400 scientists and researches working in the field of fish nutrition and fish feeding who heard some 80 presentations over four days

Circular economy: a circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible. Restorative ingredients: raw materials that significantly shift the balance between ecosystem impacts and human production systems. Net zero: refers to overall balance between the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere. Carbon neutral: having a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks.

Join the fish revolution

However, there is huge variation in the numbers and when we start comparing different raw materials in terms of sustainability, we need to consider the full picture using multiple criteria and reliable data.

Sustainable nutrition goes far beyond forage fish

Sustainable nutrition for aquaculture can be defined as feeding aquaculture species within planetary boundaries. Around our value chain for sustainable aquaculture, we have many impacts that we need to consider – and these include biodiversity, water use, GHG emissions, antibiotic reduction (Figure 2). In addition, we have new terminology that we need to adopt (see Box 1). Farm productivity is the baseline to driving sustainable production and efficiency of production is key. With knowledge and investment in nutrition, feeding and husbandry practices feed conversion rates have been driven lower with time in many of the farmed species. But mortality rates in some commercial operations are not sustainable long term.

Increasing demand for novel & alternative ingredients

We often hear calls for the industry to develop alternative raw materials, but if we are talking large shifts in the raw materials then this means novel raw materials and not only alternatives to marine ones. The criteria of these new raw materials being performance in fish and shrimp, volumes at scale, the right price, nutritional profile and today - with a lower footprint. (Figure 3 summarises some of the options today and tomorrow.)

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Algae oils

The clear winner in novel raw materials space is so far algal oils as this novel ingredient is available at scale. In addition, Veramaris also enables the sustainable growth of aquaculture by supplying a rich source of EPA and DHA, which supports the industry to deliver better health, quality and welfare; Optimum Omega Nutrition (OON).. International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 21

Uptake seems to be gaining momentum, with announcements from Cargill that they will include algal oils in all Norwegian feeds, partnerships announced between Atlantic Sapphire, Skretting and Veramaris, and Biomar’s production of feeds with algal oils going back several years.

Figure 1

Insect meals

At the 2022 International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding, insects were the topic of many oral presentations, and insect companies have recently been a darling of capital investors. For example, there are disclosed investments in insect companies of nearly one billion Euros, and an increase in capital flow once the regulations in Europe allowed the use of insect meals in aquaculture feeds. In terms of volumes, Rabobank estimate that by 2030 the market could reach 500,000 metric tonnes (from estimated 10,000 tons today) and some of this volume would be accessed by the aquaculture industry. At the same time, the expectation is that the price of insect meal would come down to between 1500-2500 EUR/ tonne – so closing the gap to a good quality fishmeal, potentially making it commercially viable for aqua producers.

Single cell proteins

Single cell proteins produced by fermentation technology have a massive potential for scalability – and especially with the focus on a shift to green energy – the potential to deliver at scale, with zero carbon intensity and with zero land use. Many companies are on the landscape for production of single cell proteins, and these are a promising novel raw material although so far not used at scale. There are also novel approaches with respect to feed stock. For example, Foods of Norway innovation centre are producing single cell proteins produced from yeast fed tree sugars.

Figure 2

Figure 3

What gets measured, gets managed

To gain acceptance novel raw materials will also have Table 2: Forage fish dependency ratio in Norwegian salmon. to have a low environmental footprint and comparable 2016 2020 Reference nutrition profile at a market acceptable price. An 0.6 0.5 NOFIMA (2017, 2020) Forage fish dependency ratio important note is that it is easier to measure the protein (FFDRm) feed impacts of alternative ingredients produced in closed 1.5 1.8 GSI & salmon farming Forage fish dependency ratio oil systems, than it is for open systems. The value chain is companies sustainability reports (FFDRo) feed expecting us to measure our environmental impact and FFDRM = (forage fishmeal in feed % * eFCR) / 24% reduce it. FFDRM = (forage fish oil in feed % * eFCR) / 5% ASC allows for 5% or 7% oil yields depending on the source of the oil, but to be conservative, the Questions are coming from the value chain (Figure lower yield has been used in in this calculation. Actual FFDRo is considerably lower if actual oil 4). From consumers, wanting to know the footprint yield are applied for each species used. of their product, to standards requiring at least GHG footprint calculation and the rise of labelling schemes metrics as companies commit to Science Based Targets and other such as Enviroscore which is based on a full lifecycle assessment environmental impact pledges. (LCA) – and in many cases working towards science-based The industry will formulate on footprint, as well as nutrient and targets (SBTis) – to which many of retailers and the aquaculture price. companies have adopted. Most importantly, each company will need to measure their own Financing of the industry is playing a role, investors and footprint, as industry averages will no longer be acceptable from banks need to verify their loans and we are seeing already ESG stakeholders. performance requirements gaining traction. Insurance companies Accurate footprint measurement is essential and full life cycle also need to underwrite climate-related risks. assessment is becoming more important (Figure 5), and DSM has The importance of full LCA footprinting will increase from been working with leading animal protein producers to accelerate pressure along the value chain. The need to measure and the use of LCA in their operations. Sustell™, DSM’s intelligent benchmark both standard and novel raw material with the same 22 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed


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sustainability service, is an ISO 14040/44 assured system that combines measurement with practical, science-based, proven solutions to unlock the value of sustainability across livestock species and farming systems. In the future, environmental footprinting (and not just carbon) will be part of formulation and raw material benchmarking, and you will need to be using reliable metrics, so you can measure, monitor and reduce emissions.

Working together through the value chain

To commercialise novel ingredients, early collaboration across the value chain is key. There are some great examples of how as an industry we are mobilising our efforts and our expertise. Figure 6 shows the various configurations of partnerships and collaborations across the value chain, with raw material suppliers, feed suppliers, farmers and retailers, as well as academic bodies playing their role. The Global Salmon Initiative (GSI) caught the industry’s attention in 2015, when it led a pre-competitive invitation to tender for potential suppliers of alternative omega 3 ingredients. In addition, Veramaris has delivered a point of sales communication in several retailers across Europe: salmon and trout fed Veramaris were packaged with the information that they were raised on marine algae extracts, rich in omega 3, and preserving marine biodiversity. A successful approach to differentiation not done before in aquaculture products.

models that would be more equitable along the value chain where the commitment to pay and adoption at scale could be faster. While salmon may be the industry’s frontrunner in sustainability, many elements can be adopted to other aquaculture sectors. Part of our commitment as DSM is to facilitate the transition to more sustainable food systems. Together, with our industry partners, we make it possible.


Thanks to ISFNF for the opportunity to give the keynote lecture on which this article is based (Sorrento, June 2022).

So how are we really doing ?

Today, there is a reduced reliance on marine proteins in aquaculture feeds, and in addition diversification of sourcing from forage fisheries alone to trimmings meals the last years, but there is still a heavy reliance on soy proteins. The industry is moving to 100 percent certification of the marine resources and soy proteins. But there are no novel proteins being used today and the technology at scale is missing (market price, volumes), even if the performance in aquaculture species is well recognised for many novel candidates and capital is not lacking (at least for insects). Today, there is gradual adoption of algae omega 3 oils, despite several options being available at commercial scale. As noted from the forage fish dependency ratios for oil, additional omega 3 sources from algae are critical to enable sustainable growth of the industry, whilst delivering salmon to the consumer with the optimum omega 3 levels. Full LCA footprinting will become more commonplace to assess and improve the sustainability of aquaculture operations. The industry is making advances at working together, and this is the only way for early adoption. However, we could also look at new business 24 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 25



Litopenaeus Vannamei Modulation of gene expressions for nutrient assimilation and immune function in Pacific Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) reared in ponds treated with bioavailable silicic acid


by Dr Noratat Prachom, King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Thailand; Assoc. Prof.​Sasimanas​Unajak, Department of Biochemistry, Kasetsart University, Thailand; Prof Dr Simon J. Davies, Harper Adams University, UK & Dr Henk-Maarten Laane, Rexil Agro BV, The Netherlands

he effect of bioavailable silicic acid application on key selected genes relating to nutrient utilisation, feed performance and immune system of Pacific Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated after a growout period of 56 days. It was found that bioavailable silicic acid modified several genes that would enable enhancement of digestion, promote improved growth response, and increase disease resistance in shrimp. The genes affecting feed utilisation and immune tolerance were for amylase, trypsin, heat shock protein 60, heat shock protein 70 and C-type lectins (CTL’s). For specific immune function parameters, the gene expressions for crustin, antilipopolysaccharide factors, penaeidin-3 were determined all against Β-actin (housekeeping gene). It was found that genes associated with endogenous digestive enzyme production were down-regulated (trypsin & amylase) indicating reduced digestive requirements for enzyme production. It was also observed that the gene for HSP 60 was slightly upregulated but that for HSP 70 appreciably down-regulated. This was also observed for the CTL gene in vannamei exposed to silicic acid. The genes important for cellular based immunity in shrimp were mainly up-regulated to varying degree with penaeidin in particular being stimulated. The response of these changes was reflected in the improved performance and nutrient utilisation of L. vannamei under commercial pond rearing conditions.

Promoting optimum conditions for shrimp farming

The shrimp industry is now an expanding sector of aquaculture, providing an important contribution to global seafood supply, amounting to a value of US$39.24 billion in 2019 which is

projected to attain US$54.6 billion by 2027, with a CAGR of 9.2% from 2022 to 2027 (Mordor Intelligence Report, 2022). This production depends on high quality feeds but also sustainable use of water and stable environmental conditions for optimal performance and healthy rearing conditions. In aquaculture practice, it is now recognised that an important area to consider is the use of prophylactic measures involving natural biological and mineral compounds that can augment and stabilise the aqueous environment, promoting optimum conditions for shrimp farming. Various clays and earth metals have distinct properties and silicon is one such element. The importance of bioavailable silicon as silicic acid has been reported by Laane (2013). This element plays a key role in systemic metabolism and is linked to the biosynthesis of connective tissues in many species and in the general immune system to maintain cellular based defence involving many regulatory proteins and signalling molecules (Martin, 2013). In rapidly developing shrimp, many genes are also associated with nutrient assimilation and growth such as anabolic metabolism as well as principal genes regulating immune function. Such genes as trypsin and amylase are involved in digestion and will be either up-regulated or down-regulated depending on need. Heat shock protein 60, heat shock protein 70, and CTL (C-type lectin) have associations with pathogen recognition, tolerance, and immune priming in shrimp (Chaurasia 2016; Wang et al. 2020). Crustins are specific cationic small proteins assumed to be antimicrobial effectors against mainly gram-positive bacteria and are found in insects and crustacea. Relatively few crustins, however, have been thoroughly investigated and especially in shrimp. In P. leniusculus recombinant Plcustin1 and 2 both expressed bactericidal activities towards gram-positive bacteria (Donpudsa et al, 2010).

26 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

They are in contrast to most insect AMPs (antimicrobial proteins), predominantly constitutively expressed and often present in large amounts although their expression can be further stimulated by the presence of bacteria (Swapna et al., 2011). Other physiological roles for them besides combatting bacteria and other microorganisms have therefore been proposed (Smith et al, 2008). Given that bioavailable silicic acid has been confirmed to support the immune system and defence system in several animal species including fish, it was necessary to establish whether this could also be validated for shrimp under typical high density rearing conditions in aquaculture. A study was undertaken as a follow-on from a previous growth trial (International Aquafeed, April 2022) testing the effects of a commercial bioavailable silicic acid product Silifish® on selected gene expressions for L. vannamei.

Diet & conditions

An eight-week growth trial study on Pacific Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (1.0 g/shrimp) in duplicate was conducted in a 3,200m2 earthen pond (100,000 shrimps per 1,600m2) at the GAP certified private shrimp farm, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand. Nakhon Pathom is one of the central provinces of Thailand. The pond size was 2 Rai (1 Rai is 1,600m2). Stocking density is 100,000 shrimps / 1 Rai. Shrimp were fed by automatic feeder four times a day according to the farming standard. The feed was obtained from the Phoka Feed Mill Co, Ltd., Thailand (284/1 Moo 1 Mueang Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Pathom, 73000 Thailand). The bespoke shrimp

Figure 1: Image of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei sampled on termination of the growth trial (8-weeks) evaluation. On the right (control group) at an average weight of 9.48g on the left shrimp (exposed to silicic acid, SiliFish®) attaining 12.49g mean weight.

feed specification was Crude Protein 38%, Crude Fat 7%, and diet pellet sizes of 1.5 mm; 2.0 mm; 2.5 mm that were assigned across the trial period to optimise maximum intake. All shrimp responded well to the respective diet and conditions over the 56-day period. This was presented in detail by the study of Prashom et al. (2022) the shrimp trial from which the current data is obtained; at the end of this grow-out period, shrimp were sampled for the growth and feed utilisation metrics. Water quality parameters were measured three times daily. At the end of the trial, shrimps were assessed for the growth performance and immune response status as described below. Shrimp from each treatment group were examined and the hepato-pancreas removed carefully from 10 individual animals and processed as described below.

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Molecular biology protocols 1. RNA extraction

Hepatopancreas were extracted by using trizol reagent (Invitrogen, USA). Briefly, 1 ml of trizol reagent were added into 50 – 100 mg of tissue samples. Subsequently the samples were homogenised at 3,500 rpm for 1 min by using Micro Smash MS-100R (TOMY, Japan). After incubations of samples at room temperature for 5 min, 200 µl of chloroform were added and mixed vigorously. The samples were subsequently centrifuged at 12,000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Afterwards the supernatant was decanted into new 1.5 ml tubes, one volume of isopropanol was added and incubated at -20°C for 2 h. Next, RNA pellets were collected by centrifugation at 12,000 rpm at 4°C for 15 min. Then, the pellets were washed with 500 µl of 75% ethanol and pellets dried at 65 °C. Lastly, 30 µl of RNase free water was added for dissolving RNA pellets. RNA concentration was measured by using a nanodrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA).

2. DNase extraction and processing

After RNA extraction, the DNA were eliminated by using DNase I (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). The reaction for DNase I treatment consisted of 1 µl of 10X buffer, 1 µl of DNase I and 1 – 2 µg of RNA. Then, the volume was adjusted to 10 µl by using RNase free water. After preparing the reaction, the mixtures were incubated at 37 °C for 30 min and subsequently added 1 µl of EDTA and incubated at 65°C for 10 min to stop the reaction.

Figure 2: Gene expression relative to ‘housekeeping’ gene showing up-regulation and down- regulation of specific genes concerned with growth response in shrimp comparing control group with silicic acid treated shrimp after 56 days. Relative fold gene expression level of growth-related genes of control and treatment group. Statistic was analysed by using t-test: paired two sample for mean (p > 0.05), compared to control.

Figure 3. Relative expression of immune related genes of shrimp treated with silicic acid compared to untreated shrimp (control) after 56 days. Relative fold gene expression level of immunerelated genes of control and treatment group. Statistic was analysed by using t-test: paired two sample for mean (p > 0.05), compared to control.

3. cDNA preparation

cDNA in this experiment was prepared by using Viva 2-step RT-PCR kit (Vivantis, Malaysia). Firstly, 1 ug of DNase treated RNA, 1 µl of oligo dT primer and 1 µl of 10 mM dNTP were added into 0.2 ml tube and incubated at 65 °C for 5 min. After being quick chilled on ice, 2 µl of 10X buffer and 100 U of M-MuLV reverse transcriptase were added and adjusted volume to 20 µl with RNase free water. Next, the mixtures were incubated at 42 °C for 90 min and then incubated at 85 °C for 5 min to stop the reaction.

4. Real-time PCR

In this study, 2x qPCRBIO SyGreen Mix Lo-ROX (PCRBIOSYSTEM, UK) was used to detected growth genes and immune-related genes in shrimp. The primers used were as displayed by Table 1. Reaction for real-time PCR was composed of 1 µl of 100 cDNA, 5 µl of 2x q PCRBIO SyGreen mix, forward and reverse primer at a final concentration 0.2 µM and adjusted volumes up to 10 µl by using nuclease free water. The realtime PCR condition was initially from a pro-denaturation at 95°C for 5 min, then subsequently a denaturation phase at 95°C for 30 sec, annealing at 58°C for 30 seconds. This was followed by 40 repeated cycles and final extension at 72°C for 5 min. The relative fold gene expression level was calculated by using the formula below. Relative fold gene expression level = 2-∆∆CT CT = Cycle number of samples ∆CT = CT (gene of interest) – CT (housekeeping gene) ∆∆CT = ∆CT (treated sample) – ∆CT (untreated sample)

A prime defensive barrier

Shrimp performed significantly better when exposed to available silicic acid for 8 weeks under the pond rearing conditions employed. The results of the growth and feed performance of shrimp subjected to the experimental treatments are displayed in Table 2. These show a very significant elevation in total biomass and mean body weight of animals at the end of the trial period (mean weight of control 9.48, and 12.49 for the silicic acid product) as displayed in Figure 1. The SGR (Specific Growth Rate) defined as the mean daily live weight gain (% day -1) also reflects the much higher and significant effect of silicic acid addition to rearing ponds. Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is a measurement of gain of biomass per unit of protein intake and reflects the conversion efficiency of dietary protein conversion in gross terms. It is evident that from Table 1 there is a marked increase in PER showing that silicic acid has enhanced the protein conversion from 1.42 to 1.76. Survival levels of L. Vannamei increased by 11.5% and was deemed significant. The principle aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of silicic acid on gene expression and link to performance. Therefore, due to the known importance of regulatory genes in the control of protein and energy assimilation as well as immune function, the various genes were selected in accordance with their importance to shrimp production traits as shown in Table 2. To compare differences between control and treatment shrimp, real-time PCR was performed by using 6 genes including α –

28 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

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Table 1. List of genes selected for real-time PCR determination group Digestive function and stress tolerance genes

Genes α – amylase Heat shock protein 60 Heat shock protein 70 CTL (C-type lectin) Trypsin

Immune-related genes

Crustin Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors Penaeidin-3

Reference gene

Β-actin (housekeeping gene)

Table 2. Growth performance of cultured Pacific Whiteleg shrimp at two different concentrations of silicic acid Growth performances Total biomass (kg of harvested shrimp)

Without silicic acid

With silicic acid


710 ± 6.24 B

1,047 ± 208.25 A


Final weight (g/shrimp)

9.48 + 0.49

12.49 + 2.46


Feed conversion ratio

1.46 + 0.02 B

1.18 + 0.05 A


Specific growth rate (%/day)

2.94 + 0.05 B

3.21 + 0.20 A


Average daily gain (g/day)

0.09 + 0.00

0.12 + 0.02


Survival rate (%)

62.6 + 3.8 B

69.8 + 4.5 A


Protein efficiency ratio

1.42 + 0.02 B

1.76 + 0.08 A


Apparent net protein utilization (%)

27.2 + 0.1 B

36.4 + 1.4 A


Different superscripts in the same row means significantly different (P < 0.05)

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30 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed


amylase and trypsin; heat shock protein 60, heat shock protein 70, chitin and C-type lectins (CTLs). The results demonstrated that in case of α – amylase, CTLs and trypsin gene expressions, there appeared significant differences between the control and treatment group (Figure 2). The down-regulation of the two specific genes coding for the production of amylase (starch degradation) and trypsin (protein degradations) may imply a sparing action due to the enhanced effect of silicic acid on primary production of planktonic organisms in ponds. Bioavailable silicic acid has a proven capacity to provide silicon as a key nutrient for diatoms and plant life and indirectly zooplankton providing natural exogenous digestive enzymes for shrimp reducing the need for biosynthesis and energy demand. Such assisted digestion will require much less endogenous intestinal enzyme production leading to efficient gains in feed utilisation and efficiency. Considering the importance of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in the innate immune system of prawn, a comparative molecular approach was proposed to study the crustacean large HSPs 60, 70 and 90 and was undertaken by Chaurasia et al (2016). Three different large HSPs were identified from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr) cDNA library during screening in this study. The structural and functional characteristic features of HSPs were investigated using various bioinformatics tools. Also, their gene expression and mRNA regulation were determined by these workers. Heat shock 60 and 70 proteins are also found in L. Vannamei exhibiting similar immune related functions. The down-regulation of heat shock protein 60 in shrimp subjected to silicic acid is interesting. This is possibly associated with there being potentially lesser stress physiological status in shrimp and elevated tolerance to environmental conditions. HSP60 in L. vannamei was speculated to regulate the adaptive responses to overcome environmental stresses as reported by Huang et al (2011). These authors proved that HSP60 plays an important role in the intrinsic immune system and systemic stress responses of shrimp. The reduced activation of this gene by silicic acid exposure is an interesting confirmation of a potentially reduced stress scenario. Additionally, C-type lectins (CTLs) are key recognition proteins in shrimp immunity. Wang et al (2020) reviewed sequence information, ligand specificity, expression profiles and specific functions of the shrimp CTLs. C-type lectins play important roles in shrimp-pathogen interactions. Further, the immune-related gene (crustin, AntiLipopolysaccharide Factors (ALF) and penaeidin-3 (PEN3)) were tested in this experiment and were noticeably different in terms of expression to the control shrimp group as presented in Figure 3. The results showed that all specific immune genes of the silicic acid treatment group shrimp exhibited a relative fold gene expression level that were higher than the control group. Thus crustin, ALF-1 and peneaidin-3 genes appeared to be upregulated when shrimp were exposed to silicic acid addition into

rearing ponds. This poses interesting connotations for the shrimp defensive mechanisms and the innate immune system. Crustin is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) that plays a key role in innate immunity of crustaceans Sun et al (2017). The gene up-regulation may signify enhanced preparation to mitigate pathogenic insult and combat disease in challenged shrimp and is linked strongly to the environmental status. The crustin-like gene is primarily expressed in gills and over-expressed in shrimp hemocytes after challenge with WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus. These are common disease organisms encountered by shrimp under intensive production globally. Crustin is also produced in the hepato-pancreas of shrimp and important in maintaining a functional digestive system. Indeed, recent work by Li et al. (2019) suggest that crustin plays a key role in innate immunity and may be utilised as antibacterial agents in shrimp. The anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are a repertoire of effector molecules of innate immunity in arthropods, exhibiting binding and neutralising activities to lipopolysaccharides (found on the surfaces of bacteria). They exert similar roles in shrimp such as Litopenaeus vannamei as described by Zhan et al (2015) and occupy an important component in the innate system of crustaceans and especially during phases of challenge against aquatic diseases. Subsequent studies showed that ALFs were a group of small basic proteins, which were released into the hemolymph as a result of rapid degranulation of hemocytes in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and showed a strong antibacterial activity against rough-type gram-negative bacteria. Penaeidins are a group of antimicrobial peptides produced and stored in the haemocytes of penaeid shrimp. In response to microbial stimulation, they are released into the hemolymph circulation, and they further adhere to shrimp cuticle surfaces through a chitin-binding capacity. They are a prime defensive barrier and protect shrimp at the interface where bacteria, viral and fungal agents would be located at a vulnerable position and especially during the intermoult stages when the carapace exoskeleton is going through development. The effect of gene up-regulation of penaeidin-3 as a primary defensive molecule due to silicic acid is an important finding of this study. The slight up-regulation of crustin and ALF-1 are also of interest. The effect of bioavailable silicic acid in raising the immune barrier would have relevance in intensive shrimp production scenarios to reduce stress and mitigate pathogenic outbreaks.

Optimising shrimp health & production

In conclusion, the effect of adding a bioavailable silicic acid product (Silifish®) has pronounced effects on specific genes that influence shrimp performance in relation to digestive functional efficiency and enhancing key components of the innate immune system and stress tolerance capacity of shrimp. The same study focusing on growth and feed conversion as well as protein utilisation efficiency is compliant with this study on nutrigenomics and general immune potential. The fact that a bioavailable silicic acid can significantly raise the water quality and environmental conditions such as the promotion of planktonic growth including the production of diatoms to generate a stable biofloc is implicit in these findings. Future work must be directed to assess other key metabolic associated genes and to explore their involvement in optimising shrimp health and production under varying conditions. References available on request

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 31

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Tech update The Sensor Globe

Currently being used by each level of the aquaculture supply chain, the Sensor Globe possesses the ability to provide insights and intelligence into transfer and treatment processes. Every time fish is treated or moved to another environment, they are exposed to a variety of potential encounters which can decrease their vitality, appetite and in turn end-product quality. Like most stakeholders in our industry, Sensor Globe customers are looking for ways to improve quality in all stages of processing. To this end, The Sensor Globe can travel through pumps and go along with the fish to identify where issues may be occurring before they result in big problems. The company sees the transfer and treatment processes as being one of the largest blind spots in the industry at the moment and believe that the Sensor Globe is providing fresh insights into areas that have historically been overlooked. www.sensorglobe.no

33 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed


R&D and training facility in Poland

Land-based Recirculating Aquaculture Systems


The sustainable solution that’s set to boost world food security

by Shai Silberman, VP Marketing & Sales, AquaMaof, Israel

t’s no secret that the world's population is growing, and fast. Recent estimates compiled by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and quoted in an article in the UN Chronicle, suggest that by 2050 the world’s population will stand at 9.3 billion. This will require a 60 per cent increase in food production overall. As far back as 2005, the FAO concluded that, given the depletion of natural resources, there would be insufficient availability of fish harvested from capture fisheries to support the growing demand for fish protein. The FAO identified aquaculture as having a key role to play in filling the gap between supply and demand. In a new landbased fish production project, Proximar Seafood AS is bringing AquaMaof’s advanced RAS (Recirculating Aquaculture Systems) technology to Japan, securing a safe and sustainable product for the local market. Fish is considered to be the most healthy and sustainable animal protein, being low in fat, and packed with omega-3 fatty acids which, according to the ANA (American Heart Association), can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and may help prevent strokes. It also contains vitamins D and B2 (riboflavin) and is rich in minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, iodine, magnesium and potassium.

The pioneering approach

Faced with climate change and the depletion of natural resources, traditional aquaculture will soon need to catch up with the demand of a growing population. Land-based fish production has therefore

become all the more important as an environmentally-friendly and sustainable solution that enables local production, shortens the supply chain, and has the potential to guarantee future food supply, at the levels required to match population growth. RAS technology is proving particularly promising, enabling the growth of fish onshore, from egg to market size, without the risk of predations or pathogens found in their natural habitat, while also overcoming the challenges of accelerated urbanisation and digitisation and border closures that have resulted from the Covid-19 pandemic. Having long recognised the significant role this industry has to play in bridging the gap between demand and supply in the global seafood market, AquaMaof has developed a system that overcomes land constraints and other issues faced by traditional aquaculture. A veteran in advanced technology solutions for aqua farming, with nearly 30 years’ experience in fish farming and around 10 years’ experience in RAS technology for land-based aquaculture, the company has developed a pioneering system that has been operating successfully in facilities around the world, producing a range of fish species and seafood, close to market.

Optimised cost-effective production

Having carried out studies of different species at its R&D facility production facility in Poland, AquaMaof technology works with physical principles present in nature, as well as sedimentation, laminar flow and hydrocyclone, to ensure efficient use of energy at its facilities. Grounded in a region characterised by a desert climate, with high temperatures and little precipitation, AquaMaof’s unique technology uses climate conditions and

34 | July 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY temperature to its advantage, achieving effective temperature control. Advanced technology based on several watertreatment patents and filtering techniques significantly cuts water consumption in the production process. Smart selection and allocation of system components result in robust, easy-to-operate facilities, requiring minimal maintenance, while optimised feeding modes and an advanced feeding management system enable the reduction of the Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR). All this contributes to low-cost production.

Sustainable produce

Strictly-controlled biosecurity protocols throughout each facility and a rigorous veterinary health plan Proximar Seafood AS construction site in Japan – overview make the use of antibiotics or chemicals unnecessary. What’s more, fish welfare is emphasised throughout the production facility in the Far East. AquaMaof’s R&D, training entire lifecycle, through the maintenance of a balanced density and production facility in Poland is also successfully producing and creation of a unique ecosystem, tailored to the specific fish Atlantic salmon. species being grown, to optimise living conditions and minimise Other projects that are currently in the design stage or under stress. construction include: Smart Salmon in Norway, which is in Going even further than ensuring efficient use of energy advanced stages of design with plans to start construction soon; and water, AquaMoaf’s production technology results in Atakama Yellowtail in Chile, which will produce 900 tonnes per minimal liquid discharge. Together with compliance with ESG year of Yellowtail Kingfish, contributing to the diversification (Environmental, Social and Governance) criteria, this makes plan originally initiated by CORFO and the Chilean government; for a sustainable aquaculture production method, with minimal and a Smøgenlax project in Sweden, which will be part of a environmental footprint. The result is a tasty, nutritious and fresh product, grown without circular economy industrial park. In addition, a salmon production facility for Proximar Seafood antibiotics or chemicals, that can be steadily produced and AS is in the final stages of construction in Japan, with its first supplied to the local market. batch of eggs expected in Q3 of 2022.

Globally proven results

AquaMaof’s RAS technology has been proven at several sites around the world, with a number of additional projects under construction worldwide. Among the projects that are already up and running are: Grieg Seafood NL in Canada, where there is an operational hatchery and nursery facility that just recently transferred smolts into the sea; a catfish production facility in Slovakia; an F-Trout facility that has been operational in Russia since 2014; and a Grouper

Proximar Seafood AS - sustainable fish production in Japan

Located close to the iconic Mount Fuji, less than two hours' trucking distance from Japan’s two largest cities of Tokyo and Yokohama, the Proximar Seafood AS salmon production facility is a fully-integrated indoor salmon farm. Based on AquaMaof RAS technology, it includes a hatchery, nursery, grow-out and processing facilities, as well as

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Proximar Seafood AS construction site at the foot of mount Fuji

management, operational and processing zones. The first large-scale RAS facility in Japan, with a target production volume of 5300 tons (HOG) when operating at full capacity, it will provide the local market with fresh Atlantic salmon, harvested the same day. With production taking place in a fully-closed environment, with minimal environmental footprint, both locally and globally, Proximar’s land-based facility secures a sustainable and safe product. High-quality production with enhanced feed efficiency also contributes to more stable harvest volumes, all year round. As well as the minimal use of water, electricity and additives typical of AquaMaof facilities, Proximar will recycle 99.7% of water used, efficiently reducing freshwater consumption and wastewater volume, in support of local water pollution regulations. Similarly, the facility’s proximity to market significantly shortens the supply chain and eliminates the need for eco-unfriendly air freight, in support of Japan’s environmental regulations for the reduction of CO2 emissions.

Proximar Seafood AS – PSG

Atlantic salmon produced in the R&D and training facility in Poland

As part of its evaluation, JCR set out the social benefits of this aquaculture project in terms of preventing marine pollution and conserving biodiversity; food security and sustainable food supply for consumers; and revitalisation of local industries. ‍Last year, Proximar Seafood also received a 100 percent CICERO Dark Green shading for its investment in the production facility, in recognition of the project’s “potential to take large steps toward a long-term low-carbon solution for the industry.”

A promising partnership

In recent years, there has been an increase in awareness of environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) issues among Japanese consumers. With this RAS technology-based project, facilitated by its partnership with AquaMaof, Proximar Seafood is poised to become the leading provider addressing the growing demand for sustainablyproduced seafood as a source of highGary Myers – AquaMaof STO at the R&D and training facility quality protein in the region. For AquaMaof, it marks the company’s entry into a critical market, expanding its reach and impact in leveraging cutting-edge technologies to create efficient landObjective assessments based aquaculture installations that are both nature friendly and In March 2022, Proximar Seafood AS was awarded a top financially beneficial, delivering clean, healthy, high-quality fish, rating of SU1(F) by the Japan Credit Rating Agency (JCR), today and into the future. following a review of the company’s sustainability framework.

36 | July 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

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Autonomous feeding solutions

Understanding fish behaviour in order to feed more efficiently by Frank Varik, Feeding Specialist, Bluegrove, Trondheim, Norway

Hydroacoustics and deep learning algorithms have the ability to monitor, analyse and help understand fish behaviour, enabling farmers to respond to fish’s needs and appetite. Autonomous feeding solutions go one step further: they feed automatically, based on what happens underwater, promoting more efficient and sustainable aquaculture. Today’s salmon farming is quite complex. In large-scale operations, running various processes simultaneously on top of caring for live animals, many things can go wrong. Especially during the sea phase, where low visibility, lack of insight, or limited data can cause difficulties. Take feeding for instance. Feeding is a complex task. With hundreds of thousands of fish in a cage, it is an almost impossible task for a human to monitor all the fish at the same time, understand their appetite and feed them all in the most efficient way. It’s a bit like chess; feeders have to analyse complex situations and make calculations and decisions under time stress. They must read the landscape, react to countermoves, and constantly revise their strategy. One human operator feeds 10 to 12 cages at the same time, so in a sense, they are playing 12 different games of chess at the same time.

Focus on the fish

One of the most common, and well-known risks in the feeding process is the potential issue of overfeeding. Overfeeding means uneaten pellets end up on the seabeds, without having contributed to the growth of the fish or the results of the company. To get better control of feeding, mitigate the risk of overfeeding, and optimise the operations, technology, such as pellet detectors, entered the salmon market in the ‘90s, aiming to help farmers prevent feed waste. These solutions have been helpful, however, they address only one side of the feeding process. In order to find other areas to improve feeding, the key is to shift focus from a farmer’s perspective to the perspective of the fish. Once start thinking on behalf of the fish, one will find ways that often help optimise the production, lower production costs, and increase sustainability at the same time. Take the risk of feeding too little, for instance. It might not seem as important as the risk of feeding too much in terms of finances, however, from a fish’s perspective, underfeeding is unpleasant, unsatisfactory, and even stressful. 38 | July 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY From a growth perspective, underfeeding is not efficient either. Farmers that are conservative in their feeding approach and feed fish too little, usually do not take out the full growth and health potential of their fish. They might miss out on periodical growth spurts of the fish. The risk here is smaller fish, less revenue, or fish having to spend more time at sea to grow to their full potential. These can lead to the possibility of diseases, higher feed conversion rates, or increased costs. It is interesting to see that feeding risks related to a fish’s wellbeing have traditionally got less attention than the ones focused on cost savings. However, after years of research, experiences from farmers, and an increased focus on welfare, we now know that by taking good care of fish, economic results will benefit, too. That is why today, feed management is all about understanding and responding to the fish’s needs. And to do so, we need tech and data.

Underwater insight

Underwater understanding is at the core of autonomous feeding solutions. Take Bluegrove’s autonomous feeding solution, for example. It combines hydroacoustic sensor technology and deep learning algorithms to optimise feeding. It uses a data-driven approach to feeding. The computer does the work, and a human operator simply interacts with the system. This autonomous feeding system makes its own decisions about when and how much to feed the fish, based on data and objective analysis of fish behaviour and appetite. The goal is to meet the appetite of the fish and realise the growth potential every day, throughout every day of a production cycle, and to do this without wasting any feed.

Hydroacoustic sensors accurately observe the behaviour of fish in cages and provide an enormous amount of data, helping to increase underwater understanding. Most cages are equipped with two sensors: one pointing upwards and one pointing downwards. This way over 70 percent of the cage volume can be monitored at once. The sensors measure how the fish in the cage swim and school. Most focus goes to the vertical distribution in and around the feeding zone, which is an important indicator of increased or lowered appetite. One benefit of using hydroacoustics is the capability to feed regardless of poor visibility in the sea, sometimes caused by algae blooms or by short days in the wintertime near the polar circles. Hydroacoustics can detect fish in pitch dark or even during the worst algae blooms. Echograms presented in the dashboard provide farmers with a real-time visual representation of where the fish are positioned in the cages.

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Data-driven feeding decisions

A set of behavioural data gathered from the sensors is not the only input factor for appetite analysis. Other factors are environmental data such as water temperature or current, feeding data, and biological input factors. By combining and crunching all of these data sets using deep learning algorithms, the autonomous feeding system detects patterns in behaviour. These patterns help understand the appetite of the fish and enable the system to make continuous real-time decisions and adjustments during every meal to feed dynamically. The system knows when to start or stop feeding in order to make the most of the growth potential of the fish. As long as the fish are hungry, the system will respond by providing feed. When appetite decreases, the system lowers or even stops feeding, preventing feed waste from happening. Even though the system feeds automatically, farmers can always decide to override the feeding decisions made by the computer. A huge advantage of autonomous feeding systems compared to manual feeding is that it gives farmers more control over their feeding while having to worry less about pushing the buttons. Farmers only have to watch one single screen to see how the population in all cages on the site behaves underwater, rather than looking at a wall of screens showing camera images. Also, as the system takes care of the feeding, farmers have more time left to perform other important tasks at the farm.

Let the system decide

Feeding is one of the most important aspects of salmon farming. So, giving away the feeding task to a computer is quite a big decision. When considering autonomous feeding most farmers start by installing hydroacoustic sensors to get a better understanding of how the population in their cage moves, schools, and responds to feed. Once they experience how the feeding recommendations provided by the system help them increase results, they tend to give away more control to the computer. The next step then is autonomous feeding. Full autonomous feeding means that the system takes care of every meal, 24/7 and 365 days a year, and does that based on the farmers’ preferences, insights gained from the underwater sensors, behavioural analysis, and recommendations provided by the algorithm. Feeding can then even be performed outside of working hours, as no human operator is needed to push the buttons. With data-driven and autonomous feeding, and a computer responding to what the fish want, farmers can increase their operational results, achieve better growth rates, use scarce resources more efficiently, waste less feed waste, and improve welfare. This contributes to a better fish economy and sustainability at the same time.

The future

There is so much possible with tech and data. Using behavioural analysis and deep learning mechanisms, we can combine different sources of information, analyse huge amounts of datasets and find patterns in behaviour that are impossible for humans to detect. With these insights, we can do more than just improve feeding. Changes in schooling or abnormalities in fish behaviour, for instance, often indicate something is about to happen: either a virus or disease outbreak is coming, fish act stressed, or an algae bloom is about to occur. Whenever specific changes in behaviour appear, future technology will notice them and warn the operator, who can then take the necessary precautions actions earlier than usual. Salmon farming is becoming more and more of a high-tech industry. And that is understandable. Tech and data are the keys to giving us unique insight into what nature's systems and species require of us. This way we all benefit: both farmers and fish.

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20/12/2021 19:02


Navigating disruptive times

Working towards safe fish farming operations in exposed locations by Hans Bjelland, Research Director, SINTEF Ocean, Norway Farmed fish require less water, area, feed, and energy than farmed animals on land. That is why fish farming is often presented as a sustainable solution to the world's food needs. Yet, fish farming also has problems. Can we solve the problems by taking the industry to places that earlier were previously considered to be inaccessible? So, in order for fish farming to be considered as a legitimate and realistic solution, its problems must be solved, with these problems including lice, pollution, area conflicts, fish escape leading to genetic consecration of wild fish and so on. Thus, some fish farmers have moved their farming to sites that are more remote and/or have harsher environmental conditions. What they look for is increased distance from wild salmon and between the facilities to decrease conflict with fishers and local communities, and to improve prevention of lice and diseases. Another motivation is increased water replacement to improve production. This can be the future of fish farming. Yet, as these sites are challenging in terms of waves, wind and current – how can we safeguard the farmed fish, personnel, and environment? Our research centre Exposed Aquaculture Operations has been researching this for seven years. As Research Centre Director, I can say that we have one year left of our project period, and now it is a matter of sharing the knowledge we have gathered. Research dissemination is therefore high on the agenda in 2022. Shared knowledge can drive developments in the right direction. The industry and politicians need research results to make knowledge-based decisions when assessing different solutions for future aquaculture.

The new husbandry

The last fifty years, Norwegian fish has gone from being something that had to be caught to becoming a livestock, in the sense that they are bred for food production. Even if the fish live in an element other than mammals, and even if their pen, or cage,

Contact persons: Hans Bjelland and Kristine Størkersen.

SFI EXPOSED is a centre for research-based innovation, led by the host institute Sintef Ocean, and funded by partners and the Research Council of Norway. is underwater and out of sight, the welfare of these animals shall be safeguarded according to the same principle as animals in agriculture. This understanding has changed radically since the first Norwegian farmed salmon was slaughtered around 1971. The same applies to awareness of fish diseases, sea lice and environmental impact, and not least the personnel safety. In 2021, 7100 people were employed by the 163 fish-farming companies operating at 990 sites along the Norwegian coast. In addition, come the personnel in all the service companies surrounding the aquaculture industry. These persons work in Norway's second most accident-prone industry, only fishermen have a more dangerous profession. The current problems in fish farming limit the expansion of the industry, at the same time as another issue has created a desire for growth: the demands for sustainable food production. In the CO2 accounts, the meat from farmed fish comes out favorably. Fish spend less energy than livestock, as fish floats in the water and are alternate vertebrates that adjusts the body temperature to the surroundings. Lower body energy consumption requires less feed. The fish also do not need a heated house, but is usually bred in low energy-intensive operating facilities. At least on the Norwegian coast, most fish farming takes place in open net cages at sea. And surely the blue planet should have enough water to farm in? This leads us back to the research of SFI EXPOSED.

42 | July 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Potential at exposed fish farming sites

Let us take a quick look at what is the situation of exposed sites, or rather: places that are exposed to strong forces of nature. This means strong and unstable winds, high waves, or murky and complex current and wave conditions, as well as distances that make it impossible to rely on personnel present on the pens every day. Should problems arise, it will take time to get the right resources to the place to solve it. The fish ought to be healthy, the personnel safe, and the equipment must withstand the physical strains. This require new methods and equipment in addition to what has been used in sheltered fjords. To make it possible to operate safely in exposed locations, SFI EXPOSED has developed more knowledge about: - The fish – the main actor. More knowledge about the fish is a prerequisite for developing technology and solutions that provide welfare for the fish. - How the structures, pens and nets must be constructed to withstand environmental conditions at exposed sites without compromising fish welfare and personnel safety. - Vessels and equipment that can be used safely and efficiently on a daily basis, also in harsh conditions. - Systems and strategies to provide safety and welfare for fish, environment, and personnel - More autonomous technology that makes daily routine work and regular operations less risky, demanding and more precise. - Solutions for monitoring that give people a basis for making good decisions even if they are not present on the pens. The decisions shall safeguard the fish, environment, personnel, and the equipment.

Over almost eight years, 19 partner organisations have worked together to find the good solutions. The cooperation between fish farmers, supplier companies and research environment has yielded results on what the fish and materials can withstand, and how to organise operations to succeed in safe exposed operations. It may sound easy to change people with automated cranes or underwater robots in risky operations with wind and waves, but there is a lot of work behind technology that will do precise tasks and work in sea water that moves everything in different directions.

Not forgetting the overall picture…

At SFI EXPOSED, researchers and industry representatives have studied the above-mentioned topics in various ways, employing everything from fundamental research to technology development. Policy advice are also given to Norwegian actors, since the general findings suggest what society, policymakers and the industry must be aware of, for the fish farming industry to produce safe and healthy food to the world. Area shortage is a huge concern for the Norwegian fish farming industry. Where to find "good and suitable areas", as the Norwegian government has called for? Other projects explore the possibilities for farming on land. However, land-based aquaculture faces its own challenges, such as fish welfare, increased energy consumption, and the need for land use. The aquaculture industry is in a period of change, with many possible directions forward and it is crucial that the directions chosen protects the environment, fish, and employees. SFI EXPOSED's job is to ensure robust and safe solutions.

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TECHNOLOGY SH Innovations this month July 2022 In this month’s Product Showcase, we feature a range of technologies that are specifically designed to assist with both the rearing and harvesting of fish. This list of innovative fish farm apparatus includes a water quality monitoring probe, a compact knife and a life preserving survival vest. If you would like your product or service to appear in this section in a future edition of International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine, then please contact us at editorial@perendale.co.uk

Crewfit 275N XD Fish Farm wipe clean orange manual harness by Survitec Designed in conjunction with leading fish farm operatives, the bespoke Crewfit 275N XD lifejacket is modified specifically for fish farm use. This ISO approved lifejacket includes an enhanced option to include attachment points to accommodate an easy access radio and quick release knife. Important additions for those operating remotely in a fish farm environment. The wipe clean cover helps to ensure increased longevity when used continuously in the harshest of working environments, whilst the fabric shoulder panels retain a comfortable fit. The 275N bladder out-performs approval and offers 290N worth of buoyancy. The unique buoyancy distribution provides exceptional turning solutions even when wearing heavy clothing. The bladder is highly visible on inflation and hosts an impressive array of features including a built-in chin support, location beacon attachment points and dual lifting beckets. https://survitecgroup.co

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Sapphire Sealpro by Garware Latest offering from the R&D stable at Garware Technical Fibres – Sapphire Sealpro is developed to give a very good cut resistance and stiffness. This enables it to be used as a predator protection net-cum-cage bag net where the predation problem is not very high. (For high predation levels please refer Sapphire Ultracore – patent pending). The Sapphire material prevents large scale algae growth and also the algae do not get ‘stuck’ into the netting. For a biting fish like Cod this product could be a blessing as their sharp teeth may not be able to cut the net easily! Further features and benefits of this offering from Garware technical fibres includes a much higher cut resistance than Normal PE Braided netting. The use of machine cleaning is also more efficient due to the net’s high stiffness & excellent abrasion resistance especially when wet. https://garwarefibres.com

Co-Pilot by NRS The NRS Co-Pilot knife is packed with a host of great features including smooth and serrated cutting edges, blunt safety tip, bottle opener, its compact design is a fine fit on your PFD. An excellent knife for freshwater boating and rescue, the Co-Pilot has both super-sharp smooth and serrated sections for all of your cutting needs. The blunt tip design protects against unintentional puncture of your gear or yourself. For saltwater use, choose the NRS Titanium Co-Pilot Knife. As another safety feature, the blade is only sharpened on the one edge. This, along with the blunt tip, helps prevent injury in a tight rescue situation. The comfortable rubberised grip wraps around the contoured handle, giving you maximum control of the blade. The sheath clip attaches firmly to a PFD lash tab, with a bottle opener and an oxygen tank valve wrench also included in the handle. www.nrs.com

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Check out our website dedicated to fish farming technology


HOWCASE Proteus Multi-parameter water quality sensor by RS Hydro The Proteus is the world’s first scientifically proven real-time sensor for measuring BOD that can measure a wide range of water quality, environmental and industrial applications. Described as an award-winning, patented, multi-parameter, real-time sensor platform, it is designed to accurately and reliably measure BOD, COD, TOC and Coliforms (total, E. coli or faecal) in permanent and temporary applications. A multiprobe that measures your choice of parameter, all in one package, that can deliver data in the toughest field conditions. The Proteus has been designed for its ease of use, reliable data and economical operation. Proteus is the first instrument to measure bacteria/coliforms in drinking water in real-time, whilst its built in wiper which cleans sensors before every cycle. It can also be easily integrated with telemetry/SCADA systems and other datalogging devices with external RS232/Modbus/ SDI12. www.rshydro.co.uk

www.onlinemillingschool.com R3-IoT Connected by Seafarm Satellite-communications company R3-IoT recently launched its new Connected Seafarm solution, which aims to solve the challenges in digitising remote aquaculture operations and sites. The Connected Seafarm is a full end-to-end data services solution – from sensors to an insights platform – which wirelessly and seamlessly connects smart devices from anywhere in the world for automatic, continuous data collection regardless of available connectivity infrastructure. In-situ weather data, environmental data and operational data is collected and automatically transmitted securely via the cloud, either to existing in-house systems, or to R3-IoT's data insights platform, which displays easy to understand graphs and charts on desktop and mobile. The solution uses built in dual cellular and satellite technology to provide peace of mind that remote teams can access site data 24/7, regardless of conditions and infrastructure, removing complexity but not ownership. https://aqfeed.info/e/1503

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 45


Aquaculture case study

Sea cucumber

Investigating Holothuria scabra mariculture in Indonesia

Blue flashes of bioluminescence trail from my fins like pixie dust as I survey the project sea pen. How many sea cucumbers are visible tonight? This species we are farming often burrows, making it hard to estimate the population in the pen. My swim tonight is part of research we are doing to better understand and manage this fascinating animal. I spot a nocturnal blue crab intent on one of our juvenile sea cucumbers becoming his dinner. A moment later I’ve trapped him; he is now an item on my menu.

by Steve Holloway, Mariculture Consultant, Innovare, UK

The humble sea cucumber is a curious animal. They are members of the phylum Echinodermata along with sea stars, sea urchins, and sand dollars, to name just a few. Globally, there are at least 1700 species of sea cucumbers. They are found in all the oceans of the world and at all depths. Most sea cucumbers creep along the seabed on hundreds of tiny tube feet. Others live in burrows in the sea bottom and a few species swim. These simple animals have no brain, relying on a nerve network instead – like our human reflex system. They have no eyes, yet they can detect changes in light levels through their skin. At one end is their mouth, for eating. However, the rear end is used for both elimination… and breathing. They absorb oxygen from the water through their vascular system.

Sea cucumbers are a vital part of the nutrient recycling process in marine ecosystems. They eat sand, digesting the organic matter in it. What comes out is then cleaner than what went in! They play an important role in reducing the organic load in benthic environments, which makes them a species of interest in keeping mariculture sites cleaner. Sea cucumbers cannot outrun predators; instead, they use natural defences. When attacked, some have sticky Cuvierian tubules they release to entangle predators. These tubules also contain a toxin called holothurin. Other species carry the holothurin toxin in their body walls and can excrete it into the water to warn predators off, since this toxin can be poisonous to fish. Fishermen gutting and cleaning harvested sea cucumbers often find fish kills down current.

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An amazing ability

To confuse or scare predators, other sea cucumbers will expel half of their internal organs, which are then regenerated within a few days. Their amazing ability to regrow tissue foiled many of our early efforts to tag or mark individuals, as they easily sloughed off plastic tags or healed over incisions. Sea cucumbers are numbered among the four ocean treasures of Cantonese cuisine, which also includes shark fins, abalone, and fish bladders. They have long been regarded as a delicacy in China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Malaysia, and Singapore. Generally, they are sold dehydrated, though they can be purchased fresh or frozen. Typically, after rehydrating, they are added into soups or stir fry, eaten raw or pickled. Being relatively bland, they are often combined with flavour-infusing ingredients. Their value in Asian cultures is reflected in the fact that they are

often packaged in ornate boxes to be given as status gifts. Sea cucumbers are not only valued for food. There is a significant and popular industry for sea cucumber health products in Asia and within Asian diaspora populations around the world. The Chinese word for sea cucumbers, Hǎishēn, literally means ‘ginseng of the sea.’ Extracts of the animals are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat ailments like arthritis, cancer, frequent urination, and impotence. These many valued characteristics of sea cucumbers has been translated into a multi-billion-dollar industry globally. This in turn has motivated Asian businessmen scour the world, encouraging fishermen to harvest marketable sea cucumbers from coastal waters. As a result, natural stocks of commercial species have been severely depleted in many parts of the world. Governments often

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 47


Abang Sap emerged from the murky shallows cradling several H. scabra to weigh. His home, built over the water, overlooks their family pen. Abang’s sea cucumbers grow more quickly than those in other project pens, even those situated a few hundred metres away on either side. We don’t know why. More things to research. A neighbour collecting scallops nearby stands and runs towards us, beaming as he holds out his hands. He has a juvenile H. scabra, the tenth one found on the reef this week. The natural spawning in project pens are beginning to reseed the reef flats. Just a few years ago islanders had collected H. scabra to sell to Asian businessmen, completely decimating the population along all the reefs in this part of Indonesia. How satisfying to see a sign that the species could be restored to this ecosystem once again.

react by placing bans on collection, but these policies are difficult to enforce.

Establishing a benchmark

In the 1990s I surveyed several commercially important sea cucumber species in one tropical country to establish a benchmark for our research. Within ten years the populations of sea cucumbers in the waters surrounding that country had been decimated. At the time of our survey the cucumbers were plentiful in the shallow reef flats, now the only way to find market-weight specimens requires scuba diving over thirty metres. Recognising that current harvesting habits were not sustainable, and that the market would remain voracious, scientists around the world began to research temperate and tropical sea cucumber species with an eye towards culturing them. By 1970, China and Japan were successful in farming temperate species. More recently, this global research effort has resulted in a better understanding of some important tropical species. These investigations revealed insights into key stages of their lifecycle, including spawning, free-swimming to settled larvae, development of juvenile seedstock, and grow-out to market weight in sea pens. Applied experience over time has helped to translate this research into culture strategies, revealing both the challenges and best practices for each stage. Much of this research has focused on one popular tropical species, Holothuria scabra.

Developing mariculture techniques

Over the past ten years I have been consulting with Innovare, one of several initiatives around the world that have drawn on the research above to develop mariculture techniques for H. scabra. After years of trial and error, and through collaboration with

similar projects, Innovare has gained control over all the lifecycle stages of H. scabra in their environment. They are now successfully breeding their own seedstock to place in village sea pens. Innovare project staff intentionally wanted to pursue a wholistic approach to sea cucumber production for the Asian market. So, they have invested in a social enterprise model which supports local community development objectives through a sustainable business structure. With this basic approach they then sought out an Indonesian fishing village which was already demonstrating respect for their environment along with an interest in exploring opportunities in sea farming. Once a community was chosen, project leaders with a deep understanding of local language and culture talked with community leaders to develop a plan. Agreements were made on profit-sharing for sea cucumber stock sold from cages off their coast, with the proceeds going to support village development projects. Initial capital was then invested in infrastructure such as the hatchery, a laboratory and sea pens. Local fishermen were hired to build and maintain project pens and facilities, tend the project stock, track health and growth, act as security guards, and process the harvest. Innovare project staff work hard to build relationships and maintain goodwill in these artisanal fishing communities. Many of the project and hatchery staff are hired locally, then trained to run the hatchery and engage villagers as mariculture extension workers. Innovare also has a partnership with a nearby university, who send students to carry out research projects at their hatchery, furthering both the project and university goals. An internship program is planned to start sometime in the next year.

Collaborating with local villages

Development of marine protected areas (MPAs) is another way

48 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

CS Innovare collaborates with local villages. The natural fisheries around the villages near the Innovare project have been overexploited, and MPAs have the ability to reseed and restore depleted fisheries. Prior to the Innovare project, the island where the hatchery is located had established a marine reserve nearby. They have welcomed the project’s help to develop this further – a plan delayed by the worldwide pandemic. We hope to take this up again this next year. Currently Innovare is looking for new locations, not only to farm sea cucumbers but also to set up other low-capital hatchery systems to support local maricultural efforts. Indonesia hosts many ideal environments to do this. In many ways our project is a young pioneering initiative still in its formative stages. It has been a bit of a dance: moving a few steps forward, a step back, then forward again. Despite the worldwide pandemic, the project has progressed in some significant ways. Currently it is on track to benefit both these artisanal fishing villages and assist in the restoration process for local fisheries. For more about the Innovare project, visit their website: https://innovaredev.com


ct V a i Bo m I s i t ot nt e u s h r n at 1. a 43 tio 2 na


Steve Holloway is a marine biologist and author. He lives with his family in England and consults with projects like Innovare as part of his work with a Christian charity. His debut novel, Pelagia: Between the Stars and the Abyss, was published by Lion Fiction in June 2021. It is a near future thriller set against the drama of pioneering and settling the open seas.



www.tsc-silos.com Silo b lo c k for d osi ng , 2 . 9 0 0 m 3 i n 36 bi n s

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 49

Industry Events

Status updates for industry events amidst global effects of COVID-19 27-30 Aquaculture Europe 2022 Rimini, Italy www.aquaeas.org

2022 July 6-8 16th Indo Livestock Jakarta, Indonesia www.indolivestock.com 2022

August 3-5 Ildex Vietnam 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.ildex-vietnam.com


12-14 Vietstock 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.vietstock.org 2022

9-11 Ildex Indonesia 2022 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com

15-18 Aquaculture Canada and WAS North America 2022 St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada www.was.org/meeting/code/WANA2021

15-18 EuroTier 2022 Hannover, Germany www.eurotier.com

23-25 Aquaculture Philippines 2022 Manila, Philippines www.livestockphilippines.com

29-2 World Aquaculture Singapore 2022 Singapore www.was.org

September 1-3 Taiwan SMART Agriweek 2022 Taipei, Taiwan www.taiwanagriweek.com

November 9-11 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2022 St. Petersburg, Florida, USA www.afia.org

10-12 Livestock Malaysia 2022 Malacca, Malaysia www.livestockmalaysia.com




December 13-15 AlgaEurope 2022 Rome, Italy https://algaeurope.org

6 Aquaculture Innovation Forum London, UK aquacultureinnovationforum.com

4-6 Fish International 2022 Bremen, Germany https://fishinternational.de 7-8 Seagriculture USA 2022 Portland, Maine, USA https://seagriculture-usa.com 13-15 SPACE 2022 Rennes, France http://uk.space.fr 22-23 Aquaculture New Zealand Conference 2022 Nelson, New Zealand www.aquaculture.org.nz ☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event


2023 March 8-10 VIV Asia 2023 Nonthaburi, Thailand www.vivasia.nl

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May 29-1 World Aquaculture 2023 Darwin, Australia www.was.org


23-26 Aquaculture America 2023 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA www.was.org 2023



June 8-10 VIV Turkey Istanbul, Turkey www.vivturkey.com

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2023

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World Aquaculture Singapore 2022

Nov. 29 - Dec. 2, 2022

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Industry Events

Time for study & reflection


During the 20th ISFNF gathering in Sorrento, Italy by Roger Gilbert, International Aquafeed magazine

fter many delays and postponements due to the pandemic, Italy became the host venue for the 20th International Symposium on Fish Feeding and Nutrition (ISFNF). The event took place in Sorrento from June 5-9, 2022 and was the first time the organisation had an opportunity to gather. Unfortunately, many of its Asian and Chinese fish scientists, nutritionists and researchers found it too difficult to attend. However, over 400 delegates were in attendance and the program was full, with 80 15-minute presentations and several keynote addresses forming the foundation of the four-day program. Sorrento, with its world renowned views and ocean vistas, provided an ideal venue for the event with a range of accommodations within easy reach of the Hilton Palace Hotel which hosted the symposium and offered an out-door reception on

the first evening and a gala dinner on the penultimate evening. Mid-way through the four-day event the organisers provided a number of half-day tours which allowed delegates a much deserved break from the intensity of the conference hall. Twelve sessions were held in total ranging from Physiology and Nutritional Requirements to Alternative Protein Sources to Feed Additives and Functional Feeds to Nutrition and Fish Health. The three keynote speakers included the Deputy Directory of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Division, Dr Audun Lem, who is responsible for aquaculture activities and post-harvest issues; Policy Officer Dr Nikos Zampoukas from the European Commission which is developing research and innovation policies for aquaculture, fisheries and bio-technology and Louise Buttle who has been working in the aquaculture industry for more than two decades with much of that time spent with EWOS-Cargill in the salmon feed industry. Today, she is with the DSM Aqua team. Ms Buttle gave a broad-ranging review of sustainability in the aquaculture sector and International Aquafeed features her presentation in this edition.




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www.vivhealthandnutrition.nl 52 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Concentration & intensity

This conference was not for the light-hearted, in fact there was an intensity in the conference room that reflected the interest and concentration of the audience in the presentations being made. Speakers were kept to a strict time limit for their presentations. This conference does not offer concurrent sessions so there were no interruptions to attendees’ concentration that this might have caused. This was a thinking person’s Symposium. It was also a conference that encouraged its PhD and other graduate students to present their research which produced a number of high-quality presentations. A panel set up to identify the best young researcher’s presentation could not separate the top three and had to select a winner based on a draw.

Poster Presentations

An impressive aspect of the Symposium was the area set aside in the Hilton Palace Hotel congress area for Poster Presentations. Posters were displayed for one day only, being swapped out to allow for all 77 to be available to delegates. Once again this was an area of concentration and discussion between viewers and researchers who were on hand to explain their research and their findings. This is very much a science- and research-focused meeting point for the aquaculture industry, and one which has in recent times extended membership and attendance to include commercial companies with an interest and commitment to aquaculture research. In fact, the event was supported by 17 sponsors in total including Silver Sponsors Adisseo, Aker BioMarine, IRIDA, Zinpro and CFeed with DSM being the Platinum Sponsor. It is clear that the aquaculture industry wishes to support the objectives of

the ISFNF, which is in the process of developing its structure to become a more formalised platform for the advancement of science in aquaculture. International Aquafeed was the only media partner in attendance, and we were able to video interview both the current President of the ISFNF Dr Brett Glencross and chair of the organising committee Dr Alessio Bonaldo. We also carry a Q&A interview with Dr Glencross on the following pages.

This month on IAF TV Dr Alessio Bonaldo Dr Alessio Bonaldo is an Associate Professor in the Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences at the University of Bologna, Italy was the chair of the recent long-delayed ISFNF 2022 symposium held in Sorrento, Italy from June 5-9, 2022. He talks about a policy of encouraging PhD and other graduates to pursue a career in fish nutrition with ISFNF offers them an opportunity to present their research work. See more at: aqfeed.info/e/1500 Dr Brett Glencross Dr Brett Glencross, as the co-organiser of this year’s International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding, talks about the highlights of the four-day event and the way forward for the Symposium in terms of its future structure and operation. Sign up for our language editions here: https:// millingandgrain.com/languageedition-codes-54556 See more at: aqfeed.info/e/1501

Watch more videos at: www.aquafeed.co.uk/videos

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 53

WA2021 The Great Celebration of World Aquaculture

with a Mayan flavour


Held from May 24 - 27, the international aquaculture sector gathered in Mérida, Mexico; It was definitely worth the wait! by Clarissa Garza de Yta, International Aquafeed he World Aquaculture Society (WAS) never gets it wrong when choosing the venues for its events, and in this edition of its maximum meeting it confirmed this accolade by selecting the state of Yucatan as its location to carry out a World Aquaculture. After several date changes due to Covid-19, it can be said that WA2021 was a complete success, with the event far exceeding the expectations of all attendees. Amongst the ups and downs that we continue to experience due to Covid-19 – with its different waves, situations, and

complications, it is worth emphasising the effort that the aquaculture sector is making in all its facets including business, academic, industrial, organisational and government by supporting and attending the various events that take place in various parts of the world. This has remained the case ever since the associated economic uncertainty began, which is still showing little sign of reaching a complete and peaceful resolution any time soon. The above was reflected last May at WA2021, where people gladly came to work, do business, update, learn, interact, share knowledge and take the opportunity to celebrate seeing each other again or not seeing each other again, through a screen. With everything that was lived and enjoyed in this World

Dancers at the President Reception

Clarissa Garza de Yta, International Aquafeed LATAM General Manager, with the ‘Juego de Pelota’ players

54 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed


During the inauguration: Governor of the State of Yucatan Mauricio Vila, Dr. Lina Pohl Representative of the FAO in Mexico, Dr. Víctor Villalobos Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Biól. Citlali Gómez Lepe President of the Mexican Council for the Promotion of Fishery and Aquaculture Products, CP Rafael Combaluzier Secretary of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture of Yucatan, Dr Humberto Becerra Vice President of the National Chamber of Fisheries and Aquaculture Industries, Dr Pablo Arenas General Director of INAPESCA and of course Dr Antonio Garza de Yta President of the WAS.

Dr Antonio Garza de Yta President of WAS

Mauricio Vila, Governor of the State of Yucatan

The Exhibition Hall

Aquaculture of the WAS in Mérida, I can only tell you – it was worth the wait! The meeting started with the inauguration ceremony, honoured with the presence of the Governor of the State of Yucatan Mauricio Vila; Dr Lina Pohl Representative of the FAO in Mexico; Dr Víctor Villalobos Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development the Biól. Antonio Garza de Yta President of WAS, Rafael Citlali Gómez Lepe President of the Mexican Combaluzier Secretary of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture of Yucatan and Humberto Council for the Promotion of Fishery and Villarreal President Elect of WAS COMEPESCA booth and team Aquaculture Products; CP Rafael Combaluzier Secretary of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture of Yucatan; Dr Humberto Becerra Vice President of and obsolescence of what happens in the environment is the National Chamber of Fisheries and Aquaculture Industries; Dr generated, which competitively distances and limits anyone in the Pablo Arenas General Director of INAPESCA and of course – Dr labour field. Antonio Garza de Yta President of the WAS. For WA2021, there was a recognised specialist who is a In a formal yet emotional act, as well as addressing the current guarantee; Dr Francisco Javier Martínez Cordero as the Program situation of aquaculture both in the world and in Latin America, Conference Chair, who designed an extraordinary programme in addition to the potential that the activity has as a source of that featured different approaches and perspectives from the sustainable animal protein production, the case was also made for sector. the beautiful state of Yucatan as a location for the development of The subjects covered included from women in aquaculture, aquaculture projects and convention tourism. socioeconomics, diseases, aquaculture health, offshore ocean The stellar moment was the delivery of recognition by the WAS farming, nutrition and food, genetics, aquaculture in territorial ‘Lifetime Award’, the largest distinction for an aquaculturist at an economies, food, sustainability and climate change, production international level, where the Mtro Lorenzo Juárez Mabarak and systems, investment forums, in addition to specialised sessions on the Mtro Carlos Würmann. different species. The WAS Fellow Award went to Dr. Maria Celia Portella, with The FAO, INAPESCA and COMEPESCA also had well the WAS Industry Award to Mtro Sergio Ramón Guevara, to Biol. attended sessions during the event. María Soledad Delgadillo and Ing. Jaime Arturo Almazán de la The keynote presentations were second to none, delivered Rosa. by: Dr Barry Costa-Pierce President/CEO of the Ecological Congratulations to the WAS team John and Noah Cooksey, Aquaculture Foundation with ‘Seaweed Facts and Fantasies Mario Steal, Carolina Amezquita, Antonio Garza de Yta, and the Best Way to Accelerate Seaweed Aquaculture,’ Jim Francisco Javier Martínez Cordero and the staff of SEPASY for Sutter Chief Executive Officer-US Soybean Export Council the successful event that hosted two thousand attendees from 48 with ‘Impact of sustainability in responsible aquaculture, countries, with 382 abstracts, 48 sessions, ​​ 94 posters, 66 booths, cultivating the land to protect the ocean,’ with Carlos F 345 oral presentations; without forgetting the various tours to Wurmann President of CIDEEA with ‘Looking to the future: farms in the state of Yucatan that were also visited. challenges and opportunities for sustainable aquaculture’ and Dr Antonio Garza de Yta WAS President with ‘The importance of professional associations for the future of aquaculture’; all the Conferences, panels & presentations previous international speakers with great experience and with The exchange and broadcasting of knowledge, studies, unavoidable topics for today. research, education, and training are not only necessities for the aquaculture sector, but they are also daily tools for each company or professional. Building & strengthening relationships If there is no investment in learning and preparation, a delay Of all the experiences and lessons that the pandemic has left International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 55

us, one that undoubtedly occupies a primordial place in daily life is relationships. How fundamental and indispensable they are for personal, family, and professional life, therefore communication began to flow mainly through screens. Currently we all seek to strengthen our relationships and of course build new ones, although the WAS is recognised worldwide for the wonderful formation of professional networks that it has in its events, from students to company CEOs. The famous Happy Hours of the Commercial Exhibition, the President's Reception, the cocktails, the dinners and even the corridors of the posters or the conferences are the best opportunities to meet people, interact, close deals, find work and develop projects.

COMEPESCA & the Latin American Summit for Fisheries and Aquaculture Sustainability

As is known in the region, COMEPESCA has been working for several years to promote the consumption of fish and shellfish, however, in recent years; we can see that their efforts and work are becoming stronger by generating alliances with other related organisations, always in search of sustainability in the sector. One of the notable fruits of the above is the Latin American Summit for Fisheries and Aquaculture Sustainability. The 3rd Summit was launched in Mérida, an event that will be carried out in a hybrid way from October 12-14, 2022 in Puerto Varas, Chile. The presentation and invitation of the Summit was chaired by Citlali Gómez Lepe, President of COMEPESCA; Rafael Combaluzier, Head of SEPASY; Osciel Velásquez, President of ALPESCAS; Jairo Amezquita, Regional Program Manager of the USSEC Aquaculture Program; Antonio Garza de Yta, President of the WAS; Pablo Arenas, General Director of INAPESCA and Alejandro Flores, Principal Fisheries and Aquaculture Officer for Latin America and the Caribbean of the FAO. Biol. Gómez Lepe welcomed and stressed "the importance of collaboration with all national and international institutions to strengthen sustainability in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide." For his part, Osciel Velásquez mentions “being very excited about the launch of the Redes de América program where fishing nets of more than 6000 tonnes are recycled to manufacture products such as hats, sunglasses, and even clothing in alliance with the Patagonia brand. Likewise, Dr Garza de Yta comments that “the consumption of aquaculture products worldwide is 50% and it is estimated that it will be 70% in 2050, so the relevance of the sector is undeniable. The great challenges that we face today are training the producer, the marketer, the entire value chain, as well as decision makers. “Creating an adequate strategic planning that includes aquaculture production and reduce the environmental footprint and maximise the production and profitability of aquaculturists. Cooperation at all levels (scientists, producers, institutions, and government) is of utmost importance”. Finally, Dr Flores Nava from the FAO adds that "the main objectives of the sector are to improve social understanding of the importance of food and multisectoral dialogue and cooperation to strengthen the sustainability of fisheries and aquaculture, as well as social development and well-being of those who engage in this activity. A series of papers from various national and international organisations related to the fishing and aquaculture sector were presented to invite all those interested in the fishing and aquaculture sector.

Presentation of CIDEEA

Speaking of comics and superheroes, we are going to find

Dr María Celia Portella from UNESP Aquaculture Center

Dr Víctor Villalobos Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development and Governor of the State of Yucatan Mauricio Vila with Soledad Delgadillo WAS Fellowship Award Winner

Dr Víctor Villalobos Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development and Governor of the State of Yucatan Mauricio Vila with María Celia Portella WAS Fellowship Award Winner

Dr Francois Jegou Aquaculture Health and Performance ADM Animal Nutrition at his presentation

CIDEEA Members Carlos Wurmann, Yahira Piedrahita, Juan Carlos Uribe, Roberto Arosemena, Lorenzo Juárez, Antonio Garza de Yta, with Citlali Gómez Lepe COMEPESCA President, and Yousuf Albulushi CEO of AWJ Innovation with Eng. Humoud Al Shuikriy Vice President of AWJ Innovation

Dr Víctor Villalobos Secretary of Agriculture and Rural Development and Governor of the State of Yucatan Mauricio Vila with Carlos Wurmann, with the WAS Lifetime Award

the two main companies: Marvel or DC, both universes are extraordinary, with complex, emblematic characters and above all with talents or superpowers. It doesn't matter if you prefer the team of Captain America, Thor, Iron Man and Black Widow... or are fans of Superman, Batman, Aquaman and Wonder Woman... both groups are phenomenal and seek the common good. Now if it is about aquaculture and in Latin America, a group of specialists has just been formed that is already working and making noise in various parts of the world, its official presentation with the signing of agreements was made within the framework of WA2021, and it is the Center International Strategic Studies for Aquaculture, which is better known as CIDEEA. This group of industry specialists includes the Chilean MSc Carlos Wurmann International Consultant in Aquaculture and Fisheries Specialised in Latin America; Former President of the Strategic Salmon Program, Chile, and Former Marine Resources Manager, Fundación Chile, along with the Mexican PhD Antonio Garza de Yta President of the World Aquaculture Society, WAS, Secretary of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico and President of Aquaculture Without Frontiers. The Mexican MA Roberto Arosemena Villarreal Former Executive Director of the Mexican Tilapia Business Council. Former Executive Director of the National Association of Marine Fish Farmers. Former Technical Secretary of the Fisheries and Aquaculture Commission in the Congress of the Union in Mexico. The Ecuadorian Mag Yahira Piedrahita Executive Director of the National Chamber of Aquaculture of Ecuador. Former Director of Aquaculture and Former Director of the National Institute of Fisheries of Ecuador, the Mexican Ing Lorenzo Juárez, who is also the former president of the World Aquaculture Society and former deputy director of the Department of Aquaculture of the NOAA of

56 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

the Federal Government of the United States. Chilean Aquaculture Engineer Juan Carlos Uribe Associate Professor, University of Chile and Los Lagos, Creator, and former Director of the Yousuf Albulushi from AWJ Innovation, Carlos Wurmann from The Women from Ix´cay de Santa María Acú join CIDEEA, Citlali Gómez Lepe from COMEPESCA Clarissa Garza de Yta, at the IAF Booth Aquaculture area at the University, with extensive work on salmonids, sturgeons, turbot farming and other species, See you in Oman for World Aquaculture 2024 and national and international projects. The Chilean Aquaculture As I mentioned from the beginning, one of the distinctions and Engineer, specialised in Aquatic Cultures, Aquaculture good taste of the WAS is the selection of venues for all its events. Engineering, Project Preparation and Evaluation, with varied We know that they are safe places, excellent for working and experience in Chile and other countries. networking. In addition to having great tourist and gastronomic attractions, each event invites us to learn about and explore various cultures and even traditions of the selected places. Yucatan amazed the attendees The location of World Aquaculture 2024 has been announced Yucatan is considered one of the states with the greatest and the excitement, as well as the expectation, are swift: Muscat, security, investment, and development in Mexico in recent years. Oman! I suggest you start researching this wonderful country It has impressive archaeological sites, amazing cenotes, unique that overflows with history, culture, and multiple charms of the gastronomy and a broad cultural offering. Middle East. The Yucatecans are hospitable by nature, for a reason it is one The people are very friendly and helpful, the food is of the states that receives a strong influx of tourists from various exquisite, its convention centre is first class, the city is beautiful parts of the world throughout the year. During the President's Reception, the State Government presented a show with ‘The Ball everywhere; in addition, there are plenty of shopping options Game’ as well as regional dances and dramatisations that all those and diverse places to visit throughout Oman, be it desert, beach, or mountain; here you can choose your place to get away and present greatly enjoyed. explore new horizons. Many participants travelled with their families to tour the main In Oman, if things are done, they are done well, they are not towns, beaches, Mayan temples, Chichen Itzá, among others, to done halfway. So, the confidence that it will be a spectacular take a pleasant memory of Yucatan back to their places of origin. event, you can have it for sure.

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 57

Industry Events The 6th Annual Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference Highlights from the program held at VIV Europe 2022 in Utrecht, The Netherlands by Dr Mian N Riaz, Texas A&M University, USA

International Aquafeed, VIV worldwide and Dr Mian N Riaz from Texas A&M University hosted their annual 6th Aqua feed conference at the VIV Event in Uterich, Netherland, on June 1, 2022. This conference was attended by more than 50 participants from all over the world. Below are the highlights for each talk given by 10 international speakers at this conference.

Aquafeed production lines are today expected to offer more process flexibility, reliability and durability that can be achieved using twin-screw extrusion technology. Furthermore, in order to produce both optimal floating and sinking feed, precise control of the pellet expansion and density is necessary.

Dr Mian N Riaz, Head of the Extrusion Technology Program at Texas A&M University, USA

Mr Pereira gave an overview about making shrimp feed with extrusion technology. There are several different types of shrimp feed that is being made such as larvae and post larvae, starter, grower, finisher and brood stock. This feed can be herbivore and omnivore and pellet stability in water and making is 100 percent sinking are the most important factors for shrimp feed. Finished feed must have high protein, low starch and fibre and required amount of minerals and vitamins.

Dr Riaz gave his talk on effect of protein, starch, and fat on aqua feed extrusion. He discussed the sources of the protein (animal vs plant protein) for the aqua feed and their nutritional and functional quality. Dr Riaz also explains how the functional and non-functional proteins work in the aqua feed extrusion. The role of starch in making floating and sinking feed and fat in the raw material, whilst small changes in fat contact in the raw material can make a difference in density and can affect the floatability of the pellet. With recent changes in raw material demand and availability, the extrusion of ‘new’ raw materials for dry fish feed and petfood products has challenged the traditional way of producing quality products from premium raw materials.

Mr Arthur Vom Hofe, Segment Manager Feed & Oilseed, CPM Europe BV, Netherlands

The first step in making aqua feed is to prepare your raw material using a proper grinder for extrusion and that can be very costly, if not careful, you can spend lot of energy and efforts and then still end up with poor quality pellets. Mr Hofe discussed the raw material grinding to make quality aqua feed. In his presentation he explained hammer mills, their design and operating principles. He talked about tip speed, screen area, hammer pattern, grinding chamber design and hammer position.

Hadrien Delemazure, Manager for Pet Food and Fish Feed Processing, Clextral France

Twin-screw extrusion has been extensively used to manufacture quality aqua pellets for the last 40 years. Recipes are getting more complex and diversified, fishmeal and fish oil are being replaced by alternative raw materials, which sources may vary according to international prices fluctuation and availability.

Michel Bauer Pereira, Global Application Manager – Aqua and Pet; Andritz, Denmark

Jessica Wiertz -Brabender GmbH & Co KG and Carolina Schillinger Evonik Operations GmbHGermany

Jessica Wiertz and Carolina Schillinger discussed their work on extrusion processing of fish feed pellets: influence of silica and oil content on the product properties. Over the last several decades, aquaculture has gained importance since wild capture can no longer meet the global demand for fish. Therefore, this market has grown exponentially, and with it, the demand for fish feed. In particular feed with high amounts of fat has gained relevance, since it allows for many species (e.g., salmon, trout) the most efficient growth and, thus, farming. Extrusion processing is often used to produce fish feed pellets.

Dr Michael Cheng, Global Business Development Manager, Pet and Aqua; Buhler, Switzerland

Dr Cheng disused aqua feed extrusion; focusing on precision. By explaining how the precision has moved in extrusion technology from automated plant to digital assisted plants to self-adjusted plants to finally smart plants. These smart plants provide solutions to digital related services, and expert services. These plants are targeted to provide highest yield, optimise manpower, support operator, efficient energy uses, flatten consumption, optimise product flow, real time monitoring, enhanced quality, digital assistance for process tracing, higher capacity, optimal performance and reduce downtime. He explained how sensor technology can be used in granulation control loop for precision particle size distribution to make sure it is not too fine or to coarse.

58 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Jens Erik Stengaard - Global sales of RAS extrusion systems; Wenger Manufacturing, USA

Mr Stengaard discussed in his talk about clean feed, clean water for aquaculture. The world’s demand for aquaculture (farmed fish) is estimated to have a growth of additional two million tonnes per year approaching 2050. Moving aquaculture into land-based recirculating systems (RAS) is one of the best ways to reduce or eliminate the environmental impacts of farming fish, and as the number of RAS installation is increasing, the demand for RAS-specialised feed is also increasing. For this reason, it may be prudent to look for newer extrusion technology to produce feed, not only for specialised RAS feeds, but also more environmentally friendly feed for general aquaculture.

Charlly Hansen, Sales Director Asia & Europe ExtruTech, USA

Mr Hansen gave his talk on extrusion processing for floating and sinking aquatic feed. Cooking extrusion offers many advantages over alternative forming technology and as a result has been the preferred method for producing many aquatic feeds. Very near or even at the top of the list of advantages is the potential to control the final density of feeds. Floating and sinking pellet characteristics are often considered a primary specification. Because cooking extruders operate at higher temperatures and moisture levels than other forming methods, the effects of this often equate to significant advantages in the physical characteristics of the finished pellets. Physical durability that protects feed from disintegration during handling and transport, water stability that helps reduce leaching

G e n t l e

C l e a n

of nutrients into the environment.

Industry Events

Dr Tom Verleyen- Global Platform Director Nutrition and LiquiSMART Kemin Europe

Dr Verleyen started his presentation by explaining the different challenges faced today by the feed industry such as variation in the raw material and production cost which can bring the profitability under pressure. But the feed industry does not want to compromise in feed quality, stability and animal performance. He provided a few concepts to improve the cost and quality of the aqua feed. The first concept he discussed was by adding surfactant as a milling aid and mix in before entering to precondition. Surfactant milling aid enhances the preconditioning and improves overall milling performance and feed quality. Some of the benefits can include improved moisture retention, improve starch gelatinisation and strengthen the pellet durability.

James Laxton, Engineering Manager– Dryer Group Famsun, China

Every aquafeed manufacturer faces operational challenges from time to time when producing high quality feed at maximum throughput and energy efficiency. Understanding the underlying cause of the problems faced during operation is a critical step in defining practical solutions to ensure reliable, high quality, efficient aquafeed production. Mr Laxton gave his presentation on optimising energy efficiency in aqua feed drying. He explained what is energy efficiency and how is it calculated? What operational factors impact energy efficiency and how can energy efficiency be improved during the drying of aqua feed.

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Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Aerators Faivre + 33 3idah 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com

Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com

Colour sorters

Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Feed and ingredients Adisseo +33 1 46 747104 www.adisseo.com Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com Alltech +44 1780 764512 www.alltechcoppens.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Anpario +44 1909 537 380 www.anpario.com

Drum filters Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Biorigin www.biorigin.net

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com

GePro +49 54415 925252 www.ge-pro.de

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com

Grupo Dibaq +34 921 574 286 www.dibaqacuicultura.es

Elevator & conveyor components

Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com

4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com

Bulk storage Enzymes

Liptosa +34 902 15 77 11 www.liptoaqua.com

DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com

Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com

Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Equipment for sale

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Cablevey Conveyors +1 641 673 8451 https://cablevey.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com


Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Phibro +972 4 629 1833 www.phibro-aqua.com

Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com

ORFFA +32 479 50 09 08 https://orffa.com

Silo Construction & Engineering +32 51723128 www.sce.be

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Coolers & driers

Jefo +1 450 799 2000 https://jefo.ca

Amino acids

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Computer software

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com

Dibaq +34 921 574 286 https://dibaqacuicultura.es


Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com


SAS Laboratories Phode +33 5 63 77 80 60 www.phode.com

Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl

60 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Skretting + 47 51 88 00 10 www.skretting.com

Feed Mill Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Ace Aquatec + 44 7808 930923 www. aceaquatec.com

Paddle Mixer Anderson www.andersonfeedtech.com

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Weighing equipment Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Pulverisers IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com

Predator Defence

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

FAWEMA / The Packaging Group +49 22 63 716 0 www.fawema.com


Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com



TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Fish Stunning

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Fish pumps

Moisture analysers


FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Aqua Ultraviolet +1 952 296 3480 www.aquauv.com

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

Fish Graders

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

RAS system

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

Fish counters


Fish Farm Feeder +34 886 317 600 www.fishfarmfeeder.com

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Van Aarsen International +31 475 579 444 www.aarsen.com

Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com

RAS Equipment

Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

TekPro +44 1692 403403 www.tekpro.com

Ace Aquatec + 44 7808 930923 www. aceaquatec.com

Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de


Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com

Phytogenics Delacon +43 732 640 531 414 www.delacon.com

To include your company in the International Aquafeed market place in print, and a company page on our website contact Tuti Tan +44 1242 267700 • tutit@perendale.co.uk To visit the online market place visit: www.aqfeed.info/e/1130

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Pellet mill Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PTN +31 73 54 984 72 www.ptn.nl

Plants International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 61


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Market place members in this issue

Company Ace Aquatec Adisseo Aller Aqua Alltech Almex Anpario Aqua Ultraviolet Cablevey Conveyors Delacon Dibaq Aquaculture Dinnissen Faivre Famsun Fish Farm Feeder GePro Grand Fish Feed Hydronix Idah Inteqnion Kaeser Compressors Leiber Liptoaqua Orffa Ottevanger Phileo TekPro The Packaging Group TSC Van Aarsen Vita Aqua Feeds Wenger Zheng Chang

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the interview Brett Glencross With a PhD in shrimp nutrition from Brisbane University in Queensland, Australia, Dr Brett Glencross went to work with the South Australian R&D Institute (SARDI) managing a suite of tuna aquaculture projects. In 2000 he had the opportunity to establish a research group for the Western Australian Government’s Fisheries Department in Perth and over the next 10 years he established the barramundi farming sector while contributing to Australia’s foreign aid effort in Vietnam, Thailand and Cambodia. In 2009 he joined the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) to work on aquaculture feed technology. Later he joined Ridley Aquafeed as a Technical Manager - a relatively small player in the aquafeed sector - to work across a range of species including salmon, barramundi, shrimp and kingfish. He left Australia in 2016 to take up the role of Professor of Nutrition at the Institute of Aquaculture at University of Stirling in Scotland, rising from Head of the Nutrition Group to Director of Research and latterly to Deputy Director of the Institute. In 2020 he joined IFFO-The Marine Ingredients Organisation as its Technical Director.

How did your working career led to you being in the UK and in the fishmeal, fishoil and fish nutrition sector in particular? What positions do you hold at present?

I left Australia in 2016 to take up the role as Professor of Nutrition at the Institute of Aquaculture at University of Stirling. I was there for five-and-half years and held a number of roles. Academia was an interesting interlude to my working career. My academic colleagues told me I was too applied, and my industrial colleagues told me I was too academic: which probably in reality meant I was in the right spot, but I didn’t feel at that time that being in such a spot was valued by the University. However, during my time there I worked on a range of projects for the marine ingredients sector, various fish feed companies and other ingredient suppliers, as well as being successful in landing several large UK government grants to work on more academic issues like omega-3 physiology. So, when I was approached by IFFO to take on the role as Technical Director, it simply seemed like an evolution of my role rather than a complete jump into another world. Since taking on the Technical Director role at IFFO, I also maintain roles as Board Director on a couple of companies, Governing Board Director on MarinTrust, Chair of the Scientific Committee of the ISFNF, and I still retain an Honorary Professor role at the University of Stirling.

What do you see as some of the key challenges facing the fish nutrition and aquaculture industry?

Where things are really getting interesting is in the space of raw material supply. For example, globally we produce around 55 million tonnes of aquafeed, that uses around five million tonnes of marine ingredients (fishmeal and fishoil). Immediately anyone can see that there are 50 million tonnes of other raw materials in there. While marine ingredients remain a highly sustainable strategic ingredient, they are clearly not the future of bulk nutrient supply. So, there is huge pressure to find cost-effective alternative protein (amino acid), energy and omega-3 supplies for future feeds. For my thinking, this is where the real action is now and will be for the next 20 years. While there are some additional interesting prospects, like single-cell proteins and algal oils, there is also a lot of noise and distraction from prospective resources that I think will struggle to be net contributors to nutrient supply. It is also pretty clear that for some time plant resources are going to be the mainstay of bulk nutrient supply. Where things get even more interesting in this space, is the close interaction of macroeconomics, logistics and politics. Raw material supplies and prices in recent times have seen major volatility due to things like interruptions to shipping and international conflicts.

What do you believe are the greatest challenges facing our aquaculture sector today globally? And how might we address them?

There are two great challenges I see facing aquaculture today, and for the next 20 years at least. Foremost is sustainable resource allocation. What I mean by that, is where do we find

the nutrients and energy to sustain future aquaculture growth? All intensive animal production industries are first and foremost dependent on feed resources. Feed resources used to sustain feedlot cattle will move to pigs, resources once used to feed pigs will move to poultry and resources once used to feed poultry will move to aquaculture. But there are alternative strategies, and overall to sustain global food production we urgently need new, noncompetitive nutrient sources. We need resources that add new nutrients to the supply-chain that are not competing with food production. Most notably this includes sources of protein and omega-3 that are not currently available from existing resources. For my thinking, this leans back to those prospects, such as increasing the use of circular proteins like those from seafood by-products, but additionally single-cell proteins and algal oils as that next frontier, are also something we should be investing significant venture capital in. The other major challenge is the increasing likelihood of diseases. While there is potential to improve the resilience of animals through the appropriate use of nutrition (and I mean sound balanced diets here, without antinutrients), there is also the option to fortify diets using certain functional additives. The real advance here lies with a tandem approach of vaccine development and genetic enhancement. However, pathogens shift, change and mutate, so this is a real-life ‘red-queen-effect’ of forever running to maintain position. By combining things with modern genetic selection, we can improve animal resilience and resistance to various pathogens. By using this tandem approach and then fortifying animals through superior feeds, is how we will address this challenge.

Do you see aquaculture and fish farming in particular meeting the growing need for essential nutrients in the human diet as we move towards 2050 and 9.5 billion people on planet earth?

I once had an argument/debate with a friend who espoused that the world could not sustain eight billion people. I disagreed, and suggested that the world could, but not in the manner that we currently understood or accepted it. As an example, I held up China and suggested that here was a country of 1.4 billion people who was not only surviving but progressing. Just not in a manner that many Western cultures could relate to. Assuming we do continue heading down that path, then aquaculture and fish farming are critical to those future plans. And we haven’t even started the conversation about optimising human nutrient intake either. The role that fish and seafood can play in sustaining human protein and omega-3 intakes is critical to our future vitality and health. It is important to add into the conversation here that many forms of aquaculture can not only be nutrient suppliers, but also offer significant ecosystem services. The role of bivalves (mussels and oysters) in improving water quality, sequestering carbon and in the process providing tasty and nutritious protein should clearly be promoted more.

64 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Finally, what is the role of science in meeting this likely demand and if aquaculture is going to play a critical role in feeding the world’s population, how do we encourage consumers to support our endeavours?

All of society’s challenges require science to solve them. It’s just that the branch of science changes depending on the challenge. Everything we consider a ‘progress’ in society in the past 20 years (and beyond) has science at its core; smart-phones, WIFI, RNA-vaccines, the list is endless. It’s only non-scientists who are in denial of that fact. In that regard, all progress in aquaculture is going to be critically dependent on those breakthroughs. Though from my experience, breakthroughs tend to occur more

like a process of erosion than any cataclysmic event. Lots of sustained effort over time and eventually what you thought was an issue, is now no longer there. An important part of this is how we communicate that benefit of science and aquaculture to consumers and the non-scientists out there. And for my thinking it is largely a process of consistent message and ‘erosion’ over time. For example, if I consider societal perspectives on aquaculture now, compared to when I first started in the industry 25 years ago, things are changing for the better. There remain ‘spot-fires’ and the myopic will always see what they want to see to fit their agenda. But from my perspective, the tide is certainly turning.

International Aquafeed - July 2022 | 65

THE INDUSTRY FACES AKVA Group announces new appointments


sabelle Sande has accepted the job as Sales Director for the Sea Based Nordic business area in AKVA group. Effective immediately, Ms Sande replaces Cecilie Låhne who will take on the new role as Key Account Manager for AKVA group's large customers. Ms Sande comes from the position as Business Development Manager in AKVA group. Kristian Botnen has been appointed as the new COO for AKVA group Sea Based Nordic. He has previously been both CEO and COO in Lingalaks and is educated in business and management from BI Bergen where he has an MSc Executive Master of Management. Mr Botnen will be part of AKVA group's corporate management team. He will start his job on August 1, 2022. AKVA group's international team of professionals know what is important for your success in the aquaculture industry. Its experienced technicians, service and sales staff will be your partner during the whole process, from planning to production. Present in all markets with offices in Norway, Chile, Denmark, Scotland, Spain, Greece, Iceland, Canada, Australia and Turkey, the company has dedicated personnel that can assist you all over the globe.

AquaBounty hires new Chief Scientific Officer


ransgenic-salmon farmer AquaBounty has announced the appointment of former Merck Animal Health and AKVA executive Dr Chris Beattie as its new chief scientific officer.

Mr Beattie is set to join the US company and will lead AquaBounty's research and development, compliance, and regulatory functions. He started his career with feed manufacturer Skretting, and joined Merck Animal Health (now MSD) as head of global aquaculture in 2015. He was responsible for setting the R&D pipeline direction and executing the global aquaculture strategy.. Prior to joining AquaBounty, Mr Beattie was leading the North American and Australasian business for Norwegian aquaculture supplier AKVA group. He currently sits on the board of ViAqua Therapeutics, the Aquaculture Strategic Advisory Council of Genome BC and volunteers as a business mentor at the University of British Columbia in the Faculty of Land Use and Food Systems.Present in all markets with offices in Norway, Chile, Denmark, Scotland, Spain, Greece, Iceland, Canada, Australia and Turkey, the company has dedicated personnel that can assist you all over the globe.

Scottish Sea Farms names new Regional Manager to build on Orkney success


cottish Sea Farms has appointed a new Regional Manager for Orkney, completing the restructure of its Northern Isles operations following the acquisition of Grieg Seafood Shetland in December of last year. Duane Coetzer takes over the reins from Richard Darbyshire – formerly long-serving Orkney Regional Manager, then, from 2020, Northern Isles Regional Manager with responsibility for both Shetland and Orkney – who will now focus exclusively on the company's expanded estate in the Shetland Islands. Mr Coetzer brings to the role 18 years' experience of finfish farming, having held senior positions including Site Manager and Seawater Area Manager with several producers in Scotland and, most recently, in Australia where he was General Manager of Marine Operations at Petuna Aquaculture in Tasmania. Scottish Sea Farms produces 30,000 tons of farmed salmon each year, from sites across Scotland, including a number of award winning sites in Orkney waters.

Fish farming specialist joins Ocean Harvest as Director of Production


runo Sardenberg announces that he has taken on a new role as Director of Production with Ocean Harvest in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Having previously worked with Atlantic Sapphire as Director of Special Projects, Mr Sardenberg will be leading Ocean Harvest Phase 1 project development and joining the leadership team in shaping the future of the company. "I would like to thank everyone in Atlantic Sapphire for their ongoing support and love. I would also like to thank my family, Jason Horne, Ocean Harvest leadership and advisors for the opportunity. I can't wait to see where this new chapter will take us!" He adds. Mr Sardenberg specialises in fish farming with a combined skill set in biological and engineering design, construction, equipment, operation and financial cost control which includes recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and offshore farms.

66 | July 2022 - International Aquafeed

Vertical Vacuum Spraying Machine SZPL Series

Particle Diameter 1~30mm Liquid Addition 1~36% Batch Working Time 5~7min

Model SZPL 2000, 3000, 5000 Spray Uniformity Residual rate Cv≤7% ≤0.5% Maximum Vacuum Vacuum Retention 40mbar ≤100mbar/5min

Remark: Optional Powder Spray System Optional CIP (Clean In Place)

ZhengChang Group Address

: No.28 Zhengchang Road, Kunlun Development Zone, Liyang, Jiangsu, China Telephone : +86 21-6418 4200 Fax : +86 21-6416 3299 E-mail : International@zhengchang.com Website : www.zhengchang.com/eng


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