JUN 2022 - International Aquafeed magazine

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Land-based salmon farming - Fish feed dryers

International Aquafeed - Volume 25 - Issue 6 - June 2022

- Rendering: The unsung hero of sustainability - An overview RAS and PRAS technology - Atlantic Salmon farming in Switzerland - Algal blooms: How aquaculture can fight back against these harmful & unwelcome intruders

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June 2022

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WELCOME World-renowned explorer Jim Exhibitions are back in force for the McNeill, who leads the team, has aquaculture industry! Yes, there has inspired Matt to become an explorer. been a lot of catching up to do over A fabulous report from Matt which these past few weeks, and as we cover links this exploratory work with both the best of what is on offer has had aquaculture and fisheries. our team at International Aquafeed Following on we turn our attention to the on its toes. basic work within fish feed production, Don’t get me wrong, we are not a show which involves drying and cooling of catalogue, although exhibitions and finished feeds with the end-user in mind. conferences are important venues for Roger Gilbert Ensuring that the best possible nutritional our industry representatives to meet up Publisher – International Aquafeed product is produced from valuable raw and exchange ideas. This is in addition and Fish Farming Technology materials and ingredients used and that to learning new and interesting things they find their way into the open mouths of about how to improve our feeds, as well our fish is vitally important. as how to improve the fish that feed on them. Sustainability has become a key word in our industry and Our cover image reflects the complexity of the will become increasingly so in the short- and longer-term interconnection between humans and the marine world to future. We look at rendered products and recognise the value a degree that we do not always appreciate. It is also the that these products bring to the industry. mural that Umitron displayed so impressively on its stand at This article looks specifically at the valuable role rendering Aquaculture UK 2022 (see page 8 where we show the image in plays in keeping these nutritious, yet not viewed as edible, its full glory). The picture attempts to illustrate this interaction products from being treated as ‘waste’ and occupying artistically, with the aim of being thought-provoking. diminishing landfill space. After pondering the cover image and before we get to Yes, it is most likely the first recycling industry devised our event section - which starts on page 50 and highlights by mankind and provides a valuable circular economy when Aquaculture UK 2022 - let me highlight a few good reads in managed correctly. this edition. We get the ball rolling on the next page with our Editors Professor Simon Davies and Erik Hempel expressing their own thoughts on the direction we are taking in the middle Fish Farming Technology of 2022 in terms of nutrition and technology respectively. Our FFT Section continues to attract both contributors and Professor Davies highlights the importance of lipids - Omega readers. This section carries technological products that allow 3 fatty acids in particular - and the interest in nutrition that our us to maximise the benefits from producing and feeding highyounger generation is now paying attention to, such as the benefits quality rations to our fish. that these vital nutrients provide, particularly in brain power. We look first at RAS and PRAS systems before delving into Meanwhile, Erik Hempel is discussing how Norway is using an article that reviews the production of Atlantic salmon in its foundation in salmon farming to look at the potential of Switzerland - and what that takes to accomplish - followed other fish species in terms of intensive production; although later on with advice on the production of land-based salmon! projections are still for Norway to quadruple its salmon You will also find a feature on the analysis of nitrogen and how production to five million tonnes by 2050. it might help to lift yields. Investment is planned based on four major developments all We have our regular section Technology Showcase before involving cage farming. This is a most interesting read and one the Events Section. (Don’t overlook our Training Pages in the with views that will help us visualise the way forward and the earlier part of the magazine either.) potential that aquaculture holds for Europe. Our other regular columnist is Dr Brett Glencross who also Aquaculture events reports on projections for the future. This time from the pointIn this edition we report on just one of the many aquaculture of-view of the FAO in Rome. He led last year’s FAO Global events that have taken place in the past few weeks Conference on Aquaculture and goes on to say the volumes Aquaculture UK 2022 in Aviemore, Scotland which took of a sustainable supply of fishmeal are now being used as place at the beginning of May and focused on ‘Navigating the strategic ingredients and points to China as one of the few Future.' We also report in its Awards Evening. countries not adopting this strategy. We will be reporting on other key events within the industry Again, an interesting point-of-view that is worthy of our in the next edition. That will include AquaFarm in Pordenone, consideration and discussion. Italy (held in the last week of May) and the 20th International Continuing this month’s theme of our often problematic Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding held in Sorrento, relationship with nature, our lead feature is from one of the Italy (in the first week of June), with both being quite different remotest places on earth - the Northern Pole - and aquaculture but extremely worthwhile events to attend. is involved in this first exploration with second-year degree In the meantime, enjoy this edition and let me know if you student in Marine Biology and Oceanography Matt Bell would have a preference for report on aspects of our industry from Plymouth University on the team. Professor Davies is that we have overlooked in recent editions. It is always good to extremely proud of young Matt’s courage and valour. have your feedback!


NUTRITION & HEALTH The aquaculture sector of course provides invaluable nutrition to the consumer, which includes high quality protein providing a highly balanced essential amino acid profile as well as a whole range of vitamins, trace elements, energy in terms of oils and many other nutrient classes such as carotenoids.

health globally is a US$400 billion medical cost! Numerous items of clinical research has shown the benefits of Omega-3 intake on cardiovascular health but less stated publicly about brain and neurological importance! We see increasing late onset dementia, dysfunctional behaviour, learning disorders Indeed, it is the lipids that attract much Professor Simon Davies and many cognitive problems in early childhood and teens! attention with respect to the fatty acids Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed My interests in seafood and Omega-3 especially the iconic Omega-3 that everyone status of farmed fish are so relevant to this subject. As we reduce has heard about. Talking to some young high school students this fishmeal and fish oils in fish feeds, we should be concerned about week in Plymouth, they were very enquiring about what exactly meeting targets. Professor Michael Crawford has vigorously Omega-3s were all about. campaigned for government support to improve brain nutrition These essential fatty acids for animals and humans are always in the research and recognition of the issues of Omega-3 intake decline to news and were reported in our GB News channel this week as being little avail. I will be supporting him in his mission as an important important for muscle development and preventing atrophy as we age. societal impact. His new book in September is called ‘The Rise This was recent research emanating from the university of and Fall of the Brain’ it will be very interesting reading. Glasgow in Scotland. Their report focused on krill oil and of This year I have been involved with many projects and last course we have much interest in this topic and have included year was a key year for major research initiatives. One linked many articles on krill meal and krill oil over the years with some to lipids and essential fatty acids was a successful investigation high-profile companies harvesting this amazing species of mini to change the lipid profile of fish in a short time scale using an crustacean and producing excellent products for use in aquafeeds. omega-3 enrichment diet for tilapia. This translated into my latest The role of these essential fatty acids is much wider and have paper published in the European Journal of Lipid Science and been advocated as very beneficial in our diets. The human can Technology. only acquire these endogenously through the infant stages prior to On another subject, turning to my academic and student weaning from maternal breast milk. engagement, I was supportive of several undergraduate students That function is limited in later life, and we lack the enzymes to locally at Plymouth during lockdown from 2020-22. Some Marine metabolise the fundamental Omega-3 molecular structure beyond Biology students were needing advice and help with assignments linolenic acid to the higher longer chain structures like EPA and DHA and although some transformation may occur this is very low and projects. One such student, Adam Yeap came to me, and I managed to find leading to our description of them being essential fatty acids. him an internship for one year at the National University of Ireland We must therefore meet our demands through the food chain. under my colleague Dr Alex Wan and our research group. We One of the main interests is in their promotion of vascular health mentored Adam and he took a particular interest in crustaceans and as components of HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) and reduction especially the rearing of both the European lobster and the European of atherosclerosis but also in the area of cognition and brain spiny lobster. We are undertaking hatchery development work and development. release for a stock enhancement conservation related program. It was therefore a great privilege for me to catch up this month I am delighted to state that Adam at just 22-year-old has initiated with Professor Michael Crawford (Imperial College London) the eminent specialist in human brain health and nutrition and Director and led a team including myself and another professor to be the lead author on a comprehensive review in the prestigious 10.7 of the Institute of Brain Chemistry & Human Nutrition in London. impact factor ‘Reviews in Aquaculture’ on the European spiny We are both Fellows of the Royal Society of Biology as well as us lobster. In his review Yeap et al (2022) we describe the full biology receiving the Freedom of the City of London. of this species and especially knowledge to date of its nutritional Professor Crawford has undertaken many years of active requirements, feed formulations and also health and disease aspects. research into brain metabolism with emphasis on fatty acids and Students are our future and industry must recognise talented lipids. He has written numerous scientific papers and appeared researchers if we are to flourish and have highly trained persons around the world on TV, radio, and many prestigious scientific to be our technicians, scientists, and managers in the aquafeed and conferences. He is a strong proponent of the importance of DHA allied industries for many more years to come. (docosohexaenoic acid) in optimum brain function with rising In our June issue we report on major breaking news in our concerns of deficiencies in our diets and our ever-increasing domain as well as interesting articles and features of a technical consumption of omega-6 fatty acids especially linoleic in and scientific nature. I am now seeing many of these more vegetable oils that can mitigate the benefits. scientific nutrition and feed-based articles being cited in peerHowever, we do need arachidonic acid (derived from the reviewed publications. This is very encouraging and testimony omega-6 linoleic acid) in the correct amounts and a balanced ratio to the increasing quality and recognition across many platforms. for brain structure. The brain is largely composed of fat and has Please keep up this momentum. a very complex composition strongly influenced by diet. Mental 4 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY They did the same in 2019 and in 2021, In the middle of May, I attended an and it was quite obvious that a massive interesting one-day conference in increase in plans had appeared. In 2019, the Oslo. The topic was ‘Closed system survey showed that there were 63 planned salmon farming’. Unfortunately, the projects with a total production capacity of conference was held in Norwegian, 750 000 tonnes. which limited participation to those In 2021, the number of projects had grown who master the language. In spite of to 83, and the total planned capacity grew to this, a total of 340 persons showed up, 1.7 million tonnes. But just one year later, and for us, the conference provided ambitions and plans exploded, so that in 2022, a peak into the future of advanced Erik Hempel a total of 103 projects were identified with a marine fish farming, not only salmon The Nor-Fishing Foundation production capacity of 2.4 million tonnes! farming. However, it must be pointed out that by far The Norwegian Minister of Fisheries the majority of these projects still only exist on paper and many and Oceans, Mr Bjørnar Skjæran, gave a glimpse into what the of them will probably never be realised. present government’s strategy for aquaculture consisted of. The At the end of the conference, a panel of four experts were Government is still believing that Norway will produce five asked to give their opinions on the future of fish farming: what million tonnes of salmon by 2050, four times what the nation technologies would dominate the picture in 2030 and 2050? produces today. The unanimous opinion was that by 2030, very little would The Minister gave some comments on specific government be changed compared to salmon farming today. From 70 to 90 interventions, like ‘research permits,’ which were introduced percent of production would come from conventional floating some years ago and which are given free of charge to the cage operations, according to the panel. successful applicants. In comparison, a normal permit for Closed systems on land would account for a little more than operating an open cage farm today costs about NOK 200 million today, perhaps some three-to-four percent of total production, (~US$20-22 million), - a very steep starting fee indeed. as would closed systems in the sea. Offshore operations would Consequently, investment costs for alternative models, like probably account for up to five percent. closed systems, whether on land or in the sea, can be a lot However, by 2050, there will be some major changes, according higher than for a conventional operation, without hurting the to the experts. Conventional open cage farming would account competitiveness of the operation. for maybe 20 percent of the total production, while closed systems in the sea would account for as much as 50 – 60 percent Four major farming methods were considered: - Open floating cage farming in the sea (which is the traditional of the total. Closed systems on land would probably account for about 10 percent, and offshore systems for about 10 percent. salmon farming method) The conclusion from this conference was that the experts do not - Closed cage farming in the sea expect land-based fish farming to become dominant, at least not in the - Closed cage farming on land next 30 years, in spite of the ambitions described in the 2022 survey. - Offshore fish farming in the open sea with large, open cages Closed systems at sea, on the other hand, will probably grow to dominate marine farming in the future. Much will depend on how Representatives of the major banks in Norway, which are also the pioneers in closed fish farming will succeed or not. the main sources of financing in addition to investors, strongly A presentation of Atlantic Sapphire in Miami, Florida, gave favour ‘green’ projects, i.e. projects that achieve zero sea lice an interesting insight into the problems that the company has occurrence, very low pollution/discharges, good fish health encountered during the start-up phase. However, the founders still including low mortality rates, etc. However, the banks said they maintain that land-based closed system farming is not only viable would still finance conventional open cage farms. but will develop further and become more important in the years The organiser of the conference, the Norwegian fisheries to come. publication Norsk Fiskerinæring (Norwegian Fisheries Industry) Undoubtedly, such pioneers will be closely watched by had undertaken a global survey of planned closed system investors in the years to come. operations.



International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 5

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk

June 2022 Volume 25 Issue 6



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.com Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.com Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erikh@perendale.com Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Dr Allen Wu • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Andrew Wilkinson andreww@perendale.co.uk Caitlin Gittins caitling@perendale.co.uk


Industry News

44 Technology showcase 50 Industry Events 56 The Market Place 60 The Aquafeed Interview 62

Industry Faces

Levana Hall levanah@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tel: +44 7854 436407 darrenp@perendale.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Clarissa Garza de Yta Tel: +52 669 120 0140 clarissag@perendale.com Cristina María Roldán Otero Tel: +44 1242 267700 cristinaperendale@gmail.com Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 mohamedb@perendale.com India Marketing Team Dr T.D. Babu +91 9884114721 tdbabu@aquafeed.org Asia Marketing Team Dante Feng Tel: +886 0227930286 dantef@perendale.com

The Aquaculture case study

46 Land-based salmon farming

Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 nathann@perendale.com Design Manager James Taylor jamest@perendale.co.uk Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267706 tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk

©Copyright 2020 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058

COLUMNS 3 Roger Gilbert

4 Professor Simon Davies 5

Erik Hempel

12 Brett Glencross

FEATURES 18 A flagship expedition to the Northern Pole 22 Fish feed dryers

24 Rendering: The unsung hero of sustainability

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 30 An overview RAS and PRAS technology 34 Atlantic Salmon farming in Switzerland 38 Nitrogen analyser

THE BIG PICTURE Land-based salmon farming: Can scaled up commercial on-shore aquaculture remain both profitable & sustainable? See more on page 46

42 Algal blooms: How aquaculture can fight back against these harmful & unwelcome intruders

ge er ima v o c r Ou

The Deliciousness of the Sea

created for UMI to Sachi

The UMITRON stand at Aquaculture UK 2022 displaying the cover image we have chosen for this edition of International Aquafeed

8 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed


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Specialist in the design and build of installations for the grain-processing and compound feed industry

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ur cover image conveys a “delicious taste of the ocean,” says Joyce Leo, a marine scientist and Global Business Development at Umitron Pte Ltd of Tokyo, Japan. She says her company, which has offices in both Japanese and Singapore, wanted an image of food production that shows aquaculture can coexist well within a sustainable ocean environment. “We were very lucky to have access to a famous Manga artist who has a movie called ‘Children of the Sea.’ He identifies very well with our mission which is to support sustainable aquaculture and he really wanted to contribute his own part to the story. “He said, ‘I can’t really do anything for you but I am an artist but I can create a visual for your sustainable goals’ and he created a series of images and this is one of them; the most iconic.” Miss Leo says the artist’s aim is to share his vision with the public and to encourage the public to become more emotionally involved with their decisions when choosing responsible seafood, which will make an impact on the future and not just in the here-and-now. He also want to protect the oceans for the generations of tomorrow, she says. “We don’t want to lose any of the biodiversity that we have even although we are trying to feed a growing population,” she adds “This is a lofty goal for many people, I think. However, I also think that having a lofty goal to aspire to might be difficult but it makes us more determine to achieve it.”

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This ties in with what we are doing right now, trying to help farmers in their understanding of what is happening on their farms with things such as environmental monitoring; to give users a platform to see such things as dissolved oxygen levels, salinity, temperature, etc so they can use that data to make realtime decision. “Seeing how hungry my fish are in real time and checking if pellets are being lost in the water helps to reduce those loses. We give the farmer the right tools to help them achieve a more sustainable footprint and not just environmental sustainability but sustainability for their workforce as well.” The company is trying to make a contribution across the entire sea food production chain by helping farmers, she adds. For example, Umitron Pulse, a satellite-based ocean data service for the aquaculture industry is an all-inone high resolution service specifically developed for the industry. It’s available on both the web and mobile applications and allows users to easily assess in realtime or historically data parameters that help in the management of risks. Also being promoted at Aquaculture UK was its AIpowered analytics for feed optimisation. This is a plug-and-play desktop application that adds fish feeding behaviours and pellet detection to existing systems at fish farms. Called Remora it provides operators with real-time feedback to allow for more informed decision making.

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Developing smoked salmon from spirulina


nternational food conglomerate IFF is teaming up with Israeli foodTech start-up SimpliiGood by Algaecore Technologies to develop the first commercial smoked salmon analogue made entirely from a single ingredient: whole fresh spirulina. The company is climate protection-oriented, growing its spirulina in the desert under controlled, ideal conditions. The plant-based salmon-like cut is uniquely crafted to take on the appearance, colour, texture, and flavour of smoked salmon, yet without the ocean pollutants that living fish are commonly exposed to. These include compounds such as mercury, fossil fuels, and industrial waste. Composed of 100 percent pure, fresh, minimally processed spirulina, it is a clean-label product and is 40 percent complete protein.

An agreement for strategic cooperation

To advance this initiative, an agreement for strategic cooperation was signed between the Israeli Innovation Authority, SimpliiGood, and FoodNxt—the innovation lab established by global food, beverage, nutraceutical, and fragrances industry leader IFF. SimpliiGood provides the raw material and texture and colour qualities, while IFF contributes the flavour and aroma attributes. The product is expected to hit the market by the end of 2023. In 2020, the global sales value of salmon amounted to approximately EUR€13 billion/US$13.9 billion. The company specialises in cultivating and harvesting the highly esteemed fresh blue-green algae, as well as producing a range of spirulina-centred food products. The new salmon analogue will join a series of existing spirulina-based SimpliiGood branded products marketed in Israel to food producers and directly to consumers. Its current portfolio encompasses a range of meat substitutes, including hamburgers and chicken nuggets, as well as popsicles, ice cream, crackers, and beverages where spirulina serves either as the base ingredient or as nutritional enrichment. “Our spirulina can act as a complete replacement for animalbased protein or be easily integrated into existing food products as an added-value ingredient, as it has a neutral flavour and maintains its full nutritional value,” says Lior Shalev, CEO and Co-founder of Algaecore. “This project marks an exciting milestone in our company’s product line expansion as we enter the fish substitute market.”

Nutrient-dense plant-based forms In the first phase, the company will focus on producing a pure, spirulina-based smoked salmon analogue, with plans to expand to additional fish analogues in the future. Spirulina is heralded as one of the most nutrient-dense plant-based forms of protein on the planet, being a naturally rich source of whole protein, plus antioxidants, chlorophyll, vitamins, (including B12), and minerals, especially iron. The spirulina market is relatively young and is dominated by dried and powdered forms of the ingredient. SimpliiGood cultivates and markets a specific strain of 100 percent raw fresh spirulina that boasts 90 percent bioavailability, making it a powerful addition to any food

application. Mr Shalev reveals that the new, salmon-like creation is based on two IP-protected technological breakthroughs developed by the algae innovators. The first applies to its texturisation platform for forming salmon-like chunks solely from spirulina and have the same mouthfeel as the animal form. Its orange, salmon-like hue has been expressed through identifying and isolating the native beta carotene pigment naturally present in spirulina. From greenhouse-to-fork, sustainably SimpliiGood cultivates its spirulina in a system of 90m3 capacity ponds housed in greenhouses situated in the naturally sun-drenched southern desert region of Israel. 98 percent of the water used in the process is recycled. The company produces 50 tons of spirulina per year, with a harvest every 24 hours, making it a highly commercially viable plant-based protein source. The company is a vertically integrated company that controls all aspects of production, from R&D, agricultural, and processing through to commercialisation, ensuring complete sustainability and making its product line resilient and good for the planet. “The spirulina SimpliiGood cultivates is one of the most efficient converters of sun energy into protein,” adds Mr Shalev. “Spirulina requires salt, minerals, heat, CO2, and water to thrive. The process of growing spirulina actually captures carbon and uses it to grow. “The strain that the animal food industry places on the environment and food security has elevated the need to develop sustainable protein substitutes. We are excited to collaborate with these leading global food industry players to bring a tasty and highly nutritious product to consumers worldwide, without harming animals or the planet,” Mr Shalev concludes.

10 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

Brett Glencross China’s Role in driving marine ingredient consumption


ast year I was fortunate to lead the Feeds and Feeding Session of the FAO’s Global Conference on Aquaculture. This decadal event culminated in the output of the Shanghai Declaration [https://aquaculture2020.org/declaration] which represented a ‘road map’ for the world’s ambitions for aquaculture and it was fitting that China was not only the host for this event, but also very much centre stage. Aquaculture in China is as dominant part of the agribusiness landscape there as other animal production industries, something that the rest of the world is still to catch-up on. While many other countries may have notable aquaculture sectors, both Vietnam and Norway come to mind as examples, the sheer size of the sector in China is on another scale. The growth of this sector has also been steady, shown clearly by the rise of production since the turn of the century, where it has increased from ~12m tonnes to a present volume of ~30m tonnes (Figure 1). While the bulk of production in China is based on low-trophic levels species like carps, many of which are produced without the use of a complete feed, there are still millions of tonnes of aquaculture production occurring where there is strong reliance on feeds.

A high reliance on fishmeal

Among those species include Whiteleg shrimp, eels, and many marine species all of which have a high reliance on fishmeal. One of the notable features about the 2021 marine ingredient demand statistics that IFFO collate each year was the observation that almost 50 percent of all global fishmeal use occurred in China. A simple review of the fishmeal import statistics shows the sheer scale of that use, with over 1.8m tonnes of fishmeal imported to China in 2021 (Figure 2). This doesn’t include the 250 to 500 thousand tonnes of domestic production that occurs in China as well. All up, meaning that over two million tonnes of fishmeal were consumed in China in 2021.

Figure 1. China aquaculture production by year and species (data from IFFO 2022). Figure 2. China imports of fishmeal by country of origin (data China Customs).

One of the notable points from the Feeds and Feeding Session of the FAO’s Global Conference on Aquaculture was that it has been well recognised for over 20 years, both globally and in China, of the need to increase the range of protein resources available for use in feeds. With a finite supply of fishmeal from wild-harvest resources, future growth of the aquaculture feed sector is going to need new protein resources. While use of byproducts from fishery and aquaculture remains one option, growth in by-products is unlikely to be able to keep up with demand. Consequently, we can see that fishmeal is already being used as a strategic ingredient in most parts of the world, and not as a bulk supplier of nutrients. However, China remains clearly the world’s largest user of fishmeal and continues to do so in feeds for shrimp and marine fish species at rates much higher than other parts of the world. This has persisted despite a huge scientific effort by the Chinese to better understand the nutritional requirements of their species and the application of many alternative ingredients, by some very talented scientists. Which begs the question, why has China not achieved the same level of fishmeal independence as other regions for those species? What is it that they know that the rest of the world is still yet to learn?

Dr Brett Glencross is the Technical Director of IFFO - The Marine Ingredients Organisation. Over the past 25 years he has worked in various academic, institutional, and industrial roles across Australasia, the Middle East and Europe. 12 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed






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Better performance than expected

“This project was delivered on time and with better performance than expected. Due to the good teamwork from the suppliers and the project organisation we have now been running the Geelen Counterflow dryer on electricity since early April,” adds Jan Helge Forde, Capital Excellence Lead, Cargill Aqua Nutrition. “All gas burners have been switched off. The energy recovery system and the heat pumps allow us to reduce energy consumption by 75 percent and to eliminate all emissions of CO2 and NOx. We will be able to reduce CO2 emissions per year by 3000 metric tonnes.” Sander Geelen, CEO of Geelen Counterflow says, “Heat recovery and high temperature heat pumps are now a proven alternative to gas burners for drying of extruded feed or food. Following the first month of monitoring, we can now say that the system performs according to our calculations with a COP (Coefficient of Performance) of approximately four. “This means that only 1kWh of electricity is needed in the heat pumps to supply 4kWh of heat to the dryer. The other 3kWh are recovered from the warm wet air exiting the dryer, so 75 percent of energy is saved compared to drying with gas. At the same time, water is recovered, odour emissions are reduced and thanks to renewable electricity all emissions of both CO2 and NOx have been eliminated.'

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n a move that has already seen the plant’s energy costs cut drastically, Geelen Counterflow has installed its first Electric Counterflow Dryer at the Cargill-Ewos aquafeed plant in Bergneset, just above the polar circle in Norway. This is the first electric dryer to start up following eight years of brainstorming, design, engineering and pilot testing. This dryer in Norway also is the biggest counterflow dryer in the world, with 15 drying decks. Two more Electric Counterflow Dryers will start up in South Korea and China in the next few months. With this installation, the plant’s energy consumption for drying is reduced by 75 percent (15,000 MWh per year) and CO2 emissions from drying (previously 3000 tons per year) are eliminated. This is largely because gas burners have been replaced by electric heat pumps running on renewable electricity. Early April the heat recovery system and heat pumps were successfully commissioned so the gas burners could be turned off, making Cargill-Ewos Bergneset the first zero emission feed factory in the world. The gas burners stay in place to provide redundancy. The four high temperature heat pumps were manufactured by Combitherm from Germany, using a new design of screw compressor from Bitzer, Germany. The working fluid is nonflammable, with an Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP) of zero and an ultra-low Global Warming Potential (GWP) of one. “Let me express how satisfied we are with the electric dryer and heat pump technology you have installed at Bergneset. It has been very important for Cargill to have a highly competent partner like Geelen in this project, who has come with invaluable expertise and input,” says Monica Hagen, Regional Operations Manager Cargill North Sea. “It is great that we also appear to be the first and biggest, at the same time as we have reduced both energy usage and CO2 emission. I would like to thank Geelen for their high commitment throughout the long project period.”

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Cargill-Ewos’ first electric dryer starts up in Norway

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International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 15


Training Mowi offers specialist food processor apprenticeship Collaborating with Skills Development Scotland (SDS) and UHI West Highland, Mowi has created a new modern apprenticeship (MA) which allows young people to train to become a specialist food processor. The MA will be full time and based at Mowi’s Blah Mhor processing facility in Fort William. Applicants will receive a SCQF level 5 qualification with a salary expectation of UK£21,840 to UK£23,920 per annum.

One example of a recent applicant is Ross McConnell, who joined the processing team at Mowi and reports his enjoyment. “I started in Mowi in the processing department when I was 18, and have worked here for just over three years. I enjoy working here and I have met some good friends. I like my shift pattern which means I have a good work, life balance,” Ross says. Donald Waring, Learning and Developing Manager at Mowi called the MA a “significant milestone” and a reflection of Mowi’s commitment to train young people. “It is the first ever Modern Apprenticeship to be customised for our new state of the art processing facility at Blar Mhor. The Mowi Operations team in conjunction with our Health and Safety team have tailor-made an on the job learning programme. After a few months, apprentices will embark on their vocational qualification which has been customised with the help of UHI West Highland for Mowi. “We recognise the need to directly connect local emerging talent with our career opportunities and we are excited to be launching this new and innovative opportunity for what we hope will be a long and successful career for those that qualify as a specialist food processor,” he says. Mowi is also offering seasonal work over the summer months with opportunities at Blah Mhor, covering demands for a summer job, apprenticeship or full-time position. “Mowi Scotland is a Real Living Wage employer, and we take pride in the fact that we pay competitively not only within the aquaculture industry but also within the industries in the local communities in which we operate,” explains Sarah Ralston, HR Business Partner. Those who are interested in becoming a specialist food processor can visit the website www.apprenticeships.scot where further details of the position and a link to apply can be found.

Women in Aquaculture scholarship program returns Salmon producer Kvarøy Arctic are, once again, offering their Women in Aquaculture Scholarship Program, which will oversee two annual scholarships awarded. The program offers an international scholarship, as well as an immersive work experience focused on facilitating women to develop careers in aquaculture. Recipients will receive a US$10,000 scholarship and paid, one-month internship at the Kvarøy Arctic salmon farm site in Norway, with consideration for employment upon graduation. This is the third year that Kvarøy Arctic are offering the

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program, with four women who have received the scholarships so far. One recipient, Hannah Krohn, is a senior at the University of California studying Marine Biology and Environmental Sciences. “I’m curious about how aquaculture affects the environment and in creating clarity around areas of the industry where there are uncertainties—like with seafood labeling, which could use more transparency,” explains Ms krohn. Applications must be submitted to scholarships@kvaroyarctic. com by 19:00 (Pacific Time) on July 1, with recipients of the scholarship announced on August 1, 2022.


Enroll in the 12-week Course 16 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 17


A flagship expedition to the Northern Pole One scientist’s mission to seek the significance of the polar regions in shaping & predicting climate change impacts on the security of fisheries


Matt Bell is in his second year of a Marine Biology and Oceanography degree at the University of Plymouth, which has fostered a specific interest in benthic communities more specifically in Antarctica and extends to a fascination in glaciology and sea ice.

Matt Bell, diving and exploring

he world-renowned explorer, Jim McNeill, has chosen Matt Bell, a second-year Marine Biology and Oceanography student from Newcastle upon Tyne, to take part in one of the most ambitious polar citizen science expeditions of our time; to be the first expedition in history to reach the Northern Pole of Inaccessibility. Defined as the furthest point from land on the Arctic Ocean and its centre, the Northern Pole of Inaccessibility remains the last truly significant place in the Polar Regions, yet to be reached by humankind and is over 270 miles further than the Geographic North Pole. The whole journey will be near 800 miles from the northern shores of Canada and will take in the North Magnetic Pole on the route. Having been selected for the Ice Warrior #LASTPOLE Expedition, Matt is undergoing a comprehensive and intensive training programme to take on one of four 20-day legs, pushing the route across the Arctic Ocean.

What the Ice Warrior project will be collecting

The Scientific expedition is a record-setting adventure and will be gathering “crucial datasets” to benchmark the condition of the ocean for the NASA funded National Snow and Ice Data Centre

(NSIDC) scientists, led by Nobel Prize-winning scientist Walt Meier. These, along with weather data, measurements of pollution and counting polar bears that may be encountered, deliver the reality of climate change, and make the whole endeavour worthwhile and purposeful. This will form the backbone for scientists to predict sea ice growth and decay models. The crucial datasets we collect on the ground will help to compare starlight data. This is to give us the best possible chance to resolve the NASA satellite, ICSEat (Ice, cloud, and land elevation satellite) system to a new degree of accuracy. This will also give satellite validation to the new technology.

How this links to aquaculture, the fish & fisheries industry

Jim McNeill has inspired Matt to become a young explorer. As a young explorer, Matt is aware that there has never been a more crucial time to partake in scientific research and go to the Northern Pole of Inaccessibility. It will be a considerable undertaking for the advancement of science and the future of our planet. Explorer, expedition leader and Founder of Ice Warrior, Jim McNeill says, “I’m delighted to have Matt in the expedition team and look forward to training him in every aspect which will make him a competent polar traveller.”

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The whole ethos of the citizen science expedition is to travel safely while pushing boundaries and making life better for the entire planet. I believe in taking courageous steps, pushing boundaries, continual personal development, and environmental wellbeing, and it is those beliefs that drove me to join the team. On a personal level Matt believes this expedition has enormous potential in the future understanding of the seafood supply chain, fisheries, fish migration and potentially aquaculture of fish reared in northern climates that may be subject to warming and increased environmental pressure. The production of species like cod in Northern Norway that are suited to cold temperatures could be compromised if temperatures become elevated in the future. The melting glaciers and ice sheets will change the ‘conveyor belt’ (the physical oceanographic processes mainly controlled by temperature and salinity), creating increasing threats to increasing fisheries and the climate. The Anthropocene is having knock on effects to fisheries but ‘how can we turn the carbon clocks back’ Matt enquires? And what is the future for fisheries and resources? The diminishing sea ice creates opportunities for Russia and mining and fishing for species not yet fished all which may change the biodiversity of the polar and North Sea regions inevitably cause disruptive implications with respect to fishery catch, fish behaviour, fish physiology, migratory roots, brooding stocks, and food security. A perfect example of how increasing sea temperatures can have a significant effect on polar species can be found

Matt Bell in the marine laboratory at Plymouth



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A word from our editor…

in the paper, “Life in the freezer: protein metabolism in Antarctic fish”, in the journal Royal Society Open Science lead by Dr Keiron Fraser of The University of Plymouth and the British Antarctic Survey. The study highlighted the impact of fish physiology in increasing temperatures showing Antarctic spiny plunderfish and the common blenny consuming 20 percent less food to temperate species resulting in a reduced protein metabolism despite warmer temperatures leading to half the growth rate, despite the study taking place in warm water. Matt Bell’s attitude and love for marine biology at such a young age is inspirational. He already holds the prestigious Duke of Edinburgh Gold Award and his participation in the Polar Expedition in 2023 will help lead our way in understating how we may better protect our ocean resources that have such a relevance in our aquaculture industry in direct fish production in the extreme Northern Hemisphere. This will almost certainly affect indirectly harvesting of wild fish species destined for the aquafeed sector such as for fishmeal and fish oils. Matt Bell will be collaborating in research to resolve these issues and to better manage our marine resources. This will have implications to our aquaculture feed industry. He needs your help and the support from businesses, NGO’s and various stakeholders in funding part in this citizen science Expedition which you can do through his ‘go fund me’ page https://gofund.me/2aea0adb.

Based in Plymouth, our editor Professor Simon Davies introduces University of Plymouth student Matt Bell who will be addressing climate change that can have dire effects on long term global seafood resources including aquaculture. Professor Simon Davies Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed It is a pleasure to introduce Matthew Bell a student at the University of Plymouth, but hails from Newcastle upon Tyne where I did my master’s degree in the 1980’s. Matt has benefitted from being at the University of Plymouth and having the opportunity to share learning with the wider degree courses through cascade learning activities. This has directly influenced the personal development of future generations of specialists in his field and in turn the driving force in nurturing and creating better scientists and science. Currently, Matt is in his second year of a Marine Biology and Oceanography degree at the University of Plymouth, which has fostered a specific interest in benthic communities more specifically in Antarctica and extends to a fascination in glaciology and sea ice. In scientific commercial diving he sees a purposeful and versatile vocation, yet his love most is its fusion of a scientific core with an exploratory nature. Not to mention he has an interest for the outdoors! Matt plans to work with the British Antarctic Survey as a resident Marine Biologist in the future to develop a sound understanding of the dynamics of this area and how it may affect biological resources that can have huge impact on such activities as aquaculture and fisheries.

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Fish feed dryers


How a fluid bed dryer/cooler can provide the balanced nutrition needed by farmed fish by Koen Egberts, Sales & Process, Tema Process, Wapenveld, The Netherlands

anufactured feeds are an important part of modern commercial aquaculture, providing the balanced nutrition needed by farmed fish. The feeds, which are available in the form of powders, granules or pellets, provide the nutrition in a stable and concentrated form, enabling the fish to feed efficiently and grow to their full potential. However, the processed ‘wet’ fish feed granules, meal or pellets, cannot be transported and stored immediately and require to be dried first. The Tema Process fluid bed dryers are worldwide for their high quality and efficient operation. By choosing the optimal combination of air speed, air

temperature, mechanical movement/residence time, the system can process powders, pellets and granular products with a wide range of grain sizes. The Tema Process fluid bed system can accurately dry and cool the fish feed.

How does a fluid bed dryer work?

A continuous fluid-bed system is a machine in which a continuous flow of ‘wet’ powder, granular, pellets or flakes material is conveyed over a perforated bed. Hot drying air is blown through the holes of a perforated plate. The wet solids are lifted from the bottom and causes the solids to behave as a fluid. The air velocity is adjusted to keep the moving layer of material fluidised. Conveying of the product is achieved by means of a lowfrequency, high amplitude shaker mechanism. The ‘shaking’ motion plug flow of the Tema fluid bed, allows first-in, first-out

22 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

Air supply system:

The wide variety of fluid bed dryer types can use the full range of available heat sources like direct or indirect fired gas/light oil air heaters, steam-, hot water- or thermal oil heaters.

Exhaust air system:

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drying of products and well-mixed fluidisation, which covers the entire spectrum and is able to accurately control the spread of residence time.

Dynamic Fluid Bed Dryers/Coolers:

Shaking fluid beds are used for handling products with less free flowing and fluidisation properties. The product is moved through the dryer by a gentle shaking motion, low frequency/ high amplitude, which moves it forward in a step by step uniform manner referred to as plug flow. The g-force issue is eliminated allowing for smallest possible product deterioration, reduced foundation requirements and minimal noise output. A shaking fluid bed dryer system typically has the lowest life cycle cost via substantial savings in fuel consumption and maintenance costs. The shaking mechanism in combination with the air flow provides an optimised process for gentle drying with controlled residence time. Our shaking fluid bed units are also available in heavy duty design, Atex execution and sanitary design.

Further advantages

Excellent control of the residence time, as well as gentle and uniformly drying and cooling of the product are just two of the advantages of using the Fluid bed dryer/cooler. The Plug flow feature also ensures that the material which enters first, leaves first, whilst its independent controls allow you to monitor air temperature and velocity. Its compact design, small footprint, high thermal efficiency is complemented by its adjustable bed height, whilst layer thickness can vary from 2 to 50 centimetres. It also features re-circulated gas and closed-loop systems available for improved efficiency, whilst an integrated drying and cooling section. Further advantages include low operating costs, it is easy to maintain and its reliable system design ensures less downtime. The waste heat can also be used for energy savings. By gently shaking the product up and down an optimal uniform drying result can be achieved at a lower temperature and with a shorter residence time, ensuring uniform product temperature and moisture content. The dryer can be emptied with ease as the particles are transported through the dryer by means of the shaking system. Adjusting the frequency of the shaking influences the product dwell time and has a particularly beneficial effect on quality. Suitable for powders, granules, agglomerates, and pellets, all surfaces in contact with the product are manufactured in stainless steel AISI 304L, whilst the system can also accommodate multi zones, velocities, temperatures, drying & cooling.

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International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 23




by Anna D Wilkinson, Director of Communications, North American Renderers Association, USA

f you walk up to a stranger on the street and ask a random person what rendering is, you’ll probably get one of a few responses – ‘architectural or artistic rendering’ or ‘digital graphics rendering’, and for those wanting to get fancy, they might say it means to represent something in an artistic work (as in; ‘The sketch was rendered in charcoal’). But the responses you’ll barely ever get are ‘A highly sustainable and climate smart practice utilised in agriculture industry,’ and ‘The original recycling’– yet both of these descriptions are 100 percent correct. in fact, those last two are also the most sustainable, I might add. The exception being if you’re rendering your sculpture out of recyclable material, in which case kudos; but unless you’re using billions of pounds of otherwise wasted material for that (rather large) sculpture, let’s talk about agricultural rendering – or as I like to call it: the unsung hero of sustainability.

What is rendering?

For clarity, agricultural rendering will be referred to as ‘rendering’ throughout this article. In short: rendering is recycling. Roughly 50 percent of an animal is considered inedible by North Americans. This leaves a lot of leftover material (i.e., ‘the meat we don’t eat’) that would end up as food waste were it not for rendering. Rendering reclaims this otherwise wasted material (like protein, bone, fat etc.), as well as used cooking oil (UCO) from restaurants, and safely and hygienically processes it into rendered material for use in new products – so nothing is wasted. This rendering process transforms and upcycles what would have been food waste into safe, clean, and valuable ingredients for countless new goods – saving landfill space, and recycling 99 percent of this unwanted material. These rendered ingredients are then used in the sustainable production of new goods like safe and nutritious pet food and animal feed, household and industrial products, biofuels, renewable diesel, and many more common items that we use or come into contact with every day. Rendered fat alone is used to safely produce a multitude of common items including candles, detergents, fabric softener, deodorant, shaving cream, perfume, crayons, paint, lubricant, plastics, waterproofing materials, cement, ceramics, chalk, matches, antifreeze, insulation, linoleum, textiles, soap, rubber items like tires, and even fireworks. Rendering also helps customers and consumers feel confident they’re making a sustainable choice when they purchase items made with this upcycled rendered material. Additionally, by rendering these otherwise wasted parts of an animal, we demonstrate respect and resourcefulness for the livestock that were raised with care by farmers, and respect for the animal itself.

This is achieved by ensuring everything is used for a purpose – so no part of that animal goes to waste. This is of great ethical importance to me personally, and many others who choose to eat meat.

A brief history

The word render comes from the French verb rendre, meaning ‘to give back.’ This is an apt definition. ‘Rendering is Recycling’ isn’t just a catchy phrase - countless new goods are produced by using upcycled rendered material - so rendering really is (in the literal definition of the term) recycling. Another motto commonly used in our industry is that renderers are ‘The Original Recyclers,’ and this is not hyperbole - rendering has existed for centuries and is one of the oldest ‘recycling’ practices. At its start, rendering was used primarily for soap and candle making, mostly done in a kettle over an open fire. Further developments to the process in the 19th century enabled family-owned renderers and packers to produce both edible and inedible products. Though the rendering industry continued on steadily (and quietly) for years to come, one example of the power of rendering’s sustainability can be seen during times of war. An example of this is the American Fat salvage. During World War II, American housewives were urged to save and turn in their used cooking grease so it could be utilised by US Armed Services to produce explosives for the war effort. During that time, they saved and turned in nearly 700 million pounds of fat. In 1947 alone, household recovery exceeded 114 million pounds – that’s almost 10 million pounds a month.

Why so sustainable?

According to data published in 2020, more than 62 billion pounds of raw materials are produced in the US and Canada annually. Rendering that material produces approximately 31.4 billion pounds of rendered products each year and keeps it out of landfills. As many know, landfill space is precious, so rendering this material instead of throwing it away extends the lifespan of the space we do have. In fact, were it not for rendering, and that material was instead treated as waste – all available landfill space would be full in approximately four years. In addition to the reduction of food waste and saved landfill space, renderers actually feed and grow the next generation of food by ‘recycling’ that unwanted meat and using the rendered material for animal feed and fertiliser. This act of recycling is, in its truest form, quite literally perpetuating the agricultural ‘circle of life.’ Rendering also helps to minimise and offset the environmental impacts of animal agriculture – shrinking our food production footprint. Rendering reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 72% and fossil fuel use by 80% (when compared to petroleum

24 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed









Reduced food waste

Roughly 50% of each meat animal wasted

62 billion pounds of food waste diverted from landfills

All U.S. landfills full in roughly 4 years

3.7 billion gallons of clean water reclaimed and returned to rivers and streams

Wasted water: not cleaned or returned to waterways & contaminated water: if animal leftovers sent to landfill

Fewer greenhouse gas emissions (5 times more GHGs sequestered than produced)

Lost environmental benefits for animal agriculture (less GHG reduction)

Lower carbon emissions from biodiesel and renewable diesel (80% less than petroleum diesel)

Increased carbon emissions from less environmentally friendly fuels


DID YOU KNOW THAT RENDERING... • Is a financially stable and sustainable industry with a $10 billion annual economic contribution. • Helps contribute to food security through the production of livestock feed and fertilizer. • Supports thousands of full time jobs with benefits, many in rural America. NORTH AMERICAN RENDERERS ASSOCIATION 500 Montgomery St, Suite 310, Alexandria, VA 22314 • (703) 683-0155 • www.nara.org

Industry Events diesel) and avoids at least 90% of the potential GHG emissions compared with industrial composting. In other words, rendering is the GHG reduction equivalent of removing 18.5 million cars off the road each year. Another little-known fact about rendering is it recovers and returns valuable water that would otherwise be wasted or contaminated. Billions of gallons of water are reclaimed during the rendering process, which is then released back into the environment, returned as clean water to local rivers and streams; and that water meets or exceeds federal, state, and local safety standards when it is returned. Renderers helps improve existing water quality too, without their pickup of UCO and cooking grease from restaurants, that material might end up down the drain. Rendering it instead saves municipal sewer and wastewater systems from becoming clogged. This helps prevent fouled and contaminated water quality and saves millions of dollars in damage needing repairs from broken sewer lines and sewage back up. So, rendering reduces food waste, saves landfill space, reduces GHG, reclaims and returns clean water, sustainably and nutritiously feeds our pets, and countless recycled products (including biodiesel) are made possible by rendering. That’s an impressive sustainability CV, and certainly new information to many, but the term sustainability doesn’t just mean environmentally sustainable.

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International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 25

The three pillars

Although environmental sustainability is likely our most prevalent depiction of the term, there are three pillars that, when combined, support sustainability as a whole. These three pillars are: environmental, economic, and social and are best visualised as just that – pillars. All three equally important, all three pillars also bear enough weight to uphold the true and complete concept of sustainability as a whole. Although rendering’s environmental sustainability benefits are widespread (that is the focus of this article after all), the economic and social benefits of rendering are truly behemoth and deserve recognition for their critical role of helping to support rendering’s overall sustainability. Rendering is a financially sound and community-focused industry, and employee retention rates remain high as renderers offer career stability and a commitment to community support. As mentioned above, the very act of rendering what would have been food waste and converting it into new products helps customers to be more sustainable, while also providing thousands of full-time, stable jobs that support families and local communities from coast to coast, in America and Canada, many in rural areas; and due to the raw and perishable nature of the material being rendered – these are local jobs that will stay local. Renderers also contribute greatly to their neighborhoods and wider communities, from supporting the local little league and fire department, to large-scale community outreach events to help feed and support those in need. Renderers are deeply rooted in social sustainability and community support. And though many rendering plants are family owned and operated (and have been for generations), larger rendering companies remain dedicated to and passionate about providing community care and outreach. Plant owners also invest considerably in improvements and enhancements to sustainability efforts, ensuring their facilities remain as climate smart and environmentally responsible as possible. And of course, with an annual contribution of $10 billion (as of 2020), the economic sustainability and financially solidity of the rendering industry directly supports the stability of careers, and ability to contribute so greatly to their communities. The important balance and equality of the three pillars is that they all work together, building off each other.

The importance of education

Although education on rendering’s sustainability benefits has increased in recent years, there is a reason that all the possible answers from my earlier query covered every definition of rendering except agricultural – and that is due in part to the limited amount of rendering education that’s historically been available.

In a time when all three pillars of sustainability are increasingly more important to consumers and the public at large, the rendering industry is expanding their communication about just how important rendering is to the sustainability and reduced food waste conversation. Through education, we can finally help to sing rendering’s praises for all it’s important sustainability benefits. In an effort to increase this awareness and educate the public, NARA recently rebranded to highlight rendering’s sustainability benefits – from our mission statement to our tagline (‘Reclaiming Resources, Sustainably’). We launched a rendering podcast (aptly titled ‘The Invisible Industry’) and produced new educational infographics – the kind you could hand to that stranger on the street and help them easily understand why rendering is vital to sustainability. NARA’s redesigned website is also consumer friendly, with resources that can be easily shared. Sustainability, like rendering, is not one dimensional or singular; it is multi-faceted and layered. Educating more people to understand why rendering is so critical to the reduced food waste and sustainability discussion is a valuable tool to gain support for overall sustainability goals.

26 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

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Tech update

The Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department’s Ed Weed Fish Culture Station, USA One of the high-ticket operational costs of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or partial recirculating aquaculture systems (PRAS) for fisheries enhancement programs has been heating large volumes of lake water in the winter. This is needed to supply the early rearing production room used to produce Landlocked Atlantic Salmon, Lake Trout, Steelhead, and Brown Trout. At the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department’s Ed Weed Fish Culture Station in Grand Isle, Vermont, the facility’s early rearing room was originally designed to hold 56 rectangular start tanks at a volume of four cubic meters each. At full production, the room required an operating flow of 5700 liters per minute of water that needed to be heated from 0 to 11°C in the late fall and winter. Significant staff time was also required to manually clean these rearing units. See more overleaf. 29 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed


An overview RAS and PRAS technology

Overcoming operational challenges faced by salmonid sport fish restoration & enhancement programs by Kevin Kelsey, Manager, Ed Weed Fish Culture Station Facility, Vermont, USA As manager of the Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department’s Ed Weed Fish Culture Station in Grand Isle, Vermont, I’ve often been asked about the benefits of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) or partial recirculating aquaculture systems (PRAS) for fisheries enhancement programs. Our recent move to incorporate these systems into our facility has primarily been driven by the operating costs savings that can be realised once they are in place. In our case, the Ed Weed FCS sits about 30 meters higher in elevation than our intake in Lake Champlain, making it expensive to push water that far uphill. Another high-ticket operational cost in the past has been heating large volumes of lake water in the winter to supply the early rearing production room used to produce Landlocked Atlantic Salmon, Lake Trout, Steelhead, and Brown Trout. Past electrical and heating costs have represented as much as 40 percent of the hatchery’s operating budget. The facility’s early rearing room was originally designed to hold 56 rectangular start tanks at a volume of four cubic meters each. At full production, the room required an operating flow of 5700 liters per minute of water that needed to be heated from 0 to 11°C in the late fall and winter. Significant staff time was also required to manually clean these rearing units. In the past, economic downturns put a strain on operating budgets for all sectors of Vermont state government. Costcutting exercises through program reduction or elimination

were commonplace. Reducing operational costs at fish culture stations by using RAS technology was a cost-saving option with potential, but upper-level management had been reluctant, primarily due to a lack of staff experience and exposure to the technology. When the 2007 recession hit, the need for real operational cost reductions became critical, and RAS became a reality. I came to Ed Weed FCS in 1997, having previously managed the first Atlantic Salmon RAS in the state of Maine, a facility that annually produced smolts for net pen operations. With that experience, I realised that RAS was more than a consideration for Vermont Fish & Wildlife’s budget issues – it was the answer to our problem. But convincing upper-level management that funding such a facility upgrade during a time when less funding was available was a real challenge. The State Resource Management and Energy Revolving Funds Program had recently been established to implement energy resources conservation and efficiency projects, making available more than US$10 million dollars to for projects that would showcase significant savings in energy consumption and conservation of resources. The funding was made available as no interest loans with minimal administration fees. Established projects were expected to pay back to the fund within a 5-to-7-year period using the annual savings realised from the application of the cost-saving technology. Based on conservative calculations, utilising these funding sources was a good fit.

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A more significant impact on cost savings

Two project proposals were developed; one to build an RAS system and the other to utilise a PRAS application at the facility. Both were approved and construction began in 2010. The RAS project was expected to have a more significant impact to cost savings. The system was designed to incorporate eight 5m3 and twelve 2m3 circular tanks and produce 250,000 salmon parr at a weight of 5g. A 50% reduction of propane use was anticipated from the system as well as a net reduction of electricity usage when compared to the costs of pumping the required water flow uphill from Lake Champlain. The PRAS project consisted of outfitting two of our twenty production raceways with gas management towers and reuse loops using a 1-hp pump. This design would reduce rearing unit flow-through water by 75%. Both of these raceways combined produce 38,000 steelhead smolts annually. Running these loops was projected to decrease the facility’s main pump electrical demand by approximately 5%. We were fortunate to be able to work directly with Innovasea aquaculture engineering, involving our hatchery staff in all phases of design and construction. Staff being directly involved in building the systems had multiple benefits such as reinforcing operational understanding and developing a sense of ownership and team building. The project payback timeline was ahead of schedule, and the next round of Energy Management Funding became available

in 2013. A request was approved to fund two additional RAS systems that would further reduce heating and electrical costs. Each system would be capable of producing 100,000 fingerlings to a weight of 5g. Plans called for one system being used for Lake Trout while the other would rear Brown Trout fingerlings from lighthouseproduced offseason summer eggs. These fingerlings reach the 5g target weight by December at which point they are moved to a production raceway. The system is then disinfected, drained and dried and made ready for steelhead fry in February.

Significant financial & environmental benefits

By 2014, Ed Weed’s entire early rearing production was being grown in RAS systems and with the PRAS loops on the raceways, significant financial and environmental benefits were being realised. The 33% reduction in overall incoming water to the facility was 33% achieved, resulting in electricity usage savings of US$1.1 million dollars over 10 years. The reduced flow also allows for further electricity savings by scaling down the facility main pump from 250 hp to 100 hp. Additionally, a more than 75% reduction in propane use has been achieved saving US$1.5 million dollars to date. This combined reduction in energy consumption reduces the facility’s carbon footprint by 1.8 million pounds of CO2 per year while continuing to annually produce high quality smolts and yearlings for sport fish restoration and angling opportunities in Vermont.

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With this proven application of RAS and PRAS systems at Ed Weed Fish Culture Station, three other Vermont Fish and Wildlife facilities have implemented successful projects. Salisbury Fish Culture Station is a well-water supplied brood stock station supporting Vermont Fish and Wildlife Department hatcheries and local private producers by producing eggs for Brook, Brown and Rainbow Trout as well as Lake Trout and steelhead. A five pair raceway configuration at the station had been under-

utilised for many years due to seasonal aquifer fluctuations. A PRAS system was installed allowing for an additional 8,200 kilograms of fish production. The system reuses and treats 600 litres per minute which, when combined with available fresh flow through water, increases overall flow by 40%. Nine solar trackers have been installed on site to buffer the increased in electricity demand.

An ideal location to design an RAS system

Bald Hill FCS operated primarily as a Landlocked Atlantic Salmon brood stock station, producing smolts for inland waters. However, in recent years the facility has taken on some yearling and trophy trout production in raceways supplied with surface water. Reliance on fingerlings from other fish culture stations had been necessary due to limited availability of well-water that is used to rear salmon fry and parr. In 2006, a Quonset hut was constructed to house filtration units for surface water, but multiple design and operational flaws rendered the building unusable for a number of years. The footprint available from this structure was an ideal location to design an RAS system that could use minimal well-water for fry and fingerling trout rearing, allowing the facility to control its trout production from egg through to distribution. The twelve-tank RAS system was brought online in 2018 and uses 25 litres of make water per minute to produce 550 kilograms of 115-millimeter fingerlings needed to fulfill production requirements. A 132-panel fixed solar array was erected at the facility in 2013 which offsets additional costs incurred by the operation of the RAS.

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Maximising production potential

When Tropical Storm Irene hit Vermont in August 2011, it destroyed the Roxbury FCS – the department’s oldest facility established in 1891 and on the National Register of Historic Sites. With the historic facility’s earthen ponds and aging infrastructure destroyed, rebuilding the facility to modern standards became a necessity to bring the facility into compliance with current surface water withdrawal and discharge permitting requirements. This naturally led to development of a PRAS system, which would address water use and discharge concerns, whilst still maximising production potential. The full scale PRAS was brought online at the Roxbury facility in 2021. Process flow was designed to reuse 2000 litres per minute in addition to 720 litres of flow-through water per minute. Current production capacity being reared is 11,500 kilograms of catchable-sized (23 to 28 - centimeters) Brook Trout and Rainbow Trout while remaining in compliance with water use and discharge permit conditions. Though the scale of these systems may be considered small by some, the impact they have had on program success for Vermont

Fish & Wildlife hatchery operations has been immense. Additional applications of RAS and PRAS within our Fish Culture Section will continue to address current problems and overcome future challenges.

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 33


Atlantic Salmon farming in Switzerland

How a group of companies are collaborating to bring the industry to the heart of the country by Sune Moeller, CTO, Swiss Blue Salmon, Switzerland

Swiss Blue Salmon, in collaboration with Billund Aquaculture, announce that they will be designing & building a 3400m/t whole round Atlantic Salmon farm next to the idyllic Walensee in the heart of Switzerland. The location of the project was chosen based on it having the perfect trifactor that includes an abundance of high-quality water, ease access to power and other key utilities and the nearest major market (Zürich)is less than 1hr away. Swiss Blue Salmon’s vision of becoming the smartest farm in the world is not driven by financial incentives or for that matter having a fancy title, but rather by an ambition and vision of wanting to participate in the charge of farming salmon locally in a sustainable manner. This vision will require continuous improvements and a strong network where it will collaborate with our strategic partners, such as Billund Aquaculture, ReelData, amongst others. The company believes that the benefits linked to these emerging technologies, such as machine learning, could crudely be divided into four categories: - Operational Expenses: Reduced feed waste, enhance fish growth, reduce costs associated with maintenance etc. - Risk Mitigation: Reduce biological, mechanical, and electrical operational risks and keep a tighter control to eliminate humanerror and any subsequent impact of incidents - Animal Welfare: Improve fish health and water quality, identification of stress events, and increase product quality. - Other factors: Improved transparency, increased customer satisfaction and trust amongst investors & creditors, enhanced inhouse decision-making, and a more sustainable profile for the company. AI solutions are still under development and there’s no doubt that the company has only scratched the surface of what the potential is with these within Aquaculture. It will therefore be critical to set up the fish farms as flexible as possible for any future solutions to be implemented with strategy aspects automated from the start.

advances. ReelData’s autonomous feeding systems setup will be integrated as a crucial part from the start. This system will help the company to gain a better understanding of the fish appetite and subsequently cater to it. This will help it to thereby reduce overfeeding and optimise growth from the start. The company also expects to see a better average water quality and overall animal welfare as a result of this enhanced control of the feeding regime.

Above: Flow of information from Swiss Blue to Strategic Partners that through analysis and idea generation turn this into solutions which subsequently will give better performance. Below: Picture caption, concept sketch of ReelData autonomous feeding concept and benefits

Gaining a better understanding

The company will of course include Machine Learning (ML) technologies already in the market from companies such as ReelData and work in collaboration with them on further 34 | June 2022 - Fish Farming Technology

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY The company will, in return, Swiss Blue Salmon’s vision of become their first point of contact for becoming the smartest farm in the future ideas whether it’s hardware, world and subsequently retaining that software, biological processes etc. Its ‘title’ will depend on how good it is setup especially opens up for more at staying innovative. It has therefore possibilities when it comes to ML, as committed itself to participating in the it’s not restricting the learning process development of new solutions with to a certain amount of parameters, a range of strategy partners, which but rather giving it the opportunity to it believes will give it a competitive see correlations between parameters, advantage. which it wouldn’t be able to find Its partners will also be able to tap itself. This will undoubtedly yield into hundreds, if not thousands of some interesting results down the sensors onsite in combination with line. supplier data, photos, videos, and onsite in person measurements & Breakdown of valuable side streams from fileting observations. This data collection Developing strategic incl. early mature fish. will over time become the backbone partnerships of Swiss Blue Salmon’s future The company also recognises that improvements linked to both economical and environmental it’s important also to develop strategic partnerships within the aspects, which it sees as part of the ‘Wheel of Innovation.’ academic world. The young minds of the future will be key with regards to its ability to stay innovative and they’re often not constrained by A high level of cybersecurity preconception, hence they’re more prone to thinking outside the Swiss Blue Salmon will store all of the data on a Cloud based box. Swiss Blue Salmon is therefore working on building up platform, which provides a high level of cybersecurity. The relationships with well renowned Universities in Switzerland sharing of data from the Cloud platform would ultimately be such as ETH Zürich, ZHAW, and EAWAG. controlled by Swiss Blue Salmon and give it ultimate control With regards to sustainability – this is not just a word to Swiss over who has access to it. Blue Salmon but it is also a mantra. The company has been Keeping in mind that the company aim to give access to an exploring multiple different avenues when it comes to improving unprecedented amount of farming data to our strategic partners the overall footprint of its finished products. allowing them to gain a deeper understanding of the inner At this stage it has identified three major aspects which required workings of these immensely complex facilities.

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a significant dedication from it to bring Swiss Blue Salmon to the top of the class. First off, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) plants have always been pointed out to have an above the norm energy consumption when compared to net pen production. The company therefore need to reduce the amount of power required and find sustainable energy sources. Its investigations have led to significant decrease in power consumption from the grid through the following initiatives: - Cooling of the fish farm will come through the use of a passive cooling setup. - The heating setup will be based on two parts, with the primary part being passive heat recovery to ensure an optimised usage of active heating source. The active heating will come from highly efficient heat pump system. - Swiss Blue Salmon will furthermore utilise highly efficient air heat recovery system which will enable it to further bring down its heating and cooling demands - In combination with renewable energy from the grid, an onsite solar panel installation will ensure the company secures a green power profile.

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The second leg of Swiss Blue Salmon’s quest for higher sustainability is linked to how it processes the fish and especially what it does with its in excess of 1000mt of annual waste, or side streams as it calls them. There are a range of good upcycling potentials, which stretch from making leather from the skin to delivering raw materials into the cosmetics and/or pharma industry. The company therefore aim towards utilising the fish from ‘nose to tail’ and it will dedicate a substantial amount of time to solving this puzzle with yet another key strategy partner, Dantech – a company that has a longstanding history within processing plant optimisation and upcycling. Dantech are also specialists in linking the solution with the end users, hence bridge the gap that many face when finding actual off-takers to the upcycled products. Thirdly, the last major challenge Swiss Blue Salmon sees within fish farming as a general is the footprint of the feed. This is not only linked to the energy consumed during sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery of the feed, but also towards the feed manufacturers efforts on finding new sustainable raw materials to produce their feeds from. There’s already a growing trend towards eliminating the fish-in/fish-out (FIFO) ratio, which is contributing to a reduction in overfishing of the oceans. The elimination of fish oil is one of the two components linked to FIFO, which is rapidly being replaced with products such as algae oils. The interesting aspect is that in some cases the algaebased products give an even higher content of omega-3 in the finished product, hence boosting the value of not only the main product, but also the side streams. The company can therefore through conscientious choices improve the finished product such as filets, along with increasing the revenue of side streams. It’s of course easy to say all these things, putting them into action is where the major challenge lies. And there can be no doubt that Swiss Blue Salmon are relying on experts from its strategic partners to help it to make the right choices through informed decisions. The company expect to be challenged on its current perceptions, so that it can disrupt the status quo, and ultimately lift the bar for what is expected of a salmon producer.


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Nitrogen analyser

New technology seeks to increase fish health & feed conversion efficiencies by Aquamonitrix, Ireland

Maximising feed conversion efficiency is the holy grail for profitable livestock farming – including recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) fish production. There is always a delicate balance to strike. Too little nutrition, and the producer fails to maximise growth potential. However, the key difference is that while in conventional farming, too much feed is simply wasteful, in an RAS system, it can be counter-productive. This is because of the acute sensitivity of many fish species to fluctuations in water quality. The biofilter is the key piece of kit that allows recirculating aquaculture systems to achieve high water recycle rates. Powered by bacteria, it breaks down toxic ammonia, first to nitrite, which is also toxic, and then to less toxic nitrate. The bacteria may become overwhelmed and struggle to complete the two-step conversion, however, if the ammonia load from uneaten feed or increased excretion exceeds the biofilter design capacity. Mass mortalities as a result of toxic ammonia or nitrite poisoning are the worst-case scenario. But even a small deterioration in water quality may stop the fish from feeding – or reduce the feed rate. At the same time, mitigation strategies, such as water exchange or saline flushing, can introduce a sharp shock to the system, potentially affecting feeding rates and bacterial communities.

A new breed of analyser for RAS

Aquamonitrix is a new breed of autonomous, real-time nitrate and nitrite analyser that is finding applications in RAS development and operation, because of its relevant limits

How Aquamonitrix is different from existing nitrate and nitrite analysers

While other autonomous analysers, marketed for nitrate and/or nitrite measurement, have been around for some time, their applicability is limited in real-world aquaculture systems because they cannot provide sufficiently sensitive detection, they are impacted by salinity or because the turbid environment, presence of organics and high nitrate concentrations can cause interference and undermine instrument reliability. Aquamonitrix overcomes these challenges by combining the separation capabilities of rapid ion chromatography with UV-LED detection. The chromatography column slows that transit of nitrate so that the nitrite anions reach the UV-LED detector first. This allows for a highly specific and accurate reading of both nitrite and nitrate, even when the nitrate concentrations are high. The chromatography column also acts as a ‘trap’ for colour, organics and air bubbles, which can adversely affect the performance of conventional analysers based on ISE, colorimetric or standard UV/UV-LED methods.

of detection (LoDs) and ability to work in a range of RAS environments. The analyser can operate in fresh, 30 mg/l saline and fully saline (marine) waters, and it provides laboratory-quality accuracy at limits of detection as low as 0.05 mg/L for nitrite (as NO2-) and 0.6 mg/L for nitrate (as NO3-). Because the system can be configured to provide warnings

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY One of the emerging applications for the new Aquamonitrix real-time nitrate and nitrite analyser is in monitoring RAS biofilter performance to achieve that elusive balance between maximising feed rates and water quality. and alarms when desired levels are breached, RAS designers, manufacturers and operators can use Aquamonitrix to test system tolerances. Early adopters in Scandinavia include Nofima, working with the Arctic University of Norway; the Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland; and Alpha Aqua – a Danish company that provides modular, turnkey RAS systems, designed to be ecofriendly and support high standards of fish welfare. One of the emerging applications for Aquamonitrix is in monitoring the biofilter performance as ammonia is progressively converted via the nitrite intermediate to nitrate – to achieve that ‘sweet spot’ where feed rates and water quality are optimised, so that the fish are feeding well and achieving maximum feed conversion efficiencies. “During the first couple of weeks, we wanted to ensure that the bacterial communities were establishing and the biofilter was operating correctly – that the toxic ammonia was being broken down to nitrite and then nitrate. Now, on an ongoing basis, we are using the analyser to manage water quality in the system to optimise the feed conversion rate,” explains Dr Jamie Downes at the Irish Marine Institute, where Aquamonitrix is being used at an R&D RAS facility for Atlantic salmon smolt. Before Aquamonitrix became available to the market in late 2021, the standard method for RAS operators performing nitrite analysis required time-consuming sample preparation

Dr Jamie Downes, using Aquamonitrix® real-time nitrate and nitrite analyser at the Irish Marine Institute research and demonstration RAS facility.

in a laboratory, using hazardous reagents to create a colorimetric reaction, which was then measured using a spectrophotometer. So, an obvious benefit of automated nitrite and nitrate monitoring is the potential to reduce the need for analytical chemists and laboratory time. However, the bigger game-changer is the higher temporal resolution of data and the availability of results in real-time, Dr Downes says. “We can observe the fluctuations in nitrite levels corresponding with feed input throughout the day. Once feeding starts in the morning, you see a build-up in nitrite throughout the day as the fish feed and metabolise the food. Then, overnight, the bacteria break this down to nitrate.” (See graphs 1 and 2) “That is the daily cycle. Over time, we can also see the nitrate increase as it accumulated in the system with the increasing fish biomass. We use this to determine our water exchange rates,” he

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Graphs 1 & 2: Nitrite levels follow a daily cycle, closely tracking the feeding regime

Aquamonitrix real-time nitrate and nitrite analyser

adds. (Graph 3) It is also interesting to see the close correlation between biomass gain and total feed input (See graphs 4 and 5). This indicates very efficient feed conversion, as would be typical in salmon species. But it also underscores the stress-free, high water-quality environment that the Marine Institute’s pre-smolts have enjoyed. Users can access their nitrate and nitrite data in real-time through their own data management system or the proprietary Datamonitrix system. Accessible via a PC, this portal allows users to store and analyse data; assign users and email distribution lists; set up alerts and alarms, and receive analyser self-diagnosis warnings. “For us, the user interface is excellent,” Dr Downes adds. “I can log in remotely and look at the nitrate and nitrite levels any time, day or night. This informs our operation strategy – whether nitrite peaks at an acceptable level, we have reached the limits of the biofilter, or we need to increase our water exchange rate. It has allowed us to be really on-point with our water quality.”

Graph 3: Over time, accumulated nitrate levels have increased with biomass gain

Graphs 4 and 5: Correlation between biomass gain and total feed input

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Algal blooms How aquaculture can fight back against these harmful & unwelcome intruders


by Jennie Korus, Aquaculture Scientist, Innovasea, Canada

y 2050, the planet’s population is expected to grow by 2 billion. That means an increased demand for protein, and that presents an enormous opportunity for aquaculture because it can be both sustainable and scalable. According to the United Nations, aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food sector, currently accounting for more than 50 percent of the fish consumed by humans. Global fish consumption increased at an average annual rate of 3.1 percent between 1961 and 2017. That’s almost double the rate of population growth from that same period and is higher than the growth of any other animal protein. Unfortunately, climate change is threatening the future of the fish farming industry, particularly ocean-based farming and the cultivation of any species that relies on wild fisheries for feed. The effects of climate change are likely to bring more intense and frequent flash floods, tropical cyclones, and extreme heatwaves, but the warming that much of the planet is already experiencing is by far the biggest threat to the industry. This is due to the: • Effects of warming on the farmed species. • Effects on areas that are suitable for fish farming. • Impacts on wild species that are currently used to produce feed. But perhaps the most complex threat from climate change is how it’s fueling the frequency and intensity of harmful algal blooms. Algae – or phytoplankton – are microscopic species that support the oceans food web. However, under the right conditions, their populations can grow exponentially in a short period of time. This can have negative consequences on surrounding organisms because algae blooms can deplete oxygen levels, produce neurotoxins that can harm or kill fish directly, or damage the gills of fish as they pass over them.

An unprecedented bloom

Blooms occur primarily in coastal regions where most farms are situated, so farmers often invest in significant monitoring and mitigation techniques to protect their stocks. But this is becoming increasingly difficult. What was once a small, seasonal issue is rapidly becoming a full-time monitoring effort that is costly and resource intensive. For example, in 2015 an unprecedented bloom of Pseudo-nitzschia australis, known for producing the neurotoxin domoic acid, occurred along the West Coast of Canada and the United States. This bloom was fueled by a large warm water anomaly, colloquially named “the blob,” that produced ideal growing conditions. This was the first time a Pseudo-nitzschia bloom caused harmful effect to both shellfish and finfish operations in the region – and affected marine mammals. Super blooms such as this one, demonstrate the potential severity of toxic plankton events that could become more common in the future. So, what can farmers do about worsening plankton issues? The first step is simply monitoring water conditions. Today’s environmental monitoring technology allows for fine-scale monitoring of oxygen, temperature, turbidity, chlorophyll and other factors in every pen. Research has shown that these conditions can vary across a single farm. With significant impacts from climate change happening in real time and expected to worsen, it’s critical that farmers monitor water quality to collect baseline data and observe changing conditions to determine the impact on their production cycles. Harmful algal blooms are directly linked to environmental conditions, so collecting consistent and reliable environmental data will provide valuable insights into how changes in water quality are impacting when and where blooms form.

Better understanding the issues

Plankton data management is also proving necessary for any farmer who wants to better understand the issues they’re experiencing on their farm. Knowing what happened last year is no longer enough. Looking back over the last five or even 10 years – and being able to see how multi-year patterns are emerging – is critical to managing algae blooms in the short term. In the long-term, these data sets are unique and extremely

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY There’s no question that climate change is impacting water quality around the globe and creating challenges for ocean-based fish farming. The increase in harmful algae blooms is not only a problem for ocean farmers, but poses a threat to freshwater systems, wild shellfish, fish, and marine mammals that often occupy the coastal regions most heavily impacted by HABS. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution released a special report earlier this year outlining the complicated nature of HABs. It highlighted the importance of environmental monitoring and capturing data sets that directly identify species and their concentrations – the exact data sets many farmers are already collecting for their operations. These data sets are extremely valuable and collaboration between industry and research groups is a natural path to better understand these complex phenomena.


FAO. 2020. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in action. Rome. https://doi.org/10.4060/ca9229en McCabe, R. M., Hickey, B. M., Kudela, R. M., Lefebvre, K. A., Adams, N. G., Bill, B. D., Gulland, F. M. D., Thomson, R. E., Cochlan, W. P., & Trainer, V. L. (2016). An unprecedented coastwide toxic algal bloom linked to anomalous ocean conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(19), 10,36610,376. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL070023 Oyinlola, M. A., Reygondeau, G., Wabnitz, C. C. C., Frölicher, T. L., Lam, V. W. Y., & Cheung, W. W. L. (2022). Projecting global mariculture production and adaptation pathways under climate change. Global Change Biology, 28(4), 1315–1331. https://doi. org/10.1111/gcb.15991


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valuable, and they can be used to develop machine learning algorithms that can help with forecasting and prediction models. But a better understanding of a problem doesn’t actually solve it. For that, mitigation technology is required, and more farmers are implementing aeration and oxygenation systems that can be highly effective when used correctly. In addition, there’s an ongoing shift in the industry toward semi-enclosed sites, and these systems require oxygen injection in order to provide a suitable habitat for fish. Producers are quickly realising that aeration and oxygenation systems allow them to not only control the environment when problems arise, but by super saturating the environment with oxygen they can shorten grow-out cycles, which has major benefits in terms of environmental impact and production costs. Protecting against unknown threats Oxygen injection and aeration systems are a significant investment and can be costly to work – in particular against harmful phytoplankton where systems are often left running around the clock to protect against unknown threats. Automated and data-controlled mitigation systems like Innovasea’s aquaControl are the future of this technology and ensure that systems are operating at the highest efficiency level and only when necessary. Armed with a first-of-its-kind digital control panel, aquaControl’s air-flow valves can now be automatically adjusted via software control instead of requiring someone on-site to manually open and close mechanical valves. In addition, aquaControl will use environmental data and incoming plankton information collected on the farm to automate the aeration system and determine how much air or oxygen to bring into each pen and when to turn diffusers on and off.



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TECHNOLOGY SH Innovations this month June 2022 In this month’s Product Showcase we feature a range of technologies that are specifically designed to assist with both the rearing and harvesting of fish. This list of innovative fish farm apparatus includes a super strong new rope technology, an automated feeder and a revolutionary temperature probe. If you would like your product or service to appear in this section in a future edition of International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine, then please contact us at editorial@perendale.co.uk

Cage Feeder from FishFarmFeeder FishFarmFeeder, a self-described leading manufacturer that specialises in aquaculture feeding systems, announces the launch of its individual feeding system that contributes to a significant increase of specific growth rate (SGR). Designed for the early feeding stages of fry in cages, the feeder supplements feeding managed from a barge or a boat. In order to make the most of the hours of sunlight, the individual feeding system significantly increases the growth of the fry. The Cage Feeder from FishFarmFeeder can be powered by solar energy, which allows feeding between 6 and 10 hours a day. The dosing capacity 20 - 30 kg of pellets per hour, whilst it can feed fingerlings up to 50 grams. The feeder also includes 200kg silo, which can be recharged by using a charger from a ship and comes supplied with both a solar panel and a battery. www.fishfarmfeeder.com

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PolyGeyser Bead Filters by AST As the latest addition to Aquaculture System Technologies’ line of bead filter technologies, PolyGeyser Bead Filters are distinguishable by their automatic pneumatic backwash mechanism. The result of several years of development, the PolyGeyser is capable of handling ammonia loads 50 to 100 percent higher than standard bead filters with a greater reduction in water and head loss. During the process, air is pumped into the charge chamber at a controlled rate to achieve the desired backwash frequency. Once the charge chamber reaches capacity, the pneumatic trigger fires, releasing the air. This causes beads to mix, roll and drop, while water rushes through and sweeps solids away into the air charge chamber below. Using an innovative backwash process, it prevents caking and clogging, ensuring that day-to-day operations continue to run smoothly. The backwash is gentle, to keep the biofilm intact while allowing the system to operate for long periods without maintenance. https://astfilters.com

The Caridea Control temperature cane By helping the producer achieve a correct homogenisation of the water, the Caridea Control temperature cane provides the realtime readings of the critical and hottest areas of the harvest container, whilst it also instantly monitors the change in water temperature when the product is entering the container from the pond. This temperature cane is an important ally for the Mexican fish farmer, it is a fact that by monitoring the water temperatures during harvest, the texture, body and colour of the shrimp are improved, guaranteeing the quality and productivity of your farm. In addition, the measurement equipment has a visual alarm that notifies the user when the water in the container leaves the temperatures previously configured by the user, it also has internet connectivity to monitor and record all temperatures during the harvest on a platform and web application that displays graphs, histories and report of the activities that occurred during the harvest process. www.acuaequipos.mx

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Check out our website dedicated to fish farming technology


HOWCASE FISA's XtraCore+ Fibras Industriales SA (FISA) introduces its new netting for aquaculture, the result of constant research and innovation from the Lima-based company. Described as a product that is a step forward for the marine industry, XtraCore+ is constructed of a first and second layer of braided polyethylene, with a core that is a third inner layer of polyester filaments with an addition of DSM's super-strong ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). This gives it a higher coefficient of friction, helping its durability against adverse climates, highly demanding tides and currents and, above all, attacks by wildlife, such as sea lion bites. With more than 70 years of history, FISA has emerged as a leader in the production and distribution of nets for the salmon industry sector, manufacturing products with the highest quality standards and developing services tailored to the needs of its customers. www.fisa.com.pe https://aqfeed.info/e/1460


Kaeser Rotary Screw Blowers Whether you need blowers for the pneumatic conveying of feed or for the aeration of bio-filters and ponds, Kaeser’s blowers are designed to be low-maintenance, highly reliable and efficient for multiple aquaculture applications. Ranging from 7.5kW to 250 kW, the blowers have a flow rate from 3 to 160m3/minute. The blowers can be controlled using the Sigma Control 2 which ensures efficiency and monitoring at all times. The benefits of using the blowers include a guarantee of maximum efficiency – allowing for savings up to 35 percent compared to conventional blower systems – access to operating data in real time thanks to the controller, and low installation costs as the blowers are delivered complete with sensors, filled with oil and are certified. www.kaeser.com aqfeed.info/e/1461

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 45


Aquaculture case study

Land-based salmon farming Can scaled up commercial on-shore aquaculture remain both profitable & sustainable?

AquaBounty was joined at the groundbreaking event by partners CRB, Innovasea, local and government officials, and key Ohio economic development leaders. The company expects the project cost to be in the range of US$290m to $320m, including a reserve for potential contingencies of US$30m. The Company anticipates commercial stocking of salmon eggs to commence in late 2023. Once in full operation, the farm is expected to bring more than 100 new jobs to the region. CRB, an international leader in sustainable engineering, architecture, construction, and consulting solutions to the food and beverage and life sciences industry, will lead the design and construction of the facility for AquaBounty. “We are pleased to have officially begun building our nextgeneration, highly productive facility in Pioneer, Ohio, which will serve as a model for the aquaculture industry and our continued expansion,” says Sylvia Wulf, Chief Executive Officer of AquaBounty. “This milestone comes after many dedicated teams completed extensive scientific investigation, analysis, testing, modelling, and regulatory review. We also celebrate with the Village of

AquaBounty, a land-based salmon producer that is seeking to harness innovation in order to enhance productivity and sustainability in aquaculture, recently celebrated breaking ground on the construction of its first 10,000 metric ton Atlantic salmon farm in Pioneer, Ohio, USA.

Pioneer, Williams County, the Regional Growth Partnership, and the State of Ohio, which will benefit from the introduction of a new industry with new jobs and new opportunities in Northwest Ohio.” Innovasea, a global leader in technologically advanced aquatic solutions for aquaculture and fish tracking, is designing the Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) technology for the new farm.

Demonstrating a bold vision

"AquaBounty's facility demonstrates the bold vision necessary to defeating food insecurity on a global scale," says Ryan Schroeder, President of CRB. "We are extremely humbled and grateful that our integrated ONEsolution approach is playing a key role in uniting that vision with execution methods designed to deliver projects on schedule, on budget and with high quality." “This is an important milestone in the advancement of aquaculture in the United States, and Innovasea is excited to lend our RAS expertise to the project,” says Innovasea CEO David Kelly. “AquaBounty’s state-of-the-art facility will go a long way to proving that commercial land-based aquaculture can be scaled

46 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed


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International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 47

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up and remain both profitable and sustainable.” “AquaBounty will establish its largest and most advanced facility here in Ohio,” says JP Nauseef, president, and CEO of JobsOhio. “The farm will create more than 110 new jobs while attracting the next generation of food production technology to Williams County.”

A sustainable source of nutritious food

“As the global population increases, we are working to efficiently feed a hungry world with a sustainable source of nutritious food,” says Ms Wulf. “The RAS technology and overall facility design combined with the proximity to major markets will continue to generate a lower carbon footprint compared to flying salmon produced overseas, as well as ease pressure on wild salmon stocks, while using natural resources responsibly and sustainably.” AquaBounty offers a consistent supply of salmon raised in the U.S. in a safe, secure and sustainable way. AquaBounty strategically locates its farm facilities within easy reach of key US markets to accelerate delivery of fresh and safe Atlantic salmon to consumers.

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 49

Industry Events

Status updates for industry events amidst global effects of COVID-19 7-8 Seagriculture USA 2022 Portland, Maine, USA https://seagriculture-usa.com

2022 2022


13-15 SPACE 2022 Rennes, France http://uk.space.fr

29-30 Seagriculture EU 2022 Bremerhaven, Germany https://seagriculture.eu

22-23 Aquaculture New Zealand Conference 2022 Nelson, New Zealand www.aquaculture.org.nz

July 6-8 16th Indo Livestock Jakarta, Indonesia www.indolivestock.com 2022

August 3-5 Ildex Vietnam 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.ildex-vietnam.com 10-12 Livestock Malaysia 2022 Malacca, Malaysia www.livestockmalaysia.com 15-18 Aquaculture Canada and WAS North America 2022 St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada www.was.org/meeting/code/WANA2021 23-25 Aquaculture Philippines 2022 Manila, Philippines www.livestockphilippines.com

27-30 Aquaculture Europe 2022 Rimini, Italy www.aquaeas.org 2022

The 10th International Fair for Fish Imports/Exports, Processing, Aquaculture and Fisheries Future Fish Eurasia is set to be organised by Eurasia Trade Fairs at the Izmir International Fair Centre between November 3-5, 2022. Organised in a hall of 10,000m², Future Fish Eurasia 2022 will be where over 200 local and international companies will display their latest products and services. The concept of Future Fish Eurasia is a combination of seafood products, aquaculture and fish processing equipment, catering for fish traders, farmers and processors. Turkey is surrounded by four seas, including the Mediterranean Sea, rich in diversity of fish species. Natural richness including inland resources provides a major advantage in having a large variety of aquatic species, mainly sea bass, bream, rainbow trout and sea trout. Hatcheries are equipped with advanced technologies, fish farms and seafood processing factories are completely adapted to EU and FDA regulations. The industry continues to diversify by investing in development of new species as well, giving utmost importance to hygiene and quality, for assuring the quality of Turkish Seafood. The dynamic structure of Turkish aquaculture and Future Fish Eurasia form a perfect platform for those in the fish business. Providing an opportunity to introduce your aquaculture and/or processing technology to Turkey and its neighbouring countries, buy high quality seafood products or sell alternative seafood, so book your space now to secure your share in a market that’s on the move!


October 12-14 Vietstock 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam www.vietstock.org


Future Fish Eurasia 2022



1-3 Taiwan SMART Agriweek 2022 Taipei, Taiwan www.taiwanagriweek.com

4-6 Fish International 2022 Bremen, Germany https://fishinternational.de ☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event

May 29-1 World Aquaculture 2023 Darwin, Australia www.was.org

15-18 EuroTier 2022 Hannover, Germany www.eurotier.com


6 Aquaculture Innovation Forum London, UK aquacultureinnovationforum.com

March 8-10 VIV Asia 2023 Nonthaburi, Thailand www.vivasia.nl

9-11 Ildex Indonesia 2022 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com 2022


23-26 Aquaculture America 2023 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA www.was.org

November 9-11 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2022 St. Petersburg, Florida, USA www.afia.org


29-2 World Aquaculture Singapore 2022 Singapore www.was.org 2022

December 13-15 AlgaEurope 2022 Rome, Italy https://algaeurope.org

50 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed


June 8-10 VIV Turkey Istanbul, Turkey www.vivturkey.com

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2023

Sustainable Aquaculture for Two Oceans

April 18-21, 2023 HOTEL RIU PLAZA Panama City, Panama Get our meeting mobile app

AUG. 15 - 18, 2022



Hosted by







The annual meeting of


Conference sponsor

Premier sponsors

Latin American & Caribbean Chapter/World Aquaculture Society -WAS LACC@laccWas LACC World Aquaculture Society


For details: aquacultureassociation.ca | was.org | naia.ca

Aquaculture America


Food For The Future February 23-26, 2023 New Orleans Marriott New Orleans, Louisiana SPONSORED BY:

World Aquaculture Singapore 2022

Nov. 29 - Dec. 2, 2022

Singapore EXPO Convention & Exhibition Centre and MAX Atria The Annual International Conference & Exposition of World Aquaculture Society Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2022 – Annual Meeting of Asian Pacific Chapter, WAS Hosted by Singapore Food Agency

WAS Premier Sponsors

Conference Sponsors Temasek Polytechnic, Nanyang Technological University National University of Singapore, James Cook University Republic Polytechnic 3rd International Symposium on Perch and Bass WAS Premier Sponsors

WA2020 Partner Associate Sponsors World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association Aquacultural Engineering Society Aquaculture Association of Canada Global Seafood Alliance International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Latin American Chapter WAS • US Trout Farmers Association


@WASingapore WASAPC

Associate Sponsors Aquaculture Engineering Society International Association of Aquaculture Economics & Management WorldFish

For More Information Contact:

Conference Manager | P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 | Email: worldaqua@aol.com | www.was.org Trade Show Contact: mario@marevent.com

WA 4 show AD 26 x 33.6 cm.indd 1

4/5/22 12:56 PM

Industry Events

Aquaculture UK ‘Navigating the future’

With a four year gap since the last show was held, Aquaculture UK returned to Aviemore for a successful three-day event, May 3-5. Statistics supplied after the show reflect its success, as an opportunity for industry professionals to reunite and make new connections: the show oversaw more than 2600 visitors attend, a nine percent increase from the show held in 2018. The show opened with an address from Cabinet Secretary for Rural Affairs and Islands Mairi Gougeon, who celebrated aquaculture in her address as a vital industry for Scotland’s economy. She went on to add that attention to environmental impact remains equally important, “whilst maximising the benefits which the sector brings to local communities.” There was also mention of the organisations and businesses involved in facilitating the growth of the sector, including Women in Scottish Aquaculture

by Caitlin Gittins, international Aquafeed magazine

which looks to introduce more women to the sector, and the Sustainable Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC). On the website, Aquaculture UK describes a visit to the show as providing visitors with the confidence to ‘navigate the future.’ This is a subtle nod to the fact that aquaculture is an ever-expanding, ever-growing industry thanks to its utilisation of technology, which was made apparent in the companies exhibiting at the show. Technology companies had on display a wide range of products, from underwater cameras to netting, even to laser delousing treatments. International Aquafeed magazine invites you to view some of these products in more detail in our technology showcase on pages 44 and 45. A number of interesting and insightful talks were held at the show, which demonstrated ongoing innovation in the aquaculture sector.

Alan Munro, Northern Isles Regional Manager, Matthew Speke, Technical Sales Manager, and Jamie Johnston, Sales Manager. All from AKVA group, Scotland.

Shane Hunter of AquaBioTech of Malta talks to visitors

Miguel Arostegui CEO and Dider Leclercq, shareholder at Fish Farm Feeder and Feeding Systems SL

52 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

Mark Wilson, Technical Director at VAF - Vita Aqua Feeds Ltd, UK with Roger Gilbert

Making aquaculture more sustainable

Day one of the show saw the talk "Social licence for aquaculture" opened by Alistair Dingwall, the Senior Director at the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) who provided an overview of the work ASC are doing towards making aquaculture more sustainable. His talk stressed the importance of ASC maintaining their standards, as well as traceability and the demand from the market for businesses to be more engaged in social issues. On day two, the talk “SAIC: Innovation with Impact” was opened by Heather Jones, CEO of SAIC, as she introduced representatives from projects SAIC had funded to share their findings. This included Fabian Grammes, from AquaGen, who presented on his project to improve resistance to disease in salmon and trout (focusing on salmon in his presentation), Annette Boerlage from Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC) who presented on a project to examine marine gill diseases, and Susan Fitzer, from the Institute of Aquaculture on shell breakage in farmed mussels. A wide range of projects were presented, all of which are contributing to

greater understanding and improved practices within aquaculture. On the evening of day two, the Aquaculture Awards were hosted at a celebratory dinner, at the Macdonald resort. 14 prizes were handed to companies and individuals for having made an exceptional contribution to aquaculture over the past year. Recipients of the Rising Star award, Andre Van from Kames Fish Farm and Rhianna Rees of SAMS Enterprise, were acknowledged for having transformed fish health management and being an effective leader, respectively. Kames Fish Farm also received the Best Aquaculture Company award as a pioneer of farming steelhead trout.

Recognising hard work & dedication

Created this year, the Judges Special Recognition Award was designed to acknowledge the special efforts of a company or individual and was handed to Pacific Ocean Culture, for its environmental programme, healthy eating campaign and overall focus on developing Fijian aquaculture. Event Director Cheri Arvonio says of the show, “It feels more important than ever to recognise hard work and dedication in the industry after the challenges of the past two years and we are proud to honour the achievements made by the most innovative and successful operators in aquaculture.” Being able to meet once again and be informed on ongoing developments in aquaculture was invaluable and provided a great insight into the continual hard work of industry professionals in ensuring that aquaculture can meet growing demand for seafood while ensuring sustainability. International Aquafeed magazine look forward to attending the next show, which will be held in Aviemore, May 14-16, 2024.

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 53

Industry Events

Aquaculture Awards 2022 The winners of this year’s Aquaculture Awards were revealed at a celebratory dinner on day two of Aquaculture UK in Aviemore. Hosted by Scottish broadcaster Dougie Vipond, 14 prizes were awarded to companies and individuals making an exceptional contribution to the sector over the past year in front of a sell-out crowd at the Macdonald Resort.

Setting & continually raising the bar

The judging panel had a tough job deciding on the Rising Star award among many deserving candidates and, in the end, it was agreed it should go to two up-and-coming youngsters, Andre Van of Kames Fish Farm, who has ‘transformed’ fish health management at the company, and Rhianna Rees of SAMS Enterprise, an ‘effective leader and networker’ in the seaweed sector. The Collaboration award went to Mowi and the Brexit Working Group collaboration that ensured a smooth transition for Scottish salmon in the months after Britain’s exit from the EU. The transition process required cross-departmental interaction and co-ordination from the salmon sector, which was the only area of UK seafood exports which successfully set up inspection and documentation hubs. In another hotly contested category, the Innovation prize was awarded to marine consultant BMT, for its Decision Support System, a marine modelling tool that places farm sites in areas less likely to have high levels of sea lice and that the company claims will contribute to significant

reductions in the cost of sea lice management measures. Winner of the Environmental Impact award was Fjord Maritime for its Fjord Hybrid technology that delivers sustainable energy to fish farms, saving costs and reducing the sector’s carbon footprint. The company has more than 100 systems operating in Norway and plans to open a Scottish base this year. Scottish Sea Farms won the Economic Sustainability for its commitment to ensuring the company’s policies and practices are as attractive as possible to today’s workforce, helping safeguard the long-term economic sustainability of its remote farms and facilities. Meanwhile, the Community Initiative award went to the Scottish Salmon Company, which established its Healthy Communities Community Charter to bring people and communities together by encouraging staff to play an active part in the areas they work in and champion local causes. The Shellfish Farmer of the Year honours went this year to Judith Vajk of Caledonian Oysters, described as ‘inspirational’ after taking over the running of the farm following her husband Hugo’s death in an accident a few years ago, and ‘persevering in the face of adversity’ to maintain a successful business. Stephen Woods of Scottish Sea Farms was named Finfish Farmer of the Year, a farming veteran who has been with the company for 27 years and was recognised for being its best performing farm manager of all time, ‘setting and continually raising the bar for other farmers to aspire to’.

54 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

Ace Aquatec and Stirling University were joint winners of the Animal Welfare award, for their work, sponsored by the Humane Slaughter Association, to extend humane slaughter to more of the world's farmed fish species, in a project designed to ensure 100 percent of fish stunned electrically are unconscious before death. The technology is being rolled out worldwide to humanely stun, and monitor the efficacy of that stunning, in the top ten commercially grown fish species. The Aquaculture Supplier of the Year was Nutrition Analytical Service, of the University of Stirling. Run by James Dick at the Institute of Aquaculture, this independent laboratory provides advice on aquafeed to its customer base, which spans the Scottish and international aquaculture industries. During the pandemic, it maintained services across the aquaculture sector, from feed manufacturers to fish production, to ensure the delivery of vital supplies to the retail market. Scooping the coveted Best Aquaculture Company award in a highly competitive field was Kames Fish Farming, the family company and aquaculture pioneer that has been farming steelhead trout for 50 years and has recently embarked on an exciting new chapter in its growth. And this year, for the first time, a Judges Special Recognition Award was created to acknowledge the special efforts of a particular company or individual. The recipient, Pacific Ocean Culture, based in Fiji, emerged during several categories in the judges’ deliberations as a dynamic enterprise, punching above its weight with its environmental programme, a local healthy eating campaign, and focus on developing the country’s aquaculture sector.

An outstanding contribution to our industry

Industry Events

Cooke Aquaculture Scotland’s long-serving Biological Controller Ian Keen-Smith was named Unsung Hero. Described by colleagues as a ‘sea of calm’ and ‘someone to talk to when things need to be fixed,’ Ian has survived the consolidation of the industry, worked for 15 managing directors and is now retiring, after 47 years in the business. Another Scottish pioneer, Jim Treasurer from FAI Farms, won the Outstanding Contribution award for his work in fish biology and sustainable aquaculture over 30 years, most recently in cleaner fish application in fish farming. Aquaculture Awards and Aquaculture UK organiser Diversified Communications paid tribute to all the award entries, and to the sponsors who helped make the event happen, including SAIC, Fish Farmer, MSD Animal Health, Ocean Kinetics, M&S Food, DSM, BioMar, Poseidon, Hendrix Genetics, Solvtrans, Cargill, Stingray, the Institute of Aquaculture, Skills Development Scotland, Crown Estate Scotland and Marine Scotland.

A wealth & breadth of talent

“Congratulations to all the amazing award winners and also to all those who entered,” comments Event Director Cheri Arvonio. “The standard was exceptionally high, making the judges’ decisions difficult, but reflecting the wealth and breadth of talent in this incredible sector. “It feels more important than ever to recognise hard work and dedication in the industry after the challenges of the past two years and we are proud to honour the achievements made by the most innovative and successful operators in aquaculture.”

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 55

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group)

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com

Computer software

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Coolers & driers Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Aerators Faivre + 33 3idah 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com

Air products

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com

Additives Dibaq +34 921 574 286 https://dibaqacuicultura.es

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Feed and ingredients Adisseo +33 1 46 747104 www.adisseo.com

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Alltech +44 1780 764512 www.alltechcoppens.com

Drum filters

Phibro +972 4 629 1833 www.phibro-aqua.com


Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com

ORFFA +32 479 50 09 08 https://orffa.com

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

Anpario +44 1909 537 380 www.anpario.com

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Biorigin www.biorigin.net

Elevator buckets R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com

Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com

Amino acids

GePro +49 54415 925252 www.ge-pro.de

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com

Grupo Dibaq +34 921 574 286 www.dibaqacuicultura.es

Elevator & conveyor components Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Bulk storage Silo Construction & Engineering +32 51723128 www.sce.be

4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com


Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com

Colour sorters Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Skretting + 47 51 88 00 10 www.skretting.com

ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

Feed Mill

Extruders Cablevey Conveyors +1 641 673 8451 https://cablevey.com

Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

Equipment for sale

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com


Liptosa +34 902 15 77 11 www.liptoaqua.com

DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com

Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com

Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com

Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

56 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com TekPro +44 1692 403403 www.tekpro.com Van Aarsen International +31 475 579 444 www.aarsen.com

Fish counters Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Aqua Ultraviolet +1 952 296 3480 www.aquauv.com

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

Fish Graders Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr

Silos FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Fish pumps

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Faivre + 33 3 81 84 01 32 www.faivre.fr


Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Fish Stunning Ace Aquatec + 44 7808 930923 www. aceaquatec.com

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Grinders Grand Fish Feed +202 20 650018 www.grand-aqua.com


RAS system

Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com

Weighing equipment

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Pulverisers Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Packaging FAWEMA / The Packaging Group +49 22 63 716 0 www.fawema.com

Paddle Mixer Anderson www.andersonfeedtech.com IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Yeast products

Predator Defence

ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com

Ace Aquatec + 44 7808 930923 www. aceaquatec.com

Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de

Probiotics DSM +43 2782 8030 www.dsm.com

Moisture analysers Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

Phytogenics Delacon +43 732 640 531 414 www.delacon.com

RAS Equipment Fish Farm Feeder +34 886 317 600 www.fishfarmfeeder.com

To include your company in the International Aquafeed market place in print, and a company page on our website contact Tuti Tan +44 1242 267700 • tutit@perendale.co.uk To visit the online market place visit: www.aqfeed.info/e/1130

Pellet mill Clextral +1 813 854 4434 www.clextral.com IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com PTN +31 73 54 984 72 www.ptn.nl

Plants Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 57

MyMag - the Aquafeed info links system

Market place members in this issue

Company Ace Aquatec Adisseo Aller Aqua Alltech Almex Anpario Aqua Ultraviolet Cablevey Conveyors Delacon Dibaq Aquaculture Dinnissen Faivre Famsun Fish Farm Feeder GePro Grand Fish Feed Hydronix Idah Inteqnion Kaeser Compressors Leiber Liptoaqua Orffa Ottevanger Phileo TekPro The Packaging Group TSC Van Aarsen Vita Aqua Feeds Wenger Zheng Chang

See company profile

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the interview Pierre Pienaar, President – World Packaging Organisation Having studied pharmacy, Pierre Pienaar’s interest in packaging started in 1984 when soon after joining a large pharmaceutical company, he became concerned about a number of packaging-related issues in the pharmaceutical world. Mr Pienaar is a packaging engineer in his own global packaging consulting business, PackTech Solutions Pty Ltd and has extensive experience in the pharmaceutical and food and beverage packaging industries with over 35 years of experience in the field of packaging science and engineering as well as its related subject matter. He is the current National Education Director, Past National President of the AIP and past Vice President of the World Packaging Organisation (WPO), responsible for global packaging education. He has lectured in the technology and science of packaging at various universities and institutions around the world for the past thirty years and he is regularly called to be an expert witness in court cases, due to his extensive experience in packaging science, packaging engineering and the technology thereof. In addition to a Master of Science Degree (Packaging Engineering/ Technology) from Brunel University, UK, he also has a Master of Manufacturing and Production Degree from University of Hertfordshire, UK. A registered Certified Packaging Professional in over 60 countries, Mr Pienaar also holds a double professorship in Packaging Engineering and is the current President of the World Packaging Organisation (WPO).

Going forward, which aspects of packaging would you like to see addressed and why?

Sustainability is a big buzz word currently, but I would prefer to define this in a packaging context. We need to educate more people around the world about the relevance of packaging. In particular about doing the right thing with the packaging once we have removed its contents. In many countries there is a mindset or even a culture that exists about packaging when it comes to recycling. It is always difficult to change a culture or a mindset.

Environmentally there is a need to reduce the amount of non-biodegradable plastics. What is the industry doing to minimise plastics entering the environment?

We need more countries getting involved in reducing the amount of non-biodegradable plastics. Currently it is in the ‘too hard basket’ for many developing countries. In addition, it will initially cost revenue plus for many of these developing countries they by their own admission tell me that they have more important issues, for example, feeding their people is higher on their agenda than packaging issues.

So, I believe we need to commence by educating the little ones, the Grade 1,2 and 3’s. This is an impressionable age that can be changed in bringing them to understand what to do with packaging and how best to ensure that all is recycled and not simply left in the streets, the waterways, the beaches and thus destroying our landscape.

There are also developed countries making the same mistakes, and for them it is a question of simply stopping to postpone the inevitable and make the change. They all are fully aware that it is the right thing to do but in many cases are waiting for legislation to enforce the change.

As we educate the younger generation, they will influence their parents and grandparents to do the right thing with packaging. Over the ensuing years we develop a new culture across the world. I have personally seen this work as I have been doing this in my home country for the past 16 years and have seen the change.

Where do you think the packaging industry will be in 2050?

This I believe is true sustainability in packaging and it works. It will take time, but we need to commence somewhere, and the sooner the better as there is no plan B to an alternative planet earth.

Over packaging often receives negative publicity yet given needs to protect foods from contamination or deterioration during transportation and delivery. What are some of the things the industry is doing to address issues of over-packaging while keeping foods safe?

This is something that we specifically teach in our training courses across the globe. Often it is a lack of technological understanding of packaging. We have numerous cases where material has been ‘beefed’ up to enhance barrier, or to increase protection of the contents, where it has been completely superfluous. In almost all the cases that I have been involved in these past 35 years in the industry, once an explanation is given and a better alternative solution is offered the client understands and accepts. We have too many non-qualified people making key decisions when they simply do not have the science and technology knowledge to make an informed decision to increase protection.

There is no doubt in my mind that the ‘wheels of change’ are starting to turn, more so in some countries that others. However, generally we are all aware that the future is bleak if we do not change, practically all governments around the world are aware of this. The rate at which we are currently using up our world’s natural resources is requiring almost two planet Earths. If we do not make any of the sustainable changes that we are suggesting across the world plus do not recycle all packaging materials, then along this current trajectory we will require almost three planet Earths by 2050. However, if those which environmentalists are suggesting we do, are implemented across the globe with immediate effect, we can be back on track and living within our means on planet earth, with a balanced net effect on our natural resources. Change will happen, the question is more a matter of how soon all will realise that the decisions that we make now will affect the generations of 2050 and beyond. These effects will be real for all to experience within the next 10 years, but currently it is all talk and not seen to be ‘real’ enough for the general population to realise the ramifications and the future outcomes of not actioning sooner. The point is that all of us have to play our part and not leave it to the superpowers of the world, or the advanced economies, or only some countries.

The solution which we address globally is to train more people in packaging about material science, packaging engineering and packaging technology.

60 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

International Aquafeed - June 2022 | 61

THE INDUSTRY FACES BioMar UK appoints new Commercial Director


ioMar is pleased to announce the appointment of Keith Drynan as Commercial Director of their Grangemouth based UK business.

As the Commercial Director, Mr Drynan will lead the commercial team, consisting of Sales and Business Development, Purchasing, Formulation and the Technical Department. With the team, he will focus on elevating customer support, product quality and delivering even more innovative and sustainable products to customers in the UK and export markets. Mr Drynan is joining BioMar following a successful five years with Hendrix Genetics, where he oversaw the integration and development of the world’s leading trout breeding company enjoying financial success via a focus on product quality and new business development. Prior to his time in the US, he was responsible for Troutlodge on the Isle of Man and has held senior aquaculture roles across Scotland with Landcatch Ltd.

QRILL Aqua strengthens team with two new executive hires


ker BioMarine is adding to its Animal Health and Nutrition Business Unit organisational chart after successfully recruiting two new leaders. Sales executive, Bjørn Wallentin, will join the company as Senior Vice President QRILL Aqua Sales and Aker BioMarine's current Director of Sustainability, Ragnhild Dragøy, will take on a new role as Vice President Product Management, a newly created department within Animal Health and Nutrition. Bjørn Wallentin comes to Aker BioMarine from the position as Regional Vice President for the Americas region at Jotun, a company where he has spent 27 years of his career in a number of different roles. In his new role as a part of the QRILL Aqua team, he will work to continuously to support and build the teams sales and value creation within the QRILL Aqua existing and future product lines. Ragnhild Dragøy is a long-time marine biotechnology executive, who joined Aker BioMarine in 2021 as Director of Sustainability. She previously served as Research Director, Marine Biotechnology, for Nofima Norway. In her new role, she will help build up the company's new unit, which will focus on the product lifecycle within Aker BioMarine's Animal Health and Nutrition business.

Avramar Seafood appoints new CEO


editerranean seabass and sea bream breeding group Avramar Seafood has appointed its current Chair Thor Talseth to the position of Chief Executive.

With more than 20 years’ experience in the international seafood and aquaculture industry as an investor, senior executive, and sector-focused banker, Mr Talseth was appointed Chair of Avramar’s board in June 2016. “With his deep understanding of the company and the entire aquaculture sector, Thor is the ideal choice to take the company forward,” adds Danny Dweik, Head of Industrials at Mubadala Investment Company, the co-investor in Avramar. “I am honoured and excited to have the opportunity to lead Avramar into the next chapter of its evolution and am grateful for the trust that the owners have placed in me,” adds Mr Talseth. “My new role will enable me to harness the momentum that has been generated and to accelerate our pace towards new opportunities for innovation, expansion, and growth.”

Nofima appoints new Director of Seafood


ård-Thomas Østvang has been appointed the new Director of Seafood division at Nofima, succeeding Magnar Pedersen who will be retiring this autumn.

Mr Østvang is currently the Executive Vice President of Innovation and Development at Aalesundfisk Holding, which became the new owner of Norwegian Fish Company. “I’m very pleased to have Bård-Thomas on the Nofima team,” says Nofima CEO Øyvind FyllingJensen. “He has good knowledge of the industry and is therefore well equipped to determine how we as a research institute can best contribute our knowledge to strengthen competitiveness in the industry.” “I’m extremely glad to have this opportunity,” says Mr Østvang. “Nofima is a centre of expertise with many talented people, and with a particularly important social mission. Being able to participate in and further develop the potential that this organisation possesses is very exciting.”

62 | June 2022 - International Aquafeed

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