NOV 2019 - International Aquafeed magazine

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Fish-free omega-3 source

Veramaris wins F3 Challenge, named world’s best-selling “fish-free” omega-3 source for aquaculture

International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 10 - November 2019

- Twin screw extrusion - Effects of amino acid complexed trace minerals in commercial sea bass diets - R&D applications for aquafeed extrudates - SUPRA® meets Muketsu netting - Quiet, efficient thrusters make a big splash in aquaculture

See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

- EXPERT TOPIC: Lobster Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

November 2019

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Innovation was the key word at Aquaculture Europe 2019. This month’s issue features our full report on the show, which has established itself as a pivotal event in the yearly aquaculture calendar. Sponsored by the European Aquaculture Society (EAS), the show ran from September 29th through to October 2nd and was held in the Estrel Hotel and Conference Centre, Berlin, Germany.

as drum filters, and UV systems, all the way to companies who design, manufacture, and deliver turnkey RAS systems. The diversity of attending companies represented a vigorous industry that is still rapidly growing, developing and innovating. Our Features Editor, Rebecca Sherratt attended the Woman in Aquaculture Forum and writes about it in her event report featured in this issue. I sat in on many of the presentations in then AE2019 Innovation As a reflection of aquaculture’s continuing Forum. The forum provided a platform for growth, 2019 broke some old records, with aquaculture technology innovators seeking to 2700 attendees (including 328 students) from all Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed attract investment capitol. over the world. In addition to 150 booths in the Some notable examples included Arbiom, a trade show, there was a full conference program French company who has pioneered a unique running concurrently, with 1,039 abstracts being method of generating protein from waste wood products, such as presented in conference rooms scattered around the Estrel’s spacious sawdust. Also interesting was a Greek company that offered an IT facility. solution that covers all aspects of fish farming. Next a Portuguese The show also offered 114 tours to local fish farms. The event, company described its success in raising meagre in large RAS which took place this year in Berlin, pushed the profile of world systems. aquaculture even higher with 130 exhibitors from a record-breaking US-based Symbrosia spoke about its amazing results in reducing 85 countries. greenhouse gas emissions in ruminants by adding seaweed microalga The opening plenary sessions of AE2019 included a view on ‘The (produced using the company’s patented process) as a supplement to Environment and Fish Health’ by Professor Charles R Tyler of the cattle feed. The supplement reduces methane production while at the University of Exeter, UK. Professor Tyler’s talk explained how fish same time increasing milk yield and boosting animal health. are excellent barometers of aquatic ecosystem health and declines The President’s dinner was the social highlight of the event and in both their diversity and abundance globally is a major cause for featured traditional German cuisine such as bratwurst, sauerkraut, concern, not least because of their fundamental roles in ecosystem and pretzels. Entertainment was provided by a traditional Bavarian function and as a source for food. band and lots of good German beer. Thank you, Berlin, and until The AE2019 Special Sessions were targeted towards aquaculture next time, auf Wiedersehen! producers and suppliers, and included sessions on marine litter, If you were one of the companies speaking at the Innovation parasite management, nutrition and breeding innovations, shrimp Forum we would especially love to help promote your endeavour by production and aquaculture in Central and Eastern Europe. featuring an article on your innovative technology in the pages of our The International Aquafeed editorial team toured the many booths magazine. Please feel free to contact me with details of your project: in the show hall, which comprised a wide array of companies ranging from feed specialists to fish farm technology suppliers such


AMINO ACID: Effects of amino acid complexed trace minerals in commercial sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) diets: - page 18


NETTING: When SUPRA® meets Muketsu netting - page 32


Aquaculture round-up

OMEGA 3: Veramaris wins F3 Challenge, named world’s best-selling “fish-free” omega-3 source for aquaculture - page 28

EXPERT TOPIC: Lobster - page 40

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Last month International Aquafeed attended Aquaculture Europe in Berlin, Germany and were pleased to have discovered some truly innovative technologies for the fish farming sector (see the full report in this issue of International Aquafeed).

from water management, logistics and camera systems for checking the health of your fish. It also became clear, while exploring the various stands at Aquaculture Berlin, that RAS systems are continuing to only become more and more refined. RAS systems that were especially impressive included AquaCare’s Mixed-Cell Raceway Attending events such as these makes Rebecca Sherratt (or MxCell for short), which combines it abundantly clear that aquaculture is a Features Editor, International Aquafeed features from both circular RAS systems sector that is only continuing to thrive and linear raceways into one cohesive and evolve at an unprecedented pace and production solution, proven to improve both water quality and will soon grow to become an even more integral part of the food fish health. production industry. Choosing which innovative companies to Landing Aquaculture also offered a variety of solutions for the discuss in our recent report and Technology Showcase this month RAS sector, producing RAS systems specifically designed for -which is also an Aquaculture Europe special- was definitely a certain marine species to flourish such as pikeperch, sea urchins tricky job! and shrimp, to name a few. With smartphones being an essential tool in people’s everyday With so many solutions readily available on the market, the lives, one technology that really stood out to me at Aquaculture International Aquafeed team look forward to covering more of Europe was the amount of systems designed to integrate these exciting new technologies in our many issues to come. In seamlessly with your smartphone or tablet, for convenience and this issue, we have some great stories about aquatic netting and ease of use. Companies such as MonitorFish, AquaManager and thrusters that are proving very popular within the sector- we hope PyroScience were all advertising their solutions that integrate you enjoy! with a user’s existing technology for a variety of utilities ranging

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NUTRITION & HEALTH As I write this from central England I am presently based at my University, Harper Adams working on several projects and various duties connected with teaching. It is always delightful to introduce young undergraduate students to aquaculture and in their final year.

composed of roughly two thirds coursework and one third project. This format is quite established and may now be a tired approach in the modern era. The concept of distance learning is making much impact and I am very keen on developing this type of platform. Working with specialist educational organisations in Professor Simon Davies Europe on on-line delivery systems, I contribute to a module that is called Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed we are constructing a more flexible Advances in Animal Production Science programme to launch in the new that addresses novel areas of scientific applications such as in genetics, breeding, health and nutrition decade. We envisage a new sustainable aquaculture Masters’ degree befitting the modern student and one that can allow a covering many species but mainly land animals such as dairy, work or home-based study mode of learning. beef, pigs and poultry. Only master’s courses that can register some 20-25 students Students are amazed when I speak on fish and shrimp with may be deemed economic given student/staff ratios but a clear interest in the biosciences underpinning aquaculture. consistent single numbers of students such as nine or below I have included several guest speakers in my slot that falls in will struggle. If we are going to maintain opportunities January 2020 for an early start. Indeed I am awaiting to grade for postgraduate specialisations in aquaculture and for the their assignment and this is a choice between writing on GM growing aquatic feed sector, we need radical re-thinking and salmon (always of topical interest) or a wider essay on the more industry support including sponsorships and internships. scientific research being applied to produce more sustainable This magazine is indeed a real asset in teaching and so many fish or shrimp with sub-topics that include RAS technology, enthusiastic students of fisheries science and aquaculture have deep water aquaculture and engineering. Obviously fish commented on its value and quality with respect to layout nutrition and feed technology with much focus on fish and and content. I am seeing many of our features being cited crustacean health will be included by many. even in peer-reviewed scientific journals. This augers well for I also have four master’s by Research (MRes) students. the future of journalism and dissemination of information to They have completed all their theory modules and are now meet educational needs both vocational and at further/ higher advancing onto their six-month research projects to be academic levels. completed by August 2020. In the UK, we also have a system Turning to this issue, I am very pleased to see that the main where we can undertake a masters by full attendance over special species topic is the European spiny lobster (Palinurus a one-year period with a much shorter project, however, elephas) with an article by Dr David Fletcher based in North this may not suit everyone. These typical taught masters are Wales. David and I have a very long standing friendship going back decades. His work on rearing these iconic and high value crustaceans is ground-breaking and optimum nutrition will play a major factor in their success. This month’s edition will be the penultimate for 2019 and contains all our regular nutrition and health related articles. This year has seen our magazine circulated at major international events and translated to a wider audience in many countries. Finally, I am preparing to visit Mexico this month to attend of the aquatic nutrition conference in Merida in Yucatan. From there I will fly to Costa Rica to participate at LACQUA19, the 2019 Annual Meeting of the Latin American & Caribbean Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society. I look forward to meeting many old friends and many new acquaintances as we all gather together at these large venues. All the while I will be accompanied with my colleague and friend Dr Kurt Servin. This month marks my third of a century in aquaculture nutrition research and teaching. It will be very nice to celebrate in Mexico and the Caribbean under much warmer weather and at the ocean-side thinking about all the milestones of the last 33 and 1/3rd years.

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle

November 2019 Volume 22 Issue 11



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies Rebecca Sherratt International Marketing Team Darren Parris William Dowds Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 Asia Marketing Team Dante Fenf Tel: +886 0227930286 Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 Design Manager James Taylor


38 Technology showcase

40 EXPERT TOPIC - Lobster 44 Industry Events 58 The Market Place 60 The Aquafeed Interview 62

Production Manager Martyna Nobis Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy Communication Manager Pablo Porcel ©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at ISSN 1464-0058

Industry News

Industry Faces


Dr Neil Auchterlonie

10 Antonio Garza de Yta 14 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 16 A new derivative of Aliphos feed phosphates

18 Effects of amino acid complexed trace minerals in commercial sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) diets 22 Twin screw extrusion

24 R&D applications for aquafeed extrudates

28 Fish-free Omega-3 source: Veramaris wins F3 Challenge, named world’s best-selling “fish-free” omega-3 source for aquaculture

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 32 When SUPRA® meets Muketsu netting

THE BIG PICTURE A big advantage of Raschel netting is the fact that the nature of the knitting leads to lineal ruptures thus making it much easier to repair. Also, some farmers claim that knotted (twisted or braided) netting can damage the fish skin when it rubs with the knots. See more on page 32

36 A moving performance: Quiet, efficient thrusters make a big splash in aquaculture

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Dr Neil Auchterlonie The fishmeal industry at large

he readers of International Aquafeed may be reliably well-informed, but sadly, it appears that some basic misunderstandings abound in some quarters about how the fishmeal industry operates, why fishmeal and fish oil (FMFO) are fundamental to aquafeed and hence aquaculture production, how certification in the sector operates, and why the use of raw material for FMFO is a good thing for global society. The quote, apparently attributable to Mark Twain, of “never let the truth get in the way of a good story” comes to mind when reading the outputs from some campaigns. The fishmeal industry has a long history of working with others relating to issues of raw material sourcing, and FMFO production. The development of the IFFO Responsible Supply standard (IFFO RS) is, in itself, an excellent case study of a multistakeholder approach to the development of certification. It was based on the concept of collaboration. The resulting efficient application of a global standard that has supported responsible sourcing of marine ingredients for a decade has, without doubt, had beneficial effects on fisheries and marine ecosystems around the world. The development of the standard was through the efforts of many knowledgeable and dedicated people across the value-chain, as well as the NGO community and other seafood certification bodies. Some other misunderstandings occur with an unfortunately reliable frequency. These misunderstandings generally relate to three different areas, namely the use of fish as raw material for FMFO; the use of fishmeal and fish oil in feeds; and notions that the fishmeal industry is somehow emptying the oceans of fish. Those criticisms ignore the facts. Markets determine the destination of the fish, whether into fishmeal or fish as food (food markets take fish suitable for direct human consumption as they pay more for the raw material). Fishmeal and fish oil provide essential nutrition not found in other ingredients as a single package (feeds may be made without these materials, but the formulations call for higher levels of supplementations of individual nutrients, such as for example essential amino acids). The vast majority of fisheries supplying the raw material for FMFO are regulated, and those regulations include the setting of quotas which are enforced by national governments, which along with other controls effectively manage fishery stocks often within the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). If ever there was an important time to look at the production of proteins across the globe with a scientific, technical and objective viewpoint, rather than an emotional argument, it is now. Social media is at the heart of the communication of many of these misunderstandings, and it is essential that those in seafood value-chains communicate the facts, clearly and reliably, about how food systems operate in reality. In the last monthly column, we highlighted the importance of nutritional links to health, and it is not too strong to say that, ultimately, inaccurate reporting of the facts may have impacts that go well beyond influencing mere food choices and protein consumption. Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 8 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

BioMar accelerates next generation of feed solutions for RAS


uilding upon decades of research within feed for recirculation, BioMar has now chosen to increase focus on feed solutions for this segment. BioMar states that land-based farming can improve efficiency and operational stability using even more advanced feed solutions. “RAS for land-based salmon farming is an emerging segment within the aquaculture industry, and there is still a potential to be realised. The highly advanced technologies being used require highly advanced feed solutions and farming practices to enable a strong performance”, states Carlos Diaz, CEO of BioMar Group. “We will very soon present new products to the market. In order to create a sustainable food future, we need together as an industry to enable a doubling of our production capacity without increasing pressure on the environment, wild fish and agriculture. That is a challenge, we need to address together”, concluded Mr Diaz.

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Geelen Counterflow engage in climate neutral shipping

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Antonio Garza de Yta Let ’s start building bridges together!

ur mind processes information based on the experiences we have lived, the data we have absorbed, the references we know. The less we are exposed to stress and radical changes, and the more we find ourselves within our comfort zone, the less will we be able to imagine a world different from the one we live in and innovate. If we don’t study, if we don’t travel, if we don’t absorb new knowledge, we will always try to maintain the status quo and then our minds will stagnate. I was recently asked why aquaculture is no longer growing at the same rate as before, and in reality, it is because in large part we have been relatively successful and have slowed down in innovating. We can see this in some universities, some of great popularity, where the parents of modern aquaculture, who moved by passion, who travelled all over the world inventing ways to grow new species, have retired and have been replaced by people who see aquaculture as a job, and who dedicate themselves to it without actually having been exposed to the world where it develops. Many scientists who “devote” themselves to aquaculture, or at least they consider it that way, have never lived a full crop cycle, have not struggled with a pond that runs out of oxygen, with a sudden illness, with an electrical failure, with the irresponsibility of an employee, or with the fall in market prices. They have not worked closely with producers to feel their needs and make them their own, they do not feel the passion and commitment that inspired their predecessors. Another comment that emerges recently is that we have a large number of events that are could also bring more innovations and crucial discussions to the industry. In this I do not agree, on the one hand, it is true that in most cases the participants to events do not acquire much knowledge outside of what they already share with their environment, but on the other hand the congresses, workshops, seminars and meetings are the better way to exchange experiences with our peers, to establish alliances, to expose our minds to new horizons. It is in these events that we can feed the engine of innovation. There are innovations in certain species that can be applied to others. Cryogenisation of sperm for salmon can serve as an example for blue catfish. The mechanisation of mussel crops in Europe served as an inspiration for the standardizsation of processes in Australia. The technology of open water aquaculture cages is a success for growing organisms in large indoor bodies of water. Recently I heard that some industry members want to “deagriculturise” fishing, and I think this could prove very successful, but on the other hand aquaculture has much to learn from the zootechnics of other species. The future of shrimp and tilapia is increasingly like the intensive cultivation of pigs or chickens. We have to imagine a modern and technified aquaculture and think of our aquaculturists as microentrepreneurs and not as cheap labour. Aquaculture should not be seen only as a way of employing people who no longer have a place in an increasingly degraded fishing environment. Many of us have fallen into a comfort zone where we get used to a way of working and we become anxious. In fact, there were already too many people living from doing aquaculture projects that were never carried out or were inoperative. Today, now that the rules have changed, we have the opportunity to reinvent ourselves, but above all to innovate. If we succeed, I predict that we will live a new phase of growth and expansion of the activity. Innovation has always been the great engine of aquaculture ... today it is time for it to be again. Antonio Garza de Yta, Ph.D in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture Global Consulting, Director World Aquaculture Society and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is currently Rector, Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas Bicentenario.

10 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

eelen Counterflow and the GoodShipping Program have signed a three year contract that ensures that all of Geelen Counterflow’s container ocean freight to customers around the world will be climate neutral through the use of sustainable biofuels for container ships. Geelen Counterflow is a supplier of dryers and coolers for the feed and food industry. The company ships around 300 containersper-year to customers in Africa, Asia, Latin America and North America. This requires around 75 metric tonnes of fossil marine fuel and causes approximately 250 tonnes of CO2 emissions. By joining forces with GoodShipping, Geelen Counterflow ensures that their annual ocean freight volume is decarbonised through the usage of sustainable biofuels. On Geelen’s behalf, GoodShipping facilitates a fuel switch and substitutes the corresponding fossil fuel volume with these sustainable biofuels. This way GoodShipping can certify that all equipment that Geelen Counterflow ships by containers to customers worldwide, is done with net zero emissions of CO2. The sustainable biofuels are supplied by GoodFuels Marine and are waste and residue based. GoodFuels’ external and independent sustainability board makes sure these fuels meet the highest sustainability criteria. This means that the products GoodFuels supply do not cause deforestation or biodiversity loss. Geelen Counterflow does not charge the costs for this fuel switch to its customers. Instead it pays for these costs from its sustainability budget which results from the application of an internal CO2 price of € 100 per ton of CO2 emissions. This internal carbon price is virtually charged to all activities that cause Geelen Counterflow to emit CO2. Sander Geelen, Managing Director of Geelen Counterflow commented, “The biggest challenge we face is to avoid global warming over 1.5 ℃ above pre-industrial temperatures. For us that means phasing out fossil fuels from our own processes as soon as possible. “However, the biggest impact we can have is to continue developing and installing dryers and coolers that run on renewable energy. Shipping these dryers and coolers around the world without causing carbon emissions is a challenge that GoodShipping will help us solve.”

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arlier this month, representatives from Novus International, Inc, both presented and received awards during the annual Saint Louis University (SLU) International Business Awards ceremony in Missouri, USA. The event, held on 3rd October, awarded scholarships to select students in the Boeing Institute of International Business (BIIB). Each of the students have undergraduate studies in international business, exhibit academic achievements and are active in service and extracurricular activities. In total seven students were recognised. Novus President and CEO François Fraudeau presented the Novus Global Scholar award to Marissa Oxendine who is in her third year at SLU. The international animal health and nutrition company began awarding the scholarship to SLU students in 2011 to support young people who intend to take their careers across countries and continents. “Novus has more than 700 employees doing business in over 90 countries to

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Novus supports program recognising academic achievement at SLU International Business Awards ceremony

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bring our solutions to the animal agriculture industry,” Mr Fraudeau said. “We recognise the importance of locally supporting the next generation who in our Image 1: Novus International’s President and CEO François global economy will need to Fraudeau presents the Novus Global Scholar award to Saint Louis University student Marissa Oxendine during the University’s understand now more than International Business Awards ceremony Image 2: Jeff Klopfenstein, Novus International’s Methionine ever the complexities of Business Unit president (back row on left) was awarded the international business.” Consanguinity Insignia Award during the event The ceremony also of the Boeing Institute of International recognised the achievements of four Business. “It is companies like Novus global business leaders in the St. Louis International and business leaders region for their positive impact “within like Francois and Jeff that allow us to the worldwide scope of business and offer scholarships, academic tools and leadership.” employment opportunities for students Jeff Klopfenstein, Novus’s President of majoring in international business at the Methionine Business Unit, received the Consanguinity Insignia Award, which Saint Louis University.” According to the University, the Boeing is presented to ‘distinguished individuals Institute of International Business at Saint who share a connection and a common Louis University’s Richard A. Chaifetz vision with leadership of the global School of Business was founded in 1984 to business community.’ offer a breadth of global business resources “We have been lucky to partner with for students and alumni, as well as the Novus on our international business business community, faculty, government academic and corporate outreach and professional organisations. programs,” said Dr Hadi Alhorr, Director

HATCH publishes comprehensive data set on shrimp aquaculture technology


ATCH, an aquaculture technology investment firm has completed one of the most comprehensive data sets on shrimp farming technology to date and is now making it available to the public. Among all species farmed in aquaculture in 2017, farmed whiteleg shrimp made up the highest production value worth US $26.7 billion, $10 billion more than the farm value of Atlantic Salmon (FAO, June 2019). Farmed across 36 countries, many shrimp farmers face a variety of production challenges. While they are innovative in solving their own problems, many remain unsolved. To fast track production efficiency, productivity and sustainability, HATCH’s mission is to help farmers overcome these challenges through the support of innovative entrepreneurs. “We understand there are a vast variety of farming methods and challenges; entrepreneurs often lack the access to remote operations during solution development. To better produce compatible solutions, this year we bridge the knowledge gap for entrepreneurs”, commented HATCH. In January 2019 Dylan Howell, Georg Baunach and Moritz Mueller from the HATCH team initiated a major study to assess and compare technology and innovation opportunities on shrimp grow-out farms in the top six producing countries. They interviewed 81 shrimp farmers over 10 on-farm technology areas with the objective to determine where and how

entrepreneurs can focus their energy during development. The ten technology areas covered were infrastructure, operational management and communication, power supply and control, water logistics, aeration, feed management and administration, water quality and health monitoring, growth monitoring, harvesting techniques, and biosecurity measures. By comparing how these technologies differ between the six regions, this study offers valuable insight and potentially leads to the development of better products, services, and business models for entrepreneurs. The information presented should present significant valuable to investors and farmers in all regions across the world. HATCH expressed their gratitude towards the Walton Family Foundation for their support, without which this project would not have been possible, as well as all farmers and individuals who participated in this survey and its preparation.

International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 11

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Famsun commits to collaborating for a better feed future he International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) held their 2019 Annual Meeting at FAO Headquarters in Rome, Italy from 3-4th October, 2019. The meeting was officially opened by Dr Berhe G Tekola, Director of the FAO Animal Production & Health Division and Dr Daniel Bercovici, IFIF Chairman, who welcomed delegates and reiterated their commitment to this longstanding partnership and agreed to continue to strengthen their work together to tackle the challenges facing the feed and food chain. Representatives from FAO, IFIF and IFIF members AFIA (America), AFMA (South Africa), ANAC (Canada), ANDI (Colombia), FeedLatina, FEFAC (Europe), IFIA (Iran), JFMA (Japan), SFMCA (Australia), SINDIRAÇÕES (Brazil), as well as intergovernmental organisations and private operators in the feed and food chain such as Cargill, Nutreco, Alltech, Agrifirm, etc participated the meeting. Attendees discussed critical issues on regulatory and international standards for residues of approved veterinary

drug to ensure feed safety; sustainability challenges; education, training and capacity development; and antimicrobial resistance. Famsun was the only feed mill equipment and processing solution supplier that participated in the meeting. As one of the thriving forces behind China’s local feed industry as well as global feed and food supply chain, it has promoted feed production in over 140 countries. According to Steven Shi, Famsun representative and the General Manager of Famsun Europe, the company has been in charge of setting 27 feed industrial standards in China, and it is dedicated to delivering latest international feed safety regulations and spreading good feed manufacturing practices to everywhere it doing business. The two day meeting also allowed Famsun to learn the latest market data, well understand the demand of feed companies, and the urgency of feed and food supply chain to integrate resources to address challenges in the future. “To feed a population of 10 billion in 2050 is a big challenge, we need to address together,” said Mr Shi. “We all have a responsibility for adding resources and increasing collaboration.”

Future proofing your aqua feed production starts with co-creating the perfect fit. Let’s build or upgrade your aqua feed mill

All great ideas start with a dialogue. What’s your ambition? We at van Aarsen believe that sharing know-how and co-creation are essential in finding the perfect fit. Whether you are looking to modernize or expand your aqua feed production, want to replace aging machinery with future-proof innovations, or need advice in the planning and setup of a completely new aqua feed mill, Van Aarsen is the knowledge partner for you.

International 2019-06, Adv. Aqua feed Mill _fish-shrimp_IAF_IndoLivestock_190x132 .indd 1

Aquafeed - November 2019 | 13

27-6-2019 9:29:26

Dr Thierry Chopin Investing in nature-based actions and seaweed farming: One of the five opportunities to make the Ocean part of the solution to climate change


n my October column, I reported that we (19 researchers and policy analysts) published the report, The Ocean as a Solution to Climate Change: Five Opportunities for Action, for the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy (HLPSOE). It was endorsed by its 14 serving head of state and government members at the United Nations Secretary-General’s Climate Action Summit in New York, on September 23rd, 2019. Against the backdrop of the speech of Greta Thunberg, the rather bleak picture of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on the Ocean and the Cryosphere, and the never ending Trump saga at the UN and domestically, it was not easy to position our more optimistic report. We believe that, through five opportunities for action, the Ocean could be a substantial solution to climate change. It could deliver up to 21 percent (11.82 GtCO2e/ year) of the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cuts needed by 2050 to keep global temperature rises below 1.5°C. In this column, I will develop one of the opportunities for action that should be of interest to the readers of International Aquafeed and the aquaculture sector.

Investing in nature-based climate solutions

Conserving and restoring coastal and marine ecosystems, including mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds and wild seaweed beds, as well as developing seaweed aquaculture, should have significant mitigation impacts. Mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass beds are highly productive vegetated coastal ecosystems, which are referred to as “blue carbon” ecosystems, analogous to “green carbon” ecosystems on land. They are hotspots for carbon storage, with Table 1: Estimates of mitigation potential from blue carbon ecosystems and seaweed farming Mitigation option Conservation/protection



Mitigation potential by 2050 (GtCO2e/year)



Salt marshes




Wild seaweed beds




Salt marshes




Wild seaweed beds Mitigation potential from blue ecosystems Expansion of seaweed farming Total mitigation potential

? 0.45-1.09

Seaweed aquaculture

0.05-0.29 0.50-1.38

soil carbon sequestration rates per hectare up to 10 times larger than those of terrestrial ecosystems. Most of their carbon (5090%) is stored within the soil where saltwater inundation slows decomposition of organic matter, leading to the accumulation of extensive soil carbon stocks. When these ecosystems are degraded and converted, carbon in their biomass and soils, which may have accumulated over hundreds or thousands of years, is oxidised and emitted back to the atmosphere in a matter of decades. Thus, protection of blue carbon ecosystems offers an efficient pathway to avoid CO2 emissions, particularly for nations with large areas of coastal vegetation and high rates of loss. For example, conversion of mangroves to aquaculture accounts for 10 to 20 percent of CO2 emissions associated with land-use change in Indonesia. The area covered by blue carbon ecosystems is equivalent to only 1.5 percent of terrestrial forest cover, yet their loss and degradation are equivalent to 8.4 percent of CO2 emissions from terrestrial deforestation because of their high carbon stocks per hectare. The most extensive and productive coastal vegetated ecosystems are formed by seaweeds. Their areal coverage is estimated - though with large uncertainty - to be 3.5 million km2 of coastal regions. Seaweeds lack root structures that would sequester and trap soil carbon, which means that the climate mitigation value of wild seaweed habitats is largely through the export of organic carbon in their biomass to sinks located in shelf sediments and in the deep ocean. There are currently too many knowledge gaps to enable us to provide a robust estimation of the sequestration and mitigation potential of wild seaweed beds (one study puts it in the range of 0.22–0.98 GtCO2e/year).

Estimating the mitigation potential from blue carbon ecosystems and seaweed farming

Three mitigation options can be considered for these coastal and marine ecosystems: • Conservation and protection of blue carbon ecosystems, by halting the loss and degradation of these ecosystems, thus avoiding direct land-use change emissions of carbon that is currently stored in soils and vegetation, and additional emissions from alternative land use, such as agriculture • Restoration and expansion of degraded blue carbon ecosystems, involving rehabilitating the soil and associated organisms and thereby restoring their ability to sequester and store carbon • Expansion of seaweed biomass through aquaculture The potential mitigation contribution from coastal and marine ecosystems is estimated to be between 0.45 and 1.09 GtCO2e/ year by 2050. Due to a lack of data, this estimate does not include the potentially significant mitigation effects associated with the conservation and restoration of wild seaweed beds. Knowledge gaps are currently too large because the extent of lost macroalgal habitats that could be restored is unknown. Moreover, methods and success rates of restoration and protection measures (including sustainable harvest methods) need to be explored and reviewed.

Expansion of seaweed production through aquaculture

Adding seaweed farming to the nature-based solution set could remove an additional 0.05-0.29 GtCO2e/year by 2050, for a total mitigation potential of 0.50-1.38 GtCO2e/year from the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of coastal and marine ecosystems (See Table 1). There are still some uncertainties regarding the rates of expansion of the seaweed farming industry and the proportion of production that would be directly sequestered (through export of dissolved and particulate macroalgal carbon to oceanic sinks during the production phase). Scaling up seaweed production via aquaculture offers different potential mitigation pathways:

14 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

• Seaweed products might replace land-based products with a higher CO2 footprint, or new applications with no or minimal footprint, thereby avoiding emissions (rather than directly contributing to sequestration) in fields such as food, feed, fertilisers, nutraceuticals, biofuels, and bioplastics. The extent of this mitigation pathway is currently not known • Adding seaweeds to animal feeds might lead to reduced enteric methane emission from ruminants, a potential technology that is currently being explored and may substantially increase the mitigation potential of seaweeds. In vitro experiments have shown that the red alga, Asparagopsis taxiformis, can reduce methane emissions from ruminants by up to 99 percent when constituting two percent of the feed; and several other species, including common ones, show a potential methane reduction of 33 to 50 percent. However, this alga is not yet farmed, no in vivo experiment has been yet conducted at a realistic scale, and many steps are required before large-scale mitigation can be achieved (in particular, how to administer the seaweed to large herds that are dispersed over large areas of land most of the year, like in Brazil and Argentina) • As with wild seaweeds, farmed seaweeds contribute to carbon sequestration through export to oceanic sinks. However, the export proportion of the “non-seen production” during farming is not presently well known. It is obvious that farmers will try to secure as much of the biomass as possible, as seaweeds are cultivated for many other, and more economically profitable, purposes than carbon sequestration

Risk and underlying assumptions

Coastal and marine ecosystems will help in the fight against climate change, but one also has to recognize that climate change itself is likely to have variable impacts on these ecosystems and their mitigation potential. Marine heat waves may adversely affect the mitigation contributions. Warming waters may change the geographic distribution of the organisms. Sea level rise will have different effects in different regions: negative by disturbing the carbon stored and positive by increasing inundated areas. Human activities to combat sea level rise will also impact these ecosystems. While small-scale seaweed cultivation is considered low risk, a large-scale expansion of the industry requires greater understanding of the scale-dependent impacts and the balance of environmental risks (e.g., facilitation of disease, alteration of population genetics and wider alterations to the physicochemical environment) and benefits. In addition to climate change, marine and coastal ecosystems are also vulnerable to failure due to socio-economic factors, including inadequate and inappropriate incentives. Social safeguards, similar to those developed for forests, should be developed. Ambitious conservation and restoration targets will have to be considered within local socio-economic contexts to prevent perverse outcomes. For example, restoration projects and the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs) should not prevent local communities from accessing marine resources, securing nutritious food, traditional medicine, and jobs, and reaching their economic growth targets.

A number of policy interventions will be needed to achieve this mitigation potential

The following policy interventions are recommended to support the realization of the mitigation potential of the ocean. In the short term: • Increase the size and effectiveness of marine protected areas, while addressing the underlying causes of the loss of these ecosystems, such as overexploitation, pollution, hydrological changes, and climate change impacts

• Increase incentives for restoration by paying for ecosystem services schemes, such as carbon and nutrient trading credits • Develop incentives for sustainable seaweed farming in a more even worldwide distribution (presently, 99.4% of seaweed aquaculture is taking place in only seven Asian countries) • Promote adoption of improved accounting for mangroves, salt marshes, seagrass beds, wild seaweed beds, as well as seaweed farming, within national GHG inventories • Promote efforts to produce national-level maps of blue carbon ecosystems to monitor the success of restoration efforts and enable more accurate quantification of carbon sequestration in ecosystems under the full range of environmental conditions • Build research capacity for an initial global-scale map of seaweed ecosystems to improve available data • Include blue carbon solutions in nationally determined contributions (NDCs) and other relevant climate policies for mitigation and adaptation • Recognise the wider ecosystem services of these habitats beyond carbon sequestration and quantify their mitigation of coastal eutrophication and benefits for biodiversity, coastal protection, fisheries and aquaculture, and their adaptation, to develop appropriate financial and regulatory incentive tools • Link conservation and restoration to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals • Develop and implement social safeguards In the medium term: • Improve the IPCC methodological guidance for seagrass management and develop IPCC GHG inventory guidance for seaweed ecosystems • Improve methods for monitoring mitigation benefits to enable standardized accounting within national GHG inventories, and more comparable biennial transparency reports (BTRs) • Increase the development of sustainable seaweed aquaculture globally • Increase investment in conservation and restoration of blue carbon ecosystems through innovative finance (insurance, debt swaps, taxes and credits) and public-private partnerships

A busy research agenda to understand the contributions of seaweeds ahead of us

More information is needed on the wider co-benefits of increasing seaweed aquaculture and carbon sequestration, such as climate change adaptation, acidification buffering, enhanced biodiversity, improved ecosystem services, protection of coastal infrastructures and development of eco-tourism. There is insufficient documentation on the global extent, production, carbon fluxes, and burial rates of the various types of seaweeds. There is also insufficient information on how seaweeds respond - in terms of area and performance - to management efforts and methods that aim to restore and protect them, especially in the context of natural variability, humancaused stressors from local to global level, and climate change impacts. Methods to fingerprint seaweed carbon, and other blue carbon sources, beyond the habitat are also critical for linking management action to carbon sequestration, yet these methods remain poorly developed. Jurisdictional issues could also be a challenge to implementation. The research agenda must address the global potential for carbon sequestration through sustainable seaweed farming also from the perspectives of processing and/or biorefining of seaweed products, circular management of nutrients, offshore production platforms, and the ecological impacts (positive and negative) of large-scale seaweed farming. Moreover, restoration of seaweed beds is developing; however, to the best of our knowledge, no reviews of methods and success rates are yet available.

Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the owner and President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc., since 2016. International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 15

Aliphos® SodiPhos:


A new derivative of Aliphos feed phosphates

by Aliphos, Belgium

fter initial laboratory testing and real scale pilot plant testing, Aliphos will bring to the market Aliphos® SodiPhos, a monosodium phosphate which will be produced in our factory in Varna, Bulgaria: content consisting of 24 percent phosphorus (P) and 19 percent sodium (Na). Monosodium phosphate (MSP) is characterised by the fact that the phosphorus is bound to sodium, delivering a product which is almost completely water soluble (For more details see Figure 1).

Figure 1

Solubility of phosphorus of an inorganic feed phosphate is highly correlated with its availability or better digestible phosphorus content. The higher the solubility the higher the digestibility. However, this relation is not always very strict and to assess exact phosphorus digestibility values we still have to rely on In Vivo trials. From literature it’s known that MSP has one of the highest digestible P-level amongst the feed phosphates on the market. See, for example, the summary of the values given by the CVB-table. Because of the fact that SodiPhos contains sodium contrary to normal feed phosphates which contain calcium (Ca), like DCP and MCP, gives SodiPhos special application features. SodiPhos can (partially) replace salt or sodium (Bi) carbonate in feed formulations; this can play a role in the production of broiler feeds, in which the chlorine content is limited thereby replacing salt with sodium (Bi) carbonate. SodiPhos does not contain chlorine but is a source of highly digestible phosphorus instead. For milk cows before calving, SodiPhos can be used as a Ca-free phosphorus source. With the phosphorus instantly available for the rumen microbes, because of the high solubility, by this preventing any imbalance in rumen fermentation. Other uses for SodiPhos is in baby piglet feed, pet and horse food and not the least, as a highly digestible P-source for aquatic feeds. Certainly, for shrimp farming, SodiPhos (MSP) is often the product of choice, replacing MCP in the formulations because there is no demand for Ca by shrimp raised in brackish and saltwater. A high Ca-level acts even as an antagonist and decreases the P-digestibility for shrimp. Table 1: Summary of the CVB-table, dP-values Phosphate DCP.2H2O DCP.0H2O MDCP.H2O MCP.H2O MSP.H2O

aP% poultry

dP% pigs

79 65 82 83 89

78 55 79 85 91

Table 2: Solubility of different inorganic feed in vitro and in vivo rumen fluids. Feed phosphate DCP M(D)CP MSP DFP

16 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed


Rumen In vivo

Ruminal fluid In vitro

61.5 87.6 100 39.7

29.7 55.9 100 1.3

Image 1: Inorganic

Effects of amino acid complexed trace minerals in commercial sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) diets: How trace mineral source is important to optimise fish-diet performance and health parameters


by Cláudia Figueiredo Silva, Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN, USA; and Stavros Chatzifotis HCMR, Gournes Heraklion, Greece;

race minerals are key elements for activation and function of hormones and hundreds of enzymes. They are essential for proper development and function of bone, nervous and reproductive systems, being critical to epithelial tissue production and maintenance and thus affect health through enhanced skin, gill, fin, scale and gastrointestinal

integrity. By playing essential roles in activation and modulation of several processes involved in fish immune response, optimal trace mineral nutrition is very important in helping fight stress and disease. Among these, zinc is known to exert beneficial effects beyond growth, namely through modulating immune response and resistance to disease development of muscle and bone, reduction of cataract incidence and oxidative stress. In addition, zinc plays an essential role in wound healing, and speeds re-epithelialisation processes in fish (Ogino and Yang 1979; Hughes 1985; Jensen et al, 2015; Gerd et al, 2018). Interestingly,

metal-amino acid complexes have proven to be more efficient than inorganic minerals in reducing skin lesions of Atlantic salmon after infestation with Caligus (Figueiredo-Silva et al, 2019), indicating enhanced barrier defense mechanisms against pathogens. We have evaluated the effects of metal-amino acid complexes (Availa®Zn, Availa®Fe, Availa®Mn, Availa®Cu, Availa®Se), supplemented at half the level of inorganic or in combination with inorganic minerals (sulfates of Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu, and Se in the form of selenite), on growth performance, gut and skin morphology, hepatic enzyme activity and zinc content in skin of European sea bass.

Materials and methods

Quadruplicate groups of European sea bass, with an initial body weight of 15g, were daily fed one of three diets, formulated to vary in trace mineral source and/or level to apparent satiety, for four months. A Control diet (46% crude protein, 18% crude fat, 19.2% nitrogen free extract) was formulated to include an inorganic trace mineral premix of 100ppm Zn (ZnSO4), 80ppm Fe (FeSO4), 24ppm (MnSO4), six ppm Cu (CuSO4) and 0.24ppm Se from (Na2SeO3). A second and third diet were formulated to include metal-amino acid complexes as a 50:50 combination with inorganic minerals or at one-half the dose of inorganic minerals in the control diet, respectively.

18 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

Image 2: Inorganic + ZPM

Image 3: ZPM 0.5x

In order to magnify response to trace mineral source and level, fish were submitted to a temperature challenge in the second half of the feeding period (last two months), with feed restricted by 50 percent, from the pre-stress period intake in the last month of the feeding period.

Results and discussion

Metal-amino acid complexes (supplemented at one-half the level of inorganic source supplementation levels successfully maintained growth performance of European sea bass (See Figure 1). Performance results indicate metal-amino acid complexes are a more effective hence, a more bioavailable source of trace minerals than inorganic sources in European sea bass, as demonstrated previously in Atlantic salmon (Figueiredo-Silva et al, 2019) and catfish (Paripatananont and Lovell, 1995a, b). In work by Paripatananont and Lovell (1995a), zinc methionine complex (Zn-Met) was shown to be three-to-five times more bioavailable than inorganic Zn (ZnSO4) in meeting growth requirements in purified and practical diets containing phytic acid, respectively. In addition, benefits of supplementing channel catfish diets with metal amino acid complexes vs inorganic minerals were observed to go beyond growth performance, with Zn-Met being three-tosix times more effective than ZnSO4 in protecting channel catfish International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 19

Figure : Number of goblet cells/100 Îźm intestinal length measured in longitudinal (left) and cross-sections (right) in European sea bass, at the end of the feeding trial

Image 4: ClĂĄudia Figueiredo Silva

against Edwardsiella ictalurid (Paripatananont and Lovell 1995b). Increased hepatic activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) found in European sea bass supplemented with metal-amino acid complexes at one-half the level of inorganic trace minerals (See Figure 1), indicate metal-amino acid complexes are more effective in promoting the antioxidant capacity of fish. Partial or complete replacement of inorganic trace minerals with metal-amino acid complexes had a clear impact on the number of goblet cells, in both intestine and skin of European seabass (See Figure 2). As part of the mucosal immune system, goblet cells play an important role in protecting fish against pathogens, especially in

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aquatic animals that are in close contact with their environment. Enhanced antioxidant capacity (ie GPx) and barrier defense lines (ie goblet cells) are expected to translate to better response of fish to disease, and thus result in healthier fish, especially when grown under commercial farmed conditions. Outcomes of this project are expected to contribute to the development of more efficient diets for European seabass, through the supply of trace minerals that are highly available and efficiently meet seabass performance targets, contributing toward their welfare status.

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New BĂźhler Single-Screw Extruder. High sanitation standards, excellent workmanship and an outstanding price performance ratio make the BĂźhler Single-Screw Extruder the ideal solution in the field of Aqua feed and Pet Food.

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Innovations for a better world.

Wenger AquaFlex® Extrusion System coupled with surge and live bins, High Intensity Preconditioner (HIP), Dual Die Assembly, and Overhead Rail System

Twin screw extrusion


Wenger revolutionises twin screw extrusion with unique models dedicated to pet food and aqua feeds by Adrian Martinez-Kawas, PhD, Wenger Manufacturing

raditional twin-screw extrusion design has served its purpose as the pet food and aqua feed industries developed. Yet both industries now stand at a tipping point where new trends are pushing the traditional systems beyond their limit. Flexibility is key and what the new generation Wenger twin screw extrusion systems are built on. The Thermal Twin® extrusion system is tailored for pet food manufacturers, so they can develop a wider range of products using an extensive choice of ingredients while preserving ingredient and product identity. The Aquaflex® extrusion system is tailored for aquatic feed manufacturers to maximise their investment by giving them the capability to manufacture a wide range of products such as floating, sinking, shrimp, and micro feeds in different product sizes while utilising a broad ingredient selection. This flexibility is possible given these systems are engineered with a specialised screw profile design to deliver higher volumetric capacity and the capability to operate using a wide range of thermal and mechanical energy cooking conditions. Thermal and mechanical energy are the main energy sources utilised in the extrusion process. A review of current extrusion processes in the industry indicates the ratio of consumed thermal to mechanical energy ranges from 1:1 to 2:1. This ratio determines utility costs as well as maintenance costs, specifically the costs to replace worn rotating elements. A recent study compared energy input and operating cost for three extrusion system (See Table 1). It was observed that even though the total energy input (thermal + mechanical) was higher for a thermal twin screw extrusion system, it was less expensive to operate over time compared to a standard single screw and twinscrew extrusion system. An extrusion system with the ability to vary this energy utilisation ratio and shift to the most favorable energy sources from a cost standpoint, brings increased flexibility to the cost of operating the system. Wenger extruders are engineered to operate in thermal to mechanical energy ratios from 1:1 to as much as 14:1. This is achieved with a twin-screw profile that allows up to four-to-six times more steam injection into the extruder barrel. Additionally, these systems are coupled with a high intensity preconditioner (HIP) which provides less product moisture variation and increases the starch gelatinisation compared to other steam conditioning designs (See Table 2). As a result of a wider energy utilisation ratio and a specialised twin screw profile, coupled with a preconditioner which delivers less product moisture variation and increased cook, the flexibility

of the Thermal Twin® and Aquaflex® extrusion systems become key to increase product offerings. Thermal energy is considered a more natural way of cooking when compared to mechanical energy. This translates to less shear and more gentle kneading to continuously develop the visco-elastic dough product matrix. With a Thermal Twin® extrusion system, pet food manufacturers can go beyond the traditional dry expanded and offer high carb, baked, soft moist, vegetable bit inclusion, and high meat pet food. Furthermore, specialty treats (short and long), retort-stable wet food, engineered ingredients (up to 200% percent% wet meat slurry content), and textured vegetable/meat protein products can be manufactured with this type of system. With an Aquaflex® extrusion system, aqua feed manufactures can expand their offering to shrimp, floating, micro, sinking, and fish soluble inclusion feed. New generation twin screw extruder design and thermal cooking allow for a wider ingredient utilisation such as novel animal and vegetable protein sources. Not only is there a wider ingredient selection to work with, inclusion levels of ingredients such as fresh meat and slurries are two-fold in new generation Wenger twin screws extruders when compared to single screw Table 1: Energy input and operating cost comparison between Wenger single screw, twin screw and thermal twin screw extrusion systems Extrusion Systems

Single Screw

Twin Screw

Thermal Twin Screw







Total Energy (kWhr/mt)




Energy Cost ($/mt)




Specific Thermal Energy (STE, kWhr/mt) Specific Mechanical Energy (SME, kWhr/mt)

Wear Cost ($/mt)




Total Cost ($/mt)




Table 2: Percent of Coefficient of Variation of Moisture Content and Cook Using Different Steam Conditioner Designs Steam Conditioner Design

Coefficient of Variation of Moisture Content (%)

Cook (%)

HIP – High Intensity Preconditioner



DDC – Differential Diameter Cylinder



DC – Double Cylinder



SC – Single Cylinder



22 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

Table 3: Percent of Ingredient Retention Using a Standard Single Screw vs a Thermal Twin Screw Process Vitamin A (%)

Vitamin D3 (%)

Betacarotene (%)

Selenium (%)

Standard Single Screw Process





Thermal Twin Screw Process





and traditional twin-screw extrusion systems. Higher inclusion levels suggest all animal protein could be supplied in the form of fresh meat for pet food and fish slurries for aqua feed instead of rendered meals, which translates to premium, clean label products. Additionally, product appearance (smoother surface), palatability, digestibility, and ingredient retention rates are enhanced when quality fresh ingredients are processed using a new generation twin screw extrusion system. A recent case study in pet food palatability showed higher consumption ratio and first choice preference with pet food manufactured with a new generation extrusion system compared to traditional extrusion platforms. Nutritional studies in Brazil, Europe, and the United States indicate that there is less protein degradation and lower fat rancidity levels when thermal energy is emphasised over mechanical energy during the extrusion process. Protein digestibility of up to 95 percent was observed for product generated on a Thermal Twin® extrusion system using fresh meat compared to 80-85 percent protein digestibility of a product using rendered meat meals. Additionally, significant higher retention rate of important ingredients when thermal energy inputs are emphasised (See Table 3). In two separate case studies in India and Vietnam using a new generation twin screw Aquaflex® extrusion system, a 10 percent formula cost reduction was observed producing shrimp feed and tilapia feed without compromising product integrity. Pellet durability indices above 99 percent were recorded in both studies, where product size ranged from 0.6 mm up to 2.2 mm in shrimp feed and 1.8 mm up to 7.0 mm in tilapia feed. Additionally, an average equipment wear cost of US$1.05/mton was achieved using the new generation twin screw. Significantly lower compared to a single screw (US $2.10/mton) and traditional twin-screw extrusion system (US$3.41/mton). Overall, the new generation twin screw extrusion systems simply outperform the single screw and traditional twinscrew systems. The flexibility that has been engineered into these extrusion systems supplies pet food and aqua feed manufacturers the precise tool to maximise their investment and optimise cost of operation. Moreover, it can help achieve premiumisation and clean label products by allowing a wider range and higher inclusion level of fresh ingredient utilisation.


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International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 23

R&D applications for aquafeed extrudates Laboratory scale testing to determine appropriateness for species and sustainability


by Brabender, Germany roviding a proper supply of protein for the world’s continuously increasing population is a tremendous global challenge. Consumption of fish and seafood is traditionally anchored in many dietary cultures and recommended as a significant source of protein for nutritional enhancement. However, in view of the present situation with overfished oceans around the globe, it is necessary to find alternatives: Here aquaculture provides a solution. Consequentially the global annual yield from aquaculture, amounting to approximately 100 million tonnes since 2015, has outstripped the “wild catch” quantity for human consumption. Further growth is a foregone conclusion: A 50 percent increase in production is predicted for the next two decades.

Booming aquacultures: Which feed for which species?

We spoke with Julian Foerster (JF) and Michael Landers (ML), the application technicians at Brabender’s extrusion laboratory, about using custom tailored extruded products to solve the problems presently faced by the aquafeed industry.

Extruded aquafeed – Where does demand exist?

JF: Whether fish farming with flow-through systems, netcages, or resource-preserving recirculating systems such as aquaponic or offshore farms – all these fish and crustaceans need feed; nearly 40 million tonnes per year worldwide. 70 percent is produced by the leading aquafeed producers in

the Asian-Pacific region, particularly in China, 10 percent comes from Latin America, and another 10 percent from Europe. Of course, one has to differentiate among which species should be fed. Presently 30 percent of production is used for carp breeding, 15 percent is required for crustaceans, followed by tilapia, catfish, salmon, and trout farms. ML: Extruded products offer trend-setting possibilities promising market success and product innovation in developing the proper feed for each species on a practical basis. There is practically no other process that offers so much potential for entirely reshaping an aquafeed matrix. For this reason purely mechanical pelleting presses have been increasingly replaced by state-of-the-art extrusion technology for production. Today, laboratory extruders are therefore necessary “tools” for product developers in companies as well as at universities and research institutes. With the TwinLab-F 20/40, Brabender has now introduced its current top model for the R&D laboratory world.

What is the “proper” feed for a species?

JF: First, we need to determine the raw materials and their percentage of protein and carbohydrate that are practical for various product applications. It is first necessary to determine the tendency of the feed to float or sink, depending on the feeding habits of the specific type of fish. In principle, floating feed tends to be eaten by bottom fish such as carp and catfish, which can also be a matter of training. Salmon and trout prefer feed that sinks slowly, shrimp, by contrast, like food that sinks quickly. ML: Correspondingly, it is necessary to select different process settings for production. For floating feed, including suspended or slowly sinking feed, we operate with hot extrusion at temperatures over 100°C. This results in good pellet expansion. For sinking feed, i.e. production of quickly sinking pellets with minimum expansion, cold extrusion is the preferable method.

Which challenges need to be solved in the laboratory?

ML: Whether or not a product expands depends, among other things, on the moisture content as well as generally from the recipe, particularly the percentage of protein, carbohydrates, and fat in the initial mixture, which is also varies ichthyologically depending on the species. 24 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

As a product developer we can determine this precisely in the laboratory. The TwinLab allows us to put various compositions and recipes on the test bench. The degree of expansion can be adjusted and changed with variable process settings. Most important is optimal cohesion of the constituents to prevent the pellets from disintegrating. This allows us to test the product characteristics to ensure the recipes are properly adapted to the type of fish and farming method. For example, some species require a high percentage of fat in the feed, however, too much oil delays expansion - here we can examine possible maximums using the TwinLab. And naturally, the reverse is true, when it is necessary to determine the minimum quantities of ingredients, e.g. for optimisation of the sinking characteristics. This can be regulated by adding water, among other things, whereby the pellets are then dried. JF: For forward-looking, sustainable product design – keyword: Sustainability – the trend is departing from use of fish meal or byproducts from commercial fishing. Instead, it is necessary to study which sources of protein with which characteristics and percentages are compatible with extrusion.

Which alternative sources of raw materials do you believe have potential for practical application for aquafeed extrusion?

ML: In our applications laboratory we have already gathered a great deal of experience in product development. Particularly with meal and groats from legumes - not just soy, but also peas and lupines, or greater use of classic sources of protein and carbohydrates such as corn, wheat, and rice. In view of the world nutritional situation, these can be used more efficiently as aquafeed than for feeding domestic animals. And considering the limited amount of acreage available for vegetable raw materials, byproducts from cereal grains should be investigated as ingredients for aquafeed. For example, I’m thinking here of cereal brans from mills or corn gluten from the starch industry. Other obvious applications are marine plants such as algae or kelp as high protein sources of nutrition for fish farms: Here, it would be possible to clarify on a laboratory scale which percentages in a fish feed mixture are suitable for extrusion or how this can be optimised technologically. JF: Insect proteins provide one perspective for research and development in the area of aquafeed. At the Brabender applications laboratory, we have conducted our own tests with the objective of replacing fish meal with insect protein consisting of Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly) as a raw material. Initial results are quite promising: In terms of the rheological parameters for extrusion as well as the nutritive feed properties of the extruded products, regardless of whether in pellet or ground form. Particularly in the East-Asian markets, I see good perspectives for this, because traditional dietary customs do not have reservations regarding use of insects in menus.

What can the new TwinLab do for lab scale extrusion?

ML: Well, I could go on for hours about that. But I want to emphasise two main arguments for practical product development with laboratory extruders such as the TwinLab instead of experimental manipulation of the production process. For one, you can vary your application ideas in a wide variety of ways with regard to raw material, formulation, extruder configuration, and product. Secondly, you have the option of establishing methods for measuring your quality parameters in advance from the raw material to the final product. With a width of 60 centimeters, our new TwinLab also fits in even the International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 25

narrowest of laboratories. JF: The range of applications focuses mainly on recipe and product development or serves for optimisation of production processes. The new TwinLab is a laboratory-sized twin screw extruder. We have used it to test products with a wide range of shapes, colors, and flavors. During development, it was important to us to be able to adhere to realistic processing conditions. This reduces costs for our customers and is consistently quality-oriented. You require significantly less time for your tests, save on material, and have almost no product wastage. And last, but not least: In everyday production, you do not need to worry about any negative effects to your ongoing quality management system. This allows a return on investment to be realised easily at the company.

Where do you see application-related advantages for product development?

ML: Along the length of the liner, four heating and cooling zones provide optimisable temperatures in every process area. Screw speeds of up to 1200 revolutions-per-minute offer users great flexibility with regard to specific mechanical energy, called SME for brevity.

As a twin screw extruder, the TwinLab allows processing of a wide variety of raw materials, as well as analysis of their viscosity and plasticity characteristics. This is because all conveying, kneading, and mixing elements can be configured individually depending on the process sequence. The module design allows variable configuration for product simulation with different shear forces, making the device suitable for highly varying applications. And finally, I would like to mention one more important feature for everyday use in the laboratory: The process unit is separated horizontally and can be folded up vertically – which only few comparable models on the market offer. This not only allows for visual evaluation of individual processing steps, but also provides for convenient screw removal and fast cleaning. JF: For aquafeed applications, we have produced primarily cylindrical pellets, or expanded products with the round die head – and an additional cutting device. The four upper and two lateral metering openings on the TwinLab also allow liquid or granulated additives such as oils, vitamins, and mineral concentrates or colors to be fed in. For example, I’m thinking here of omega-3 fatty acids or carotenes, which are of enormous importance for aquafeed producers and their suppliers. In the area of research and development, there are many cooperative projects between science and industry, which Brabender is proud to support the aquafeed of the future with its extrusion-related expertise. But even more: We would like to invite customers to visit our Customer and Technology Center in Duisburg and see the capabilities of our lab-scale extrusion and experience the new TwinLab in operation for themselves.

26 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed


Cryloc Sifter

It’s hard to imagine the grain and bulk processing industry without the use of the Cryloc rotary screen. In the cylindrical housing one or two specially formed screens separate the fine particles from the incoming product. Maximum 10% fines at the inlet results in less than 1% in the finished product (fines are smaller than 2/3 of the pellet diameter). The wide capacity range makes the Cryloc rotary screen an essential sifter for the dry cereal processing industry.

International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 27

Aquaculture round-up

Fish-free Omega-3 source


Veramaris wins F3 Challenge, named world’s best-selling “fish-free” omega-3 source for aquaculture hanks to pioneering Norwegian salmon farmers rapidly adopting Veramaris’ natural marine algal oil, Veramaris outperformed its competition in the “F3 Fish Oil Challenge”. Veramaris sold the largest amount of “fishfree” algal oil rich in EPA & DHA omega-3 and ARA (arachidonic acid) that meets the nutritional requirements of fish. The F3 Fish Oil Challenge is a US $200,000 prize to accelerate commercial-scale adoption of alternative feed ingredients that reduce the industry’s reliance on wild-caught fish and help aquaculture to continue producing healthy seafood for consumers. According to F3 calculations, the EPA, DHA, and ARA volumes sold by Veramaris are equivalent to nearly 90 percent of the two billion fish conserved through the challenge. The Veramaris volumes were predominantly produced at two pilot facilities in Slovakia and the US. On July 10th this year, Veramaris opened its world-scale facility in Blair, Nebraska to keep up with increasing demand for omega-3 EPA and DHA. The capacity at the Blair site can cover 15 percent of the global salmon aquaculture’s need for these essential fatty acids that up until now were sourced from the oceans. Industry leaders such as the world’s largest salmon farmer Mowi, as well as Yuehai Feed Group and AlphaFeed have committed to trial Veramaris’ winning algal oil, rich in omega-3 EPA and DHA – a testament to a strong commitment to sustainability. “I have to thank those courageous leaders along the entire value chain for their collaboration and for taking significant steps to ensure a continued sustainable future for aquaculture”, says Veramaris CEO Karim Kurmaly during the award ceremony at Global Aquaculture’s Alliance GOAL conference in Chennai, India. Veramaris, founded by DSM and Evonik, excels at providing the aquaculture industry a high-quality source of EPA, DHA, and ARA, thereby removing a bottleneck for future growth and performance of the entire industry. A recent study by the Norwegian research institution Nofima proved that high levels of omega-3 EPA and DHA in salmon diets resulted in significantly improved fish survival, 28 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

growth, coloration, and welfare. The Future of Fish Feed was launched in 2015 as a collaborative effort by NGOs, researchers, and private partnerships to accelerate the commercialisation of aquaculture innovations to alleviate pressure on the oceans. The F3 Challenge is sponsored by The University of Arizona, University of Massachusetts Boston, Cuna del Mar, Synbiobeta, Anthropocene Institute, Dawson Family Fund, Sustainable Ocean Alliance, The Nature Conservancy, The Campbell Foundation, Tides Foundation, and The National Renderers Association.

International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 29


Tech update Sharktech 29 Defiant

Shipbuilders Metal Shark, in conjunction with Sea Machines Robotic have successfully released their latest vessel onto the market: Sharktech 29 Defiant. The 29-foot aluminium monohull autonomous vessel features collision avoidance, OEM-integration, live video streaming capabilities and the ability to be controlled remotely via network connections from a second vessel or shoreside station, as well as manual driving capabilities. The twinboard engine can reach speeds of over 45 knots and this nifty bit of kit can be specialised to tailor to every unique need of the consumer. As well as looking incredibly professional and sleek, the Sharktech 29 Defiant can cater to all your marine needs. International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 31


Shogun twisted knotless machine

When SUPRA® meets Muketsu netting by Elihai Radzinski, Fibras Industriales SA, Peru

“Each product can

adapt to different

customer’s needs”

Nylon raschel netting Braided knotted netting

In past articles we have discussed alternative products that FISA produces for the aquaculture industry and how each product can better adapt to different customer’s needs depending on the species of fish farmed, the oceanographic conditions, potential predator risks and never to forget the working conditions and maintenance system each specific farm utilises for its cages. We have already discussed the various ropes that can be used for the structure of the cages and mentioned such options as Polysteel, PE, PP, Nylon, Polyester and FISA’s trademark products such as Polymax® and Polytar® ropes. Additionally, we have discussed the various raw materials that can be used for netting. We mentioned some advantages and disadvantages of nylon netting versus polyester netting, the lightweight advantages of UHMWPE and some potential disadvantages of that product and we finished off mentioning FISA’s Supra® Advanced Fibers which is a third generation HDPE netting. In the following paragraphs we will outline some basic characteristics of the knotted netting, braided netting, raschel netting and Shogun® netting, otherwise known as twisted knotless Muketsu netting. Raschel “knotless” netting is probably the most common type of netting used in aquaculture. This knotless netting is a low cost knitting manufactured on Raschel-type machines, thus the origin of the name, and is characterised by the relatively fast production process. Raschel netting is normally manufactured using nylon, polyester, polyethylene or multifilament PP. A big advantage of Raschel netting is the fact that the nature of the knitting leads to lineal ruptures thus making it much easier to repair. Also, some farmers claim that knotted (twisted or braided) netting can damage the fish skin when it rubs with the knots. We are not sure how to dimension this potential risk in knotted netting, but it must be mentioned. The biggest advantage of Raschel netting is its price. Because of the fast production process, it is possible to sell each kilogram of netting at much more competitive pricing. Additionally, as the Raschel machines allow for production of wider sections (large numbers of mesh deep) this can lead to less joints requires in the assembling/rigging of the cages thus further reducing costs. Having mentioned all the advantages of the most common netting, we feel obliged to also mention some potential disadvantages, the biggest one being that this netting is knitted meaning that once there is a small tear it will rapidly extend and increase escape probability. An additional disadvantage for nylon and polyester Raschel netting, which are by far more resistant than the polyethylene or pp versions of this netting, is the fact that these are multifilament products and the looseness of the filaments means there will be higher probability of fouling attaching to the netting at a faster pace. As always, the specific natural conditions and working habits of each farm will determine whether Raschel netting, and what raw material, would be most adequate for that farm. FISA’s vast experience with producing Raschel netting for over 50 years in all its variations can be critical to defining the most effective and cost-efficient version to be used. A second type of netting FISA has been manufacturing for over 70 years is the twisted knotted 32 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed


Twisted knotted netting

netting. This netting is mostly manufactured using nylon, polyester or polyethylene and has the advantage that the material is twisted together in three strands thus reducing the speed at which fouling attaches to the material. The twisting of the material creates a much more stable and solid structure and the knots prevent any ruptured sections from spreading and turning to larger holes in the cage or predator netting. The main disadvantages of twisted knotted netting are the fact that the knots increase the weight of the cage and are also critical points of potential increased friction/abrasion during manipulation of the cages or under the effect of strong currents. The third type of netting we will explore is the braided knotted netting. This netting is manufactured on similar machines as the twisted knotted netting but instead of using three strand twisted material, the netting is woven of 16 strand braided nylon, polyester or HDPE.

FISA Shogun netting

The fact that the material is braided as opposed to twisted adds flexibility to the netting and this is especially advantageous in products such as FISA’s Supra® Advanced Fibers that are made of third generation HDPE and by nature are less flexible. An additional advantage of the braided netting when compared to twisted knotted or Raschel netting is its stronger resistance to the effects of abrasion while maintaining an advantage of less fouling impregnation. Last but not least we will mention twisted knotless Shogun® netting which is known in Japan as Muketsu netting. This netting is manufactured with high tech machinery developed in Japan and available only to a limited number of leading netting manufacturers. The Shogun®/Muketsu Twisted knotless netting is composed of two strands of twisted twine with each strand running through the other thus creating seamless meshes with no knots between them. This production process sounds a little confusing but if


made for aquaculture 33 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY potential curvatures that the birds always identify as the weakest link and use in order to reach their tasty meals. A few years back FISA developed Polyethylene Shogun®/ Muketsu twisted knotless netting specially designed for bird nets as this product is extremely resistant to abrasion and to UV rays. This product, though relatively more expensive, has been extremely well received by many customers who clearly identified the advantages and durability of the product. Over the past few months FISA has started developing Shogun®/Muketsu twisted knotless netting using its Third Generation HDPE known as Supra® Advanced Fibers. It is with this material, we believe, that FISA will be able to maintain its global leadership and innovation, thus allowing its customers to constantly benefit from our extended experience and technical knowhow. It is important to finish off by reiterating that every single farm has specific natural conditions and working habits and there is no “best type of netting” that suits all. FISA’s vast experience in the fishing, aquaculture, security and sports netting markets together with our one stop shop as manufacturers of all the types of netting is what allows us to tailor suit the adequate product for each farm and usage. We currently supply rigged cages to all five continents for usage in offshore, inshore and lakes and will be glad to recommend the most adequate products for any existing or future development projects. Raschel knotless netting machine

you look at a picture, or better yet at a sample, of this netting you can immediately notice the vast difference with all other type of netting. Shogun®/Muketsu twisted knotless netting can be made using nylon, polyester or polyethylene and its main advantage is the very strong breaking load that can be reached with extremely low weight of netting. The fact that this netting has no knots avoids the potential damage to the fish when rubbing with the netting and facilitates all maneuverability and cleaning process. If we analyse the use of Shogun®/Muketsu twisted knotless netting specifically for bird protection, we can identify a very important advantage in the fact that this netting permits for stronger tension when spreading the net and the low weight together with good tension upon installing reduces the risk of

Knotted netting machine

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34 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed


A moving performance: Quiet, efficient thrusters make a big splash in aquaculture by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing Editor, International Aquafeed

A few years back, I was attending an aquaculture show when I first saw the Electric Subsea Thruster as produced by Danish company Copenhagen Subsea A/S. Unlike typical propellers, this clever design used a ducted, rim-driven impeller. The design has many advantages. The thruster contains only one moving part: the durable composite rotor. No mechanical parts touch, which reduces the risk of entanglement. The thrusters are very compact and use no internal gearbox, dramatically reducing the need for maintenance. The thrusters use seawater for both lubrication and cooling and are very powerful, while their design makes them very quiet in operation, which is a huge bonus for aquaculture operations where noise greatly stresses fish. The revolutionary thrusters are currently being used in Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs), Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and in manned submersible vehicles.

Pushing cold water to the surface

Now, the company’s thrusters are being used in novel new way for aquaculture applications. Instead of propelling a vehicle through the water, the thrusters are being used as highly efficient pumps, which remain fixed in position while propelling a high volume of water. By creating a flow of water from 30-40 metres of water 36 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

By only creating flow in one part of the fish cage, it enables the fish to freely choose when to play in the stream and when to take a break in still water

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY depth to the surface, the cool, oxygen-rich, and lice-free water will help push any sea lice-contaminated water out of the fish farm.

Pushing warm water to the surface

VL Thruster flor at 1750 RPM

Similarly, during the winter season, the pumps can help keep fish farms free of ice by providing a constant flow of “warm” water to the surface, as water at only two-to-three metres depth is warm enough to keep the water’s surface free of ice.

Creating horizontal water flow through the fish farm

VXL Thruster flow at 1250 RPM

The pumps can be also used to create a horizontal water flow through the fish cage, which allows fish to exercise in the flow. Moreover, by creating flow in only one part of the fish cage, fish are able to choose when they want to play in the stream and when they want to rest in still water. This not only increases the quality of life for the fish, but also benefits the overall health of fish.

Unique flow capacity

The unique high flow capacity of the thrusters is visualised in the following images (See images 3 and 4). The flow of water through and behind the thruster is visualised of Copenhagen Subsea’s two largest models of thruster running at maximum RPM. The changing colouring show the water velocity throughout the water stream.

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Feed mills Premixes and concentrates Fish and pet food factories Grain processing lines International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 37

TECHNOLOGY SH Top technology at Aquaculture Europe November 2019 This November we take a look at a selection of innovations our team witnessed in action at Aquaculture Europe. The event in Berlin showcased the best that the fish farming technology industry has to offer, varying from sensors, analysis solutions, reactors and storage systems.

Rotating Bed Biofilm Reactor Clewer’s patented water treatment system is a new kind of bio process, in which water is treated, sludge and nutrients are collected, and the treated water is either recycled or removed from the system. The patented water treatment process is also suitable for recirculating aquaculture systems. Clewer’s biological treatment process is based on carrier technology, where micro-organism growth operate on the surface of the carrier. The blending of Clewer special bacteria and nutrient technology for bacteria forms a highly efficient water treatment system. One of the many advantages of this system is its great treatment area of up to 90 percent fill. The system is cost-efficient, low maintenance, ecofriendly and scalable to suit any unique operation.

YSI EXO3 Multiparameter Sonde Offering greatest value, YSI’s EXO3 combines the manoeuvrability of the previous EXO1 with the powerful antifouling wiper of the EXO2. EXO3 is a purpose-built sonde for monitoring major water quality parameters, including pH, conductivity, temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. The sensor can be seamlessly integrated into marine, estuarine, freshwater and groundwater monitoring systems. Its wetmateable connectors resist corrosion, whilst it also has fully isolated componnts to prevent short circuiting, high-impact plastic and titanium to prevent breaking and built in anti-fouling systems.

SonTek SL-500 Inspired by the need for a simple way to measure water velocity and level in open channels, the SonTek-SL has earned worldwide acceptance as a long-term monitoring solution. Now, with two new (3G) models turbo-charged by the proprietary SmartPulseHD®, the SonTekSL features accessories, mounting options, software, and a variety of integration formats to ensure it fits your application. Designed specifically for side mounting, the SL’s sleek, low-profile housing makes installation easy. Ultra-narrow beam widths combined with unmatched side lobe suppression provide the superior acoustic directivity necessary for achieving maximum horizontal range free of interference from surface or bottom boundaries.

Do you have a product that you would like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to 38 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed


BioTecon’s Dualo 32 The Dualo 32® makes process and endproduct quality control easy by answering multiple questions in one experiment. The full spectrum optics of the Dualo 32 enable the flexible use of hydrolysis as well as hybridisation probes. The software has a user friendly interface that utilises preinstalled protocols for all testing parameters. Faster time to result, clear data interpretation and an easy to learn technology make the Dualo 32® a perfect lab companion. The Dualo 32® is a robust 32-well instrument in a convenient format, ideal for facilities with small to medium throughput and little lab space. Operating with high end technology for outstanding instrument performance and reproducible results, the Dualo 32® is perfect for maintaining consistent quality control during the production of your foods.

LandIng Aquaculture’s Landing NANO The LandIng NANO is an aquarium system designed to withstand high stocking densities and feeding loads. The NANO system ranges from single independent aquaria to rack systems allowing for many experimental designs. Using a carefully designed multistep filtration process as found in commercial fish farms, the correct water conditions are maintained throughout the experiments. The system includes mechanical filtration, biofiltration, gas exchange and temperature control. In addition, the fish tanks can be designed to fit the needs of particular species or life stages. LandIng NANO is the answer to research laboratories requiring high performance at laboratory scale. Tanks are available housing between 50-250 litres, with a max stocking density of 15kg per m3.

Pro Oceanus Solu-Blu CO2 The newest sensor offered by Pro Oceanus and showcased at Aquaculture Europe is the Solu-Blu CO2. The Solu-Blu™ dissolved CO2. probe can be used for long-term continuous in-situ monitoring to provide reliable free dissolved carbon dioxide data. The probe provides a fully temperature and pressure compensated free dissolved CO2. and partial pressure of CO2. and user-input salinity values allow for automatic salinity correction. Flow-through and in-line adapters are also available for simple and effective industrial solutions. Intensive water re-use systems and well-boats are particularly susceptible to CO2. problems. Increased stocking densities, leaks in aeration pumps, biofilters, source water and more, can lead to elevated CO2. levels. Measurement of dissolved CO2. continuously in RAS with the Solu-Blu™ dissolved CO2. probe can provide useful and cost-effective feedback control for aeration so that optimal levels of CO2. are consistently maintained.

FirestingGO2 Based on the successful FireStingO2 technology, PyroScience developed the pocket oxygen meter FireStingGO2, coming with high-contrast display, integrated rechargeable battery, huge data memory, and versatile long-term logging features. It has never been easier to perform your oxygen measurements in gas and liquids wherever you go! Cutting-edge technological innovation with ultra-low power consumption allows for long-term logging for longer than one year, even with a permanently activated display. The industrial grade 4GB internal data memory will keep all your data even during long expeditions. Moreover, the FireStingGO2 offers most of all the other versatile features of the proven FireStingO2 series. The battery of the device charges to full in only two hours and weighs only 150g for easy analysis on the go.

International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 39

Image courtesy of ©RASAR




by Dr David Fletcher, RAS Aquaculture Research Ltd, UK

Developing hatchery technology for the European Spiny Lobster, Palinurus elephas


obsters are among the most popular premium seafood species on the global market. Wild harvests are approximately 232 thousand tonnes-per-annum with about 66 percent of the trade comprising Homarus and Nephrops species. The Palinurid spiny lobsters account for about 32 percent of wild production (FAO 2017). The wild harvest of lobsters has reached maximum sustainable yield and, in some cases, exceeded it, based on the progressively declining harvest of some species (Sibeni & Calderini 2012). The American lobster, H. americanus, accounts for about 60 percent of world lobster landings and the average unit value is US $20 per kg, compared to around $10 per kg for shrimp and below $5 per kg for finfish. World trade in lobster was over 170,000 tonnes in 2014 valued at $3.3 billion, almost double that of 13 years earlier (FAO, 2017). Chinese lobster imports grew strongly between 2009 to 2014, from 3,600 tonnes to almost 18,000 tonnes, respectively with the US and Canada accounting for about 60 percent of total Chinese imports of H. americanus. The lobster imported into China mainly enters the domestic market, especially its upscale segment. 72 percent of total supply to China in 2017 was Homarus – 28 percent live spiny lobster species. Global landings of spiny lobster (Panulirus spp.) species are about 73,000 tonnes (FAO, 2017) and in general demand much higher prices in the Chinese and European markets. Again China is a focus for all lobster exporters from Australia and New Zealand (Ong & Mulvany, 2015) and while export volumes for rock lobster to China were increasing in the decade to 2015 prices were not significantly affected and the price trend continued to increase (Western Australian Department of Fisheries / Economic Research Associates Pty Ltd, 2015). Unitary prices paid in China for spiny lobster species were well above the world average; spiny lobster from New Zealand fetching almost $90/kg, and from Mexico and South Africa, an average of $40/kg (FAO 2017). Annual landings of European lobster, Homarus gammarus, have averaged 3,000 tonnes over the last decade. With the main producers being the UK, Ireland and France. Depending on season, live H. gammarus costs up to twice as much as the closely related American species, H. americanus, whose catches had been increasing annually until 2017 when the globally important Maine fishery saw a 17 percent decline in landings. There is significant concern about the future of this fishery with climate change believed to be the main factor responsible for a range of problems from increased disease of adults to failed juvenile recruitment (Groner et al., 2018; Waller et al., 2017). Indeed, numerous and varied impacts of climate change have already been described negatively impacting a broad range of lobster species (Briones-Fourza´n & Lozano-A´lvarez, 2015) including palinurid lobsters. 40 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed



As with seafood in general, global demand at the luxury end of the market, which includes lobsters, continues to increase, and it is likely to rapidly accelerate as demand from the growing middle classes in Asia increases (Hart 2009). With future demand expected to dramatically increase over the coming years, there is increasing interest in developing a sustainable supply of lobsters uncoupled from the harvest of wild populations through aquaculture production technologies (Phillips & Matsuda 2011). The clawed lobsters of the Nephropoidea are generally aggressive in nature and not readily amenable to production in high-density grow-out systems. In contrast, the clawless lobsters of the Palinuroidea are naturally communal in behaviour. In captivity, these lobsters can be held at higher population densities and hence possess some of the characteristics suitable for farming (Phillips & Matsuda 2011) in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS). The European spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas, has several attractive qualities as a potential culture species. On a unitary basis it is among the highest priced seafood species in the EU and international markets. Demand far outstrips supply with market prices of EU €65–70 per kg in Europe and up to €140 per kg for P. elephas on export to Asia. The Chinese market has an insatiable appetite for several spiny lobster species and as such the first pilot commercial hatchery for a tropical spiny lobster species, Panulirus ornatus, is under construction in Australia. From an EU perspective H. gammarus has few attractive qualities for commercial farming. It is slow growing and aggressive but more importantly the wild fishery is amenable to effective management and recovery where stocks decline. Consequently, any farmed H. gammarus product would always compete with prices from the wild fishery. In contrast, Palinurid lobsters like P. elephas are far more susceptible to overfishing and population recovery can be slow to non-existent for several decades without strictly enforced protection over large areas of coastal waters. This observation is likely due to the far more complex and extended planktonic cycle of P. elephas, limited suitable habitat and ease of capture by divers and tangle nets. Lobster aquaculture based on the capture and on-growing of wild pueruli or juveniles in floating cages was initiated in Vietnam as a high risk, high return venture based on the tropical rock lobster Panulirus ornatus (Williams 2009). The industry peaked in 2006 with approximately 2000 metric tonnes of production before rapidly declining to a low of 720 metric


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International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 41

Hawai’i Aquaculture: A Tradition of Navigating with Innovation, Technology and Culture

February February 9-12, 9-12, 2020 Hawaii Hawaii Convention Convention Center Center Honolulu, Honolulu, Hawaii, Hawaii, USA USA THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE & EXPOSITION OF


Associate Sponsors: AFIA, Aquaculture Committee • American Tilapia Association • American Veterinary Medical Association Aquacultural Engineering Society • Aquaculture Association of Canada • Catfish Farmers of America Global Aquaculture Alliance • International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Hosted By: Hawaii Aquaculture & Aquaponics Association

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EXPERT TOPIC tonnes in 2008, primarily due to disease outbreaks (Hung & Tuan 2009; Sibeni & Calderini 2012). Lobster ongrowing in Vietnam is associated with significant environmental damage from organic pollution generated from use of “trash” fish feeds with poor FCRs (30-35:1), use of antibiotic cocktails at up to 5kg per tonne lobster produced (Hedberg et al., 2018), coastal bays littered with discarded plastic lobster cages and the illegal importation of wild juvenile lobsters smuggled into the country from Indonesia. The whole fishery in Vietnam is entirely dependent on wild juveniles with the Indonesian strain of P. ornatus particularly favoured over native supplies. While similar cage farming ventures have been initiated in several countries all remain dependent on wild juveniles (Sibeni & Calderini 2012). The EU range of the valuable European spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas, includes the western English Channel, Ireland, Brittany, Spain and Portugal. Weak management has resulted in the EU fishery declining to an all-time low and has been described as “residual” (ICES, 2006). It was once one of the most important financial contributors to the inshore fishery sector. In Portugal, Spain, Ireland and UK, the P. elephas fishery has declined between 85-95 percent in the last 70 years. Catches in Wales fell by 92 percent between 1980 – 1997, while Irish exports reduced from 270t in 1959 to 20t (Tully 2011) and French Atlantic fisheries declined from 1000t in the 1950s, to 25t in 2010 (Laurans et al., 2011). These trends reflect a catastrophic population crash in the Atlantic, where some fisheries, like those in Wales, are now commercially extinct. In addition to its economic value, P. elephas is a key component of biodiversity on Annex I reef Habitat, essential for favourable conservation and good environmental status of these habitats. Recovery of the P. elephas population is considered vitally important in gaining Good Environmental Status (GES) under the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (Leslie & Shelmerdine, 2012). Unlike H. gammarus, the land-based farming of P. elephas using RAS technology could be an attractive proposition not only due to its very high market value, but several key biological characteristics important in commercial farming. Commercial P. elephas hatcheries could also support the restoration of depleted Atlantic fisheries to benefit inshore small-scale fisheries (SSF) where employment has declined 20-30 percent in the EU regional economy and 30-50 percent in terms of income in the decade to 2010 (Macfadyen et al., 2011). However, development of the hatchery technology for spiny lobster culture is extremely challenging. Following the successful hatchery development of juvenile P. ornatus lobster production in 2016 the achievement was described by Professor Greg Smith, University of Tasmania,“….as one of the holy grails of aquaculture because it is such a long and difficult larval cycle.” In 2013, with grant support from the Wales Government and European Fisheries Fund (EFF) RAS Aquaculture Research Ltd (RASAR) established a pilot R&D project to assess the not insignificant challenge of culturing P. elephas. Successful juvenile spiny lobster culture requires application of key hatchery disciplines. These include strict control over water quality management using RAS technology, control of phyllosoma disease, design of specific culture tanks for successive phyllosoma stages and development of a feed regime that evolves with the progression of the phyllosoma stages towards the pre-juvenile puerulus stage. This latter requirement is perhaps the most challenging. As the phyllosoma develop through successive stages they must store enough nutrient reserves to enable the subsequent pueruli to metamorphose successfully over


a 16 – 18-day period into a juvenile lobster. During this transition period the pueruli do not feed and depend entirely on nutrient reserves stored during the late phyllosoma stages. For P. elephas, RASAR established a purpose-designed water treatment system enabling very precise control over water quality. A range of larval tank designs followed, together with identification of a feeding strategy to optimise survival and development at each phyllosoma stage. During the 2019 season RASAR succeeded in producing all P. elephas phyllosoma stages and a small number of juvenile lobsters. This is the first time that P. elephas has been cultured in Europe and could eventually lead to commercial scale production of this high value species using RAS technology. Equally, the techniques being developed could also have application to a more sustainable farming of tropical spiny lobster species in SE Asia. The complex and protracted P. elephas larval cycle of eightto-nine months observed in the wild was reduced to about 2.5 months under laboratory conditions. The very high mortality reported for P. elephas phyllosoma stages I – IV (Kittaka et al, 2001) has been resolved with >50% survival to stage VIII being secured without using antibiotics. One important observation is that the juvenile P. elephas have shown no aggressive behaviour when held under communal conditions or even towards newly moulted individuals or defenceless pueruli. A prototype phyllosoma feed is under development. It is planned to repeat the phyllosoma trials at a larger scale during the 2020 season and subsequently evaluate the growth rates of the P. elephas juveniles. For further information and details please contact David Fletcher:

Extrusion and expansion technology you can trust Almex extruders are used for : » Pet Food extrusion » (floating) Aquafeed extrusion » Animal Feed extrusion » Oil seed extraction » Cereal processing extrusion » Compacting » Pre-conditioning prior to other processes

International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 43

Industry Events 2019




6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conf. Florida, USA

9-12 Aquaculture America 2020 Hawaii, USA

20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica

19-20 Aquafarm Pordenone, Italy

23 Aquafeed Extrusion @ VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia Bangkok, Thailand

23 Aquatic Health and Nutrition Asia Conference @ VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia Bangkok, Thailand

20-22 Sustainable Ocean Summit Paris, France The World Ocean Council (WOC) Sustainable Ocean Summit (SOS) is the annual gathering of the global Ocean Business Community dedicated to advancing private sector action on responsible use of the seas. With the theme “Investing in Ocean Futures: Finance and Innovation for the Blue Economy”, the SOS 2019 will be the foremost international business conference dedicated to investment and innovation for ocean sustainable development. Registration is open to all from the ocean business and investment community. Since 2010, the SOS has been bringing together leaders from the diverse Ocean Business Community – shipping, fisheries, oil and gas, aquaculture, offshore renewables, tourism, seabed mining, marine technology, law, insurance, finance, etc – as well as ocean stakeholders from the government, inter-governmental, science and environment communities – to focus on industry-driven action on “Corporate Ocean Responsibility”. 2019

December 3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France


March 9-11 VIV MEA Abu Dhabi, UAE

VIV MEA is the international trade show from feed to food for the Middle East and Africa. Situated in the heart of the Middle Eastern Countries, Abu Dhabi serves as the gateway to the wider Middle East and African region. 250+ exhibitors are already confirmed for the event, including Norel Animal Nutrition, Biovet, Catalysis, Van Aarsen, Biomin and more. International Aquafeed will also be hosting a variety of conferences at the event, including the Aquatic MEA Conference, a day of presentations surrounding aquatic nutrition in the UAE, Egypt and Saudi Arabia, as well as the Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference discussing extrusion principles and technologies. 9 Aquafeed Extrusion MEA @ VIV MEA Abu Dhabi, UAE

10 Aquatic MEA Conference @ VIV MEA Abu Dhabi, UAE

☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event 44 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

24-26 ☑ VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia Bangkok, Thailand VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia is firmly established as the key event dedicated to the animal feed processing industry within Asia. The exhibition will be organised from March 24 - 26, 2020, at the BITEC in Bangkok, Thailand. The conferences and technical seminars will take place simultaneously on the second floor of BITEC, including International Aquafeed’s Build my FeedMill Conference on March 25th. At VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia you will find the latest technology, ingredients and additives to manufacture and process feed for animals, pets and aquatics. Furthermore, you will find the latest in pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical ingredients, genetics and high-tech animal health solutions. 2020

April 7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia

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Aquaculture America 2020 February 9-12th, 2020 is the date set for the 2020 version of Aquaculture America, taking place in the Hawaii Convention centre, Honololu, Hawaii, USA. Hawaii is a destination known and loved around the world. With the meeting in Waikiki on Oahu Island, you can almost walk out of your session and onto the beach! The Hawaii Convention Centre is a beautiful convention facility capturing the beauty and charm of the islands with a superior meeting and exhibition space. Be sure to schedule time before or after the conference to visit the other islands of Hawaii which are very much less developed and offer a wide variety of different forms of Paradise! Whether your interest is volcanoes, nightlife, beaches, lush forests, sports,

Giant Prawn 2019 Conference Giant Prawn Conferences are major conferences focussing upon the farming of Macrobrachium spp. The Giant Prawn conferences were founded by Michael New, OBE and the first one was held in Bangkok in 1980. Giant Prawn 2019 follows the previous 2017 conference organised by Salin Krishna and Michael New at the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Thailand, and two other previous conferences held in India. Giant Prawn 2019 is coming to China for the first time and is poised to be another major event highlighting the global farming and conservation of freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium. Although the name could be taken to refer only to the Giant Malaysian prawn M. rosenbergii, in fact

LACQUA19 is fast approaching! LACQUA19 will be full of surprises and activities that make this event one of the most important for the sector in the region. The event will celebrate 50 years of the World Aquaculture Society and the 25 years of the Latin American and Caribbean Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society, on November 21st. With the participation of more than 50 companies, this trade fair will be the ideal place to learn about the variety of innovative services and products for aquaculture. It will be held at the Wyndham La Herradura Hotel Convention Centre. Among the participating companies, entities or media will be Jefo, Vymisa, Zinpro, Merck, Biomar, DSM, Intermas, Prilabsa, Inolasa, Kytola Instruments, Rolan Group and Zeigler to name a few. Among the sessions that will be presented this year at LACQUA19 there are topics such as the socioeconomics of aquaculture, species such as shrimp, tilapia, salmonids, algae, pangasius, zooplankton, ornamentals, among others. There are also talks on nutrition, technologies, production systems,

ocean activities or even the stars - the islands of Hawaii can provide a fantastic, memorable experience. Aquaculture America combines the US Aquaculture Society, Chapter of WAS, National Aquaculture Association and the Aquaculture Suppliers Association as well as many other aquaculture groups. Holding the meeting in Hawaii allows Aquaculture America to reach across the Pacific to share with aquaculture throughout the Asian Pacific region. Aquaculture America 2020 will draw on the Asia-Pacific region, Canada, USA, Latin America, Europe and the rest of the world to create one of the largest aquaculture trade shows in the world. The exhibition definitely will have one of the widest variety of products of any trade show ever. This is your opportunity to inspect the latest in products and services for the aquaculture industry.

the event will encompass all species of Macrobrachium that are currently farmed. This event is organised jointly by AIT, Thailand and Shanghai Ocean University (SHOU), China led by Salin Krishna at the Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management (AARM) Program of AIT and Xuxiong Huang at the College of Fisheries and Life Sciences of SHOU. The conference will take place November 16-17th, 2019 at Shanghai Ocean University, China. Giant Prawn 2019 will also feature an international trade show on aquaculture products and suppliers that will be a great place to network with product manufacturers and other service providers in the industry. There will be several booths showcasing the prawn industry in China and elsewhere.

toxicology, diseases, health, sustainability, genetics, social, education and digital transformation. Among the session coordinators, academic experts and producers are invited on each topic to ensure innovative and ground-breaking ideas will be discussed. The morning session will provide knowledge of the main advances made in aquaculture in Costa Rica, with national experts who will discuss the state of the culture of fish from inland and marine waters. The session will try to address strategic points about national aquaculture evolution in recent years, the cultivation of conventional species and the production alternatives that are being implemented to meet the demand of national and international markets. The impact of aquaculture on the development of fishing communities under small-scale economies will be another topic to be addressed. It will culminate with a panel of specialists that will expand knowledge about the projection and the challenges that the country will face, in terms of increasing production and the implementation of new species that maximise the commercialisation of aquaculture products.

46 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

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Aquaculture Europe


by Rebecca Sherratt, Features Editor, International Aquafeed

he latest rendition of Aquaculture Europe, as hosted by the European Aquaculture Society (EAS) recently took place at the ESTREL Convention Centre on the outskirts of Berlin, Germany. Hosted over the course of four days, from October 7-10th, the event provided plenty for attendees to enjoy, with its plentiful array of conference sessions designed to complement the 130 exhibitors from a record-breaking 85 countries available to approach and network with at the event. Aquaculture Europe 2019 certainly proved to be a success, organiser Mario Stael confirming over 2,700 attendees present, 1,700 of which attended the conferences whilst the remaining 1,000 attended specifically for the exhibition. In addition, over 50 percent of the exhibitors were new to the event, showing that AES are increasing in both influence and popularity. BioMar were the gold sponsor for the event, and also provided exhibitors with a lovely networking dinner on the evening of the seventh.

Women in Aquaculture and the AE2019 Innovation Forum

On October 9th I attended the conference jointly organised by EAS and The Fish Site, entitled ‘Women in Aquaculture’. Hosted by Synnøve Hellund of NOFIMA and the European Aquaculture Technology and Innovation Platform (EATIP), as well as Rob Fletcher from The Fish Site, the conference promoted open discussion on challenges, success stories and difficulties women face in the aquaculture industry. The conference also featured six panel members, Lara Barazi of Kephalonian Fisheries, Ben Hadfield of MOWI, Ole Christiansen of BioMar, Birgit Schmidt-Puckhaber from the German Agricultural Society, Selina Stead of the University of Stirling and Matthijs Metselaar of Benchmark Animal Health. It surprised me immensely to discover, as Rob Fletcher stated in his opening speech, that women make up 70 percent of the global aquaculture workforce but are “chronically underrepresented”. The

lack of women visible in the field is also strange, considering that the vast majority of students studying master’s degrees and PhDs in aquaculture and the sciences are women, added Ms Hellund. A variety of hard-hitting questions and points were raised in the conference, including the specific challenges women face in how to behave in the workforce. Lara Barazi noted that one challenge she has faced frequently is how to assert yourself as an authoritative force in the workplace as a woman, without being seen as rude rather than assertive. Issues regarding maternity and paternity leave were also discussed, along with the importance to provide a proper support network for colleagues of all genders who want to openly discuss issues they may come across at work. Birgit Schmidt and Matthijs Metselaar also emphasised the importance of self-confidence and being vocal about your aspirations to attain a higher position within a company. Being bold and honest with others about your aspirations, they state, are key traits needed to elevate yourself in any industry. International Aquafeed also attended a variety of other conferences during the exhibition, including the especially intriguing AE2019 Innovation Forum. With the aquaculture industry evolving at such a rapid rate, EAS expressed the need to promote these new technologies to help develop the sector. 12 companies gave brief presentations throughout the day on their innovative new technologies, which they eagerly offered as investment opportunities to clients. Topics ranged from algal bloom diagnosis and prevention to quality control, real-time monitoring solutions, oyster production equipment and wood as a protein source, to name a few of the many great ideas expressed throughout the day.

A successful week of aquatic innovations

Aquaculture Europe 2019 certainly delivered with its blend of conferences and exhibitions, and it was clear from speaking to the organisers following the event that they are extremely pleased with the brilliant turnout at the event. The next Aquaculture Europe exhibition will take place in Cork, Ireland on September 29-October 2nd, 2020, with the theme ‘The Blue in the Green’.

Industry Events

UltraAqua Biosecurity company Ultra Aqua proudly showcased their ACN UltraBarrier system, a solution designed to purify and cleanse intake water in aquaculture systems. The solution certainly looked very impressive on their booth, with its electropolished stainless steel finish (available also in polypropylene for corrosive or humid environments). The device also boasts two UV sensors for double dose control, as well as an automatic ULTRAWiper wiping system. The lamp arrangement within the system also enables maximum exposure of light and elimination of so-called ‘dark areas’ in water.

ProChaete Another intriguing feed company we discovered at Aquaculture Europe was ProChaete. The company was formed shortly after the founder discovered that the industry relies too heavily on fishmeal as the primary source of protein in aquatic feeds. With the goal to counter this problem, founder Oddgeir Oddsen turned to worms as his protein source. Now ProChaete make their unique feeds with the Polychaete (more commonly known as the bristle worm) as a sustainable solution which provides your fish with everything it needs to flourish. ProChaete provide feed solutions for fish and shrimp at all different stages of their life cycles and deliver solutions that emphasise environmental sustainability, minimal use of by-products and are also GMO-free.

MonitorFish In the category of fish farming technology, one solution which especially impressed us was MonitorFish GmbH’s eponymous digital system. Designed specifically to provide intelligent, easy and efficient fish monitoring, MonitorFish utilises camera systems with water quality sensors to measure temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen within fish tanks. The solution also analyses various parameters concerning the health of your fish, including stress levels, water quality, feeding patterns and biomass to ensure optimal aquatic conditions for your very own creatures of the deep. Should anything unusual be discovered, alarms will be automatically sent to your phone, tablet or computer to alert users to the possible problem that has occurred, allowing users to deal with them safely in plenty of time.

BioMar As well as hosting the networking dinner for exhibitors at the event, BioMar also had a brilliant stand at Aquaculture Europe, with plenty of innovations to discuss for the aquaculture sector. BioMar are recently celebrating the continued deveoplmemt of their RAS feeds. Their ORBIT feed range, specifically catered for recirculation systems, were first founded back in 2011 and is continuing to develop today with their latest range for salmonids. “With our new ORBIT ranges, we have advanced the feeds one step further to deliver higher performance on parameters that are key for success in advanced aquaculture systems” Ole Christensen, Vice President for BioMar, announced. “We are confident that our updated, innovative ORBIT feed solutions will meet the rising demand in RAS farming of salmonids.”

Biomin The lovely team at Biomin were also present at Aquaculture Europe, promoting their MycoFix product line. MycoFix is a remarkable feed additive that deactivates mycotoxins in contaminated feed, thereby ensuring optimal health for your aquatic species. Proven to deactivate Vomitoxin, Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone via biotransformation and promote enzymatic fumonisin degradation, MycoFix is an ideal solution for those who want to ensure their species remain in peak condition.

Brabender Julian Forester and Carl Doglow of Brabender were both very pleased to showcase Brabender’s latest innovations at Aquaculture Europe: the TwinLab-F 20/40, as well as the ViscoQuick. The TwinLab-F 20/40 is an excellent solution for extrusion processing which texturises a wide range of materials with its state-of-theart twin-screw compact extruder. It also boasts patented liner removal for easy cleaning, six dosing options and a hinged cylinder. The ViscoQuick is another innovative solution that can examine and analyse a variety of viscous pastes and masses. With intuitive operation and reliable results that are also quick and simple, the ViscoQuick is a great solution for optimising your workflow.

International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 51

Industry Events

Aquaculture New Zealand is growing


Looking down onto the Marlborough Sounds while crossing the Cook Strait

by Peter Parker, International Aquafeed, Oceania office ew Zealand (NZ) is an island nation of less than five million people, with the Tasman Sea to the west and the South Pacific Ocean to the east. Kiwis pride themselves on punching above their weight and innovating, and our aquaculture industry is no exception. The NZ industry primarily produces King Salmon (Genus Oncorhynchus), Greenshell™ Mussels (Perna canaliculus), and Pacific Oysters (Magallana gigas), while only making up less than 0.5 percent of global seafood production, the industry has been successful in terms of branding, sustainable practice and working to maximise value from the produce. The annual Aquaculture New Zealand (AQNZ) Conference returned to Blenheim’s Marlborough Convention Centre, in the Marlborough region of NZ from the 18-19th September this year. The theme for this show was ‘Growing together’, this was reiterated by Bruce Hearn, Chairman of AQNZ, who made the point during his opening address that this is more than a slogan, our industry is case of ‘a rising tide floating all boats’.

The New Zealand Aquaculture industry coming together with drinks and snacks sponsored by EWOS Cargill on the opening night

The first day of the conference was split into a salmon and a resilience stream, allowing species specific information to be focused towards the right people, while the second day covered NZ’s aquaculture in a wider sense. There was a number of exciting updates at this year’s show, the launch of NZ Government’s long awaited Aquaculture Strategy, New Zealand King Salmon’s (NZKS) move towards offshore aquaculture, announcements regarding AQNZ’s A+ sustainability report, and plenty of success stories in terms of sustainable practice and value adding.

Marlborough, the heart of New Zealand’s aquaculture industry

The Marlborough region, located at the top of the South Island is a fitting location for the conference as it is home to more than half of NZ’s production of Pacific Salmon and Greenshell™ Mussels, and it is also a major producer of Pacific Oysters. This region truly is the heart of NZ’s aquaculture. Marlborough Mayor John Leggett, who is pro-aquaculture gave an opening welcome address. “World famous wine, garlic, pine-nuts, premium summer fruits, and right up there at the top table is our kaimoana (te reo Māori

Presenter Lalen Dogan at the Veramaris exhibition stand. Veramaris is a joint development from DSM and Evonik, producing omega-3 fatty acids for animal nutrition from microalgae. Their algal oil, a breakthrough innovation, helps conserve the natural biodiversity of the oceans

Sampling the fruit of the industry at the Sanford sponsored Cocktail function. Plenty of delicious King Salmon, Greenshell™ Mussels, and Pacific Oysters coupled with drinks and great company. It is widely agreed that every year this function is a highlight of the event

52 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

Archdeacon Harvey Ruru

Grant Rosewarne, CEO of co-platinum sponsor New

performing the Mihi Whakatau Zealand King Salmon, presenting on their vision for for seafood), premium quality is the (traditional Māori welcome) to salmon production in New Zealand, including their recent common denominator, this is what you the 500+ attendees, reminding resource consent application for ‘Blue Endevour’, a get with the Marlborough label,” said the crowd that the task at hand venture into open ocean farming is serious, then leading a prayer Mr Leggett. that the ocean will remain Mr Leggett announced at last year’s healthy for the generations to come conference that collaboration was going to be the most efficient way to make progress on the complex challenges of seabed health and water quality. This year he commented that he was pleased to see that industry and community had been working alongside each other in developing a mutual understanding. “I attended the Marine Farmer’s Association AGM a few weeks ago, it was gratifying to hear the positive feedback, it was a seismic shift from the mood a few years ago. I would like to thank the participants in our aquaculture working group which has helped draft the aquaculture chapter in Marlborough’s Volker Kuntzsch, CEO of conew environment plan. It has been a very platinum sponsor Sanford constructive approach and I hope we are Limited, giving insights into Dr Sudhvir Singh from EAT, giving an insightful presentation on how we could feed the global population a healthy the industry at large and in a position to discuss the results soon,” suggestions for how we could and sustainable diet. EAT is the science-based global said Mr Leggett. respond platform for food system transformation The Marlborough region is also home to a number of organisations and qualifications dedicated to aquaculture. institutes that support and engage with aquaculture. Including the Cawthron Aquaculture Park research facility, and the Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology Current state of industry and the plan going forward (NMIT) which is a tertiary level education institute with According to the NZ Government, currently aquaculture

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provides over $600 million NZD ($380 million USD) in annual sales. That is made up with over 3000 regional jobs provided by an industry that is to be relatively sustainable and efficient. A lot of resources are committed towards developing innovative technology, and on average it is growing by seven percent annually. According to the recently released NZ Government Aquaculture Strategy, the goal is to achieve over $3 billion NZD in annual sales, double the current amount of regional jobs, and remain sustainable through highly efficient farming practices. The strategy outlines a pathway which would rely on an expansion into open ocean farming and land-based systems for growing more resistant juveniles and to produce high value extracts for the market. In line with this strategy, one of NZ’s leading salmon producers and event co-platinum sponsor, NZ King Salmon (NZKS), just announced in August this year an application for consent to build an open-ocean king salmon farm in the Cook Strait, the body of water that divides the countries North and South Islands. With over four hundred million hectares of ocean space on NZ’s doorstep, which is the fourth largest marine Exclusive Economic Zone in the world, farming a tiny proportion of the ocean will provide a significant boost to the industry and future source of healthy, sustainable protein. “This is an incredibly exciting opportunity for our company, our region, and the aquaculture industry,” said NZKS CEO Grant Rosewarne. “We’ve named our first open ocean farming project Blue Endeavour to signify the future-focused strategy we’re putting in place to harness the ocean’s potential in a sustainable way. The pens on these farms will be so spacious that we’re calling them sea ranges.” Once the application is approved, the company intends to commission an initial farm with the potential to grow 4000 tonnes of King salmon, about twice the output of its largest existing farms. At last year’s AQNZ Conference, NZ’s Minister of Fisheries, the Honourable Stuart Nash was criticised for inaction regarding the aquaculture industry, this year however he certainly delivered with the bold aquaculture strategy referenced above. Mr Nash was in attendance this year sharing the government’s view on the new strategy, “Aquaculture produces seafood and products that epitomise Brand New Zealand: sustainable, healthy and highly valued. Its development through innovation and best practice can enrich our communities and our global reputation.

Gary Hooper, CEO of Aquaculture New Zealand keeping the presentations running smoothly

Aquaculture could be a much bigger part of our primary sector as we respond to the clear trends and forces shaping our future”, said Mr Nash. “The context for change is clear, the need to reduce emissions and adapt to climate change, evolving consumer demands, and a spotlight on sustainability in international markets. NZ can’t feed the world, but we can help meet growing demand for high quality, sustainably produced seafood”. “This strategy outlines a sustainable growth pathway, and an all of government work plan to support it. The growth pathway sets an objective for aquaculture to become a more productive industry that further supports regional prosperity. Innovation underpins this growth – both through improving the value from existing farming space, and exploring opportunities for new farming on land and in the open ocean”, said Mr Nash.

Cawthron Aquaculture Park, a world class research facility

The Cawthron Aquaculture Park is located in Nelson (just a 90 minute drive from Blenheim), it is a world-class research facility dedicated to all things aquaculture. A large focus of the research is focused on the development and production of shellfish aquaculture. In October 2018 an $8 million NZD (5.1 million USD) Finfish Research Centre was officially opened on the same site solidifying Cawthron’s position as NZ’s aquaculture experts. Cawthron Director, Dr Matt Peacey was in attendance to give a presentation on the ocean economy, “95 percent of NZ’s economic territory is water yet ocean products account for just 1.9 percent of NZ’s economy, the potential for growth in our industry is massive,” said Dr Peacey. “NZ has positioned itself at the high end of the market as a producer of high-quality seafood, currently exporting aquaculture products to 79 countries contributing around $1.8 billion NZD ($1.1 billion USD) in exports.” The Cawthron team is made up of world leading scientists who work closely with industry towards a future where finfish and shellfish crops are no longer dependant on wild populations. A great example of this is the new technology with collaboration they have developed to grow mussel spat by the billions which is enabling selective breeding to revolutionise Green Mussel production in NZ. Until recently mussel farmers have relied on catching wild spat as its only source, now Spat NZ along with Cawthron are working on a selective breeding program to bolster what is already one of NZ’s most valuable aquaculture products. This is a great example of how a research institute can go beyond academic science and apply it for real life solutions.

NMIT, training the next generation of NZ aquaculturalists

Also based in Nelson is NMIT which works local companies, organisations and industries to develop a full suite of aquaculture training from secondary school pathways through to postgraduate level. The NZ Government has set a goal of the industry generating over $3 billion NZD ($1.9 billion USD) revenue by 2035 and anyone in the industry knows that to achieve this NZ is going to need more skilled and motivated Kiwis (New Zealanders). NMIT Student and teacher Courtenay Colligan and Denise Briggs took to the stage to speak about the future of NZ aquaculture and what NMIT is doing to support this. Ms Colligan who grew up in the Marlborough Sounds chose to enrol in NMIT as she wanted to be a part of an industry she knew was dedicated to sustainability. During her presentation she expressed that the 54 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

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frequent outdoor learning opportunities and work placement was a highlight of her learning.

Social licence, the importance of conserving ecological diversity

Peter Jackson’s Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit film trilogies have done an excellent job in presenting NZ as a clean and green nation to the world. This green image is something most of us kiwis identify with and are very proud of – this perception is also considered by some to be our greatest export. For this reason, it is important that the NZ aquaculture industry have social licence to produce here, especially in terms of environmental sustainability. AQNZ’s Environmental Manager and A+ Programme Manager, Rebecca Clarkson, provided an update presentation on A+, the NZ aquaculture industry’s own sustainable management framework, a programme that AQNZ, and the industry have been working on for the past four years. It was exciting to hear that the first industry wide sustainability report is due to be released publicly later this year. This should be comprehensive as 100 percent of salmon farmers, and well over 90 percent of the mussel and oyster farmers are now committed to reporting on their environmental performance and improving on it year after year. An independent assessor has been visiting farms and observing their operations to verify the accuracy of reporting. “Our feedback on the process has been that A+ is a positive programme, the industry is doing some great things and it has identified initiatives that could take it further. As an industry we want to be transparent and walk the talk,” said Ms Clarkson.

A changing industry

Volker Kuntzsch, CEO of Sanford, the second co-platinum sponsor of the event, gave the closing presentation. He noted that the aquaculture industry in NZ is becoming much less volatile, and while the Greenshell Mussel business is still mostly dependant on the product of frozen half shells that they have come a long way. “Six years ago we sold our product as a frozen commodity in large white containers to wholesalers overseas, and we had no idea where the product got to, our focus was entirely on increasing volume. In the last few years we have developed a higher appreciation for our seafood, highlighting to consumers the precious beauty of our product to create value,” said Mr Kuntzsch. “Going forward our focus is beyond food for various reasons, we can create more value for every kilogram of seafood but also because increasingly we are getting to know the consumer better and what they want.” Mitigating the risks of climate change is a huge task, but we must also consider the consumer. Mr Kuntzsch shared a recent encounter with a family member, a 19 year old German vegan,

Conference attendees socialising during one of the six sponsored food breaks throughout the two-day conference

who claimed that in her school class in Germany 80 percent of students were vegan. While he acknowledged that this story was based on a sample size of one, throughout Europe veganism is growing at what he considered to be an alarming rate. The consumer market is changing and so is the environment, Mr Kuntzsh shared Sanford’s plans going forward, “We need to develop our existing business further, innovating further in mussels, they are well adapted to NZ waters, they can cope with different temperature regimes, they feed on algae blooms, they are a super food. We also need to further investigate other species to work out what makes the most sense for New Zealand”.

Growing together for a successful future

The annual Aquaculture New Zealand Conference is an important piece in the puzzle for the strong development of our industry. It brings together people and organisations across a spectrum of species and roles to share their experiences and ideas on how to improve our practice. Additionally the Sanford sponsored cocktail function on the final night is always a highly anticipated opportunity for a bit of fun mixing with colleagues while sampling the delicious kaimoana the industry produces. It was great to put faces to the names of people in the supporting organisations who exhibited at the show, from equipment and service providers, climate specialists, research facilities and educators, all of which crucial to the growth of the industry. With a plethora of positive stories regarding value adding, sustainability, collaboration and diversification one couldn’t help but come away feeling invigorated and excited for what updates will be presented at the 2020 conference.

56 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

Analysis IMAQUA +32 92 64 73 38 Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105

TSC Silos +31 543 473979

STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

Certification GMP+ International +31703074120

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41

VAV +31 71 4023701

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650

Colour sorters

JEFO +1 450 799 2000

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Satake +81 82 420 8560

Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Coolers & driers

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 Andritz +45 72 160300 Brabender +49 203 7788 0

R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31

Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207

IDAH +866 39 902701

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888

Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0

Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128

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58 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - November 2019 | 59

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the interview Sam Macdonald, President of Deep Trekker Water is the lifeforce of humans and human society so it’s no wonder Sam Macdonald set out to engineer a lifestyle surrounded by it. An admitted boat bum, Sam was always curious about what lay beneath the waves of the Great Lakes which surround her home in Southern Ontario, Canada. After more than 15 years refining her skills in sales, marketing and leadership, including eight years of applications engineering in the robotics automation industry, Sam put her McMaster University Commerce degree and passion for technology to work. In 2010, she partnered with Jeff Lotz to bring Deep Trekker’s underwater robotics to the world. From the basement workshop to a state-of-the-art manufacturing facility to shipments to over 85 countries, Sam and her team have expanded to produce six fully submersible robotic product lines. When not traveling the world discovering her customers’ unique uses for Deep Trekker’s robots, Sam can be found mountain biking, scuba diving or flying small airplanes, enjoying life on land, under the sea, and in the air.

How did you get involved with aquaculture?

Partly by accident. I live in the Great Lakes area of Ontario, Canada, which has thousands of shipwrecks. I was looking for a tool to go shipwreck hunting and met up with my now business partner, Jeff Lotz, who had made an ROV for his college project. Together, we came up with the idea for our flagship product the DTG2 ROV. After 18 months of development Jeff had something very viable, so we put up a very basic website. Our first sales came through a fellow in Norway who was selling lighting systems to Norwegian salmon farms. He originally had some competitor built ROVs that had quickly broken down. In 2011, he became our reseller and the first year we ended up selling 213 of our ROVs in Norway. After that, we found a South American reseller and expanded into Chile.

How did you finance your growth?

We self-financed to get the company off the ground and in the first few years we strove to keep our costs down. During the development process we built a number of prototypes before arriving at what became the DTG2. Since then we have continued to refine the design and make it more robust. By and large we’ve always been self-funding.

Where are you manufacturing the units?

We are currently manufacturing everything in-house in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. We currently have 43 employees and we’ve grown the engineering department to 17 folks. We’re lucky to be able to draw from the University of Waterloo, which is one of the best engineering schools in Canada. Does the Canadian government help you at all? We take advantage of the SR&D tax credits, we’ve also been involved in the programme called IRAP and we took advantage of a “built in Canada” innovation programme where if you develop a new technology the government will pay for another government organisation to buy the units, so we’re actually working with the Canadian navy at the moment.

Where was your R&D carried out?

Jeff did all of the design for the DTG2 and the DTX2, which is the bigger brother to the DTG2. Our original flagship products. We had customers who were trying to use our products to do pipe inspections, so Jeff had been working with a fellow named Sean on a pipe crawler, so we took him on and finished the designs for the DT340 pipe crawler.

How many models do you currently manufacture?

We make five: two swimming robots (ROVs) the latest products the DTG3 and REVOLUTION ROV, two crawlers, the DT340 and DT320 pipe crawler and the DT640 Utility Crawler which has magnetised metal wheels that allow it to crawl along the steel hull of a ship. We also make a pod camera that goes inside fish cages. The camera allows 360 degrees rotation both horizontally and vertically and it’s equipped with lights and an oxygen sensor.

Are you developing more models as we speak?

Always. With our DTG3 and the REVOLUTION ROV we’re building in more station-keeping capabilities and more autonomous functions. We’re also moving over to a fully digital platform so we can innovate sensors, internet-based platforms, and plug and play capabilities to incorporate a lot of advanced water quality sensors and imaging sonars. On the DTG3 we have a modified arm that we can apply a spring-loaded net patch that will keep the sea lions out for a while until the net can be repaired.

How many countries do you sell to?

I think at the latest count we were selling to 85 countries. We were international straight out of the gates with our sales to Norway. Quite frankly we sold outside of North America for most of our early days.

What are some advantages of using ROVs in aquaculture?

First off, the ease of use. Being able to perform inspections when you need to do it in an easy way. Divers are still necessary if you need to do repairs or if you’re setting up new nets. But, for basic inspections, the Deep Trekker is out of the box and ready to go in thirty seconds. You can carry it to the dock. There’s no need to bring a generator and there’s nothing to plug in. You just connect the controller to the ROV and you’re in the water. Plus, the ROV is much less stressful for the fish than putting a diver in the cage, and you can disinfect an ROV in a much more aggressive fashion than a diver so, again, it’s better for the fish.

As the female president of a technology hardware company, you’re fairly unusual. Has that affected your business in any negative way?

No. In a way it’s been very positive. Because women in technology and robotics and fish farming are fairly unique, I tend to get a lot of attention. The world is changing. I don’t think that I’ve been disrespected in any way. I make it my business to make sure I know what I’m talking about. You’ve probably noticed that, at this conference, (Aquaculture America 2019) there are a lot more women than in other conferences. With a name like Sam I often get phone calls for people looking for Sam. When I tell them that I’m Sam, there’s often an odd pause. But apart from that there haven’t been many issues.

What’s next for Deep Trekker?

Just further development of our products. We’re looking at adding more intelligence to the machines. Intelligence and autonomy are the buzzwords now. Plus, we’re building out our technology, looking at connectivity and autonomy. We will enable our podcams to network and operate from long distances offshore. As fish farms move farther from shore, they will require systems with increased automation. We need to have an ROV that we can run from onshore.

60 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES CEO of Guyader Gastronomie departs


rench seafoods supplier Guyader Gastronomie has named a new top executive, following the departure of their previous CEO Mr Antoine Gorioux. Mr Christian Guyader, President of the group, will now assume management of the group, replacing Mr Gorioux. In addition to Christian, his daughter Marianne will take over international development work at the group, she reports she is also very excited about this new job opportunity.

Christian Guyader

Landerevarzec-based Guyader, which celebrates its 90th anniversary in 2020, supplies a range of ready-made and deli seafood products to various French foodservice outlets.

Doug Paulin named new Sealord CEO


ew Zealand fisheries company Sealord recently announced it named its first internal candidate to the CEO position, with effect from 2020.

Doug Paulin, who was formerly COO at the group, recently entered into the CEO role this month. He and previous CEO Steve Yung will work closely together through a one-year transition period.

Doug Paulin

Yung has held the position of CEO for the past five years but has been a CEO for the past 21 years. “Yung has enjoyed leading the organisation through a number of significant changes,” Sealord Communications Manager Julie North stated. “He is now looking forward to new challenges and is looking to transition to board and advisory roles where he can continue to add value in the business sector.”

BlueNalu hires Greg Murphy


reg Murphy has recently joined BlueNalu as part of an expansion project to help company growth. Mr Murphy is an internationally recognised and effective connector of ocean sustainability stakeholders, having promoted collaboration among academia, industry and government to develop sustainable solutions for aquaculture. His varied and strategic set of experiences will greatly assist in his role in Corporate Development and Strategic Partnerships for BlueNalu.

Greg Murphy

In his new role, Greg is responsible for fostering collaborative opportunities with strategic partners in academia, industry, government and non-profit organisations and effectively managing a variety of projects.

Thomas Farstad joins the board of Nofima


ilarex salmon-processing company CEO, Thomas Farstad, has recently announced that he has joined the board of Norwegian seafood research agency Nofima.

Nofima is a dedicated institute specialising in fisheries and aquaculture research. The institute was founded in 2008 and has a board consisting of seven members.

Thomas Farstad

Mr Farstad has been working in the seafood industry since 2003 with previous roles at Aker Seafoods and Norway Seafoods, both of which became part of Leroy Seafood Group in 2016. He has also worked at MOWI and Fjord Seafood.

James Lesser joins Tropical Aquaculture as new VP


ropical Aquaculture has announced the appointment of James Lesser as Executive Vice President. In this position based in Maine, Lesser will manage sales, marketing and logistics for the tilapia and shrimp firm. Lesser’s background includes experience in sales, marketing and operations responsibilities with a variety of well-recognised food brands. His experience includes fresh produce, fresh and frozen dairy and shelf-stable food and beverage products.

James Lesser

62 | November 2019 - International Aquafeed

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Naturally ahead



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