NOV 2021 | International Aquafeed magazine

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Creating community wide social impact in Aquaculture

International Aquafeed - Volume 24 - Issue11 - November 2021

- Alternative proteins … and why we need to stop using that phrase - Producing algae proteins for animal & fish feed from CO2 - NET INSPECTIONS: The role of ROVs in the move towards autonomous operations in sea-based aquaculture - Protecting against Caligus larvae An evaluation of Garware fabric as a mechanical barrier Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

November 2021

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It’s November and the run-up to the end of the year is upon us. Everyone is determined to finish projects and undertakings in time for an end-of-year celebration which may be more enjoyable than last year. It’s also important that we look towards 2022 with a clear mind and realistic goals.

also provide a discussion around ‘alternative proteins’ - maybe they are not so alternative after all and we should stop referring to them as such!

Fish Farming Technology

We have put a lot of focus on the management of fish ponds, nets and cages, etc to ensure We have been under pandemic conditions for so farmers and hatcheries get the most value long now that we have become adept to the ways from the feeds they purchase. This month we Roger Gilbert and means of getting work done. Despite our have a good selection of features from net Publisher – International Aquafeed best-efforts, services and supplies have become inspection to controlling lice and of course our and Fish Farming Technology increasingly expensive and no more so than for a Technology Showcase which shows off new print magazine like ours. equipment now available to farmers. For example, many countries have introduced new controls over Finally, we carry a range of event reports and signpost the ones to incoming mail and as a result surcharges have been put in place. come and which we hope you will take advantage of. Remember We are constantly measuring the views and opinions of our the good old days when we could almost casually attend an event in readers; how important are print publications compared to online another country, without much standing in our way? Today, it’s not only publications? The bottom line is, few readers want just a digital quite the same. When we can travel we have to be aware of our fellow service and most value the opportunity to receive a printed copy of travellers’ health status and be seen to protect them and we must be magazines that interests them. sure we are not carrying anything that may threaten those we meet. It’s You only have to look at the content and the layout of the a new world out there and we have to adapt to its new requirements. information contained on our pages to get a ‘feel’ for its value - not in monetary terms maybe - but in the way print conveys thoughtIAF TV provoking engagement. IAF interviewed Alistair Lane, chief executive of the European And this edition of International Aquafeed is no exception. Aquaculture Society and representing the organisation responsible We are not just presenting a collection of unrelated and easy-tofor hosting this year’s event in Madeira, to ask him what some of the acquire stories and articles. We have a worldwide team looking for key challenges were that he faced in arranging a meeting of this nature interest subjects and involving experts in their fields to discuss them. under pandemic restrictions. He explains how EAS had to work with Each edition is about a joined-up journey of discovery. The discovery the local government in Madeira to ensure all incoming visitors did of information and the accumulation of knowledge that has been not pose a challenge to the local Covid-19 status of the island. specifically sought to reflect our readers’ interests. Taking the time to read through our pages will once again show how Interview at AquaExpo 2021, Guayaquil, Ecuador important it is for our industry to connect through print. Dr Antonio Garza de Yta, editor of our Spanish-language edition We have in this edition a focus on Latin America (and we will be of International Aquafeed talks to Felipe Nobre, a researcher and translating this edition into Spanish) that supports the industry in that warm-water specialist from Skretting and the Center for Aquaculture region. There are also reports on developments at grass-roots level Research in Norway at the AquaExpo 2021 in Guayaquil, Ecuador. from Nigeria to Nepal. The interview centred around the assistance the company can provide From our Big Picture, reflecting aquaculture success in Vietnam, to to shrimp farmers in the country with a focus on breeding, sustainable sustainable aquaculture in Mexico, we join up regional developments. solutions and the application of knowledge to the growth of shrimp We look at pelleting of fish feeds and carry a report on the first course farming in particular. on Aqua Feed Processing, co-run and supported by this magazine. We Catch both interviews on the IAF website:


TILAPIA: Growth and metabolic responses of juvenile Nile tilapia demonstrate DL-Methionine is superior to MHA-Ca - page 22

Net Inspections - page 34 The Aquaculture case study


Aquaculture in Nepal - page 42

AwF Charity Project in Nigeria - page 24

NUTRITION & HEALTH With the last turn of the month, we see the clocks turning back in Europe and in the UK we move to GMT and the true start of winter, and for me shortened days, dark evenings and wet, windy and cold weather.

protein hydrolysates from fish processing streams as part of a €2M project with Enterprise Ireland with applications to salmon, trout and other species. Another fascinating avenue of work will be to develop a bespoke single cell protein derived from bacteria as a serious European based Aquaculture has to respond to this in many contender for this market. We focus on salmon ways, as we still have much seasonal influence trout but have in mind many other species on fish production to consider in our management Professor Simon Davies and including shrimp. of farming operations. The lowered water Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed In addition, we are continuing my long term temperatures and reduced daylight is certainly interest in establishing novel processed animal significant in the rearing of salmonids like by products (PAP’s) for their superior qualities, high efficacy and rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon. safety for use in aquafeeds. I have held this to be the case for three The wild salmon will be starting their autumn runs and migrating decades having led with my good friend and distinguished rendering upriver to spawn, whilst we consider our brood-stock on farms and industry expert and colleague Steve Woodgate, several projects on a monitor their progress towards ova and milt production and assess number of fish species such as trout, tilapia, seabream and sea bass. their condition and readiness for stripping and fertilisation. We have confirmed their value in aquafeed formulations and continue This reminds me that we seldom hear much about the quality of to strongly advocate their inclusion in diets for the major production feeds for the advancing of large brooders and we tend to focus our species. attention on the early stages of growth and grow-out feeds in the aquaculture life-cycle. As the old saying states ‘We are what we eat’ and this is especially valid when we consider the parental aspects of The application of knowledge nutritional metabolism that can dominate gamete quality and convey My career has been very much forged by specialising in fish this to their successive generations. nutrition and recently connecting to how such knowledge can We have much evidence how dietary trace elements such as be applied in fish health in terms of immune function, disease selenium and zinc can improve the integrity of eggs in animals and resistance and application of prophylactic approaches such as particularly sperm leading to superior fecundity, fertilisation rates and use of functional feed additives such as prebiotics, probiotics and better fry performance. phytobiotics. For example, we know that in salmon and trout how important Now I may be entering a completely new phase as I’ve been carotenoids such as astaxanthin are in terms of health and their approached by a company in the USA to advise them based on my functional role in the pigmentation of the egg as a potent anti-oxidant first degree in biochemistry. Cellular nutrition is at the ultimate end of defensive agent. As a precursor to vitamin A biosynthesis in fry fish feeding and balancing diet nutrients. then the astaxanthin status is relevant to axial development in first So, it seems quite appropriate to take an interest in the concept of feeding fry, tissue and organ generation and many other metabolic and lab grown fish muscle tissue to produce a fillet of fish using in vitro physiological processes. cell culture methods. The concept will involve obtaining progenitor The connection with maternal nutritional status and their offspring cells from fish embryos and transferring these to bioreactor systems must never be neglected. Brood stock nutrition is one of those more where a nutrient rich media will allow proliferation into a biomass on difficult areas of fish nutrition since we need to have much patience bio-scaffolds. in observing the results of experiments due to the need to evaluate Subsequent technology that will enable texturising and formatting successive generations of fish. of the tissue into a viable product will need to be developed. I am However, I am keen to see considerably more work being undertaken quite excited about this challenge, but some success has been made in this area. It would certainly be easier on tropical fish species like for producing beef and chicken muscle generation in the lab and has tilapia where we can get faster results and turnover of data. In fact, the gained wide publicity for lab grown steak and hamburgers. work on the zebrafish Danio at many research institutions produces I will be saying more on this in a future article that will surely invite invaluable scientific investigations to this effect. comment and dialogue. It will have consequences in the seafood As we know the genomic sequence for zebrafish it is widely used in industry and potentially open new avenues for various products for developmental biology and findings can be extrapolated to humans niche markets. and other animal species. In fact at many aquaculture meetings and This November issue contains many updates and technical articles symposia a section is often allocated to zebrafish and nutritional from our many contributors and would welcome wider engineering requirements for standardisation of diets and laboratory trials to study articles relating to the aquaculture feed sector and the technology of larval development and maternal imprinting. fish containment such as RAS open aquaculture engineering and the I continue to work from my academic base at NUIG (National associated equipment and control systems. University of Ireland in Galway) on many topics. Lately we have The presentation of feed is increasingly being automated and with completed a novel study to assess insect meal from Black Soldier Fly advances in AI this will become quite revolutionary. These will be larvae and examined how ingredient substitution may affect growth, key drivers resulting in precision aquaculture and raising efficiency feed performance and fillet quality and also the application of various of precious resources. We want to know all about it and we need your exogenous enzymes to augment nutrient assimilation. We work on input into exciting ‘cutting edge’ science and technology. 4 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Some issues ago I wrote about artificial intelligence and my scepticism to it. Now, following a number of recent incidents regarding digital technology, I find myself prompted to come back to a similar topic: the dangers of digitalisation.

than using the old-fashioned physical ones. Hackers use the digitalisation to gain access to vast amounts of information. No system is totally secure, whatever the security systems experts tell you. There is always a way around it. There is always something the programmer did not think about. And you cannot depend on “artificial intelligence” to fix it because artificial Banks are constantly warning us to be intelligence is limited by the people who create careful; to change our passwords often, not it. to give out personal information and so Larger aquaculture companies should now on. Hackers are just waiting for the right Erik Hempel take this threat seriously, perhaps even hire opportunity, and thousands of persons are The Nor-Fishing Foundation specialised IT experts who can monitor their hacked each month, and losing money, with systems and prevent such attacks. companies are also being attacked and stand It is becoming more and more advanced, and it claims to be able to to lose enormous amounts. do more and more complex tasks for us, it is easy to be fascinated by Over the past two weeks, I have myself become a victim of technology. I am not yet sure whether it was just accidental, or whether modern information technology. As a relatively average user of such technology, I sometimes find it very difficult to adapt to. And perhaps I was the target of an attack. I tend to believe it was just accidental, that makes me even more vulnerable. for I am really not important enough for anybody to hack into my computer. Or at least, that is what I am thinking. At any rate, my computer started acting strange, and then my The Internet of Things harddisk crashed. For safety reasons, I save everything on an external Technologists have invented a new concept: the internet of things. harddisk. And suddenly, whilst I was working on the PC, the disk It is supposed to encompass everything, all systems that can be crashed. I lost everything on it. Fortunately, I do have a backup, but connected and deliver information about everything to… what? To because I had been so busy lately, I had not backed up my files for a whom? For what purpose? To control us, to make us buy this or that? fortnight. So that work was lost. To make us vote for a certain politician and thus giving us the illusion I then contacted a well-known company that deals with recovery of of being in a true democracy? data, and they say they can save maybe 95 percent of the data on the All these systems run on electricity. What if all electricity disk. But it is going to cost me a fortune. disappears? Batteries, power plants, electricity grids. All that oldWhat about the aquaculture industry? Is the industry specifically fashioned terrorists need to do is to cut off our power supplies, and vulnerable to the dangers of this new technology? we are lost. What modern terrorists do, can have the same effects, or As the industry goes more and more digital, it becomes more worse. And modern IT terrorists operate from a safe haven, hidden and more vulnerable to digital attacks. In fact, attacks have already by the net. happened. In January 2021, the large technology supplier AKVA group Many seem to have sold out to technology. As we do, we become was attacked digitally. It ended up costing the company US$6 million! prisoners of technology, and technology becomes our cruel dictator. A It is not only information or money that is involved in such attacks. master that has no feelings, no sense of compassion. No reality. Just What if somebody got into the automatic feed systems and tampered virtual experiences and the promise of wonderfully advanced services. with feeding schedules or feed amounts? Or add stuff to mixtures. The But old-fashioned consumers with a certain amount of scepticism, potential losses could be enormous. like me, will never win. We will be overrun by the internet of things, We are much more vulnerable to hacking using our digital systems by technology. Sometimes, the future scares me.

This month on IAF TV This month we have an interview with Filipe Nobre, Shrimp Nutrition Researcher, Skretting ARC, Stavanger, Norway

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Watch more videos at: International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 5

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Managing Editor Peter Parker

November 2021 Volume 24 Issue 11



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Dr Allen Wu • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies Andrew Wilkinson Caitlin Gittins Levana Hall International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tel: +44 7854 436407 Latin America Marketing Team Clarissa Garza de Yta Tel: +52 669 120 0140 Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 India Marketing Team Dr T.D. Babu +91 9884114721 Asia Marketing Team Dante Feng Tel: +886 0227930286


Industry News

40 Technology showcase 48 Industry Events 56 The Market Place 60 The Aquafeed Interview 62

Industry Faces

The Aquaculture case study

42 Aquaculture in Nepal

Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267706 Development Manager Antoine Tanguy

©Copyright 2020 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at ISSN 1464-0058

COLUMNS 3 Roger Gilbert 4 Professor Simon Davies 5

Erik Hempel

14 Brett Glencross



8 page 10 page 24 page 28 page 30 page 11 page

Regional focus and welcome to new Regional General Manager. Imported tilapia in Mexico, finding a solution to an old problem Shrimp Health management , by Dostofarm Supply problems during a pandemic, by Dr Zendejas Growing with Ecuador's shrimp industry, by Famsun IFFO report: Peru & Chile amongst just three countries reporting production increases in 2021

FEATURES 16 Sustainable aquaculture in Mexico The opportunities are far greater than the challenge 18 The pelleting process in animal & fish feed production

20 Alternative proteins … and why we need to stop using that phrase 24 AwF Charity Project in Nigeria Creating community wide social impact in Aquaculture 28 Producing algae proteins for animal & fish feed from CO2

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 46 NET INSPECTIONS - The role of ROVs in the move towards autonomous operations in sea-based aquaculture

THE BIG PICTURE Skretting Vietnam launches its Success programme See more on page 12

46 Protecting against Caligus larvae - An evaluation of Garware fabric as a mechanical barrier

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One company’s efforts to scale up fish farm monitoring technology passes the US$4.1m mark


orwegian business OptoScale has successfully raised US$4.1 million to scale up use of its realtime fish farm monitoring technology in major exporting countries. The proprietary sensors and software that the company leases to fish farmers are revolutionising how fish producers monitor production pens remotely, in less intrusive ways. The company, already operating in Norway, Scotland and Canada, will push further into these markets and also expand into Iceland, Chile, and Australia. The market is expected to grow from US$10 million today to US$400 million by 2030. The data – which includes accurate and real time average weight as well as the detection of welfare issues like wounds, deformation and lice – helps producers optimise the 18 month production cycle including, among others, fish growth, feed utilisation, and treatments. “Aquaculture being a relatively young sector makes it ripe for innovation,” explains Sven Jørund Kolstø, CEO of OptoScale. “Before, farmers would have to get in boats once a week or month and manually assess a small selection of fish by hand. Not only is this laborious and stressful for the fish, it is also quite imprecise.” Improving the feed conversion ratio Using artificial intelligence and machine learning, OptoScale’s technology means that producers can now assess up to 200,000 fish each day compared with around 50 to 100 fish using traditional methods. An underwater

camera is submerged in each pen and sends real-time measurements guaranteed to be accurate within three per cent on a daily basis. “In the future, fish farmers will need to spend virtually no time trying to understand what is going on in the fish pens in the water,” says Ragnhild Hollup, CTO of OptoScale. “All of the data they need will be at their fingertips, meaning that their time may be used for clever decisionmaking, not tedious sampling.” With this information available, fish farmers can improve the feed conversion ratio and avoid overfeeding. Accurate feeding can reduce water pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from production, which on average produces pollution equal to 100,000 cars annually. Fish farmers are also able to respond to animal welfare issues quickly and in targeted ways. Detecting diseases early ensures fish are not wasted and can grow to full maturity before being harvested. Automated detection of lice in particular helps avoid manual inspections out of water, which can affect fish health. “Fish farming is a huge growth market,” says Christian Lim, co-Managing Director of the Blue Ocean fund at SWEN Capital Partners, the lead investor in the round. “Yet, to realise its potential, the industry needs to considerably improve productivity while solving fundamental sustainability issues. OptoScale provides critical technology to achieve both.” Demand for so-called ‘blue foods’ – including fish, shellfish and algae – is estimated to almost double by 2050, with most of the increased supply expected to come from fish farming rather than wild-caught fisheries. “Farmed fish is already a climate-friendly and nutritious food source,” adds Mr Kolstø. “OptoScale is helping our customers not only improve their margins, but also to contribute to healthier societies while minimising the sector’s environmental impacts.”

8 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

favoured solution for both vessel crew and owners. “Our Rack seawater cooler is the most popular choice amongst the Norwegian shipyards that are building wellboats,” says Jan Inge Johannesen, sales manager at Hydroniq Coolers. “It is becoming increasingly popular internationally too, with Cemre Shipyard being one of the international frontrunners who are very familiar with our technology.” Developed by the SALT Ship Design, the two live fish carriers for Seistar will be equipped with circular fish tanks. The vessels will be 69.9 metres and 110 metres long, respectively. The larger vessel will have a storage capacity of 8000 cubic metres and a

Company aims to bring Atlantic salmon farming to the US East Coast


utreco has announced its co-investment in Norwegian land-based salmon farming company, AquaCon. Ideally located in Maryland on the East Coast of the US, AquaCon’s Atlantic salmon farming facilities will be in close proximity to over 70 million consumers based in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington DC. With production close to the consumer, land-based salmon farming reduces the CO2 footprint from transportation such as airfreight and secures high quality fresh salmon for the consumer. The investment round saw AquaCon raise a total of US$7.5 million and included participation from Israel

Corporation and AKVA Group ASA. Since 2019, Nutreco has invested in five other land-based aquaculture projects as it believes that this is one of many protein production methods that we will need to help to feed the almost 10 billion people on the planet in 2050. “Our investment in AquaCon is perfectly aligned with our purpose of Feeding the Future. If we want to achieve this purpose and feed a rapidly growing population, we need to not only invest in alternative protein production methods, but work with the right partners,” comments Nutreco Chief Innovation Officer, Viggo Halseth. “AquaCon has a strong team of industry professionals with in-depth

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emre Shipyard has awarded Norwegian company Hydroniq Coolers with a contract to deliver a marine cooling system to two wellboats the Turkish shipyard is building, including what will be the world’s largest live fish carrier. Cemre Shipyard is building the two wellboats – newbuilds 76 and 77 – for Norwegian wellboat company Seistar Holding. Hydroniq Coolers will supply its ‘Rack’ seawater cooling system to the two wellboats. The equipment will be integrated in the hull below the main engine room of the vessel, where it reduces temperatures in the ship’s engines and other auxiliary systems through use of seawater. This is without taking up valuable engine room space and is a

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Two companies collaborate to produce world’s largest live fish carrier

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deadweight of approximately 12,000 tonnes, making it the world's largest live fish carrier once completed. The smaller vessel will have a load capacity of 2200 cubic metres. “Some would argue that size doesn’t matter, but everyone in the maritime and aquaculture industries will admit that it is always fun to be involved with the biggest projects,” adds Jan Inge Johannesen. “We at Hydroniq Coolers are no different, and we look forward to delivering a seawater cooling system that is a perfect fit for these very different vessels.” Owned by Norwegian investment company SMV Invest AS, Hydroniq Coolers will manufacture and assemble the equipment at its headquarters outside Aalesund, Norway, and deliver it to Cemre Shipyard in Turkey. experience from the Norwegian salmon farming industry, including land-based smolt and grow-out stages. “Alongside Nutreco’s expertise and Skretting’s competence in developing customised aqua feed for land-based aquaculture farming, we believe this will be a strong partnership.” “The AquaCon team has since late 2019 worked to develop a business plan for land-based RAS facilities on Eastern Shore Maryland (US),” says Henrik Tangen, the company’s Executive Chair. “We are very pleased to have Nutreco, together with Israel Corporation and AKVA Group, as cornerstone investors to prepare the company for the next step of development; Proceeds will be used to land and detailed engineering with construction starting in Q1 2022,” he concludes.

International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 9

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New hatchery diet seeks to reduce dependence on traditional feed ingredients


nspired by nature, Skretting launches a new hatchery diet Gemma Neo that reduces the dependence on traditional feed ingredients, whilst also providing ideal nutrient composition, unprecedented production system performance and weaning flexibility. “The product is inspired by what happens in nature. In the wild, marine larvae will feed on a mix of different food sources with different protein profiles,” explains Eamonn O’Brien, Global Product Manager, LifeStart at Skretting. “With this solution, we have replicated those instinctive feeding behaviours through a diversification of beneficial raw materials, delivering an incredibly stable diet that the larvae find very appealing.” Applying the latest technology, omega-3 fatty acids within the diet are contained to prevent leaching into the production system, a typical challenge with conventional fish oil-based larval diets. Cellular encapsulation also ensures feed particles remain intact for longer, which in turn facilitates maintenance and lessens the loads placed on systems. “Thanks to this technology, using the product ensures that hatchery tanks remain very clean, and because the diet degrades very slowly, there are almost no negative effects on water quality,” adds Mr O’Brien. “In addition, it spreads very quickly on the water’s

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surface and floats for longer before gradually starting to descend, making the diet much more available for juvenile fish.” In making use of new raw material ingredients that the larvae naturally want to consume, the product presents hatcheries with the opportunity to introduce the diet at their own discretion, potentially accelerating the weaning or shortening co-feeding processes and taking the difficulties out of sourcing and delivering live foods. The product is also ideally suited to recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) that are increasingly being introduced within hatcheries. It ensures that the water in these systems remains stable and geared towards improved performance. This has been achieved by making the diet much more stable and free flowing with no tendency for clumping even in small particle sizes in automatic feeding devices. “By introducing Gemma Neo we are meeting hatchery customers’ needs more sustainably, through a broader spectrum of beneficial ingredients. We are starting by launching the product for marine species in the Mediterranean and will continue the rollout in other countries and species,” says Leiner Lache, Marketing Manager for Warm Water Species at Skretting.

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Skretting Vietnam launches its Success programme


or many people and rural communities throughout Vietnam, aquaculture is the main source of social and economic stability, providing them with essential employment, food security and livelihoods. In order to support the country’s aquaculture development, Skretting Vietnam has long been committed to providing the ideal feed solutions, knowledge, techniques and practices for farmers to flourish. Launched in October 2019, the “Success” programme aims to reduce the costs of producing shrimp, and to increase farming profitability. The programme is essentially a sustainable shrimp farming model that applies from seeding to harvest, and which has been specifically designed to maintain biosecurity in order to minimise disease risks for Vietnamese farmers. Built on the concept of “Success for everyone”, one of the programme’s main strengths is its flexibility, which makes it adaptable to suit ponds of all kinds. In the three years since its launch, it has led to dramatic increases in profitability – averaging 30-40 percent compared to traditional farming models. This significant improvement is thanks to a combination of five key factors: • An optimised survival rate up to 90 percent • A 30 percent increase in average growth rates • Higher prices (ca. 10 percent) from selling antibioticfree shrimp

12 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 13

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Prevention is better than cure Farm owner Mr Đắc is among the growing number of farmers who have benefitted from applying the programme. In 2020, after farming shrimp for 10 years, Mr Đắc decided to introduce the programme to his five-hectare site (one nursery system, and five grow-out ponds). His total investment, including equipment, pond renovations etc amounted to EUR€51,800 (US$60,232: EUR€1.14 = US$1). Achieving an average survival rate of 90 percent, two harvests provided 62 tonnes of shrimp with an average feed conversion ratio (FCR), earning Mr Đắc’s farm EUR €300,000. Consequently, he achieved a profit and net profit of EUR €126,000 and EUR €71,000 respectively. “I am so happy to work with Skretting in shrimp farming, and I am very confident with the Success programme. It brings good practices with regards to protecting the environment, and this helps me to farm sustainably. At the same time, Success brings good profit values with optimal production cost,” says Mr Đắc. “This programme is truly beneficial to the farmers, especially during this challenging period with diseases and environmental pollution risks.” Cherdchai Thoongchoo, Skretting Technical Services Manager for South East Asia is very happy to support customers with the programme. “With the understanding that a large number of farmers were looking for a sustainable shrimp farming model, and living up to our principle that ‘prevention is better than cure’ when it comes to minimising disease risks, Skretting has extensively researched and built the Success programme,” says Mr Thoongchoo. “Having flexibility in the design, construction and operation of ponds is a considerable advantage and has made this new initiative effective in all of Vietnam’s shrimp farming regions. We are so happy to have brought such a good programme to Vietnamese farmers.”

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• Minimised risks of disease outbreaks • Reduced production cost by an average six-to-eight percent versus other intensive and super intensive operations in Vietnam

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Brett Glencross Where will our future ingredients come from? It ’s time to think strategically…


ast month I had the honour of chairing the feeds and feeding session of the FAO Global Conference on Aquaculture held in Shanghai, China and coordinating contributions into the thematic review on this topic from collaborators across the world. As part of this contribution, my co-authors and I were asked to review the journey we had taken since the Bangkok Declaration in 2000, and the Phuket Declaration in 2010 and consider where the directions of feeds and feeding were heading and what we needed to prioritise to get there. There were many facets to that journey that we considered, but one of the principal ones was the ingredients side of things and how this had changed over the past twenty years. Back around the turn-of-the-century, it was considered standard to make feeds mostly from marine ingredients like fishmeal and fish oil. It was quite common to formulate a salmon feed using >66 percent marine ingredients and no-one batted an eyelid at that. But even back then we were aware of the finite limits of those resources and work had already begun across the world to find alternative protein and lipid resources.

Some significant outcomes have been achieved

Over the next twenty years, millions of Dollars-Pounds-Euros were spent in the name of fishmeal and fish oil replacement and some significant outcomes have been achieved. However, somehow in the intervening years since the start of this journey, the sustainability context of using marine ingredients became the new mantra, despite that the sustainability of the new alternatives was rarely considered – it was just assumed. Over this same timeframe the science of sustainability assessment has also evolved considerably and we have moved on from simplistic indices like the fish-in:fish-out (FIFO) ratio to more holistic assessments like lifecycle assessment (LCA) analyses. In doing so we have inadvertently learnt that in reflection we have come from a position with a pretty good sustainability footprint; with low CO2 discharge, low energy use, and little to no reliance land or

freshwater and moved to a “terrestrial” approach which has a comparatively higher sustainability cost; with increased demand for energy, higher CO2 footprint and uses substantially more land and freshwater. Add into the equation the level of third-party certification of the different resources in terms of responsible sourcing and traceability and the marine ingredients clearly stand above the others with more than 50 percent of global marine ingredient production coming from third-party certification scheme approved producers. Arguably consistent pressure on the sector over the past twenty years has now driven it to advantageous position in terms of both sustainability and responsible sourcing.

Adding new things to the dinner table

So, if the story is not about sustainability, then why is there all this replacement push and excitement about new-proteins-on-theblock? Well, that question goes back to the original reason we began using alternatives for it in the first place, which was based on the recognition of the constraints to expanding the availability of marine ingredients as aquaculture feed demand grew. It wasn’t that we considered the marine ingredients bad or unsustainable, but rather that there was simply never going to be enough of them. We had to add new things to the dinner table to accommodate the increasing number of mouths to feed. From the data displayed at that FAO conference last month (Figure 1), it is very clear that aquaculture is making a strategic use of marine ingredients, leveraging the high-nutrient density and palatability stimulating characteristics of those five million tonnes of marine ingredients to produce around 55 million tonnes of feed. Another thing to consider here is the origins of that five million tonnes of marine ingredients as well. Recent data is showing that global fishmeal and fish oil production are beginning to grow again on the back of increased by-product utilisation from both direct-human-consumption fisheries and notably aquaculture production. So, if aquaculture production keeps growing at its current trajectory, what if we can repurpose all the by-products from that sector as it continues to grow as well. Wouldn’t that mean we would have a growing resource base from which to make future fishmeal and fish oils? Maybe that’s a discussion for next time…

Dr Brett Glencross is the Technical Director of IFFO - The Marine Ingredients Organisation. Over the past 25 years he has worked in various academic, institutional, and industrial roles across Australasia, the Middle East and Europe. 14 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

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Ingredients: Receiving, storage, batching and mixing Session three, by Giuseppe Bigliani & Joe Kearns The organisers of the Online Aquafeed Production School invite you to join them for the Autumn edition of their twelve-week course. Each installment begins with a welcoming introduction by long time industry publisher and journalist Roger Gilbert and Yiannis Christodoulou, founder/owner of Progressus Agrischools Asia, followed by two hours of live training, with proceedings brought to a close with a very thorough Q & A session. The two hours of live training cover a broad range of topics from the world of aquafeed production including ingredients, equipment used, how it is operated and the desired final product specifications.


n this session on ingredient receiving, storing, batching and mixing, Mr Giuseppe Bigliani’s opening presentation focused on a review of the management and storage of raw materials. This faces a number of challenges: such as temperature, relative humidity, insects and contamination, all of which should be considered in relation to the geographical location of the storage. He stressed the importance of keeping relative humidity and temperature low, to avoid the growth of mould or infestation of insects, all of which depends on the type of raw material being stored. There are a number of monitoring systems to manage for this. In the second part of Mr Bigliani’s review, he looked at dosing, batching and mixing, all of which hold equal weight as operations within a mill. It is important to first consider the structure and space available, as well as the possible issues that could happen related to the product and its characteristics. Mr Bigliani went into great depth over the kinds of questions to be asked in relation to the processes of dosing, batching and mixing, such as looking at the type of mixer available, the correct mixing time, and so on. Mixing accuracy, or mixing homogeneity, is influenced by a number of components, bulk density, for example. Important requirements for a dosing and batching system are high reliability, high dosing accuracy, having no leakage, and many others. Mr Bigliani concluded his presentation by ending on the importance of avoiding cross-contamination, by avoiding residue in bins and hoppers, equipment and conveying elements.

Mr Thomas Runde, the CEO of Tietjen, followed up with a presentation on ultra-fine grinding. With a good appearance and uniformity to the pellets produced, the benefits are a big market advantage, a noticeable reduction in pond roughage, and a reduced amount of feed wasted. Coarse and fine grinding depends on the industry being referred to – grinding is differently defined compared in aquaculture feed. Depending on whether the desired feed is very finely ground or needing to be above 500 microns in size; the type of machinery required is different. For coarse grinding, the machinery available includes the classic hammer mill system, and a cross-yoke sifter or tumble screen, whereas for fine grinding this includes an impact classifier mill and a classifier system which will work with a hammer mill. It’s not too late to enrol The Aquafeed Production School is running every Tuesday, from 14 September to the 30 November, 2pm Bangkok time and 9am CET. For those based in the US and Latin America, sessions begin on the 17 September and conclude on the 3 December, 9am Chicago time. The course certification is very beneficial for the workplace, as it both signals an attendee’s interest in the industry and demonstrates an acquisition of the knowledge that they’ve gained whilst attending the program. To enrol, be sure to visit online-aquafeed-production-school-autumn-2021/ for more information.

Coarse grinding through to micro-pulverising Session four, by Joe Kearns & Thomas Runde Following the introduction, Joe Kearns begins by first outlining the purpose of grinding as preparing the formulation with regards to particle size. In the case of feed production, there are many different existing particle sizes. The smaller feeds, for example, require fine grinding. The aim, Mr Kearns stressed, was to grind the particles to be similar in size, so that they can absorb water and steam consistently and evenly. If grinding is not executed properly, there is the risk of clogging the machines and being forced to halt the extrusion process to clean them; reducing the ability to make money. International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 15

Sustainable aquaculture in Mexico The opportunities are far greater than the challenge


by Manuel Sarmiento, Biologist at Neminatura Farm, COMEPESCA, Mexico e tend to think that the times we live in are "the most" when compared to previous gernerations. Ours is the most difficult economically, for example, or the most complicated in terms of violence, the most changing, with the most apathetic youth, the most incidents of crisis. The real truth is that each generation believes that their time is the more difficult, but at the same time the best because things were done as they “should be”. However, the current era has a component that makes it different from the rest, something was not even that in other times making it a cause for concern because it was always taken for granted. That is component is, the climate. Indeed, the climate, or rather the change in climate or climate change today is, or should be, the most important issue on the international, national and local agenda, since the basis of our society, good or bad, is being altered in such a way that it is challenging both its stability and continuity. Perhaps the most curious thing in this case is that we knew it for a long time, we can read newspaper clippings from 1912 where they already warned about the release of thousands of tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere by burning coal, and its consequences. Today the overwhelming amount of evidence about the alteration of climate by human activity and its consequences leaves no doubt, which forces us to take action on the matter, whatever we do.

Aquaculture generates more food than fishing

Perhaps the industry most sensitive to these changes is the food industry. This is because it works closely with first-hand natural resources, especially the three greatest riches that this planet has and that sustain life on it: soil, water and the air. All of which have been systematically soiled, abused, destroyed - for the sake of a misunderstood generation of wealth, since if it destroys nature, it is not wealth. And of course, aquaculture does not escape. Ironically, the rearing of aquatic organisms is one of the most efficient ways of generating quality protein for human consumption, and which in turn is one of the most sensitive to changes in environmental temperature, of the water in rivers, lakes, lagoons and seas and alterations in rainfall patterns. Aquaculture today generates more food for people than fishing, and in many countries more than livestock, for that aquaculture is a priority activity for human nutrition. Given the important environmental crisis from which we are only

beginning, aquaculture, as the solution it has always been, must take a much more active role in showing solutions that contribute to the mitigation of climate change and all its consequences. Hence, many more eco-efficient management initiatives are taking place in production farms, care and conservation of natural resources and beyond, with cleaning and restoration initiatives in the places where the activity takes place.

The opportunities are greater than the challenge

At first, only as isolated actions of each aquaculturist, gradually more and more articulated initiatives have been formed seeking a greater impact, through producer associations that, concerned and working for the future of their own source of income, take measures to preserve the base of its activity. An interesting example is the associations of trout aquaculture producers in the southern part of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (central Mexico), who organise activities of forest care and reforestation in their communities, understanding that without forest there is no water, and without water there is no income, stability and social cohesion that aquaculture gives them. Something else that is equally encouraging is that there are initiatives that have discovered other ways to attack the problem, such as the “Pesca con Futuro” movement. This movement, born as a promotional campaign seeks to introduce and develop aquaculture sustainability bi-directionally from the market perspective. The focus is towards the promotion of the consumption of environmentally responsible products demonstrable with the support of eco-certifications, among gastronomic opinion leaders and consumption centers such as supermarkets. In another sense, in the stimulus so that the aquaculture industry advances good certifiable environmental practices. This makes it move towards a virtuous circle: generating demand for environmentally friendly products. This in turn stimulates the reconversion of the industry towards sustainability; a reconversion that is essential for our future and because it also satisfies the needs of an increasing number of consumers who seek, within their purchase arguments, in addition to quality and health benefits, sustainability as a way of contribute to the construction of their own future, environmentally healthy. The environmental challenge is enormous, but the opportunities are greater than the challenge. It is also stimulating to see how the conservation and sustainability movements are little by little inserting the idea of caring for the environment as a purchase argument. Therefore, the consumption of responsible products is turned into a powerful tool, as powerful as the purchasing power itself, within reach of every consumer, making it a fundamental active part to stop and reverse the main problem that has led us to the unprecedented environmental crisis - the attitude of apathy and the ignorance of the power of choice that each consumer has.

16 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

We protect it We protect them We protect ourselves As a result of innovation and continuous improvement, Dibaq Aquaculture takes advantage of the arrival of summer to announce a new product line: Dibaq AquaSafe®, in which we have been actively working in recent months. It is an internal quality seal to differentiate our high-value products. Dibaq Aquaculture brand has always been of a valuable company, specialized in the manufacture of special and differentiated products, using high quality raw materials, micronutrients and functional components. However, as a result of the innovation and needs of our global market, we have managed to go further and improve the quality of our nutrients, additives and formulas in our products with this new seal that aims to provide value and differentiation to our clients and achieve them the maximum performance in their production.

Why have we called it AquaSafe?

This concept includes the sustainability and safety of water and Planet Earth, as well as the health and safety of fish fed with our products, stimulating the immune system, protecting them against internal and external parasites and improving productive performance. Therefore, it is a global concept that offers and focuses on the safety of the planet and fishes.

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The pelleting process in animal & fish feed production


by Yemmak, Turkey n 2018, animal and fish feed production in the world was approximately 1.1 billion tonnes, and according to the World Food Organization, this amount will increase by 100 percent in the next 15-20 years and reach approximately 2.2 billion tonnes. To meet this uptick in demand, a capacity increase of 55 million tonnes per year is required. With this information in mind, the fact that the majority of the world’s animal and fish feed is produced via the pellet mill should come as no surprise. What is pelleting? Well, pelleting is the process of compressing or molding a material into pellets. A wide variety of different materials can be processed into pellet form, including chemicals, animal feed, wood chips, straw, organic materials, plastics and more. The process for producing feed requires the forming of very different feed components (which are well ground and mixed, sometimes in powder form, difficult to digest and process) in larger sizes under temperature, humidity and pressure. Pelleting is an example of agglomeration at medium pressure, with the help of a natural binder (water-steam). The pelleting of animal and fish feed is the most common application in animal size enlargement by agglomeration and has the largest volume, followed by the pelletisation of iron ore.

Assessing pellet quality

Economically, pellet quality is very important. For example, one of the most important criteria used to evaluate the efficiency in the poultry industry is FCR (Feed Conversion Rate). In other words, it is the rate of converting the feed eaten by the animal into meat. As the pellet quality increases, the amount of feed consumed to obtain one kilogram of meat decreases. Considering that approximately 90 percent of the meat cost comes from the cost of feed production, the importance is easier to understand. While the FCR is about 1.8 in Turkey, it’s 2.4 in Iraq and 1.3 in Brazil. Pellet quality is measured by the mechanical strength of the pellet. There are standardised measurement methods in the world such as Holmen Method, Tumble-Box Method (just like methods of measuring the hardness of engineering materials). The unit of quality is %PDI (Pellet Durability Index). When PDI is 100 percent, that means the pellet has the highest quality.

The three main designs of pelleting are: • Flat • Concave (Yemmak pellet mills are in this category) • Convex

The working principle of the pellet mill

The raw material is pressed into circular holes on the die. The friction force between the raw material and the inner surface of the hole creates the necessary resistance to compress the raw material, and the raw material comes out from the holes on the die as extruded rods. These rods are cut with adjustable blades and turned into pellets. The feed at ambient temperature with a humidity of 10-12 percent reaches 15-16 percent humidity at 80-90°C in the process. At the time of pressing, the feed temperature rises to 92°C with the effect of friction. Then, the feed, which is cooled down to the ambient temperature within 10 minutes, is dried so that the moisture content is below 13 percent. As much as 95 percent of the pellet mills used in the world today consist of machines with a circular die called a ring die. These pellet mills have almost become the industry standard in the feed and biomass sectors. In this type, the die is rotated by a drive system and the rollers placed in the die, rotating with the friction force created by the raw material to be pelleted between rollers and the die’s inner surfaces. In this way, it presses the raw material into the holes on the inner surface of the die. In pellet presses, the roller surfaces are rough to increase drag. If the material is too slippery or the rollers are smooth, the machine will not be able to pick up the product. If this is the case for a particular product/application, presses with belt-pulley transmission may be preferred instead of gear-driven transmission. Slipping on the belts can act as an added safety measure. The rollers are also usually protected by an anti-wear coating. The die material must be resistant to wear, corrosion and breakage. The extrusion force must be greater than the frictional resistance. Serious pressure occurs in the front parts of the holes. Therefore, die material and thickness should be well considered. The inlet and outlet of die holes shouldn’t have sharp edges. The L/D ratio in the die holes should be increased to obtain a denser product.

18 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

Various feed types produced by pelleting

High Grain Feed (50-80% grain, 12-25% protein): Formulas containing high starch. During the conditioning phase, they must reach high humidity and temperature levels. Heat Sensitive Feed Containing Sugar, Milk Powder and Whey Powder (5-25%): Since sugar and dairy products are caramelised at 60°C, the heat generated by friction should be kept low. For this purpose, it is preferred to use thin die, low speed and to add oil/water as lubricant or coolant. High Natural Protein (25-45%) Supplement and Concentrate: This type of feed also contains 5-30% molasses. The need for temperature is high while the need for adding humidity is low. Low Protein (12-16%) Feed: They have a small amount of grain, a large amount of coarse fibers. A small amount of moisture can be added in conditioning. Production of high-quality pellets is difficult as a result of low humidity and low temperature conditioning. High Urea (6-30%) and High Molasses (5-20%) Feeds: Are difficult to extrude. There is only a little steam or no steam at all. Dies are thin and speed is slow. Drying is required before cooling. Pellets should be dusted to eliminate stickiness.

Advantages of pelleted feed

With the effect of grinding, heat, pressure and steam; the starch in the feed is broken down and the feed becomes more digestible. Thus, the feed conversion rate increases. Since molasses and oil are used, the flavor and energy of the feed increase. By making animals less choosy with the feed, it provides homogeneous nutrient intake and a more balanced diet. It also prevents feed residues. It prevents diseases that are transmitted by feed. Less dust is created. Insect infestation is reduced, microorganism reproduction is low. The bulk density of the feed increases, which provides advantages in terms of storage capacities and logistics costs. Allows the addition of liquid feed additives on the pellet. The amount of time and energy spent per unit feed decreases.

Table 1: Identifying a good quality pellet No dust

Visually inspectable

No cracks

Visually inspectable

Pellet lengths are equal

Visually inspectable


Measured by a test


Measured by a test

Factors affecting pellet quality

First of all, we must state that the quality and capacity are inversely proportional in pelleting process. Process engineers are focused on some methods for the optimisation of quality and capacity including steam and pellet die conditioning parameters, bulk density, the retention time of material in the die and the content of the foods. Conditioning temperature, steam quality and steam pressure and time affect pellet quality. In two separate conditioners, it was observed that the pellet quality increased in slower speed operation. This is because moisture penetrates the food more effectively; it makes the food softer and stickier. The increasing the conditioning temperature is very important for increasing quality and reducing energy consumption, whilst PDI increases as the amount of delivered steam (moisture) and retention time increases. More compact pellets are formed from material with greater bulk density. As the amount of oil in the content increases, the quality of the pellet decreases. Oil covers the outside of the product, preventing moisture from penetrating inside.

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International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 19

Alternative proteins … and why we need to stop using that phrase


by AllTech Coppens, The Netherlands

he word ‘alternative’ is weighted. Whilst it should simply suggest an option that is available as another possibility or choice, there are further connotations associated with it. The word, along with many of its synonyms (different, unorthodox, unconventional), immediately suggests something negative — a radical break from the norm; a lesser, auxiliary option. But favouring an alternative should not be immediately associated with compromise, as oftentimes, what is different is better. This is a point that global aquaculture feed producer Alltech Coppens is working hard to highlight in its fish feed formulation. Instead of blindly following the traditions of the aquaculture industry, the company takes a different approach. The R&D and Procurement teams focus on the nutritional needs of the fish and sourcing ingredients that not only effectively and efficiently provide the fish with what they need but also aid the sustainability and longevity of the industry.

Alltech Coppens wants others to see that formulating feed in this way should not be labelled as an alternative, nor even just a necessity, but in fact the ideal future of aquaculture that benefits all involved.

Fish do not need fishmeal

The aquaculture industry has always relied heavily on two main feed ingredients: fishmeal and fish oil. These have served the industry well over the years, but they are already proving to be problematic for aquaculture as the importance of fish in feeding the growing global population strengthens. By 2050, it is estimated that there will be nearly 10 billion people on earth, each needing food to live. If aquaculture is to keep up with the extra demand of this expanded population, there is no way the industry can continue to rely on these resources the way that it does currently. Even if fishmeal inclusion was reduced by 50 percent, the industry would still need an extra 1.5 million metric tons of fishmeal, which simply is not an achievable goal, explained Ben Lamberigts, Alltech Coppens manager QRN, speaking at the

20 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

recent ONE: Alltech Ideas Conference. If we look at the industry standard ‘Fish In Fish Out’ (FIFO) factor — how much wild-caught fish is needed to produce one kilogram of farmed fish — the number has dropped considerably in the last two decades to 0.27. This means that one kilogram of wild-caught fish is used to produce 3.7 kilograms of farmed fish. However, when you consider that we produce 45 million kilograms of farmed fish globally, the reliance on fishmeal is still significant. But fish do not need fishmeal to grow and perform optimally. An understanding of the basics of fish nutrition will highlight the fact that no fish has a requirement for fishmeal or even a requirement for a specific raw material. In fact, a fish’s only requirements are essential nutrients, such as digestible protein, fat for energy, vitamins, and minerals; palatable compound feed, so the fish eat the feed; and good water quality in aquaculture, because fish swim, defecate and eat in the same environment By defining alternatives with these requirements, those alternatives are no longer alternatives. They are equivalent, and often superior, sources of nutrition. Some of the other means of fish nutrition to be explored include: • Plant-based protein sources (sunflower meal, wheat protein, soybean meal) • Animal by-products (haemoglobin, blood meal, poultry meal) • Marine by-products (by-products from human consumption) • Novel raw materials (insect meals, bacterial protein, algae)

Plant-based protein sources

Plant-based protein sources are still the number one preferred alternative for replacing fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. This is

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International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 21

mainly due to their global availability and a broad knowledge that is based on years of experience. The limitations of using plant-based protein sources, such as mycotoxin contamination, can be challenging, though correct mycotoxin management can eliminate this challenge. It is also not only soya that we are using. Local plant byproducts (like brewery by-products) and new crops (sunflower or guar) are becoming more and more important. For all raw materials, but especially for the plant-based proteins, it is crucial to quantify the effect these have on our planet because it is here that we see the highest and lowest environmental measurables.

Animal & marine by-products

Animal by-products are well accepted as aquafeed ingredients these days due to the short supplies and escalating cost of fishmeal and plant protein sources. Though the use is dependent on the acceptance of the country, or market. In general, the protein content in animal by-products is high, and they complement indispensable amino acids, which is superior to those of plant origin. There are two main large advantages of animal by-products. First, their price/quality ratio, meaning animal by-products have, on average, the lowest cost price per unit of digestible nutrients. Secondly, their circularity — the name itself, “by-products,” says it all. Marine stocks cannot be sustained with current feeding practices, as replacing fishmeal and fish oil with plant-based ingredients can cause other environmental impacts, such as land use change. However, trimmings are by-products from the preparation of the fillets and can be sourced sustainably. Using these trimmings to produce other marine products creates

a circular food system with waste now recycled into valuable nutrients. By incorporating these nutrient sources, Alltech Coppens has achieved a hugely reduced FIFO factor of 0.10, which means only 100 grams of wild-caught fish is needed to produce one kilogram of farmed fish. Reaching this low number is testament to the idea that this type of feed formulation, and these ingredients, pave the ideal future path of the aquaculture industry and are not just an alternative route

Novel raw materials

Novel ingredients are unconventional raw materials of plant, microbial or animal origin. There has been increased activity focused on the research and development of such ingredients. These raw materials are definitely very interesting in terms of sustainability; net production of EPA/DHA, waste reduction by insects or high yields per ha with single cell protein production.

The four pillars of fish nutrition

When determining the best materials for feed formulation, Alltech Coppens assesses each ingredient under four specific metrics, which are palatability, performance, pollution and then last but certainly not least, planet. Using this process, the team can find ingredients that provide optimal benefits to fish, producers and the environment. With the research and insights gathered by Alltech Coppens, the team has started the next chapter of global aquaculture. By adjusting its practices and re-evaluating its stance on what is “alternative” and what is best for all, the industry now has the tools and insights at-hand to move forward in a way that fully benefits its producers and the world around them.






CO FFEE ROAS TING GRAINS & S EEDS 22 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed


AwF Charity Project in Nigeria Creating community wide social impact in Aquaculture


by Dada ‘Foluso, Project Coordinator/AwF Ambassador, Nigeria e were elated to finally commence the Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) project in Nigeria in September. The AwF/AAN social impact project is part of the drive of AwF to create and grow social and community impact by supporting small scale farmers through the provision of financial and technical support in order to grow their production capacity sustainably. AwF believes that such support can help farmers to improve their income, expand their capacity, create opportunities for their families and uplift their communities.

The importance of empowering small holder farmers

The project is created to grow the seed support as the farmer grows, giving opportunity to more farmers in their community to access support and build a strong and sustainable communitybased aquaculture industry. Aquaculture in Nigeria is a culturally important industry that attempts to create employment and an efficient source of the much-needed protein to feed its population of over 206 million people. According to WorldFish, aquaculture production in Nigeria has grown by 12% YoY (world average is 5.6%). Nigeria provides about 52% of sub-Saharan Africa’s production and the growth rate of the sector is expected to reach 22% YoY if it is to meet 2050 fish protein need forecasts.

In Nigeria, the AwF has collaborated with Aller Aqua Nigeria to provide business and technical guidance for three selected farmers. Following its ‘let’s grow together’ approach, Aller Aqua Nigeria has delegated its Marketing manager (Dada ‘Foluso) as the AwF ambassador, along with a team of three field officers. This approach is most fitting for the sustainability of AwF projects in Nigeria, as Aller Aqua have for more than four years educated small holder farmers on how to manage their farm’s production as a business. The funding component provided by the donors at AwF is helping to better shape the industry towards sustainability and increased growth. As AwF Ambassador, choosing to work with the project has created a new opportunity to implement my commitment towards sustainable agribusinesses that provide value for its stakeholders and customers alike. With a deeply grounded technical background in agriculture and career experience managing sales and marketing perspectives for brands, products and teams, myself and the team executing the AwF projects in Nigeria are highly confident that it will remain sustainable and deliver a strong community-based impact. We are committed to ensuring that farmers become business minded and follow the aggregate-product supply approach to build scale, and then contribute towards empowering one another. The continued sponsorship of the kind donors at the AwF will help achieve this goal.

Implementing the AwF project in Nigeria

For the first phase of the project, three small holder farmers have been selected to grow African catfish, a popularly cultured

24 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

AQUACULTURE fish species in Nigeria, widely enjoyed in local bars, restaurants, homes and ceremonies. Three locations across the country are chosen for the first run of the project. Locations are chosen based on assessment for a) Most effective community impact b) Proximity to competent technical officers c) Variation of catfish product market characteristics. The chosen farmers are profiled for: • Already existing with a pattern of growth mindset in the farm history. • Farm facilities verified by extension officer for minimum operational risk incidents • Education level to comprehend the objectives of basic production/record-keeping practices. The selected farms are: • Oslogan Farms, Ikorodu Nigeria • Eja Nla Farms, Ilora Oyo • Teegold Farms, Ayobo Nigeria Oslogan farm is located about 25km from the city-centre of Lagos. The team reached the premises using a truck to navigate the potholed roads and through the village to arrive at the farm. The farm itself is quaint, using locally available materials, but built with future expansion in mind. Its earthen ponds were well constructed and walled with bags of sand. The farmer is a new entrepreneur in need of support to scale catfish production to capacity of his farm. The AwF project is enabling him stock one pond more (1100 catfish) and is expected

to boost his income by about US$295 in this cycle. Aller Aqua Nigeria is providing free technical and management support through its field extension officer. Eja Nla farm (local language for “Big Fish”) is located in a community of fish farmers and was started in 2009 with one earthen pond. In 13 years, it has expanded into seven production ponds cropping at different times within a year. The impact of the project on the farm is expected to garner interest amongst the other farmers in his community, so that a bigger selection (and practice adoption) can be achieved in a next run. Teegold farms is a farm around the city centre of Lagos and uses two concrete ponds to raise table fish which he sells


Share Our Vision

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We look forward to sharing our vision with you! International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 25

periodically to retail customers within the city. The farmer also has a nursery unit from which he produces catfish fingerlings in the farm’s resting periods, further increasing his yearly output.

The project’s technical team members

David Irikefe (Project Extension Officer at Oslogan Farms) Oyedare Olumide (Project Extension Officer at Ejanla Farms) Aladesanmi Paul (Project Extension Officer at Teegold farms) Dada ‘Foluso – Project Coordinator/AwF Ambassador in Nigeria. The project cycle commenced in September and is expected to run for 24 weeks. Week two was dedicated for pond preparation and providing needed materials to farm sites, whilst weeks 19-20

will be needed for fish production using Aller Aqua feeds. Aller Aqua's feeding recommendation assures the achievement of ready for market fish sizes (1.0-1.2kg) in 120 days from stocking size of five gram catfish fingerlings. Harvesting and marketing the fish will then be done for two weeks, while the project cycle evaluation will be concluded in one week. We therefore hope to have concluded our first run by mid-February 2022. With the anticipated success from our current project and future opportunities, we hope to be able to help more farmers in many more communities build sustainable fish farming business that not only positively impact their livelihoods and communities, but also provide quality fish products for the consumers.

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Producing algae proteins for animal & fish feed from CO2


by Valerie Schuster, Managing Director, Livalta, UK

ith the world’s population expected to reach 10 billion by 2050, our agri-food industry faces the triple challenge of providing good nutrition to every person on the planet, whilst safeguarding the world’s natural resources and reversing biodiversity loss. As many as 811 million people are undernourished today. Although our industry is achieving ever-improving levels of efficiency, incremental improvements will not be sufficient. We must pioneer new and bold technologies to provide safe, high quality and affordable nutrition, whilst safeguarding our planet for future generations, and ensuring the health and wellbeing of our animals. We need to transform the way we feed the world.

Taking CO2 emissions out of the air to grow algae

We believe it is possible to produce safe, high-quality proteins for people and animals by unlocking the potential that already exists in nature. Millennia-old processes such as photosynthesis, where plants take up CO2 from the environment to fuel nutrition

and growth, can be harnessed in new ways through pioneering science and technology. The new partnership between Livalta, an AB Agri company, and Pond Technology Holdings Inc will take this one step further. Together we will pioneer commercial algae-based animal feed ingredients produced from CO2 emissions and we will take CO2 emissions out of the air to produce high value protein - one tonne of algae will absorb two tonnes of CO2. Algae, such as spirulina, are gaining increasing attention as they could be game-changing feed and food ingredients, as spirulina is particularly renowned for its nutritional and functional value both in food and animal feed. Or, to put it differently, it is a superfood that actually deserves the name. It combines 60 percent protein with Omega 6 and essential vitamins and minerals. It nourishes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties while lowering cholesterol levels. So, why are algae not used more widely in food and feed? Spirulina is already a relatively common health supplement in human nutrition, but it is expensive. It is sold either as powder or tablets in health stores or used as an ingredient in nutrition bars and smoothies. For animal feed, the main barrier lies in the access to quality product at an affordable price. Until now, the technology to produce algae, at the scale, quality and cost required for animal feed, has remained elusive. Most algae (mainly spirulina and chlorella) are currently produced in open raceways or ponds. This makes it difficult to drive productivity as it is challenging to distribute nutrients equally across a pond and production is dependent on natural sunlight. Furthermore, there is a high risk of contamination from heavy metals or pesticides. The new partnership, which brings together Pond’s groundbreaking technology with our expertise in new proteins for animal feeds, is set to change that. At Livalta, they aim to address the global protein challenge by improving global food systems.

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We believe that science and technology are key to turn the challenge into an opportunity. We are very excited about our partnership with Pond and the potential that lies in its technology to produce algae using CO2 emissions.

The technology, plans for a pilot and commercial size plants

Plans are now in place to open our first pilot plant in 2022 to test and further develop Pond’s technology platform for animal

Specialist in the design and build of installations for the aquatic feed processing industry

feed. According to Grant Smith, President & CEO at Pond, our landmark partnership benefits Pond by increasing its access to the global animal feed market and also provides further validation of its technology platform. We will work with our colleagues at Pond to transform industrial greenhouse gas emissions into sustainable, high-value animal feed ingredients. The company will also start to produce spirulina using CO2 emissions at British Sugar’s Wissington site in Norfolk by connecting Pond’s bioreactors directly to the

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smokestacks. The bioreactors are large water tanks with a specially designed LED lighting system adapted to the specific conditions that spirulina needs like wavelength, colour or timing, etc. Sensors and AI closely monitor and help manage all key parameters from lighting to water quality, CO2 intake, temperature, and pH levels. This allows productivity to be increased (and at a lower cost) by creating the best possible environment for algae based on data and insight. The system also enables the production of algae of high and stable quality – for example, a constant level of protein – and the close management of any potential contamination. Much less land is needed than for other comparable crops. Using CO2 emissions instead of bottled CO2 is not only cheaper, but also more responsible. There’s even potential for this system to be carbon neutral or carbon negative – depending on the energy used and the sources employed in the de-watering and drying of algae to obtain the powder that is needed for animal feed. We are working on solutions for Livalta’s first commercial size plant of 20,000 tons to follow the pilot plant. If this is successful, Livalta and Pond also intend to collaborate with other third-party CO2 emitters to build a network of plants across the globe. Our intention is to have regional production sites to be closer to our customers and to minimise our environmental footprint related to transport.

Significant potential for our industry

Spirulina offers significant potential for our industry if we can turn it into a responsible and affordable animal feed ingredient. So far, its use has been mainly limited to aquaculture and petfood, where certain niches can afford the current high prices of quality algae.

The livestock and aquaculture industry in general rely on soybean meal and other more functional protein sources, such as fishmeal – at a much higher cost to the environment. Our ambition is to make this superfood available consistently, affordably and at scale for animal feed across species, including dairy, pig, broiler and layer chicken, as well as pets and horses. Will we ever be able to match the cost of soybean meal? Not straight away, but we will aim to and in the meantime, we will start by replacing fishmeal and similar protein sources. Our starting point will be in aquaculture where an existing library of scientific trials in several species (including trout and tilapia) already shows that protein sources like fishmeal can be (partially) replaced by spirulina while maintaining animal growth performance, feed intake and feed conversion. There is also evidence of immune benefits and a higher resilience in challenge situations. Similar indications exist for broiler diets. In dairy, trials show improvements of milk quality in terms of the milkfat composition and a reduction of the somatic cell count, suggesting anti-inflammatory properties. The latter are also highly relevant for pets and horses. We will be conducting our own ongoing series of trials across species with leading universities together with our customers, to further contribute to the scientific evidence about the nutritional and functional benefits of algae in general and of the products we develop. Through our work with the Global Feed LCA Institute (GFLI), we also aim to provide a full life cycle analysis of our products so we can give our customers the choice of nutritionally-optimised and climate-friendly feed formulations. We believe that we are one step further towards a net-zero agrifood industry.

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Tech update Harnessing the power of the ‘electric sense’

Electric sense is a perception mode used by weakly electric fish that inhabit tropical murky waters, in which vision and acoustic perception are poor. Natural evolution has led to them developing an electromagnetic mode of perception, known as the ‘electric sense’. These fish generate a very low electromagnetic field, the ‘electric bubble’, which is harmless for the fauna and flora in their vicinity. The fish are alerted whenever this field is disturbed, allowing the fish locate and characterise the objects, obtaining a 360° real-time ‘electric image’ of their environment. In 2018, based off of the work of academia to develop sensors based on this electric sense, Elwave was created. Consequently, it has developed the ‘Bluesense’ proprietary technology, reproducing this perception mode. The real-time 360° obstacle detection capacity for all types of objects (insulating and conducting) offered by Elwave systems are an innovative solution, which allows remotely operated or autonomous underwater vehicles to operate in complex environments safely and efficiently.

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NET INSPECTIONS The role of ROVs in the move towards autonomous operations in sea-based aquaculture by Herman Biørn Amundsen, Deptartment of Aquaculture Technology, SINTEF Ocean, Trondheim, Norway To promote and secure a sustainable aquaculture industry, it is vital that we gain the knowledge and tools to counter environmental and welfare challenges.

The proposed concept of Precision Fish Farming (PFF) is widely seen as a way of improving the ability of the farmer to monitor, control and document fish production by applying controlengineering principles to aquaculture. In particular, PFF aims to move from the current stage of manual operations and experienced-based reasoning to a more objective approach, characterised by smart sensors, decision support systems, and autonomous operations. When applied, PFF can help to solve challenges in the industry. In general, the monitoring and control of sea-based aquaculture is a challenging task. The fish live in a complex and three-dimensional environment and their numbers can reach hundreds of thousands. Furthermore, the production takes place subsurface. It is therefore inherently difficult to get a proper understanding of the production state. Robotic tools such as unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) can be valuable for achieving this and are closely related to PFF. Today, UUVs such as remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) are becoming common in sea-based aquaculture. In particular, ROVs are used for the inspection and maintenance of net cages.

A threat to the wild fish population

Net holes are the most common reason for fish escape incidents in Norwegian aquaculture, which threatens the wild fish population due to the transfer of disease and alteration of wild fish genetics through interbreeding. Furthermore, ROVs equipped with rigs that shoot high-pressurised water or more specialised UUVs (for example, Remora from Mithal, or HALO-robot from Aquarobotics, Watbots) are used for net cleaning or biofouling prevention operations. These vehicles have expanded the toolbox of the farmers and have relieved divers of dull, dirty, or even dangerous operations. However, while such vehicles are becoming valuable tools, there are important areas needing further research and development with regards to how they are utilised. It was recently reported by the Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries that during the last twelve months, there have been eight supervisory cases of ROV net inspections where holes and damages to the net cages 34 | November 2021 - Fish Farming Technology


were not identified by the ROV pilots. In one incident, a hole covering more than a hundred meshes were not discovered by the pilot. From this, it can be concluded that human errors do contribute to environmental hazards. Replacing pilots with smart and autonomous systems which are less prone to mistakes can, therefore, contribute to obtaining a more sustainable industry.

An active field of research

The development of autonomous vehicles is an active field of research and there has been considerable progress in recent years. For aquaculture operations, some unique challenges must be solved. A fundamental part of an autonomous vehicle control system is determining the position of the vehicle. For most applications, determining the geo-referenced position of the vehicle (for instance via GPS) is sufficient, as they are manoeuvring with respect to a mostly static environment. In aquaculture, you are navigating in a complex and dynamically changing environment consisting of

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flexible structures and living animals. It is therefore not enough to know where the vehicle is, you must know where it is relative to its surroundings. To further complicate matters, many classical methods of measuring vehicle positions are hard or impossible to use in aquaculture settings, as the water and biomass will attenuate or reflect transmission signals. Doppler Velocity Log (DVL) is a typical sensor for underwater navigation. The sensor sends four hydroacoustic beams and by measuring the Doppler shift in the reflected beams, the DVL can measure its speed relative to whatever reflected the beams. Typically, they are mounted on the vehicle and point towards the seafloor. Using DVL for altitude control of ROVs in one solution; by measuring the travelled distance of each DVL beam, you can estimate the altitude of the vehicle relative to the seafloor and use this in a feedback loop to control the vehicle altitude. A previous investigation (Rundtup & Frank, 2016) of whether the same concept could be applicable in an aquaculture context, it was concluded that a DVL is indeed able to lock onto a net pen. By attaching the DVL to the front of the vehicle and looking towards the net, one can therefore estimate the orientation and position of the vehicle relative to the net in front of it. The researchers suggested that when you know the position of the vehicle relative to its surroundings, you are then able to plan and control its motion. A further option is the automation of inspections of net cages by ROVs. This could be achieved by using the estimates from the DVL. In this scenario, one can control the ROV to traverse the

net with a constant distance, heading, and speed relative to the net in front of it. Figure 1 shows a video still of an ROV autonomously following a net cage wall. It should further be possible to combine this method with a computer vision-based analysis of camera video to automatically detect any damages and holes in the net structure. This suggested method is just one example of how one can automise vehicle operation in net cages.

Realising autonomous vehicle operations

In conclusion, we are growing closer to realising autonomous vehicle operations in aquaculture. By combining motion control with smart data-capturing from sensors such as cameras, autonomous vehicle operations in aquaculture can help the farmer get a more accurate understanding of the production state underwater. In the Change project funded from Research Council of Norway, SINTEF Ocean and NTNU aim to further address autonomous robotic operations in dynamically changing environments such as fish cages and develop new adaptive motion planning algorithms. Furthermore, the project will investigate how the vehicles influence the fish, with the aim of reducing any potential negative impact such as stress. The developed methods will be tested under unique conditions at SINTEF ACE, a full-scale aquaculture laboratory, using the unique hardware and software tools that SINTEF ACE RoboticLab provides.

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Protecting against Caligus larvae An evaluation of Garware fabric as a mechanical barrier by Garware Technical Fibres, Chile The Huenquillahue research centre in Mowi Chile, Region X, has been analysing the retention capacity of Caligus rogercresseyi larvae for months on Garware cloths, which are to be used in a lice skirt, to combat outbreaks of salmon lice at farming centres. The analysis considered the retention of larvae, the entry of these at different speeds of currents and the fixation of copepodites to the fish. This resulted in a high-quality fabric that allows for the containment of infestations and the passage of water flow, allowing for necessary oxygenation in salmon farming centres. The meshes were tested by means of sieves for the forced passage of the water flow with the larvae in the nauplius stage (I-II) and copepodites and were evaluated in three aspects: their retention capacity of C rogercresseyi larvae, estimating the percentage of entry of larvae at different current speeds, and with the fish able to see the fixation of the copepodites that managed to pass through the fabric. In this regard, the Mowi Chile health area noted that, “The effectiveness tests of the fabrics that have been carried out to combat Caligus, in conjunction with the Austral University have brought good results and we are considering them for the nondrug management alternatives for the control of this parasite.”

Recommended as a mechanical barrier

The results of the study which were carried out by the Austral University, highlight the evaluation of fabric cages in a test channel for the estimation of permeability to the passage of the larvae. They registered blockages of 99.6 percent of Nauplii larvae of Nauplii and 99.7 percent of Copepoditos larvae, so they were unable to enter the cage. In each case, the amount of water used was 340 litres with 3700 larvae per test, totalling to more than 133,800 larvae, where the flow of water was applied at current speeds of 0.5, 2 and 3.5 cm * s-1. Therefore, the latest generation of Garware X12 fabric is recommended as a mechanical barrier against Caligus larvae, with its high-quality characteristics and ability to allow for the passage of water flow, without greater resistance at medium current speeds. This will be favourable, in maximising the natural oxygenation of the farm. Marco Jofré, Business Associate at Garware Technical Fibres, explains the numerous benefits of their research. “The skirts in

Above: Garware fabrics to be used in skirt as a mechanical barrier in salmon farms. X12 cloth blocks 99.6% of Nauplius larvae and 99.7% of Copepodite larvae. Below: Test channel with Garware fabric inside to evaluate the permeability of the fabric cage and observing 99.6% retention of larvae. Image 2: Evaluation

preventing infestation work well as a physical barrier surrounding the fish cage, thanks to the X12 fabric that allows for the water to flow, which prevents the entry of lice. This allows 80 times more water flow than a common fabric The weave of the X12 cloth blocks the entry of the parasite larvae in its early stages and promotes adequate water exchange. It is a non-pharmacological product, as part of overall strategies to reduce the use of drugs. From field experience, there is a decrease in the frequency of baths of up to 50 percent, with a reduction of lice of up to 60 percent. Thus, the company have developed a three-dimensional fabric, with an opening of 80 to 150 microns for Norway, and a second generation of 60 to 100 microns for Chile, owing to the fact that local sea lice are smaller in numbers. This means we’ve generated a product applicable to the national market." Caligidosis infestation is a growth limiting factor for salmon production globally, where the use of antiparasitic products has become less and less effective due to the development of parasite resistance. The global focus, then, has been on the implementation of new, complementary non-pharmacological control methods such as tarps, in managing infestations caused by salmon lice.

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TECHNOLOGY SH Innovations this month November 2021 In this month’s Technology Showcase we explore solutions that can benefit a variety of marine operations. Innovations on offer this month include a variety of aquaculture sensors, a drum water filter and an immersion vaccination bath. If you would like your product or service to appear in this section in a future edition of International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine, then please contact us at

The Aquasend Beacon Designed for outdoor aqua-farming ponds, The Aquasend Beacon collects water-quality data from dissolved oxygen levels and temperature and send it back to the online portal. Even in the harshest aquatic environments, this tool is able to ensure healthy aquatic ecosystems and acts as an alarm by alerting a farmer’s mobile device if a problem is detected. It can communicate with other buoys in a mesh-networked arrangement across long distances. The solar-powered buoy features integrated anti-fouling wipers for long-lasting data collection that does not require calibration for 12-18 months. The beacon is also of a rugged design allowing for use in all weather and in intense farming environments. Visible exterior LED lights flash green and red depending on the alert status and condition of the water. The 24/7 supervision that the Beacon provides allows farmers to increase production and minimize unnecessary labour and maintenance costs. https://pmeaqs.wpengine. com


5200A Multiparameter Monitoring and Control Instrument by YSI Xylem Designed specifically for aquaculture systems, the YSI 5200A monitor with AquaManager software can be used to process control, feeding, alarming and data management. This tool can simultaneously measure dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), salinity and temperature. With wireless connection, a networking capability of up to 32 instruments per comm port, and a plug and play feature, the 5200A offers ease of use. It is simple enough to monitor one tank and powerful enough to manage a full scale farming operation from anywhere in the world. Coupled with the AquaManager software, you are instantly provided with an overview of your facility, able to set parameter points, and manage data to inform your operation decisions. YSI also offer a multi-channel dissolved oxygen monitor that can be networked with a 5200A, which is designed to measure dissolved oxygen using optical-based sensors.

HydroTech Value drum series from HydroTech The Hydrotech Value drum filter series is a new generation of costefficient drum filters focusing on reduced maintenance, increased component quality, and simplified operation – all to give your plant maximum filtration performance at a minimum operational cost. Hydrotech Value drum filters offer you features such as brackets, cable ducts, and more to make installation and operation as cost-efficient and user-friendly as possible. They are delivered ready for upgrades such as highpressure washing, chemical pipes, etc., to make customisation easy, efficient, and costeffective. When compared to the previous series, more than 50 filter unit improvements have been made on the new Value series, making these filters fully prepared for several upgrades. The remodelled drive system also optimises mechanical operating conditions and reduces chain force – increasing product life-time. The new, robust, lightweight plastic chain comes with a noncorrosive plastic chain drive, extending product lifetime.

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Polaris C from OxyGuard The Polaris C meter is a highperformance, low-cost and almost maintenance-free metre for measuring dissolved oxygen and temperature. It can store up to 2500 complete sets of data, including time and date stamps. The logged data can be stored either manually or automatically with the possibility to group the data into categories. The stored data can be uploaded directly to Cobália, Oxyguard’s own Big Data analytical tool, using Bluetooth technology. Simply scan the Cobália NFC tag on the tank and all data will be uploaded to your ‘digital farm’. Tank specific data assigned to the tags will be stored in Cobália for analysis on temporal variation, generation of graphs and for multivariable analysis on performance. The meter has a built-in self-check of all hardware, compensating automatically for barometric pressure, with a notably short response time.

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Bath Vaccinator for immersion vaccination by Fish Farm Feeder Sometimes we all break the rules. This is the case with Fish Farm Feeder’s new product, the Bath Vaccinator, which has been designed in response to a demand from one of Fish Farm Feeder’s clients. With the support of its customer, the company has designed, manufactured and then tested the new fish immersion vaccinator - simplifying the work of any hatchery fish farm. According to its specifications, this product is suitable for fish that weigh from as little as four and as much as 10 grams. As remarked by Miguel Arostegui, CEO of Fish Farm Feeder, the new fish vaccinator should contribute to standardising the fish vaccination process. “The bath duration can be adapted by the operator from around 45 seconds onwards. As the volume of the vaccine chamber is known, it allows easy dosing of the vaccine.”

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CS Aquaculture case study

Aquaculture in Nepal by Juli-Anne Royes Russo PhD

My assignment was to provide technical assistance on fish nutrition and feed management strategy in semiintensive fish farming systems to the members of Sahodar Agricultural Cooperative (SAC) of which eighty percent of SAC’s members are women. The Sahodar Agriculture Cooperative which has 108 members, was established in 2014 and is registered with the District Agriculture Development Office (DADO) under the Government of Nepal. It is located in Shiktahan, the southern plain area of Rupandehi district, which has a good water table for fish farming. The level of education of farmers varies from primary school grade to BSc levels.

In March 2018, I had the pleasure of volunteering in Nepal on the USAID-Funded John Ogonowski and Doug Bereuter Farmerto-Farmer Program implemented by Winrock International. This project was an entrepreneurship strategy which seeks to build the capacity of the fish farmers, promote entrepreneurship in the agriculture sector, and to support entrepreneurship and livelihood development. Assistance within this strategy might encompass entrepreneurship, business planning, marketing, and technical topics to strengthen businesses opportunities for farmers.

Juli-Anne Royes Russo PhD

Dr Russo is an Aquaculture Scientist specialising in aquaculture biosecurity and nutrition for aquatic animals. She is a Consultant for the Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations (FAO) in the Aquaculture branch, and prior to that an aquaculture consultant for USAID, IDB and Compete Caribbean. Dr Russo volunteers with USAID, Farmer to Farmer and Winrock International to provide technical services to fish farmers in developing countries. Her interests are in policy relating to food and nutrition security, women in aquaculture, aquaculture biosecurity, environmental sustainability and rural development. She is currently developing and delivering presentations on aquaculture production, fish health, biosecurity and disease prevention of cultured aquatic species to farmers in the Caribbean.

Most of the farmers have experience with subsistence farming in different agricultural disciplines, but fish farming is one of the most popular and is considered as an effective source of income. It has a wellconnected market system to different local markets like Sahdwaniya, Birta, Majhauli, Patkhauli, and Dhakdhahi locations in Rupandehi district. From Katmandu, a thirty-minute flight (which would have taken nine to ten hours by bus), chaperoned by my locally based Winrock host Mr Arun Thapa, I was taken to our base which was located near the Lumbini Gate in Bhairahawa. A 30-minute drive from the gate will take you to the birthplace of the Buddha. It took another hour on unpaved roads to get to the training site in Shiktahan which is about 286 km south west from Kathmandu residing at the elevation of 109 meters (358 feet) above mean sea level. I 42 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

CS met with Mr Shailesh Gurung, an Associated Professor from the Tribhuvan University, who took me to meet with the host of the SAC, Mr Ram Kumar Tharu to assess the field activities. Shiktahan, the southern plain area of the Rupandehi district, has a good water table for fish farming and the inland culture of carp in small ponds has taken place for 100s of years. Approximately five percent of the total area of the country is occupied by different freshwater aquatic habitats. Rivers in Nepal cover an estimated area of 395,000 ha. Similarly, a number of small to medium sized lakes in various parts of the country cover 5000 ha, and about 1500 ha of small reservoirs have been constructed in the country. In addition, there is a considerable amount of surface area present in village ponds (6735 ha) and irrigated paddy fields covering about 398,000 ha. It is estimated that about four-to-five of the irrigated area in the Terai/plain regions are low lying, generally unsuitable for crops cultivation, and can be better developed into fish ponds. Amongst the different agriculture disciplines, fish farming is the main source of income in the community; fish farming covers over 40 ha area of land.

The major aquaculture systems & species

The major aquaculture system is carp polyculture in ponds, lakes, and enclosures. Carp, including common carp, bighead carp, silver carp, grass carp, rohu and naini, are the major cultured species. Cage culture of herbivorous carp species and common carp in rice-fish culture are also common practices. A change from extensive systems to intensive-farming methods is currently occurring in the aquaculture system in Nepal. The SAC adopted a semi-intensive system of polyculture fish farming. At present, technology of carp farming in ponds has been widely


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CS disseminated in the southern part (Terai/plain region) of the country because of the warm climatic conditions in these areas. The following days we travelled one hour each day on unpaved roads to the training site. An initial assessment was made by interviewing several farmers in order to understand the full context of pond and feed management in order to assess their needs. On these farms it was found that the dietary nutritional requirements of the cultured fish are supplied by a combination of endogenously produced live food organisms and exogenously supplied supplementary feed. Live food organisms are enhanced through the application of fertilisers or manures in the pond. Supplementary feeds are made of traditional moist feed ball containing rice bran and mustard cake as main ingredients maintained at 1:1 ratio. Their feed management consists of feeding this diet in the form of a flattened “cake” to all life stages once per day, and usually thrown to the fish and left unobserved. When mustard seed oil cake is used in excess, growth of the fish can be stunted and reproduction may be reduced. Lacking the knowledge on feed preparation resulted in 60 percent feed loss from traditionally formulated or prepared moist feed balls. The feed ingredients selected by the farmers is usually dictated by availability and cost rather than by quality or nutritional value. Despite providing a combined diet, the farmers were lacking knowledge on balancing nutritional requirement to cultured fish. In addition, there were misconceptions and a poor understanding of feed management practices among farmers and the practice of overfeeding stock in the belief that more feed will produce more fish.

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This led to poor pond water quality and an increase in production costs. Such improper feeding management at the farm level creates several stress factors resulting in immunosuppressive fish, which are more susceptible to disease organisms. In semi-intensive systems, feed and fertiliser comprises between 30 percent and 60 percent of the total cost of production. From an economic perspective, the high costs that relate to feed use suggests that the optimisation of feed management practices will have a significant impact on the economic viability of an operation. Hence farmers need to reduce production costs and maximise economic benefit from their semi-intensive pond farming systems.

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International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 45


Nutrition & feeding management strategies

Realising this fact, the host requested technical assistance on fish nutrition and feeding management strategies in semi-intensive fish farming systems. The importance of natural food organisms in the overall nutritional budget of pond-raised fish and the need to reduce food and feeding costs through the use of improved pond fertilisation, low-cost feed formulation and preparation from locally available ingredients, and on-farm feed and water management techniques was emphasised. The availability and cost of manufactured feeds was not easily accessible so an option for these farmers was to learn how to make their own feed using local ingredients available. With this knowledge they can have an alternative feed source. It was also found that most farmers did not have feed management skills and over-fertilise their ponds which led to excessive growth of algae. The level of fertilisation is an important part of managing supplemental feeding to fish and farmers need to understand that managing the amount of green water is essential to good pond maintenance and health of the fish. During the training, the participants were taught basic fish nutrition principles, such as nutritional requirements for each life stage, how to find the nutritional requirements for local ingredients that were available and how to do a simple Pearson square to formulate for protein requirement. Using the excel format for formulating on farm diets was taught at a later date to university students who in the future will be providing the extension aid needed to farmers. The participants then practiced making their own feeds. Participants were asked to bring ingredients that could be found readily such as wheat flour,

wheat bran, chickpea flour, fishmeal, and potatoes that could be made into a flour. Participants were then taught how to identify ingredients into categories of protein, fat and carbohydrate which were then used to make three different diets that could be considered more nutritional than the current diet. In addition, farmers were taught how to read a label on purchased feed, water management techniques, good aquaculture practices and maintenance. After the training we had a review section where participants were called to review topics that they had learned. This recap method showed us that they did grasp the principles and that were very interested in the recommendations and implementing them. The farmers quickly learned how to make their own feeds and the use of the secchi disk in feed management was reinforced.

Training in sustainability

In order for the trainings to be sustainable, it is important that there are frequent follow up calls to the farmers by extension agents in order to assess improvements and continued needs of the farmers. As a result, I spent a day with the Aquaculture students from Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture & Animal Science and gave lectures on fish nutrition, feed formulations, nutritional diseases. I encouraged the students to provide assistance to rural fish farmers to encourage continued success from the trainings. Despite the physical hardships in this country, the eagerness of these farmers to learn and the warmth and hospitality they showed, made this assignment a very enjoyable and satisfying experience.

46 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed


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International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 47

Industry Events

Status updates for industry events amidst global effects of COVID-19 2021

November Starting September 4th OMS Aquafeed Production School



November 11-13 Livestock Taiwan 2021 Taipei, Taiwan

13-15 Fish International 2022 Bremen, Germany

3-5 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2021 New Orleans, LA, USA

28-4 Aquaculture 2022 San Diago, CA, USA 2022

7-9 AlgaEurope 2021 Europe www.

30-31 RASTECH 2022 Hilton Head Island, USA 2022

25-25 V-Connect Indonesia 2022 Online 2021

2-4 Taiwan International Fisheries and Seafood Show 2021 Taipei, Taiwan

10-12 Livestock Malaysia 2022 Malacca, Malaysia 15-18 Aquaculture Canada and WAS North America 2022 St John’s, Newfoundland, Canada 23-25 Aquaculture Philippines 2022 Manila, Philippines 2022


May 3-5 Aquaculture UK 2022 Aviemore, Scotland

☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event 48 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

September TBA Aquaculture New Zealand Conference 2022 Nelson, New Zealand


October 5-6 Poultry Africa Kigali, Rwanda


26-28 Seafood Expo Global/Seafood Processing Global 28th Edition Barcelona, Spain

August 3-5 Ildex Vietnam 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

25-29 Agrishow 2022 São Paulo, Brasil


5-8 World Aquaculture 2020 Singapore



24-26 Aquafuture Spain 2022 Santiago De Compostela, Spain

June 29-30 Seagriculture EU 2022 Bremerhaven, Germany

TBC ILDEX Vietnam 2022 Vietnam

8-12 World Aquaculture 2021 Mérida, Mexico 22-24 VIV MEA 2021 Abu Dabai, UAE


February 16-17 Aquafarm 2022 Pordenone, Italy

31-2 VIV Europe Utrecht, The Netherlands

January 12-14 Victam Asia Bangkok, Thailand

12 Week Program

September 14 - Europe and Asia September 17 - US and Latin America

25-27 Agritechnica Asia 2022 Bangkok, Thailand

12-17 International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding (ISFNF) 2021 Busan, Republic of Korea 2022

Session 1: Raw Materials - Process interaction and function of use

24-27 World Aquaculture 2021 Mérida, Mexico

11-14 Aquaculture Africa 2021 Alexandria, Egypt

12-14 Vietstock 2022 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 2022

November 9-11 Ildex Indonesia 2022 Jakarta, Indonesia 15-18 EuroTier 2022 Hannover, Germany


World Aquaculture Singapore 2022

Nov. 29 - Dec. 2, 2022

Singapore EXPO Convention & Exhibition Centre and MAX Atria

May 24-27, 2022

The Annual International Conference & Exposition of World Aquaculture Society

Mérida, Mexico

Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2020 – Annual Meeting of Asian Pacific Chapter, WAS

Centro Internacional de Congresos de Yucatán, CIC

Hosted by Singapore Food Agency

Annual global meeting of the World Aquaculture Society

Conference Sponsors Temasek Polytechnic, Nanyang Technological University National University of Singapore, James Cook University Republic Polytechnic 3rd International Symposium on Perch and Bass WAS Premier Sponsors

WA2020 Partner @WASAPC

@WASingapore WASAPC

Associate Sponsors Aquaculture Engineering Society International Association of Aquaculture Economics & Management WorldFish

WAS Premier Sponsors

Aquaculture 2022 Come one, Come all, for Aquaculture Large and Small

Sustainable Aquaculture – Feeding Africa AQUACULTURE AFRICA 2021 Alexandria Egypt • December 11-14, 2021 The 1st Annual International Conference & Exposition of the African Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society (AFRAQ2021) Egypt is the biggest aquaculture producer in the continent. Both local and international aquaculture delegates will converge for the event at the beautiful City of Alexandria, the Pride of the Mediterranean Sea.

February 28 - March 4, 2022

Town and Country Resort & Conference Center San Diego, California

Hosted by

Conference Management Exhibits & Sponsors WAS - African Chapter Mario Stael Blessing Mapfumo Chapter Founding Gold Sponsor Conference Sponsor and Egyptian Aquaculture Society (EgAS) AFRAQ 2021 Gold Sponsor

Silver Sponsor

WAS Premier Sponsors

Aquacultural Engineering Society Aquaculture Association of Canada Aquaculture Feed Industry Association Catfish Farmers of America Global Aquaculture Alliance

For More Information Contact:

International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Latin America & Caribbean Chapter WA US Trout Farmers Association World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association Zebrafish Husbandry Association

Conference Manager | P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 | Email: | Trade Show Contact:

Industry Events Peter Coutteau, the Business Unit Director of Adisseo

Aquaculture Europe 21 ‘Oceans of Opportunity’ held in Madeira, Portugal by Caitlin Gittins, International Aquafeed After staging Aquaculture Europe 2020 online in April of this year, the first of its kind for European Aquaculture Society, the next event to be held was Aquaculture Europe 2021, the society’s first in person event since Berlin in 2019. Held on this occasion in Madeira, Portugal, this event ran from October 4 – 7 and focussed on the topic of ‘Oceans of Opportunity’. The conference sought to explore how challenges facing us today, such as climate change, pollution, and the depletion of natural resources, can be resolved through governmental policies, technological developments and innovation. The primary venue was the Congress Centre Pestana Casino Hotel, where over 1400 attendees from 57 countries were hosted, with 80 booths exhibiting. In addition, 383 e-posters were displayed alongside the deliverance of 560 oral presentations, demonstrating the widespread exchange of information and insight that was being given at the conference. Plenary speakers who delivered their presentations over the next three days included Shakuntala Thilsted, from Worldfish, Malaysia; Pedro Encarnação from Jerónimo Martins Agri-business; and co-presenters, Laurie Hofmann and Gesche Kause, of the Alfred Wegener Institute.

Black scabbard fish at the Funchal market, Madeira

Addressing climate change through sustainable food production

Their topics included the importance of aquaculture for nutrition, developing the circular economy, and addressing the issues of climate change through sustainable food production. International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine were fortunate enough to be in attendance, and had the pleasure meeting a whole variety of people concerned with the industry and its future. On the first day of the conference, the team were invited to a dinner hosted by Adisseo, with a talk delivered by Peter Coutteau, the company’s Business Unit Director. He remarked on it being a celebration of the first proper meeting of friends since the isolation brought on by the pandemic, ringing true to the joy felt at some return to normalcy, but the meetings didn’t stop there. The international Aquafeed delegation also met with a whole host of aquaculture companies, ranging from sustainable fish feed producers to feeding systems manufacturers, rekindling with old friends and meeting new. Notably, the magazine’s publisher and CEO Roger Gilbert interviewed a number of people, including Alistair Lane, the Chief

Roger Gilbert with Dr Holger Kühlwein from Leiber

50 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events Executive of the European Aquaculture Society, to ask him what some of the challenges were in arranging a meeting of this nature under pandemic restrictions.

Attendance was almost at its maximum capacity

Whilst Mr Lane acknowledges numbers were down on what would otherwise have been expected, the 1200-plus who did make the journey were well received and hosted by the Madeira community. In the event, he says attendance was almost at its maximum capacity under the health and sanitary conditions that had been introduced. An obvious update from around the conference and exhibition halls were the multiple groups of large electronic screens that replaced the normal poster display for the first time, “Basically, we have gone electronic,” says Mr Lane. “We had a lot of space taken up in congress halls through poster boards and people bringing tubes on planes with them. We started to test this in Berlin, and we have more than 460 at this event and people can access them on their phones, online and also on screens across the buildings here. “People can spend more time looking at the ones that they want to look at,” he adds. His interview can be found on our website, where he explains how EAS had to work with the local government in Madeira, whilst also outlining reasons why some events are valuable as in-person events and others are just as useful hosted online.

Inviting you to 2022

The presentation of the Poster Awards concluded the event. Both the Best Student Poster and Best Poster of the sessions were

evaluated and reviewed by the co-chairs Maria Teresa Dinis and Sachi Kaushik. The Best Student Poster Award went to Laura Ballesteros Redondo with co-authors Harry W Palm, Lukas Reiche and Adrian A Bischoff for their poster, ‘Apocylcops panamensis as live feed for Sander lucioperca larviculture’. The Best Poster Award went to Paulo Gavaia with Marisa Barata, Catarina Oliveira, Ana C. Mendes, Florbela Soares, Pedro Pousão and Elsa Cabrita, for their poster, ‘Skeletal Deformities in aquaculture-produced Greater Amberjack Seriola dumerili’. In closing the event, EAS President Herve Migaud thanked those who had made this an enjoyable and safe event, in recognition of the importance of being able to hold an in person event. He invited all in attendance to the next Aquaculture Europe event, to be held next in Rimini, Italy from September 27 – 30, 2022.

International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 51

Aquaculture Innovation Summit A shining example of the future of aquaculture The 2021 edition of the Aquaculture Innovation Summit, which ran online from 28-29 September, provided two days of stimulating panels and conversations. Focussing on the topics of innovation and sustainability within the aquaculture industry, the virtual event’s content frequently touched upon what the future of the industry would look like. By bringing together emerging aquaculture companies and innovators with financial investors, the event also stressed the importance of investment and getting start-ups off the ground.

Innovation Showcase

Designed to exhibit promising start-ups in their joint aims to make aquaculture a more sustainable, consistent protein source, six companies made it to the final of Aquaculture Innovation Summit 2021’s innovation showcase. Of these six, there were: Rachelle Jensen, from Luminis Water Technologies; Marcell Boaventura, from Molofeed AS; Andrew Eckhardt from Next Tuna; Giovanni Salerno from Sundew; Rishita Changede from TeOra Pte Ltd; and Evan Hall, from Wittaya Aqua. The judging committee comprised of Elisabeth Øvstebø, Tom Prins, Matthias Hofer, Sarai Kemp, Gerard Chia and Howard Tang. Opening the showcase was Rachelle Jensen, CEO of Luminis Water Technologies. The content of this presentation was mostly focused on the company’s work into utilising microbiome analytics for early disease detection. Focusing specifically on RAS, intensive and semi-intensive farms across Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia and Vietnam, the company uses advanced AI metagenomic analytics, to deliver their results from testing water via their customer portal. From there, they are able to make a variety of recommendations for the client on how to optimise their system. In the Q&A portion of her presentation, Ms Jensen explained that most of the company’s revenue would come from analytical capabilities, as opposed to products. Luminis Water Technologies have the support of Oxford nanopore, the only portable DNA sequencing company. Marcell Boaventura, the CEO of Molofeed AS followed, on the number of ‘smart’ feeds and solutions that the company offered. Recognising the threat that overuse of antibiotics and subsequent antibiotic resistance poses, he proposed that the solution to this is sustainable practice. In the case of vibriosis, which resulted in 44 billion losses in Asia between the years 2010 to 2016, the bacteria vibrio feeds off of the essential nutrients that escape fish feed when they are in the water. Therefore, by creating microcapsule feed that retains its essential nutrients, it preserves the water quality and reduces the proliferation of bacteria. Molofeed’s first product is being launched in October, in Brazil.

Creating a sustainable tuna industry

Andrew Eckhardt, co-founder of Next Tuna was third to present, on the company’s aim to create a sustainable tuna industry, focusing in particular on producing bluefin tuna in an RAS system. He acknowledged the difficulty of feeding, breeding, and other processes involved in farming tuna, which explained their reasons for wanting to farm tuna in a closed, controlled

environment such as an RAS system where the tuna could be monitored. Mr Eckhardt first outlined the five key innovations Next Tuna has at hand – with the first four being there to design a good breeding programme: scaling scientific reproduction and rearing protocols, implementing a breeding programme, applying the latest RAS system technology, developing protocol for infertile bluefin tuna, and developing a floating RAS system. Next Tuna are expecting full operation by 2028. Giovanni Salerno, CEO of Sundew, explained the company’s focus on treating aquatic pests and diseases. This was with the acknowledgement of existing traditional methods to manage waterborne parasites and invasive species, which is frequently with toxic chemicals. He then stated that the company believe that the solution is to come from modern biology, such as through microbial actives and fermentation, with its microbial actives product ‘Biokos’, designed to target ich, the parasitic white spot disease. In one of the studies conducted on their product, they infected two groups of goldfish with ich: the control group that were not treated with Biokos died within two weeks, but the treated group had a survival rate of 100 percent, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the product. Sundew has been active for almost two years and has raised EUR€3.1m (US$3.5m) which has enabled them to hire people and build their production facility. Next to present was Rishita Changede, founder of TeOra Pte Ltd, which is building sustainable solutions of food. Presenting the alarming figure of 30 percent of global food being lost to disease and costing US$300 billion, TeOra utilises advances in science to prevent these enormous losses and improve growth in a natural and sustainable manner. They have designed a protection molecule, grown in a micro-organisms factory, which are fermented, encapsulated, and included in the final product. They are also looking to tropical fish disease, to prevent food waste and losses caused by bacteria or viruses. For the aquaculture industry, TeOra has begun early product development, and expects to start this for agriculture from 2023. Delivering the final presentation, founder of Wittaya Evan Hall explained the company’s ambitions to champion precision aquaculture, which are to reduce the carbon footprint and improve conversion ratios across the industry by 20 percent. Owing to the complexity of the aquaculture industry, Mr Hall believes that this would be achieved by using a blend of software at their disposal.

Digitising the production cycle

The Aqua farm management platform, for example, is digitising the production cycle of aquaculture operations, and has the ability to provide project growth and feed requirements for over 30 species. It provides business intelligence for both aquafeed producers and companies, moving away from information written on paper, and towards data-driven decision making. Announced on the second and final day of the Aquaculture Innovation summit, was the winner of the innovation showcase – Luminis Water Technologies. In her presentation, Rachelle said the company needed about US$1m in funding, to last them eight months. The six companies that delivered information on the work and innovation they are currently doing, all demonstrate a combined effect to help resolve current issues within aquaculture – such as the carbon footprint, disease, food waste, revenue loss – and all exemplify the future of the industry, shaped by new innovation and technologies.

52 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

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Industry Events

AquaFuture Spain continues to expand its program of activities The international aquaculture fair AquaFuture Spain'22, taking place from March 23 - 25, 2021, at the Feira Internacional de Galicia ABANCA (Silleda, Pontevedra), continues to expand its program of activities to become an important forum for knowledge. The event’s agenda, which is divided over three spaces, is already made up of about twenty lectures, round tables and presentations of great interest. The first of these three spaces, the Magisterial Conferences area, includes the opening presentation on March 23, "Present and future of aquaculture innovation", and then closing on March 25, "Facing the challenges of the sector from the value chain in key to sustainability.”

Let's Talk About Aquaculture

The second of these spaces, Let's Talk About Aquaculture, will be a forum for dialogue and interaction between the agents of the value chain to jointly address the challenges of the sector. I t is made up of six round tables that will be broadcast and streamed internationally, which will address issues related to sustainability, cooperation, internationalisation, animal health and welfare, new ingredients, production and aquaculture 4.0.

Space for Professionals

The program will be completed with the Space for Professionals, in which presentations will be made by professionals in the sector who wish to make visible a product or service that they have put on the market or to publicise some new research. Although the program is not closed yet, there are already many companies that have confirmed their participation. On the first day of the fair there will be presentations by Hipra, a collaborating company of Aquafuture Spain, and also by Humeco & Imv Technologies, counting those of the latter with the titles "Ultrasound as a tool for reproductive monitoring in different species", "Optimising the quality of fish semen ”and“ Automated cryopreservation of semen for aquaculture.” On the second day of the contest, the presentations "Advances in the production of bivalve seed: Ecopemer Project", by the firm Acuinuga - Aquaculture and Nutrition of Galicia; “Water quality as a key factor in biosafety in aquaculture”, by OX-CTA; “Production, Nutrition and Health in the cultivation of Seriola dumerili”, by Dibaq Aquaculture; and also a presentation of the companies Tecnovit Farm Faes. "Anchoring engineering in aquaculture" by Aex-Roup is already scheduled for Friday.

AquaFuture, an opportunity

AquaFuture Spain'22 also continues to deliver promising work in its exhibition area, which already far exceeds one hundred companies from 18 countries found in Europe, Asia, Latin America, North America or South Africa. All of these companies welcome the launch of this fair, which will be the first aquaculture fair to take place in Spain since 2010. This is because the event presents a great opportunity for them to establish relationships with other companies in the sector, whilst also allowing them to raise awareness of their work and products. This emphasises the point that technical congresses are the best way to learn to interact in the sector and convinced that it will be a platform and meeting place for all aquaculture specialists in the world. Undoubtedly, AquaFuture Spain'22, which has the Morenot company as official sponsor and Hipra, Abanca, Acuiplús and Grupo JJChicolino as collaborators, will be a point of reference for professionals in the international aquaculture sector to learn about the latest technological innovations and strategies of the market, with all of this information delivered under the umbrella approach of sustainable resource management.

AQUACULTURE WITHOUT FRONTIERS Aquaculture without frontiers (AwF) is a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries

Taiwan's biggest international fishery trade show to be held in December The 7th Taiwan International Fisheries & Seafood Show (TIFSS) will be held in Taipei Nangang Exhibition Centre, Hall Two from December 2 to 4 this year. The TIFSS is co-organised by Taiwan External Trade Development Council (TAITRA), and My Exhibition CO. LTD. is the only international fishery trade show in Taiwan. Although the pandemic kept people apart, TIFSS 2020 still successfully attracted 90 exhibitors from 11 countries to join and recruited 5000 online and offline

buyers from over 10 countries. This year, TIFSS is anticipated to attract 180 exhibitors from more than 10 countries around the globe and 7000 domestic and foreign visitors from over 20 countries worldwide. Fishery companies from Latin America, Indonesia, and Malaysia have already signed up for the exhibition. In addition to the physical exhibition, the TIFSS 2021 will also launch a onemonth online exhibition that will run December 2-31, allowing visitors from

around the globe to reach professional exhibitors without the limitations of time or geographical borders. In hoping to build a comprehensive procurement platform for the fishery industry, TIFSS will include five themes this year: "Marine Intelligent Technology and Fisheries Equipment", "Smart Aquaculture & Fish Seeding Technology", "Seafood & Value-added Process" "Fishing Tackle & Water Equipment". They will once again organise the "International Forum for Marine Fish Farming Technology" during the exhibition.

54 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

Seagriculture 2021

enable the boom of the seaweed industry.

10th International Seaweed Conference is held successfully in online format by Caitlin Gittins, International Aquafeed & Fish Farming Technology Seagriculture 2021 successfully took place between 15-16 September with a rich array of presentations from companies showcasing their research and work in the growing seaweed sector. The conference, which took place virtually in light of Covid-19, saw more than 25 speakers from 11 countries participate in sharing their knowledge and experience of seaweed farming, and how it could be utilised to meet current challenges. These presentations were attended by over 180 participants, from 27 different countries. The conference was opened by Professor Klaas Timmermans, who remarked on his memory of the first Seagriculture conference and its contrast to Seagriculture 2021, in light of the progress made, with the seaweed sector rapidly growing. He asserted that there are still hurdles to overcome within the sector, in particular the scaling-up of seaweed cultivation, which remains an ongoing challenge. Presentation topics were wide ranging, but frequently touched upon how to make the aquaculture industry more sustainable, in order to ensure the survival of the industry, and to meet growing global demands for protein.

Financing a scalable seaweed business

Olavur Gregersen, cofounder of Ocean Rainforest, gave the first presentation by discussing viable avenues for seaweed businesses to scale up their production. Although the seaweed sector is rapidly growing and being recognised for its numerous benefits in carbon absorption, alternative feed, and so on, Mr Gregersen’s presentation recognised that scaling up for seaweed businesses, remains difficult. With an emphasis on gaining an idea of the market, a seaweed business looking to scale up might focus on pull marketing, as a growing industry not completely aware of its potential customers just yet. It is essential to build interest through marketing, to establish who will be early adaptors or innovator customers. There is also the need to concentrate on the scale of the business – whether this is for friends and family or for investors, the goal for the size of the business needs to be clearly outlined. The first challenge, however, is gaining access to the ocean, which remains a regulatory hurdle. The crucial role that regulation plays in allowing the seaweed sector to develop was acknowledged, with the hope that in coming years, regulators will act accordingly and

Seaweed for Europe: official launch of the Seaweed Farmers licensing toolkit

The farming of seaweed is often hindered by confusing regulation and the hurdles potential seaweed farmers face when obtaining a licence, frequently discouraging people from entering into seaweed farming. As Adrien Vincent from SystemIQ explains, based on a number of interviews they conducted, they were given a bigger picture of what respondents coined a ‘red tape nightmare’. In partnership with a number of organisations, SystemIQ created Seaweed for Europe, a coalition aiming to make economic systems sustainable. Seaweed for Europe offers a knowledge hub, designed to assist farmers in navigating the seaweed licensing procedures in Europe. The toolkit contains extensive information on a number of topics necessary for potential seaweed farmers to know. It is divided into three sections: the purpose of the toolkit, general considerations and learnings, and countryspecific licensing processes. Drawing on testimonials from successful seaweed farmers, they aim to inspire people to become more involved in seaweed aquaculture, alongside facilitating their entry into the sector. Their next aim is to strive to attract public and private investors into the seaweed space.

IMTA in the North of Norway

IMTA, or ‘integrated multi-trophic aquaculture’ as it is known, farms two or more organisms in the same space. Their cohabitation is mutually beneficial, as the by-products – such as fish waste – of one organism provides food for the other. This particular way of farming was presented by Torben Marstrand, from Folla Alger AS, as the focus of their project, Project Aurora. Although their idea is to develop an industrialised form of seaweed farming and seaweed based ingredients for fish feed, they are first testing the integrated production of seaweed and salmon, both to create a circular economy and new, sustainable feed ingredients. Their cooperation with Cermaq, one of the largest salmon farmers, allows them to do this. Sustainability becomes the focus, both for Folla Alger AS and Cermaq, as aquaculture food production needs to be sustainable if the industry is to continue to grow. Folla Alger AS hope to develop IMTA farming into a commercial operation, although this is not without challenges: large scale tests of integrated farming to document its impact, scaling up the industry, and evoking the interest of salmon farmers in seaweed farming, to name a few.

International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 55

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International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 57

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Market place members in this issue Ace Aquatec Ltd Adisseo (France) Aller Aqua (Denmark) Alltech (Ireland) Almex Andritz (Denmark) Anpario plc Aqua Ultraviolet AVANTRON MICRO CO., LTD Biomin Holding GmbH (Austria) Delacon Biotechnik GmbH DIBAQ DIPROTEG, S.A. Dinnissen Evonik Degussa (Germany) Faivre FAMSUN Co., Ltd Fibras Industriales S.A. Fish Farm Feeder GePro ICC (Brazil) Inteqnion Jiangsu ZhengChang Kaeser Kompressoren SE Leiber Lipidos Toledo S.A. ( Liptosa ) Orffa Additives B.V. Ottevanger PTN Phibro Animal Health Ltd. Phileo (France) TSC The Packaging Group GmbH Van Aarsen International B.V. VNU Exhibitions Europe Wenger Manufacturing, Inc World Aquaculture Society (WAS) Yemmak

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the interview Dr Sergio Nates, Executive Vice President of Prairie Aquatech, USA Dr Sergio Nates started his career in Aquaculture when he joined Cartagenera de Acuacultura, Colombia, after completing a BSc in Marine Biology in 1985. The next eight years were spent working in different aquaculture operations. In 1996, he then went on to complete a PhD in Environmental Biology at the University of Louisiana in Lafayette, LA, USA. He was then awarded a National Science Foundation post-doctoral fellowship to work at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) NHEERL lab in Gulf Breeze, Florida in 1997. In 2000, he joined Zeigler Bros Inc as Research Director and later was promoted to the position of Vice President of Research and Technology. In 2005, he was appointed President of the Fats and Proteins Research Foundation in Washington DC, USA. Over the last 25 years of his career, Dr Nates has specialised in assisting the development of responsible fishing and aquaculture practices. He has developed and implemented comprehensive management and research programs worldwide, including new product development, ingredient value models, formulation standards, and quality assurance programs. He was also a member of the Board of Directors of the Global Aquaculture Alliance for over 15 years. The author of several book chapters and more than 100 publications, Dr Nates is the current Editor of “Aquafeed Formulation” and the Executive Vice President of Prairie Aquatech.

How did you become the Executive Vice-President of Prairie Aquatech, did your career automatically lead you to this role or did you have to make a deliberate choice?

I met our CEO, Mark Luecke at a coffee shop in Brookings, South Dakota, and was initially asked to put together a business plan to market ME-PRO into the aquaculture industry. I was offered the chance to lead the sales, marketing, and R&D efforts within Prairie Aquatech, an opportunity that was impossible to decline. My hands-on expertise in aquaculture, graduate studies, research and new product development knowhow, executive proficiency, and without a doubt the friends and network that I built over the years are the reasons why I believe I have my current role. Seeing a start-up company grow the way we have over the past two years and having the opportunity to expand our technology and presence worldwide is a challenge that I look forward to being a part of.

Is Latin American aquaculture in good health and growing, and if so, what has bought this about?

The access to new markets has driven the growth of the LA aquaculture industry. The adoption of new production technologies and practices, including improved genetics, “better” feed, and changes in production systems toward more intensive crop-systems has fostered production efficiency gains across all aquaculture species in the LA region.

What are the challenges facing Latin American aquaculture?

Sustainable production, traceability, price of raw materials and finished goods, market accessibility and government support are some of the major challenges faced by LA aquaculture. The central limitations to the continued growth of the aquaculture industry are lagging production efficiency, and the availability and incentives to adopt technologies, management techniques, and disease outbreaks.

What are the challenges that your company faces, given the restrictions due to Covid-19?

Growing market competition will continue to press prices down and the industry will be forced into a permanent process to improve competitiveness. At Prairie we see this as an opportunity, as we can support the application of good management practices across the production and distribution feed and food chains. Feed demand will remain dynamic and uncertain. Our biggest challenge has been how to minimise the logistics cost. This is in essence the combination of transportation and inventory costs, subject to demand satisfaction, inventory,

transportation and production constraints. As a team we work diligently to produce a consistent product and to have an exceptional service delivery.

Your company is highly focused on plant-based proteins and nutrition for all aquatic species. What has brought about this specific development into alternative nutritional ingredients to traditional raw materials?

The demand for plant-based protein alternatives that are sustainable and complete has been growing over the past two decades. The development of our proprietary fermentation technology offers aquaculture and feed producers a novel approach that supports the enhancement of functional properties in traditional plant-proteins hence cost control associated with increased high productivity and yields. The opportunity that we have is to “engineer” novel plantbased ingredients that are competitive in their nutritional composition and cost-effective when included in feed rations.

As our industry begins to focus on more sustainable ingredient sources, can these alternatives be justified on an economic basis or will consumers be expected to pay more for their aqua foodstuffs?

A long time ago I learned from a wise man that “good feeds come from good ingredients.” Over the years I learned that feeds drive the management and outcome of the production systems regardless of the geographic location, species, stocking density and type: from semi-open or recirculating ponds to open net cages, RAS, bio-floc, etc. From pellet stability to nutrient assimilation, feed ingredients will play a major role in driving the growth of the aquaculture industry. The successful stories in the fish and shrimp industries have in large part been driven by “good” feeds (management plays a significant role), even more so today when the focus has been placed on sustainable and traceable ingredients. We are in a “new” world of certification programs, transparency, artificial intelligence, robotics, functional ingredients and nutritional benefits. It will be challenging not to expect to pay more for aqua foodstuffs in the near future. At the end of the day, it is all about cost efficiencies and ROI (return on investment).

What in your view is the longer-term goals of aquatic industries when addressing protein food supplies?

Most aquaculture species are far more efficient feeders than land-based livestock; aquaculture production also generates fewer carbon emissions and utilizes less fresh water and arable land per pound of production than their land-based counterparts. These efficiencies are particularly important not only to address

60 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

the unprecedented stresses on food supply chains but also food security. The question remains if we can take advantage of how much water exists to produce “protein food” and if we can do it in a way that we can preserve the quality of the surrounding environment. We can’t forget that global climate change, which is impacting metabolic rates of all species, photosynthesis, water physicochemical parameters, etc. will drive the food production systems and how we approach the production of foods in general.

Do you see consumers coming to rely more on fish and other aquatic foodstuffs in their normal diets?

It is well known that protein consumption is directly tied to health and the demand for animal protein will rise significantly as more of the world increases wealth over the coming decades. Without a doubt, the shift towards proteins produced in a more sustainable way that will support the production of foodstuffs and the growing demand for seafood.

We expect the world’s population to grow to over nine billion by 2050. How will aquaculture rank against other land-based food animals when it comes to the supply of plant-based proteins and nutrients in their diets?

Cereals and other vegetal sources dominate the major portion of dietary protein intake globally. On the other hand, plant-derived alternatives to meat are being developed with many products already on the market including fishless fish products. The increased consumption of plant-based proteins will be driven by economic and sensory factors, environmental, and social issues.

International Aquafeed - November 2021 | 61

THE INDUSTRY FACES Ace Aquatec appoints its first chief financial officer


ce Aquatec announces the appointment of Duncan Montgomery as its first Chief Financial Officer (CFO). Mr Montgomery brings a wealth of experience to the company, having previously held senior management positions over 17 years, including most recently as Finance Director at Audley Travel. “Ace Aquatec has a strong reputation as disruptors and innovators in the aquaculture and technology sector,” says Duncan Montgomery, CFO at Ace Aquatec.

Duncan Montgomery

“I’m looking forward to working alongside the team to continue and manage the rapid growth that Ace is experiencing,” adds Mr Montgomery. “I am delighted to welcome Duncan to our team at such an exciting time for the business,” says Nathan Pyne-Carter, CEO at Ace Aquatec. “Duncan brings great experience of operating in senior financial management positions within growing and successful businesses and leading high performing finance teams,” he concludes.

Calysta announces appointment of new CFO


lternative protein producers Claysto are proud to announce the appointment of Keysha Bailey as their new Chief Financial Officer (CFO).

With over 20 years of strategic financial and operational leadership in both the public and private sectors. As part of the Executive team, Ms Bailey will play an integral role in the company’s global growth and commercialisation, ahead of the delivery of the company’s new production facility being developed in China. “

Keysha Bailey

I’m delighted to be joining Calysta as the company begins a significant new chapter in its history,” comments Ms Bailey. “Keysha joins us at a very exciting time in our development, with the Calysseo facility in China expected to start operation next year,” says Alan Shaw, the company’s President, CEO and Founder. “Keysha will be an invaluable asset to Calysta as it gears up the commercial launch of FeedKind,” he adds.

Aquaculture pioneer steps down as CEO for Cermaq


eir Molvik hands over the baton as CEO of Cermaq Group as he wishes Cermaq well and seeks to prioritise his time differently going forward. Mr Molvik will continue leading the company until the current Managing Director of Cermaq Chile, Steven Rafferty, takes over as CEO from March next year.

Geir Molvik

As CEO, Mr Molvik has been concerned with improving operations in all parts of the value chain. In addition, he has positioned Cermaq to be a driving force in international cooperation on climate action and environmental performance in aquaculture. “Geir has done a great job in developing aquaculture in Norway and internationally. We are very pleased with the job he has done and wish to thank him for the development of Cermaq and the solid results during his period,” says Yasuhiro Kawakami, Chairman of Cermaq Group.

Biomar appoints experienced aquaculture profile for Vietnam


ioMar has appointed Franck Bodin as Managing Director for the new BioMar Viet Uc feed business unit in Vietnam. Franck Bodin is a well-known profile in the Vietnamese aquaculture industry being the founder of the aquafeed company Tomboy, which was later acquired by Skretting. “I am truly happy to welcome Franck Bodin to BioMar. We have an ambitious growth strategy for our joint venture together with Viet Uc Group, and I believe Franck will be highly valuable for the business,” states François Loubere VP ASIA Division, BioMar Group.

Franck Bodin

“As we lead a global company through the pandemic period, it is crucial having highly skilled people who possess strong local market knowledge on the ground where we are doing business. Franck bringing more than two decades of aquaculture experience leading and developing aquafeed businesses in Asia,” Mr Loubere concludes.

62 | November 2021 - International Aquafeed

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