FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 08 - August 2019
Research on nutrition requirements and feed technology for mandarin fish - Transforming excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters to marine protein for feeds - Pelleting versus extrusion for shrimp feed manufacturing - Optimal water quality and healthy fish on land
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- Fish farming under the microscope - EXPERT TOPIC: Lobster Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO
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As I write this column in early August, the Perendale editorial team is looking forward to attending one of the foremost aquaculture events of the year: Aqua Nor 2019 in Trondheim, Norway, which runs from 20-23rd August.
articles. One of my favourites is “Transforming Nutrients in Eutrophic Coastal Waters to Marine Proteins for Food" by Daniel Taylor and Professor Jens Kjerulf Petersen of the Danish Shellfish Centre.” While it doesn’t have the snappiest of titles, the article documents the fascinating research undertaken by DTU, which has This will be my first visit to Aqua performed a number of studies into Nor, and I’m sure it will be the largest the use of blue mussels to ameliorate aquaculture event I have attended to the damaging effects to estuaries and Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed date. The first event started back in coastal water bodies of excess nutrient 1979 and since then has been held on run-off from agriculture. alternate years. The next one will be I always love stories in which the held in 2021. It is expected that Trondheim spectrum will effects of man-made pollution (in this case, fertilizer host visitors from 76 nations with a rough estimation of run-off) can be solved by employing nature, in this case more than 20,000 visitors. mitigation culture growing blue mussels whose filtering I recently looked at the exhibitor list, which is nine capabilities remove excess nutrients from the water. pages long and includes just about every major company Next we have an article from a Norwegian company specialising in every form of aquaculture ranging that specialises in RAS systems—Scale AQ Landbased. from cage systems, to fish nutrition, to RAS, to work The design of these systems includes a special focus on boats, water filtration systems and software for weather providing optimal water quality to ensure the healthiest forecasting, and so on. possible environment for flourishing fish. Although the 2019 event runs for three days, I This issue offers all that, plus an innovative portable seriously doubt if I will have time to make it around microscope perfect for field use in aquaculture, and the the entire show hall. Our readers can look forward to a pros and cons of pelletising versus extrusion for shrimp comprehensive report on Aqua Nor 2019 in an upcoming feed production. As always, we try to provide the widest issue. range of topics involved in aquaculture written by experts In this issue, you will find some very interesting in the field. I hope you enjoy this month’s offerings.
ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS FEED: Research on nutrition requirements and feed technology for mandarin fish - page 6
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY RAS: Optimal water quality and healthy fish on land - page 40
SAPONINS: The use of saponins in aquaculture - page 32
EXPERT TOPIC: Lobster - page 50
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Aqua Nor is celebrating its 40th anniversary this year, and the show has never been bigger. Over 600 exhibitors from 26 countries, an expected 27,000 – 30,000 visitors from 75 countries, and lots of hightech equipment. Certainly, a far cry from the humble beginnings, back in 1979.
sorts were developed to monitor the fish, automation was introduced, - for two reasons: first to reduce the need for manpower (labour is very expensive in Norway), and secondly to manage the fish farms more accurately. Today, modern fish farming is scientific, science-based. The Assistant Director General of FAO, Mr Árni M Mathiesen, At that time, Norwegian aquaculture was Erik Hempel said in a presentation at Aqua Nor 2013: in its infancy. The first fish farmers were The Nor-Fishing Foundation “All our efforts and action towards perhaps regarded with some scepticism sustainable development of future aquaculture, including at first. Their installations were certainly home-made and acquiring and dissemination of technology and knowledge, primitive, and knowledge about fish farming was very should be science-based and will be science-based!” rudimentary. And so, it is. One example is the development and production So, in November 1979, Norway’s Directorate of Fisheries, the Norwegian Fisheries College, the Fish Farmers Association of feed, as witnessed in the pages of International Aquafeed. And it will be abundantly clear when you walk around the and the Fish Farmers Sales Organisation invited prospective halls of Aqua Nor 2019. fish farmers to a three-day conference on hatchery operation Increasingly, the visitors to Aqua Nor want more than just in Trondheim. At that time, Norway’s aquaculture production the equipment at the exhibition. They want a “professional amounted to 4000 tonnes of salmon and 3000 tonnes of trout a topping-up”. Over the years, exhibitors have found that the year. Today, it is about 1.3 million tonnes. event offers a golden opportunity to make presentations, As a side show to the 1979 conference, some 20 companies hold mini-seminars and mini-conferences to present their exhibited their equipment as well. And that was the start of what has become the largest aquaculture technology exhibition increasingly complex and sophisticated solutions. In 2019, more than 50 such mini-seminars will be held in the world. Since 1979, Aqua Nor has been held every other during the exhibition, on a wide variety of topics. All this year in Trondheim, alternating with the fisheries technology knowledge is an important part of modern aquaculture, and the exhibition Nor-Fishing. presentation of it inspires new ideas and new solutions. As production increased and prices fell, there was an There is a drive for innovation in the industry, and Aqua obvious need to improve production methods and lower Nor has contributed to this drive. In 2003, the organiser of the costs. This led to an intensified search for better ways to do exhibition, the Nor-Fishing Foundation, established a special things, better feeds, larger cages, and better understanding award to encourage innovation: the Nor-Fishing Foundation of the fish itself. So, the home-made fish farmers turned to Innovation Award. This year, a record 30 products or projects the academics for help, and scientists started to study fish have been reviewed, and three finalists have been nominated. farming in earnest. The winner of the Award will be presented at the official The scientific knowledge was converted into practical opening of Aqua Nor. solutions, vaccines were developed to reduce the use of So, there will be lots of new technology at Aqua Nor, and lots antibiotics, feed formulations became more complex and of people. Hope to see you there! fine-tuned to the fish and its needs, measuring devices of all
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NUTRITION & HEALTH I recently marked 33 years working in universities and some 35 years in aquaculture and the 35th anniversary of receiving my doctorate in fish nutrition from the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland.
Wan at the National University of Ireland continues and we will soon commence our programme that was funded with more than €1.5 million investment from Enterprise Ireland for a project ‘Hydrofish’ to develop a new range of novel marine derived protein hydrolysates with a focus on improved gut integrity and immune Having recently been appointed as its function in farmed fish. new external examiner for its prestigious Professor Simon Davies Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed There is much work to be done on Masters’ degree, I am deeply honoured to exogenous enzymes for improving be engaged in supporting their students nutrient availability by augmentation of the digestion function and staff in the evolution of their educational platform. in fish and shrimp and my trials recently have produced It has certainly been a very hectic period recently and with so evidence of direct effects on enhanced mineral absorption in many international visits to conferences and meetings over fish with major benefits in reducing waste output and direct the last three decades that has given me much knowledge and effects on organ health and tissue trace element retention in skills to add to my experience of aquaculture and of course species like trout and tilapia. I see significant progress and the nutrition and feed sector where I specialise. advances in enzyme augmentation of feeds across the species The academic life is invaluable, and it has been instrumental and in particular warm water fish. in forging success in generating so many successful PhD Last year I worked with colleagues on projects to better define students as well as master’s level students and to provide the potential of prebiotics such as galacto-oligosaccharide generations of undergraduates with courses on aquaculture (GOS) in diets for salmonids and also novel omega-3 and related biotechnology, so many now working for leading sources for enrichment in diets for salmon and tilapia with companies. good outcomes and I continue to engage in Latin America I am now entering my fifth year in Harper Adams University especially with my friend Kurt Servin whose expertise on in rural Shropshire in central England, and with a number shrimp health and nutrition will shortly result in him gaining of new responsibilities in hand so we can take aquaculture a doctorate. training further in the UK and be mindful of the needs of the These activities will result in hopefully new scientific papers growing industry on the home front and globally. and reports. Mexico continues to impress and scientists there More recently, I am engaging in several key areas involving are making real headway in fish nutrition and shrimp research the development of vocational courses in fisheries programmes. management that can provide a conduit for young persons of My recent visit to Korea has given me greater perspectives of talent to forge a career in aquaculture and this mechanism of apprenticeships is now driving part of UK policy in education. the major issues affecting the aquaculture industry in SE Asia and how better feeds can be employed to mitigate against One example is my links to Shuttleworth College in England. various pathologies and to enhance production efficiency. This small college is increasing its portfolio of activities and Next month, I will be attending a meeting in Vietnam and I am supporting a young instructor/lecturer Lewie Cooper discussing these important issues with various stakeholders to enhance aquaculture in the college and to give more opportunities to his group of students to participate in exciting and farmers on a face to face basis. 2020 will be another hectic year but there are many avenues. conferences to attend and so I will expect to meet many of The college has now received approval from DEFRA our our readers and also a wide spectrum from the industry and English regulator to hold their first tilapia on site soon and government in Asia as well as the Middle East and Americas. also there is much scope for new engineering courses and I do not forget Europe too despite our likely UK Brexit! facilities that could embrace RAS and other such concepts Please enjoy our August issue and thank you again to those as aquaponics for the students learning and experiential working on articles, news features, topical developments in activities. It’s a pleasure to help inspiring and innovative the aquafeed technologies and related biosciences. people like Lewie in his endeavours and creativity. Our magazine is all about you and how we can best move the On the research front, there is more to state on the research industry forward in the coming decade. Have a great summer initiatives with more exciting news on sustainable functional or winter in the Southern hemisphere or wherever you are? feeds. My working collaboration with my colleague Dr Alex
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August 2019 Volume 22 Issue 08
IN THIS ISSUE
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
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48 Technology showcase 52
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Dr Neil Auchterlonie 14 Thierry Chopin
FEATURES 20 Transforming excess nutrients in eutrophic coastal waters to marine protein for feeds 24 Enhancing feed palatability and intake of low fishmeal diets 26 Feeding mandarin fish 30 Pelleting versus extrusion for shrimp feed manufacturing 32 The use of saponins in aquaculture
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
THE BIG PICTURE Portable microscopes can capture and share images and videos of parasites and other fish pathology instantly. Courtesy of ioLight See more on page 44
40 Optimal water quality and healthy fish on land 44 Fish farming under the microscope
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Aker BioMarine invests for future growth
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Dr Neil Auchterlonie Byproduct utilisation
aving been involved in several meetings in Europe this year relating to the notions of the circular and blue bioeconomies, it has been surprising to listen to discussions about the need to “valorise” so-called waste streams from fish processing. This was again reinforced at a meeting in Brussels several weeks ago, but that is not an isolated occurrence for this kind of discussion. Present at that meeting were a range of attendees, many from academia, with some also from blue start-ups, but also, interestingly, European Commission officials in support of the objectives of this initiative. So, it’s a mystery then (according to some): What are we going to do with the waste streams from fish processing? Well, at those meetings IFFO made the point forcibly that there is an industry that for several decades already has been working to the objectives of the blue bioeconomy, and the circular economy, by utilising the trimmings, offcuts and byproduct from fish processed for food in order to produce valuable products. Those products are fishmeal and fish oil, and their manufacture in turn helps to support additional global protein production through their use in aquafeed, thereby supporting the developing aquaculture industry. Despite IFFO and its predecessor organisations communicating this point over that period of time, the message still seems to be lost. We are talking about a substantial volume of material that comes from this segment. Of the roughly 20 million tonnes used very year to make five million tonnes of fishmeal and one million tonnes of fish oil, roughly about a third (c.7 million tonnes) comes from the fish processing sector. The trend is also for this segment to increase over time, recognised by the FAO for the major contribution that it makes to global food security. Interestingly there are also regional differences. IFFO commissioned a study with the University of Stirling to look at the availability of fish processing material. That study showed that in Europe the proportion is actually 54 percent of the raw material, with that increased figure being partly down to improved logistics and practicalities of collection and transfer to fishmeal plants. The research also showed that actually there is more material available than is currently being used, partly due to processing fish at sea and other activities which makes collection difficult. What is very interesting is that as aquaculture grows, there are more opportunities for byproduct utilisation with even more volume of supply possible ultimately. As aquaculture product processing also tends to be centralised, it is easier to collect this material, maintain it at low temperatures (important for quality), and use it quickly and efficiently in fishmeal and fish oil production. Respecting some constraints on feeding to the same species (at least in European regulations) this volume will be able to support some additional fishmeal and fish oil production over time and will be very welcome in feed formulations for additional aquaculture development. Aquaculture will help to support its own development, partially through the utilisation of processing material into fishmeal and fish oil, much needed ingredients for more aquafeed.
Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 8 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
espite challenges in the market, Aker BioMarine increased revenues year on year by 24 percent, from US $125 million to US $155 million with 1.28 billion doses of Superba Krill sold worldwide in 2018. In addition, Aker BioMarine helped provide 325 million additional servings of seafood with QRILL Aqua and contributed to the fact that 850,000 dogs could enjoy eating dogfood containing QRILL Pet. Aker BioMarine delivered a net loss of US $1 million in 2018, driven by significant investments in new technology, science initiatives and people. These investments have been critical to reach the necessary scale in order to grow the krill segment in a very competitive global omega-3 market. “From a business perspective, we met our targets for 2018 with robust performance in all our segments, despite some headwinds in the market. Costs increased more than I ideally would like them to, driven both by external factors, like high fuel prices but also internal elements in order to facilitate the rapid growth and development we are facing. “As a result of this, we have strengthened and equipped the organisation with the resources and tools required for future growth,” says Matts Johansen, CEO of Aker BioMarine. The most eye-catching of these investments is the new, state-of-the-art vessel, Antarctic Endurance. Commissioned for NOK 1,1 billion ($140 million) Antarctic Endurance is the very first krill harvesting vessel designed and constructed from scratch. Built at the Norwegian shipyard VARD, it uses the latest environmental technology, which significantly reduces its CO2 footprint by up to 30 percent. Antarctic Endurance began operations at the start of the 2019 harvesting season.
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rusted aquaculture equipment supplier Gael Force Group has agreed an exclusive deal with Scotland’s newest salmon farmer, Organic Sea Harvest, to become their supply partner for two new site installations in 2020. Gael Force will supply complete turnkey solutions for two exposed sites at Invertote and Culnacnoc, off the coast of Skye, with a full range of established marine equipment, technology and supporting services. The equipment and technology will include SeaMate 350t feed barges and SeaFeed feeding systems, SeaQurePen fish pens, SeaQureMoor moorings, and underwater technology. The two Highland based companies have been closely collaborating over the course of three years, sharing knowledge, experiences and expertise to ascertain the best and most suitable equipment specification for the challenging site conditions. Speaking after the two companies signed the deal worth in excess of UK £4m, Gael Force Group Sales Director Jamie Young commented, “We have taken the time to understand Organic Sea Harvest’s needs and challenges for many months now and as a result we have become very attuned to their objectives. “This has given both parties the complete confidence that we can be a key supply partner in helping Organic Sea Harvest to achieve the best possible results on their new farms.” He added, “Throughout our discussions with the team from
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Gael Force Group signs supply partner deal with Scotland’s newest salmon farmer
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Organic Sea Harvest it has also been very clear to us how much they value the importance of working with a local supply partner. For our employees and the local communities in which we are present across Scotland this is terrific news.” Alex MacInnes, Director of Organic Sea Harvest commented, “It means a huge amount to us that we have been able to source the highest quality of equipment and competence at competitive prices locally, and also, that we will be partnering with a Highlands and Islands based supplier who has shown the enthusiasm and motivation to grow with us and help us in our objective to support the local community of Staffin.” Despite being Scotland’s newest salmon farmer, the founding shareholders at Organic Sea Harvest come with a wealth of experience and background in fish farming. The company was created out of a desire to work with the local community, create employment and help retain as much of the generated wealth as is commercially practical in the communities of Skye and Lochalsh, while actively working to minimise environmental impacts. The two sites are due to be stocked in the Spring and Autumn of 2020.
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International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 9
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Cargill and InnovaFeed partner to bring sustainable feed to animal producers
argill and InnovaFeed have entered into a strategic partnership to bring sustainable and innovative feed options to the animal nutrition industry. Through the partnership, Cargill and InnovaFeed will collaborate to jointly market fish feed which includes insect protein, enabling both partners to support the growth of sustainable aquaculture. Pilar Cruz, President of Cargill’s compound feed business, said, ”We recognise that the planet has finite resources. It is our job to find innovative feed options for our customers that protect the planet and support sustainable protein production.” InnovaFeed’s circular economy approach brings added sustainability benefits as the company uses co-products from the agriculture production of starch and sugar to feed black soldier fly larvae known as Hermetia illucens. Once the larvae reach a certain stage, protein and oil are extracted from the larvae, to be used in feed for pets, aquaculture species and young animals like broilers and piglets. Clement Ray, Chief Executive Officer of InnovaFeed, said, “By upcycling local cereal co-products and repurposing insect waste as an organic fertiliser, InnovaFeed’s products truly have a positive environmental impact. We’re also able to have a positive impact on climate change by saving 25,000 tonnes of CO2 emissions per year with each 10,000-tonne-production unit by feeding insect meal to animals. That is equivalent to removing 14,000 cars off the roads.”
Gulf of Mexico fishery receives recommendation for MSC certification
he Gulf of Mexico menhaden purse seine fishery has been recommended for certification against the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) fisheries standard by independent certification body SAI Global. The recommendation means that both US menhaden fisheries – in the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico - have been recommended for MSC’s rigorous sustainability certification. Bret Scholtes, CEO of Omega Protein, said, “The recommendation for MSC certification for our Gulf of Mexico operations is a testament to the hard work we’ve put in over many years to conduct responsible operations. “The fact that both of the nation’s menhaden fisheries have now been recommended for MSC certification should assure customers and the public alike that our products meet the highest standards of sustainability.”
10 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
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Dutch King Willem-Alexander opens the world’s largest and most advanced insect farm in the world at Protix
n the Tuesday June 11th, his Majesty King Willem-Alexander officially opened the world’s largest insect farm at Protix in Bergen op Zoom, the Netherlands. Protix produces insects for sustainable proteins by using plant waste from the environment as feed for insects. The proteins and other nutrients of insects are very nutritious and can be fed to animals, especially fish and chickens. In this way, non-sustainable sources, such as fishmeal and soy, can be replaced by a sustainable alternative. During his visit to Protix, King Willem-Alexander met various experts, entrepreneurs and CEOs from the agrifood industry. The programme was moderated by Peter Bakker, President and CEO of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD). Emphasis was laid on the transition of the food system to a future in which people can continue to enjoy good food with an ever-lower impact on the environment. King Willem-Alexander was also given a tour of the new facility and was able to take a look at all aspects of the cultivation process: from egg to end product. The cultivation process takes place in a controlled environment and is highly automated with sensor and data systems, robots and climate control. Kees Aarts, founder and CEO of Protix said, “We are very honoured to have welcomed King Willem-Alexander in honour of the opening of the largest insect farm in the world and our ten-year anniversary. “This is, of course, an important milestone for Protix. The opening of our new facility signifies a real transformation, not only for our company, but for the entire sector and markets; the transition from prototype to a mature and commercial sector.”
BioMar completes acquisition
ioMar Group has acquired the 50 percent remaining shares in the Chilean factory Alitec Pargua. The transfer of shares took place in Puerto Montt, leaving BioMar as the sole owner of the former joint venture. On June 5th, the Chilean competition authorities confirmed that the acquisition by BioMar of Alitec Pargua did not trigger a pre-merger review. As announced in March, BioMar Group and AquaChile entered into an acquisition agreement that would give BioMar full ownership of the Chilean factory Alitec Pargua, in which AquaChile held a 50 percent interest. The acquisition follows the change in ownership of AquaChile, who was acquired last summer by the Agrosuper group. The Alitec Pargua transaction ends 10 years of successful collaboration with AquaChile. Beyond this operation BioMar Chile continues the commercial relationship with AquaChile. This transaction is an important step for BioMar Chile as the company will get access to a significant volume of
flexible production capacity. BioMar Group has by the investment again reinforced the company’s commitment to Chilean aquaculture: “We have during the last years experienced an increasing demand in the market targeting our high-performance feed, functional products and services. We will now have more flexible capacity to meet those demands and we will now be able to plan for future upgrades and expansions of the facility in line with the requirement in the market”, explains Carlos Diaz CEO in BioMar Group.
12 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
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he American and European feed industries, represented by the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) and the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation (FEFAC), have renewed their partnership to increase mutual cooperation on sustainable feed production, feed safety management, communication, trade and pre-competitive research. The memorandum of understanding (MOU), signed during FEFAC’s 60th anniversary event on June 6th, 2019, is expected to generate significant synergies for the respective member associations and feed companies, offering global joint project and partnership opportunities. AFIA and FEFAC members recognise the value of providing joint leadership at a global level, in partnership with the International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF), to develop feed industry solutions, which help reduce the environmental impacts of feed and livestock production, while promoting the highest level of feed safety management and biosecurity. AFIA President and CEO Joel G Newman and AFIA Board Chairman Tim Belstra made the following statement upon signing the MOU, “Our 15year partnership with FEFAC has been a model for global collaboration and we are excited to expand our work together. “We look forward to broadening our joint leadership so we may provide both our members and industries
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European and US feed industries collaborate on safe and sustainable production
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with solutions to address future challenges, including assisting them with the adoption of new technologies, developing and deploying best practices and continuing to sustainably provide consumers with sound dietary choices.” FEFAC President Nick Major and Secretary General Alexander Döring said, “We are excited about the prospect of developing a deeper, comprehensive partnership with our AFIA colleagues. Our enhanced cooperation will deliver further meaningful tools to our members and partners providing practical solutions to tackle societal issues linked to feed and livestock production, such as climate change, animal health & well-being. “We are proud to represent the resource efficiency champions of the food chain and look forward to support our respective members’ efforts to move US and EU feed production to the next level”.
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
aquafeed.co.uk International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 13
Dr Thierry Chopin A new economic study demonstrates that an Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture operation is more profitable than salmon monoculture
n 2007, we published our first economic study (Ridler et al., 2007) comparing two aquaculture practices: salmon monoculture and an Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) operation with salmon, mussels and kelps. We found that an IMTA operation resulted in a higher net present value (NPV) than salmon monoculture, at discount rates of both 5 and 10 percent. Our sensitivity analysis showed that IMTA farms can enhance resiliency and provide superior financial returns in the face of both a sustained market price decrease of 12 percent over 10 years for salmon, and the loss of salmon harvests due to common environmental perturbations. A few other studies in Europe and China also demonstrated higher NPV, as well as improved environmental performance, with IMTA. However, despite these encouraging results, researchers and industry stakeholders continue to note that profitability and economic analyses can be improved and investment uncertainty reduced as more data are accumulated and analyses refined.
Developing a new economic study using a discounted cash-flow analysis
To help address such uncertainty in the IMTA literature, we engaged in a new economic study (Carras et al., 2019) using a discounted cash-flow analysis, incorporating a higher capital contingency requirement for IMTA to simulate the added costs of increased operational complexity, along with updated research and real-world financial data accumulated since 2007. A sensitivity analysis was included in our study to examine the effect on the profitability of a 10 percent price premium on IMTA salmon and mussels, as market studies and consumer preference/attitudinal surveys, conducted in Canada, the USA and Europe, indicated that consumers are willing to pay more for IMTA products. We also examined the impact of losing one harvest of salmon to disease or other natural disturbances over a 10-year period.
In all the scenarios tested, IMTA is more profitable than salmon monoculture
We tested a number of scenarios, assuming discount rates of 5 and 10 percent. In the base-case scenario (no price premium; no loss of salmon
harvest), the IMTA operation has a NPV that is 5.9 and 5.7 percent higher than salmon monoculture. With the inclusion of a 10 percent price premium on IMTA salmon and mussels, the IMTA operation has a NPV that is 26.3 and 27.3 percent higher than salmon monoculture. If a loss of salmon harvest occurs in year six, without price premium, the IMTA operation has a NPV that is 9.5 and 9.4 percent higher than salmon monoculture. If a loss of salmon harvest occurs in year six, and a 10 percent price premium is included, the IMTA operation has a NPV that is 36.5 and 38.6 percent higher than salmon monoculture. If a one-time 10 percent decline in the market price of salmon is sustained over a 10-year period, the IMTA operation has a NPV that is 7.3 and 7.2 percent higher than salmon monoculture. If there is a drop of 2 percent per annum in the market price of salmon, the IMTA operation has a NPV that is 7.4 and 7.2 percent higher than salmon monoculture.
Based on these results, why is the adoption of IMTA relatively slow?
Our results substantively agree with those of Ridler et al. (2007). Canadaâ€™s aquaculture industry now has pilot-scale experience with IMTA, and Canadian studies have suggested positive financial results and consumer attitudes toward IMTA. Similar conclusions have been drawn by researchers in Europe and Asia. Altogether, this body of research and experience suggests that the net financial return for a salmon, mussel and kelp IMTA operation can exceed that of salmon monoculture. Why, then, despite this and other recent studies demonstrating the positive financial results of IMTA systems, is their adoption, at a commercial scale, in Canada and other western countries, relatively slow? First, it always takes time for the knowledge acquired in academic studies to be transferred to industry, investors and regulators. The IMTA economic studies only span the last decade. Secondly, it appears that 1) uncertainty related to IMTAâ€™s financial and environmental performance, 2) the present shortterm linear management approach of aquaculture companies versus a long-term circular approach, 3) IMTAâ€™s increased operational complexity, and 4) a non-conducive policy and regulatory framework (at the provincial and federal levels), may be barriers to IMTA adoption at present. An additional consideration is the contribution from salmon production versus that of other species in IMTA. The initial configuration considered in our study would generate a very small value of production for mussels and kelps (6.8% of revenues), compared to an overwhelming value of salmon production (93.2% of revenues). This disproportionately large share of revenues accruing to salmon production can suggest that a potential investor may view the additional revenues from other species under IMTA as not worth the additional operational complexity, capital expenditure and corresponding risk. Should IMTA be implemented at a larger scale, mussel (and other invertebrates) and kelp production could certainly increase and so might their contribution to the total revenue of a company or region. In our view, the future of IMTA is to be implemented within an integrated coastal area management approach, beyond the restrictive limits of existing salmon sites. Furthermore, since salmon production has declined in recent years in New Brunswick, crop diversification could provide economic stability and be an incentive for industry development, making IMTA a more attractive practice in the future.
14 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
Skretting launches new diet for tilapia
IMTA is still in its infancy in the western world; patience, determination and persistence are needed before it is recognized as a responsible food production system of the future
The IMTA concept is new in the western world and will require a new approach and an understanding of how aquaculture farms operate and interact with ecosystems. By way of comparison, agriculture still needs reforms after centuries of evolving practices. Recognising that the major player in the Atlantic Canada aquaculture industry (representing approximately 85% of the operations) in not presently developing IMTA at a commercial scale and that the only other player is just observing, it is easy to reach the conclusion that industry adoption of IMTA is hesitant. We should recognise that we are still in the infancy of western IMTA. Industry and society need time to think and evolve with the science. IMTA adoption will not happen overnight, especially in the western world, which presently prefers monocultures, linear processes and short-term profits. We will need patience, determination and persistence to get people to see the advantages of growing complementary species together, creating circular economy processes and seeking sustainability in the long term.
Ridler, N., Wowchuk, M., Robinson, B., Barrington, K., Chopin, T., Robinson, S., Page, F., Reid, G., Szemerda, M., Sewuster, J., and Boyne-Travis, S., 2007 Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA): a potential strategic choice for farmers. Aquaculture Economics & Management 11: 99-110. Carras, M.A., Knowler, D., Pearce, C.M., Hamer, A., Chopin, T., and Weaire, T., 2019 - A discounted cash-flow analysis of salmon monoculture and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture in eastern Canada. Aquaculture Economics & Management DOI:10.1080 /13657305.2019.1641572. Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the owner and President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc., since 2016.
kretting has launched Protec for tilapia, a new functional diet especially designed to help support tilapia and enhance their ability to cope during challenging situations, including the hot summer seasons. Protec is currently available in Egypt, while preparations are ongoing at Skretting Vietnam and Skretting Ecuador for its arrival in those regions. “Tilapia is a truly global species, produced in more countries than any other farmed finfish, with a growing harvest already in excess of five million tonnes. Most tilapia farms are open to the natural environment and therefore exposed to many health challenges,” explains Dr Christian Delannoy, Global Health Manager at Skretting. “At Skretting, we recognise the importance of tilapia as a protein source and as a provider of livelihoods for many millions of people, and the development of Protec is a definitive example of our commitment to helping the industry thrive.”
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Veramaris opens unique omega-3 fatty acids production facility
ollowing a construction period of just two years, a joint venture between Evonik and the Dutch company DSM has on the 11th July commissioned its globally unique production plant in the USA. Through the fermentative manufacture of natural marine algae, the new plant produces a special algal oil that contains the key omega-3 fatty acids needed for healthy salmon farming. The two parent companies of the 50:50 joint venture named Veramaris, have invested a total of 200 million US dollars in equal parts for the construction of the plant in Blair, Nebraska. The initial algal oil produced at the plant can sustainably supply approximately 15 percent of the annual demand the global salmon-farming industry has for the two omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. The unique process developed by Evonik and DSM enables the manufacture of EPA and DHA for salmon feed for the first time without using any fish oil from wild-caught fish. “In Veramaris, we have combined the competencies of two strong partners to make an innovative contribution to the healthy nutrition of the world’s growing population, without putting any further burden on our oceans,” says Christian Kullmann, Chairman of the Executive Board of Evonik. Feike Sijbesma, CEO/Chairman DSM Managing Board commented, “I am pleased that together with Evonik we
Hamlet Protein presents novel solutions for zinc oxide-free diets Hamlet Protein, multinational producer of vegetable protein, was among the participants at the Zero Zinc Summit 2019 in Copenhagen, Denmark. The event, hosted by SEGES, was attended by feed producers, farmers and scientists from all over the world. At the summit, Hamlet Protein actively discussed fibre-based solutions for the Danish market following the EU ban on zinc oxide. Changing regulations will force farmers to phase out the pharmaceutical use of zinc. Hamlet Protein has been working on the development of a practical solution that provides an alternative to zinc oxide and helps prevent diarrhea in young animals. “At the Zero Zinc Summit our team actively participated in the discussions on producing 7-30kg piglets while phasing out the pharmaceutical use of zinc oxide. As a consequence the risk of diarrhea occurrence increases, which directly impacts productivity levels and presents producers with a strong challenge,” says Christine Brøkner, R&D Manager at Hamlet Protein. At the Hamlet Protein Innovation Center in Horsens
have reached a key milestone in turning the tide: through Veramaris, we are able to reduce the aquaculture industry’s reliance on the world’s finite fish oil resources for these vital omega-3 fatty acids. “This fits perfectly with our purpose-led performance driven strategy, focused on addressing the world’s biggest challenges while simultaneously creating economic, environmental and societal value for all our stakeholders.” The production of the Veramaris algal oil is based on the natural algae strain Schizochytrium, which DSM has brought to the partnership with Evonik. The joint development of the strain right up to commercial production, and the joint development of the process formed the basis for the new production plant.
knowledge on nutrition physiology, biotechnology and practical application of feed ingredients is combined with a specific focus on the needs of young animals. High quality proteins are essential when formulating an easily digestible feed with a minimum of anti-nutritional factors. In the search of alternatives for the pharmaceutical use of zinc oxide in the diet, Hamlet Protein turned to fibre. “In our work with fibrous and protein rich raw materials in the bioconversion process, we have developed HP FiberStart, a product used in the first diet post-weaning to alleviate weaning problems while keeping the piglets growing. The fibre part consists of both soluble and insoluble fibres, which give a dual effect by stimulating the gut physically and the microflora through fermentation of specific fibrs,” commented Brøkner. The product will first be launched in Denmark in the second half of 2019. “We are very excited about this new addition to our portfolio and the initial feedback from the market has been positive. It further confirms Hamlet Protein’s leading position in young animal nutrition. After the initial launch in Denmark we will expand our offering to other countries as well,” concluded Hamlet Protein CEO Erik Visser.
16 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
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FAA 2019: Dr Eckel hosting VIP event prior to Bangkok conference
or three days, feed experts and specialists met at this year’s FeedAdditives Asia conference in Bangkok to address the industry’s most pressing issues and needs. The conference was presented by FeedInfo News Service. With its impressive selection of expert speakers, enlightening panel discussions with industry leaders and practical seminars, FAA is rightly regarded as one of the leading events in the region for livestock producers, industry leaders and academics alike. In celebration of the company’s 25th anniversary, Dr Eckel hosted an exclusive pre-event to the conference on June 25th for loyal customers and esteemed friends. Here, Dr Antje Eckel spoke about Hidden Champions, leadership and the most influential lessons for her and the company. “Today we are proud to celebrate 25 years of development, learning and innovation”, says Antje Eckel. “And there is one thing I promise you: We will
make sure that you get more innovations in the coming years from us.” Human health and animal welfare are still the focus of Dr Eckel’s business activities, as they were 25 years ago, and will continue to be in the future. In his speech, Vice President Sales Dr Bernhard Eckel highlighted the company’s approach to zero hunger, good health and wellbeing. In the evening, this exciting and emotional event peaked out with a delightful dinner at Millenium Hilton’s scenic terrace restaurant with a spectacular view over the illuminated riverfront and the boats sailing majestically on Chao Phraya River. Dr Eckel wishes to thank all participants in the event for making their celebration such a delightful and unforgettable experience. They are grateful for their customers’ trust in their work and products. Empowered by this, Dr Eckel will continue striving for a better, sustainable future.
Algenuity launches new photobioreactor
lgenuity’s new photobioreactor, the Algem HT24 is a compact, computer-controlled photobioreactor for microalgae research. It comprises 24 separate reactors – each independently controlled and monitored – enabling the highest throughput of strain, culture media, and growth condition variance commercially available. Precisely calibrated, white LEDs provide maximum flexibility with light intensity and diurnal light cycle (light/ dark periods) control, while the fully enclosed design eliminates contamination from unwanted light (optional red LEDs available), raising the standards of your algae cultivation and improving your data accuracy and reproducibility. The Algem HT24 also features the company’s own custom-designed Algenious user interface that displays the acquisition of all major parameters simultaneously in real time. The software is highly intuitive and features advanced capabilities that support even the most demanding research requirements.
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by Daniel Taylor and Jens Kjerulf Petersen, Danish Shellfish Centre, DTU Aqua, Denmark
uman population density and utilisation of lands for cultivating foods have intensified in coastal regions over the past century. This intensification has dramatically affected the biological and chemical processes in coastal ecosystems through an increase in the flow of nutrients, principally nitrogen and phosphorus, from the land and atmosphere to the sea. Essentially, the more that the land is fed (fertilised) and the more we feed ourselves (food plus fuels), the more we feed coastal waters with nutrients caused by agricultural runoff, wastewater, and atmospheric deposition. As coastal waters become over-enriched, biological functioning changes with often long-term consequences. One of many symptoms is the increased growth and concentration of phytoplankton (single celled plants). Enriched waters can become so productive with phytoplankton growth that sunlight will not sufficiently reach depths to support aquatic plant life on the sea floor and valuable plant habitats like seagrass meadows are lost. Further increases in phytoplankton concentrations can lead to oxygen depletion, when dead phytoplankton cells decay on the sea bed. For the past few decades, the improvement of coastal water
quality has been a locus of policy development in many regions around the world. There have been impressive achievements in the implementation of these policies, notably in the improvement of wastewater treatment. Nevertheless, many coastal water bodies, such as those in Northern Europe, including the Baltic proper, are still considered heavily affected by excess nutrient run-off and will likely continue to be so for years to come. Nitrogen inputs into coastal waters originate from point sources (eg water treatment plants, fish farms), non-point/diffuse sources (eg agricultural lands, groundwater discharge), or atmospheric (eg volatilised ammonia or combustion by-product absorption). Following modifications and improvements in water quality management programs, diffuse sources of nutrients are the most significant. Treatment methods designed to minimise nutrient introduction into coastal waters are abundant in implementation. Classic examples of such treatment methods include restrictions in use of fertilisers, constructed wetlands, settling ponds, vegetative riparian buffer zones; and more recently, systems of â€˜precision agricultureâ€™. Although much progress has been made in reducing nutrient flows into coastal waters, the efficiency of further implementation rapidly diminishes and are also often more expensive to implement. Furthermore, decades of enrichment has a legacy of enhanced enrichment of sea floor sediments, which will be a persistent
20 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
source of nutrients by multiple processes (termed ‘internal loading’), and can only be mitigated within the aquatic environment.
One innovative means of mitigating nutrient enrichment in coastal waters is to leverage a part of coastal biology – shellfish bivalve water filtration. Mussels, oysters, clams, and other bivalves feed by filtering particles out of the water; phytoplankton is a primary source of food for these animals. Active cultivation of bivalves and focus on bivalve reef restoration have demonstrated the filtration impact these populations can exhibit. Standard mussel farms can filter hundreds of thousands of cubic metres-per-hour. Phytoplankton and organic matter are assimilated in the mussel body or immobilised to the sediments, trapping a significant portion of nutrients in enriched waters. Much work has been done to analyse the ‘ecosystem services’ provided by bivalves over the past decades by numerous researchers, mostly in the USA and northern Europe. Over a decade of conceptualisation and research at the Danish Shellfish Centre (DSC) - a section within DTU Aqua, Technical University of Denmark – has focused on leveraging bivalve filtration in active cultivation as an intensive mechanism to reduce the magnitude of eutrophic conditions in western Baltic waters; termed ‘Mitigation mussel culture’. By harvesting the mussels, the nutrients that are first consumed by phytoplankton and then converted into mussel biomass, are removed from the ecosystem. Employing cultivation techniques adapted from the conventional mussel aquaculture industry, high densities of mussels can be grown in targeted regions, with the potential to remove several metric tonnes of nutrients from coastal waters per harvest (Petersen et al, 2019) This mode also serves as a means to utilise vast numbers of mussel larvae, which are normally consumed as zooplankton or fail to settle. While aquaculture mussels (which show up on dinner plates) do also provide this service, ‘mitigation mussels’ are typically harvested with minimal manipulation and at a shorter growing period to reduce costs and maximise nutrient extractive potential – they tend to be considerably smaller than the mussels that are found at the market or restaurants. As a nutrient mitigation measure, mitigation mussel cultivation has been in adopted in the plans for future efforts to reach good ecological status in Danish coastal waters. In Denmark, a proposed goal is to harvest 100,000 metric tonnes of mitigation mussels annually, which will result in removal of 1-2,000 tonnes of nitrogen, corresponding to 8-15 percent of the national reduction demand in Denmark.
Mitigation mussel meals: Returning lost nutrients
How do aquafeeds and other forms of aquaculture fit into this equation? The concept of integrating filter feeding organisms, such as mussels, into the production of higher trophic species has been popularised by many, often termed ‘Integrated Multitrophic Aquaculture’ or more accurately just ‘Multitrophic Aquaculture’. As a source of nutrients, however, in most countries this contributes a negligible amount of nutrients relative to the larger terrestrial coastal loading. As mitigation mussels tend to be smaller and less uniform in size than those cultured for human consumption, the production of feed meals has been the most attractive avenue for utilisation. The growing demand for protein sources for feeds with balanced amino acid profiles has required expanded generation and inclusion of fishmeal alternatives.
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Meals produced from blue mussels generally have similar amino acid profiles to fish meals (Jönsson and Elwinger, 2009), with total crude protein levels of 65-71 percent. Concentrations of amino acids typically requiring supplementation in replacement diets, such as methionine and taurine, are similar to fishmeal profiles (Árnason et al, 2015). Mussel tissues contain important pigments and anti-oxidants, including mytiloxanthin, a pigment unique to shellfish, which outperforms astaxanthin in hydroxyl scavenging (Maoka et al., 2016). Furthermore, full fat mussel meals exhibit attractive proportions of LC-PUFAs such as DHA, DPA, and EPA (Árnason et al, 2015). In agriculture husbandry diets, high levels of inclusion have demonstrated positive effects on egg laying hens (Afrose et al, 2016), and digestibility in porcine feeds (Nørgaard et al, 2015). A limited number of studies in finfish species have demonstrated high digestibility in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) and Eurasian perch (Perca fluvialtilis) (Langeland et al, 2016), as well as increased palatability in carnivore diets with high plant inclusion (Nagel et al, 2014). Interestingly, the biochemical composition of mussel tissue can be influenced by the local conditions of growth, due to different phytoplankton community constituents (Pleissner et al, 2012), as well as reproductive state; as glycogen concentrations and carotenoid pigments increase immediately before spawning. Determining differential composition patterns in the future may provide opportunities for specified meals; however, this requires further investigation provided large-scale production of meals will likely blend material from multiple sites and times. Mussels, in mitigation culture, therefore pose an attractive source of protein as they assimilate phytoplankton already overabundant in the environment (zero managed feed input) while providing positive ecological feedbacks. Such feedbacks (ecosystem services) in other mitigation mechanisms are largely compensated by direct financial support or cost offset schemes. In essence, recycling ‘lost’ nutrients back into the food system and improving the local environment along the way. Nevertheless, like any good story, there are challenges ahead. Expanded production of mitigation mussels requires optimisation of nutrient extraction within limited space that also minimises conflict with other uses of coastal waters and vested interests in the seascape. The natural environment can also pose hurdles to expansion: whether hydrodynamic conditions are suitable, natural mussel settlement is sufficient, and predator pressure (ie eider ducks) are manageable. In policy circles, from local to regional, determining how and where to manage nutrients is coloured by a high variety of perspectives. As this mechanism aims to reduce nutrients already within the
marine environment, mitigation mussel culture is intended to supplement existing nutrient management programmes, and this concept is an on-going point of debate. Lastly, and which is essential in terms of economic viability, processing of mussel meals and streamlining production will require further innovation. Processing challenges of transforming mitigation mussels to a meal are rooted in the high-throughput separation of the shell from the tissue before subsequent meal production. Conventional steaming and vibratory separation methods are relatively expensive, while alternative methods of ‘juicing’ or other form of separation without preliminary shell exclusion generally results in meals with high ash content from retained shell parts.
Recently, two projects administered by DSC were funded to evaluate optimisation techniques for maximising nutrient extraction in mitigation units while documenting their ecological impacts. The BONUS OPTIMUS project has pulled together a research consortium from four countries and nine partners for the development of mitigation culture in the western Baltic for the subsequent production of mussel meals as a fishmeal alternative. Feeding trials undertaken in OPTIMUS include replacement in salmonid diets. The nationally funded project, MuMiPro, brings together 15 partners evaluating optimal cultivation techniques in eutrophic Danish waters for large-scale production of organic mussel meal. The ambition of both projects is to demonstrate means to produce mitigation mussels that maximises their positive ecological footprint at an economically viable rate. This includes further development of processing mussel meals for animal feeds, and ultimately the high growth aquafeed market. Testing and optimisation of alternative processing techniques are currently under investigation in the MuMiPro project. Finding the combination of maintaining a good nutritional profile and minimising processing costs, like all other aquafeed ingredients, is a constantly evolving process. The combined aims of these two projects are to propel the development of mitigation mussel culture as a nutrient mitigation tool and processing techniques for a high-quality meal. For more information on research at the Danish Shellfish Center: http://www.skaldyrcenter.aqua.dtu.dk/english For more information on the MuMiPro project: http://www.mumipro.dk/ For more information on the BONUS OPTIMUS project: http://www.bonus-optimus.eu
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
22 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
Enhancing feed palatability and intake of low fishmeal diets
by Phileo by Lesaffre
ishmeal is considered the best source of nutrients for aquaculture feeds due to the balanced nutrient composition and the high digestibility of its ingredients. However, the continuous depletion of fish stocks recorded worldwide, together with increased aquaculture production, is causing a shortage of fishmeal supply for the aquaculture industry. As an immediate consequence, the price of fishmeal has spiked, which is putting the profitability of shrimp aquaculture production at risk. It is, therefore, imperative that producers identify alternative protein sources that allow for an environmentally sustainable and economically viable shrimp production. Protein sources of vegetable origin are a valid alternative to partially replace fishmeal. Plant-based ingredients are largely available, economically advantageous when compared to fishmeal, and they have a good nutritional value. However, some features of vegetable materials make the transition from fishmeal to plant-based ingredients quite problematic. Ingredients of vegetable origin often contain anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), which are biological compounds such as tannins, saponins, and glycoalkaloids that are naturally produced by plants to defeat predators in their natural environment. These compounds have a bitter taste and, therefore, result in a reduced acceptability and palatability of the feed. Moreover, shrimps are able to detect the feed in the water thanks to the presence of chemical signals present in fishmeal, such as amino acids, small peptides, amines and nucleotides, that attract them. Reducing the quantity of such key biochemical triggers through the partial substitution of fishmeal level with plant-based ingredients in aquafeeds negatively affects attractiveness of the feed and, consequently, reduces the feed intake. Ultimately, decreased feed palatability and feed intake have a dramatic effect on shrimp growth performance, which, in turn, severely hinder productivity and economic viability.
A biological solution to address the pitfalls of low fishmeal diets
Prosaf feed additive is a premium yeast-based product developed by Phileo by Lesaffre. It comprises a yeast fraction
obtained from the primary culture of a proprietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain. Prosaf® is produced through a scientifically-validated biotechnological process that autolyses the yeasts using thermal treatment and subsequently centrifuging them to separate the cell content from the cell wall. The latter component is discarded,
Figure 1: Impact of Prosaf® on feed intake. Four diets were tested in form of extruded pellets: 1. High fishmeal formula (12% fishmeal), 2. low fishmeal formula (3% fishmeal), low fishmeal with 2% squid meal, and low fishmeal with 2% Prosaf®. Whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaseus vannamei) with an average 13g body weight were placed in tanks at a density of 80 shrimps per tank (140 shrimp/m2). Shrimps were feed twice a day for 15 days. One hour after feed distribution, leftovers of each feed were weighted to calculate feed consumption. The position of the feeding trays changed daily. The feeding trials for each combination of test diets were carried out in quadruplicates. Different letters above each bar indicate statistically significant differences (paired Student’s t-test, p <0.01. A) Schematic representation of the tanks with the two feeding trays. B) Comparison between 12% fishmeal diet and 3% fishmeal diet. C) Comparison between 3% fishmeal diet and 3% fishmeal diet with 2% squid meal. D) Comparison between 3% fishmeal diet and 3% fishmeal diet supplemented with 2% Prosaf® (Source: Phileo by Lesaffre)
24 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
whereas the remaining fraction is composed of a soluble cell extract with a protein content as high as 63 percent. The feed additive Prosaf® is also a great source of easily available amino acids. In fact, 46% percent of the amino acids present in this feed additive are available in their free form, while the remaining 54 percent are polymerised in small peptides that can be rapidly absorbed by shrimps after feeding. It is also important to mention that Prosaf feed additive contains 7.7 percent of nucleotides, which are attractants for shrimps, and over 10 percent of glutamine, which is an amino acid known to be highly palatable.
A premium yeast fraction that boosts palatability of low fishmeal diets
A recent scientific trial carried out in Brasil was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of supplementing a low fishmeal diet with Prosaf® on feed palatability and feed intake (See Figure 1). Four different diets were tested: a high fishmeal diet (12% fishmeal), a low fishmeal diet (3% fishmeal), a low fishmeal diet formula with two percent squid meal, and a low fishmeal diet formula with two percent Prosaf®. Whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaseus vannamei) with an average 13g body weight were placed in tanks with two feeding trays in opposite sides of the tank as shown in Figure 1A. Multiple trials were performed in order to compare all experimental diets with the low fishmeal diet. Each trial had a duration of 15 days, shrimps were fed twice a day, and equal amounts of feed were distributed for each meal in both feeding trays. Feed intake was calculated one hour after each meal by collecting and weighing feed left in each tray. A significant decrease of six percent in feed intake was recorded when the amount of fishmeal in the formula was reduced from 12 percent-to-three percent (See Figure 1B), which clearly suggests that shrimps favoured the high fishmeal diet. Supplementation of the low fishmeal diet with two percent squid meal showed no statistically significant effect in feed intake (See Figure 1C). However, when two percent of Prosaf feed additive was used to supplement the low fishmeal diet, feed intake significantly increased by over five percent and up to the levels recorded with the high fishmeal diet. This result suggests Prosaf® includes highly palatable molecules that compensate for the decreased palatability of low fishmeal diets.
Prosaf® results in better feed intake for better shrimp growth
Results from this scientific trial showed that the inclusion of Prosaf® (2%) is able to boost the palatability of low fishmeal diets, which is usually low. As a consequence, feed intake increases, thereby improving shrimp growth performance. The benefits of feed supplementation with this premium yeast fraction product are driven by its high content in free amino acids, including glutamate, which is known to increase palatability, as well as with small size peptides that are feed attractants for shrimp. Prosaf® feed additive is, therefore, a valuable solution to mitigate the pitfalls associated with the challenging, yet necessary transition from high to low fishmeal diets in shrimp aquaculture. https://phileo-lesaffre.com International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 25
FEEDING MANDARIN FISH
Research on nutrition requirements and feed technology for mandarin fish by Zhang jin, Dong Qiufen and Zhang Song, Guangzhou Nutriera Group Co., Ltd; Ye Xing, Pearl River Fisheries Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences.
andarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) (Order Perciformes, Family Percichthyidae), distributes in the major rivers and subsidiary lakes in east China (See Figure 1). It is a commercial fish native to China and has been hailed as one of “four Chinese famous freshwater fishes.” The flesh of the mandarin fish is delicate, sweet-tasting, and has extremely high medicinal value. The Compendium of Materia Medica describes, “The flesh of mandarin fish is mildly sweet, non-toxic and is effective in the treatment of consumptive diseases by strengthening the spleen and stomach and through the kidney-tonifying and body strength.” It is also the main ingredient in the signature Anhui cuisine dish, stinky mandarin fish. After the successful attempt of artificially breeding of mandarin fish in 1984, the mandarin fish industry started to grow, and the yield of mandarin fish increased yearly. In 1993, the yield was only 9,000 tonnes, however, it reached 150,000 tonnes in 2003 and doubled to more than 300,000 tonnes in 2018 (See Figure 2), at a value of 21 billion CNY. As
Figure 1: Mandarin fish distribution in China
such, mandarin fish has become one of the most popular species cultured by prosperity-seeking Chinese farmers. At present, farmed mandarin fish in China are mainly fed with dace and other wild fish. Producing one kilogram mandarin fish requires at least 4.5kg ofother forage fish, which results in a huge waste in aquaculture area. Currently, a stocking density around 4.5 pieces of fish/m2 has been adopted in intensive mandarin fish culture, before, the indiscriminate increase in intensive stocking density has led to a rising trend in outbreaks of aquaculture diseases in mandarin fish farming. In 2018, survival rate of mandarin fish fry was merely 30 percent, therefore, changes of farming methods are inevitable. Commercial feed has advantages of high efficiency, environmental friendliness and suitability of industrialised production. Thus, it has been regarded as the best alternative to live food for mandarin fish farming. After nearly two decades of research and development, Chinese researchers have achieved breakthroughs on various aspects, such as the feeding physiology of mandarin fish, mechanisms of habituation of ingestion behavior and nutrition requirements. Mandarin fish feed has evolved from frozen fresh fish to moist feed, which contain fish paste during the transitory phase, and eventually to extruded feed with major breakthroughs, which
Figure 2: Yearly yield of mandarin fish
26 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 19
Sustainable Aquaculture = for Social and Economic Development
November 20-22, 2019
Habituation of mandarin fish and selective breeding of easily habituated breeds
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The studies on the feeding physiology of mandarin fish have indicated that the species identifies the shape and size of food through vision, determines the distance and position of food through the lateral line, and detects the taste and hardness/ softness of food through taste buds in the oral cavity to select palatable food for ingestion. These three aspects are indispensable in the feeding process of mandarin fish. Mandarin fish exhibit an optomotor response, that is their eyes show strong tracking responses to moving bait fish of certain shapes, and bait fish are further detected and located through the lateral line before an attack is launched. Therefore, to habituate mandarin fish to formulated feed, besides addressing the issues of the nutrient requirements of mandarin fish and palatability, a habituation process to “deceive” the vision and lateral line must be formulated.
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In contrast to other carnivorous fish species such as the largemouth bass and northern snakehead, which are primarily fed on plankton during the fry stage, mandarin fish only switch to a diet consisting of other fish or shrimp after reaching a certain stage. Mandarin fish are carnivores when born, but intake other newborn fry and reject other food such as plankton or formulated feed, therefore, Mandarin fish are known as “underwater tigers.” Under natural conditions, mandarin fish lay eggs at nearly the same time as the other species of China’s “four famous domestic fishes”, however, the incubation period of mandarin fish eggs is shorter than that of the fish eggs of the other species. Newly hatched mandarin fish fry have strong swimming abilities that enable them to pursue fry of other fish species, and their teeth appear three days after hatching, which enable the direct biting of food. Mandarin fish usually dwell in the clumps of aquatic vegetation with slight water movements, and detect moving prey using vision or the lateral line system. Fish and shrimp are captured through ambush predation and are directly swallowed. Group predation is usually practiced by mandarin fish, and predatory activity is most intense in the morning and evening. Only moving prey are pursued by mandarin fish while static food is ignored, therefore, formulated feed that is directly dispensed remains largely uneaten. During the predatory process, mandarin fish may occasionally swallow other food by accident, however, their highly developed taste buds facilitate the detection and expulsion of food swallowed unintentionally. Therefore, mandarin fish feeding is a process that involves the collaboration of multiple sense organs, i.e., vision, the lateral line, and taste. Mandarin fish have a highly developed digestive system with a large number of pyloric ceca that are distributed at the bottom of the stomach, which increase the surface area for digestion and absorption of food and ensure that food is digested in a timely fashion. Therefore, the understanding of the physiology and feeding characteristics of these “natural-born carnivores” forms the basis for the habituation of mandarin fish to formulated feed.
Physiological characteristics of feeding in mandarin fish
The successful habituation of mandarin fish to formulated feed can be achieved by harnessing the conditioned reflex of feeding in fish. In a previous study researchers established, in mandarin fish, a conditional reflex of food snatching at the water surface through the dispensing of live bait. Subsequently, the dispensed feed was replaced with dead fish, fish chunks, and eventually soft pellet feed. After 15 days of habituation, mandarin fish fry weighing 5-245g is habituated to soft pellet feed, and a habituation rate of up to 70 percent was achieved. In contrast, for mandarin fish that did not undergo the conditional reflex establishment process with live bait, it will reject any fish chunks or pellet feed. By establishing a conditioned reflex of feeding and following habituation procedures, the habituation of mandarin fish to formulated feed can be successfully achieved in small water bodies such as net pens or concrete ponds. However, the application of this strategy in fish pond culture has resulted in low habituation success rates due to the complexities in fry habituation procedures and difficulties in providing support for soft pellet feed preparation, and this limits the development of formulated feed for mandarin fish. During the process of habituating mandarin fish to formulated feed, it was found that a small minority of mandarin fish can be easily habituated, and habituation can be achieved in a relatively short period of time, while a certain proportion of fish still reject formulated feed despite attempts at habituation. Additionally, it was found that habituation can be achieved effortlessly in another mandarin fish species native to Yalu River in China, the leopard mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri). Therefore, the existence of “easily habituated” mandarin fish
have been achieved in feed manufacturing techniques. Therefore, the undertaking of studies on mandarin fish feed is necessary for the sustainable development of the Chinese mandarin fish industry. This article provides a review of the research progress on the feed nutrition of mandarin fish in China, which may serve as reference for mandarin fish farmers.
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International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 27
Figure 3: Mandarin fish fry
Figure 4- Easily habituated mandarin fish fry: Eat feeds, strong vitality, fast growth
Figure 5- Non-easily habituated mandarin fish fry: not eat feeds, debility, growth arrest
Figures 7 and 8: Harvest of mandarin fish
Figure 6: The mandarin fish extruded feeds (2# and 3#)
genes in nature makes the selective breeding of easily habituated mandarin fish breeds possible. The current strategies for the habituation of mandarin fish to formulated feed are primarily based on the selective breeding of new and easily habituated breeds and consists of two main strategies: 1) The cross-breeding of mandarin fish and leopard mandarin fish, followed by the selection of easily habituated offspring 2) The directed screening of easily habituated mandarin fish. Both strategies require molecular biology methods to assist the directed screening of mandarin fish with “easily habituated” genes for selective breeding (See Figure 4 and Figure 5). With the advancements in modern molecular biology techniques, rapid development with the use of molecular markers to aid in mandarin fish breeding has been achieved. At present, Chinese researchers have already established a genetic diversity database of the mandarin fish breeds worldwide, elucidated the physiological mechanisms of mandarin fish with formulated feed, and successfully constructed a high-density genetic linkage map of mandarin fish in which the loci of feeding and growth-related genes have been identified. This work has laid a solid foundation for the research on directed selective breeding of easily habituated mandarin fish with the use of molecular markers. In 2017, a research team at Huazhong Agricultural University, specialising in research on mandarin fish, successfully bred the first new breed of mandarin fish, called “Huakang No. 1”, after eight years of selective breeding efforts. The breed has gained market popularity due to its exceptional “easily habituated” characteristics. In a previous study on easily habituated mandarin fish crossbreeds, a Chinese fishery successfully bred a new crossbreed, the golden mandarin fish, with a habituation success rate to extruded feed that exceeded 70 percent. The use of molecular markers to aid breeding has greatly
shortened the breeding period of mandarin fish and made directed selective breeding possible, and it is estimated that new breeds of easily habituated mandarin fish will be selectively bred within the next decade.
Nutrition requirements of mandarin fish and feed preparation technologies
The earliest studies on the protein requirements of mandarin fish, which can be traced back to 1989, involved the use of internationally accepted force-feeding methods for the preliminary investigation of protein requirements in mandarin fish. Specifically, casein was used as the protein source, and a series of protein concentrations were established by a dilution with dextrin. Seven types of formulated feed, with crude protein content ranging from 2.56 percent-to-62.13 percent, were used to force-feed juvenile mandarin fish, and it was concluded that a higher crude protein content leads to a higher relative rate of weight gain. With improved understanding of feeding habits in mandarin fish, methods of habituating mandarin fish to formulated feed have been developed on the basis of conditioned reflexes. In previous studies, researchers investigated the protein, fat, and energy requirements of mandarin fish through the habituation of mandarin fish to soft moist pellets. Early studies indicated that with white fish meal, as a good source of protein, and chicken intestine and cod liver oil, as sources of fat, the appropriate protein and fat content of feed for mandarin fish fingerlings (54.91g) were 53 percent and six percent, respectively, at a feeding rate of five percent. The appropriate protein and fat content of feed for adult mandarin fish (378.08g) at a feeding rate of three percent were 47 percent and 12 percent, respectively. Subsequently, a mandarin fish habituation experiment to formulated feed (average initial
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Table 1. The formulation for adult mandarin fish Ingredients
White fish meal
Corn gluten meal
Chicken intestines fat
Vitamins and minerals
Fresh fish meat (dry weight)
Table 2. Comparison of two farming practices of mandarin fish Farming practices Farming site Pond area (m3)
Concrete pond or cage
Stocking density (fish/m3)
Stocking size (g/fish)
Culture duration (months)
Harvest size (g/fish)
Price of feed (USD/tonne feed) Net profit (USD/tonne fish)
weight: 65g) was conducted in the USA by using white fish meal as the source of protein, at six different protein levels. By analysing indicators, such as the specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER), the optimum protein content of formulated feed for mandarin fish was determined to be between 44.27 percent and 48.41 percent (See Table 1). Additionally, some studies have shown that mandarin fish have a higher tolerance towards fat in feed, while carbohydrates are almost entirely unutilised. The fat content of feed has a significant influence on growth and protein efficiency in mandarin fish, where a feed fat content of 9-12 percent results in relatively higher SGR and PER. Continuous innovations have also been made for research on mandarin fish feed preparation. To satisfy the shape, movement, and palatability requirements of mandarin fish towards food, soft moist pellet feed was initially invented. Such feed can only be prepared just before feeding by adding pre-formulated meal into freshly made fish paste and shaping the feed mixture into strips. During feed dispensing, movement of the feed occurs through the propulsion of water flow, which promotes ingestion by mandarin fish. However, the use of soft moist pellet feed was quickly aborted due to its complex preparation process and low habituation success rate. In recent years, the advancements in feed preparation technologies have propelled mandarin fish feed into the era of extruded feed. The pre-mixed mandarin fish feed, developed by Guangzhou Nutriera Biotechnology Co, Ltd., has effectively replaced fish paste by meeting the flavor and texture requirements of the mandarin fish, and it has high feed attractiveness. Through the selective breeding of easily habituated mandarin fish breeds, by the research team at Huazhong Agricultural University, the role of the lateral line in mandarin fish feeding has been weakened, thus making direct habituation to extruded feed possible. Therefore, extruded feed, specially formulated for the easily habituated fish, may be revolutionary for the entire mandarin fish industry.
Mountain, mandarin fish thriving in peach blossom-covered waters.” At present, the annual yield of mandarin fish has exceeded 300,000 tonnes, with an annual value of more than 21 billion CNY. Based on the FCR of 1.5, the annual consumption of mandarin fish feed exceeded 450,000 tonnes, therefore, breakthroughs in formulated feed will undoubtedly create a huge revolution in the entire mandarin fish industry. With different unit prices US $2,200-2,600 per metric tonnes and $1,100-1,500 per metric tonnes of commercial feed and trash fish, feeding with commercial feed can bring 40 percent profits more than feeding with trash fish (See Table 2). With the rapid advancements of modern molecular breeding techniques, the transition and upgrade of China’s feed industry and feed preparation technologies, as well as the increase in the consumption of Chinese aquaculture products, will promote and accelerate the development of mandarin fish feed. It will be exciting to see who takes the lead in this imminent revolution of the mandarin fish industry.
The research project on nutrition requirement and feed technology of mandarin was supported by the China-ASEAN Fisheries Resources Conservation and Exploitation Fund.
Mandarin fish have been a celebrated Chinese fish since ancient times as well as been mentioned in a verse of a famous Tang poem: “Egrets hovering over Xisai International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 29
Pelleting versus extrusion
for shrimp feed manufacturing by Nils Lastein, Global Application Manager, Andritz, Denmark
or shrimp feed to have the desired effectâ€”that is to provide optimal energy for maximum growthâ€”it must meet the following characteristics: Shrimp feed pellets must achieve 100 percent sinkability and have a water stability greater than two hours. However, the starch that is used to hold pellets together has no real nutritional value for shrimp. Therefore, a process that allows for starches to be replaced by protein can further support the goal of an optimised feed conversion ratio. However, there are quite a few additional factors to consider when determining the best process solution for your shrimp feed manufacturing facility. Shrimp feed can be produced either by pelleting or extrusion, and each of these processing techniques has its pros and cons. Here we make a side-by-side comparison to help processors determine the best course of action for their individual facility and circumstances:
When pelleting, grind quality is very important. When oversized or inconsistent particles are encountered in the feed ingredients, pellet durability is adversely affected. While both processes will benefit from the addition of grinders or pulverisers, when choosing
the pelleting process for your shrimp feed production, consider the addition of classifiers for the processing of recycling oversized particles. The pelleting process is highly sensitive to excessive moisture content; high moisture causes rollers to slip and consequentially, creates machine blockages. Therefore, post-conditioning is a necessary step in the pelleting line, in order to achieve a suitable level of starch cooking, and to meet the requirement for water stability. Pelleted feed is a densification process by nature and, therefore, coating feed with liquid palatants or wet nutritional ingredients (fats and oils) post-pelleting can be a challenge. Another factor that affects pellet quality is control of pellet size and length, which poses additional process challenges. While there are challenges with producing a high-quality shrimp feed pellet on a pellet mill, the process is a long-standing industry technique making hiring and training accessible.
Intensive pre-conditioning is a decisive stage of the extrusion process. To prevent expansion of pellets out of extruder the meal ingredients must be kept at a precise temperature. Additionally, because of all the excess moisture added during both preconditioning and extrusion, drying is also mandatory so moisture stability can be maintained in the finished pellets. However, post-conditioning can be
30 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
Pelleting Vs Extrusion Grinding
Benefits from a combination of hammer mills and pulverisers, as well as classifiers for recycling oversize particles
Pelleting quality adversly affected by oversized particles
Required for water stability
Sensative to high amounts of moisture (water or oil)
Required for water stability
Necessary to remove all moisture introduced in conditioning
that allows liquids to be absorbed easily
Easy control over pellet length
Ability to precisely control pellet expansion for floating or sinking pellets
High amount of fines that need to be reworked
Market kn owledge
Directly from main process machine
crumbler needed to produce post larvae starter feed
The technique is well known technicians are plentiful
eliminated from the extrusion process altogether. Several benefits of extrusion include precise control over pellet length, a factor that is important in starter feed where pellets should be as small as Ø0,6mm. This process is not possible on a pellet mill without the addition of a crumbler. In addition, control over pellet porosity means they can be easily coated with palatents and oils. The extrusion technique also allows for substitution of functional starch with nutritional proteins and the expansion control system® allows feed producers to precisely adjust the pellet expansion obtaining full and complete sinkability, the two primary factors for production of high-quality shrimp feed. www.andritz.com
International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 31
The use of saponins in aquaculture
by Roberto Acosta, Yoav Rosen and, Ra’anan Ariav, Phibro Aqua, Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Ecuador and Phibro Aqua, Phibro Animal Health Corporation, Israel
eafood production has been steadily increasing since the late 80’s due to the contribution of the aquaculture sector. Moreover, the demand for aquaculture species such as fish, shellfish, and crustaceans is expected to continue to grow in the near future. In order to keep up with this predicted demand for seafood, the aquaculture sector needs to develop innovative and environmentally friendly solutions that improve cultured species survival and growth, while simultaneously reducing production costs. Aquaculture feed plays a crucial role on the performance and health of the culture species, and accounts for a large portion of production costs. It is, therefore, critical to continue to develop feeds that increase feed efficiency, improve animal health, and produce less waste. Feed additives have played an important role to improve aquafeeds. Saponins, por example, are an important and established feed additive in seafood aquaculture. In this article, the beneficial effects of saponins as feed additives are explored, with especial emphasis on its use for the culture of the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), which represents about half of the crustacean aquaculture production (53%). The effect of saponins to improve nutrient absorption, digestive capacity, and growth performance is discussed together with the positive effects of saponins in shrimp immune system and its resistance to pathogens. Moreover, the use of saponins to reduce the nutrient load of shrimp aquaculture effluents is also reviewed.
Moreover, 30.1 million tonnes of aquatic plants and 37,900 tonnes of non-food products were cultured. The total estimated first sale value of global aquaculture production in 2016 sums up to US $243.5 (FAO, 2018) and 19,271 thousand farmers account for global employment statistics. Among the main groups of seafood production, crustaceans comprise 9.8 percent of the world aquaculture production, with a total of 64 cultured species. Other groups include finfish and shellfish representing 67.6 percent and 21.4 percent of cultured species, respectively. The main species of cultured crustaceans are prawns, crayfish, and crabs, the most commonly produced species being the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) that represents more than half of the crustacean production (53%). The remaining
Aquaculture: Global status and trends
Aquaculture production is the fastest growing food production sector and is responsible for a major increase in seafood supply for human consumption, especially since the late 80’s when global seafood capture production stagnated. According to the latest report published in 2018 by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, aquaculture represented 47 percent of the total global seafood production in 2016 with 80 million tonnes registered in FAO records.
Figure 1: Chemical structure of two saponins Quillaja Saponaria and Yucca schidigera
32 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
top five produced crustacean species are the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii, 12%), the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis, 10%), the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon, 9%), the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense, 4%) and the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii, 3%). The production of marine shrimps clearly dominates crustacean aquaculture, mainly taking place in Asian and Latin American countries, including China, Vietnam, Indonesia, India, Ecuador and Thailand. Currently, the global demand for seafood continues to grow significantly due to a variety of social and economic factors, namely, population growth, rising incomes, and improved supply chain distribution from producers to the final consumers. Consumption per capita has increased on average by 1.5 percent per year since 1961, rising from 9.0 kg in 1961 to an estimated 20.5 kg in 2017. The seafood trade for human consumption and non-food purposes (eg animal feed, pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetics, among others) plays a major role in economic development, especially in developing countries, boosting a wide range of industries and activities such as resource management, infrastructure and equipment construction, research and technology, and food processing. In order to keep up with the demand and meet the United Nationsâ€™ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the aquaculture industry has the opportunity to improve its sustainability in light of a changing world. As such, future trends for aquaculture production include (i) a reduction in the use of antibiotics in order to mitigate the expansion of resistant microbial strains, (ii) the proliferation of Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) systems that reduce
environmental degradation and excess excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus to the environment, (iii) the improvement of feed formulations, as the farming of fed species continues to rise in relation to the farming of unfed species, (iv) and the evolution of aquaculture systems and equipment, improving productivity and reducing the potential environmental impacts. Aquaculture feed often accounts for half of the total production costs. It is, therefore, critical to develop innovative feed formulations and new ingredients that improve the nutritional quality of seafood products, particularly by increasing feed efficiency and metabolic assimilation of nutrients, as well reducing feed waste by improving feed distribution systems and promoting circular economy endeavors. These are, indeed, among the top priorities in the aquaculture industry. Feeding efficiency and better nutritional profiles can be achieved through the inclusion of feed additives in aquafeeds, contributing to increased production rates and a reduction in the occurrence of infectious diseases such as white spot syndrome and early mortality syndrome, which are still a major threat to shrimp aquaculture as they lead to mass mortality events and great economic losses. Ultimately, feed additives that improve digestive performance and reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases contribute to decreasing animal stress and, therefore, improving animal welfare in aquaculture facilities. In the next section, we highlight the importance of feed additives in aquaculture.
The importance of food additives in aquaculture: The specific case of saponins
The intensification of aquaculture production is not without challenges, as it can lead to sub-optimal culture conditions
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International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 33
Figure 2: Specific growth rate (A) and feed conversion ratio (B) of Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) fed a control or a saponin blend supplemented diet. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05)
Figure 3: Survival (A) and total haemocyte count (B) of Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) immersed in Quillaja saponin suspensation at different concentrations for five days. Different letters denote significant differences (p<0.05)
leading to animal stress and poor water quality, which limit the growth performance and welfare of cultured animals. Thus, feed additives are commonly used in aquaculture production as a means to reduce stress, boost reproductive efficiency, improve individual health status and immune response, and enhance growth performance by improving nutrient retention, digestion, and assimilation. Feed additives that promote the welfare of animals are especially relevant for shrimp aquaculture as shrimps lack an adaptive immune system and solely rely on innate immunity to fight pathogens and diseases. A few examples of feed additives include glucans, vitamin C, probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, nucleotides, carotenoids, bioactive fatty acids, and plant-derived supplements. Currently, there is a growing market to incorporate natural compounds in aquafeeds due to the fact that final consumers prefer chemical-free food and products, while also demanding environmentally friendly production processes. Additionally, the use of synthetic substances, such as antibiotics and hormones, is no longer accepted in several countries. Indeed, the use of antibiotics as growth-promoters in aquaculture was banned in 2006 by the European Union (Regulation 1831/2003/ EC). Consequently, natural ingredients, such as plantderived feedstuffs, are now commonly used in aquaculture as supplements and also as fish meal substitutes. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that plant feedstuffs must meet specific nutritional and non-nutritional characteristics for inclusion in aquafeeds, such as low levels of fibre, high protein content, appropriate amino acid profile, high nutrient digestibility, as well as suitable palatability to maximise feed acceptance and intake. Among the non-nutritional characteristics, availability, sustainability, price, easiness of processing, and storage and functionality (durability, expansion, water stability, oil absorption) are critical features to be evaluated. Several plant and algal extracts from aloe vera, turmeric, cinnamon, propolis, Echinacea, garlic, green tea, cumin, ginger, soapbark tree, Mojave yucca, microalgae Navicula sp, Spirulina, and Ulva sp, among others, have already been tested and demonstrated for positive effects on survival rates, haematological and immune parameters, and improvement of growth performance of fish and shrimps. Among such dietary supplements, saponins extracted from soapbark tree (Quillaja saponaria) and Mojave yucca (Yucca schidigera) have proven to be very promising ingredients for aquafeeds as natural growth promoters (See Figure 1). Saponins are classified as substances with multiple benefits, particularly in key parameters such as feed intake, nutrient digestibility, intestinal physiology, metabolism, growth, and health. These compounds are naturally occurring plant glycosides
that have a steroid or triterpenoid structure and possess detergent properties. However, at high concentrations, it is important to note that saponins can have deleterious effects on aquatic animals, such as depression of feed intake, inhibition of active uptake of nutrients, reduction of fertility and a decrease in protein digestibility. Nevertheless, health-promoting effects, such as anticarcinogenic, anti-microbial, cholesterol decreasing, immune modulating and anti-inflammatory activity, have been reported when saponins are used at lower concentrations and in properly balanced feed supplementation formula.
Beneficial effects of saponins in the nutrient absorption, digestive capacity and growth performance of aquaculture species
One of the major aquaculture production challenges is the development of feed formulations that replace scarce and costly ingredients, such as fishmeal and fish oil, and that improve feed conversation ratios (FCR) and growth performance. Saponins are established candidates as feed supplements because they have been shown to increase the permeability of small intestinal mucosal cells, thus increasing nutrient absorption, particularly of macromolecules. Moreover, their detergent-like activity improves the digestibility of carbohydrates by reducing viscosity. The stimulation of digestive enzyme activity like amylase, trypsin, alkaline protease, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipase has also been reported, along with a boost in respiratory enzymes like cytochrome c-oxidase. Such reports highlight the potential of saponins to increase the digestibility of nutrients, mainly proteins and carbohydrates, while simultaneously favoring anabolic processes by enhancing aerobic metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated the capacity of saponins to increase the growth performance of cultured fish and shrimp (See Figure 2). For example, common carp fed diets containing Quillaja saponins showed higher metabolic efficiency and average body weights (significantly increased by 37.5 to 73.2%), faster growth rates (specific growth rate increased 0.7 to 1.18% per day), and increased utilisation efficiency indexes, including food conversion efficiency, protein productive value, and protein gain while simultaneously maintaining routine metabolic rates. Similar results were observed for Nile tilapia, revealing significantly higher energy retention and lipid conversion when supplemented with a saponin blend. Supplements based on three percent saponin blend, particularly from Quillaja and Yucca extracts, showed beneficial effects on weight and length gain, growth and survival rates, and better feed conversion ratios of Pacific white shrimp, leading to higher biomass yield per tank and an increase of 15-to-26 percent in total production.
34 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
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International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 35
Similarly, the use of a diet supplemented with Figure 4: Benefits of Nutrient absorption saponin rich Quillaja extracts and vitamin C, led to saponins as feed Digestive capacity Performance additive for the Growth an improvement of 14 percent in production and 15 culture of the Pacific percent increase in survival rates of Pacific white white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) shrimp, as compared to the administration of control diets (See Figure 3). Results from another scientific study also show that the FCR was improved by 23 Saponins percent in shrimps fed with the saponin-supplemented diet. Ammonia excretion Immune modulation In summary, saponin-supplemented diets have Immune Ammonia leaching from Water quality Pathogen resistance system feces and feed waste Survival important functional benefits for aquaculture species, particularly as growth promoters and gut health products driven by an enhanced feed utilisation efficiency. Such results are thought to be due to a greater administration, dosage, and mode of action. nutrient absorption brought on by higher intestine Saponins are among the plant extracts that have been shown to permeability and higher activity of digestive enzymes associated improve the immune response of shrimps and their resistance to with saponin supplementation. pathogens. Immune modulation induced by saponins is apparently Beneficial effects of saponins in the immune system and related to (i) the induction of cytokines like interleukins and interferons, (ii) the formation of complexes between saponins resistance to pathogens and antigens and their incorporation into cell or endosomal The spread of diseases is considered one of the most membranes, exposing antigens to cytosolic proteases (which considerable problems in shrimp aquaculture. Diseases are often would otherwise be exposed to digestive degradation), and (iii) driven by poor water quality, high shrimp densities, nutritional the inhibition of non-specific processes such as inflammation and imbalances, and a lack of proper biosecurity measurements associated with the trade of live infected animals among facilities. monocyte proliferation. White shrimp contaminated with Vibrio alginolyticus and Shrimp ponds are prone to the invasion of several pathogens immersed in saponin solutions showed increased phagocytic including protozoa, fungi, and bacteria. However, the biggest activity and greater clearance efficiency, having higher survival threat comes from the spread of viral infections, which have rates, proving the immunomodulatory capacity of saponins. caused great losses in several shrimp producing countries, Immune parameters, such as hyaline cells, total haemocyte including in Southeast Asia (Taiwan, China, Indonesia and India) count, specific α2-macroglobulin activity, respiratory burst, and and South America (Ecuador, Honduras and Mexico). antioxidant enzyme activity have been shown to increase with The top five most significant viruses affecting shrimp aquaculture are infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis saponin supplementation (See Figure 3). Other reports similarly showed the enhancement of bacterial virus (IHHNV), yellow head virus (YHV), Taura syndrome clearance in rainbow trout and the enhancement of chemotactic virus (TSV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), and infectious activity of yellowtail leucocytes. Moreover, another study carried myonecrosis virus (IMNV). out using the giant freshwater prawn also showed that saponins Preventive measures are currently the best approach to reduce can modulate the immune system by increasing total haemocyte the spread of viral infections as there are no effective treatments count and, ultimately, increasing disease resistance. for viral pandemic outbreaks in shrimp aquaculture facilities. As Besides the established immunostimulant effect, saponins such, it is of the upmost importance to maintain optimal water have also been shown to be good vaccine adjuvants, to have quality, but also to enhance the immune response of shrimps. Immunostimulant compounds, easily administered through feed, antifungal properties, to reduce viral replication, and to induce detrimental effects on protozoa due to their detergent effect on may be a solution to attenuate the problem of infectious diseases cell membranes. Such properties are important to reduce the load and consequently improve production yields. Immunostimulants are defined as compounds that “enhance the innate or non-specific of internal parasites in cultured shrimps. immune response by interacting directly with cells of the system, activating them”. The use of saponins to reduce the nutrient load of Several compounds have been administered as shrimp aquaculture effluents immunostimulants in aquaculture facilities to improve the health Shrimp aquaculture is one of major sources of pollution in status of shrimps, including peptidoglycans, lipopolysaccharides, tropical and subtropical coastal areas due to discharges from oligosaccharides, vitamins, nucleotides, antibacterial peptides, culture ponds, creating excessive nitrogen loads from cultured cytokines, probiotics, and herbal, plant and algae extracts. animals’ excretion as an end product of protein metabolism. Several modes of action of immunostimulants have been used Ammonia, and its intermediate product nitrite, are highly toxic in penaeid shrimp, such as: (i) enhancing the phagocytosis of to aquatic animals, including fish and crustaceans and should be pathogens through the activation of phagocytic cells in the kept to a minimum in order to maintain animal welfare and, thus, hemolymph, (ii) increasing antibacterial and antiseptic properties maximise shrimp survival. of the hemolymph, (iii) activating signal transduction and the Water quality deterioration due to excess ammonia is a prophenoloxidase system. major issue in shrimp aquaculture and has been associated More specifically, plant extracts have been reported to improve with collapses in production, mainly due to the rapid spread of non-specific immune properties like leucocyte function, diseases and physiological stress. acting against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Nevertheless, Moreover, nutrient excess may lead to the eutrophication several factors should be accounted for when administering of coastal ecosystems, causing mass mortality events. As an immunostimulants as their efficiency depends on the timing of example, for every ton of cultured fish, 44-to-66kg of nitrogen 36 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
and 7.2-to-10.5kg of phosphorus waste are produced. Several innovative and technological solutions have been proposed, in order to mitigate the pollution induced by pond effluents, such as IMTA, improved pond design, construction of buffer ponds, and bioreactors or bio-filters, in addition to reduction agents to treat effluent water and reduce water exchange rates. However, the elevated costs of technology, poor planning, and lack of regulation may hamper the use of such innovative methods. Thus, a straightforward way to reduce the load of nutrients into the coastal environments might be to improve the nutrient composition of feed, given that the dietary requirements and welfare of the animals are still met. From this point of view, the use of saponins as feed additives is of major interest as plant extracts that contain saponins and glycocomponents are able to bind to ammonia and mediate the conversion of ammonia to nitrite and to nitrate, the latter far less toxic form of nitrogen. Moreover, HCO3- may react with ammonia to form urea in the presence of saponins. Yucca extracts have been successfully used in livestock husbandry to control ammonia accumulation in the facilities as well as to reduce odour. According to this latter study, Yucca extracts can also be used in aquaculture facilities. Bioassays using fish and shrimp in both freshwater and saltwater systems have shown that Yucca and Quillaja extracts reduce ammonia when used as feed additives or liquid extracts for water treatment. For example, a Yucca extract added at 6 mg.L-1 every 15 days to fish and shrimp systems achieved a 58-60 percent reduction in ammonia as compared to a control system. In another study, the addition of Yucca extract at 430 mg.L-1 to 30 L tanks in a recirculating water system achieved an 82 percent reduction in
ammonia. Still, the inhibition of ammonia leaching from feces and feed waste and, therefore, the reduction of ammonia levels in water was improved when Yucca or Quillaja extracts were used as feed supplement as compared to water treatment solutions.
Saponins are important and established feed additives in seafood aquaculture. Overall, and taking into consideration the positive digestive and growth performance effects particularly observed for Pacific white shrimp, there is overwhelming scientific evidence that saponins can notably contribute to boost shrimp aquaculture production and profitability (See Figure 4). Additionally, saponins have shown positive effects in the immune system of aquatic species and their resistance to pathogens. The integration of saponins in aquafeeds is, therefore, a relevant step to improve animal welfare, control infectious diseases, and further advance health management strategies in aquaculture production. Lastly, the use of saponins in feed formulations can help fish and shrimp farmers in ammonia management strategies, thereby contributing to the establishment of environmentally friendly production processes in order to achieve the sustainable development goals enacted by the United Nations for 2030. In summary, the recognised properties of saponins as growth prometers, immunostimulants, parasitic control, and ammonia reducing agents will certainly help seafood farmers to achieve not only higher production levels and profitability, but also establish effective health management strategies and eco-friendly production processes. www.pahc.com
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Tech update SeaFeed Feeding System
Gael Force Groupâ€™s development of SeaFeed is the result of them working directly with, and listening to, the needs of fish farm professionals. SeaFeed is a feed system which puts control into the hands of the farm manager, with bespoke software allowing each farm to manage the way they feed and in a way that suits them, their fish and the environment they grow their fish in. Each component of the system has been carefully selected to reduce feed waste, save energy, minimise maintenance and ensure that it has operator and barge safety at its heart. www.gaelforcegroup.com
International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 39
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Optimal water quality and healthy fish on land “A specialist Norwegian
company, ScaleAQ Landbased builds turnkey facilities that guarantee optimal water quality for fish production”
by Astrid Buran Holan, Senior Advisor, Ph.D Environmental Engineering, ScaleAQ Landbased, Norway The main advantage of a RAS facility is the formation of an aquatic environment that you – and not mother nature – can determine the quality of. To be able to have full control of that environment, the right choices have to be made at every stage, from choice of technology to the individual elements of the facility, and to how the facility will work as a whole. A specialist Norwegian company, ScaleAQ Landbased (formerly known as AquaOptima) builds turnkey facilities that guarantee optimal water quality for fish production. They believe that water quality is key, because clean water provides the best possible growing conditions for the fish. “OptiFarm is our concept for a complete RAS facility,” says Senior Consultant and RAS expert, Astrid Buran Holan from ScaleAQ. “It’s designed for optimum fish health and growth. Every single component in the facility is carefully selected for the same purpose. The OptiFarm system gives efficient automatic cleaning of tanks, good water flow speed and optimal water quality.”
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Particles such as fish faeces and uneaten feed quickly dissolve and pose a threat to water quality as they can affect the treatment process and increase the risk of sludge build-up. The latter is one of the RAS industry’s biggest problems, and often the reason why H2S accumulates. To create and maintain optimal water quality, all particles in the water – even the smallest – have to be removed, and as quickly as possible. “We want to provide the best possible solutions for fish farmers, and to make their lives easier. We believe in removing all the particles from the water – right down to the smallest – and as quickly as possible,” says Holan. Doing so is easy if the right RAS technology is chosen, along with proper dimensioning and operation of the facility. “If the health and welfare of the fish in the facility are poor, there is little chance of the facility making a profit,” Holan adds. “Treating the water efficiently provides a high degree of fish welfare and production. An even distribution of fish throughout the full volume of the tank is also important to their health. And that can only be achieved if the water quality and hydrodynamics are correct in the whole tank.”
ScaleAQ has chosen high quality, well-proven technology for its RAS system: technology that is already in use at the hundreds
of facilities AquaOptima has delivered all over the world. These are some of the key components in ScaleAQ’s concept for a complete RAS facility, OptiFarm:
OptiTrap is a system for efficient removal of particles in fish farming tanks. OptiTrap ensures that the biggest particles are quickly removed from the water. OptiTrap takes out up to 95 percent of the particles that could otherwise form sediment from the water. “One of the major strengths of AquaOptima is our ability to remove sedimentary particles from the tank – feed that has not been eaten and faeces – in one process. That means that the side and central channels collect far fewer particles.”
made for aquaculture
Visit us at AQUA NOR 2019 from the 20th – 23rd of August in Trondheim, Norway, Stand A-113 41 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Those same particles create unstable microbial conditions, as they are the ideal food for bacteria. There is also a major benefit to installing protein skimmers if ozone is introduced into the water loops to avoid sludge accumulation. Correct feeding and regular cleaning of the pipes leading from OptiTrap are all that are needed to keep the system running – something that is a lot simpler than other methods that often require meticulous cleaning and maintenance. “The alternative to RAS is a traditional through-flow facility, where you have large amounts of new water coming into your farm. That means that you can lose control of the water quality in the fish tanks. It also costs a lot to heat the water,” explains Holan.
OptiFlow is a system for self-cleaning tanks. It consists of intake pipes, flow boosters and sensors to measure water flow in addition to the actual fish farming tank, OptiTank. The system is controlled in a manner that keeps the tank clean and the fish healthy. “The hydraulic in the tank is important to provide the optimum environment for fish growth and health, and to ensure they live in conditions that do not cause them stress or discomfort. All the choices we take are designed to create the best possible growth conditions for the fish – from the colour of the tank, the size and internal surface, to the outlet and water intake,” stresses Holan. AquaOptima also ensures that the fish are kept in an environment they perceive as natural. “We have worked with farms of all sizes and most breeds of farmed fish in the world – and we know how to achieve the perfect tank hydraulics for any type of facility.”
ScaleAQ uses octagonal tanks, because they provide optimal tank hydraulics. “Maintaining optimal water quality in an octagonal tank is
Astrid Buran Holan, Senior Advisor of ScaleAQ Landbased
simple compared to the alternatives,” says Holan. Along with OptiFlow, octagonal tanks ensure good water quality, high oxygen levels and perfect flow throughout the tank.
Improved flow patterns
ScaleAQ has recently completed a CFD modelling research project, designed to show what happens with flow patterns in the tank, turbulence and rotation speed when tank diameter is increased in relation to the depth. The results showed that a broader tank with the same volume gives better flow patterns in the tank. Fish in the tank thrive better with consistent, optimum hydrodynamics. Kinetic energy also shows that there is less turbulence in wider tanks, which in turn means better conditions for the fish in wide and shallow tanks. The project was a partnership with Overhalla Betongbygg, and supported by Innovation Norway. OptiFarm also consists of a wide range of additional technology and smart solutions. Most of the preferred technology has been selected to provide the best possible environment for the fish. The RAS facility has to be designed to make it easy to produce fish in a safe, predictable manner – based on the conditions prevalent where the facility is to be built. “Our solutions avoid having a whole chain of tanks on the same water source, but use sections consisting of four to six tanks. This way, if one section becomes infected, the spread is automatically limited. We also design the facilities with safe solutions for allowing personnel to pass from one section to another.” All RAS facilities have to be built in a unique location with their own requirements for use of space, water supply and logistics, “Holan points out. “It’s important that such factors have to be dealt with according to long experience, a high level of expertise and in close consultation with the farmer.” Facilities are dimensioned according to the conditions they are to exist in, which have to be realistic to achieve profitable operation and good fish health. It is also important to feed correctly according to the dimensioning of the facility. It can be tempting to over-feed – but that can also create problems. If the facility is not dimensioned correctly, tank hydraulics can be affected, which can also mean poorer water quality and thus poorer fish welfare.
About ScaleAQ Landbased
ScaleAQ Landbased is a Norwegian supplier of turnkey RAS facilities. As part of ScaleAQ, they can deliver turnkey projects at any size. Their world-leading position in aquaculture also enables them to deliver the latest in innovations from one of the world’s leading communities in aquaculture technology. Their staff includes biologists, fish farmers and engineers who have designed hundreds of RAS facilities. https://aquaoptima.com 42 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY A high-resolution image of fish gills. Courtesy of Paul Curtis, AquaSolver
Fish farming under the microscope How innovative technology helps to increase aquaculture productivity by Andrew Monk, Co-founder, ioLight Magnificient Mobile Microscope, UK The world population is growing rapidly. In fact, the United Nations estimates it will reach 11.2 billion by 2100, with approximately 83 million people being added to the world’s population every year. Feeding over 11 billion people is a huge concern, as it will put enormous strain on the earth’s ability to produce enough food. An answer to the future global food challenge may be through the use of sustainable fish farming. The UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation reports that the average amount of fish eaten per-capita globally has more than doubled from 9kg in 1961 to 20.2kg in 2015. Of course, there are well-publicised cases of overfishing. However, much of this growth has been from aquaculture. In 2016, 46.8 percent of the fish we ate came from aquaculture, a rapid growth from just 25.7 percent in 2000. This data includes finfish, crustaceans and molluscs. Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector in the world and is considered a practical and sustainable method to produce food and bridge the gap between supply and demand. However, aquaculture faces many challenges and one of the biggest is combating disease. For example, infectious disease is currently the single most devastating problem in shrimp culture and presents on-going threats to other aquaculture sectors. In addition, there is increasing concern over the consequences of newly emerging diseases in aquaculture. As with any form of farming, growing large amounts of food
in a small space increases the incidence of infection and disease, which can spread extremely rapidly through a stock of 90,000 fish confined to a pen. For this reason, fish farms are looking for modern innovative methods to ensure that fish are kept healthy. Better disease control, feed and nutrition help to minimise losses and produce a high-quality product. If fish farming is the answer to a sustainable food source, rapid disease and parasite diagnosis, together with improved health management, will be key to increasing stock levels. Large farms continuously monitor water, but there is no substitute for visually inspecting the fish, and early detection of small parasites requires a microscope. As part of a good health management plan, routine parasite and disease screening should be completed regularly. Microscopes are the most important tool for disease diagnosis. However, analysing and monitoring disease with traditional compound microscopes is very difficult. They are heavy, cumbersome and problematic to transport. Many fish farms are located in remote environments where it is impractical to use compound microscopes. There is usually no way of sharing images for records or a second expert opinion. Through exploring advancing technology, a new generation of portable digital microscopes has been designed to capture and share images and videos of parasites and other fish pathology instantly from a standard mobile phone. This new technology
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY can be used to monitor ‘in-the-field’, therefore enhancing rapid detection to help diagnose disease instantly, which is vital for effective control. The image quality of the new equipment is now close to that of a compound laboratory microscope, but the device is small enough to fit inside a jacket pocket. This new class of highresolution, portable microscope dramatically improves the speed of diagnosis and, therefore, the productivity in aquaculture environments. It is now possible to sample, diagnose, and treat serious health conditions within a few minutes. Site staff can even get a second expert opinion in the time it takes to send and receive an email. The importance of rapid diagnosis can be understood by looking at Gyrodactylus salaris, or salmon fluke, a microscopic parasite that feeds on the flesh and mucus of salmon and other freshwater fishes. It has caused mortalities of up to 98 percent in wild Atlantic salmon populations in Norway. Some stocks have been lost completely or destroyed by adding pesticides to infected rivers, killing parasites and fish, though this treatment is no longer common. Gyrodactylus salaris is so serious that it is classified as a listed disease in Europe that must be reported to the authorities. Although the UK is currently recognised as being free from the disease, evidence exists to suggest that our Atlantic salmon populations are highly susceptible to both infection and mortality. This is a perfect example of why rapid detection is vital in the removal of infected fish and the fight against these contagious diseases if we are to increase stock numbers. Advancements in digital microscopes have been enabled through the use of high-quality, low-cost components designed
Copepod parasite egg sacks found on a Striped Bass. Courtesy of Paul Curtis, AquaSolver
for mobile phones to make highly compact, robust instruments. Originally these devices were low-cost, low-resolution, USBconnected devices, with limited application in the aquaculture market. However, more recent microscopes are extremely compact and use a wireless connection to deliver 1-micron resolution images to a standard mobile phone. These innovative products feature a robust stage and transmitted and incident illumination just like a compound microscope, but importantly they have the technology to instantly share high-resolution images and videos for immediate feedback. “When examined side-by-side with pictures taken with my US $10,000 microscope/camera set-up in our laboratory, the images stood up pretty well – for 10 times less money,” commented Dr Rod Getchell, a member of the Aquatic Animal Health Programme at the Cornell University College of Veterinary
HardRIB The single most important factor for a boat is its seakeeping abilities.
MINIMAL MAINTENANCE PRACTICALLY UNSINKABLE
That is why we have put enormous effort into the design of the hull of the HardRIB. Full control even at high speed, low fuel consumption, near indestructibility and fantastic seakeeping ability is a benefit for all users.
The various equipment options ensure that you can customize the boat for your use without compromising any of the above attributes. The hull is developed in collaboration with Ola Lilloe Olsen and tested in Stadt Towing tank. So, whether you are a fish farmer, a diver or simply a boat enthusiast, this is the right choice for you.
STABILITY DURABLE RECYCLABLE
steinsvik.no International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 45
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Medicine, New York, USA. “I think this instrument has value for our fish farming friends in the field who do not want to deal with a traditional microscope.” Bill Manci, President of Fisheries Technology Associates, Colorado, USA has also experienced the benefit of the new generation of portable highresolution microscopes. A specialist since 1982 in fisheries management, characterisation and evaluation of wild fisheries, and technical and economic feasibility analysis of fish farming and aquaculture facilities, he said, “Without a doubt, the portability and ruggedness of these units and the high quality of the images are the innovations that truly wowed me. For me, this was one of those moments when you say to yourself, ‘How did I ever get along without this device?’” If aquaculture is the future of sustainable food and to continue its remarkable contribution to feeding the growing population of the world, fish farms need new tools, processes, technology and innovation to succeed. Productivity and sustainability rely heavily on the ability to detect fast-moving diseases instantly, in remote locations. Referring samples to a laboratory back at base is time-consuming and will result in significant stock losses and further spread of disease. Tools need to be implemented that can work proactively to ensure fish stock is healthy. Instruments like microscopes, which must be portable, accurate and provide instant sharing technology, are needed to make accurate diagnoses and should become a standard tool within an effective health management plan. https://iolight.co.uk
Productivity and sustainability rely heavily on the ability to detect fast-moving diseases instantly, in remote locations. Image courtesy of The University of Bristol
ioLight Secures Backing from Innovate UK to Enhance its Portable Microscope
Most recently, ioLight won a substantial grant from Innovate UK, the UK’s innovation agency, to further enhance its digital high-resolution portable microscope. The funding will be used to explore a number of exciting new features to increase user experience even more. Andrew Monk, Co-founder ofioLight said: “Thanks to the Innovate UK grant we can accelerate the ioLight microscope into another dimension by developing new features. For example, we will be looking to design an X Y stage to make it even easier to count cells. All of the new proposed features can potentially have a huge impact on diagnosing disease and parasites in the developing world. “Traditional compound microscopes are difficult to transport and use in remote environments and usually have no way of sharing images for a second expert opinion or records. By advancing the ioLight microscope further, it will help to improve the speed of diagnosis, therefore aiding in the fight to reduce disease in humans, animals and within the aquaculture industry.” Andrew concluded: “This is a really exciting time for ioLight. Our objective now is to create the next generation of portable digital microscope which will provide even faster, more reliable, diagnoses far from the lab thanks to its outstanding high-resolution images and ease of use.” Portable microscopes can capture and share images and videos of parasites and other fish pathology instantly. Courtesy of ioLight
46 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
<1% FINES IN THE FINISHED PRODUCT
Cryloc Sifter Itâ€™s hard to imagine the grain and bulk processing industry without the use of the Cryloc rotary screen. In the cylindrical housing one or two specially formed screens separate the fine particles from the incoming product. Maximum 10% fines at the inlet results in less than 1% in the finished product (fines are smaller than 2/3 of the pellet diameter). The wide capacity range makes the Cryloc rotary screen an essential sifter for the dry cereal processing industry.
International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 47
TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology August 2019 In our August Tech Showcase, we examine the latest innovations for fish farming technology, such as fluid samplers, sonar systems and cameras.
JW Fishers SCAN-650 Fishers SCAN-650 is a high-performance scanning/sector scanning sonar system that can be mounted on an ROV, pole-mounted for use from a small boat in swallow water or mounted on a tripod on the bottom. The scanning sonar serves as an obstacle avoidance system and provides target identification. The sonar beam sweeps in a 360-degree circle (or any portion of 360) allowing any object in the sonars “field of view” to be seen and displayed on the computer monitor.
Fluidion RS-14V Fluidion’s RS-14V automatic fluid sampler is a connected and submersible instrument which allows the acquisition of fourteen 250mL samples. The RS-14V is a reliable sampling workhorse for your most diverse applications: impact studies, spill monitoring, storm sampling, tidal events, phytoplankton blooms, and microbiological research. The RS-14V model collects samples in the harshest environments and under the most unforgiving weather conditions. The sampler is highly resilient, resists shocks and severe outdoor exposure, can float on water or be submersed. It can be used near shore, attached to a buoy or deployed from a vessel and can be triggered on demand from a cell phone or a secure web interface. You can also easily pre-program time series samples from a cell phone or computer USB port, or use the automatic triggering from external sensors (optional).
In a typical application the sonar head or transducer is mounted on top of an ROV. The head scans a circle around the ROV and “sees” targets in all directions, including those that are well beyond camera range. The sonar images are displayed on the topside computer. The operator, using the sonar for direction bearings, drives the ROV to the various targets for identification and videotaping. Scanned data files are stored on the PC’s hard drive along with boat’s GPS position, time, date, and other pertinent data. The recorded files can be played back at any time. Software is provided to allow postprocessing of data including editing and merging of files. www.jwfishers.com
Gael Force Group 410 Underwater Camera The 410 Underwater Camera is an extremely robust and versatile unit designed from the outset for long-term deployment in exposed aquaculture sites.
It offers a 360-degree continuous pan and tilt which means no stops and no blind spots. It is also fitted with a simple lens cleaning brush which will remove any build-up of fouling or cleaner fish without having to pull up the camera each time it needs to be cleaned. “Colour and Monochrome” or “Monochrome Only” cameras are available with optical setup tuned for optimum pellet identification. The colour cameras drop into IR (mono) mode at very low light levels offering a highly flexible solution. www.gaelforceaquaculture.com
YSI 5500D Designed specifically for aquaculture systems, the YSI 5500D and AquaManager® Software integrate process control, alarming, and data management into one product. The device is simple enough to monitor one tank and is powerful enough to manage a full-scale farming operation from anywhere in the world. Users can simultaneously measure dissolved oxygen with optical technology in multiple tanks or ponds. The device is capable of accurately logging all varieties of data and its graphic interface is reliable and easy to use. Email and SMS alarming is available and the device can also be used in conjunction with YSI’s AquaViewer app for easy access to data. www.ysi.com
48 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
Seafood Security and SAFEty:
An Aquacult ure Pe rspe ct ive 4th Annual Aquaculture Conference & Exhibition
2-4 October 2019 Steinsvik Portable Camera Solution Steinsvik’s portable camera solution is a flexible, complete camera package with everything you need for inspection under water. It can be used almost anywhere, and it is a necessary tool when inspecting and checking mooring, slot wall and dead fish haul etc. It is very easy to operate, has a robust construction and can be “forgotten” in sea spray and rain (IP 65). The camera is suitable for use in boats, quays or from cages and has a heavy-duty joystick for easy camera control. www.steinsvik.no
School of Applied Science, Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore
Topics of Discussion
Food Security - Sustainable Aquaculture Production Sustainability - Across the Aqua Supply Chain Innovation in Value Chains for Seafood and Nutrition Security Supported by
www.aquasg.com Tel: +65 6481 1722 | E-mail: email@example.com
ABSTRACT SUBMISSION DEADLINE 2 SEPTEMBER 2019 SR-1101 Fish Counter The SR-1101 Fish Counter provides a stateof-the-art fish counting system. It is designed for counting operations requiring information about both upstream and downstream fish movements. The SR-1101 provides field reliability, simplicity of operation and ease of installation. The SR-1101 uses a single counting tunnel with metal rings, flushmounted, on the inner surface. The passage of fish through the counting tunnel causes water conductivity changes. Special logic in the SR-1101 allows it to discriminate between upstream and downstream fish passages. A wide-range Sensitivity Control determines the minimum size of fish that will be counted. Maximum sensitivity depends on the ratio of tunnel to fish dimensions. For best counting accuracy, tunnel diameter to fish length should not be more than one-to-one. Output signals are provided which may be used to drive remote tally units, digital cameras or other devices. The system easily tallies five counts per second, giving 18,000 counts per hour. www.smith-root.com
SUBMIT YOUR ABSTRACT
Do you have a product that you would www.AlgaEurope.org like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to firstname.lastname@example.org InternationalAquafeed-August2019 | 49
EXPERT TOPIC Lobster
The elusive cultured lobster by Daniel Jackson, Production Editor, International Aquafeed
o pronounced are the paralells between human and lobster, the Canadian clinical psychologist Jordan Peterson dedicates a chapter to the crustacean in his bestselling self-help book, 12 Rules for Life. We can learn a lot about ourselves from the humble lobster, he says, and I’m inclined to think he’s right. The ability to co-operate effectively in large numbers is what puts us at the top of the food chain, and co-operation is essential if we are to obtain an elusive prize – the cultured lobster. The challenges the species presents to the aquaculture industry are varied and will require input from all its constituent parts. From innovations in the manufacture of durable netting to research in feed formulation. Efforts to pull these various strands together are currently underway, but there is still much to learn and several obstacles to overcome. For example, it is not even known at present what juvenile European lobsters eat (though in captivity the answer seems to be ‘pretty much anything that drifts by’).
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EXPERT TOPIC One thing that’s not in any doubt is the lobster’s value as a commodity. Fishing for them is a hugely profitable enterprise, and one that is becoming more so every year. For a species so synonymous with seafood, relatively few are caught (just 3300 tonnes in the UK in 2016). But the crustacean punches above its weight. It accounts for just over 0.5 percent of the total British seafood catch, but over five percent of the profits. If catching them is so lucrative, might growing them be even more so? The overwhelming majority of lobsters are currently caught in the wild. Farming them is technically challenging, and on a large scale not yet commercially viable. But for those who work out how to do it successfully there is a rich seam waiting to be plundered. With disposable incoming increasing worldwide, consumer demand for luxury food items is rising. This is especially true in China – where more seafood is consumed than anywhere else on earth, both as a total and per head of population. In 2017, China imported more than 17.8 million pounds of lobster from USA at a cost of US $142.4 million, up from $108.3 million in the previous year. Last month the international sandwich chain Pret started selling a lobster roll at the premium price point of £5.99. Up until now lobster aquaculture has largely consisted of programs that aim to increase population numbers. This is done by hatching and rearing lobster larvae that are then introduced back into the natural habitat, and hopefully caught again at a later date. This is both expensive and labour intensive – the young lobsters need to be isolated to avoid cannibalism.
Lobster Grower 2 is a research project that aims to address the gaps in technology, skill and knowledge that currently prevent industrial scale lobster farming from becoming a reality. The collaboration between industry and academia is also exploring the commercial viability of such an enterprise. One advantage of the system they are testing - a sea-based container culture – is its low carbon footprint. Their investigation might be starting at just the right moment. A recent report by the University of Maine suggests that climate change could be particularly detrimental to wild lobster populations. Though they’re tough on the outside (with stomachs on a par with industrial rubber in terms of strength) and resilient against ocean acidification, their reproductive cycle is easily upset by slight changes in temperature. The researchers found that half as many lobster larvae survived to stage IV of development (15 days old) when reared in water 3°C warmer than current ocean temperatures. The long-term future of lobster as a commodity could therefore depend on our ability to farm them. Currently it’s a cottage industry. But then, once upon a time, that was also true of shrimp. Following successful trials in northern Vietnam in 1970 it was transformed from a small, traditional practice on the coasts of Southeast Asia into a global industry worth over $9 billion to the world economy. This transformation was achieved in just fifteen years (production was considered intensive by 1985). If current efforts are successful lobster farming could be the next big aquaculture success story, providing a boon to the coastal communities that could be most affected by climate change.
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www.almex.nl International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 51
Industry Events 2019
20-23 AquaNor 2019 Trondheim, Norway www.aqua-nor.no
25-30 ☑ 26th Annual Practical Short Course on Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition and Feed Management Texas, USA www.perdc.tamu.edu 2019
September 4-5 Algae Tech Conference 2019 Madrid, Spain https://algaetech-conference.com
AlgaeTech Conference will take place between September 4 – 5th in Madrid, Spain. The event will bring together major stakeholders in order to highlight the latest technical and commercial issues facing this rapidly growing sector. With researchers currently working on bringing new technologies to market, in areas ranging from animal feed and nutraceuticals to waste water treatment and biomaterials, it has never been a better time to take a closer look at algae, the green gold in our sea waters. Topics up for discussion will include algae cultivation, innovations and applications in industry. There will be 20-plus speakers at the event representing businesses from over 15 countries, hosting interactive presentations and networking sessions. 10-11 ☑ Aquaculture Innovation Europe 2019 London, UK https://aquaculture-innovation.com 10-13 SPACE 2019 Rennes, France http://uk.space.fr
18-19 Aquaculture NZ Conference 2019 Blenhiem, New Zealand www.aquaculture.org.nz/conference
18-20 ILDEX Indonesia 2019 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com
19-21 VIV Qingdao 2019 Qingdao, China www.viv.net
25-26 Seagriculture 2019 Ostend, Belgium https://seagriculture.eu 2019
31-2 Aquaculture Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan www.aquaculturetaiwan.com
November 6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conf Florida, USA www.afia.org
October 7-10 Aquaculture Europe 2019 Berlin, Germany www.aquaeas.eu
20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica www.marevent.com
17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA www.namamillers.org
20-22 Sustainable Ocean Summit Paris, France https://sustainableoceansummit.org
21-24 ☑ Aqua Expo 2019 Guayaquil, Ecuador http://aquaexpoguayaquil.cna-ecuador.com 26-28 TIFSS Taiwan www.taiwanfishery.com
The 5th Taiwan International Fisheries and Seafood Show (TIFSS) will take place at the Kaohsiung Exhibition Centre from September 26th to 28th, 2019. The planning of this year’s exhibition area will focus on three major themes - Eco and Smart Aquaculture, Cold Chain Management in Seafood Industry, and Fishing Tackle. Among them, Eco and Smart Aquaculture is the trend of active development of the aquaculture breeding market. Major countries including Japan, the United States, Norway and China are actively researching and developing aquaculture fishery production and marketing technology and tools combined with smart systems, hoping to increase productivity and to enhance the quality of aquatic products. This year’s exhibitors will also showcase several innovative smart farming technologies and products, such as the Quadlink Aqualink Smart Aquaculture Application System and the Fu-Chen i-fish 4.0 System, hoping to combine smart technology to achieve better breeding benefits and become a close steward to farmers. Taiwan’s fishery industry has an annual output value of NT$100 billion and ranks 20th in the world. The industry has a competitive advantage and a high degree of customisation. Its export energy has potential, and the average annual intake of one person is 1.5 times that of the world average, making Taiwan one of the iconic markets in the fishery industry of the Asia-Pacific region. This year, Thailand, China, the United States, Hong Kong, South Korea, Sweden, Belgium, the United Kingdom, and France were invited to the exhibition to expand the promotion to the main global fishery markets. TIFSS 2019 is jointly organised by TAITRA and Wesexpo and is a significant professional fishery expansion platform in Asia. Combining negotiation, procurement, forums, and other activities, exhibitors can expand their business opportunities through diversified activities, doubling their participation efficiency. Those in the industry are welcome to register for the exhibition.
☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event 52 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
December 3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France https://algaeurope.org
February 9-12 Aquaculture America 2020 Hawaii, USA www.marevent.com
19-20 Aquafarm Venice, Italy www.aquafarm.show/en
March 24-26 VICTAM Asia 2020 Bangkok, Thailand https://victamasia.com
24-26 VIV health and nutrition Asia Bitec, Bangkok, Thailand www.viv.net14
April 7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia www.livestockmalaysia.com
Danish suppliers can help accelerate fish-farmer’s move towards sustainability 29 Danish suppliers to the international aquaculture industry will be exhibiting at the Pavilion of Denmark when Aqua Nor in Trondheim Spektrum opens on August 20th. The Danish suppliers bring high-performing and long-term solutions that support the industry in becoming more sustainable. According to Martin Winkel, Head of Fish Tech, Danish Export Association, who is the organiser of the Pavilion of Denmark, the Danish companies at this years’ Aqua Nor will be showcasing a wide range of solutions that can help the aquaculture industry move towards more sustainable solutions: “Right now, we are really experiencing a shift in the market with an industry focusing on developing more sustainable production while still being able to meet the growing demand for farmed fish. Accordingly, this offers great potential for Danish suppliers that hold a position as front-runners in developing new technology with a strong focus on high quality solutions, costefficiency and sustainability.” One of the Danish suppliers exhibiting at Aqua Nor 2019 is Lykkegaard A/S, a Danish pump technology specialist, consultant and supplier to both sea- and land-based fish installations across
Lykkegaard A/S is launching the world’s first high-performing corrosion-resistant pump for aggressive saltwater that offers fish-farmers a solution that will last for many years
the world. Lykkegaard agrees that there is an increasing interest and demand from the market that is looking for suppliers to support a more sustainable production. “The industry has intensified its focus on the environment, and we are experiencing a growing interest in solutions that are stable and long-lasting. The market is asking for solutions that can be repaired instead of being replaced when worn out,” says Karsten Lykkegaard, Managing Director, Lykkegaard A/S.
APA Chennai 2019
A Blue Revolution for India’s aquaculture
by Roger Gilbert, Publisher, International Aquafeed
hennai was hot and dry in June 2019. Over 40°C in the shade with water shortages featured in global news reports and a city having to supplement its supplies with longhaul tanker deliveries to keep its population hydrated. Not an encouraging destination to travel to at this time of year. However, this was not sufficient to discourage some 5000-plus delegates, from across India and around the world, making their way to India’s largest southern city to attend the World Aquaculture Society’s first ‘Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2019,’ in India which featured a combined conference and expo and held at Chennai’s Convention Centre. It was heartening to see how many delegates had registered for the multitude of conferences on offer and/or to attend the exhibition in an air-conditioned, modern facility which offered refreshments of both coffee and water plus a full buffet lunch on each of the three days. This was a dynamic and bustling show with a host of local and foreign aquaculture companies looking to do business in a much over-looked yet highly motivated industry. Most international companies had their local representatives on hand to engage with visitors, but as all India speak English it attracted the management from some larger international companies who went on to host special events, such as Aker BioMarine holding its annual celebratory dinner during the convention.
54 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
International Aquafeed was present on the exhibition floor and had visitors who took away over 1300 copies of the latest June 2019 edition of the magazine plus back issues on display. That was in addition to the conference bags which contained copies of the magazine and distributed to over 3000 attendees pre-registered for the conference. This was an exceptional meeting by any world standard, and one which offered an extensive poster display covering a wide range of research results carried out by a multitude of in-country universities and organisations plus those from overseas. The event also offered a pre-conference tour of a local hatchery and feedmill.
In 2016, the National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB) had been charged by the Indian Government with assisting the development of aquaculture and fisheries throughout the country. NFDB’ vision is to develop fisheries and aquaculture “in a big way by adopting new and innovative production
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technologies” along with improved management and water resource utilisation combined with a proper infrastructure for post-harvest operations and market connections. In an overview presented at APA 2019, the NFDB’s target is to increase overall Indian fish production from its 2017 base of 12.6 million tonnes to an expected goal of 22.31 million tonnes in a threeyear period. For inland fisheries - namely aquaculture - the output has a target of doubling from 8.92 million tonnes to 17 million tonnes while wetland fisheries (which has grown from 0.16 to 0.75 million tonnes) and cold-water fisheries (from 0.36 to 0.73 million tonnes) are adding to the total. While the country’s exclusive economic zone maybe two million square km, it has over three million hectares (ha) of reservoirs and 2.5 million ha of ponds and tanks and 1.24 million ha of brackish water besides which are being brought into service for aquaculture. With a population reaching 1.35 billion in 2018 and continuing to grow forecast, finding sufficient supplies of protein products from traditional crops and animal production is challenging.
However, aquaculture is offering some hope in meeting current growing food demand and the government has recognised its potential. “Thought the enhancement of fish production and productivity,” it aims to “supplement nutritious protein for the growing population and accelerate the overall economy of the country, besides improving health, economy, exports, employment and tourism throughout,” says the NFDB as it ushers in a Blue Revolution for India. The key objectives are to focus attention on aquaculture development while achieving sustainable management and conservation of aquatic resources that supports livelihoods, it told IAF in an interview from its stand. “A key objective is to promote the adoption of modern technologies for optimising production and productivity from aquaculture.” Employment and the empowerment to women in fisheries and aquaculture is an important objective, as well as the development of skill within the sectors, it adds. And finally, its aim is to enhance the contribution of fish toward food and nutritional security.
56 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
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2019-06, Adv. Aqua feed Mill _fish-shrimp_IAF_IndoLivestock_190x132 .indd 1
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International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 59
THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.
More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.
An exhibit area of 16 Ha.
100 conferences over 4 days.
Free farm visits program.
Obtain your free pass on : www.space.fr
10 - 13 SEPT. 2019 RENNES - FRANCE +33 2 23 48 28 90 firstname.lastname@example.org
...COMING IN 2020 VIV HEALTH & NUTRITION ASIA 2020 BANGKOK, THAILAND | JANUARY 15-16, 2020
TRADE SHOW & FORUM FOCUSING ON FEED, PHARMA & GENETICS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION
VIV MEA 2020
ABU DHABI, U.A.E. | MARCH 9-11, 2020 INTERNATIONAL TRADE SHOW FROM FEED TO FOOD FOR THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA
VIV WORLDWIDE FULL EVENTS CALENDAR 2019-2022 POULTRY Africa 2019 VIV HEALTH & NUTRITION ASIA 2020
KIGALI, OCTOBER 2-3 BANGKOK, JANUARY 15-16
VIV MEA 2020
ABU DHABI, MARCH 9-11
VIV ASIA 2021
VIV EUROPE 2022
WORLD EXPO FROM FEED TO FOOD
PARTNER EVENTS SUPPORTED BY VIV WORLDWIDE VIV Turkey 2019 VIV Qingdao 2019
ISTANBUL, JUNE 13-15 QINGDAO CHINA, SEPTEMBER 19-21
VIV Russia 2020
THE BUSINESS NETWORK LINKING PROFESSIONALS FROM FEED TO FOOD
Online 24/7 knowledge networking from feed to food
Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com
Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz
Analysis IMAQUA +32 92 64 73 38 www.imaqua.eu Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx
TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com
STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com
Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com
Certification GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org
Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com
VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl
Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com
Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com
JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com
A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com
Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com
Coolers & driers
Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com
Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com
R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com
Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de
Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com
Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com
Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com
Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br
Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com
IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com
FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com
Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com
FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com
Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br
Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com
Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com
Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be
Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com
Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com
Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com
Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com
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Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng
Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com
APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com
Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com
Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com
PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com
SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt
Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com
Used around all industrial sectors.
Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu
Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu
Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com
Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com
Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com
Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com
Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe
A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com
Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com
Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com
CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr
Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com
Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu
TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com
Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com
FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com
CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com
FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com
Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com
Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr
NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de
Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com
Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com
Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk
Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl
Second hand equipment
Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng
Probiotics Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com
Pulverizer (large fine) Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Roller Mill - vertical Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com
International Aquafeed - August 2019 | 63
Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services
Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk
Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Wet expansion machine Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr
the interview Dorota Pasquier, COO, Aller Aqua Polska
Dorota Pasquier is the COO at Aller Aqua Polska focusing on production, logistics and marketing. “The strength lies within the team”. Therefore wellbeing, positive motivation and enthusiasm are her priorities. Dorota attained her engineering degree in Gdańsk University of Technology in Poland and then graduated as a process engineer from Joseph Fourier University in France. She completed her final internship in the Netherlands, investigating the technologies to remove arsenic from groundwater in Bangladesh. She was also the co-writer of the article “Water, Water Everywhere… Innovations to Improve Global Availability of Clean Water and Sanitation” published in the MIT press. Dorota has also worked in technical sales, marketing and project management in the water treatment sector for several years in Switzerland. Apart from her professional roles she is a very happy wife, a big enthusiast of travelling and discovering new cultures, meeting people, cycling, skiing, positive psychology, yoga and meditation.
What is your current role with Aller Aqua?
I am Operations Manager at Aller Aqua Polska, the Polish daughter company of Aller Aqua. I am responsible for our production site in Golub-Dobrzyń, where next to production we have purchasing, quality assurance and logistics departments. I am also in charge of marketing and event organisation. It might seem like an unusual combination, but I love it and find it very practical, as it allows me to be close to both the market and customers, which helps me understand their needs. Only then we can produce and deliver the best quality.
How long have you been active in aquaculture?
feed supplier for many years. Poland is also the fourth biggest fish processor in Europe, producing around 550,000 tonnes of fish. We are the biggest customer for Norwegian salmon and the world biggest producer of smoked salmon.
Have you faced any unique challenges as a woman working in aquaculture?
Not really. I see a lot of women involved in aquaculture, and the men are usually gentlemen. Most of the farmers have great charm and a passion for nature and animals. They are fully devoted to what they do, and their partners are often involved in the business to a certain degree.
Officially, two and a half years. Unofficially, since I was a baby. My father is a devoted trout farmer, so I spent a big part of my childhood in the countryside, on the farm, playing with the fish (in a gentle way of course), singing them songs, climbing the feed bags in the local warehouse. Later, at school age, I was assisting in several activities like water quality measurements, implementation of quality systems, administration etc.
I also know many female farmers. Half of the employees of Aller Aqua in Poland are women, which is a lot considering it is a production site. I also come from an engineering sector where men were definitely dominant in terms of number, but now I see much more gender equality. And I definitely feel ladies’ power in aquaculture!
My father has also developed Aller Aqua in Poland and as a teenager I was joining international sales meetings of Aller Aqua. It was a fantastic cultural, geographical, motivational injection for me. I am sure a big part of who I am now is thanks to that. My first diploma thesis was about the effectiveness of biofilters on recirculating trout farms.
What are the major challenges to sustainable aquaculture that must be addressed in the coming years?
I still remember the times when only wet feed was used at our farm. As a small child I had to hold a hanky to my face when the new delivery arrived. Aller Aqua was a big milestone in the history of aquaculture in Poland, as we were the first ones to introduce formulated feed to the market.
What industries have you previously been involved in?
I graduated as a Process Engineer specialising in the treatment of water and gas. I also worked in the water treatment sector until I joined Aller Aqua. I finished my master’s degree in France and worked in the Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany. The knowledge of water treatment is very valuable in aquaculture as well, as nowadays there is much more pressure on environment, water intake and quality. There are more and more recirculating aquaculture systems, which require proper water handling and control of critical parameters.
What form of aquaculture is most common in Poland? Marine? RAS? Fish farm?
Land based flow-through systems are still the most common aquaculture forms in Poland. However, each year more and more RAS systems are being created due to environmental restrictions and also farming safety of having the critical parameters under control. Polish aquaculture is basically trout (about 18-19,000 tonnes) and carp (about 20,000 tonnes), and to a much lesser degree sturgeon; however, the second biggest caviar producer in Europe comes from Poland. We also have one of the top producers of eyed salmonid eggs. We are very proud of it. And we are very proud to be their only
Aquaculture grows between 8-10 percent every year and all predictions show it will continue to grow! It creates a lot of opportunities, but of course some challenges as well. For obvious reasons let’s start with aquafeed. This growth in aquaculture production means that the aquafeed industry needs to develop at a comparable rate. There is a lot of pressure placed upon the sustainability and traceability of raw materials used to produce feed, especially the marine origin. Nowadays, the availability of fishmeal and fish oil from wild catch is limited due to strict regulations, tight quotas, and things like climate change. Moreover, the price variation can be very high, which makes a dependency on marine raw materials difficult or even impossible for feed producers (we have to remember that feed typically makes up about half of all costs of farming). At the same time, marine feed is a very important source of essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids (especially beloved Omega 3) that are not present in alternative components at the same levels and proportions. On the other side, alternatives like oilseeds crops, soybeans, rapeseed, and palm require a lot of land area and water. It is a challenge to produce high quality feed, respecting the nutritional value for fish and end consumers as well, so that is affordable for the farmer and produced in sustainable way, and with respect for nature. Only a few can accomplish that! Another challenge for aquaculture is its perception by society. People often see aquaculture as artificial and therefore bad. There is little trust in quality and sustainability. We as aquaculture people should join forces and show people what is real aquaculture. In Poland we work with the Polish Trout Breeders Association on the campaign promoting local aquaculture as a fantastic sector, being sustainable, fully controlled, traceable, safe, healthy, environmentally friendly.
64 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
Many aquaculture systems restock the depleted wild species and preserve the wetlands. Feed quality is carefully controlled from the origin of the smallest ingredient up to one year after production. And believe me it is very sustainable and healthy! But we need to pass this message to people. Another aspect concerns the law and regulations that are becoming more and more strict in the whole production chain of aquaculture: water intake and quality, handling diseases, import of foreign fish, usually much cheaper, production of feed and usage of specified raw materials etc. Another challenge is impact of aquaculture, especially in cages, on wild fish populations. We need to ensure that cultured species do not escape and start breeding with wild fish. These species have different genetic profile, which is then further distributed when the fish escapes and breed in nature.
Many regulatory agencies around the globe want to restrict the use of antibiotics in feed. How is Aller Aqua responding to this?
In many countries the regulations regarding the use of antibiotics in fish feed fish are very strict. This includes the selection, dosage, duration of use, control over production, residues in fish, etc. It is a response to the global threat of resistance on certain antibiotics and especially residues in fish intended for human consumption. We have a permit to produce medicated feed, which we do according to strict veterinary regulations and under careful veterinary supervision. However, we made the decision to stop producing it at this moment. We prefer to invest in the health of fish through natural immune stimulants: naturally occurring compounds that modulate the immune system by increasing the hostâ€™s resistance against disease and harsh environments. They have antiinflammatory, antioxidant properties and we see the positive effects on fish, including its growth and the quality of meat. We strongly believe in the concept that â€œPrevention is better than cureâ€?. For the moment we see that this concept is sufficient. If this will change, we might consider coming back to the production of medicated feed.
THE INDUSTRY FACES
David Bal joins Adisseo Group in Singapore
avid Bal has been recently appointed Head of Aquaculture R&D Nutrition & Health by Adisseo and will be based in Singapore to lead a new R&D facility dedicated to marine fish and shrimp cultures.
David has more than 15 years’ experience in Aquaculture R&D with a balanced knowhow of farming practices, scientific research and business development. His current focus is aquaculture nutrition & health, innovative farming technologies (IOT) and sustainable culture practices. David earned a Master’s Degree of Aquatic Sciences in Montpellier, France in 2001. In 2005 he joined Genomar ASA to develop tilapia genetic programmes and to lead a tilapia breeding center for 10 years. Since 2015, David has accumulated managerial experience with various roles in international groups (Dupont, Biomin) and traveled extensively in Asia to support farmers and feed mill customers.
Glenn Reed retires as President of the Pacific Seafood Processors Association
lenn Reed has recently announced his retirement, after more than 20 years as President of the Pacific Seafood Processors Association. Reed’s retirement will become effective at the end of 2019, with the PSPA announcing that Christopher Barrows, a 25-year veteran of the US Coast Guard, will become the organisation’s new president, starting in August.
Reed’s impressive history in commercial fisheries dates back to the 1990s, when he served as deputy commissioner of the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development from June 1992 through December 1994. From April of 1997 to December of 1998, Reed was the executive director of the North Pacific Seafood Coalition. He joined PSPA as president in 1999 and has served in that role ever since.
Shauna Cecilia McNeill named Executive Vice President Innovation
hauna will join the executive management team at Norwegian biotechnology innovator Aker BioMarine with responsibility for the company’s on-going programmes to research, develop and commercialise new krill derived products and applications.
Shauna Cecilia McNeill
Joining Aker BioMarine in 2017 as Director of Product Development, Innovation & Marketing, Shauna has been instrumental in the company’s development of a new product line, which has now grown into an internal product accelerator, as well as its broader work to develop innovative, sustainable products derived from krill. She says “I’m excited to be working with such a great team at one of the most innovative companies in Europe. We are working on an exciting pipeline of opportunities and a solid foundation in science and technology along with deep market understanding that will enable us to drive growth both in our current and new segments.”
Simon Smith appointed as new Young’s Seafood Ltd CEO
ollowing the Karro Food Group’s recent acquisition of Young’s Seafood Ltd, the company has recently announced the appointment of Simon Smith as CEO. Simon has far-reaching experience of managing organisations and commercial strategies across the industry including senior roles at Diageo, Northern Foods and, most recently, as Managing Director of Seachill. Simon will commence his role with Young’s from 21st October 2019.
Simon has replaced Bill Showalter who left at the end of July. Bill Showalter joined the Findus Group as CFO in 2014 where he oversaw the sale of the Findus Group’s Continental European Businesses to Nomad Foods Limited.
Greg Morency joins Regal Springs
ertically-integrated tilapia producer Regal Springs Group has appointed Greg Morency as its new Executive Vice President for Regal Springs North America, the company announced on August 1st.
Morency comes to the role most recently from Clearwater Seafoods, where he served as the supplier’s president of global markets, gaining an extensive background in the face-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector. During his time with Clearwater, Morency spent close to five years working out of Halifax, Canada before relocating in 2016 to the company’s Washington, DC offices. “I am delighted to announce that Greg Morency will take up this important leadership role and continue our Regal Springs North America growth story. He comes with very strong seafood commercial experience and will progress the expansion of our Regal Springs Naturally Better Tilapia range whilst maintaining our famous Regal Springs values,” said Achim Eichenlaub, Regal Springs Group’s departing CEO.
66 | August 2019 - International Aquafeed
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