OCT 2019 - International Aquafeed magazine

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Krill meal

New study shows krill is the most effective growth enhancer in diets for whiteleg shrimp

International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 10 - October 2019

- Vita Aqua Feeds - Dietary n-3 fatty acid for Nile tilapia at optimal and suboptimal-cold temperature - ROV for aquaculture: The SRV-8 - The highs and lows of RAS - Artificial Intelligence is shaping the future of aquaculture

See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

- EXPERT TOPIC: Tilapia Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

October 2019


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This month’s issue features our extended report on Aqua Nor 2019. In the following issues we hope to feature articles contributed by many of the companies I visited and spoke with at what is officially the world’s biggest aquaculture show.

an excellent article ‘Dietary n-3 fatty acid for Nile tilapia at optimal and suboptimalcold temperature’ contributed by Renata Oselame Nobrega and Débora Machado Fracalossi, Fish Nutrition Lab (LabNutri), Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil. We are always happy when we are able to Looking forward a few weeks, yours feature articles from South America, one of truly and the rest of the International the powerhouses of modern aquaculture. Aquafeed magazine staff will be attending Our nutrition coverage features my review Aquaculture Europe 2019, sponsored by of Biomin’s excellent book on mycotoxins, the European Aquaculture Society (EAS). Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed which is surely bound to become a primer This year the show is being hosted at on the subject for those working in the Estrel Congress Centre, in Berlin, aquaculture, whether in farming or in the Germany, and runs from October 7-10th. production of fish feed. Aquaculture Europe 2019 will cover the full scope and Our final nutrition article comes from World Feeds Limited, which diversity of European aquaculture. The thematic plenary and has specialised in aquatic nutrition since its inception in 2004. The technical parallel sessions will comprise submitted oral and company’s aquaculture range, Vita Aqua Feeds (VAF), new feed block poster presentations. AE2019 will feature an international trade diets are specially targeted at cleaner fish and the control of sea lice. exhibition, industry forums, student sessions and activities, Meanwhile our technology coverage shines with an article from satellite workshops and updates on EU research. Norwegian aquaculture giant AKVA on how artificial Intelligence As you page through this month’s issue of International is shaping the future of aquaculture. More technology is on show Aquafeed, you will no doubt notice a tilapia theme running with an article from Oceanbotics on their versatile SRV-8 ROV, throughout. Our species focus is on tilapia, and this month’s which has many capabilities ideally suited to fish farming. interview feature focusses upon Dr Abdel-Fattah El-Sayed, As the weather cools, the days grow shorter and the English Professor of Aquaculture at Alexandria University. rain grows colder, I find I am already dreaming of Aquaculture Dr El-Sayed has been heavily involved with tilapia raised by America 2020, which will take place in Honolulu, Hawaii. aquaculture throughout his varied career, and he predicts that Although it’s a full six months away, I’m already shopping for a the species will soon become one of the foremost choices for pair of shorts and a loud Hawaiian shirt. farmed fish around the globe. The tilapia theme continues with

ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS KRILL MEAL: New study shows krill is the most effective growth enhancer in diets for whiteleg shrimp - page 18

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY AQUACULTURE: Artificial Intelligence is shaping the future of aquaculture - page 36


Aquaculture round-up

SHRIMP: Scottish salmon farmer granted approval to build eco-friendly homes on remote island - page 30

EXPERT TOPIC: Tilapia - page 44


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY A few years ago, it was cloud, followed by the Internet of things; then blockchain took the centre stage; it seems like there’s always a new buzzword coming from the tech industry. This year, artificial intelligence and machine learning are everywhere, and aquaculture was not spared. The industry is taken by storm, but is it really worth the hype?

could support farmers. For animal health, models can be trained on thousands of images of a specific symptom, and be used to detect disease before the human eye can reliably do so, giving more options to farmers than just harvesting when it’s too late. From there, we can build on complexity, capturing Samuel Couturetreatments made to the pond, measuring the effectiveness of inputs, and adding Brochu variables such as feed usage, broodstock, Chief Technology Officer, XpertSea and water quality. For clarification purposes, machine On the feed side, much optimisation can be done. AI can learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that undoubtedly support biomass estimation, which is at the core provides systems with the ability to automatically learn of feed prescriptions. But imagine adding other variables in the and improve from experience without being explicitly equation, such as water quality and temperature, forecasted rain, programmed. Let’s take a real-life example to demonstrate its application: say you have a young child, and you want to teach density, genetics line, and other factors. It is not far-fetched to imagine a scenario where a farmer him colours. receives an alert on his mobile phone to reduce his feed by 10 First, you might want to teach him to recognise a blue car percent for the next day due to changes in water parameters from a red one. Once he has achieved that, you could show him because of an upcoming rainstorm. There is no doubt AI will other objects that are blue or red. By increasing the number support farmers in making better decisions for their feed which of examples of coloured objects, his brain will make sense of will lead to better feed conversion ratios, and ultimately, more the colour concept, and soon learn that colours are valid for a profit. panoply of objects. Machine learning is very similar, but with While this all looks impressive, AI and machine learning are computers. as good as the data they are built upon. We like to say: garbage In other industries like human health, AI is improving disease diagnostics and doing so with greater accuracy than ever before. in, garbage out. Indeed, if you build a model with inaccurate and improperly labelled data, or simply an insufficient amount As an example, a recent study1 demonstrated that machine of data, its predictions might well be far from reality. learning, in this case, deep learning, is more accurate at For this reason, one of the first questions to ask a tech detecting lung tumours than radiologists. company doing machine learning should be: what is your This is only the beginning. By training AI models on an underlying dataset? There are many aquatech start-ups that increasingly larger number of medical images, it is conceivable market themselves as AI-driven platforms, but some of those that those models would be able to detect cancer much earlier. might be simple rule-based systems like “if this happens, Should radiologists be scared of such a technology? Not at all. then do that”. An AI-driven platform is built on solid data It will support their highly technical work and facilitate foundations and strong machine learning engineering decision making. In this situation, an AI could only show the knowledge, not only on heuristic rules. relevant cases to the expert. It could then suggest a diagnosis AI is revolutionising the aquaculture industry, and we are still and let humans approve it, saving humans time while in the early days. It’s a burgeoning ecosystem of start-ups and empowering radiologists. established companies, tackling the industry’s largest problems Similarly, AI will not replace farmers in aquaculture; it will using AI, and Xpertsea is certainly proud of its current and become a key asset in their day-to-day operations. Disease and future contribution. feed management are two of the most important areas where AI

Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) is a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries.

Registered charity No. 1165727


NUTRITION & HEALTH Last month, I was most fortunate to be able to visit Vietnam for a week and tour many facilities within and around Ho Chi Minh City. I was the guest of Pathway Intermediates of South Korea to discuss the expanding area of aquaculture in Vietnam.

and Quality Control, Manoo Sukrachakit. It was an interesting engagement with the expertise of my brilliant hosts from Pathway Intermediates, Daniel Choi and Lily Le (Thi Bich Lieu). On the fish nutrition front, one of the new areas of interest for me is Of course, I fully recognise the Professor Simon Davies to develop more predictive models impressive contribution of this South Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed for fish growth based on emerging East Asian country to the global software. One intriguing possibility aquaculture sector and for many years I have featured the farming of Pangasius (Mekong river catfish) would be to separate the catabolism of those amino acids being oxidised in fish for maintenance requirements and as a major farmed fish along with tilapia and shrimp in my those being utilised for tissue turnover and the protein (amino university lectures. acid) component used for actual tissue accretion (growth). Of great interest to me was the significant production of This requires reliable net protein and net energy values and snakehead fish (Channa). This very carnivorous species can be quite aggressive in nature but tastes so good. My long-time coefficients of transformational efficiency for each component of nutrient partition in vivo during feeding and post prandial friend Dr Leon Kok Wee performed the first feeding trials on assimilation back to baseline metabolism. snakehead at the Institute of Aquaculture in Stirling, UK and The use of algorithms and ‘real time’ coupling with confirmed the high protein requirements for the fish during his incremental (Instantaneous) growth phasing may allow much fundamental studies. better summation of both essential and non-essential amino The snakehead grows to an impressive size quickly and acid requirements to enable more accurate feed formulations. adapts well to pelleted diets. They can be quite frightening Indeed, Net Energy (NE) data for fish (mainly trout) has and I kept my hands well away from the tanks as they are been available since the early pioneering work of the late Dr voracious feeders with sharp teeth and very strong jaws. Bob Smith in Idaho, USA during the 1970’s with his special It was good to see diligent students engaging in projects and calorimeters and sensitive thermometers. field work and a privilege to visit my dear friend Dr Le Thanh During my time in Idaho, I met Bob who lectured me on Hung at the Fisheries Department of Nong Lam University. this topic and he was a treasure to know. The Net Energy NE Dr Hung and I first met him in the United States in 2010 and system for fish is not a new concept at all but does need much we had much to discuss. more work for applications to cover a vast array of feedstuffs. He is now undertaking significant amount of work with his I trust you will enjoy our latest magazine that now bridges the semi- emeritus status and working on commercially sponsored autumn in the Northern studies with feed additives Simon Davies at the Fisheries Simon Davies With the Vice President and functional supplements. Hemisphere. Having School of Nong Lam University (Formulation & Quality Control) of CP been spoilt with three He has a very good Group Vietnam trips to tropical climates publication record in the this year, I must brace best aquaculture scientific myself for very hard work journals. with papers to write and Whilst deep into of course my editorials Mekong area where fish during the winter. production is centred, Thank you for your I visited several local attention to my sectional feed mills ranging from editorial and enjoy the full small companies to spectrum of the magazine larger international feed Simon Davies meeting with biotechnology companie supporting the aquaculture in the Mekong area of Vietnam producers such as CP feed and associate Group and their Vice technologies. President for Formula

Simon Davies with Dr Le Thanh Hung in Ho Chi Minh City

At Long Nam University Fish Nutrition Laboratory

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle vaughne@perendale.co.uk

October 2019 Volume 22 Issue 10



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.com Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.com Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erikh@perendale.co.uk Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Rebecca Sherratt rebeccas@perendale.co.uk Daniel Jackson danielj@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris darrenp@perendale.co.uk William Dowds williamd@perendale.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 ivanm@perendale.com Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk


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42 Technology showcase

44 EXPERT TOPIC - Tilapia 48 Industry Events 58 The Market Place 60 The Aquafeed Interview 62

Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk Communication Manager Pablo Porcel pablop@perendale.com ©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058

Industry News

Industry Faces


Dr Neil Auchterlonie 12 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 18 Krill meal - New study shows krill is the most effective growth enhancer in diets for whiteleg shrimp

24 Dietary n-3 fatty acid for Nile tilapia at optimal and suboptimal-cold temperature 28 Tilapia: Soon to be the world’s most popular farmed fish?


20 Vita Aqua Feeds - Pioneering feed block diets for cleaner fish

30 Scottish salmon farmer granted approval to build eco-friendly homes on remote island


THE BIG PICTURE Sea Machines and Metal Shark launch new Sharktech autonomous vessel and announce immediate availability See more on page 40

36 Artificial Intelligence is shaping the future of aquaculture 40 Sea Machines and Metal Shark launch new Sharktech autonomous vessel and announce immediate availability

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BioMar leads ocean-based climate action for aquaculture


Dr Neil Auchterlonie You are what you eat

he readers of International Aquafeed will all be well-versed in the need for adequate nutrition for farmed fish, and an understanding that nutritional needs go well beyond the requirement for macronutrients into a full range of micronutrients. With at least 550 farmed aquatic species, of which more than 200 are fed, there is a lot to understand about how these requirements vary across species, and even within specific different life stages of a single species, customisable even further to different geographic regions, temperatures and farming systems. As the situation is with farmed fish, so it is with human nutrition and the implications for health. Nutrition, and especially the importance of micronutrients, is frequently under-valued. This week in the UK the BBC reported on the tragic case of a teenage boy in the UK who had developed some permanent sight loss after years of being what was described as a “picky eater”. A predominantly junk food diet had resulted in the boy presenting clinically with some sight and hearing loss, associated with low levels of certain vitamins such as B12 and D, and minerals such as copper and selenium. This disturbing story is perhaps more of a reflection of the lack of understanding of the importance of nutrition for health in the general population at the current time. The story came shortly after another media story regarding the health impacts of a reduced choline intake on those who choose vegan or vegetarian diets. (Choline is found predominantly in animal-origin foods and has important physiological function.) What struck me most about these stories was that the micronutrients mentioned as lacking in the human diet are all found in fishmeal. As the cornerstone of aquafeeds, one can’t help but think of the association between meeting the needs of the farmed fish through fishmeal and fish oil providing appropriate nutrition and the subsequent relationship with the quality (and especially the micronutrient content) of the aquaculture end-product. Fish are also “what they eat”. Seafood in general is regarded as a healthy food, with oily fish holding a particularly important place in that hierarchy due to the presence of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids. There is an enormous body of literature on omega-3s, but over time it is likely that this will be added to regarding a whole range of other micronutrients, especially the vitamins and minerals. Taking this one step further, the key question is less about meeting nutritional needs, and more about optimal health for farmed fish, and ultimately the consumer. What we see with the rise of some of the lifestyle nutritional choices is a potential impact on human health via nutrition. The recent FAO aquaculture meeting in Trondheim emphasised that malnutrition is not always hunger or undernourishment, and even those with average or high BMIs may be malnourished. With this in mind, aquaculture product goes well beyond the mere provision of protein (although that is important enough!) in its place on the plates in 21st Century households.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 8 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed


ecently the High Level Panel for A Sustainable Ocean Economy, launched their latest report showing that ocean-based climate action can deliver a fifth of the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions required by 2050 to prevent climate change through the 1.5ºC global temperature rise. BioMar accepted the invitation to join the Advisory Network of the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy, explaining that they understand the important role that aquaculture feed and seafood products play in ensuring a sustainable future for our planet. “BioMar are sole producers of aquaculture feed and we understand that our feed can be responsible for up to 80 percent of the environmental impact of aquaculture farming. The onus is on us to find alternative ways of making feed to reduce the environmental footprint so that our customers can answer the call to double aquaculture production by 2050”, expressed Carlos Diaz, CEO in BioMar Group. The new study called The Ocean as a Solution for Climate Change: Five Opportunities of Action pinpoints several action areas for aquaculture. These actions include among many, the sourcing of alternative and untraditional nutrients for aquaculture feed and promoting seafood to shift diets to lower carbon protein sources. Recently Salmon Group, a cooperation of 44 Norwegian salmon farmers, announced the reduction of their carbon footprint by 50 percent by using a customised BioMar recipe. BioMar are not alone in the desire to drive ocean-based climate action. Norwegian Prime Minister, Erna Solberg, a cochair of the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean economy stated, “this report signals an exciting new pathway to a low-

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New era beckons for Scottish Sea Farms and its long-standing Production Director, John Rea


cottish Sea Farms’ long-standing Production Director John Rea is to step down in early 2020 to take his career in a new direction, the company has announced. Following 22 years in the role, an instrumental aspect of which has been nurturing and mentoring the marine farm team, Mr Rea plans to take his passion for personal development and coaching to the next level by establishing his own private practice. The career move comes on the back of John having achieved an accredited qualification in the specialism. Scottish Sea Farms’ Managing Director Jim Gallagher said, “On a professional level, I’m hugely sorry to see John go. We both joined what was then Hydro Seafood within months of each another and soon found ourselves overseeing the company’s sale. In the years since, we’ve grown Scottish Sea Farms into one of the country’s leading growers of premium salmon, making it our shared mission to farm as responsibly and sustainably as possible. “On a personal level, as both a long-standing colleague and good friend, I wish John every success with his new career. His ability to motivate and inspire all who work with him is renowned throughout the company, so this new career move feels like the natural next step, enabling John to share his skills with a wider audience.” Hailing originally from Northern Ireland, John moved to

Scotland in 1997, leaving Hydro Seafood Fanad in County Donegal to take up the role of Biologist with Hydro Seafood GSP. In 2001, Hydro Seafood sold its Scottish farms to Norskott Havbruk, which operates as Scottish Sea Farms, with Mr Rea being appointed Production Director in 2002. John will remain in the role and continue to be responsible for all marine farming activities until his successor is appointed. Mr Gallagher added, “Our aim is to set the benchmark for sustainable salmon farming and we’re looking for a forward thinking, sector experienced, commercially aware candidate who can build on the gains already being made in the key areas of fish welfare, environmental protection and product quality, and help accelerate our progress. “John leaves big shoes to fill, however for the right candidate with the right combination of experience and drive this promises to be a truly career-defining opportunity.”

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Researchers aim to clear up water’s impact on gill health consortium of Scottish aquaculture experts are aiming to determine the optimal water conditions for treating salmon with gill health issues, in a project which could lead to significant improvements in fish wellbeing and have a positive impact on the industry. The research group consisting of Loch Duart, Nevis Marine, the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture, Pulcea, Norway’s Institute of Marine Research, and the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) – will test the effect of fresh and low salinity water on fish’s gills. The project could also help find new ways of reducing the impact of sea lice. Using freshwater to treat fish affected by amoebic gill disease is a well-established practice in aquaculture. However, transferring seawater-adapted salmon to freshwater conditions can cause short-term stress for the fish and, in some cases, lead to mortalities. Cleaner fish which remove parasites are also averse to freshwater conditions.

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The aquaculturists t

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Building on research undertaken by Loch Duart, the consortium will use a range of techniques developed across the globe, including gas infusion from Canada, membrane filtration from Norway, and water quality monitoring from Australia to test the effect of a variety of water parameters on fish, including temperature, oxygenation, pressure, salinity, and pH levels. The project will then seek to determine the right balance of conditions for treating salmon with compromised gill health. The project aims to support the Scottish Government’s Farmed Fish Health Framework, which identifies gill health as a major challenge for the aquaculture sector, by reducing the stress on fish during treatment, decreasing the use of medicines, and creating better conditions for cleaner fish. Giada Desperati, R&D coordinator at Loch Duart, said, “Knowledge of how salmon’s gills react to different water conditions is a relatively nascent area of research but it’s vitally important that we improve treatments and understand how it can affect fish. “This project touches everything in the aquaculture industry and could have a transformative effect on the treatment of salmon health. While the primary area of enquiry is on gill health, the results could also point us towards more suitable conditions for cleaner fish and the treatment of sea lice another of the industry’s biggest challenges.” Dr Sophie Fridman from the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture added, “With the increasing prevalence of gill challenges impacting Scottish fish farmers, interventions to protect salmonid gill health have become an essential part of fish health management strategies. “However, these treatments are not without their risks and impose a physiological strain on already health compromised fish. Studying the impacts of freshwater treatments is therefore an extremely timely area of research – our aim is to optimise these treatment regimens and improve fish health and welfare under commercial field conditions.” Caroline Griffin, Aquaculture Innovation Manager at SAIC, said, “Gill health is one of the biggest challenges facing aquaculture across all salmon-producing countries. It is an internationally significant issue, which we’re aiming to address through this pioneering project, building on previous research we have supported. “The health of a fish’s gills is absolutely critical to its overall wellbeing and finding new ways of treating issues affecting them, without relying on medicine, could be highly significant for the industry. It could also make a major contribution to the Scottish Government’s Farmed Fish Health Framework.”

10 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed



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planet. The HLPSOE is working with governments, experts and stakeholders from around the world to develop a road map for rapidly transitioning to a sustainable ocean economy. The members of the HLPSOE (Australia, (Canada), Chile, Fiji, Ghana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Namibia, Norway, Palau and Portugal) represent approximately 30 percent of the world’s coastlines, 30 percent of the world’s exclusive economic zones, 20 percent of the world’s ocean catch, and 20 percent of the world’s shipping fleet. Climate change poses stark risks to the health of the ocean and to the realisation of a prosperous and sustainable ocean economy. Acidification and rising ocean temperatures are negatively impacting important industries such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism, as well as the well-being of coastal populations. There is an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and limit further temperature rise, in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Global action to address the state of the ocean has never been more urgent. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate (released on September 25th, 2019), highlights major threats to the ocean from climate change, such as declining and migrating fish stocks, rising sea levels and increasing ocean acidification. A healthy ocean is critical for our future health and prosperity, and for achieving the global targets to limit climate change and reduce global GHG emissions. Now, in its innovative scientific analysis, the expert group is “flipping” the approach: could the ocean, in fact, be a solution to climate change? It provides five opportunities for action, highlighting solutions that would help curb climate change and contribute to the development of a sustainable ocean economy, while protecting coastal communities from increasingly severe storms, safeguarding and creating jobs, improving food security, reducing air pollution, restoring habitats for wildlife and helping maintain economic growth, thereby contributing to many of the SDGs.

Dr Thierry Chopin Climate change: The ocean will be impacted, but it is also part of the solution


cean-based climate action can play a much bigger role in shrinking the world’s carbon footprint than was previously thought. It could deliver up to a fifth (21%, or 11.82 GtCO2e/year) of the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions cuts needed by 2050 to keep global temperature rises below 1.5°C. Reductions of this magnitude are larger than annual emissions from all current coal fired power plants worldwide. This is a key finding of a new scientific report, The Ocean as a Solution to Climate Change: Five Opportunities for Action, timely published on September 23rd, 2019, for the United Nations Secretary-General’s Climate Action Summit in New York. I am very pleased to be one of the nineteen researchers and policy analysts from around the world, who prepared this report for the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy (HLPSOE) – a unique group of 14 serving heads of state and government (Canada was fully involved in the development of this Call to Action; however, as it is holding a general election, the Government of Canada is not currently in a position to sign the document). Established in September 2018, the HLPSOE is committed to catalysing bold, pragmatic solutions for ocean health and wealth that support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 for the year 2030, and build a better future for people and the

Call to ocean-based climate action – the five opportunities for action and mitigation

In response to the report, the HLPSOE issued an urgent Call to Ocean-Based Climate Action to inspire political commitments, business partnerships and investments to set us on the new pathway to a low-carbon, climate-resilient future. There are five opportunities for action identified in the report to build a sustainable ocean economy, confront the threat of climate change and help meet the objectives of the Paris Agreement and the SDGs.

Figure 1: Ocean-based mitigation options explored in the report, The Ocean as a Solution to Climate Change: Five Opportunities for Action, and associated annual mitigation potential in 2050

Offshore Wind 0.65–3.50 GtC02e International Shipping 0.75–1.50 GtC02e

Dietary Shifts 0.30–1.06 GtC02e Mangroves 0.18–0.29 GtC02e

Domestic Shipping 0.15–0.30 GtC02e

Aquaculture 0.02–0.04 GtC02e

Salt Marshes 0.05–0.10 GtC02e Seaweed Farming 0.05–0.29 GtC02e

Wild Seaweed Beds ? – ? GtC02e

Ocean Energy 0.11–1.90 GtC02e

Wild Capture Fisheries 0.08–0.14 GtC02e

Marine Fauna ? – ? GtC02e

Seagrasses 0.22–0.70 GtC02e

Seabed Carbon Storage 0.50–2.00 GtC02e

1. Invest in nature-based climate solutions

Restoring, protecting and managing coastal and marine “blue carbon” ecosystems – including mangroves, seagrasses, salt marshes, macroalgae and reefs – to enhance their ability to sequester and store carbon, adapt to the effects of climate change, and improve coastal resilience, would secure considerable CO2 sequestration and storage benefits (up to 1.09 GtCO2e/year by 2050), while delivering coastal protection, rehabilitating key habitats and ecosystems, recovering biodiversity, and providing food security and jobs. To do so, effective science and ecosystem-based management tools, including establishment of well managed and climate smart marine protected areas and other area-based management tools, must be applied and innovative financial

12 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Figure 2: Contribution of ocean-based mitigation options to closing the emission gap in 2050

instruments be developed. Adding seaweed farming to the nature-based solution set would remove an additional 0.29 GtCO2e/year by 2050, for a total mitigation potential of 1.38 GtCO2e/year from the conservation, restoration and sustainable management of coastal and marine ecosystems. Installing offshore and ocean-based renewable energy production – including wind, wave, tidal, current and solar – offers very promising climate mitigation potential (up to 5.40 GtCO2e/year by 2050; equivalent to taking 1 billion cars off the road annually). This could be scaled up to meet future energy demands and become cost-competitive.

3. Decarbonise ocean industries

Decarbonising ocean industries – including shipping and marine transport, port infrastructure and operations, fisheries, aquaculture and tourism – through energy efficiency measures, improved hull designs, and low-carbon fuels, would significantly reduce GHG emissions (up to 1.80 GtCO2e/year by 2050).

4. Secure sustainable food for the future from the ocean

Increasing the consumption of sustainable, safe, equitable, resilient and low-carbon sources of food from the ocean (fish, invertebrates and seaweeds), to feed and improve the nutrition of present and future generations, would mitigate food insecurity, while easing emissions from land-based food production (red meat). Shifting diets to sustainable marine sources is a new area of potential explored by this report (1.06 GtCO2e/year by 2050). Coupled with reducing emissions from the capture fisheries and aquaculture industries (0.18 GtCO2e/year by 2050), oceanderived food production could support a reduction of up to 1.24 GtCO2e/year by 2050.

5. Advance the deployment of carbon capture and storage

Technological approaches, such as carbon sequestration in the seabed, offer great potential to store carbon (up to 2.00 GtCO2e/ year by 2050). However, significant investment in additional research and development would be required to ensure associated risks to the marine environment are minimised prior to implementation at scale.

The ocean can be a powerful partner in the fight against climate change, but we must act now

Climate change is causing devastating impacts on our ocean; however, not all is lost. This new report highlights ocean-based solutions that could help turn the tide against climate breakdown. The ocean can play a significant role in narrowing the global emission gap that lies between a pathway based on “current policy” and the desired pathway that would hold global warming to 1.5°C above preindustrial levels. This report provides the first ever comprehensive, quantitative analysis into how the ocean can be a source of potential solutions and innovations, to provide opportunities in the fight against climate change. It estimates that five ocean-based actions could deliver a fifth (up to 21 percent) of the annual emissions cuts we need by 2050 to keep global temperature rises below 1.5°C. If the world pursues the less ambitious target of 2.0°C, ocean-based interventions could close up to 25 percent of the emission gap by 2050. The report finds that, although the impacts of climate change are threatening the ocean’s ability to provide the foundations



Current Policy baseline

55 50 45 40


2. Harness ocean-based renewable energy

70 65


Pathway to limit warming to 2oC


Remaining gap to stay within 2oC limit

Proportion of emissions gap that could be closed by ocean mitigation


Remaining gap to stay within 1.5oC limit

25 20

Pathway to limit warming to 1.5oC

15 10 5 0









for a sustainable economy, building a sustainable blue economy will curb GHG emissions, while reducing other human-made impacts from further undermining ocean health. It will provide direct co-benefits for people and ocean ecosystems: expanding jobs and economic opportunities, strengthening food security, sustaining biological diversity, and enhancing human health and well-being and the resilience of coastal communities and infrastructure. Many of these wider impacts are synergistic with and will support the achievement of the SDGs by 2030. Taking ocean-based action in tandem with efforts to decarbonise land-based industries, including phasing out fossil fuels and restoring and protecting forests, will fast-track emissions cuts and protect ocean health. Many of the mitigation options presented in this report can be implemented now, with technologies already available, to accelerate many ocean-based climate actions immediately. The governments represented on the HLPSOE are already coming forward with early action and new ocean-climate commitments. Realising the benefits, and capitalising on the full potential of the solutions explored in this report, will require significant and bold steps over the coming years, especially with respect to clear policy, planning and implementation signals from governments, coupled with strong national institutions and international cooperation. This should be associated with a greatly increased and targeted investment in integrated local-to-global ocean observation and research and development, to better inform decision-makers on the observed and projected impacts of climate change, warming and acidification of the ocean, and the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle, as well as the global cycles of other important nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and silica. The report documents the ocean’s untapped potential to fight climate change, while providing a viable and sustainable future for economies, food sources, coastal communities and sea life. It shows that the ocean, and its coastal regions, holds a key to their own survival, and, in fact, ours. It is up to humanity to seize this potential, and act very soon. This must be the responsibility of all involved stakeholders – governments, the private sector, researchers, project managers and local communities. As Jane Lubchenco, Co-chair of the Expert Group, wrote “For far too long the ocean has been mostly absent from serious policy discussions about reducing carbon emissions. Now, thanks to a new scientific analysis conducted for the HLPSOE, and with HLPSOE member countries and industries poised to act, the ocean is squarely on the climate mitigation agenda. Ocean-based actions provide hope that reaching the Paris Agreement target of 1.5°C might be possible.”

Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the owner and President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc., since 2016. International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 13

Book review

Mycotoxins in Aquaculture


a new book published by Biomin

Book written by - Rui Gonçalves and Michele Muccio; and edited by Annliese Müller

his is a beautifully produced book with both an extremely detailed Table of Contents at the front of the book and a detailed index at the back of the book. The care and attention that has obviously gone into both means it should be quick and easy for readers to look up any specific topic they are searching for. The front of the book also features a highly useful list of acronyms and a list of figures and tables. The book is divided into seven major sections which focus on various aspects of mycotoxins that are of specific interest to those working in aquaculture. In the introduction, the three authors: Rui A Gonçalves, Michele Muccio, and Editor Anneliese Müller make it clear that a central focus of the book is the current trend of replacing fishmeal with plant-based materials in fish feed and the potential impact of antinutrients such as mycotoxins found in plant matter. Their concerns are supported by the number of studies recently published at conferences (many undertaken by Biomin), and highlight the need to be aware of this issue and the need for continuing research on the potential impact of mycotoxins on the aquaculture industry.

Section 01: Mycotoxins

The book opens with a definition of what mycotoxins are, and how they occur.

Mycotoxins are produced by fungi and can contaminate crops, either in the field or during storage, and consequently they occur in animal feed and animal products. The role of antinutrients, especially mycotoxins, is not fully understood; however, mycotoxins exert detrimental effects on human and animal and productivity. Even though we cannot fully explain their function, mycotoxins are produced during different stages of food and feed production and pose a serious health risk globally. A further complication is the fact that feedstuffs are often contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. Global trading in commodities adds yet more complexity as feedstuffs from different geographical regions, many containing different fungal species, makes co-contamination of mycotoxins even more likely. In a 2027 survey conducted by Biomin, 71 percent of samples were found to be co-contaminated by two or more mycotoxins. This has a direct effect on aquaculture, since plant proteins are increasingly being used in aqua feed. Aflatoxins can be expressed in lactating animals. When animals ingest contaminated feed, mycotoxins are able to mask their toxic effects and can be transformed in the mammalian digestive track back into their parent mycotoxin. Biomin has carried out a number of worldwide surveys to evaluate the occurrence of mycotoxins in feed and raw feed materials. In the chapter on mycotoxin interactions, the authors explain how feedstuffs are often contaminated with more than one form of mycotoxin; this further complicates matters as lowlevel interactions of mycotoxins can exacerbate the toxicological effect of the diet. Because aflatoxins commonly occur in feedstuffs, feeds and milk products, these mycotoxins represent a serious threat to humans and animals. While ingestion of food is the most common vector of infection, the inhalation of contaminated grain dust is another route.

14 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Book review

After ingestion, Afla is absorbed through the duodenum and is transported through the bloodstream to the liver, the major site of metabolism. Because aflatoxins occur at a high rate in African plants and feedstuffs, they cause high rates of liver cancer in the human African population. A shocking statistic is that aflatoxins are more likely affect more people in Africa than common diseases like malaria and tuberculosis.

The other mycotoxins

The authors then discuss in detail some of the other major mycotoxins including: Tricothecenes, Ochratoxins, Fumonisins, Zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids (Ergots and sclerotia are hardened fungal tissues that replace plant structures. They are generated by the fungus to help it survive adverse environmental condition). Mycotoxins is an overarching term which refers to a diverse group of around 40 different toxins found on grains such as triticale, corn, wheat, barley, oats, millet, sorghum, rice and various grasses. Following the overview on the major forms of mycotoxin, the book provides an overview on worldwide regulations for dealing with mycotoxin contamination with a focus on the EU and USA.

Immune cells kill pathogens in the bloodstream by first recognising microbes and then proceeding to phagocytise them. There are a variety of immune cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, ridley cells, and Natural Killer cells that recognise and phagocytise pathogens. Adaptive immunity is able to develop memory, following repeated exposure to the same pathogen, which allows it a faster and more efficient response to infections. Fish have immune systems comprised of specialised organs that synthesise lymphocytes and the mucuosae also help protect fish and contain immunological tissues.

Effects of mycotoxins on the immune system of fish and invertebrates

After introducing the elements of the fish immune system. The chapter moves on to a discussion of the effects of mycotoxins on those immune systems. The tend of replacing fishmeal in feed with plant protein opens the possibility of mycotoxin contamination.

Section 02: Aquatic species defense mechanisms

Having defined the threat posed by mycotoxins in the first section, the authors address the defense mechanisms of aquatic species. Immunity is defined as the resistance to diseases, particularly infectious diseases. The immune systems is comprised of all the cells, tissues and molecules that mediate this resistance. As with mammals, the immune system of fish has developed over millions of years. Fish, living in a watery environment rich in pathogens and antigens, are constantly challenged by parasites, viruses and bacteria. This is particularly the case in aquaculture, where large numbers of fish are held in close proximity with each other, and the stress of crowding can suppress their immune systems. Fish have both an innate and adaptive immunity. The innate immunity responds to pathogens that invade the tissues, while adaptive immunity is specific to the type of pathogen. The two systems work together in concert. However, fish possess an element not found in mammals, the mucosal immune system, located in the gills and the gut. This constantly regenerated layer, which covers the skin, the gills and the gut, provides a physical barrier to the entrance of pathogens. International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 15

Book review

Although most research is limited to a small number of commercially farmed fish, mycotoxins are some of the most powerful carcinogens that can damage organs and even do damage at a cellular level. After a review of fish immunity, next the authors look at the immune systems of invertebrates such as shrimp. Although shrimp lack an adaptive immune system, they have a series of effector mechanisms that can produce an immune response. It is likely that mycotoxins will affect the health of shrimp by immunosuppression and interfering with nutrient uptake, thus interfering with the animal’s ability to recover. Mycotoxins are antinutrients and given the increase in plant-based protein in shrimp feed, it is important to study their effects on the immune system of shrimp.

Section 03: Mycotoxins in aquaculture

Although most of research on the effects of mycotoxins have been on traditionally farmed terrestrial species, since the 1960s a number of studies have been undertaken on aquaculture species such as trout. As the use of plant-based protein has increased, so has awareness of the presence of mycotoxins in aquafeed. Despite this, there are still not many validated studies of the clinical symptoms of mycotoxins-related diseases in fish and shrimp. Slow growth is one of the most frequently reported symptoms. The authors of Mycotoxins in Aquaculture chose to print a comprehensive table within the pages of the book which provides an overview of the literature on the effects of aflatoxins, deoxynialenol, fumonisins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in aquaculture fish species. The table runs a full 15 pages. The remainder of the chapter then focuses on the main mycotoxins impacting first farmed fish and then shrimp.

Section 04: Occurrence of mycotoxins in aquaculture feed

The fourth section begins by reiterating the need for the fish feed aquaculture industry to maintain sustainability and environmental responsibility by developing alternative proteins to fish meal and fish oil. While many anti-nutrients can be removed by processing, this does not apply to mycotoxins, which can survive processing intact. Plant materials selected for inclusion in aquafeed will vary according to local availability, which is a further complicating factor as studies of these plants potential contamination with mycotoxins may not have been studied. The authors then went on to identify the most common mycotoxin-contaminated plant raw materials, which include soybean meal, wheat and wheat brain, corn and gluten meal, rapeseed/canola meal, cottonseed meal, rice bran, and various other plant raw materials. Aquaculture by-products, such as shrimp head meal which is a valuable feedstuff for aquaculture, is not typically analysed for the presence of mycotoxins. Similarly, in much of Asia, sundried fish is ground to producer fish meal. However, mycotoxin contamination is possible with both of these feedstuffs. Mycotoxins are frequently found to contaminate compound feed, because of the mixture of raw materials. A study showed that 50 percent of squared samples collected from Europe contained more than one mycotoxin, while 84 percent of those samples obtained from Asia were likewise contaminated. The conclusion was that, while some aquaculture feeds contained low levels of contamination, in other samples the contamination level was sufficient to pose a significant threat to aquaculture species.

Section 05: Sampling and analysing mycotoxin content in feeds

The authors found that visual inspection of feeds was unreliable and that therefore a proper analysis of samples is necessary. Even then, this is a complex task consisting of several distinct phases. The authors then cover sample preparation, and the various analytical methods and tests required to identify the presence and variety of mycotoxins present in a sample.

Section 06: Fighting mycotoxins

Having defined the problem of mycotoxins and explained its presence in feed using plant protein and described methods of detection, the final chapter delves into methods of presenting mycotoxin contamination. Because mycotoxins occur in the plant materials used in fish feed, prevention must begin in the farm field and continue through the storage of the material. This last chapter looks at the common causes of mycotoxins of growing plants, such as moisture and temperature, aeration, sanitation, pests and storage conditions in silos. Next, it focuses on elimination of mycotoxins through a variety of strategies ranging from physical processes such as mechanical cleaning and sorting, through heat treatment and more aggressive chemical processes, to bentonite and organoclays. www.biomin.net

Rui Gonçalves

Michele Muccio

16 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Annliese Müller

Krill meal New study shows krill is the most effective growth enhancer in diets for whiteleg shrimp


by Aker BioMarine

ith the shrimp farming industry increasingly moving towards low fishmeal content feeds, practical feed formulations depend on meals, solubles and hydrolysates made from fish, squid, shrimp, krill and molluscs to act as chemoattractants and feeding stimulants. But with such a wide array of options, identifying the optimal marine chemoattractant for a species like whiteleg shrimp has proven incredibly difficult. Until now. Published in the peer reviewed Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, a new study conducted by a team from the Instituto de Ciências do Mar, Brazil in conjunction with Aker BioMarine, shows a very clear winner, krill meal. Assessing the feed preference and the growth response of juvenile whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to various

18 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

different marine chemoattractants, a diet with three percent fishmeal was supplemented with either three percent krill meal, squid meal, shrimp head meal, shrimp meal, squid liver meal, salmon meal, soy protein concentrate or five percent liquid sardine hydrolysate. With under 100 animals/m2 in 56 1-m3 tanks, shrimp were fed 10 times daily for 74 days. At harvest, the shrimp were counted, weighed, and their growth performance and feed efficiency determined. In order to evaluate feed preference, two-by-two comparisons were carried out, with diets with different chemoattractants delivered simultaneously in two separate feeding trays allocated in each tank. The results showed that krill meal is the most effective growth enhancer in fishmeal-challenged diets for whiteleg shrimp. With the final body weight highest for shrimp fed with krill-meal supplemented diet (11.97 ± 0.93 g), followed by salmon meal (11.11 ± 0.77 g), and squid meal (11.01 ± 1.17 g). The study author, Dr Alberto JP Nunes from Instituto de Ciências do Mar, Brazil says, “The research clearly illustrates that a dietary supplementation with three percent krill meal is more effective than the same dose of squid meal, salmon meal, squid liver meal, shrimp head meal, and sun-dried shrimp meal or five percent liquid sardine hydrolysate”. Adding, “While we found that some of these other chemoattractants also had the ability to promote a stimulatory effect on shrimp feed intake and feed preference, this didn’t actually result in enhanced shrimp growth performance. Indeed, the very clear positive growth effects observed in the shrimp fed krill meal, reflects the unique balance of higher feed attractiveness and stimulation, along with the steady supply of key dietary nutrients, delivered by krill, and krill alone”. Entitled ‘Feed Preference and Growth Response of Juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei to Supplementation of Marine Chemoattractants in a Fishmeal-Challenged Diet’ the study was authored by Dr Alberto JP Nunes, Dr Hassan Sabry-Neto and Mr Severino Oliveira-Neto from Instituto de Ciências do Mar, Brazil along with Dr Lena Burri from Aker BioMarine. International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 19

Vita Aqua Feeds Pioneering feed block diets for cleaner fish


by Nigel Dawson, World Feeds Limited, UK K-based feed manufacturer, World Feeds Limited, has specialised in aquatic nutrition since it’s inception in 2004. The company have been producing unique, complete diets for captive fish in some of the largest public aquariums in the world ever since - they are the only supplier in the world that has been

able to do this. August 2019 saw them bringing their years of perfecting tailored fish feeds into aquaculture with new feed block diets targeted at cleaner fish and the control of sea lice. The company operate on the simple premise of improving the way fish are fed, and it is this core ethos that has driven their global success. Their products feed hundreds of thousands of fish worldwide, whether they inhabit a 45 million-litre marine exhibit or a 30-litre goldfish tank. With the launch of their aquaculture range, Vita Aqua Feeds (VAF), they are extending the reach of their nutritional expertise to benefit fish farms around the world. VAF provides a potent combination of high quality, highly digestible feeds and innovative feeding stations designed to deliver the nutrition in the most practical and efficient way possible.

He brought together a team of fish experts, nutritional scientists and engineers in order to provide a better standard of nutrition for fish in captivity. Using carefully selected, sustainably sourced dietary components, each feed is formulated specifically to target the refined dietary requirements of the species it is intended for. The feeds themselves are produced on bespoke machinery designed by the company’s in-house engineering team, employing cold-extrusion processes that allow the ingredients to retain their nutritional integrity. Overcoming the limitations of existing technology, this creates unique soft, malleable feeds that can be presented in a variety of

It’s what’s inside that counts

World Feeds’ Founder and Technical Director Mark Wilson comes from a rich history in ornamental aquaculture, including conservation and breeding programmes and was involved in the development of one of the world’s first commercial clownfish hatcheries using 100 percent recirculation technology. His research led to a situation that deeply concerned him – food available on the market at that time was not fulfilling the nutritional requirements of an increasingly diverse range of species. “The increasing variety of species that were becoming available all had varied dietary needs, and these were not being met with the catch-all approach of the food produced at the time” explains Wilson. 20 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed


practical ways for the fish to take advantage of - benefitting both fish and user.

Cleaner fish feed blocks

Designed specifically for lumpfish and wrasse, VAF’s elongated feed blocks are a complete and balanced diet that can be deployed in sea pens, flow through or recirculation systems. The blocks maintain their integrity in water for up to 24 hours, encouraging and facilitating natural grazing behaviour throughout the day. This allows the larger fish to satiate before the smaller fish take their turn and subsequently leads to reduced aggression during feeding. The grooves that feature along the length of the block are included to allow the fish to gain better purchase on the feed. Extensive studies and trials have investigated the effectiveness of the blocks when compared to other available cleaner fish feeds. Operations including Loch Duart in Scotland and GIFAS in Norway have been using VAF products over the course of several years - working collaboratively with World Feeds to refine the product into what has now been made commercially available. “Our expert associates in the aquaculture sector have been essential in the development of our pioneering products” asserts the company’s Managing Director, Peter Kersh. “We provide complete diets and complete feeding solutions for cleaner fish.” These solutions include not only VAF’s feed blocks but the innovative feeding stations that allow customers to deliver the feed with ease. The studies conducted with lumpfish in Norway found that efficacy was greatly improved by considerable reductions in cataract development. At the end of the trial period, there was a 77 percent reduction in cataract prevalence in fish fed with feed blocks when compared to those fed with a pelleted diet. It was also found that fish fed with VAF blocks maintained stable and controlled growth rates, negating the symptoms of artificially high growth rates and further improving their

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International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 21

effectiveness as cleaners. Further study recorded improvements to general health and welfare, a result of the quality of ingredients and formulations used. In addition to their nutritional benefits, VAF blocks also offer a number of practical factors that set them apart from competitors. No refrigeration or mixing is required which promises considerable reductions in storage costs and preparation time. The blocks can easily be removed directly from the pack and deployed in-situ at the pen. Coupled with a two-year shelf life and packaging that can be recycled or reused on site, transitioning to VAF diets could have a major impact on the general running of aquaculture sites.

Revolutionary feeding stations

World Feeds’ engineering department adds another innovative wrinkle to what VAF can offer to salmon farms with the inclusion of bespoke feeding stations designed to work specifically with the feed blocks. Mark Wilson believes that the future of the company lies in providing the most practical and efficient delivery methods for their high-quality nutrition. In this respect, the company have developed feeding station technology that can be deployed strategically with an aim to revolutionise how cleaner fish are fed and maintained.

The stations come in two core forms:

The VAF Manual Line Deployment (MLD) system – Easily loaded with a single feed block at the side of the pen, each MLD can be lowered beneath the water on a line. VAF recommend deploying several MLDs around the pen, depending on the number and behaviour of cleaner fish. During trials, blocks were located in key locations about the perimeter and among kelp hides. This encouraged the cleaner fish

to disperse, maximising their exposure to the salmon and in turn the sea lice. The MLD can be deployed vertically or horizontally as required and floats back to the surface once the block has been consumed. The VAF Automatic Deployment Station (ADS) is in the latter stages of development. This buoyant dispensing system is designed to deliver the complete and balanced feed block diet over longer periods of time. Able to be loaded with a quantity of blocks, it can be custom programmed to dispense feed as and when required, with minimal supervision or maintenance. “The ADS enables farm personnel to focus their attention and time on other vital aspects of their daily process” says Mark Wilson. “We are developing the station to include an on-board computer as well as solar, wind and hydro-kinetic generators allowing it to self-regulate and self-power.” There is also scope to add attachments to the apparatus, with almost limitless potential for operational data collection and research applications.

The future for cleaner fish

VAF are confident that their combination of nutrition and innovation poses significant benefits for the future of cleaner fish management - providing an effective solution to the control of sea lice while improving the general health and welfare of lumpfish and wrasse. With the addition of multiple practical incentives and reductions in operational costs for fish farmers, Vita Aqua Feeds certainly has the potential to achieve far-reaching success within the aquaculture industry. www.vitaaquafeeds.uk

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Nile tilapia

Dietary n-3 fatty acid for Nile tilapia at optimal and suboptimal-cold temperature by Renata Oselame Nobrega and Débora Machado Fracalossi, Fish Nutrition Lab (LABNUTRI), Aquaculture Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, Brazil


he studies conducted in recent years by our group at LabNutri showed that growth and feed efficiency of Nile tilapia at a suboptimal cold temperature (22 °C) were improved when fish were fed diets containing polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). Despite being a tropical species, Nile tilapia is farmed in many subtropical regions worldwide. In Brazil, Paraná state, the largest producer of Nile tilapia is located in a subtropical climate region. However, cold-suboptimal temperatures have been reported worldwide as causing negative impacts on Nile tilapia production. Our studies show that when juvenile Nile tilapia of the GIFT strain, sexually inverted to male, are subjected to cold-suboptimal water temperatures (22°C), there is a reduction of 40-to-50 percent in feed consumption, which leads to a significant decrease in growth when compared to fish kept at an optimal growth temperature (28 °C). The ideal water temperature range for Nile tilapia farming is from 26-to-30 °C. However, the temperature range at which feeding and voluntary movement cease as well as the lethal temperature are influenced mostly by genetics and nutrition. For instance, the fatty acid profile of the diets, specifically the ratio between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA), can affect growth at lower temperatures. Thus, we can formulate winter diets for Nile tilapia to promote growth. Of course, farming Nile tilapia strains, which are more tolerant to suboptimal water temperatures, could also be beneficial. However, such strains are not easily obtained. Changes in ambient temperature affect the requirements of fatty acids in the diets of ectothermic animals such as fish, which do not maintain a constant body temperature. Thus, to maintain their physiological function in cold unfavorable temperatures, fish increase the fatty acid unsaturation levels of the phospholipids that make up their cell membranes. The higher the degree of unsaturation of a particular fatty acid, the lower its fusion point. This is an adaptive mechanism which enables cell membranes to function properly when temperature variations occur. Despite having numerous studies on Nile tilapia nutrition, there are still areas that need further understanding such as the dietary

requirement and metabolism of fatty acids at different farming temperatures. Traditionally, Nile tilapia reared at optimal temperature have been considered to have a dietary requirement of only 18-carbon chain fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid (18: 3 n-3, α-LNA) and/or linoleic acid (18: 2 n-6, LOA) (Takeuchi et al., 1983; Chen et al., 2013). Our results demonstrate that a dietary n-3/n-6 ratio varying from 0.2-to-2.9 does not affect the growth of Nile tilapia juveniles when kept at optimal temperature. In that study, a total dietary PUFA of 1.30 percent diet dry weight was enough to promote a high weight gain (Mufatto et al., 2019). However, at suboptimal cold temperature, Nile tilapia growth and feed efficiency were improved when fed diets containing fish oil, rich in n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA), if compared to fish fed diets with other sources of lipids,

rich in LOA or α-LNA (Corrêa et al., 2017; Corrêa et al., 2018). Likewise, the dietary requirement of α-LNA of Nile tilapia was higher when fish were reared at suboptimal-cold temperatures when compared to fish reared at optimal temperatures (Nobrega et al., 2017). Nowadays there is a search for sustainable alternatives to fish meal and fish oil as feed ingredients. Although plant oils have been used to substitute fish oil, there is a wide difference in their fatty acid profile, mainly in their content of n-3 PUFA.

24 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Figure 1

Our research group has been working with a novel additive, Aurantiochytrium sp. meal, produced by Alltech Inc (Nicholasville, Kentucky, USA). This meal is made with a dry heterotrophic microorganism found in marine habitat, which presents rapid growth and relatively simple processing, being suitable to be used as a source of docosahexaenoic acid (22: 6 n-3, DHA) to the feed industry. Thus, we conducted a study to assess if different dietary inclusions of Aurantiochytrium sp. meal, a source of DHA, would affect the growth and muscle fatty acid composition of Nile tilapia, at an optimal temperature (28 °C) and suboptimal-cold temperature (22 °C). We found that the supplementation of up to 4.0g 100g-1 dry diet with Aurantiochytrium sp. meal did not affect the growth of Nile tilapia juveniles when kept at the optimal temperature (Fernandes et al., 2018).

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The annual meeting of

However, Nile tilapia maintained at 22 °C respond to increasing dietary inclusion of Aurantiochytrium sp. meal with improved performance. A dietary supplementation of Aurantiochytrium sp. in the range of 0.45-to-1.42 g 100-1 dry diet was enough to provide best growth, feed efficiency, body lipid composition, and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in fish muscle (Nobrega et al., 2019). Therefore, Aurantiochytrium sp. meal can be considered as a good source of DHA and an excellent alternative to replace fish oil and to be included as an additive in winter diets for Nile tilapia. The dietary supplementation of Aurantiochytrium sp. meal by Nile tilapia during only 21 days was enough to positively affect weight gain (See Figure 1). Additionally, fish fed 1g 100-1 dry diet Aurantiochytrium sp. meal had significantly higher growth, feed efficiency, and protein retention than fish fed a diet supplemented with a similar amount of DHA derived from cod liver oil. Dietary supplementation of 1g 100-1 dry diet Aurantiochytrium sp. meal promoted five percent more growth than the inclusion of 2g 100-1 cod liver oil, as well as promoted 16 percent more growth in comparison to tilapia fed a diet without any DHA supplementation (Nobrega et al., 2019). In other studies from our lab, also at suboptimal cold temperature, Nile tilapia had a weight gain 18 percent higher when fed diets containing fish oil, rich in n-3 LC-PUFA, in comparison to fish fed diets containing mixes of plant oils, rich in LOA or α-LNA (Corrêa et al., 2018). A variation in the lipid fatty acid profile of the diet, mainly a high content of SFA, may negatively affect the digestibility of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), PUFA, and dietary lipid, as reported in many studies for tilapia. This negative effect is even stronger at cold-suboptimal temperatures for Nile tilapia.

When evaluating the digestibility of the fatty acid groups of Aurantiochytrium sp. meal for Nile tilapia at 22 °C we registered a MUFA and SFA digestibility as low as 15 percent and 52 percent, respectively. In general, diets with high levels of SFA contribute to a decreased fluidity and increased viscosity of oils, thus, negatively affecting the lipid digestibility and metabolism in fish. Additionally, we registered that the digestibility of protein and lipids of Aurantiochytrium sp. meal at a suboptimal temperature decreased around 20 percent when compared to tilapia fed at an optimal temperature. On the other hand, all PUFA in the Aurantiochytrium sp. meal presented a high digestibility coefficient (96%-to-100%) for Nile tilapia, not only at the optimal temperature but also at suboptimal temperature. In general, SFAs showed lower digestibility than PUFAs, regardless of the water temperature. Within the SFAs, the digestibility of palmitic acid (16:00) decreased from 70.81 percent at 28°C to 52.25 percent at 22 °C (Fernandes et al., 2018; Nobrega et al., 2019). For Nile tilapia, a freshwater omnivore, there has been a drastic reduction or complete exclusion of ingredients rich in n-3 PUFA of commercial feeds due to cost constraints. However, such practice should be reviewed, especially when tilapia is raised in a subtropical climate, where an adequate body fatty acid profile will help fish to offset temperature fluctuations. Our lab studies showed that the supplementation of Aurantiochytrium sp. meal could be an interesting alternative in winter diets for Nile tilapia. Field studies should also be carried out to validate our lab results and to calculate the costs x benefits of supplementing Aurantiochytrium sp. meal or other ingredients rich in DHA in winter diets for Nile tilapia.

26 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 27

Tilapia Soon to be the world’s most popular farmed fish?

From an interview with Professor Abel-Fattach El-Sayed with Vaughn Entwistle, Managing Editor, International Aquafeed

Biographical note: Professor Abdel-Fattah ElSayed received his PhD in aquaculture (Tilapia Nutrition) from Michigan State University, USA in 1987. He is currently a full professor at the Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt.

Do you think tilapia will eventually rank as the number one most popular species amongst farmed fish?

If you look at the growth rates over the last few decades, you will have your answer. Tilapia is the fastest growing farmed fish and is now grown in over 125 countries. I believe that, very soon in this century, tilapia will be the number one most grown species.

Why in some countries does tilapia have a questionable reputation?

Because of widespread misperceptions. Some people, with no idea of science, think tilapia is a junk fish that eats human waste and slaughtered animals’ viscera. Others think that tilapia is a genetically engineered fish. All of this is completely false. Unfortunately, if you look on the internet you will come across blogs spreading this misinformation. Tilapia is an easy-going fish that is not very expensive to grow. The quality of the fish is good. From my research I have found that tilapia has 60 percent protein, and about 20 percent fat. Some of the bad publicity around the fish comes from misinformation spread by people who are growing competing fish. The USA is the largest importer of tilapia in the world. They

import over 180,000 tonnes of tilapia-per-year from more than 30 countries, but mainly from China. In the USA they are near to the top of the table of foods that Americans prefer. A few years ago, tilapia was number seven of preferred fish, but now they are number five.

What is your vision for the future of tilapia?

In my book “Tilapia Culture”, which had its first edition published in 2006, I predicted that countries like Brazil, Mexico, India, and Pakistan would be key players in the future. Brazil is now number five. Back then, they were producing less than 70,000 tonnes; now they are producing over 300,000 tonnes. Mexico is close to producing over 50,000 tonnes a year, so I still believe that these Latin American countries will be major producers of tilapia in the near future. Bangladesh is now number four and India is growing with huge momentum. Sub Saharan African countries, with support from initiatives such as Perendale’s Aquaculture without Frontiers, is also growing rapidly and they have fewer problems with water supplies than Egypt.

Do you think tilapia offers a different opportunity for land-locked countries, as they are a fresh water fish?

Tilapia can be grown in brackish water, but the fish expend more energy, whereas they grow better in fresh water. Many South Asian and Eastern European countries, where they have traditionally favoured carp, are now switching to tilapia. The same is true for Indonesia and China who are now transitioning to tilapia, especially now with new fast growing strains with different colours. The species is very easy to grow, which is one of the most important factors.

Tilapia Culture, second edition

by Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed Creates an understanding of the current global state, production, farming technologies, and future potential of major cultured tilapia species. Tilapia Culture, Second Edition offers a detailed description of the principles and practices of tilapia culture in the world. It covers all of the vital issues of farmed tilapia including the

28 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

"Tilapia is the fastest growing farmed fish and is now grown in over 125 countries. I believe that, very soon in this century, tilapia will be the number one most grown species"

biology, environmental requirements, semi-intensive culture, intensive culture systems, nutrition and feeding, reproduction, seed production and larval rearing, stress and diseases, harvesting, economics, trade, and marketing, the role of tilapia culture in rural development and poverty eradication, and technological innovations in and environmental impacts of tilapia culture. It also highlights and presents the experiences of leading countries in tilapia culture. The new second edition not only brings the most updated information within each chapter, but also delivers new content on tilapia transfers and introductions and their impacts, the use of probiotics and other additives in tilapia culture, tilapia trade

including marketing, and sustainability approaches and practices, such as best management practices, ecosystem approach to tilapia culture, and value chain analysis of tilapia farming. Tilapia farmers and researchers will greatly benefit from the book’s overview of the most relevant research and information on tilapia culture.

Key features

Presents biology of tilapia, including taxonomy, body shapes, geographical distribution, introductions and transfers, gut morphology, and feeding habits Covers semi-intensive tilapia culture in earthen ponds and their intensive culture in earthen ponds, tanks, raceways, cages, recirculating systems, and aquaponics Provides the latest information on broodstock management, production of monosex tilapia, seed production, and larval rearing under different culture systems Highlights the most common infectious and non-infectious diseases affecting farmed tilapia, with a full description of disease symptoms and treatment measure Provides an in-depth exploration of tilapia economics, trade and marketing.


www.tsc-silos.com International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 29

Aquaculture round-up

Scottish salmon farmer granted approval to build eco-friendly homes on remote island


cottish Sea Farms, together with local landowners Haydn Jones and Nick Lyde of Willowstream, are to build the homes within the secluded hamlet of Mill Bay on Eday, one of the smaller Orkney islands with just 76 habitable properties for a population of 129 people. Costing UK £750,000, the new development will create four new homes for employees of the nearby salmon farm, helping overcome the lack of available accommodation, with a further two homes available to rent by islanders or visitors. Scottish Sea Farms’ Phil Boardman, Farm Manager at Eday, said, “We’ve been farming on the island for over seven years now and while the conditions for growing salmon are superb, the remote location has made recruitment difficult. “Unless employees live on one of the nearby islands such as Sanday, they face a two-hour commute by boat from Orkney mainland, then have to stay over on one of the islands until their next weekend off, leaving little time for family, food shopping or looking after home and garden. The result is that we have seen valued employees leave with every crop cycle – they loved the job, just not the logistics that go with it.” For Farm Manager Boardman, whose first degree was in construction followed later in life by a postgraduate diploma

in Sustainable Aquaculture from the University of St Andrews, something had to change. “Step one has been to introduce a two-week on, two-week off shift pattern which is enabling the team to balance farm life and home life. Step two, and equally critical, will be building these high spec houses for the team to go home to after each shift, sparing them the commute to other islands and ensuring they have a good quality of life. “We gave the team the choice of multi-bedroomed communal homes or single-dwelling and the decision was unanimous – they wanted their own space. The bonus of having the two rental homes meanwhile is that there will also be somewhere for visitors, contractors and auditors to stay.” For all Eday is remote, it’s very much at the centre of Orkney’s renewable energy sector with a Surf n’ Turf project underway to convert surplus power from the European Marine Energy Centre’s tidal test site and the community-owned 900kW wind turbine into hydrogen gas that can be stored and used on demand, reducing reliance on fossil fuels. Keen that the new homes build on these ecological credentials, Scottish Sea Farms and Willowstream have created a development that’s every bit as green, featuring: Modular-style accommodation designed by Retreat Homes & Lodges, who were featured on More4’s Impossible Builds, and manufactured on the UK mainland to cut down on travel miles

30 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture round-up

during construction Sustainable cedar wood cladding to help insulate and reduce overall energy use Living sedum roofs which help reduce rainwater run-off, minimise erosion and absorb noise, while also increasing biodiversity by providing a habitat for wildlife Packaged sewage treatment system and reed beds to separate and capture waste from water, offering a more ecological alternative to a septic tank Wind-generated power from existing turbines along with air source heat pumps which absorb warmth from the air outside and use it to heat homes Helping ensure that the compact 1.5 acre development blends into the landscape has been Orkney architect Leslie Burgher whose graduated design will see the homes stepped into the hillside. There will also be extensive planting to help absorb CO2 from the atmosphere, along with polytunnels and a communal outside space with seating made from locally-sourced stone. One of the first Scottish Sea Farms’ employees to benefit from the new accommodation will be 28-year old Charlotte Owen, “The two-week on, two-week off shift pattern has already made a huge difference, ensuring there’s sufficient time around work to leave the island, see family and friends, and generally catch up on all things life. “The only downside is that, during my two weeks on, I’m having to stay in shared accommodation with colleagues, so the days of going home to my own space at the end of each shift can’t come soon enough.” Groundworks for the development which will be known as Millhaefen, Old Norse for sheltered inlet and harking back to Orkney’s history with Norway will begin immediately, with a view to the new homes being ready for occupancy in early Spring 2020 in time for the next stock of salmon. Local landowner and co-director of Willowstream, Haydn Jones, commented, “We’re really looking forward to getting things underway on site, particularly in terms of applying the experience we have gained improving our own land to help breathe new life into this remote bay and to Eday as a whole. Both have been long-held aspirations of ours, but both are reliant on the island having jobs and homes.” Support locally for the new homes has been strong. Concludes Boardman, “From the architect, Orkney Islands Council planning team and local SEPA office, to the contractors we’re using and our logistics partners Northwards who will help transport the homes to the island, local partnerships have been key to making this project happen. Get it right and this eco-friendly development could be the start of things to come for remote communities such as Eday.” International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 31


Tech update Oceanbotics’ SRV-8

RJE Oceanbotics™ SRV-8 ROV is an easy-to-operate underwater drone with quick and intuitive response, integrated dual-mode camera & innovative design. Operating in complex environments presents challenges, the SRV-8 makes it easy. With RJE’s exclusive eight thruster dynamic vector control (DVC) and advanced programming, the SRV-8 is easily manipulated in most current conditions and underwater environments. This battery-operated ROV gives you up to six hours of mission time on a single charge and is depth rated at 305 metres, giving you the confidence you need to accomplish any task. https://oceanbotics.com International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 33


Precision and dynamic control:

The SRV-8

by Rebecca Sherratt, Features Editor, International Aquafeed

“This ROV is ideal for use

in the aquaculture industry for net and mooring inspections as well

as mort collections”

In International Aquafeed we have covered a variety of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) for the aquaculture industry, and it always amazes me to witness how quickly such technology evolves within the industry. One of the latest examples of a ground-breaking underwater vehicle is California-based RJE Oceanbotics™ SRV-8. This ROV is ideal for use in the aquaculture industry for net and mooring inspections as well as mort collections, with an exciting host of advanced features to boot. When asked what they believed the ROV market was missing, Oceanbotics™ explained their goal with the SRV-8: to create an ROV that is as easy to fly as a drone, is the most maneuverable, and intuitive to allow any operator to perform a multitude of tasks in almost any underwater environment. Oceanbotics™ successfully achieved this goal by developing RJE’s exclusive Dynamic Vector Control (DVC), advanced software smarts that command the eight vectored thrusters and enables six degrees of freedom in movement. It is piloted using a standard Xbox controller, making the control of the SRV-8 immediately familiar to many operators. The vehicle is battery operated which removes the need for external power sources. And with the addition of external accessories such as sonar and navigation, the SRV-8 becomes an essential underwater tool. Complex manœuvres are fluid and easily achieved with the SRV-8’s built-in ‘smarts’ system; climb, pitch, ascend, descend, move left, right, forward and backward with ease by a simple thumb gesture. Even for less experienced operators the SRV-8’s precision station-keeping technology and hold functions allow the user to lock the vehicle onto a specific depth, pitch or heading angle. With these advanced functions the SRV-8 nearly flies itself. When watching demonstrations of the ROV in action, one remarkable feature I discovered was the sheer speed with which the SRV-8 can be placed into the field and set to work. Upon arriving at the launch site, the device can be in the water in under three minutes. The operator can achieve any task from any platform using the topside box with 8.4-inch sunlight readable screen.

Dual-mode camera and LED lights

Oceanbotics™ SRV-8 is equipped with a dual mode camera to accommodate every requirement; a real-time analog feed for the operator, as well as a high-resolution digital signature for recording and viewing on-site. Any recordings made on the ROV can be played back with ease on a laptop or PC, along with the ability to view sonar and navigation data records (if equipped with optional R-NAV system). The operator sees all with the SRV-8’s two 1,500 lumen LED lights penetrating the murky depths. The lights illuminate a full 135° in front of the ROV with a third of the brightness of full sunlight, enabling users to complete any underwater operations with clarity. Should further light be needed, additional lights can also be installed onto the easily customisable frame.


34 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed


305-metre depth rating and a battery life to match

The SRV-8 has a depth rating of up to 305 metres (1000 feet), along with a tether reel which supports lengths of up to an impressive 400m (1,312 ft). Keeping an eye on the small details, Oceanbotics™ also ensured that the SRV-8’s tether is small in diameter (4.5mm to be exact), which reduces the effect of drag on the ROV, ensuring optimal performance, battery longevity and prolonged station-keeping capability. The specially designed strain relief connection and pull strength rating on the SRV-8 is over 300lbs which means that the tether can easily launch and recover the SRV-8 from high platforms or aid in the recovery of large, heavy objects from the watery depths. The SRV-8’s lithium batteries provide the device 4-6+ hours of operation on a single charge so operators can work without worry of the ROV ever running out of charge in the middle of a mission, no generator required. Need more battery life? The hot-swappable battery modules allow you to change them out quickly and easily to waste little to no time to continue your mission.

Go a step further

As well as also having a variety of optional accessories available for the SRV-8, including various cleaning tools,

manipulators and grabbers, Oceanbotics™’ parent company RJE International also offer specialised navigation systems for small ROV’s, such as the SRV-8, to take your aquatic experience one step further.

RJE Oceanbotics™

A subsidiary of RJE International Inc, a leader in underwater navigation and acoustic relocation solutions, Oceanbotics™ was established in 2017 with the goal of creating a more dynamic and professional “drone-like” experience for the marine industry. They service not just the aquaculture industry, but all industries that require marine systems, from subsea engineering, law enforcement, military and government, port security, search and rescue, diving and construction. Learn more at www.oceanbotics.com or via email to Geoff Dean at gdean@rjeint.com.


made for aquaculture

www.kaeser.com/aquaculture 35 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed


Farmers experience an overwhelming pressure to constantly interpret and apply correlations with fish activity, feeding patterns and more. AKVA Observe provides constant analytical and objective evidence of how the fish react to food and different conditions

Artificial Intelligence is shaping the future of aquaculture by AKVA group, Norway By designing a sophisticated and dynamic artificial intelligence system, AKVA group aim to convert aquaculture from art into more of a science. Salmon farming has expanded significantly over the past 30 years, resulting in phenomenal growth and a footprint where most suitable sites are already being utilised and at capacity. Future growth relies on the industry to optimise existing farms and to further industrialise new concepts both off-shore and on-shore. It is well recognised that most farms have the potential to be further optimised with regards to feed optimisation and fish welfare, together accounting for more than 50 percent of farming costs.

Emphasis on AI

“While past innovations have focused on hardware and data collection, we discovered the problem is not a lack of data, but the rigour and overwhelming pressure for farmers to consistently interpret that data and apply correlations with fish activity, feeding patterns, sensory data, feed particles and other historical information in real time,” says Petter Idar Jenssen, SVP Digitalisation in AKVA group. In 2018, AKVA group went into partnership with Observe

Technologies and formed AKVA Observe in order to bring a new intelligent feeding assistant to the market. “By designing a sophisticated and dynamic artificial intelligence system, we aim to convert aquaculture practices from art into science. The market response has been incredible and to date over 20 farms around the globe are using the solution,” Jenssen says.

Taps into existing video and data streams

AKVA Observe is built to be adaptable and empowering for farmers without the hassle of introducing new equipment in the pens. The system taps into existing camera streams found in salmon farms, analyses them in milliseconds and provides a standardised view of fish activity and detection of feed particles at different depths. “Through the combination of these factors, the system is learning pen-based trends and appetites to identify suggested optimum volume of food delivery for satiation in real time. Furthermore, it is possible to plug in sensors, feeding systems and other auxiliary data to make the analysis more comprehensive supporting higher automation of farms,” explains Jenssen. For the first time, farms have constant analytical and objective evidence of how the fish react to feed and different conditions.

36 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY As aquaculture booms as a sector and more sites are regulated, the AI systems leverage cloud infrastructures to give remote site level analysis and anomaly detection to degrees never seen before.

Existing data streams are analysed in milliseconds and provide a standardised view of fish activity and detection of food particles at different depths

Just the beginning

“We have made sure the farmers are the lead and the heart of our development. To understand the problems faced by farm operators, we have worked on fish sites across multiple continents to develop not only an initial product, but a roadmap of development to ensure that our software is a complete investment for the platform of the future. As a result, customer feedback has been positive across the world,” Jenssen says. Going forward, the company intend for AKVA Observe to automate entire aspects of the feeding process, bringing significant increases in productivity and lowering costs with the end goal of providing salmon at robust margins. They also plan to introduce systems to measure the weight of the fish automatically in the water taking out the manual process. “When scaled, the impact this will have on the economy and environment is immense. It also allows us to better monitor the health of the pens, using anomaly detection to identify atrisk sites and respond before they become an issue,” Jenssen concludes.

Facts – AKVA Observe

• An intelligent feeding assistant that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to analyse the different data and video streams at the site • The system not only count pellets, but completes a detailed analysis of fish behavior, that when used together, identify risk situations to advise the operator when it is time to increase or decrease feeding • The system is built to learn over time to better understand site specific issues and continuously improve the real-time assistance for each pen • AKVA Observe is developed by Observe Technologies in cooperation with AKVA group www.akvagroup.com

Future proofing your aqua feed production starts with co-creating the perfect fit. Let’s build or upgrade your aqua feed mill

All great ideas start with a dialogue. What’s your ambition? We at van Aarsen believe that sharing know-how and co-creation are essential in finding the perfect fit. Whether you are looking to modernize or expand your aqua feed production, want to replace aging machinery with future-proof innovations, or need advice in the planning and setup of a completely new aqua feed mill, Van Aarsen is the knowledge partner for you.


2019-06, Adv. Aqua feed Mill _fish-shrimp_IAF_IndoLivestock_190x132 .indd 1

27-6-2019 9:29:26


Sea Machines and Metal Shark launch new Sharktech autonomous vessel and announce immediate availability


hipbuilder Metal Shark and Sea Machines, a Boston-based leading developer of autonomous marine technology, have partnered on the introduction of a new 29-foot autonomous vessel now being offered through Metal Shark’s “Sharktech” autonomous division. The new Sharktech 29 Defiant weldedaluminum monohull pilothouse vessel features OEM-integrated, Sea Machines technology offering a full range of advanced capabilities, including active control and collision avoidance. The system allows for traditionally manned, reduced-crew or unmanned autonomous operations to deliver “human-in-theloop” navigation during both line-of-sight and over-the-horizon operations. Sea Machines and Metal Shark recently commenced demos using the new platform, and units are now available for acquisition by government and commercial operators under Metal Shark’s stock boat program. “We founded Sharktech in 2018 to streamline the customer’s path to autonomy by bridging the gap between the industry’s

autonomous software developers and the traditional shipbuilder,” said Metal Shark CEO Chris Allard. “Now, in conjunction with Sea Machines we have developed a turn-key autonomous production model to be kept in our regular stock rotation and available for near-immediate delivery.” “The decision to partner with Metal Shark is yet another example of Sea Machines’ commitment to delivering advanced technology to the commercial marine market,” said Sea Machines’ founder and CEO Michael G Johnson. “With our systems installed on board, commercial operators and government users alike will benefit from increased operational productivity and safety, and will gain capabilities such as force multiplication, collaborative vessel operations and remote payload control – all of which allows operators to do more with less.” Through Sea Machines’ SM300 autonomous control and monitoring system, the Sharktech 29 Defiant and all onboard systems are commanded via a direct wireless PC-based user interface. An industrialised remote control with joystick provides manual control for situations when autonomy mode is not required, and an available belt-pack remote allows for vessel, systems and payload control within a one-to-two kilometer range.

40 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY The system frees the operator from the helm to allow manned, technology-assisted control from anywhere onboard the vessel. Alternately, when unmanned operations are required, the vessel and its onboard systems may be monitored and controlled via network connections from a shoreside station or second vessel. Local situational awareness is provided to the remote operator via streaming video, ENC localisation, radar, AIS and live environmental and deck machinery condition feeds. The vessel may also be operated autonomously in a traditional (manned) mode. Advanced mission planning and situational awareness capabilities round out the autonomous package. Routine software updates allow for system enhancements as additional refinements are made. The advanced Sea Machines technology suite has been integrated into a highly versatile, military-proven hull form. Nearly 400 Metal Shark 29 Defiant vessels are in service worldwide. Powered by twin outboard engines, the vessel achieves top speeds in excess of 45 knots. Like all Metal Shark offerings, the Sharktech 29 Defiant may be customised to suit unique mission requirements. However,

to reduce lead times, a standardised configuration has been developed for the stock boats program. “While many people still think of autonomous technology in future terms, it has already arrived,” said Allard. “Together with Sea Machines we’re bringing autonomy to market in a ready form that operators can buy today and run tomorrow.”

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www.ottevanger.com International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 41

Feed mills Premixes and concentrates Fish and pet food factories Grain processing lines

TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology October 2019 This month we explore some of the newest innovations for the fish farming industry which assist fish farmers in carrying out their everyday tasks. Products that caught our team’s eye this month include deterrent hardware for predators, digital communication programmes and palletisation software.

Aquaoptima’s OptiTrap A system designed to remove particles from the tank, OptiTrap makes sure that large particles are removed from the tank almost immediately as they are formed. OptiTrap removes 95 percent of the settable particles from the water, effectively laying the groundwork for maintaining optimal water quality in the tank at all times. It is very important to remove the large particles before they have time to dissolve into smaller particles and release nutrients. Removing fine particles and colloids from the water is much more complex. This solution saves you both time and energy, and it reduces the load on the rest of your facility. https://aquaoptima.com

See more aquaculture technology in our report from the show floor at AquaNor 2019 - on page 52

Ace Aquatec’s Offshore Marine Life Protection Ace Aquatec has partnered with Van Oord to provide a solution for creating a safe exclusion zone for marine wildlife, during high energy events, such as pile driving, underwater explosions (cable laying) or for oil spillages. Using the academically validated sound patterns developed by Van Oord and Dr Ron Kasteline in their trademarked Fauna Guard, Ace Aquatec has made available its deterrent hardware platform to provide the best solution for marine mammal mitigation. https://aceaquatec.com

Aqua Culture Supply net washing machine This net washing machine is for all kind of fishing nets and it is the result of the requests expressed by a number of farmers to have a strong and reliable tool that can cover large quantities in terms of both time and workforce necessary to the cleaning of nets for cage farming. Each machine has an inlet for clean water and an outlet for wastewater and washing time is approximately 60-120 minutes. Each machine has a speed control unit and the ability to use both seaand fresh water. The power supply is 380V and the rotation of drum is powered by a gear and chain system. The water capacity for washing is three-to-four tonnes. http://aq-supply.net

Do you have a product that you would like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to rebeccas@perendale.co.uk 42 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

HOWCASE BioMark’s BioTerm BioTerm is a simple communication programme that allows users to download reader files, delete reader files, adjust reader settings, view current reader status, and perform reader firmware updates. It also has a convenient feature for logging data from a reader directly to a computer by enabling the “Capture” function. When connected to a reader with diagnostic reporting capability, BioTerm can also be an effective data logging solution for fish farms. This feature is useful for evaluating system and tag detection performance while running a system in the field. Use BioTerm to set up a connection via serial or IP address. www.biomarkaqua.com

Sentronic SenrOXY WQM Series SenrOXY is a versatile, accurate and real-time water quality monitoring and control system that reliably provides data and predictions. Moreover, it is characterised by a low power consumption, low costs of ownership, and fair investment costs. The DO and CO2 sensors inside combine flexibility with the latest in optical sensor technology to meet the high quality demands of customers. The available sensor options are innovative devices which measure accurately in water – even in the harshest environments. A key feature is the integrated Sentro.io radio-controlled interface. By leveraging passive, function-specific tags or accessories, users can control, calibrate and communicate with the sensors directly. Sentro.io eliminates the need to physically disconnect the devices – or to connect them to a computer or control unit – while performing these tasks. This smart wireless technology saves time and cuts costs. www.sentronic.de

SeaFeed Pellet Detection SeaFeed Pellet Detection controls the SeaFeed System in line with configurable parameters further minimising feed waste, increasing feed conversion ratios and improving operator efficiency. SeaFeed Pellet Detection has been fundamentally designed to automatically and intelligently control the SeaFeed Feeding System. Utilising clear imagery coming from the a camera, their highly skilled technology team have configured next edge detection algorithms within the pellet detection software which can then intelligently pinpoint feed pellets. To ensure complete clarity in the detection of pellets the image is digitally enhanced to overcome some of the light-filtering effects of the seawater. During detection in manual mode, if the number of pellets detected is higher than the operator configurable “threshold” then the alert system is engaged, and the pen screen is displayed with an orange outline border to visually indicate to the user that the threshold is being surpassed. www.gaelforceaquaculture.com

Organised by

Seafood Security and SAFEty:

An Aquacult ure Pe rspe ct ive 4th Annual Aquaculture Conference & Exhibition

2-4 October 2019

School of Applied Science, Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore

Topics of Discussion Rotary screw compressors with 1:1 direct drive You can meet virtually any compressed air demand with fluid-injected rotary screw compressors from Kaeser. All models are equipped with an energysaving 1:1 direct drive. The motor drives the air end directly without transmission loss via a maintenance-free coupling. Electronic thermal management dynamically controls the fluid temperature of ASD, BSD, CSD, CSDX, DSD, DSDX, ESD and FSD series compressors. This not only saves additional energy, but also reliably prevents condensate formation and associated moisture damage. In the new models, internal pressure losses have been minimised by the flow-optimised SIGMA profile. www.kaeser.com

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International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 43




by Daniel Jackson, Content Editor, International Aquafeed


he resilience and versatility of tilapia has taken the fish from its natural habitat – the rivers of north Africa – to almost every continent on the planet. The species adapts to a wide range of environments. In one extreme example, having been introduced to the Salton Sea in California (which was merely brackish at the time) tilapia now thrive there in salinity levels that kill other native marine species. Numerically, at least, it is an evolutionary success story. The name tilapia is an umbrella term for a variety of species, the most common being Mozambique tilapia, the Oreochromis aurenus and the Nile Tilapia. It is streamlined with a deep body. The lateral line in tilapia, like many fish, is uninterrupted. Their fins are mostly spined, with the dorsal fins most heavily so. The most common colour of tilapia is red, which was initially a genetic cross between a female Mozambique and the typical male

44 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed





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International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 45

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tilapia fish. Several factors influence the colour of the tilapia fish, including the sexual rate of maturity, the geographical location of its growth and the kind and source of food. One of the reasons tilapia are preferred over a large variety of fish for farming is due to their ease of growth. Tilapia requires minimal upkeep to reach maturity. For these reasons, fish farmers can invest less capital and space and still expect to produce many mature fish. Successful farming of tilapia depends on many factors. To breed them commercially one needs to understand the species’ maturity rate. Understanding this aspect of tilapia farming will enable accurate estimation of the investment required before the fish can make expected returns. Native tilapia take more time to mature and, due to overfishing, these indigenous species are slowly decreasing in numbers. For this reason, among others such as the difficulties in growing hyacinth (a staple of the tilapia diet), the native species of fish are much more expensive as compared to the exotic species. The weight of fish wholly depends on the conduciveness of the environment in which it grows. In a well-lit and fed environment with optimum temperature, the Mozambique tilapia can grow up to half a kilo. In a poor environment, however, their growth is stunted and they can weigh as little as 20 grams. We have witnessed a quick rise in the consumption of tilapia over


the past decade, especially in the United States. The tilapia fish has been invested mostly in tropical areas but also in subtropical regions. They can survive in warm freshwater and can be produced in large numbers. For the reasons above as well as the growth in the universal rate of consumption, the tilapia has become more popular in aquaculture. The number of fish produced yearly for trade is approximately 1.4 million tonnes. The largest producers (Indonesia, China, the Philippines and Taiwan) cumulatively produce almost 76 percent of the total number caught annually. Most of these fish are exported to non-fish farming countries such as Mexico, the United States and South Africa. However, there have been some fluctuations in the market trends of tilapia. While some areas such as Africa have experienced market growth, some like the Latin Americas have experienced a fall in trade. The price of tilapia per pound varies hugely from country to country. On average, a mature tilapia fish may go for US $3 per kilogram in the United States. In the producing countries such as Kenya, a wild tilapia may sell for $5 on average, and the exotic species can go for an average of $2. The production and trade of tilapia as a business enterprise has improved over recent years, owing to the developments in fish farming technology and techniques. Further study of the species has enabled both farmers and researches to improve the variety and number of fish produced.

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www.almex.nl International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 47

Industry Events 2019



7-10 Aquaculture Europe 2019 Berlin, Germany www.aquaeas.eu

17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA www.namamillers.org


9-12 Aquaculture America 2020 Hawaii, USA www.marevent.com

21-24 ☑ Aqua Expo 2019 Guayaquil, Ecuador http://aquaexpoguayaquil.cna-ecuador.com 21-24 GOAL 2019 Chennai, India www.aquaculturealliance.org The annual Global Outlook for Aquaculture Leadership (GOAL) conference will take place at the Leela Palace in Chennai, India between October 21 – 24th, 2019. The conference, which is now in its 20th year, aims to bring together forward-thinking leaders from across the global aquaculture industry to review production, sustainability, innovation and market drivers. There will be more than 60 speakers at the event, providing insight on the trends shaping the future of responsible aquaculture production and sourcing. Expect keynote addresses on diet, nutrition and sustainability, aquaculture production data, trends in international trade and consumer marketing. There will also be marketplace roundtables on the European and Asian/ Middle East marketplaces. A student chef cooking competition will also take place on the first day of the conference - last year’s competition drew more than 60 applicants, and the winner received a five-day training session at the Royal Garden Hotel in Kensington, London. Attendees will come away with valuable knowledge, strategic relationships and an understanding of emerging issues and solutions. 31-2 Aquaculture Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan www.aquaculturetaiwan.com 2019

November 6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conf. Florida, USA www.afia.org 20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica www.marevent.com 20-22 Sustainable Ocean Summit Paris, France https://sustainableoceansummit.org


December 3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France https://algaeurope.org

19-20 Aquafarm Pordenone, Italy www.aquafarm.show/en 2020

March 9-11 VIV MEA Abu Dhabi, UAE www.vivmea.nl

9 Aquafeed Extrusion MEA @ VIV MEA Abu Dhabi, UAE http://bit.ly/aqex20bangkok

10 Aquatic MEA Conference @ VIV MEA Abu Dhabi, UAE mymag.info/e/290

International Aquafeed, together with VIV are hosting the latest rendition of the Aquatic Conference- Aquatic MEA at VIV MEA 2020! The conference is taking place on March 10th, 2020 at ADNEC. The conference will run for one full-day and will feature a variety of industry experts delivering brilliant presentations about the latest updates in both fish and shrimp nutrition. The theme of this conference will be the initiatives, developments, trends and challenges in the UAE, Saudi Arabian and Egyptian aquaculture sectors and it will be a vital event for those who want to discover more about Middle-Eastern aquaculture. 2019’s Aquatic Asia Conference at VIV Asia was a huge success, with brilliant presentations from companies such as Phileo by Lesaffre, Bühler, Tanin Sevnica, Aker BioMarine, Lallemand, Olmix and many more. On average each Aquatic Conference gathers 150+ attendees and they only continue to grow in popularity! A variety of sponsorship opportunities are also available for this conference for those who wish to present. For more information please contact rebeccas@perendale.co.uk.

☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event 48 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

23 Aquafeed Extrusion @ VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia Bangkok, Thailand http://bit.ly/aqex20bangkok

23 Aquatic Health and Nutrition Asia Conference @ VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia Bangkok, Thailand bit.ly/aquatic20

The Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference, co-organised by International Aquafeed, Dr Mian Riaz of Texas A&M University and VIV is once again taking place during VICTAM Asia and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia! This rendition of the conference will specialise in extrusion for aquatic feeds and will be held one day before the exhibition on March 23rd. The full-day conference will feature a variety of industry expert speakers delivering innovative presentations on how users can make the best use of their extrusion machinery and aqua feed systems. A variety of sponsorship opportunities are available for those interested in joining us to present at the conference. Last year’s Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference was a resounding success, featuring talks from a variety of companies such as DSM, Andritz, CPS, Wenger and many more. For enquiries please contact rebeccas@perendale.co.uk. 24-26 ☑ VICTAM and Animal Health and Nutrition Asia Bangkok, Thailand www.victam.com www.viv.net 2020


7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia www.livestockmalaysia.com

Industry Events

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50 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed




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Industry Events


by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing editor, International Aquafeed

Last month’s magazine provided a teaser about the recent Aqua Nor exhibition in Trondheim, Norway. This month we will go into greater detail about this major event in the aquaculture calendar. Aqua Nor is famous as the world’s largest aquaculture technology show and this year scored big on that account, with cutting edge tech solutions on display in every hall. Here is a brief overview at some of the show highlights.

52 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events


Fish health and nutrition While Aqua Nor is primarily a technology show, fish health is always a critical component in a successful aquaculture endeavour, and as such many companies who specialise in fish health. Veramaris their innovative feed products that maintain fish health and boost omega 3 levels sustainably by using natural marine algae.

The food giant was promoting its family of feed solutions, including Empyreal75, a corn protein that that delivers essential amino acids and key nutrients; Motiv, a fermented corn protein that delivers an probiotic function in shrimp; Latitude omega-3, a plant-based source of omega-3 fatty acids for aqua feed; and FeedKind, a sustainable protein produced via a methane fermentation process developed by Calysta. www.cargill.com


Algimum is this company’s algae-based fish feed that promotes fish health by enhancing gut integrity and immune function. www.olmix.com

International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 53

Fish cage systems

Not surprisingly for a Norwegian aquaculture event, there were many companies scattered through the halls displaying their latest fish cage systems, including some notable names such as: AKVA Group, Ecomerden, Gael Force, Innova Sea, AquaStructures.

Industry Events


Sea lice solutions

Sea lice infestations are one of the greatest challenges to the global salmon farming industry. Fortunately, many companies are rising to the challenge with cutting-edge technology.

Arguably, the coolest solution to lice infestation, Stingray combines stereo camera vision, advanced software, and a high-precision laser to target and kill sea lice that are infecting farmed fish. Unlike conventional delousing treatments, which stress the fish, Stingray’s optical system senses a sea louse and then hits it with a laser pulse. The parasite coagulates within milliseconds without harming the fish and without dispersing the parasites around the cage where they can look for new hosts to attach to. As an added bonus, the system also provides precise biomass measurements. www.stingray.no


This solution combines a camera system with proprietary machine learning technology. Falcon automatically counts, classifies, and reports salmon lice numbers. www.aquafalcon.com


Plany Oxyshield

Medicines used to treat sea lice are then released back into the sea. This raises one of the biggest criticisms of the aquaculture industry. In a breakthrough for the industry, Benchmark’s CleanTreat is a water purification system that removes medicines from water before returning it to the sea. As recognition of the importance of this achievement, Gael Force Group was awarded the prestigious Innovation Award at Aqua Nor, 2019. The celebrations at the Gael Force booth included a visit from Mr Fergus Ewing, MSP, Secretary for Rural Economy Scottish Government. (And being a Scottish company, visitors at the award celebration were treated to some of Scotland’s other famous export.) www.benchmarkplc.com

This Norwegian company showed off their novel sea lice barrier which uses a barrier of bubbles that helps repel sea lice while at the same time increasing the oxygen content of water in the fish cage. www.plany.no

Imenco Stereo 4K Fish Health Camera

Fish biomass and health scanning equipment

AquaNor 2019 showcased some truly amazing technological developments from companies offering camera and biomass monitoring.


CageEye uses a system of transducers that employ acoustic technology to significantly increase the efficiency of a fish farm. Fish feed is one of the single biggest operating costs in aquaculture. CageEye uses acoustics to determine fish behaviour and then chooses the optimal feeding time, intensity, and duration. This maximises fish growth while minimising feed waste. www.cageeye.no

This amazing piece of kit results from the marriage of a new IP-based 4K Ultra High Resolution Stereo fish camera married with machine vision. The result is an observation system that produces high resolution photographs of fish swimming in a cage pen that can be zoomed in and used to identify and log the health of the fish, check biomass, inspect for sea lice and other health conditions such as damaged scales, etc. www.imenco.no


Optoscale uses a pair of high-resolution cameras to precisely measure the biomass within a fish cage. The camera system is coupled with a user interface that allows competitive analyses between cages and provides an overview of fish growth across a fish farm. www.optoscale.no

54 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed


Optimar is a buoy mounted biomass monitor that operates continuously in the net pen, collecting data on thousands of fish per hour. The system is capable of detecting fish in the entire water column, is fully automated, and requires no manpower after deployment. Its advanced software automatically transmits customisable, easy to read reports to feed barge operators via the Internet. The system can calculate the total biomass, number of fish, average weight, relative growth rate, feed conversion rate (FCR) and much more. https://optimar.no

Industry Events

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International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 55

Industry Events

Morenøt NetRobot

Net cleaners

Unlike other net cleaning systems, Morenøt’s net cleaning solution is a compact, lightweight (15kgs) autonomous device that stays permanently connected to a net cage where it cleans 24/7 preventing the fouling from settling and eliminating the need for jetting. Because NetRobot is small and quiet, it works continuously without stressing fish and causing a reduction in feed intake thereby maintaining healthy growth rate. www.morenot.com

Net cleaning is a vital requirement of every net cage-based fish farm. Originally, most of this was accomplished by barges and support boats that reeled in the nets which were then cleaned and returned to the net cage. Although this is still popular in some regions, increasingly fish farms employ ROV-style net cleaning systems, some manually controlled by an operator and some autonomous or semi-autonomous. Examples of both could be found at the show.


Ocein (Ocean Innovations) introduced their distinctive, triangular-shaped net-cleaning ROV. The StealthCleaner is equipped with four cameras to monitor net cleaning. The cameras also allow it to function as an observational ROV. The StealthCleaner uses revolutionary technology to ensure a water pressure and flow that provides efficient cleaning with causing wear to the net. Its electric power means zero emissions and as a bonus allows quiet operation to avoid stressing the fish. www.ocein.no

Deep Trekker

ROVs A staple feature of every Aqua Nor event, ROVs were on show in plentiful quantities. Each one boasts a variety of new features and continues to prove that aquaculture is a blossoming industry full of innovation. ROVs for underwater maintenance, monitoring and mort collection were all on show at the event.

One of the longest established ROV manufacturers, the Canadian company had on hand its familiar Perspex water tank which allowed show-goers to try their skill at the sticks. In addition to its tried-and-tested DTG3 line-up, this year Deep Trekker showed off their Revolution ROV, a serious, commercial grade ROV equipped with automated station holding, camera systems, sonar and manipulator. It is capable of rotating 260 degrees for situational awareness. www.deeptrekker.com

Chasing Innovation’s Gladius Mini

Blue Eye Robotics’ Pioneer

This Chinese-made, backpack-portable mini ROV comes equipped with a 4K and can dive as deep as 100 metres (330 feet). Its inspection mode with 45-degree (plus or minus) angle makes it perfect for underwater shooting and inspection. Its faux submarine fuselage and five propeller design makes the Gladius Mini more stable and easier to operate underwater. www.chasing.com

One of the smallest and lightest ROVs on display was the Blue Eye Robotics Pioneer, which is also one of the most affordable ROVs on the market. In fact, company founder and CEO Erik Dyrkoren had the Pioneer down at the docks where people were invited to have a hands-on turn at piloting the little drone. www.blueyerobotics.com

56 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events



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International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 57


Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com

Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz

Analysis IMAQUA +32 92 64 73 38 www.imaqua.eu Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com

Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com

Certification GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com

VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com

Colour sorters

JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com

Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com

Coolers & driers

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com

R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com

Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be

Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Elevator buckets

Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com

Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com

Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com

58 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com

APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com

Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com

SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt

Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Hatchery products

Used around all industrial sectors.

Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu

Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com


Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com



Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr

Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com


Moisture analysers

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com

Pipe systems

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com

CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com


Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr

Pellet mill

Level measurement

NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de


Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com

NIR systems

Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk

Pellet binders

Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

Second hand equipment

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Probiotics Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com

Pulverizer (large fine) Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

Roller Mill - vertical Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com

International Aquafeed - October 2019 | 59

Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Wet expansion machine Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

the interview Dr Abdel-Fattah El-Sayed, Professor of Aquaculture, Alexandria University Professor Abdel-Fattah El-Sayed received his PhD in aquaculture (Tilapia Nutrition) from Michigan State University, USA in 1987. He is currently a full professor in the Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt. He has also served as a visiting professor to scientific institutions in Japan, Spain, Malaysia, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, and Sultanate of Oman. Dr El-Sayed has authored and co-authored over 120 peer-reviewed publications on aquaculture and fisheries, in addition to four books and eight book chapters. He has participated in many local, regional, and international aquaculture and fisheries research projects. Dr El-Sayed has also served as an aquaculture consultant for international organizations including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Arab Organization for Agricultural Development, the World Fisheries Trust (WFT), the WorldFish Centre, and the African Union’s InterAfrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU-IBAR). He also serves as a member of the editorial board or advisory panel of a number of regional and internal journals and magazines, including: Aquaculture Research, Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, International Aquafeed and Emirates Journal of Agricultural Sciences.

Tell us about your academic background and how you got into aquaculture.

I went to the Department of Oceanography, Faculty of Science, at the University of Alexandria, where I now work. I got my bachelor’s in General Oceanography. Then I got my Masters in Fish Biology. For my Master’s degree I studied the biology and biochemical composition of little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus) in the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. Then I went to the United States where in 1987 I got my PhD in Aquaculture (Tilapia nutrition).

Why did you switch from Oceanography to aquaculture?

Both are part of marine science but, at that time, aquaculture was just starting to gain momentum internationally. I went to Michigan State where I got a degree in fish nutrition, luckily working with tilapia. When I came back to Egypt, I continued my career as a teacher/researcher at the University of Alexandria. Since then I have travelled to many countries, including Japan. I was there for one year as a visiting professor, and then I took a ten-year sabbatical in the Gulf States (Qatar and United Arab Emirates). Each of these experiences allowed me to gain knowledge.

You used the phrase ‘luckily studying tilapia’ when describing your tenure at Michigan State University. Why?

I said ‘luckily’ because I was among the first studying tilapia. Also ‘luckily’ because tilapia, especially Nile tilapia, is our major local fish in Egypt, and I was dreaming to contribute to the development of tilapia culture industry in Egypt. Currently, Egypt produces close to one million tonnes of tilapia a year from aquaculture.

What other species of fish are farmed in Egypt?

There are sixteen species currently being farmed, but tilapia represents 65 percent of production; the other two major groups are mullets (210,000 tonnes) and carps (174,000 tonnes). We also produce about 35,000 tonnes of sea bream, 30,000 tonnes of sea bass, and about 25,000 tonnes of meagre. In addition, we have rabbit fish, prawn, shrimp, eel and African catfish (about 10,000 tonnes).

What are the most common farming systems employed?

Basically, we have semi-intensive systems involving earthen pond culture. Originally many of the farmer’s used fertilizer, but now most prefer to use locally produced extruded fish feed. We produce about 1.1 million tonnes of extruded feed: sinking or floating. Very few now use pressed or pelleted feed.

What is the main protein source in this fish feed?

Typically, we use soy beans (over 70 percent of protein in the diet) and then we have oil seed meals such as cottonseed,

sunflower seed, and sesame seeds. We add some fishmeal, but not very much—it depends on the fish species. We also produce feed for marine species, primarily sea bass and sea bream. I consult with some companies and now we export fish feed to other countries such as Lebanon (trout feed) and African countries including Uganda, Tanzania, Nigeria, Zambia and Kenya(for Tilapia/African catfish). For trout, sea bass and sea bream we add more fishmeal and fish oil, but for tilapia, which are herbivorous, we mostly use soybeans with very little fishmeal. Most of the ingredients are imported because 90 percent of Egypt is desert. Most of the agriculture of Egypt is concentrated in the Nile delta.

Is aquaculture growing in Egypt?

Aquaculture has been the fastest growing animal food sector in Egypt for the past three decades. In the early 1990s, the production was about 60,000 tonnes-per-year. Now we produce close to 1.5 million tonnes/year, so the growth rate is 12-to-13 percent a year. We now have huge aquaculture projects, constructed and operated by the Egyptian army and specialised companies, who have thousands of hectares in the Suez Canal region. However, most of the available land for aquaculture is already in use, so I believe any increases in production in the future will be vertical: increasing productivity by using more intensive farming methods. We currently have a lot of fish cages—hundreds and hundreds of metres of the Rosetta and Damietta Branches of the Nile River are covered with cages. We also grow fish in the rice fields, probably 5000 to 10,000 tonnes per year. Probably the most problematic issue facing aquaculture in Egypt involves water, because the water comes from the Nile, which is fed by the African Great Lakes and Lake Tana in the Ethiopean Highlands. Egyptian law prohibits the use of irrigation water for aquaculture, although it can first be used for agriculture and then for aquaculture. So, fish farmers are forced to use the brackish water that comes mainly from the northern lakes and agricultural drainage water.

How much fish do Egyptians consume?

Around 50 percent of protein consumed in Egypt comes from fish, of which aquaculture produces 70 percent. Aquaculture has kept the price of fish stable for around 15 years. Prices have increased over the last five years due to the increases in the price of feed and other farming inputs.

Where does Egypt rank worldwide in terms of aquaculture?

In terms of world aquaculture, Egypt is ranked eighth, and in tilapia it is third. (China is ranked number one, followed by Indonesia at number two.) Uganda is second in Africa to Egypt in production of tilapia, producing 75,000 tonnes.

60 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES Darian McBain named ‘sustainability superwoman’


hai Union Global Director of Corporate Affairs and Sustainability, Ms Darian McBain has been commended among 27 leaders internationally as Asia’s Top Sustainability Superwoman by Singapore-based sustainability consultancy business CSRWorks International.

Darian McBain

Across 20 countries in Asia there were a total of 126 nominations. The award is given to those pioneering positive change in the seafood and aquaculture industries. The Thai Union has received several awards for its sustainability efforts under the direction of McBain, including ranking number one under the Food Products Industry Index of the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) in 2018.

Jon Hindar steps down as Cermaq CEO


on Hindar has recently announced his resignation as CEO of Cermaq Group, and the Cermaq Board have appointed Geir Molvik in his stead, it has been announced.

“Jon has done an outstanding job as CEO for Cermaq under the ownership of Mitsubishi Corporation, and we therefore would have liked to see him continue in this position,” said Yu Sato, chairman of Cermaq.

Jon Hindar

“The almost five years as CEO for Cermaq have been an exciting and rewarding experience, but I have found that now is the right time for me to move on to new challenges in my working life,” said Hindar. The Cermaq board has appointed Geir Molvik as the new CEO of the company. Molvik has worked in different leaderships positions with the Norwegian salmon farmer since 2005, and more recently as COO for Cermaq Norway.

Mike Lodato new VP of Sales for Bristol Seafood


aine-based Bristol Seafood have recently hired Mike Lodato as its new Vice President of Sales. He will endeavour to grow the supplier’s portfolio of retail and foodservice accounts.

Lodato previously worked as Executive Vice President of Diversified Communications, which owns and operates several trade conferences such as the popular Seafood Expo North America. He served in the company for an impressive 22 years.

Mike Lodato

Around half of Bristol Seafood’s business is in retail, with the other half in foodservice. Bristol is also one of the largest importers of North Atlantic haddock in the US.

Pat Kahle joins D&D Ingredient team


&D Ingredient Distributors, Inc recently welcomed Pat Kahle, who has joined the company as Sales Manager.

“I am pleased to announce that Pat has joined the D&D team,” says Ted Williams, Chief Operations Officer for D&D. “In the new role, he will serve producers, veterinarians, nutritionists, and feed professionals focusing mainly on the Ohio, Michigan, and Indiana markets.”

Pat Kahle

Kahle earned his BS in Animal Science from The Ohio State University in 1987. Pat began his career as Account Manager with Pfizer and has served in various dairy-related capacities over the past 23 years with several companies including: Monsanto, Chr Hansen, and most recently Arm & Hammer. He also has served in a Human Resources capacity for several years with Perdue Farms. He understands the many labor components for small to mid-size businesses.

Andromeda Seafood Group has appointed Alex Myers as group CEO


eafood group Andromeda have recently announced their new CEO will be Mr Alex Myers.

Myers graduated from Yale University, USA. His 35-year business career includes senior positions with multinational companies such as Unilever, Carlsberg, Getinge Group and Hilding Anders, having helped transform several companies through acquisitions and growth.

Alex Myers

“I am honoured and very motivated to be joining at such an exciting inflection point for the group,” said Myers. “Three companies joining forces to create an even stronger platform for growth, even better partnerships with our customers and a healthier Mediterranean diet for our consumers. I look forward to working together as a team on this transformational journey.”

62 | October 2019 - International Aquafeed

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