FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Camanchacaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s case Rising from the ashes
- Supporting gut health with seaweed extracts
International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 07 - July 2019
- The large yellow croaker farming industry in China - How sustainable aquaculture will spark further growth in a constrained industry - Technology showcase: Fine feed extrusion
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- Technology keeps catfish jumping and profits steady - EXPERT TOPIC: Grey mullet Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO
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As I write this, we have just of the conference was devoted to returned from a very successful aquaculture and the many advances show at VICTAM International, being pioneered in feed science. which was held at the Kolnmesse, In this issue we have a fascinating Hall 6 in Cologne, Germany, from article by Daniel Taylor and Professor June 12-14. Jens Kjerulf Petersen of the Danish VICTAM is the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Shellfish Centre. The article focuses largest event for the animal feed on the use of mussels, which are processing industries. The show grown in a coastal environment (such runs concurrently with GRAPAS as estuaries, etc.) to mitigate nutrient EMEA, which focuses on the grain, enrichment of the coastal eco-system flour and rice milling industries. In through excess nutrient run-off from Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed addition to technical conferences and agriculture, water treatment plants and seminars, the large show hall hosted fish farms. Standard mussel farms can manufacturers from around the world, filter hundreds of thousands of cubic who brought their latest and greatest equipment to show metres-per-hour. off to interested buyers. DIVERSIFY and thrive! After a month off, our In past years, VICTAM has been dominated by animal continuing coverage of the five-year, 1.8 million Euro feed companies, but, as a sign of the tremendous DIVERSIFY Project continues. This month, the project expansion taking place in aquaculture, many companies focuses upon the grey mullet. While the grey mullet has who manufacture extrusion equipment and pellet presses been farmed for centuries, those efforts have mostly been were making their first appearance at the show, while small and non-intensive. But the DIVERSIFY Project has many established feed manufacturers now adding demonstrated that the species has many advantages for aquafeed to their feed lines. aquaculture. Innovation was the watchword at this show, and many Grey mullet are hardy and can be farmed in everything companies competed for the prestigious Animal Feed and from earthen ponds to coastal ponds in temperatures Nutrition Awards. You can read all about the show and common to Mediterranean countries. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, the winning entrants in our full report in this issue. farmers can profit not only from selling affordable whole You can also read about my experiences at the AllTech fillets, but also the roe produced by the fish. Hope you Innovations 2019 Conference. Most of the second day enjoy these fascinating articles this month.
ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS GUYT HEALTH: Supporting gut health with seaweed extracts - page 22
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY CATFISH: Technology keeps catfish jumping and profits steady - page 34
VERAMARIS: How sustainable aquaculture will spark further growth in a constrained industry - page 30
EXPERT TOPIC: Grey mullet - page 44
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY and elimination of disease, infection and The world’s population is projected to mortality, as well as increased yields increase from the current seven billion to of larger and healthier crops comes 9.7 billion people by 2050. Both agriculture from plant extracts/essential oils. These and aquaculture will need to double yields to botanical products are currently being used feed this fast-growing world population. For as natural antibiotics and tranquilisers, as agriculture, there is now megatrend growth well as antiparasitics. of biological products, like biopesticides, One of these botanical-based solutions biostimulants, microbial and ‘hybrid’ is currently working for the prevention products at an average annual rate of Yaki Keinan, of bacterial diseases in shrimp. When a 15 percent – 20 percent versus chemical Business Development for Aquamor marine organism (shrimp) is attacked by pesticides, whose annual growth rate is microbes it is unable to protect itself due to the nature of the averaging only three percent. Biological products have now been accepted as an integral part of conventional agricultural, microbes’ growth within an organism. A “bio-shield” is often formed which protects the diseased not just for organic farming. microbes from the shrimps’ immune system. A new botanical extract is preventing the creation of this microbial “bio-shield”, Beyond population growth, the drivers of biological product leaving the microbes exposed to the shrimp’s immune system, growth in agriculture include the delisting of many if not and to antibacterial products such as organic acids. most chemical pesticides by the EU, EPA and other regulatory Farmed fish are typically crowded together in net pens or agencies around the world, the resulting need to manage cages anchored to the sea floor in the ocean near the coasts. resistance, and consumer demands for higher quality foods Subsequently, these fish are exposed to high stress, which can which are free of chemical residues. foster disease and parasites, as well as excessive movement Similarly in aquaculture, world population growth is creating which can cause damage to the fish crop. increased demand for larger and higher quality yields of fish The chemical solutions traditionally used to address these and crustacean products, as well. While regulatory agencies do challenges leave poisonous residue which harm fish raised not seem to have become quite as aggressive in delisting most for human consumption. Moreover, they pollute aquafarming chemicals for use in aquaculture as they have in agriculture, this environments and surrounding waters. Again, plant extracts is likely to happen as consumer demands for chemical-free fish solutions can protect farmed fish from the stress of crowding, and crustaceans grow. Public pressure for non-chemical solutions will drive increased and even tranquilising them so they will not damage themselves in transportation and handling. regulation. But where are the non-chemical solutions to issues The innovation, distribution, education and use of these of disease and damage to fish and crustaceans in handling, non-chemical solutions is growing at double-digit rates in transportation and other challenges within aquaculture? aquaculture worldwide, just as it is in conventional agriculture. How can we achieve the complete replacement of chemical STK Aqua is committed to innovating and developing treatment with natural solutions that effectively reduce disease, botanical-based technologies to meet the needs of a growing infection and mortality, while safeguarding natural habitats? world population and the demands from consumers and From vaccination, transportation and stress reduction through regulatory agencies for safe, clean and effective approaches to staving off the onslaught of parasites and bacterial diseases, aquaculture. chemical-free solutions are now available and being used For more information visit: www.stk-ag.com increasingly around the world. or email: email@example.com One natural and highly effective solution for the prevention
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NUTRITION & HEALTH The related work on intestinal I am writing this editorial from the microbiota was also advocated so we centre of Seoul, South Korea as a may obtain a better comprehension guest of a leading biotechnology of the potential of prebiotic and company involved in animal nutrition probiotics on fish immune status and feed supplements and additives. the ability to manipulate the microbial Being invited to participate and ecology favourably in fish. lead discussions in fish and shrimp I also spoke about the lipid issue in nutrition enabled me to appreciate fish and need to find suitable omega-3 new opportunities for very novel Professor Simon Davies fatty acid sources for carnivorous fish products from natural sources that Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed species like salmon and the debate on have bioactive properties that can tilapia as a fish typically low in EPA interact favourably in metabolism and DHA. and physiological processes unique to our requirements in I am working on a range of alternative fish oil sources, aquaculture production. including algae, and left my colleagues intrigued by the possibilities to produce ‘bespoke’ high value fish for better There are new agents being developed that may go beyond human health. our conventional approaches and be quite innovative in their Indeed, I am grateful that my first degree was in functionality and properties to prime the immune system biochemistry as animal nutrition is in effect an applied area of cultured aquatic species, allowing us to meet the urgent of biochemistry with emphasis on nutrient assimilation and need for alternatives to antibiotics and address antimicrobial metabolism. resistance. It is really an advantage to be able to appreciate the Another product may assist to enhance nutrient uptake in fish complexity of such systems and how we may exploit such at the subcellular level based on a much better understanding processes to improve fish growth rates, confer resilience to of molecular biochemistry. disease and reduce stress status and enhance immune response I was able to speak in seminars led by me to representatives and tolerance to make a superior product. We know how from Korea, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Bangladesh and nutrition can influence the final product in terms of flavour, Iran. It was so interesting to hear the views of technical and texture, colour as well as the obvious effect on nutrient business requirements concering the feed additive sector composition. and the stringent need for regulations and compliance with My week visit to the dynamic South Korea has given me standards within the USA, Canada and European Union for new friends and provided an insight into innovations offered acceptance of products for inclusion in feeds. by Asia. I very much appreciated the support of my hosts, Of course, aquaculture has its own issues that address the Pathway Intermediates, and my intention to fully engage in ‘protein gap’ for sustainable ingredients and whether we future collaborations. can combat emerging pathogens as well as dealing with I am sure that this issue of IAF/Fish Farming Technology will established fish and shrimp diseases. embrace many of issues I have raised within related articles I was able to explain my own experiences and research and features and news. Please enjoy our mid-summer edition. background with current focus on gut integrity and health.
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
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July 2019 Volume 22 Issue 07
IN THIS ISSUE
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) firstname.lastname@example.org Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) email@example.com Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) firstname.lastname@example.org Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies email@example.com Rebecca Sherratt firstname.lastname@example.org Daniel Jackson email@example.com International Marketing Team Darren Parris firstname.lastname@example.org William Dowds email@example.com Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 firstname.lastname@example.org Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker email@example.com Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 firstname.lastname@example.org Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 email@example.com Design Manager James Taylor firstname.lastname@example.org Production Manager Martyna Nobis email@example.com Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan firstname.lastname@example.org Development Manager Antoine Tanguy email@example.com Communication Manager Pablo Porcel firstname.lastname@example.org ©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058
REGULAR ITEMS 8 Industry News 42 Technology showcase 52 Industry Events 62 The Market Place 64 The Aquafeed Interview 66
COLUMNS 8 Antonio Garza de Yta 16 Thierry Chopin
44 Expert Topic - Grey mullet Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new/emerging candidate fish species for expansion of the European aquaculture industry (DIVERSIFY). DIVERSIFY have kindly teamed up with International Aquafeed magazine to provide us with the results of the research carried out on the six species of the project.
FEATURES 20 IFFO and GAA call for a new co-management approach for South East Asian Fisheries 22 Supporting gut health with seaweed extracts 26 The large yellow croaker farming industry in China 30 How sustainable aquaculture will spark further growth in a constrained industry
THE BIG PICTURE Atlantis Subsea Farming has for the first time deployed fish in its submersible pen. Now, the project is excitedly following the life of the fish in the deep. In March last year the company was awarded a development license. Project Manager Trude Olafsen said: “One year after being awarded the development license, the first fish are in the system, and we’re quite happy with that.” See more on page 10
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 34 Technology keeps catfish jumping and profits steady 38 Rising from the ashes: Camanchaca’s case
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Evonik commissions production complex in Singapore
Antonio Garza de Yta
Let ’s start building bridges together!
sually, before I start writing a column, I always spend a good amount of time thinking about the subject at hand. I can tell you that for 18 years I have imagined what I could write as a thank you note in the hypothetical case that the dream of becoming president of my beloved World Aquaculture Society (WAS) became true. I believe that, during those 18 years, I imagined the most eloquent phrases and paragraphs that ever came out of my mind. But today, now that one of the most important goals of my professional career has come true, I can only think of one thing to say: Thank you! This has been an amazing journey, in which the best part is still yet to come, but during these very pleasant moments there are a couple I would like to highlight. Firstly when, as a student, I worked as a project assistant during the shrimp sessions in New Orleans. I remember watching my academic heroes give their talks and marvelling at how many things I still had to learn. During the different WAS conferences, I met a lot of invaluable friends and colleagues and was able to expand my personal and professional horizons. As a professional, I participated as a user on both the congress and the exhibit sides and testified how useful the WAS network of professionals really is; undoubtedly the best in the world. When I was elected president of the Latina American and Caribbean Chapter (LACC), I could team up with magnificent people and create LACQUA, which this year will reach its seventh edition and that is the only event of the society which is not only in English, but multilingual (Spanish, Portuguese and English); which considerably increased the participation of producers and decision makers in the region. I have always envisioned WAS as the platform where academia, producers, decision makers, service providers and NGOs meet; I think we are on the right track to achieve this goal. Also, during this period we were able to translate our magazine to Spanish for our membership. Today, I would like to increase the number of languages in which we distribute our information; especially in the Asia Pacific region. As a Director for the Society, I have had the honour to represent WAS during the Committee of Fisheries and the Subcommittee of Aquaculture of FAO. As you know, I have always pushed to increase the synergy of both organisations for the benefit of the sector. I hope we can crystalise this goal during 2021 where we are planning to organise in parallel the Subcommittee of Aquaculture and our Global Conference. I am really looking forward to this event as it is not only going to be the one with the highest impact in the history of aquaculture, but it would also be organised in my beloved Mexico. Cancun 2021; the place where we all must place our sights. Finally, I just would like to recognise my friend Wendy Sealey, who I am sure will have the opportunity to lead WAS in the short term, and thank all my family who have always supported all the plans in my life, although some of them were extremely unorthodox. Especially, my eternal love to my wife and son for being the engine that inspires me day by day. And to all the members of the aquaculture community, members of WAS or not, to the ones that believed in this project or did not, I promise I would keep fighting tirelessly for aquaculture. Please become a part of WAS and provide us with ideas. I promise all of them will be analysed. And again: Thank you! Antonio Garza de Yta, Ph.D in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture Global Consulting, Director World Aquaculture Society and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is currently Rector, Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas Bicentenario. 8 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
ollowing the scheduled two-year construction period, Evonik officially commissioned its second complex for the production of MetAMINO (DL-Methionine) and strategically important precursors in Singapore. Officiating the opening ceremony as guest-of-honour was Singapore’s Deputy Prime Minister, Heng Swee Keat. Christian Kullmann, Chairman of the Executive Board of Evonik, said, “Our methionine complex on Jurong Island, which we commissioned in late 2014 has been a real success story. Now, we want to continue the success story with this second plant.” Each plant has an annual production capacity of 150,000 metric tonnes of DL-Methionine, elevating Evonik’s annual global capacity to approximately 730,000 metric tonnes. The new complex has been modelled on the successful existing plant and has been constructed right next to it. Kullman added, “Synergies from the infrastructure that we set up in 2014, the complete backward integration of both plants into the precursor products, and the joint operation of the entire complex will bring about significant structural efficiency gains,” added Kullmann. In total, Evonik has invested more than half a billion euros and created more than 100 jobs in the new complex.
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
particularly in times of stress. After more than 30 years research, Mr Zaviezo said that ALIMET® has been shown to be an extremely effective source for methionine inclusion in animal diets. Studies have shown that HMTBa allows for easier absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, even when faced with gut health challenges or thermal stress, and has antimicrobial properties against E. coli, salmonella and campylobacter.
International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 9
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lobal animal nutrition company, Novus International, Inc, this week hosted a group of major producers from Latin American companies to hear “The Success Story of ALIMET®”. The event took place at Novus’s ALIMET® manufacturing facility at Chocolate Bayou in Texas, US from May 13-16th. The event provided a showcase for ALIMET® feed supplement (HMTBa), a liquid source of methionine activity that delivers an organic acid effect in poultry, swine, ruminants and aquaculture. The visit included a tour of the manufacturing facility where ALIMET® is made, presentations from Novus executives as well as talks from Harvard Business School professor Thales Teixeira, and Douglas Zaviezo, an international consultant on animal nutrition who has worked with ALIMET® for years. “The acceptance of liquid methionine by feed mills has been very rapid due to many operational and zootechnical advantages over powdered methionine. Among them, automated dosing, improved mixing and reduced particle loss,” Mr Zaviezo said. Methionine is a first limiting amino acid in poultry and ruminant diets and a nutrient necessary in animal production. It works to reduce the amount of nitrogen excreted and allows for better performance,
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Major players of animal production attracted to Novus International’s ALIMET® event
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In addition, other advantages in on-farm operation were detailed for the participants, as emphasised by Rafael Martineli, Novus’s methionine manager for Latin America. “ALIMET® provides an increase in productive efficiency with reduction of costs and zootechnical and operational gains, as well. The storage and full use of the liquid methionine are superior to powdered configurations,” he said. In this way, ALIMET® is a preferred source of methionine by many producers and most veterinarians specialising in animal nutrition, he said.
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Fish in Atlantis: A milestone has been reached tlantis Subsea Farming has for the first time deployed fish in its submersible pen. Now, the project is excitedly following the life of the fish in the deep. In March last year the company was awarded a development license. Project Manager Trude Olafsen said: “One year after being awarded the development license, the first fish are in the system, and we’re quite happy with that.” “We have had our challenges, and what we are trying to achieve is not easy. But this is exactly why we need the development license. It gives us the opportunity to test the technology on actual biomass for three generations – and we are grateful for that,” she continues. The first version of the submersible pen is now productcertified, and the project is now entering a phase of where the behavior and well-being of the fish will be closely monitored. At the same time operational staff at Sinkaberg Hansen, AKVA group and the service company Nærøysund Aquaservice, which also played a part in the development work, are acquiring valuable experience on deep operations. The goal is to have the pen submerged as much as possible, and at the surface as little as possible. The submersible pens can, in principle, be moored with regular frame moorings. The
investments are justifiable in relation to the operational benefits it is expected that Atlantis will provide. Finn Sinkaberg said, “I have great faith that this may be a solution in certain locations with rough conditions at the surface. We have developed a lot of experience in keeping the fish deep in ordinary pens by using deep feeding and appropriate lighting, and see benefits from that in the form of less sea lice infestation, among other things. If the technology from Atlantis Subsea Farming also allows us to use more exposed locations, this is a solution for the future.”
10 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
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£680k study to tackle aquaculture disease through improved vaccines new UK £680,000 project will use cuttingedge techniques to tackle antimicrobial resistance in Vietnamese catfish – a key challenge for the global aquaculture industry. The University of Stirling will co-lead the multidisciplinary study, which will develop improved vaccines against two bacterial diseases that adversely affect the sector. Vietnam is one of the largest producers of aquaculture in the world and, over the past 20 years, there has been an intensification of its freshwater catfish (Pangasius) sector – with the produce sold in 161 countries. However, catfish suffer from bacterial infections, which results in the widespread use of antibiotics – and previous research has suggested that 80 percent of farmers lacked a therapeutic approach and, instead, used a cocktail of antibiotics. The project is led by Dr Margaret Crumlish, of the Institute of Aquaculture at Stirling, and Dr Phuoc Hong Le, of the Research Institute for Aquaculture Number 2, in Ho Chi Minh City. It will also involve commercial partner, Aqualife, a Stirling-based vaccine administration company. Dr Crumlish said, “Freshwater catfish suffer from bacterial infections resulting in the widespread use of antibiotics – but we know that these antibiotics are typically not administered in line with best practice. “The lack of regulatory procedures in this area contributes to the antimicrobial resistance – and immediate action is now required as current antimicrobial use is at breaking point, with 100 percent resistance to a range of antibiotics. “This important new project brings together a large, multidisciplinary team of researchers – including aquaculture health specialists, behavioural psychologists, economists and
engineers – in an attempt to tackle this problem. “We will use a range of cutting-edge methods to develop improved vaccines against two bacterial diseases – caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila – and evaluate novel delivery mechanisms via our commercial partner, Aqualife.” The timing of the work – which builds on 15 years of related Stirling-led research – is crucial as it follows the introduction of new policy regulations and veterinary laws restricting antimicrobial use in Vietnam. The new project is one of 11 funded by Canada’s International Development Research Centre and the UK Department of Health and Social Care, under the Innovative Veterinary Solutions for Antimicrobial Resistance (InnoVet-AMR) initiative. The Stirling team also includes Dr Amaya Albalat, Professor Simon McKenzie, Rona Werner and Jacquie Ireland, all from Institute of Aquaculture; Professor Ronan O’Carroll, from Psychology, and Dr David Comerford from Stirling Management School.
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AFIA taking applications for 2019 Feed Facility of the Year award
he American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) is now accepting applications for the 2019 Feed Facility of the Year (FFY) programme. Sponsored by AFIA and Feedstuffs, the FFY programme is designed to be a world-class benchmarking programme for the animal food industry. It recognises overall excellence in feed manufacturing operations, emphasising safety, quality, regulatory compliance, employee development and overall operating efficiencies. “The Feed Facility of the Year benchmarking programme gives facilities insight on how they compare to other similar facilities,” said Gary Huddleston, AFIA’s Director of Feed Manufacturing and Regulatory Affairs.” AFIA and Feedstuffs redesigned the former Feed Mill of the Year award programme in 2016 to be more industry-inclusive and expanded it in 2017 to include non-AFIA members in the benchmarking portion of the programme. To keep benchmarking information relative, four industry categories, with category-specific applications, are considered: commercial dry feed, integrator, liquid feed and premix/ingredient manufacturing. AFIA and Feedstuffs will select winners in each category and among those, will name an overall FFY winner. The winners will be recognized at the 2020 International Production & Processing Expo, being held January 28-30th, 2020, in Atlanta, USA. Applications are due by September 6th, along with an application fee of US $100 for AFIA members and $250 for non-members.
12 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
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ioLight Granted US Patent on innovative portable microscope oLight, creator of the world’s first high-resolution portable microscope, recently announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office has issued US Patent 10,254,523 B2 entitled ‘Digital Portable Microscope’ to the UK-based company. The focus of the patent is the microscope’s unique folding feature, making it compact and light enough for in-the-field use, whilst still delivering detailed images. The US patent, which follows the ioLight microscope’s granted UK patent in May 2018, uses British engineering, with the design conceptualised and created by Oxford University-educated Chief Executive Officers Andrew
Monk and Richard Williams. “We are pleased to strengthen our intellectual property protection with the addition of this patent in the US,” explains Andrew Monk Co-founder, ioLight. “We have consistently sought to protect, expand, and improve uses of our self-contained portable, high-resolution microscope.” The ability to record images and videos of subjects smaller than 10 microns on a mobile phone from a device that fits in a jacket pocket has already helped expeditions in The Amazon, Alaska and Antarctica for which it would not have been practical to use a conventional microscope.
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The EU-US feed industries join forces to overcome feed safety challenges
he American and European feed industries, represented by the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) and the European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation (FEFAC), have renewed their longstanding partnership to increase mutual cooperation on sustainable (Left to right) Joel Newman, Tim Belstra and Nick Major feed production, feed safety management, communication, trade and pre-competitive research. International Feed Regulators Meeting (IFRM) in 2008 in AFIA and FEFAC members recognise the value of Atlanta, co-hosted by FAO & IFIF. providing joint leadership at a global level, in partnership Joel Newman is the first “non-European” feed industry with the International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF), expert to receive the FEFAC honorary membership award. to develop feed industry solutions, which help reduce the environmental impacts of feed and livestock production, while promoting the highest level of feed safety management and biosecurity. The associations agreed to explore further information sharing, linked to precompetitive research supporting joint projects, while maximising feed trade opportunities. AFIA President and CEO Joel G Newman and AFIA Board Chairman Tim Belstra made the following statement upon signing the MOU, “Our 15year partnership with FEFAC has been a model for global collaboration and we are excited to expand our work together. “We look forward to broadening our joint leadership so we may provide both our members and industries with solutions to address future challenges, including assisting them with the adoption of new technologies, developing and deploying best practices and continuing to sustainably provide consumers with sound dietary choices.” After the MoU signing ceremony during FEFAC’s 60th Anniversary event, Joel Newman was awarded FEFAC Honorary Membership in Brussels. FEFAC praised his professional commitment to promote feed safety standards at global level with the setting up of the first International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 15
their combined expertise. It brings technical expertise to standard review discussions; it reviews and recommends revisions to the standard; and recommends further input from the Expert Working Groups and external experts.
First day of face-to-face discussions for the Aquaculture TAC
Dr Thierry Chopin Getting involved with the Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch Program
his past winter, I was invited to join the Aquaculture Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the Seafood Watch Program of the Monterey Bay Aquarium (MBA). Initially, I was not sure exactly what my role would be or what I would be able to contribute. As I was interested in understanding this elaborate program from the inside, instead of relying on what I have heard from others (both negative and positive) about this program, and because I could have an impact on its evolution, I accepted. On May 21-22, we had our face-to-face meeting at the MBA. I was very impressed by the professionalism of the Seafood Watch team and how the Aquaculture TAC was engaged, following a 60-day public consultation period, resulting in a 29-page document. The diversity and excellence of the expertise gathered on the 15-member Aquaculture TAC, covering many aspects of aquaculture, is also impressive. We were, I believe, sincerely listened to, as we offered our comments and recommendations on several challenges that the Seafood Watch team has encountered and intends to address in their draft revisions to the Seafood Watch Aquaculture Standard, which last underwent in-depth revisions back in October 2016.
The Seafood Watch Program
The overall approach of the Seafood Watch Program is to provide information (maintaining standards, assessing fisheries and aquaculture operations globally, improving tools for industry and governments), engage strategically (for regionally applicable improvement solutions and collaborative approaches to increase engagement and promote better understanding), and build partnerships (with industry, business, government, investors, regional staff, universities and NGOs). The Seafood Watch environmental performance evaluation of global aquaculture changes quite drastically depending on whether seaweed aquaculture is considered or not. When considered, 34% is best choice, 1% good alternative, 8% avoid, 16% are under assessment, 38% is not yet assessed and 2% is certified. Hence, 45% of global production is rated by the Seafood Watch Program or certified by a recognised eco-certification (by comparison, it is 21% for global fisheries). When seaweeds are not considered, 14% is best choice, 2% good alternative, 11% avoid, 23% are under assessment, 47% is not yet assessed and 3% is certified. Hence, 30% of global production is rated by the Seafood Watch Program or certified by a recognised eco-certification. This points, one more time, to the key role of the seaweed component in global aquaculture and how it can significantly shift statistics. This is also evident when one looks at FAO data.
The goals, tasks and responsibilities of the Aquaculture TAC
The primary charge of the Aquaculture TAC is to tackle substantive technical issues and to recommend changes to the standard, based on
The day started with the Seafood Watch team asking each member of the Aquaculture TAC: what “sustainable aquaculture” means; whether zero-impact or maximum sustainable impact (MSI) was reachable, and, if so, through what lens (ecological, societal or economic, or all of the above); and whether it should operate in a vacuum or not (in context with other industries, resources users, and at what scale). We were then presented with a series of topics for discussion, based on the public comments received. Below are the questions to which we tried to bring clarification.
Sustainable aquaculture and the precautionary principle
Where do theory and reality intersect and how should that point influence a “full score” and a representation of “green”? There was broad agreement that zero risk or zero impact are impossible, so the question becomes how do we distinguish between “strong sustainability” (there is an impact, but it is reversible so that other activities can take place) and “weak sustainability” (there is an impact, but it is accepted that it can be channeled towards one activity for a long time). Regarding impacts, countries often have a three-tier aquaculture site classification system based on negative externalities: -1: Good performing site with minimal remedial action required -2: Site causing adverse environmental effects; some remediation needed -3: Site causing severe damage to the environment; remediation needed in coordination with regulatory agencies Working with Janaina Kimpara (Embrapa, Brazil) and Marcia Kafensztok (Primar Aquacultura Orgânica, Brazil), I believe that we need two other categories to recognise and incentivise companies demonstrating neutral or positive impacts and externalities: 0: Site with zero discharge +1: Site demonstrating positive externalities through consideration of the ecosystem services provided (organic, Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture (IMTA), circular production, taking advantage of species interactions and using an ecosystem-based management approach).
Scope and scale
How should the scale of an industry contribute to the overall consideration and assessment of its sustainability? How should the Seafood Watch Program assess the scale of an industry, especially as it relates to similar impacts from a related industry? Should the Seafood Watch standard incorporate a mechanism to factor this scale into the scoring?
Interpretation of “affected habitat”
When considering the habitat effects of a farm, what are the boundaries/definition for the “habitat”? Should the Seafood Watch Program consider the impact to the area directly within the perimeter of a/the farm, or to the broader habitat in which the farm(s) are situated?
Determining chemical use risk
Should this criterion incorporate a risk-based and an evidencebased assessment option? Which factors, metrics, and outside research or literature sources should be included? Are there any key factors the standard is currently missing or could expand upon?
Scoring for predators and wildlife interactions
Given that data on wildlife mortalities are typically poor, and “proving a negative” (i.e. that mortalities are not occurring) is difficult, how can the Seafood Watch Program best balance the precautionary principle while ensuring that industries are not penalised unfairly?
16 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
Escape of secondary species during trans-waterbody movements
Trans-waterbody movements take place when the source waterbody is ecologically distinct from the destination (farming) waterbody, such that the live organism movements represent a risk of introducing non-native species (pathogens, parasites, other secondary species). This discussion reinforced the view that it is not international/state/provincial borders that need to be considered, but movements between different watersheds.
Joint meeting with the Fisheries TAC
On the first day, we also held a meeting with the Fisheries TAC to compare and contrast fisheries and aquaculture sustainability on two aspects: 1) scale: how should the scale of an industry contribute to the evaluation of its sustainability; and 2) input: how to compare feed for aquaculture and bait for capture fisheries? In Maine (USA), the tonnage of bait (herring) surpasses that of wet landing of lobster, and 70% of the herring fishery goes to catching lobster. Can that be sustainable and is the lobster fishery really a fishery or a fed aquaculture operation?
Second day of face-to-face discussions for the Aquaculture TAC On the second day, the focus was on the following topics.
Sustainability in sourcing feed ingredients
Should sustainability in marine ingredients play a larger role in the Seafood Watch standard? Should the sustainability in sourcing outweigh the overall use of the fishmeal/fish oil ratio?
Alternative feed ingredients
How should the Seafood Watch Program incorporate alternative feed ingredients (e.g. crop-based and insects) into the feed assessment, and by which metrics should they be assessed,
Figure 1: The Aquaculture Technical Advisory Committee of the Seafood Watch Program at work at the Monterey Bay Aquarium, in Monterey, California (Image courtesy of ©Kathy Chopin)
considering all potential impact areas contained in the current criterion - sustainability of the source, protein efficiency, feed footprint and other impact areas that may be relevant.
How should the Seafood Watch Program incorporate more specific guidelines and measures to evaluate the ecological impacts of polyculture operations, considering all potential impact areas, such as nutrient discharge and allocation, escape risk and potential implications of escape, pathogen dynamics, etc? After some initial discussion, it became clear that there was confusion between the terms “polyculture” and “IMTA”. I had offered to make a presentation and I was given the opportunity to clarify a number of points about the differences between the two and to explain what IMTA, and its many variations, is about. I underlined that there is a need for major rethinking regarding the functioning of an “aquaculture farm” and for moving towards an integrated coastal area management (ICAM) strategy, instead of evaluating within anthropogenic site limits (buoys or coordinates), as they do not reflect the ecosystem scales at which aquaculture farms really function. As IMTA fits very well within the circular economy approach, it is also time to modify our vocabulary: nutrients are not necessarily wastes or by-products, but should be considered as co-products,
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useful for the co-cultivation of other crops in more efficient and responsible food production systems, while bioremediation of coastal nutrification takes place. However, it should be clear that IMTA is more than a nutrient story; seaweeds, and other extractive species, provide other ecosystem services. That is why certifying these organisms is more than certifying seafood; hopefully, these services will finally be recognised, accounted for and used as financial and regulatory incentive tools. We had a discussion on how multi-species systems should be assessed: as a whole or if there should be allocation for each species’ role. In the latter case, I am afraid the interactions between species, and the ecosystem services they provide, would be missed and under-evaluated. Moreover, it should be very clear whether systems with multiple species (polyculture) or with species at multiple complementary trophic levels (IMTA) are being evaluated. At the present time, polyculture shows up in the standard in only one place, in the risk-based scoring table (Criterion 2, Effluent). We were asked if there should be a polyculture/IMTA module for each criterion, or if they should be the topic of a separate guidance document. Recognising that polyculture/IMTA will affect each criterion in different ways, we recommended that they not be addressed in a systematic way for each criterion, but instead when warranted in the different criteria.
“Appropriate” use of harvested by-products
Should the Seafood Watch Program reconsider how to value the further utilisation of by-products of the harvested farmed fish? Should all other uses, for further protein or otherwise, be considered an appropriate recapture of protein? Should non-protein-
provision uses be weighted differently than protein provision uses?
Definition of broodstock sustainability
Should the Seafood Watch Program expand the scope of Criterion 8X to include broader impacts of fishing for farm stock beyond the stock status, such as by-catch and other considerations? Which impacts should be considered? What metrics should be used? Which other research efforts, organizations, ratings or certifications, etc., could be considered or used?
What is next?
All our comments were well taken by the Seafood Watch team; they will help hone the next draft of the Seafood Watch standard. There will be another cycle of public consultation in September 2019 (your opportunity to contribute at https://www.seafoodwatch. org/standards), an Aquaculture TAC meeting, some pilot testing, revisions and a meeting of the Multi-Stakeholder Group for approval before the new Aquaculture Standard is published in 2020. So, this consultation is serious business (with multi-vetting steps), the scope is wide, and the possibilities for input in the process are readily available. Moreover, it was a real pleasure to have meetings in such an ambiance that only the MBA can provide, including a great dinner in front of the large tank of the Open Sea Exhibit. I am glad I accepted to be part of the Aquaculture TAC: two days of great discussions and a sense of participating in the evolution of the shaping of the responsible aquaculture practices of the future. The more than two-hour exchange on polyculture/IMTA, and how that should be approached in the new standard, was very enlightening and an indication that IMTA, as a sustainable aquaculture practice, is being increasingly recognized and considered as a responsible solution.
Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the owner and President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc., since 2016. 18 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
SHARING THE LOAD IFFO and GAA call for a new co-management approach for South East Asian Fisheries
by IFFO, the Marine Ingredients Organisation
outh East Asian seas serve as a major source of food and livelihood for hundreds of millions of people. 80 percent of the seafood produced by these waters, mainly fisheries in Vietnam and Thailand, is supplied for human consumption. The remaining 20 percent is used to produce fishmeal and oil used in aquaculture feeds. Both these supply chains use seafood from complex, multi-species fisheries which are intrinsically more complex than those found in northern waters. Traditional fisheries management techniques are challenging to apply to this region which has one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world and currently there is no consensus on the most appropriate ways to manage these tropical multispecies, multi-gear fisheries. The Marine Ingredients Organisation (IFFO) co-funded a study with the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA), focused on Thailand and Vietnam, to fill information gaps and help drive positive change. Now, IFFO calls for co-management that opens the path to a specific way of addressing the existing challenges.
South East Asian fisheries are facing numerous challenges
South East Asian fisheries are crucial in the global seafood value chain, generating several billion dollars in GDP for the region. As a result, some countries in the region have been subject to media interest in the environmental, social and ethical practices in the region. Thailand, for instance, is the third largest seafood exporter in the world. As a consequence of the increasing demand, Thailand and Vietnam invested heavily in developing their fisheries from the 1960s through the 1980s, which significantly increased fishing effort. Today, overfishing and destructive fishing methods threaten the existence of the South East Asian seafood system. A report released in 2018 by the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) stated that, “Target 75* (for the sector overall) can only be achieved by expanding improvement efforts in Asian reduction fisheries. Higher-volume multispecies trawl and small pelagic fisheries must be investigated to identify the most likely candidates to contribute to improvement in this sector”. However, with the increasing drive for certification schemes and the collective involvement of local governments, citizens, local and global NGOs, there are incentives and good prospects of finding the keys to move toward more sustainable practices. Market pressure from processors, aquaculture producers and exporters can have a positive effect on encouraging a transition to responsible production. In April 2015, the European Union issued a ‘yellow card’ warning in response to a failure by Thailand to
sufficiently tackle the problem of IUU fishing, a step also taken for Vietnam in October 2017.
More sustainable practices are already in the works
Thailand’s reforms to address illegal fishing (including the establishment of Port In-Port Out (PIPO) reporting measures, a large electronic vessel tracking system and better traceability, amongst many other initiatives) enabled the lifting of the yellow card in January 2019. Furthermore, Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs) have become recognised as a stepping stone to achieving step-wise improvements in fishery management and providing responsible sourcing opportunities in the supply chain. In November 2018, IFFO Responsible Supply (IFFO RS) launched new criteria developed specifically to assess multispecies fisheries. These criteria are to be tested as part of a three-year pilot programme. IFFO RS and other representatives from their Multispecies Pilot Steering Group regularly meet with stakeholders in Thailand to determine what should be expected from them within a tailormade framework. This pilot will feed information into the process of outlining the requirements for acceptance onto the IFFO RS Improver Programme, hopefully leading in due course to full IFFO RS certification in some of the region’s complex fisheries.
IFFO is acting as a facilitator
Today, for IFFO, the focus must continue to be the provision of assistance to SEA fisheries managers through facilitating the sharing of global best practice and providing a framework for improvement. IFFO will keep on engaging with other stakeholders, especially governments and industry regulators. What is at stake is: to maintain the momentum generated by the South East Asian project and to use IFFO’s influence within aquaculture supply chains to promote robust responsible standards and Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs). This approach was demonstrated in Bangkok in June 2019 at the SeaWeb summit where a workshop was chaired by IFFO RS Executive Chairman, Libby Woodhatch. This provided evidence that a continued collaborative approach has the potential to bring together a collection of inspirational stories that can help all stakeholders – starting with the fishermen - understand what the seafood value chain is composed of and how each part of it contributes to a global outcome: feeding a growing population in need for highly nutritious products. * Target 75 (T75) is a global movement launched last year that seeks to encourage producers of 75 percent of the world’s seafood to operate sustainably, or at least move toward sustainable production, by the close of 2020. www.iffo.net
20 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
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SUPPORTING GUT HEALTH WITH SEAWEED EXTRACTS
A targeted approach by Marie Gallissot and Maria Garcia Suarez, Olmix Group
mportance of gut health in modern production systems. Gut health has become increasingly important in the livestock industry with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance and the urge to limit the use of antibiotics. The intestinal mucosa converges various functions: digestion and absorption of nutrients; as well as physical barriers against microbes and toxins, thanks to the presence of a protective mucus layer and tight junction proteins that seal the paracellular space. The intestinal mucosa hosts both gut microbiota and immune cells (70% of the total number of immune cells are residents of the gut mucosa and gut-associated lymphoid tissue). In modern production systems, the gastrointestinal tract is being challenged and the subtle gut health balance being relied
Figure 1: Seaweed polysaccharides structure
on can be impaired. The components that define gut barrier and immune function can be weaken and lead to higher occurrence of digestive troubles associated with dysbiosis. This imbalance will trigger local and systemic inflammation, affecting the global health status and the growth performance of the animals. The challenge in the industry is to find solutions capable of supporting the epithelial barrier function and the gutassociated lymphoid tissue (GALT), in order to maintain a proper gut health and, thus, ensure good performance without the need of antibiotics.
Seaweeds: The multi-asset solution!
Many candidates are available, with varying efficacy and scientific evidence. Among them, seaweeds, or macroalgae, which have gained great interest in the past decades and are the object of increasing research. In the literature, seaweeds Figure 2: Mode of action of MSPÂŽIMMUNITY on intestinal epithelial cells. Adapted from Berri et al. (2016 and 2017).
22 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
are being ascribed a wide range of biological activities, such as immunomodulating, antioxidant, antiviral or antihyperlipidemic properties. Seaweeds are divided into three groups: brown, red and green algae. Despite their phylogenetic differences, seaweeds share the specificity of their parietal polysaccharides. Their structural complexity and unique composition make them very reactive and explain their biological activities towards animals, plants and humans. The complexity and reactivity of seaweed polysaccharides derive from the nature of the sugar units, which are diverse and sometimes rare. Like uronic acids, xylose and rhamnose, the variety of glycosidic bonds leading to their branched structure and the presence of sulfate groups (see Figure 1). Furthermore, their polyanionic structure and solubility increases their reactivity and facilitates their recognition by host cells. The main types of seaweed polysaccharides are agar and carrageenans (red seaweeds), ulvans (green seaweeds) and fucans (brown seaweeds), each of them presenting specific molecular traits which determine their biological properties and reactivity. Therefore, it is important to identify which types of polysaccharides are responsible for a given biological activity in view of extracting them and use them to support gut health. Such work has been at the core of Olmix Group research and development activities for the past 10 years.
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Immune modulation was the first target of Olmix Group, after the use of antibiotics as growth promoters was banned in Europe. A candidate extract from the green algae Ulva sp (MSP®IMMUNITY) was identified as an immune modulator. A research project in collaboration with INRA led to the demonstration of its effect on immune mediators in pig and poultry models, including the identification of the metabolic pathways involved in this activation (see Figure 2). Berri et al. (2016) first highlighted that MSP®IMMUNITY could stimulate the gene expression of several immune mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Among others, the extract showed to upregulate the expression of TNFα, involved in the innate immune response via macrophage activity stimulation, as well as CCL20 and IL-1α, respectively working on the recruitment and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes (adaptive immune response), and PPARγ which has antiinflammatory properties. In vivo studies further confirmed that MSP®IMMUNITY could modulate animal’s immune response, supporting them in critical stages by favoring the transfer of immunity from the sow to its piglets (increased IgG titers in the colostrum and IgA in the milk), or supporting the development of the adaptive immune response in broilers (decreased heterophil to lymphocyte ratio). Using this extract punctually (commercially available as Searup, used in the drinking water), around vaccination or in the event of a viral attack, has shown to boost the immune system and favor animal’s recovery, while a continuous in-feed use (newly launched Algimun®), could strengthen animal’s defenses all along their cycle, particularly in early stages when they are the most sensitive. Olmix Group also identified some extracts of interest targeting gut barrier function. Previous work (Barcelo et al., 2000) had suggested that ulvans (extracted from Ulva sp.)
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could stimulate the excretion of mucin proteins and highlighted their potential use against various intestinal diseases. Olmix Group conducted a set of experiments to define the molecular pathway that triggers the production of mucin and to determine if the extract would improve tight junction protein expression as an important determinant of the gut barrier function. Two seaweed extracts were tested: MSP®MUCIN (from Ulva sp) and MSP®BARRIER (from Solieria chordalis). Results showed that both MSP® extracts induced the expression of mucins and tight junctions (in vitro models, using mucussecreting HT-29 MTX cells for mucin evaluation and enterocytelike Caco-2 cells for tight junction evaluation). However, each extract presented some specificities: MSP®MUCIN mainly stimulated the expression of mucin genes (gel-forming MUC2 and membrane-bound MUC5AC) and MSP®BARRIER the expression of tight junction proteins (scaffolding proteins ZO-1
and ZO-2 and transmembrane protein Claudin-2). The different responses expressed by the different extracts stress the importance of selecting appropriate fractions of seaweeds to stimulate targeted biological effects. On the field, the MSP®MUCIN is used to support digestive welfare when young animals are challenged with dehydration or digestive troubles, while the MSP®BARRIER is used in synergy with the MSP®IMMUNITY (Algimun®) for a continuous strengthening of the intestinal barrier, to prevent the passage of pathogens in the organism all along their cycle. Olmix Group is expert in the identification and selection of active seaweed polysaccharides that have targeted applications in livestock to support gut health. Olmix MSP® are available in several forms (concentration, use), providing high flexibility to its users to address the different challenges faced by animals along their cycle. www.olmix.com
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24 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
The large yellow croaker farming industry in China
by Li Hongpeng, Jian Linjiang and Dong Qiufen, Guangzhou Nutriera Group Co., Ltd, China arge yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) is an important marine economic carnivorous fish, belonging to Perciformes, Sciaenidae and Pseudosciaena. It mainly distributes in the East China Sea and the Southern Yellow Sea, and a few in the offshore waters on the eastern side of the Leizhou Peninsula in the South China Sea, commonly known as large yellow croaker, the big king fish. However, large yellow croakers were so severely depleted due to the heavy captures in the 1950s and onwards. After peaking at about 200,000 tonnes in the mid-1970s, catches of the croaker in China declined by over 90 percent within two decades. Therefore, large yellow croaker was categorised as a “threatened” fish in the IUCN Red List. The extensive maricultural programme was introduced to address food supply and control overfishing in the 1980s, particularly of the croaker and was one of the earliest for marine finfish, not only as a nation with rich and highly successful history in aquaculture in China, but globally. With the vigorous development of the cultured large yellow croaker industry in recent years, the aim of this paper is to make an in-depth study on the culture situation of large yellow croaker in China.
Figure 2: Slow-sinking feed for large yellow croaker
Figure 3: Floating feed for large yellow croaker
Large yellow croaker production in China
According to 2018 statistics, the total aquaculture production of large yellow croaker in 2017 reached 177,640 tonnes. The production in Fujian, Zhejiang, and Guangdong provinces accounted for 84.75 percent, 8.21 percent, and 7.04 percent respectively, as shown in table one. Comparing with the production in 2016, it showed a dramatic increase of 17.54 percent in 2017. Due to the overfishing and low supply, the farming production increases sharply. In recent years, the consumption for valuable fishes are increasing with the living standard improving. As table 2 shows, price of large yellow croaker kept stably high around USD $4/kg. It’s estimated that the large yellow croaker production might continually rise in 2019. Besides local consumption in mainland China, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong of China are also major consumers for large yellow croaker. Some hatcheries in South Korea and Taiwan have conducted trials of large yellow croaker breeding, but none of them have succeeded. Therefore, it mainly relies on the buying from mainland China to meet the local market demand. South Korea is the largest importer of large yellow croaker and it imports about 40,000 tonnes of large yellow croaker from China every year. In recent years, Taiwan buys about 8,000 tonnes of large yellow croaker from the Ningde area yearly,
Figure 4 and 4.2: Healthy liver (right) after feeding with functional feed
26 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
Figure 5: Feeding with functional feed shows good body shape and growth
Figure 6 and 6.2: Feeding large yellow croaker with functional feed
mainly with chilled products. Hong Kong buys 3,000 tonnes of chilled large yellow croaker from Ningde annually. In addition, frozen large yellow croaker is also exported to the United States and European countries in a small amount.
Large yellow croaker culture mode
For large yellow croaker culture modes, there are mainly cage culture, pond culture. Currently, the most common culture is cage culture. Common cage sizes are 3×3metres (m), 4×4m, 5×5m, etc. Farmers usually use 4×4m cages, with a depth of four-to-eight metres (see figure one). The cost of most common 4×4m cage is approximately $300-500 each. The specifications and mesh size of the cages are adjusted with the change of body length of the large yellow croaker, and the broken net will result in corresponding repair costs each year. There are several important factors in the cage culture, mainly sea area selection, manufacturing processes, setting methods and stocking density. Among them, the factor of stocking density is most important. The stocking density of large yellow croaker is determined according to the smooth flow of water in the cage and the specifications. Suitable stocking density can increase both the yield and benefit. Too low stocking density of large yellow croaker cages will lead to an increase in the amount of International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 27
residual bait, which will increase the cost and affect the growth environment of large yellow croaker. However, too high density will cause some large yellow croakers digestion problem and affect growth as well. The common size of the culture cage is 4mĂ&#x2014;4mĂ&#x2014;4m, and the mesh size is usually between 20-60mm, which is adjusted according to the size of the fish body. Farmers usually connect several cages to increase the range of fish activity, there are four cages, nine cages, and the largest has reached a recorded amount of 60 cages. Large yellow croaker has two primary breeding months, March and December. The large yellow croaker fries are placed in the cages after one-month nursery, commonly known as spring fries and autumn fries. The fry price is around $3 per 1,000 frys. The cost of fry only accounts for a very small part of the total aquaculture cost. Large yellow croaker can be cultured and grown up to 400 grams, which takes at least 17 months for them to grow to. Among them, the large yellow croaker has the fastest growth rate in November, December, and January. However, the growth rate is quite slow during the high temperature period. If using trash fishes as food during whole process, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) is as high as eight with a high farming cost. Nowadays, more and more farmers turn to use commercial fish feed for this fish, and the FCR is around 1.9-2.0 (see table 3). The survival rate of large yellow croakers cultured by different farmers is quite different. Due to the diseases, the mortality of large yellow croaker is generally higher, even more than 60 percent.
Table 1: Farmed large yellow croaker production 2008-2017 in China. (Unit: MT)
Table 2- Large yellow croaker farm gate prices in 2016-2018
Table 3- Culture profit with commercial fish feed of large yellow croaker
Large yellow croaker feed
The feed for large yellow croaker is generally trash fish and commercial feed. Trash fish needs to be processed before being fed to the fish. A meat grinder generally cuts it into fish paste, or it is twisted into a meat emulsion and stirred to increase the viscosity, then squeezed into a block of different sizes by hand. The trash fish has high protein content, and the farmers prefer trash fish as fresh bait, but it only provides minimal nutrition, and the quality of the trash fish on the market is variable. Some trash fish can also carry a large number of pathogenic bacteria, further infecting those fish fed the infected trash fish. Especially in summer, trash fish can further pollute the water and increase the probability of infection. Farmers generally choose to use compound feed, because it consists of more comprehensive nutrient elements than the trash fish, and the pollution caused by feed sinking into the bottom of the water is much less than trash fish. The large yellow croaker compound feed is divided into two types: slow-sinking feed and floating feed, and crude protein normally ranges between 40 percent and 50 percent (see figure two and figure three). The price of trash fish in the surveyed area is around $0.5/ kg, and it is normally higher in the closed fishing season. The price of compound feed is generally $1.3-1.9/kg. In order to encourage the farmers to use more commercial feed, the Chinese government subsidises farmers to use commercial feed. In the hatchery and nursery stage, farmers prefer to use slowsinking feed due to the habitus of large yellow croaker living in bottom layer. Farmers would start using floating feed in growing stage due to easy observation of the feed intake condition.
The major diseases for large yellow croaker are parasites, white spot disease and white gill. The peak disease season is July and August. At present, it was confirmed that the large yellow croakerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s white gill is a viral disease and there is still
no particularly good treatment in medicine to cure it. As the biggest aquatic solutions supplier in China, Guangzhou Nutriera Biotechnology Co., Ltd has a technical service team to help the farmers for health & sustainable fish farming management. Nutriera also has helped some feed mills to produce functional fish feed, which could improve the profit by improving the fish immunity and health to decrease the chance of getting disease (see figure four and figure five). Functional feed can increase the feed attracting and growth promoting (see figure six). It could enhance fish immunity against disease. Functional feed demonstrates strong advantages by adding natural plant extracts and immunoregulatory factors. It could be a trend in using functional feed to improve fish growth and immunity in the future.
Large yellow croaker is a characteristic marine aquaculture species in China. Its development has driven many related industries and gradually occupied an important position in the marine aquaculture industry. More research on this fish is continually being carried out by the support of China-ASEAN Fisheries Resource Conservation and Expoloitation Fund and the government also tries to increase financial, technical, and other supports to promote the sustainable and healthy development of the large yellow croaker culture industry. www.nutriera.cn/en
28 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
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THE VERAMARIS SOLUTION:
How sustainable aquaculture will spark further growth in a constrained industry
s the demand for salmon at the dinner table surges globally in line with population growth, so does the pressure on small forage fish used in feeding them. According to the FAO, overfishing and illegal poaching does contribute to the depletion of the finite quantity of small feeder fish in the world’s oceans. These include fish such as anchovy, sardines and sprat, which are commonly used in aquaculture. Moreover, farmed fish aren’t the only species that rely on those small fish for food: the entire global marine ecosystem and coastal communities rely upon these species as well.
The demand for salmon
And it’s big business. Industry research estimates the price/ earnings to growth ratio (PEG) of the global aquaculture industry at about a US $175 billion market, is expected to grow to $225 billion by 2022. Salmon aquaculture alone accounts for 70 percent of that total and is the fastest growing food production system in the world, according to a recent report by Rabobank, entitled “100 billion-dollar baby: How aquaculture keeps growing.” However, the problem is that two-thirds of the world’s fish stocks today are either fished at their limit or over-fished, according to an analysis by the Bren School of Environmental Science and Earth Management at the University of California, Santa Barbara and the Environmental Defence Fund. Each year, 16 million metric tonnes of fish are caught solely to produce fishmeal and fish oil, with 80 percent of the fish oil going directly to aquaculture feeds. Demand is expected to continue to soar. Already today, half of the fish eaten by people comes from aquaculture; by 2030, it will top 62 percent, according to the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN. Fish production in 2016 reached a record high production level of 171 million metric tonnes for an also
record per capita global consumption of 20 kilograms. The UN reports that the “fisheries sector is crucial in meeting FAO’s goal of a world without hunger and malnutrition.”
Sustainable fish feed
Yet, experts agree that the importance of aquaculture to meet soaring human demand for healthy, balanced diets must not be at the expense of our oceans and marine ecosystems. That’s the challenge facing Veramaris, (a joint venture between DSM and Evonik) in creating a new technology to provide a highly sustainable source of EPA and DHA that doesn’t impact marine life and enables aquaculture to grow. What the joint venture between global multinationals DSM and Evonik has developed is a breakthrough innovation taking a natural marine algae that provides an alternative to the fish oil derived from wild caught fish and still gives farmed fish the essential omega-3 EPA and DHA fatty acids those fish need for health and growth. The use of Veramaris algal oil for farmed fish food not only helps to conserve marine life, but also offers a standardised way to regulate and determine the amount of omega-3 fatty acids that consumers get from farmed fish, especially salmon. Unfortunately, as salmon demand has grown, many fish farmers have had to lower the amount of fish oil fed to aquaculture salmon because of the finite quantity of this natural resource, resulting in an overall 50 percent decline in the omega-3 levels in the flesh of the salmon sold to consumers. Yet one of the reasons people are eating more and more salmon is for the health benefits of its high levels of omega-3 fatty acids. Long-chain fatty acids such as EPA and DHA have been shown to be beneficial for brain health and development as well as reducing risks in serious health conditions such as heart disease, cancer, eye disease and arthritis, as stated by the Seafood Nutrition Partnership. The American Heart Association and the HHS and USDA’s jointly published Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends eating two 3.5 oz. servings of fish per week. Veramaris is close to opening a $200 million zero-waste
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production facility in Blair, Nebraska, which uses state of the art fermentation technology to enable algae to convert sugar into an algal oil rich in both EPA and DHA fatty acids. The zero waste comes from the fact that the by-product— essentially an algae mash—can be fed to local beef livestock as a nutritious source of protein and other nutrients. By the time the plant opens, it is expected to be able to produce 15 percent of the salmon aquaculture demand for omega-3 EPA and DHA. By Veramaris’ estimate, that equates to 1.2 million metric tonnes of small “feeder” fish like anchovies and sprats. That’s more fish than what is available in the Mediterranean sea. While waiting on completion of its plant, Veramaris is already producing hundreds of tonnes of the oil at existing facilities in South Carolina and Slovakia as pilot materials for customers. “Everyone in the value chain is acutely aware of the dependence on marine ingredients,” explained Karim Kurmaly, Vermaris CEO. “They’re also well aware that to grow five percent or six percent per annum, they need a reliable sustainable source of EPA and DHA,” he said.
The need for traceability
A key part of that supply chain is food retailers who are already moving to more sustainable solutions across a variety of food products and want the same kinds of initiatives for salmon and other farmed fish. Many forward-looking retailers have already taken up certification programs that allow stickers to be put on food packages that promote various sustainable or responsible farming practices. Why? Because their customers, food consumers, increasingly want to know how and where their food is produced and what was it fed.
Veramaris algal oil is a premium product priced higher than competitive products in the market, separating itself from current market offerings. Produced on land, it is free from sea-borne contaminants. However, Kurmaly, who is also a marine biologist, said they’re getting over potential adoption hurdles by appealing to all stakeholders. They’re working to convince stakeholders to consider passing along the expense, which he said is a “negligible amount” of one-to-two percent total cost by initial retail partner estimates, in order to do the right thing for marine biodiversity and support the continued growth of the aquaculture industry. Kurmaly adds, “We also have a responsibility to provide leading farmers a solution to help reverse the decade long decline of omega 3 EPA DHA in salmon fillets and support them in their journey to become net protein producers.” “Aquaculture is a highly innovative industry and continuously strives to reinvent its practices to meet market & consumer demands. As someone said, there is no planet B. There is only planet A, and we’re on it. We are all committed to UN sustainability development goals and the bottom line in this, is that through collaboration across the value chain, we can help conserve marine biodiversity and enable the aquaculture industry to grow & be a net protein producer to meet global growth for protein,” Kurmaly said.
French retailer Supermarché Match launches sales of salmon fed with Veramaris’ algal oil - See the video at: http://bit.ly/Veramaris More information at: https://lingalaks.no/en https://skretting.com https://veramaris.com
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International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 31
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Tech update The XpertSea Growth Platform
Used in more than 400 facilities worldwide, the XpertSea Growth Platform is the leading farm management solution in the shrimp industry. The platform leverages artificial intelligence to help producers standardize data collection, track growth, improve animal health, and optimise harvest decisions. For the first time, farmers and suppliers have access to pond composition at any moment. They can also view animal images to detect early signs of diseases or deformities, generate optimised feed prescriptions based on real growth, and predict best harvest dates based on market prices. The XpertSea Growth Platform takes the guesswork out of shrimp farming operations. www.xpertsea.com International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 33
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Image 4: Young fish are susceptible to disease, but when carefully tended, they will eat well and grow quickly
Technology keeps catfish jumping and profits steady “Bear Creek Fisheries
specialises in fingerling production. Every June, Jones fills 100 ponds with young fish hatched by his brood stock”
by Helen Taylor, Content Manager, In-Situ Inc, USA Andy Jones compares the catfish industry to the jagged graph of a heartbeat displayed on an EKG machine. The peaks and valleys of that pulsating line are a vivid metaphor for the fluctuating fortunes of a seasonal business dependent on live animals and a dynamic market.
Jones is in a good position to make the connection. As a second-generation catfish farmer, he’s seen first-hand the highs that come with booming demand and the lows of a devastating fish kill. His father, Austin, started Bear Creek Fisheries in Moorhead, Mississippi, USA, in 1982, and after receiving his master’s degree in Agribusiness, Jones officially joined the family business he’d worked in since childhood. Image 2: The In-Situ Pond Buoy features a drift-resistant dissolved oxygen sensor, a That was more than a decade ago. Since then, Jones has continually sensor-cleaning system, a battery-powered looked for ways to protect the physical health of his stock and the transceiver for aerator control and solar power to recharge the battery economic health of his farm. And as one who’s never shied away from technology, he’s found that while manpower is important, advancements in automated pond management have put him ahead of the game.
Bear Creek Fisheries specialises in fingerling production. Every June, Jones fills 100 ponds with young fish hatched by his brood stock. They’re fed through the summer and fall until they’re six-to-eight inches long and then sold to as many as 200 food fish producers to raise until they’re ready to harvest in about a year’s time. Jones says they might raise 50-to-75 million fingerlings a season. At that volume some mortality is inevitable, but Jones shoots for at least a 75 percent survival rate. In a rough year, it’s been as low as 60 percent, and in his best year, 84 percent made it. That’s impressive when you consider the many threats young catfish face – namely oxygen depletion, disease and predation from birds. “Herons, egrets, pelicans, cormorants – the birds eat you alive,” says Jones. “But the biggest challenges are loss of electricity, which can cut out the aerators, and disease.” During the day, the fish thrive on oxygen produced through photosynthesis. But when the sun goes down and the temperature drops, oxygen levels fall, and it’s up to electric-powered aerators to agitate the water and keep them stable. An undetected electrical outage or equipment failure can be catastrophic. Oxygen monitoring is also critical to disease prevention. While Jones 34 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
wants to feed his fingerlings as much as possible, he doesn’t want to stress them out and make them sick. “These fish are like babies – susceptible to everything until they build up the antibodies they need to survive,” he says. “We’re feeding them as much as we can, but you don’t want them getting that Thanksgiving undo-your-pants feeling. If we can have the aerator kick on to keep the oxygen at 6.0 or 5.0, that keeps them feeling good, so they’ll want to eat the next day.” Catfish farmers typically rely on staff to continually monitor their ponds and make sure that aerators are running when they’re needed and turned off when they’re not. The time and cost to keep eyes on an operation the size of Bear Creek is huge, and one undetected outage can mean the loss of US $100,000 or more in a matter of a hours. Long hours and high risk are part of the job, but like any business owner trying to improve and expand, Jones was open to new ways of doing things.
That’s why he attended a seminar given by In-Situ Regional Sales Manager Chris Stevens, who also happens to be Jones’s neighbor. “Chris showed us this buoy system,” he says. “I thought it was pretty neat, but it was new to us, and even though I love technology, we weren’t sure we wanted to trust our entire business to a computer.” As an interim step, Jones proposed to his dad that they try the system on the ponds where they keep their brooders during the offseason. Stevens installed the buoys in six of those ponds and set it up so that Jones could view system activity on his phone.
Image 1: In-Situ buoy system monitors oxygen levels and temperature and automatically controls aerator operation
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Jones could tell right away that this was the way to go. “I could look at my phone and see that the system automatically cut the aerators off at 2.7, and meanwhile, the guys working the other ponds still hadn’t shut those aerators off, so we knew we were losing money,” he says. As soon as it was clear that the buoy system would deliver significant savings, Jones decided to put it into the whole operation. “That was in 2011, and we were the first fingerling producer to install it,” he says. It’s not a direct one-to-one ratio, but Jones now has about 90 buoys he moves around and runs constantly to monitor oxygen levels and operation of about 400 aerators. The system collects Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and temperature data, and a battery-powered radio transceiver transmits the information to a host PC, which can relay real-time data to any smartphone. A 10-watt solar panel mounted on the buoy recharges the battery, and a brush scrubs the DO sensor with cleanser from a dispenser to help keep readings accurate. The system tells the aerators when to turn on and off and manages amperage based on the amount of oxygen in the water. It also sends alerts if there’s a malfunction or power outage. As an early adopter, Jones has suggested a few tweaks to the system over the years, but he’s never thought twice about his choice to put it in.
Before he deployed the buoys, Jones had four employees driving pickup trucks around his ponds all night every night to check on aerators. Now he has two guys who watch their computers and respond when an alert tells them there’s a problem.
Image 3: Automated aerator control ensures aerators run when they’re needed and turn off when they’re not
“Before, we just weren’t protected,” he says. “A guy might ride to the first pond at eight and might not get back to it until two hours later. If an aerator went out 10 minutes after he left, those fish would be dead.” The system has paid for itself in savings on that score alone, and Jones appreciates the peace of mind that comes with knowing that he’s managing his stock as efficiently and effectively as possible. “It’s a tough business working with animals,” says Jones. “They don’t know about holidays and days off. It’s very time consuming,” he adds. “But I love it.” www.in-situ.com
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Rising from the ashes:
Camanchaca’s case A sudden eruption of the Calbuco volcano left a hatchery buried under 600 kg/m2 of ash and volcanic sand, leaving structural damage to the entire facility... but natural disasters don’t paralyse Chileans! by Franco Vera
Salmones Camanchaca’s hatchery in Ensenada, close to Petrohue river in southern Chile, was badly affected in April 2015 by a sudden eruption of the Calbuco volcano, which was inactive for more than 40 years. Today, it looks as if nothing had happened, and the brand-new facility has become again an example of state-of-the-art RAS technology. Salmones Camanchaca’s hatchery in Ensenada is located on the road that connects the towns of Ensenada and Ralun in the Los Lagos region of Chile. It is a global benchmark for recirculation technology, and the first to use this technology in early 2000´s and is among the largest in the world, producing 12 million smolts-per-annum. A visitor would never suspect that only four years ago, this land was fully covered by ashes from the bottom of the earth lifted by the neighboring volcano, Calbuco.
People working on the day of the eruption felt some slight tremors. Hugo Cajas, Camanchaca’s hatchery’s Head Officer, reported “initially nothing strange was felt, considering that Chile is a seismic country, however, we started to received photos from a distant town, displaying an impressive plume emerging from Volcano Calbuco. We started to realise the magnitude of the event”. Some employees went outside the hatchery to watch the neighboring volcano, located approximately 30 kilometers away, and noticed a gigantic mass of ashes and volcanic sand from the volcano’s explosions, which started to cover the facility completely. This ash plume was one of the largest ever recorded in Chile. Everyone followed the company’s strict safety protocols and left the plant. Hugo Cajas recalls; our foremost critical concern was
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
people’s security and ordered an immediate evacuation”. Once the evacuation was almost completed, we made sure that the equipment’s were left “on” to procure oxygenation to the baby fishes, aiming to protect as many as possible”. The extent of the damage became apparent over the next few days, as fish mortality reached around 50 percent. In only a few hours, 15 years of work at the plant was buried under 600 kg/m2 of ash and volcanic sand, resulting in structural damage to the entire facility, as well as broken ponds and troughs. Titanic rescue work managed to save around seven million fish, or one half, most of which were moved to other hatcheries using 250 trucks, while over one million smolts were taken to marine farm sites in 11 boats. This was a massive logistical challenge,
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
carried out in the middle of an unstable volcano activity. But natural disasters don’t paralyse Chileans. As soon as Camanchaca’s employees were able to return to the hatchery, the rebuilding mode was played out. Cajas said “we never thought of leaving the plant, were forced to do so, but as soon as authorities permitted, were back to manage the disaster and initiate the reconstruction”. Indeed, in December 2015, just a few months after the volcano Calbuco’s eruption, the first new fish eggs started to arrive at Camanchaca hatchery in Petrohue. And despite months of inactivity, no employee was laid off. Alvaro Poblete, Camanchaca‘s Farming Manager said, “our people are the backbone of our company, and the critical success factor to rebuild and reinitiate normal business activities”. This natural disaster required an investment of US $10 million, used to clean the land, removing over 30,000-tonnes of ash in 1,500 truckloads, and to relocate fishes. More than $15 million were used to rebuild the plant. The volcano’s eruption provided an opportunity to upgrade the recirculation technology and to bring it to a state-of-the-art level. New equipment included electronic monitoring, scanners for sexing, photoperiod for fish development, automatic feeders, robotic cleaning for the filtration area, acclimatisation units prior to transferring fish to the sea, and other technologies were added.
Greater automation was introduced to the plant, using the best supporting software. The latest sensors were introduced to monitor chemical-environmental parameters in the water, and new water treatment systems have been installed. In addition, civil structures were reinforced to provide better support in the event of new events, including excess of snow. Camanchaca obtained its fourth star in BAP (Best Aquaculture Practices) certification, from the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA), as a result of these innovations. Salmones Camanchaca is the only Chilean salmon company that trades on the Oslo Stock Exchange, the world’s largest seafood market. “The decision was very quickly taken to rebuild here in Ensenada, beside the Petrohue River, due to its exceptional underground water quality, its proximity to Puerto Montt, its inhabited environment, and its easy access” explained the General Manager, Manuel Arriagada. The plant uses only one-to-two percent of the water extracted from wells on land, and recirculates the remaining 98-99 percent, making it highly sustainable. Today, it looks as if nothing had happened in Petrohue, a global top-class water recirculation hatchery, with potential production of 14 million fish-per-year, with its resilient people and civil structure, enabling Camanchaca to successfully face potential disasters.
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International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 41
TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology July 2019 In our July Tech Showcase, we examine the latest innovations for fish farming technology, such as dissolved oxygen sensors, USB cameras and pump monitoring systems.
Xylem MAS 711 Pump Monitoring System The MAS 711 is a device that helps to lower the cost of existing pumping systems, protecting pumps from harmful conditions via the measuring of data. A warning is sounded before the water pump is stopped, and the solution enables users to take preventative measures before any outstanding problems can occur. The web tool feature also enables users to interact with the system via PC, tablet or smartphone, with an intuitive interface for fault tracing, trending statistics and an easy visual overview of the pump. www.xylem.com
Blue Robotics’ Low-Light HD USB Camera This digital HD USB camera has excellent lowlight performance, onboard compression, and a specially chosen lens to provide fantastic video quality on ROVs and other subsea applications. Based on the Sony IMX322 sensor, this camera uses a large sensor (1/2.9″) and a relatively low pixel count (2MP, 1080p), meaning that the physical pixel size is large to allow maximum light sensitivity. The camera also has an onboard H.264 compression chip so that all of the video compression is done onboard and doesn’t place much load on the main computer. Blue Robotics’ Low-Light HD USB Camera is a great addition for your ROV. www.bluerobotics.com
RBRcoda3 ODO The RBRcoda3 ODO is RS Aqua’s own innovative optical dissolved oxygen sensor for deep water applications. The device has a standard accuracy of 8 μmol/l but a power consumption of only 36 mJ/ sample. The device is available in three variants: moored, standard and profiling. The device has a depth rating of 6000 metres, with a supply voltage of between 7-15V and a RS232 interface. Its sampling rate is 24-hour-to1Hz. www.rsaqua.co.uk
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HOWCASE Crushing pellets to achieve sub-1mm feed can result in up to 45 percent off spec product loss In the competitive aquafeed industry, 45 percent off spec product can multiply many times over in lost revenue opportunity. There is a proven extrusion alternative that routinely delivers sub 1.0 mm feeds that are consistently shaped and within specification. An extrusion processing system from Extru-Tech can consistently provide fine feed. Key advantages include: • Advanced screw, knife and dies engineered exclusively for sub millimeter production • Elimination of re-processing heat damage and nutrition loss • Exclusive extrusion processing provides on-size yields Feed manufacturing can alter the digestibility of ingredients and change nutrient bioavailability. The benefits of Extru-Tech’s extrusion system include reducing pathogens and making it easier for small fish to access micro pellets they otherwise would not be able to consume. If you’re currently crushing larger pellets to achieve sub 1.0mm feed, eliminate the spec loss and make the investment in an Extru-Tech extrusion processing system. In the aquafeed business, you either sink or swim. www.extru-techinc.com
International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 43
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EXPERT TOPIC Grey mullet
Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new-emerging candidate fish species for the expansion of the European aquaculture industry – the DIVERSIFY project (EU FP7-GA603121)
by Constantinos C Mylonas, Project Coordinator and Kriton Grigorakis, New product development (HCMR, Greece), Hanna Rosenfeld, Reproduction & Genetics – Grey mullet leader (NCM-IOLR, Israel), William Koven, Nutrition and Larval & Grow out husbandry - Grey mullet leader (NCM-IOLR, Israel), Luis Guerrero, New product development leader (IRTA, Spain), Rocio Robles, Dissemination Leader (CTAQUA, Spain; actual affiliation Testing Blue SL, Spain)
nother one of the species included in the EU-funded DIVERSIFY project (see April issue of International Aquafeed), which ran between 2013 and 2018 was the Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) (See Figure 1). Farming of grey mullet has been practiced for centuries, but production of this potentially invaluable source of animal protein in Europe has been small and non-intensive (Nash & Koningsberg, 1981; Pillay, 1993). It is a euryhaline species, found throughout the world (Oren, 1981) and is a rapid-growing, omnivorous teleost that can be reared over the wide geographical and temperature range of the Mediterranean basin (Crosetti, 2015). Therefore, it can be an excellent candidate for the enhancement of aquaculture in earthen ponds, coastal lagoons, and deserted salinas that exist throughout the EU Mediterranean countries. During the autumn and winter months adults migrate to the sea in large aggregations to spawn. When juveniles are 16–20 mm, they migrate to inshore waters and estuaries, where they can be collected for farming operations during late August to early December. Most of the flathead grey mullet fry used in commercial aquaculture are collected from the wild, especially in the Eastern and Southern Mediterranean, Saudi Arabia and Gulf States and South East Asia. Cultured flathead grey mullet is generally grown semi-intensively in polyculture ponds that can include common carp, grass carp, silver carp, Nile tilapia, milkfish and European seabass. Although growth has been reported highest in lower salinity water, they can be successfully reared in fresh water, brackish water and sea water. Full-scale commercial production of grey mullet in monoculture is still in its infancy. Induced spawning and production of fry on a limited scale for aquaculture has been reported in Italy, Israel and Egypt. Hatchery produced juvenile females have been grown to 1.9 kg in two years on a fishmeal-containing pelleted feed. The development of a fishmeal-free feed will reduce the cost of fish production and will be more sustainable and environmentally friendly. This means grey mullet would be more acceptable to an increasingly aware consumer public that demands sustainability and lower environmental impact. Moreover, grey mullet aquaculture has the advantage of providing not only affordable whole fish and fillets, but also fish roe (bottarga), a high value product (>100€ kg-1), which market is expanding around the Mediterranean. Therefore, grey mullet has considerable economical potential as a species that provides an inexpensive source of sustainable, high quality protein, product diversification, and a value-added product such as bottarga. A market for grey mullet is well established in the Mediterranean where Egypt alone consumed more than 129,000 million tonnes (MT) in 2015 (Soliman et al 2015). In addition, the European market for grey mullet is likely to increase in the coming years, due to the demand from established and newly immigrant families originating from North Africa, Middle East and Asia. Currently, the industry is a capture-based aquaculture, relying almost exclusively on the capture of wild fry (ca 1,000,000,000). It
Figure 1: The grey mullet (Mugil cephalus)
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is now recognised that this approach severely reduces natural fisheries and is unsustainable where regulation of this practice is expected in the near future. However, the future growth of the grey mullet aquaculture is limited by a number of bottlenecks, which will be addressed in DIVERSIFY. Firstly, controlling the reproductive cycle and improving egg quality via broodstock management and nutrition is necessary not only for the production of robust larvae, Figure 2: A researcher at the National Center for Figure 3: Juvenile grey mullet but also for producing high value bottarga. Mariculture Eilat (Israel) obtains an ovarian biopsy to at the National Center for Secondly, development of a larval rearing protocol is assess reproductive maturation stage Mariculture Eilat (Israel) necessary to reduce early mortalities, size dispersion as well as increasing metamorphic synchrony, which will lead complete gametogenesis. In this respect, and within the framework to a supply of high-quality juveniles. Finally, development of a of DIVERSIFY, considerable progress was made by optimising sustainable, economical, fishmeal-free grow out feed is needed, hormonal treatments for alleviating reproductive dysfunctions among which would perform well under different environmental conditions captive grey mullet broodstocks. of temperature, pond type, and water quality, thus broadening the Bio-potent yeast (Pichia pastoris) produced recombinant geographical range of grey mullet aquaculture in Europe. gonadotropins (r-FSH and r-LH) that were used as therapeutic The DIVERSIFY project has addressed these important bottlenecks agents in a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. The best with a coordinated research effort in reproduction, larval nutrition performing treatment consisted of r-FSH and a dopamine antagonist and husbandry, and grow out of the species. The combination of (metoclopramide) that were co-injected during the onset of the biological, technological and socioeconomic research activities reproductive season. developed in DIVERSIFY are expected to support the diversification The latter treatment demonstrated synchronised gonadal of the EU aquaculture industry and help in expanding production, development within and between sexes, giving rise to stimulated increasing aquaculture products and development of new markets. spermatogenesis in males and follicle growth and maturation in females. Further spawning induction trials that timed the administration of GnRHa and metoclopramide with advanced stages Grey mullet in the DIVERSIFY Project: of gamete maturation were relatively successful (See Figure 2). A basic breeding unit, comprising a single female and three Reproduction males, was found to facilitate synchronisation and in turn increase Lacking the natural spawning environment, captive grey mullet fertilisation rate. Nevertheless, our results highlight an episodic fail to reproduce spontaneously, largely due to a failure to undergo
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www.almex.nl International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 45
fertilisation rate ranging between 0-to-98 percent and point to a future need to fine tune and optimise the hormone-based breeding protocol for Figure 4: Larval rearing facilities for captive grey mullet. experiments with grey mullet Broodstock diet containing fish oil (FO), which is relatively rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), positively affected hatching success and larvae survival. The established breeding protocol for captive grey mullet could be effectively applied during natural as well as artificially shifted spawning seasons. Over several consecutive spawning seasons, tens of millions of high-quality eggs were produced giving rise to mass production of robust fingerlings. A shipping protocol for grey mullet eggs was also established specifying the optimised conditions including egg developmental stage (gastrula) and packing density for short term (≤ 11 h) and long term (26 h) shipments. The assessment of the effects of captivity on first sexual maturity of wild-caught and hatchery-produced grey mullet indicated that: (1) the rearing conditions established allow for a growth rate equivalent to that of wild grey mullet from the Mediterranean Sea; (2) the reduction of the rearing density from 90-to-45 fish per m3 has no effect on grey mullet growth and sexual maturity and (3) hatchery-produced grey mullet have a good potential to develop ovaries spontaneously up to a condition useful for bottarga production. Furthermore, the effects of fish origin (wild vs. domesticated) and culture conditions on advanced and spontaneous development of gonads, which exhibit the required criteria of high quality bottarga (i.e. minimal size of 100g, bright yellowish color and chewy texture), were assessed. They indicated that (1) the traditional grey mullet farming procedure in freshwater ponds could be applicable, and also an advantage, for roe production; (2) Domestication appears to have a favorable effect on the spontaneous development of mullet ovaries characterised by a condition useful for bottarga production and (3) pigment-enriched diets can enhance the roe coloration to meet the criteria for high quality bottarga (roe). However, two stumbling blocks that may impair the profitability of grey mullet farming for bottarga production are (1) extended grow out to a minimum of three years and (2) relatively low percentages (2050%) of females developing ovaries at the appropriate size (≥ 100g). Future studies, therefore, should focus on genetic improvement programs giving rise to advanced sexual maturity and spontaneous ovarian development in captive grey mullet females.
The results suggest that grey mullet >89 dph grown in low salinity (15‰) have the capability to synthesise DHA from shorter carbon chain precursors while there is little or no biosynthesis of LC-PUFA in
fish exposed to high salinity (40‰). This follows as grey mullet juveniles in nature would be moving to the lower salinity waters of river mouths and estuaries, which are characterised by an environment less rich in LC-PUFA and more abundant in smaller chain PUFA precursors. Low salinity upregulated the gene expression of ∆6 desaturase, the rate-limiting enzyme of LC-PUFA biosynthesis) but was independent of DHA dietary level. On the other hand, both low salinity and DHA level upregulated the gene expression of elongase. The two transcription factors, sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) are involved in the regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis. Although both SREBP1 and PPAR expression were highest in 15‰ water, PPAR expression was inversely regulated by dietary DHA at both salinities, while SREBP1 was inversely regulated by DHA only in the low salinity. These findings suggest that dietary levels of DHA can be decreased when feeding older juvenile mullet (See Figure 3), provided that the salinity is reduced to levels found in estuarine waters. This would translate to a significant savings for farmers as the purchase of feed for the grow-out of fish to market weight can represent 60 percent of production costs and DHA is costly as a feed ingredient. The β-amino sulfonic acid taurine plays an array of critical roles that promote fish growth and survival. An increasing number of marine teleosts have demonstrated an essential dietary requirement for this nutrient as they lack the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSD), a key component in the taurine synthesis pathway. DIVERSIFY found that CSD is synthesised by juvenile grey mullet in the absence of dietary taurine and that the expression of this key gene increases with increased levels of dietary taurine until one percent where CSD expression decreases rapidly possibly due to a negative feedback mechanism. The increased taurine in the blood circulation of the liver, due to higher dietary taurine, may stimulate increased endogenous taurine synthesis within liver cells to reduce osmotic pressure across the membrane and prevent cell shrinkage and changes in intracellular hydro-mineral balance. Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7a1) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of bile salts and was not affected by increased levels of dietary taurine. This suggests that endogenous taurine synthesis was sufficient for bile salt synthesis. Taken together, it appears that grey mullet juveniles have the capacity for endogenous taurine synthesis that may be sufficient for cell volume homeostasis and bile salt production, but may fall short in optimising skeletal muscle function and growth, thereby requiring a minimum of 0.5 percent of taurine in the diet. In grey mullet broodstock the mobilisation of energy reserves in terms of lipids and proteins was quite similar between wild and captive mature females. Moreover, in fatty acids and fatty acid groups, there were no conspicuous differences, independent of age, between female gonads from domesticated and wild captive broodstock fed fish
Figure 5: Harvest of grey mullet for biomass monitoring during the pond trial (left). Grey mullet specimens during the sampling at the facilities of CTAQUA, Spain (right)
46 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
cells ml-1 of Nannochloropsis oculata or 0.023x106cells ml-1 of Isochrysis galbana, in terms of larval growth and survival. These microalgal concentrations, although differing between these species, both provided the same level of turbidity of 1.19 NTU. Turbidity is considered a factor that facilitates prey recognition and larval consumption by providing a contrasting background. On the other hand, further studies revealed that the dominant factor defining the benefit of algal tank supplementation was the Figure 6: Preparation of the grey mullet biochemical composition of filets for smoking (Ctaqua, Spain) the microalgae, which contain unidentified compounds common to both, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis oculata, that promote larval growth and survival. Although algal supplementation to the larval rearing tanks did not affect the ontogeny of brush border and pancreatic digestive enzymes, there were dramatic changes in enzyme activity as a function of age and the transition from strictly carnivorous larvae to omnivorous juveniles. Alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker for brush border absorption, was ca. eight times higher and α-amylase activity increased 5.3 times
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oil-based diets or broodstock fed soybean oil-based diets. This suggests a gonadal biosynthetic capability for biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from shorter chain precursors. Nevertheless, when comparing the FA and lipid class profiles between female and male gonads, there were highly marked differences. In female gonads, the TA, TAG, wax and sterol esters were higher compared to male gonads while the male gonads had higher quantities of the PL phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, as well as cholesterol compared to female gonads. Noteworthy were also the very high levels of DHA in the male gonads compared to the female gonads. Interestingly, the male gonads from the soybean-fed group were higher in DHA than the fish oil group despite the fact that soybean oil does not contain this essential fatty acid. The fish oil diet resulted in better egg hatchability, as well as larval tolerance of food deprivation and improved swim bladder inflation. These benefits may be due to another fish oil component, possibly carotenoids. Fish acceptability of the developed DIVERSIFY grey mullet diet appeared enhanced by replacing poultry meal with fish meal, suggesting that the inclusion of other nutrients may be necessary in order to maintain a fish meal free diet. The fatty acid profiles of the tissues generally resembled those of the diets. Feeding the developed diet resulted in fish displaying a more balanced lipid profile than fish fed the commercial carp diet. For instance, the fillets from the DIVERSIFY diet were poorer in 18:2n-6, but also exhibited a higher absolute content of n-3 LC PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, respectively). On the other hand, the female gonads, unlike the flesh, displayed a selective retention of the essential fatty acids EPA, DHA and arachidonic acid (ARA) independent of dietary regime. The surprisingly high levels of ARA in the tissues compared to the poor amount supplied by the diets highlights the physiological relevance of this FA in this species’ reproductive performance and suggests the potential capacity for its endogenous production from the 18:2n6 precursor. The sensorial analysis found no differences in selected sensory categories between the fish fed the carp diet and the DIVERSIFY diet. The use of excessive levels of soybean in fish diets can cause inflammatory responses in the distal intestinal epithelium, which affects fish health, reduces intestinal nutrient absorption and somatic growth. Inflammation is frequently associated with oxidative stress and the up regulation of the genes involved in the innate antioxidation system. In the DIVERSIFY studies, there was no indication of inflammation. In fact, digestive tract samples from all fish exhibited healthy tissue with no signs of disease and presumably oxidation stress. Although there was a significant improvement in the performance of fish fed the diet that included poultry meal instead of increased soybean meal, it was likely due to a taurine deficiency. Taken together, the results suggest that there is a significant improvement in grey mullet juvenile performance when using animal-based proteins, such as poultry meal, at about 13 percent DW diet. On the other hand, this advantage may be modulated by the supplementation of essential amino acids such as methionine and taurine.
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The studies on grey mullet larval husbandry (See Figure 4) determined that the most effective concentration of microalgae daily added to the larval rearing tanks of grey mullet was 0.4 x 106
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International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 47
Figure 7: Elaboration of the grey mullet in olive oil: filling of the glass jars with high quality olive oil prior to sterilization
in 79 dph mullet compared to 40 dph individuals. In addition, gut maturation occurred around 61 dph. The results suggest that aquaculture feeds at this developmental stage should include not only considerable protein but also higher levels of starch or other low-cost amylolytic energetic compounds compared to starter feeds fed to younger grey mullet or the juvenile stages of carnivorous species. From these studies, the clear benefits of microalgal addition at species-specific concentrations to the larval rearing tanks of grey mullet were shown. Further studies also highlighted that the use of lyophilised microalgae was just as effective as the use of live microalgae, in terms of tank turbidity as well as larval rotifer consumption, swim bladder inflation, growth and survival. Interestingly, the use of lyophilised microalgae enhanced the maturation of the intestine more rapidly in grey mullet fry, suggesting earlier weaning onto a dry prepared diet is possible, when using this dried alga. Taken together, the results of this study showed that using lyophilised algae would be a significant saving in time, labour and infrastructure and may have expressed a growth advantage in older fish and is recommended in the larva rearing of grey mullet. From these studies it was shown that juveniles are producing increasing amounts of amylase at the same time that protease activity is decreasing at an age when they are migrating to lower salinity estuarine waters. This begs the question whether weaning diets should be designed for a carnivorous, herbivorous or omnivorous mode of feeding. The results showed that fish performance was best, in terms of growth, survival, feed efficiency and gut maturation when fed an omnivorous diet. Furthermore, the high amylase and maltase activity in the omnivorous diet would provide glucose as an energy substrate, which could be protein sparing resulting in improved growth. These results continue to support the use of high carbohydrate-low protein diets to wean juvenile grey mullet, which would be more economical. The results of the larval studies were implemented in the development of a grey mullet larval rearing protocol, which was tested in six m3 semi-commercial V-tanks in Israel. In the 2017 season, 78,704 juveniles were produced as a result of the production protocols. This did not include the juveniles harvested for experimental tasks that year within the framework of DIVERSIFY. This meant that the entire juvenile production for 2017 was ca. 200,000 fish and survival was 20 percent from egg to 60 dph, which makes commercial juvenile production of grey mullet a reality.
Grow out husbandry
Fish meal substitution between 50 and 75 percent by a mixture of different plant protein sources (corn gluten, wheat gluten and soy protein concentrate) in wild grey mullet fry weaned onto compound diets did not affect good growth performance and survival. The proximate composition, pancreatic and intestinal enzyme activity confirm the capacity of this species to digest plant protein sources at early life stages. These results indicated that weaning diets for wild grey mullet harvested for restocking aquaculture ponds and on-growing may be formulated with a high level of fish meal replacement by alternative plant protein sources. Moreover, it seems plausible that fry of this species may accept and use satisfactorily compound diets with a complete fishmeal
substitution by plant protein sources. Diets with a 50 and 75 percent of fish meal replacement by plant protein sources were 15.5 and 23.6 percent less expensive than the fish meal diet, which is very relevant considering that feed costs account for >50 percent of the production costs in aquaculture production. Three separate experiments tested the effect of stocking grey mullet at different densities (4, 6, 10, 12, 29, 55 and 286 fish per m2) in a range of cement and polypropylene tanks. The results showed that increasing the fish stocking density above six fish per m2 can lead to decreased growth in an increasing segment of the population resulting in larger numbers of smaller fish. This may be a result of higher stress among cohorts from increasing competition for the same food sources. In future studies, the effect of increased ration size, use of extruded and not pelleted diets as well as the number of meals per day (simulate continuous feeding) will be employed. This should reduce the number of slower growing, smaller fish in the population and increase the efficiency of grow-out. The effect of different stocking densities during grow-out was tested in Greece (4 and 6 individuals per m2), Spain (0.5 and 1.0 fish per m2 , See Figure 5) and Israel (1 and 2 fish per m2). Generally, poor growth was reported in all countries with no significant effect of density or observed differences in proximate and fatty acid analyses. Spain did report a trend of improved growth and feed efficiency in the lower stocking density treatment, while this inclination was muted in the Greece and Israel trials. The generally poor performance of the grey mullet in the Greek, Spanish and Israeli trials can be due to a number of factors. Certainly, attempting to grow mullet in full strength seawater (40%), which was the case in the Israeli trial, is not going to deliver the best growth. This is because a significant amount of energy will be channeled into osmoregulation instead of building tissue. However, a major impediment is likely the extruded diet, which remains not sufficiently attractive to the fish as they appear to prefer the primary productivity of the pond to the more nutrient dense feed. Moreover, in earthen ponds the mullet are likely using sediment to aid mashing of the plant material in the gizzard for better digestion and absorption. In order to improve the feasibility of intensive monoculture of this species, the dietary formula of the current grey mullet feed must be improved.
Socioeconomics and new product development
Grey mullet is a fish species that is known only in limited areas of Europe. In the areas where pond aquaculture is a common practice, the species is well recognised by consumers and it is included in the local restaurants of the regions. Nowadays there is a new generation of chefs trying to promote the consumption of grey mullet due to the association of this species with pond culture in areas with high natural value and in some cases, using culture practices in accordance with the respect to the surrounding ecosystem. Grey mullet benefits from the high primary productivity and special features of this ecosystem. With regard to aspects of its final product features, the grey mullet has its own individualities. It is commonly sold as a whole in a range of sizes from 300g up to two kilogrammes. The bigger specimens are used to produce the product known as â&#x20AC;&#x153;bottargaâ&#x20AC;?, which is the salted and dried female roe. The species is well known, especially in Middle East countries
48 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
Figure 8: Prototypes of smoked grey mullet fillets (left), vacuum packed ready for consumption and ready-made fillets in olive oil (centre) and presentation of fillets in olive oil served with salad (right) (Ctaqua, Spain)
and North African communities. With the work developed in the DIVERSIFY project, the high filleting yield of the species has been confirmed (usually exceeding 40%), which is a very promising feature when considering filleting or further processing. The total proximate composition of the products developed (protein, lipid, moisture, inorganic and carbohydrates content), the energy contents of the selected products, the quantitative nutritional value in aspects of fatty acids and the sensory profile of each of them have been determined. As expected, processing had an effect on both the proximate composition and fatty quality of the products when compared to the raw fillet tissue. However, the effect depended on the processing method used as well as the inclusion of additional materials (such as olive oil) during the product formulation. The lipid content of the fillet ranges from <one percent up to 12 percent, depending on origin, farming conditions, and catching season. The fatty acid composition of grey mullet is typical for an euryhaline fish species. As with other fish species, grey mullet contains high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, although it contents depends on the dietary history of the fish. In absolute concentrations, the input that the consumer gets by consuming grey mullet is subjected to the total fillet lipid contents and therefore, it is also very variable. The omega3/omega6 ratio which is an important nutritional health
indicator exceeds the minimum-required ratio of two, therefore indicating a food with high health benefits. Concerning product development from the DIVERSIFY species, new product concepts, generated combining information of the market perceptions and the technical limitations and the economical prospect efficiencies, were submitted to a quantitative screening. For the grey mullet, smoked fillets and fillets in olive oil were the two prioritised products, both of them processed forms of medium degree of processing (See Figures 6 and 7). Final products used for the consumer tests are shown in Figure 8. Regarding sensory properties, grey mullet processed products exhibited unique sensory profiles. The processed products showed a more complex sensory profile, with more attributes than the unprocessed cooked fillet of the species. The developed characteristics of the processed products in their majority were connected to the added materials and/or the processing method. The sensory analysis of the two products created from grey mullet appear in Figure 9. The smoked grey mullet fillets are mainly characterised by a smoky aroma, salty taste and sardine flavour and a fibrousness texture. The grey mullet fillets in olive oil are characterised by salty and sardine aroma, canned tuna flavour, and a fibrous and secondary greasy texture. Finally, we evaluated the correlation between the fish dietary history (e.g. dietary fat and protein levels, fat sources, etc.) or other rearing
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International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 49
parameters (e.g. rearing system, temperature, or density) and the end-product quality. Results from DIVERSIFY indicated that filleting yields and protein contents did not seem to be influenced significantly by rearing and dietary histories at the grow out stage. In addition, basic information regarding the packaging of the food products, conservation conditions, preliminary product shelf life and consumer handling/cooking specifications were provided as well. The technical feasibility suggested that it was possible to produce these products at an industrial scale, which was corroborated by the presence of other similar products in the market. The results of the consumer test carried out with the fish products developed with grey mullet have shown the strong influence of having the product information in advance on the consumer acceptance degree. The two products prepared with grey mullet, grey mullet fillet preserved in olive oil and grey mullet smoked fillet showed an overall a good acceptance by consumers in all the countries participating in the test (Spain, Italy, Germany, UK and France). Market research has identified the market potential for grey mullet and indicated a low to medium market impact for the fish market and aquaculture market based on the relatively easy processing of this species and a few high-margin products that can be created. There is already market demand for bottarga and grey mullet in the Mediterranean basin countries, so market penetration can be done relatively easily by just emphasising that grey mullet is now available all over Europe. Buyers from supermarkets are always interested in new species that can increase their market share in specific buying segments. Grey mullet can be attractive as fresh and as frozen product. Fresh locally produced in the EU is for their retail margins much more attractive than frozen meat from another continent. In conclusion, the grey mullet is a very promising species in aspect of its end product quality. Besides the bottarga which is a
Figure 9: Results of descriptive sensory analysis on grey mullet products conducted by a panel of ten trained panellists. In the first spider-plot appear the aroma/taste attributes and in the second the flavour/ texture attributes
well-established market delicacy, grey mullet can be utilised for commercialisation of its nutritious flesh and additionally it can create additional highly accepted/valued processed forms. A technical production manual has been produced for grey mullet and can be downloaded from the project’s website at www. diversifyfish.eu. This 5-year-long project (2013-2018) has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE-2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY). The consortium includes 38 partners from 12 European countries –including 9 SMEs, 2 Large Enterprises, 5 professional associations and 1 Consumer NGO- and is coordinated by the Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Greece. Further information may be obtained from the project site at “www. diversifyfish.eu”.
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& WORLD LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE
Industry Events 2019
3-5 IndoLivestock 2019 Surabaya, Indonesia www.indolivestock.com 2019
25-26 Seagriculture 2019 Ostend, Belgium https://seagriculture.eu
August 20-23 AquaNor 2019 Trondheim, Norway www.aqua-nor.no
25-30 ☑ 26th Annual Practical Short Course on Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition and Feed Management Texas, USA www.perdc.tamu.edu A one-week Practical Short Course on Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition and Feed Management will be presented on August 25-30th, 2019 at Texas A&M University by staff, industry representative and consultants. This programme will cover information on designing new feed mills and selecting conveying, drying, grinding, conditioning and feed mixing equipment. Current practices for preparing full-fat soy meal processing; recycling fisheries by-products, raw material, extrusion of floating, sinking, and high fat feeds; spraying and coating fats, digests and preservatives; use of encapsulated ingredients and preparation of premixes, nutritional requirements of warn water fish and shrimp, feed managements and least cost formulation are reviewed. Practical demonstration of sinking, floating, and high fat aqua feed, are demonstrated on four major types of extruders (dry, interrupted flights, single and twin screw), using various shaping dies. Other demonstrations include: vacuum coating and lab analysis of the raw material for extrusion. Reservations are accepted on a first-come basis. 2019
September 4-5 Algae Tech Conference 2019 Madrid, Spain https://algaetech-conference.com 10-11 ☑ Aquaculture Innovation Europe 2019 London, UK https://aquaculture-innovation.com 10-13 SPACE 2019 Rennes, France http://uk.space.fr
18-19 Aquaculture NZ Conference 2019 Blenhiem, New Zealand www.aquaculture.org.nz/conference
☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event
October 7-10 Aquaculture Europe 2019 Berlin, Germany www.aquaeas.eu
17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA www.namamillers.org
26-28 TIFSS Taiwan www.taiwanfishery.com
The 5th Taiwan International Fisheries and Seafood Show (TIFSS) will take place at the Kaohsiung Exhibition Centre from September 26th to 28th, 2019. The planning of this year’s exhibition area will focus on three major themes - Eco and Smart Aquaculture, Cold Chain Management in Seafood Industry, and Fishing Tackle. Among them, Eco and Smart Aquaculture is the trend of active development of the aquaculture breeding market. Major countries including Japan, the United States, Norway, and China are actively researching and developing aquaculture fishery production and marketing technology and tools combined with smart systems, hoping to increase productivity and to enhance the quality of aquatic products. This year’s exhibitors will also showcase several innovative smart farming technologies and products, such as the Quadlink Aqualink Smart Aquaculture Application System and the Fu-Chen i-fish 4.0 System, hoping to combine smart technology to achieve better breeding benefits and become a close steward to farmers. Taiwan’s fishery industry has an annual output value of NT$100 billion and ranks 20th in the world. The industry has a competitive advantage and a high degree of customisation. Its export energy has potential, and the average annual intake of one person is 1.5 times that of the world average, making Taiwan one of the iconic markets in the fishery industry of the Asia-Pacific region. 31-2 Aquaculture Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan www.aquaculturetaiwan.com
20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica www.marevent.com 20-22 Sustainable Ocean Summit Paris, France https://sustainableoceansummit.org 52 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
February 9-12 Aquaculture America 2020 Hawaii, USA www.marevent.com
19-20 Aquafarm Venice, Italy www.aquafarm.show/en
One of the fastest-growing events for aquaculture, AquaFarm will once again return in 2020 for its fourth rendition. AquaFarm is dedicated to aquaculture and sustainable fishing and has become the reference event for operators of the entire supply chain, “from water to table”, from South Europe and the Mediterranean. The AquaFarm organisers are now in a dense series of meetings for present the new edition, scheduled for 19-20th February, Italy, again in collaboration with API and AMA, the two Italian reference associations of fish farmers. At the request of exhibitors and visitors, AquaFarm 2020 hosts a variety of new and enhanced features. Producers will host tasting opportunities in the ‘Fish and Shellfish Market’ and a business lounge dedicated to B2B meetings with industry buyers will also be present. The objective is to promote the knowledge of the Italian product from aquaculture and sustainable fishing in the chain of transformation, distribution, individual and collective catering. AquaFarm 2020 will again also play host to NovelFarm, an international exhibition-conference completely dedicated to innovation in agritech, including insights into aquaponics, integrated plant and aquatic species production and the circular economy.
6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conf Florida, USA www.afia.org
3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France https://algaeurope.org
21-24 ☑ Aqua Expo 2019 Guayaquil, Ecuador http://aquaexpoguayaquil.cna-ecuador.com
18-20 ILDEX Indonesia 2019 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com 19-21 VIV Qingdao 2019 Qingdao, China www.viv.net
March 24-26 VICTAM Asia 2020 Bangkok, Thailand https://victamasia.com
24-26 VIV health and nutrition Asia Bitec, Bangkok, Thailand www.viv.net14
April 7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia www.livestockmalaysia.com
THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.
More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.
An exhibit area of 16 Ha.
100 conferences over 4 days.
Free farm visits program.
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International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 55
VICTAM INTERNATIONAL 2019
ICTAM International 2019 took place at the KoelnMesse Hall 6 in the beautiful and historic city of Cologne, Germany, on June 12-14th. The show, which welcomed over 5,000 visitors, is run every four years. VICTAM is the world’s largest event for the animal feed processing industry. The large show hall hosted manufacturers from around the world, who brought their latest and greatest equipment to show off to interested buyers, as well as also hosting a variety of seminars and conferences.
For the first time ever, Aventus, Behn + Bates and Newtec Bag pelletising have exhibited together, to form a new team dedicated to the packaging of pet food and animal feed for the industry. Specialising in both FFS, as well as valve bags, the trio aim to expand their solutions for the aquaculture industry. Their compact, weatherproof and tearproof packaging features a variety of benefits for the feed industry and their success at VICTAM makes it clear that they have a very bright future in working together. The team also discussed their renewed focus on environmental sustainability and their aim to reduce their packaging bag size as much as they can. Each package is currently adjusted to accommodate the exact filling product, whilst bag seams are short and simple, yet very efficient and secure. www.aventus.global/index_en.html
The Animal Feed and Nutrition Awards
During VICTAM’s Network reception, International Aquafeed’s Publisher, roger Gilbert and Features Editor, Rebecca Sherratt were also very proud to present the Animal Feed and Nutrition Awards for the most innovative solutions that benefit the animal feed industry. Three awards were presented to companies that truly excelled in their creation of technology to help make the feed industry safer, more environmentally friendly and efficient.
Winner One: Geelen Counterflow’s Electric Dryer
For the category of ‘Environment’, Geelen Counterflow’s latest dryer took home the gold. With its ability to reduce energy consumption by up to 65 percent, as well as its complete removal of CO2 emissions, the Electric Dryer is an incredible innovation that truly shows that reliable and efficient machinery can also be energy efficient and environmentally responsible.
Winner Two: Van Aarsen’s Hot Start Steam Mixer
Van Aarsen’s Hot Start Steam Mixer was selected as the winner for the ‘Process’ category, and it is easy to see why this innovative solution won the award. The Hot Start Steam Mixer optimises feed safety by adding steam into the conditioning process.
The Fragola Continuous Mixer was Fragola’s main event on show Winner Three: Famsun’s SWFL170 at their booth, and the new mixer hosts a variety of new benefits for Vertical Pulveriser the consumer. Available in three models, the MCF5/20, 25 and 30, For the category ‘Aquaculture’, Famsun’s each one is perfectly designed for a variety of applications. The MCF5/20 is the smallest model, with a potential processing SWFL170 Vertical Pulveriser won the feed quantity of up to 30 tonnes-per-hour, whilst the largest model, the awards. The SWFL170 boasts a variety of new MCF5/30 can process up to 100 tonnes-per-hour. The MCF5/20 model also has an features, such as its alloy enhanced blade and engine power of 37kW, whilst the larger models have 45 and 55kW power respectively. new tooth-beating system. The device is able to This mixer is designed specially with molasses in mind but is suitable for a variety of seamlessly and efficiently help assist in making different liquids and oils to be distributed within powdered material such as meal. The optimal feed for aquatic species. innovative and particular shape of the shaft in the mixer allows for entry of liquids of As well as presenting various awards for the between 0.5-15 percent. Fragola ensured to emphasise that one of the best features of industry, our team also ensured to find out all their new continuous mixer is the low maintenance aspects of its design. about the latest innovations for the aquaculture The new continuous mixer’s robust and exceptional construction, as well as larger components mean inspecting the tank is much easier than when compared with other industry which were on show at VICTAM: models. The same can also be said of the shaft, which can be inspected and cleaned via special hatches. www.fragolaspa.com 56 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
VICTAM International was an especially busy event for Bühler, who held their media tour during the first day of the event. During the tour, various members of Bühler provided us with intriguing previews of how a variety of their latest innovations work. Patrick Guster of Bühler spoke on the various uses of Bühler Insights and the digital reports it generates via the Cloud, as well as its easy implementation with all Bühler solutions to create a fluid, working system. The highlight of the media tour was the following, much anticipated reveal of Bühler’s new solution. The excited crowd were up in applause as the curtains fell and Bühler’s PolyOne was revealed. The new single-screw extruder PolyOne serves both the aquafeed and pet food industries with its exemplary sanitation standards, modular design and enhanced workmanship. www.event.buhlergroup.com/polyone/ www.buhlergroup.com
Andritz were showcasing their latest single-screw extruder at VICTAM International: Extruder 1021, with CM 750 – SC 250. The undeniably very impressive machine boasts a high capacity, of between 2-12 tonnes-per-day. The 1021 processes materials especially efficiently, with its v-belt transmission, and is low-cost to maintain, with parts that are especially resistant to wear and breakage. When discussing the new features of the 1021, Andritz employees referred to its unique knife arrangement, due to is throw-away Stanley knife blades. Displacement pumps also control the liquid easily and there are multiple connections for both liquid and steam injections, as well as pressure and temperature measurements. Optional accessories are also available, such as a forced feeder, to ensure a consistent flow rate, as well as single and/or dual conditioners for optimum retention time and high mixing efficiency. https://www.andritz.com
International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 57
The Alltech Ideas Conference (one19)
by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing Editor, International Aquafeed n May, I attended my first Alltech Idea Ideas Conference (ONE19) in Lexington, Kentucky USA. First off, I have to say I was very impressed by three days of no-expense spared entertainment and seminars showcasing the very latest research in feeds. I was one of the 3,000 attendees from 70 countries who were bussed to various special events, beginning with a tour of Alltech’s stunning corporate headquarters and nutrigenomics research facility. (Alltech’s production facility is also located in Nicholasville, KY, but for food safety reasons could not be included in the tour.) I have worked in many different industries, but I have to say that Alltech’s HQ building was easily amongst the most impressive I’ve every visited. The love of science is a theme carried through campus statuary and even the building’s architecture and interior design, which includes double helix staircases. Alltech’s status as a major international company is reflected in the design of individual rooms, such as the South Africa room, which boasts objet d’art and paintings by South African artists. And as a reflection of the founder Dr Pearse Lyons’ Irish roots, the HQ even enjoys an authentic Irish pub (complete with a bar equipped with Guinness taps!) to host relaxing, after-hours meetings. Even more impressive is the fact that the company has grown from an 8,000 square foot facility back in the 1970s to this stunning, 200,000 square foot showpiece.
The plenary session
The first morning’s plenary session started with a bang, opening with a dazzling performance by iLuminate, a troupe of hip-hop dancers who lit up the darkened stage wearing LED equipped helmets and full body suits that strobed and flashed in rhythm to the music. With the audiences’ blood pumping, Alltech President, Dr Mark P Lyons PhD, took the stage to open the conference. If the conference had an overarching theme, it was how positivity in the face of adversity can overcome and accomplish amazing things.
This theme was later echoed by the conference’s three keynote speakers, who included Bear Grylls (the internationally-known adventurer/survivalist and television presenter), Chris Zook (Best-selling author of ‘The Founder’s Mentality’; Advisory Partner at Bain & Company) and Ramez Naam, co-chair, Energy ad Environment, Singularity University.
The Bear necessities
This year’ keynote speaker was Bear Grylls, Although his many television programmes have made him wealthy and famous, Bear shared with the audience many of the personal struggles he has faced in his life, including a serious injury after a failed parachute jump. Bear spoke about his four F’s: Failure, Fear, Fire, and Faith. The television personality explained that he has failed many times in his life, and those failures were never meaningless, because through them he learned much about himself. He related how, while serving in the British armed forces, he applied to join the elite Special Forces unit, the SAS (Special Air Service). The selection course for the SAS was extremely rigorous, and Bear failed on his first attempt. However, he was determined and reapplied to the course as soon as he was able. On his second attempt, Bear was successful and joined the elite regiment. Bear then equated his own life experiences and stressed that we have to face our Fear, and use our Fire (our will), and when that fails, draw from our Faith to see the task through. Those vital life lessons translate into our everyday lives, and a similar mindset is what we all need to embody to face the times at hand. Dr Lyons then joined Bear on stage, and in a moving speech, described how difficult his own life has been over the last year, first with the lost of his father and Alltech founder Dr Lyons, and then through the tragic loss of his sister. Dr Lyons stressed that, although we are living through turbulent times in which we must deal with challenges, such as a rising population. We face an urgent need to increase our food supply by one-third by 2050, while dealing with a worsening climate crisis. But despite these daunting challenges, the hopeful message
carried throughout the conference was how we can realise a potential future of abundance, made possible through the advent of new technologies, improved management practices, and the ingenuity inherent in the human spirit. As always, the Alltech event offered a tremendous opportunity for networking as like-minded peers from across the world shared new innovative ideas to spur advancement in the agribusiness industry. The focus sessions were split over two days. On Tuesday, the first day of the conference, the sessions were dedicated to terrestrial species: poultry, swine, ruminants (beef and dairy), equine, companion pets and crop science.
With many conferences going on at the same time, I was spoiled for choice and chose to divide my time between poultry, beef, and swine. One the Wednesday, the focus was exclusively on aqua feed.
Monday, May 20, one conference begins
The Monday focus sessions had plenty to choose from on a wide gamut of feed topics including beef, brewing and distilling, business, crop science, future of food, poultry, and pet. Spoiled for choice, I chose to attend a poultry session, a beef session, and a dairy session. The focus sessions were enormously interesting, as many were presented by those with PhDs who
went into great depth on a variety of innovative topics. As these often-involved information proprietary to Alltech, I cannot divulge any details. However, I can share general details. Many of the talks focused on the crucial importance of gut health to enable animals to achieve maximum performance and stressed disease prevention through an approach that stresses the use of probiotics and a unique cocktail of proteins and lipids. The Alltech Medal of Excellence was awarded to Dr Richard Murphy. Dr Murphy has been the Research Director at the Alltech European Bioscience Centre in Dunboyne, Ireland for 17 years. Dr Murphy was recognised for his pioneering work in the areas of organic trace element assimilation, microbial enzyme technology, and the mitigation of antimicrobial resistance in livestock production. Next Dr Lyons presented the Alltech Humanitarian Award, which went to keynote speaker Bear Grylls. The award is presented annually to a person of strong character who uses their platform to positively influence those around them. Grylls is also the youngest ever UK Chief Scout and the first ever Chief Ambassador to the World Scout Movement, representing a global family of some 50 million Scouts.
Closing Session Infinite Possibility: A World of Abundance
Ramez Naam, Co-Chair, Energy and Environment, Singularity University Ramez Naam was one of the final speakers at the two-day conference and gave a very positive and uplifting talk. In a world of climate change and limited resources, Naam explained
how technology is helping transform the planet into one of infinite possibility. For example, solar polar has experienced a 350X reduction in cost. At the same time the price of Lithium ion batteries have dropped 85 percent since 2010, and are on track to drop another three-to-five percent before 2030. He explained how solar and wind power are not only able to compete with fossil fuels, but are actually cheaper. As an example, in 2018 an Indiana utility company announced that it was now cheaper to build new solar and wind power plants than to operate existing coal plants. Water is another concern, but in recent times fresh water use has actually been declining in countries such as the United States. Naam’s solution for the way to deal with the limited resources of a finite planet is through infinite innovation.
Climate change is currently one of the biggest problems facing humanity and the focus of greenhouse gases. But even this has some potential solutions, including regenerative agriculture. Regenerative agriculture is a system of farming principles and practices that increases biodiversity, enriches soils, improves watersheds, and enhances ecosystem services. Regenerative Agriculture aims to capture carbon in soil and aboveground biomass, reversing current global trends of atmospheric accumulation.
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www.wynveen.com International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 61
Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com
Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz
Analysis IMAQUA +32 92 64 73 38 www.imaqua.eu Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx
TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com
STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com
Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com
Certification GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org
Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com
VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl
Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com
Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com
JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com
A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com
Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com
Coolers & driers
Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com
Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com
R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com
Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de
Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com
Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com
Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com
Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br
Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com
IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com
FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com
Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com
FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com
Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br
Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com
Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com
Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be
Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com
Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com
Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com
Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com
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Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng
Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com
APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com
Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com
Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com
PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com
SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt
Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com
Used around all industrial sectors.
Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu
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Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com
Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com
Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com
Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com
Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe
A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com
Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com
Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com
CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr
Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com
Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu
TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com
Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com
FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com
CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com
FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com
Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com
Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr
NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de
Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com
Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com
Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk
Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl
Second hand equipment
Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng
Probiotics Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com
Pulverizer (large fine) Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Roller Mill - vertical Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com
International Aquafeed - July 2019 | 63
Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services
Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk
Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Wet expansion machine Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr
the interview Sigve Nordrum, EVP Animal Health and Nutrition
I have been working in Aker BioMarine since 2007, with the aquaculture market as my focus. Specialising in sales, but also working with both research and development and marketing, both my educational and work background are anchored in aquaculture. Studying Animal Science at the Agricultural University in Norway, specialising in Fish Nutrition, I have a PhD in the digestive functions of fish. Working for seven years in BioMar’s R&D department, I then spent five years with the Norwegian Ministry of fisheries in the Science and Innovation department before joining Aker BioMarine.
How did you come to be involved in the aquaculture industry? Do you find this to be an especially rewarding industry?
I grew up spending many summers on a farm so that sparked my interest in animal science. During the studies, I found fish farming fascinating, thanks in no small part to the inspiring teachers we had at the university. I started specialising in aquaculture in the 80’s when it was still a small industry, it’s amazing to have seen it grow and still be a part of it.
Your company has a very rich history in the aquaculture industry, and you clearly also hold a great deal of passion for the industry. How would you recommend young people get involved in this rewarding, and in some ways not very well advertised, industry?
I believe aquaculture will most likely be at the forefront of one of the biggest challenges we face today, which is to produce enough food for a growing global population. We need to increase production but using approximately the same amount of resources and land area as we currently do today. Aquaculture has the potential to be a major part of any solution, however, we need to develop new ideas, new technologies and we must consistently improve and refine how we work today. To achieve this, it is essential that as an industry we can consistently attract creative, talented, motivated and hard-working people. We’re definitely getting there and at Aker BioMarine we are very active in promoting aquaculture and finding new ways to show the business leaders, scientists and operations experts of tomorrow what an exciting, dynamic and rewarding industry this is.
What exactly makes krill so unique and innovative as a premium feed product for aquatic and pet food?
Antarctic krill is a unique ingredient. Not only does it contain high quality nutrients like protein and fat, but the composition of those fats and proteins is also distinctive. For example, a significant part of its fat molecules are in the same form as fat integrated in cell membranes. Therefore, it can be an important tool in many feed formulations. Krill also contains high levels of the fatty acid EPAs which are bound to a phospholipid molecule, which gives krill some of its well-documented anti-inflammatory effects. The protein present in krill also contains essential amino acids, the components which contribute to making feed taste good for aquaculture species. So, adding some krill into a formulation can not only make the animal eat more and grow faster, but it can also enable a feed producer to use more alternative and novel feed ingredients.
What improvements do you think we will see in the upcoming years, that will help improve the feed industry- whether they be an alternative source of feed, or a new scientific breakthrough that could give feed a host of new benefits and refinements?
Many companies in the feed industry have invested significantly in ongoing science and research into aquaculture nutrition and feed technology. Because of this commitment I think we have seen a lot of improvements; however, I think we can also expect new applied knowledge coming out of these research centres. The long-term investment in research has also put these companies in a very good position, as key players in the future of the aquaculture industry.
There are also a lot of new and exciting things happening with feed ingredient suppliers, so I think we will see a lot of new opportunities for feed and nutrition innovation in the future.
How much of your research is aimed at improving the health of fish in an aquaculture environment? How is this achieved?
Aker BioMarine invests in scientific research focusing both on human and animal health. In addition, we can often bridge basic and pre-clinical scientific knowledge and knowledge from our human health programmes, with aquaculture health. For example, we focus a lot on the basic functions of omega-3 phospholipids and these functions are actually the same across many species. Omega-3 is recognised as important for maintaining a healthy heart in humans so it is important to see if we can use knowledge from our human research to improve the health of fish.
Aquaculture sometimes suffers from quite a negative public image. How does your company help to address the negative sustainability issues that aquaculture is suffering from, to help show the public that this is in fact a very sustainable, and beneficial industry?
Aker BioMarine’s mission is ‘Improving human and planetary health’. This commits us to think sustainability in everything we do. Fishing in some of the world's cleanest and most pristine waters, we work tirelessly to ensure our operations are as sustainable and low impact as possible. We are completely open and transparent with regards to our operations, working closely with national and international bodies that regulate the fishery. We work with the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and with various scientific bodies, along with several environmental NGOs.
How exactly does your technology such as your latest vessel, the Antarctic Endurance, make processes easier to carry out for your crew members?
Our latest vessel is the world’s first dedicated krill harvesting vessel. Meaning it is designed, constructed and equipped specifically for the job. This means it has been put together specifically with the crew and their daily tasks in mind. The new active rolling damping system from MRPC is the most obvious example. Reducing the impact conditions at sea have on the on-board processing factory and research laboratories, it enables the factory and lab teams to work safely, whatever the weather. The production plant from Optimar has also been specifically designed with the users and their work routines in mind. So along with better lighting, improved ventilation and reduced noise, the clean in process (CIP) system automatically cleans components and tanks in production area, meaning one less job for the crew.
Are there any environmental benefits associated with your unique formulation of fish feed/oil? Is it an especially sustainable solution?
Krill has many benefits. The product is MSC certified, meaning the krill fishery is operating at highest standards of environmental sustainability. The management of the fishery is closely regulated by the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), established in 1982 with the objective of conserving Antarctic marine life. With no artificial additives in the product, krill helps to keep fish healthy and interacts very well with alternative feed ingredients.
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THE INDUSTRY FACES
Brian McCawley new Senior Vice President of Sales at Alltech
rior to joining Alltech, Mr McCawley spent 15 years growing Big Dutchman’s business in the AsiaPacific region, with posts in Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. As Vice President of Sales for the region, he led Big Dutchman’s Asia-Pacific team through a period of tremendous growth. Then, while president of Big Dutchman’s operations in China, he built the country’s largest egg farm with three million layers and one million pullets on a single site.
Prior to joining Big Dutchman in 2002, Mr McCawley was International Sales Manager for HiredHand Manufacturing and American Coolair Corporation. He received his bachelor’s degree in Agricultural Operations from the University of Florida in 1992.
Sea Machines hire new Vice President of Sales and Marketing
ea Machines Robotics, a Boston-based developer of autonomous vessel technology, announced today that it has hired Don Black as Vice President of Sales and Marketing, reporting to Founder and CEO Michael G Johnson.
Having served as a senior executive for more than 25 years, Black brings to Sea Machines significant experience in strategy development, sales and marketing management, and product development.
“Don joins us in what is and will be a significant year in the development of this company,” said Johnson. “With his guidance, we will unquestionably prove to the industry, our investors and the public that Sea Machines autonomous technologies bring real value to commercial marine operators by way of increased capability, productivity, predictability and safety.”
AFIA’s John Stewart to take on new membership role
he American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) is pleased to announce that John Stewart, AFIA’s Manager of Government Affairs for the past two years, will transition to the newly created role of director of membership and stakeholder engagement in early May.
In this new position, Mr Stewart will be responsible for prospecting, attaining, retaining and servicing AFIA member companies. He will work with second-year AFIA Board of Directors to provide proactive leadership in the focus, design and implementation of the association’s membership program for all segments of membership; develop and continuously improve a system of involving members in the association; and retain members through recognition of the value they bring to AFIA. “John Stewart’s knowledge of how AFIA operates, the issues facing the animal food industry and the engagement opportunities in the legislative and regulatory process make him a great fit for this role,” said Sarah Novak, AFIA’s Vice President of Membership and Public Relations. “We are very excited for him to talk with current and potential members about getting more involved with AFIA.”
AllTech hires new Key Account Advisor
ike Osborne, the founder and former president of Nutra Blend, has joined Alltech as Key Account Advisor for North America. Based in Neosho, Missouri, he will be dedicated to furthering the growth of Alltech’s additive sales in North America. Shortly after graduating from Missouri Southern State University, Mr Osborne founded Nutra Blend, growing it into a US $1 billion premix business across the United States.
Mr Osborne was a member of the American Feed Industry Association’s Board of Directors for nine years and currently serves on the board for Stratum Nutrition, a nutraceutical business based on egg components. He looks forward to supporting Alltech in a time with “more opportunity than I have seen in 40 years” and considers it a privilege to play a role in continuing to help “produce good, sustainable food for the world.”
Daniel Jackson joins International Aquafeed’s editorial team
aniel Jackson has recently joined International Aquafeed as an Editorial Assistant based in our Cheltenham office. In this role he will be writing news items, features and assisting with the magazine’s editorial responsibilities and direction. He is looking forward to learning more about the industry and contributing to discussions about its future, around issues including growth, sustainability, technological innovations and the evolving demands the sector faces as a result of demographic change.
“I grew up around aquaculture because my father owned a tropical fish shop when I was growing up and is still a keen hobbyist. I’m excited to learn what happens in the industry at much larger scales!”
66 | July 2019 - International Aquafeed
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