FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
New-emerging candidate fish species
- Sophisticated feeds for RAS
International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 06 - June 2019
- B-neutral certification recommended for sustainable fish farming - Improving the growth performance of shrimp fed with low fish meal diet - Zeigler Feed Mill Licensee Programme See our archive and language editions on your mobile!
- Why is fish waste a profitable waste stream often overlooked by the industry? Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO
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This month I attended my first opportunity for networking as Alltech Ideas Conference (One like-minded peers from across the 19) in Lexington, Kentucky USA. world discover new ideas in the First off, I have to say I was very agribusiness industry. The focus impressed by three days of nosessions were split over two days. expense spared entertainment and On Tuesday, the first day of the seminars showcasing the very latest conference, the sessions were research in feeds. While there, I dedicated to terrestrial species: was one of the 3,000 attendees (yes, poultry, swine, ruminants (beef and really) who were bussed to various dairy), equine, companion pets and events including a tour of Alltech’s crop science. With many conferences stunning corporate headquarters going on at the same time, I was Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed and their research facility. spoiled for choice and chose to divide (Alltech’s production facility is also my time between poultry, beef, and located in Nicholasville, KY, but for swine. On the Wednesday, the focus food safety reasons could not be included in the tour). I was exclusively on aqua feed. Look for a complete have worked in many different industries, but I have to report in next month’s issue. say that Alltech’s HQ building was easily amongst the In this issue we continue our coverage of the five-year, most impressive I’ve ever visited. 1.8 Million Euro DIVERSIFY Project, which explored The love of science is a theme carried through campus the biological and socio-economic potential of six new statuary and even the building’s architecture, which and emerging candidate fish species for the expansion includes double helix staircases. Alltech’s status as a of the European aquaculture industry. This month’s major international company is reflected in the design featured species is Pikeperch. of individual rooms, such as the South Africa room, Aquaculture continues to see the rise of RAS, and this which boasts objet d’art and paintings by South African month we have a nutrition story about sophisticated artists. And as a reflection of the founder Dr Pearse feeds being formulated specifically for this application. Lyons’ Irish roots, the HQ even enjoys an authentic In an industry that stresses the need for sustainability, Irish pub (complete with a bar equipped with Guinness our article on fish waste as a profitable income stream taps!) to host relaxing, after-hours meetings. Even more shows some innovative thinking. And we also take impressive is the fact that the company has grown from an in-depth look at Zeigler’s ambitious feed mill an 8,000 square foot facility back in the 1970s to this licensee program, which allows an existing aquaculture stunning, 200,000 square foot showpiece. production facility to produce its own feed. I hope you As always, the Alltech event offers a tremendous enjoy the read.
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY (pellets, powders, all fluids), and offers Revolutionary breakthrough in industrial infinite, forward-compatible potential for tapware for feeding transfer combinations. It’s very easy to Startup Westair was present at the CFIA clean, too, allowing for a wide range of Food Industry Suppliers’ Exhibition in applications in food, pharmaceuticals, the ‘Food Factory of the Future’ section cosmetics, and other ‘clean’ industries. in March 2019, having been selected The Multiways® valve is the by development agency Bretagne cornerstone of our automated feeding Développement Innovation; the company process and as such is proving to be will also be present at Seafood Expo Global Henri Herledan highly successful, performing just in Brussels for the second time this coming CEO and Business Developer, Westair as advertised: delivering improved May. production, reduced feed loss, and more uniform distribution, Two years on from its creation, Westair has completed resulting in a large number of orders being placed in recent the first installation of its Multizone® automatic feeding months. system at the Monchel fish farm in Hauts de France, as well Rohart and Jorgensen in Hauts de France and Bellet near as presenting its innovations at the CFIA exhibition in the Angoulême are among the fish farms that have already chosen FoodTech village. Our Multiways® valve, currently in the our system, and we’ve had many other expressions of interest industrialisation phase, will soon be available for industrial since attending the World Aquaculture Society’s AQUA and food companies, together with Cleanpipe®, already tradeshow in Montpellier in August 2018. available with Multizone®. Before and after feeding, our Cleanpipe® cleaning system The distinctive feature of our fish feeding process is that scrapes feed distribution network and supply valves clean, it can be adjusted to each user. As well as delivering a removing fine feed dust and morning dew. This ensures the real technical step change, replicating the natural feeding pipework doesn’t become blocked or clogged, so the network procedure, it’s also been designed to be user-friendly and stays clean and hygienic. accessible: anyone can adapt it to suit their own production We’re planning to develop specific applications of this practices. solution for offshore fish farming and large-scale shrimp The Multiways® valve marks a genuine breakthrough in aquaculture. And once we’ve become better established in tapware. It’s a fully stainless steel, hygiene quality multi-way France, we’ll be losing no time in directing our attention valve, with very low head loss, that doesn’t damage pellets towards international markets. during transfer. Based on innovative, patented technology, it We employ ten people at our headquarters in Briec – and opens up the way for new industrial processes and improves plan to double our workforce within the next two years. existing ones by decreasing the amount of pipework needed. www.westair.fr The valve is suitable for the transfer of all types of product
ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY KRILL: The Antarctic Endurance: A pioneering feat of marine technology - page 36
SPECIES EXPERT TOPIC: Atlantic Halibut - page 46
SHRIMP: The shrimp feed sustainability conundrum - page 24
MONACO BLUE INITIATIVE: Ocean MPAs to become more inclusive for all stakeholders - page 26
NUTRITION & HEALTH breakfast menu. One of the privileges of being a Indeed, there are some interesting university professor is to travel on consortiums about in aquaculture business missions and these vary so within the UK and hence I find the much in purpose and duration. It is European and overseas opportunities always a pleasure, of course, to act much fairer and a more even playing as the chair of a PhD examination field with external (out of home committee and face a student country) assessors the name of the defending their thesis. game as it should be in the 21st I do my utmost to bring out the best in Professor Simon Davies Century. them and explain that we are all on a Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed Presently, I am quite attracted to the learning curve but at differing stages development of bacterial Single Cell of course. I am often amazed at the Proteins (SCPâ€™s) with a collaboration and potential funding innovation and knowledge these young students bring to the from a SME in England to convert organic waste streams science of fish nutrition and feed technology and I am assured using advanced engineering solutions and generate microbial that this next generation will secure the subject and enrich our biomass with a very good essential amino acid index. understanding whist raising the threshold of technology and Indeed, I could mention that I was one of the first to test a science. microbial SCP for fish using a tilapia model and published in As such, I write this editorial from Stirling to examine a 1989 in the journal Aquaculture. Of course, there are so many most interesting doctoral thesis concerning the use of insect other worthy ingredients in this category, and these include meal from Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae for use in tilapia algae and yeasts to name just a few. within an African context. The intention is to develop a Most are very good in terms of their nutritional profile and more economic insect-based diet for tilapia fry with high present a balanced essential amino acid score, but some, palatability to replace fishmeal and soybean meal in larval although marginally deficient, can be augmented with a feeds and emphasise the need for optimised diet for sex supplemental crystalline amino acid in the feed. reversal of tilapia with androgenic hormonal treatment. Feed formulation is versatile, and we can respond to the needs It was an interesting viva voce interaction and the student of individual fish when we have accurate information on defended his work well and with minor corrections in store nutrient requirements for each major phase of the production was able to meet the university regulations and gain a PhD in cycle. We must not lose sight of the research needed to due course. Then, I move on to Norway for a thesis defence address the fundamental nutrition and metabolism of fish and in Bergen to be the main opponent for a student working be aware of funding that only supports commercial products. on micronutrient requirements for Atlantic salmon with a We need both pathways if we are to advance our knowledge focus on trace element nutrition mainly zinc speciation and base. selenium. As I prepare to visit South Korea in mid-June to develop new Various forms were evaluated either inorganic or biolinks with a leading feed additive specialist with ambitions to complexed as well as chelated with interesting results expand their highly regarded product range into aquaculture obtained from classical in vivo fish trials and also using tissue markets, I can go with ease as my university teaching culture in vitro techniques. The investigation was a novel way commitments are contained and the summer is almost upon to assess bioavailability and to predict trace element function us, although the weather in Scotland is presently atrocious so to achieve efficient utilisation in contemporary salmon feed my feed supplement tonight will be haggis and small glass of formulations. the famous golden liquid of the Highlands! My trip to Norway is always received well and the academics Please enjoy this June edition and our full range of topical of the University of Bergen and the staff of the Institute of features, expert reports, news articles and informative Marine Research are so kind and hospitable to me. I love editorials in the section on feed, nutrition and health. Norway as fish and in particular salmon is always on the
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June 2019 Volume 22 Issue 06
IN THIS ISSUE
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
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COLUMNS 10 Roel Schoenmaker 14 Dr Neil Auchterlonie
48 Expert Topic - Pikeperch Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new/emerging candidate fish species for expansion of the European aquaculture industry (DIVERSIFY). DIVERSIFY have kindly teamed up with International Aquafeed magazine to provide us with the results of the research carried out on the six species of the project.
FEATURES 18 Sophisticated feeds for RAS 22 B-neutral certification recommended for sustainable fish farming 22 Improving the growth performance of shrimp fed with low fish meal diet 26 Time to turn up the heat in feed processing? 30 Iranâ€™s contribution to the global seafood market
THE BIG PICTURE B-neutral certification recommended for sustainable fish farming. CO2, along with other emissions, have changed and is still changing global climate irremediably. What is not still well known is that our ocean, coasts and lagoons provide a natural way of reducing the impact of greenhouse gases on our atmosphere, through sequestration (or sinking) of this carbon. See more on page 22
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 38 Zeigler Feed Mill Licensee Programme 44 Why is fish waste a profitable waste stream often overlooked by the industry?
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Winners of ‘Aquaculture Awards 2019’
he winners of this year’s Aquaculture Awards were revealed at a special dinner held in one of Edinburgh’s leading conference and gala dinner venues aptly named Dynamic Earth – which attracts visitors from around the world to a prestigious business meeting setting for innovative corporate functions in Scotland’s iconic capital. The event, hosted by Landward’s Arlene Stuart, marked the first time the awards were open to entrants outside the UK and organisers, 5m Publishing, were pleased by the geographical spread of those making the shortlists for the eight categories. “It’s fantastic to be able to highlight the achievements of such a diverse and dynamic range of projects, initiatives and individuals from across the world here in Scotland tonight,” said broadcaster and master of ceremonies for the evening, Arlene Stuart. First up was the Applied Research Breakthrough category, which was won by collaborative project
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that included input from Mowi, Scottish Sea Farms, the University of Stirling, BioMar and the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) and resulted in successfully closing the breeding cycle for captive ballan wrasse – which are increasingly used to pick sea lice off farmed salmon – for the first time. The Sustainability Award was presented to Norwegian company Bioretur, for its pioneering method that allows fish waste, a potential polluter, from indoor farming systems to be converted into valuable fuel and fertiliser. Hatch – the Bergen-based aquaculture accelerator which has helped to commercialise a number of cutting-edge, high tech aquaculture start-ups – won the International Impact Award, trumping a number of aquaculture heavyweights, including Veramaris, to claim the prize. Scottish Sea Farms pipped Panama-based Open Blue Sea Farms to the post to collect the Diversity Award, by making a compelling case that it had encouraged increasing numbers of women to reach senior roles in the company. Following much debate by the judges, the Animal Welfare award went to Marks & Spencer for their Welfare Outcome Measure Programme, which helps to improve the welfare of all farmed salmon, seabass, sea bream, shrimp and trout sourced by the UK retailer. Two prizes were given in the Most Promising New Entrant category – one for Manolin, whose data software is proving increasingly popular with salmon producers since its launch last year; the other to a person, Clara McGhee – a Mowi farm technician, based on Muck – who has helped to inspire her colleagues through her work on one of the world’s most challenging farm sites and the wider industry through her writing. The penultimate prize, the Technical Innovation award, went to XpertSea for their Growth Platform, which automates data collection and provides unprecedented insights so that shrimp farmers can make informed data-driven decisions and maximise profitability – it’s an invention that has been widely adopted by the shrimp sector in both Southeast Asia and the America’s since its launch in November. Finally the people’s choice category – in which the public were given the choice to vote for five nominees whose attitude and achievements in the last 12 months have been particularly inspirational – was presented to Richard Darbyshire, Scottish Sea Farms’ regional production manager in Orkney who was nominated for transforming the performance of the sites the company took over in 2008, as well as adding new ones and investing heavily in the local community. We are now very much looking forward to the 2020 Aquaculture Awards, which will take place at Aquaculture UK, in Aviemore, on 19-21 May.
8 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
Thailand’s shrimp Project chooses XpertSea as aquaculture data platform
Roel Schoenmaker Another success for Aquaculture without Frontiers
ith great pleasure I look back at VIV Asia 2019, the largest international trade show from Feed to Food in Asia that took place last March 1315th in Bangkok, Thailand. This booming exhibition - which reaches its visitor public far beyond South East Asia - provides a major platform offering opportunities to professionals in the animal protein industry. This includes aquaculture. Specifically, the production of fish and shrimp. For fish farmers, the Aquatic Pavilion at VIV Asia and, in general, the show floor already displays all innovations in the field of pharmaceuticals and feed ingredients and additives for fish and shrimp production. My plans for the future editions of VIV Asia are set to create additional space for displaying fish farming equipment such as aerators, nets, rubber ponds, recirculation systems, filters and pumps and more. All for building and managing modern aquaculture farms. My personal journey in the field of aquaculture has only been a little over three years. In this relatively short period, I have already seen entrepreneurs with great passion for creating sustainable innovations for this world. Their enthusiasm strengthens my commitment to bring the aquaculture sector further within VIV. It is satisfying to see what was already achieved in 2019 at VIV Asia with the third edition of Aquatic Asia. The conference ‘Aquatic Asia 2019’ was organised on the second day of VIV Asia thanks to a synergetic cooperation between VIV worldwide, International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology magazine and Progressus. Presenting a one-day conference programme featuring international experts in shrimpfarming nutrition and technology addressing quality, safety, the environment and new technologies. This event brought ten speakers - from academia and industry - together with a highly interested audience of over one hundred people to discuss the science, technology and commercial aspects of shrimp farming. The speakers presented a wide range of developments in this rapidly growing field. All speakers and organisers involved in the Aquatic Asia conference, already at its third edition in Bangkok, were proud to support the Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) foundation. The AwF Charity promotes and facilitates responsible and sustainable aquaculture, especially to help create jobs in under-developed markets. By supporting this charitable organisation, the aim is to alleviate poverty by improving livelihoods in these developing countries. In more detail, the charity has helped establish aquaculture training courses around the world, including places such as Thailand. AwF has provided small loans to help fish farmers in Nigeria. Projects are also continually taking place and the funds - generated by Aquatic conferences at VIV events around the globe - will help support ongoing projects, such as a fish disease management project in the Caribbean as well as providing students with oneyear loans to help further their studies in aquaculture at the Taiwan Ocean University. We are happy that this edition of the Aquatic Asia helped to raise 858 euros for the charity. The next edition of Aquatic Asia conference will be held during VIV Health & Nutrition Asia 2020 on January 16th at Bitec in Bangkok, followed by the Aquatic MEA conference during VIV MEA 2020 on March 10th in Abu Dhabi. On behalf of the organisation I look forward to welcoming you there.
Roel Schoenmaker is Senior Account Manager at VIV Worldwide: The business network linking professionals from Feed to Food. Within VIV, Roel is responsible for the development of the aquaculture programme at the VIV series of tradeshows. Academically, Roel holds a MSc in International Technology Management from the University of Groningen. 10 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
mproved collection and sharing of shrimp data using XpertSea technology aims to reduce the impact of diseases, a major threat to the sustainability of shrimp production and a major economic cost with billions of dollars in lost revenue and growth opportunities Thailand’s Shrimp Health Resources Improvement project (SHRImp), managed by the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership (SFP) in collaboration with IDH, the Sustainable Trade Initiative, has chosen XpertSea to deploy a collaborative farm solution to help manage production risks at multiple shrimp farms in Thailand. The project will use XpertSea’s industry-leading aquaculture management platform, the only commercially available hardware/ software solution that automatically captures shrimp size and weight using artificial intelligence and computer vision. The program objective is to develop data tools and interfaces that will enable farmers and industry managers to reduce disease outbreaks at individual farms and at the area-level through improved farm management and coordinated action. “Disease is the major threat to the sustainability of shrimp production and a major economic cost,” said AntonImmink, Aquaculture Program Director at the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership. “Past experience has shown how devastating the impact of disease outbreaks can be to the industry, costing billions of dollars in lost revenue and growth opportunities. XpertSea is the perfect partner to provide the tools and advice that will help farmers and link with other tools to help the industry as a whole reduce the potential impact of disease outbreaks, through systems built on improved data collected from, and used by, farms and management agencies.”
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BioMar eliminates cataracts in lumpfish with a new feed diet ataracts are unfortunately a common eye condition in lumpfish affecting at least 60 percent and as much 100 percent of fish with the average condition being a severe cataract level of >5 according to a recent study by BioMar. It also showed that the prevalence and severity increased with fish size. BioMar has now solved the challenges associated with diet-related cataracts in lumpfish with the launch of a new Symbio recipe. These Lumpfish Grower products will make a significant contribution to improving fish welfare and their lice-grazing efficiency. Cataracts is the clouding of the lens of the eye which reduces vision and in serious cases will lead to blindness. Lumpfish are visual lice grazers, and any impairment of their vision caused by sub-optimal nutrition will clearly reduce their health, welfare and performance. For lumpfish to be used effectively in controlling salmon lice biologically the cleaner fish must be healthy and alert. “Lumpfish with severe cataracts will have difficulty in identifying and consuming nutrients, including salmon lice. Also, a reduction in feed uptake can undermine the general health of the fish, increasing the risk of infectious disease”, said Elisabeth Aasum, Global R&D Health Manager, BioMar. Past studies of cataracts in lumpfish have identified nutritional imbalances with high levels of specific amino acids in certain tissues. In a recently-completed controlled feed study, BioMar found a high incidence of cataracts in lumpfish fed a control feed with a protein and fat content typical for marine cold-water species. The incidences ranged from 60 percent to 100 percent with an average cataract score of > 5, in other words a high incidence of
severe cataracts. Torunn Forberg the lead BioMar scientist on their new research project stated, “a balanced reduction in nutrient density was decisive in avoiding the eye disease. Moreover, during the study, the reduction in nutrients did not have any negative affect on normal growth rates, feed utilisation and survival rates for transfer sized fish at 50g.”
BioMar has now implemented this new knowledge in their Symbio, Lumpfish Grower range, which is not only designed to improve the nutritional status but now the eye health of lumpfish. The absence of nutritional related cataracts will increase the performance of these cleaner fish and enables improvements in a range of areas. In addition to a solid boost to the health and welfare of the fish, it is expected that the effectiveness of the new recipe will be measurable in the form of an enhanced delousing capability.
Innovation of sustainably sourced global feed production, The FEED-X Challenge
WF-founded enterprise Project X Global has opened the search for the next outstanding innovation to radically transform the global feed industry. In partnership with Skretting, Climate-KIC, WWF and IKEA, FEED-X is now at a key stage of accelerating innovations across the feed sector and is welcoming applications for sustainable feed innovations from entrepreneurs eager to commercialise their ideas. The goal of the FEED-X programme is to ensure that the global feed
industry can produce enough food to support the growing world population by shifting 10 percent of global feed production to sustainable sourcing from novel alternative solutions. It aims to do so by 2025 – through sourcing, testing, financing and scaling alternative feed ingredients and technologies that affect feed. The programme will focus on salmon and shrimp; two aquaculture species with wholly different feed requirements and industry structures. Project X has already hosted a category de-risking event where International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 11
experts from Harvard University, Wageningen University Research, and Utrecht University among others presented their key findings. FEED-X has lead partner support from one of the largest animal and aquaculture feed suppliers in the world – Nutreco, and its aquaculture division Skretting - which represent a significant share of the global feed market and €5.9 billion of purchasing power. The co-ordinated approach between organisations in the FEED-X programme will give entrepreneurs rare access to markets and allow them to commercialise their outstanding sustainable alternative feed solutions at scale.
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Ace Aquatec celebrates second Queen’s Award victory
cottish technology innovator Ace Aquatec is celebrating winning the Queen’s Award for Enterprise Innovation for the second year in a row. They’ve been recognised for the positive impact their Humane Stunner Universal invention is having on animal welfare across the global sea food industry. The device uses electricity to immediately render fish unconscious without removing them from the water – this reduces fish stress, improves fish quality, and can double the volume of fish farms can process per hour. Ace Aquatec are one of 201 winners across the UK in 2019 and have the rare achievement of being selected two years in a row for different innovations. Last year their Queen’s Award victory was based on the contribution their acoustic predator deterrents made to the Scottish economy, successfully reducing conflict between fish farmers and seals. The innovation behind this year’s success - the Humane Stunner Universal – is a fish processing system designed to reduce fish stress during the harvest process. The stunner works by using electricity to stun fish while still in the water, meaning they are immediately unconscious and unaware of anything that happens after that point. It took many years of development to perfect the technology, but because of that perseverance they’ve now patented the only in-water electric stunner that can immediately render fish unconscious without removing them from water and without harming the fish.
12 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
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development (R&D). In 2018, this amounted to CHF 145 million or 4.4 percent of turnover. The three-story CUBIC is designed to accommodate up to 300 people, and is, in itself, a model of sustainability and innovation. The building uses 15 percent less energy than comparable structures of its size. Its smart electrochromic glass facade was coated on equipment from Bühler Leybold Optics. This enables Bühler to slash energy consumption for heating and air-conditioning by as much as 50 percent. Building sensors measure carbon dioxide levels, air humidity, temperature, and flow of people to continuously fine-tune the functionality and energy consumption of the CUBIC. On the basis of this smart building concept, Bühler expects to be able to sustainably optimise the operation of the building. The CUBIC complies with the sustainability standards of Leed (Leadership in Energy and Environment Design), which certified the structure by awarding it a gold rating. In terms of its design concept, the new innovation campus is integrated into the Bühler site in Uzwil as the bridge that links the development, engineering, and design teams with the modernised Application Centres and the factory. Project teams from all Bühler business areas currently reside in the CUBIC. Many of them are developing digital solutions, including Bühler Insights, a cloud-based IoT platform for digital services, which was created in close partnership with Microsoft. About 20 percent International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 13
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fter a construction period of 20 months and an investment of about CHF 50 million, Bühler Group is officially opening its CUBIC innovation campus with eight Application Centres. “We are with this driving forward our strategy of innovation, training, and development,” says Stefan Scheiber, CEO of Bühler Group. “Together with our customers, partners from industry and science, academia, and start-ups, we are using the CUBIC to conduct research into new and sustainable solutions that we can apply to successful business ventures. And, we are taking a step forward here in providing modern training and development,” says Scheiber. The global challenges associated with nutrition and mobility are becoming increasingly urgent. How can we sustainably feed and provide mobility for a population of nearly 10 billion in 2050? Addressing these issues and responding to them with sustainable, commercially attractive solutions is the goal of the innovation campus. “This is our contribution to transforming the urgent global challenges of our time into solid business solutions together with customers, partners, academia, and start-ups,” says Stefan Scheiber, CEO of Bühler Group. “In this campus, we are also promoting new professional skills and competencies, modern learning and working methods, and collaborating with our partners.” Every year, the company invests a sum in the three-digit millions in research and
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Bühler opens its CUBIC innovation campus
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of the R&D budget went into the development of digital solutions in 2018. “The CUBIC campus will become the epicenter of our collaborative ecosystem,” says CTO Ian Roberts. “It embodies our innovation spirit and culture, where we will inspire, discuss, understand, and derive actions that will support us as an industry to create more sustainable value chains, while contributing to addressing the burning environmental and societal challenges of our time.” Vital elements of the new innovation campus are its eight modernised Application Centres. The ideas of customers and prototypes are tested in the Application Centres, where they are refined up to the point of market maturity. In the Pasta Application Center, the latest pasta is being developed, for example high-protein pasta containing flour from pulses or products with a proportion of microalgae. The Grain Technology Centre, at 3,000 square meters, is the world’s largest Grain Milling Application Centre. It also has its own Analytics Lab. Among other things, the Nutrition Application Centre develops textured vegetable proteins –alternatives for the growing number of flexitarians. Together with customers, the Bakery Innovation Centre develops wholesome, fresh bakery products. The CUBIC and the Application Centres will be presented to Bühler’s partners from industry and academia on the occasion of the Bühler Networking Days 2019. On August 26 and 27th, 2019, Bühler expects to welcome nearly 800 guests from process industries around the world to this event. www.buhlergroup.com
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Deep Trekker Inc opening new company office in Puerto Montt, Chile
Dr Neil Auchterlonie The growth of aquafeed
iscussion and debate over the development of the aquafeed sector in Asia, and in China in particular, has carried increasing emphasis over time but this year several meetings and conferences I have attended have served to boldly underline and highlight this message. The 6th GFFC on the future of food and feed in Bangkok, VIV Asia in March (which included a side-session on shrimp farming hosted by International Aquafeed), and recently the Global Aquaculture Forum in Guangzhou all indicated that this region is where the real growth in aquafeed development, and also aquaculture will come. The volumes of production that are being quoted (both currently, and as targets for strategic development), are numbers which are so large it is almost impossible to comprehend. A recent trip to China included a visit with a couple of colleagues from the IFFO Beijing office to an IFFO member, which as a feed company was describing current production volumes in the region of 10 million tonnes, with a plan for further growth! I mention this only to highlight the volumes that are reality in the sector in China. Although that was not a total aquafeed volume because it also included a proportion of pig and poultry feed, it is clearly a highly significant number. These are the sort of figures that will drive forward the global aquaculture industry and make it a continuing success for protein production through the 21st century, but they are not achieved without a great deal of hard work, strategic planning and technical knowledge. On the subject of the latter point, it was pleasing to have several detailed conversations about the importance of fishmeal as a key ingredient in aquafeeds. It is clear that Chinese producers regard the nutritional contribution of fishmeal as key to manufacturing nutritionally complete diets for aquaculture species. It is also clear that although fishmeal inclusion rates for species such as carps and tilapia are low, fishmeal is still important and the total volume of feed for these species makes the fishmeal contribution significant. Where some very interesting developments are likely to take place are within the production of new high value species, and the adoption of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) technology, as well as the commissioning of offshore aquaculture production facilities. All these developing scenarios require investment and focus in the production of high quality aquafeeds, feeds which will perform in markedly different aquatic environments and provide total nutrition for a range of new, often carnivorous, farmed fish species. IFFO itself hosted a workshop on fishmeal quality in Guangzhou, and what was very obvious was how the feed industry relies on the importance of this ingredient in manufacturing high quality aquafeeds. The presenters and delegates helped to provide an entertaining and informative session on why fishmeal is so highly regarded in China, and I can tell you that its future is secure in the market because those important nutritional qualities are widely recognised by those that sue the material on a daily basis, and whose livelihoods are dependent on it.
Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 14 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
eep Trekker Inc, a Canadian based global provider and manufacturer of portable and durable submersible Remote Operated Vehicles (ROVs), just announced that it has opened a new company office in Puerto Montt, Chile. The new office strengthens the Deep Trekker presence in Chile and will manage the distribution of Deep Trekker products and services to the Latin American market. Deep Trekker SpA will offer the company’s complete range of submersible products, technical support, training services and customer service. “For the past eight years Deep Trekker has experienced exceptional growth across the globe and we believe this success can be directly tied to developing products in close collaboration with our customers,” says Sam Macdonald, President, Deep Trekker. “Establishing a direct presence in Latin America will allow us to get even closer to our customers, and as a result, deliver innovative products based on the specific needs of the Latin American market.” “The team here in Chile is committed to growing the Deep Trekker brand through the delivery of high-quality, robust submersible ROVs and exceptional customer service,” says Cristian Aguilera, SpA Business Development Manager. “I am very excited to be part of the Deep Trekker family and look forward to supporting our unique customers.” The new office is a clear reflection of the company’s current state; a strong year of growth, successful development and expansion into Latin America. With the aquaculture industry in Chile being the third largest in the world, making up 12 percent of global production, Deep Trekker is committed to supporting aquaculture with purpose-built robots that will continue to address the small and large tasks from monitoring to inspection.
International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 15
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that will help consumers who are in search for healthy and wholesome ‘back to nature’ products that are also mindful of the environment. This is where insect meal can play a role. Insect meal is only one of the many innovative raw materials in BioMar’s pipeline. They are recipe creators and have other game changing ingredients that can be used in crafting innovative feed solutions. What is important here is the ability to identify the
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ioMar has completed the testing of insect meal in feeds for aquaculture and believe it shows promise as an alternative protein source. This is one among many other novel ingredients, like algae oil or single cell proteins, that BioMar has been investigating. BioMar believes these raw materials can address some of the needs of the market and are now eager to speed up their adoption through the creation of innovative feed solutions targeting the needs of seafood consumers. BioMar has been investigating insect meal since 2015 in their Research and Development centres and, from 2017, have been undertaking tests with customers who have been feeding their fish on diets containing insect meal. These fish have already made their way to supermarkets in Europe among retailers eager to implement future-oriented food solutions that focus on natural foods. Michel Autin, Technical Director at BioMar’s EMEA Division said, “innovation of course comes at a cost, but farmers who are the first movers with insect meal will benefit from a strong market position. Insect meal has a future as an alternative protein source in aquaculture feeds if the price of this new raw material can be kept at reasonable limits. We have good test results on insect meal originating from black soldier flies, mealworms and others, which makes it a promising raw material.” According to research undertaken by Deloitte, today’s consumers are looking for more than just price, taste and convenience when they are shopping. Consumers are seeking more natural food choices that have a minimal impact on nature. BioMar has the capabilities to offer innovative seafood solutions
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BioMar is creating feed solutions targeted towards consumers
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opportunities and consumer trends and the capability to craft the solution with the right combination of ingredients and technology knowhow.
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Calysta and Thai Union offer first taste of shrimp fed FeedKind protein
eading alternative protein producer Calysta has joined forces with seafood giant Thai Union Group PCL to offer the world its first taste of commercially farmed shrimp fed with protein produced from natural gas. Delegates at Seafood Expo Global in Brussels were offered pan-fried shrimp fed Calysta’s innovative and sustainable FeedKind® protein, which contains a unique carbon signature that can help the food industry provide traceability and integrity to its supply chain. As a sustainable alternative protein, FeedKind also enables shrimp farmers to increase their output to meet growing global demand without putting extra pressure on the planet’s resources, replacing fishmeal from wild fish specifically caught for protein in shrimp feed. Alan Shaw, PhD, President and CEO of Calysta, said, “Thai Union is one of the world’s largest seafood producers and, like us, they are committed to improving sustainability and traceability in the shrimp farming industry – making this partnership a significant moment for the seafood sector. “Calysta’s aim is to help create a future where the world’s growing population has guaranteed food security. By introducing a sustainable alternative protein that allows us to determine whether a shrimp was fed FeedKind protein with a simple test, FeedKind offers the industry a new
level of transparency.” The shrimp served at the Brussels expo were farmed on a feed using FeedKind protein and marine ingredients derived from Thai Union tuna by-products. Darian McBain, PhD, Global Director of Corporate Affairs and Sustainability at Thai Union, said, “Aquaculture is key to providing a sustainable form of protein for the growing global population. Ensuring that the feed inputs to aquaculture are sustainable, as well as the production methods, is vital. “In line with our SeaChange® sustainability strategy, Thai Union is always looking for innovative ways to bring greater traceability and more sustainable products to market. By working with FeedKind, we are able to offer shrimp that have been grown using feed that has completely replaced the fish caught for fishmeal in the feed with an innovative alternative protein. The fact that the protein has a unique
carbon signature that helps provide traceability and reduce seafood fraud are other significant benefits.” Fishing activities associated with the production of fishmeal for feed have been on occasion associated with unsustainable practices. For example, fish caught are sometimes illegal, unregulated and unreported (IUU), the fisheries may be unsustainably managed, or working conditions on vessels can lead to human rights abuses. By eliminating this proportion of the shrimp feed, in addition to making use of fully traceable tuna byproducts, a leap forward in sustainable shrimp production has been made. Calysta’s FeedKind is made via a patented natural-gas fermentation platform. Made using very little land and water by fermenting natural gas, an abundant source of energy, it is a safe, nutritious, traceable and price competitive protein which has been commercially validated through extensive trials.
Algenuity’s Chlorella Colours platform launched at Vitafoods Europe K algal specialists Algenuity recently launched its ground-breaking Chlorella Colours platform to the food sector at Vitafoods Europe 2019 May 7-9th in Geneva, Switzerland. The patent-pending Chlorella Colours platform is based on Chlorella vulgaris and is derived from Algenuity’s own proprietary, high-performing microalgal strain. The platform is approved for the European food market and satisfies the needs of the growing vegan sector, offering protein-rich, whole plant cell-based ingredients, which are sustainable, natural, gluten free and non-GM. Improved organoleptic properties make it perfect as an ingredient in food, drink and supplement products. The application of Chlorella
vulgaris for food is well-established, but it can be a challenging ingredient to work with because of the strong colour, taste and smell associated with its high chlorophyll content. The Chlorella Colours strains were developed to contain almost no chlorophyll and instead, retain varying levels of natural pigments, such as lutein and other carotenoids, resulting in yellow, lime and white colour varieties with greatly-improved organoleptics. Furthermore, these alternatives are highly productive under heterotrophic growth, overcoming the economic and operational challenges of producing phototrophic microalgae at scale, supporting its use in the food market, and opening up a wealth of additional applications.
16 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
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Sophisticated feeds for RAS by Dr Robert Tillner, Product Manager, Aller Aqua Group
arming fish in increasingly sophisticated Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) has gained popularity across the globe. Whether RAS are built from scratch or existing fish farms have converted to RAS technology – fish produced in RAS represent a steadily growing volume of the total aquaculture production volume. One of the reasons is that the control measures in RAS technology allow for fish production under constant environmental conditions. This accurate optimisation between water parameters and fish biomass requires external factors to seamlessly integrate into this equilibrium. In this respect, feed is the most influential external factor in RAS and needs to provide the following benefits from a farmers’ point of view: • High feed efficiency • Optimal water quality • High fish growth Consequently, feeds for RAS need to target the specific requirements of this highly sophisticated and complex production technology by taking the following features to a new level: • • • • •
Nutrient digestibility and palatability Faeces quality Fish metabolism and DP:DE ratio Technical quality of the feed Feed functionality
Nutrient digestibility and palatability In RAS, feeds with high nutrient density can unleash their full potential if the nutrients are readily available for fish metabolism and growth. The gross energy level is therefore not a useful indicator as nutrients get lost via faecal excretion. In contrast, the digestible nutrient content of raw materials indicates the nutrients retained in the fish body after nondigestible energy has been lost in the faeces. Thus, assessing nutrient digestibility of each raw material is the groundwork for any feed of stable quality. Nevertheless, for accurate determination of nutrient digestibility the following obstacles need to be considered: Raw materials differ in nutrient composition: obviously, fish
meal and wheat differ in nutrient composition. But fish meal also varies in composition between different types of fish meal as well as within the same type. These differences in nutrient composition within a raw material need to be accounted for in the same way as between different raw materials like fish meal and wheat. This is required to provide the necessary accuracy when determining the nutrient digestibility of each raw material. Raw materials differ in nutrient digestibility: the nutrients from raw materials vary in digestibility. This is due to the nature of each raw material as well as the processing conditions and processing grade. Consequently, raw materials need to be evaluated in accordance to exact origin and season. This means that determining the nutrient digestibility of each raw material just once is not enough because of seasonal variations of raw materials as well as changes in processing conditions. Fish life stage and environmental factors affect feed nutrient digestibility: the digestive system of fish fry is not fully developed in many species when they start feeding. As fish mature so does their digestive system in terms of morphology and enzymatic capacity to digest feed. Therefore, fish show different digestive capacity to digest raw materials according to their life stage. In addition, environmental
Relative water turbidity in four decoupled tanks with four different feed test batches eight hours after the water circulation has been turned off to fine-tune feeds towards lower water turbidity (values are in % compared to respective control at time 0, control=100%).
18 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
conditions determine the capacity of fish to digest different raw materials. Especially water temperature largely influences raw material digestibility in fish and needs to be taken into consideration in feed formulation to obtain evenly digestible feeds at varying water temperatures. Taking these obstacles into account, the determination of nutrient digestibility of raw materials for different life stages under varying environmental conditions and subsequent feed formulation results in high and constant performance.
Left: Difference in declared versus digestible protein content between batches in conventional feed formulation. The feed is formulated based on a fixed protein level which results in variable digestible protein contents between batches and variable performance on the farm. Right: Feed formulation based on a fixed digestible protein content between batches which results in variable declared protein content, but constant performance on the farm.
Nutrient digestibility and palatability play an essential role but are not enough to develop an optimal feed for RAS. The physical quality of fish faeces largely influences the water quality in RAS and is mainly dependent on the feed the fish has eaten. Consequently, low stability and weight of faeces dramatically reduces the efficient removal by mechanical cleaning units, such as drum filters in RAS. As small faeces particles become smaller and more and more suspended, they are not removed by the drum filter but accumulate in the water and are carried into the biofilter. Here, the faeces particles become substrate for undesired bacterial growth. Eventually, the efficiency of the biofilter drops and potentially toxic nitrite levels in the water rise. Consequently, the RAS becomes biologically unstable which in turn negatively affects fish growth by unfavourable environmental conditions.
Balancing nutrient digestibility of raw materials and faeces quality to ensure shaped and compact faeces particles will allow effective removal and the lowest possible impact of suspended matter on fish environment and filtration technology.
Fish metabolism and DP:DE ratio
Knowledge about nutrient digestibility of raw materials and their effects on faeces quality are necessary and powerful tools to formulate stable quality feeds. These tools are applied to determine the exact amount of nutrients required by fish of different life stages for optimal growth and the optimal ratio of digestible protein to digestible energy (DP:DE). The optimal ratio between digestible protein and digestible energy allows for minimal waste of feed protein, mainly in the form of ammonia and urea, and at the same time allows
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the optimal usage of precious feed protein for fish growth. Consequently, lowest possible excretion of nitrogen into the water positively affects water quality and the dimensioning and loading of the biofilter. The equation is simple: better water quality equals better fish growth and health.
Structure for stability
The ideal feed formulation must allow the production of a feed with physical characteristics matching the high standards of RAS: Low dust: Lowest possible dust levels in the feed increase water quality and biofilter efficiency Low leaching: While leaching of nutrients from the pellets may serve as attraction for the fish, this effect needs to be optimised in order to ensure the delivery of precious nutrients into the fish High stability: The feed needs to be robust enough to withstand transport, storage and automatic feeding systems with air pressure. At the same time the feed needs a certain level of plasticity to absorb impacts from handling Optimal density and smooth surface: A smooth feed surface reduces the amount of breaking off fines to a minimum, but also impacts feed sinking speed. However, the feed should not sink too fast, because most fish tend to eat in the upper part of the water body. The demands towards nutritional and physical feed quality are unquestionably high. Realising these demands in feed production is a result of dedicated trials, but also decades of experience on how to reach the desired target with big scale machinery. Upgrades in factory equipment parallel the development of RAS and allow for production of physical feed quality matching the most sophisticated demands.
The previous passages described the nutritional and physical characteristics that are defined and implemented in a feed for RAS. Both are important in the development of a feed for RAS, but the highest demands go beyond nutrition and physical quality. Feed functionality targets ways of supporting RAS by direct effects of the feed that are neither of nutritional nor of physical nature: From laboratory experiments direct effects of special feed ingredients on water ammonia and nitrite levels have been investigated and the feeds have been optimised to reduce the contents of these potentially detrimental compounds and to relieve the biofilter Bioactive components have been evaluated to shift the intestinal microbiome towards an improved gut flora and metabolic processes for enhanced fish health and sustainable performance.
Introducing Aller Aqua’s POWERRAS concept
The abovementioned features have been optimised through continuous research and trials, and now match the sophisticated demands for feed for RAS. Ultimately, the features create benefits for the farmer in terms of feed efficiency, water quality and fish growth. These findings jointly represent the latest addition of RASoptimised feed technology by Aller Aqua’s new POWERRAS concept, which is the culmination of efforts and sophistication in feed development over the last couple of years. Aller Aqua Research has closely followed the increasing sophistication of RAS in order to be able to match the latest requirements by RAS farmers. www.aller-aqua.com
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20 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
B-neutral certification recommended for sustainable fish farming
by Giulia Granato and Mauro Doimi, Marine biologists, D&D Consulting, Italy
ost of human activities emit carbon dioxide (CO2), which contains atmospheric carbon. CO2, along with other emissions, have changed and is still changing global climate irremediably. What is not still well known is that our ocean, coasts and lagoons provide a natural way of reducing the impact of greenhouse gases on our atmosphere, through sequestration (or sinking) of this carbon. 83 percent of the global carbon cycle is circulated through the ocean. Coastal habitats cover less than two percent of the total ocean area, but account for approximately 50 percent of the total carbon sequestered in ocean sediments. The term used for carbon captured by marine ecosystems is called “Blue carbon”. Carbon is taken by living organisms that store it in an organic form, like mud sediments or for building clam shells. Mangroves, salt marshes and seagrass “capture and hold” large quantities of carbon, acting as something called a “blue carbon sink”. Fish farming is directly involved in the carbon cycle and can be positive in emissions or negative in the sink. Extensive aquaculture made in wetlands or in brackish lagoons proved to be an efficient blue carbon sink. These ecosystems, strongly autotrophic, fix carbon dioxide photo-synthetically as organic matter and the excess of the CO2 is
respired back by biota, thus removing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it below the ground. The CO2 cycle is complex and begins from its capture in the water by atmosphere and photosynthesis due to the macro-micro algae. The CO2 reacts with carbonate alkalinity in the brackish water and precipitates on the bottom. Moreover, the CO2 is captured by the mud due to the denitrification process and the chemical linkage with the cations and clay. It has been shown that the biomass production in brackish lagoons is higher than other blue ecosystems, like lakes or rivers, sequestering carbon at a much faster and bigger rate. Consequently, aquaculture in brackish lagoons plays a doubly important role: these ecosystems sequester tonnes of blue carbon and produce fish in a sustainable and organic way, whilst ensuring the conservation of the natural habitat. Fish are kept wild and live in perfect balance inside the lagoon food chain. Extensive aquaculture produces less negative ecological impacts on the environment: to the contrary other methods of fish farming like offshore cages produce organic waste, such as fish sewage, and do not remove it. Therefore, it is urgent to encourage every sustainable system that can mitigate climate change to protect the habitat which has a low “carbon footprint”. Fish farms in lagoons should be incorporated into the carbon market through the method of buying and selling carbon credit international called “carbon offsets”. A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide made in order
22 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
to compensate for emissions made elsewhere. From Kyoto’s protocol to the most recent Climate Change Conferences (COP24 in Katowice), our carbon footprint is highlighted as the main indicator of the evaluation of environmental impact. There are three certifications for fish production identified worldwide: Friend of the Sea, the Marine Stewardship Council and Organic. These accreditations include references on environmental sustainability but they lack objective measurement methods. Instead, the new certification “BNeutral” follows the main climate change guidelines and reveals itself to be the most effective standard of the assessment of actual fish sustainability. BNeutral is a standard that proves the effective sustainability of fish farms in relation to climate exchange. This calculation is voluntary and it is validated by BIOS s.r.l., an international independent control and certification body based in Italy that operates in the voluntary market of the carbon economy.
There are three possible actions inside the standard: In the first action, the “Blue Carbon Footprint” (BCF) of every product or process is calculated. The identified BCF must be reduced by the farm following the BNeutral standard, generally using solar and wind energy to do so The second action sees the farm that can neutralise the carbon emissions acquiring carbon credits by the carbon market, and the emissions must be balanced by the credits. The farm obtains a label that proves the Total Carbon Neutrality (Carbon zero) of its processes and products In the third action, the emission sink is traded into ‘blue carbon credits’ that can be bought from other companies and the money revenue can be used to maintain the farm itself. Now, fish and mollusc commercial production can be considered sustainable in relation to carbon footprints and companies can get a new product qualification that fit the guidelines of the COP24. BNeutral labelled fish farms can be valorised and their marketing protected by the other fish farm productions. So, why is it so important to combine aquaculture with the carbon market? First, this approach creates a financial incentive for restoration and conservation projects for our lagoons and marshes that are being lost at a high rate. Furthermore, carbon footprint credits can help sustainable aquaculture farms to gain profit from improved environmental control in terms of carbon CO2 sink, in addition to neutralising greenhouse gases. If less carbon dioxide is emitted, less pollution is created and it is less taxed, generating a positive effect on the global community. www.certbios.it www.bneutral.eu www.ded-consulting.eu
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International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 23
Improving the growth performance of shrimp fed with low fish meal diet
T Phileo by Lesaffre
he increasing price of fish meal and its reduced availability have pushed the aquaculture industry to develop new feed formulations with plant-based ingredients replacing a significant proportion of fish meal content. Although vegetable sources like soy, rapeseed, and sunflower, are high in protein content, they present several pitfalls that hinder shrimp production. The main drawback of plant-based protein sources is the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs), like proteinase inhibitors and tannins, among others, that have not been inactivated during feed processing. ANFs are molecules naturally produced by plants and shaped
Figure 1- Final body weight of Whiteleg shrimp after nine weeks of feeding (initial body weight: 1.04g). Shrimp were divided into five experimental treatments and fed with different feed formulations (4 tanks per treatment, 20 juveniles per tank, 200L tanks): 15 percent fish meal diet, five percent fish meal diet, and five percent fish meal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.5 or 2.5 percent ProsafÂŽ feed additive
by evolution to deter predators. When ingested in small amounts, such molecules affect feed digestibility, thereby reducing feed efficiency and growth performance, and when ingested in large amounts, they can even become toxic. Plant-based ingredients also show negative consequences for the feeding process. Particularly, shrimp fed diets with plantbased ingredients often show a slower and less efficient feeding process. This leads to the loss of nutrients through leaching into the water which, in turn, increases feed conversion ratios (FCR) and decreases nutrient availability, and thereby ultimately reducing shrimp growth performances. For all of the above reasons, the shrimp aquaculture industry is facing a pressing need for new feed formulations that allow to reduce fish meal in feed without impairing shrimp growth performance. ProsafÂŽ, a premium yeast extract developed by
Figure 2- FCR of Whiteleg shrimp measured after nine weeks of feeding (initial body weight: 1.04 g). Shrimp were divided into five experimental treatments and fed with different feed formulations (4 tanks per treatment, 20 juveniles per tank, 200L tanks): 15 percent fish meal diet, five percent fish meal diet, and five percent fish meal diet supplemented with 0.5, 1.5 or 2.5 percent ProsafÂŽ feed additive
24 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
Phileo by Lesaffre, is an effective solution to enable the replacement of fish meal with plant-based protein
Prosaf®: Premium quality and superior performance
Prosaf® is a selected yeast extract obtained from primary culture of a proprietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain. After fermentation, the yeasts are autolysed and subsequently centrifuged to separate the yeast extract from the cell wall. The yeast extract fraction is composed of more than 63 percent protein, most of which comprises low molecular weight peptides that show high bioavailability and that can be easily absorbed by shrimps. Moreover, Prosaf® is rich in essential amino acids, 46 percent of which are free and, therefore, also easily assimilated. A recent scientific trial carried out at the Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, addressed the effect of the supplementation of Prosaf® on the growth performance of Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaseus vannamei) fed a low fish meal diet (5% fish meal). The low fish meal formulation was used in several experimental treatments with increasing concentrations of the yeast extract ranging from 0-to-2.5 percent. After nine weeks, the body weight, feed intake and FCR were measured and compared to the control treatment, where Whiteleg shrimp were fed a high fish meal diet (15%). Results showed that Prosaf® can revert the negative growth consequences of reducing fish meal level in shrimp feed (See Figure 1). Moreover, Prosaf® shows a dosedependent effect on shrimp growth performance, with increasing levels of the yeast extract resulting in improved body weight gain. After the trial ended, body weight of shrimp supplemented with Prosaf® at 2.5 percent was one-gram higher than shrimp fed with the low fish meal diet, indicating a 12 percent individual biomass increase. This scientific trial also addressed the effect of Prosaf® supplementation on FCR. Whereas decreasing fish meal level from 15 percent to five percent notably increased the FCR, the use of Prosaf® to the low fish meal diets decreased shrimp FCR (See Figure 2). It is important to highlight that a dose dependent response to the yeast extract supplement was observed, which resulted in decreasing FCR levels with increasing dosage of the feed supplement, down to the levels recorded for the high fish meal control treatment.
Supporting the transition to low fish meal diets
This scientific trial shows that supplementing the shrimp’s diet with Prosaf® provides a nature-based solution to reverse the negative effects that replacing fish meal with plant-based protein alternatives has on shrimp growth performance. This is associated with the unique composition of this feed supplement and with the large content of highly bioavailable molecules. Ultimately, this product helps the shrimp aquaculture industry address the pressing challenges of developing new feed formulations, particularly to facilitate the transition from high to low fish meal feed formulations, which must develop into environmentally sustainable and more economically advantageous alternatives in the long run. https://phileo-lesaffre.com
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Time to turn up the heat in feed processing?
by Detlef Bunzel and Andreas Lemme, Evonik, Germany
elleting is a core process in compound feed production for feed mill operators as it increases bulk density and stabilises the mixture. The resulting uniform particle size improves storage and handling properties which, in turn, also means lower transportation costs for mill operations. Compacting feed also enhances its nutritional value by increasing energy density and preventing selective eating. Animals are unable to avoid or reject individual ingredients, due to changes in palatability if components in the diet are altered for nutritional and/or cost reasons. This reduces waste, losses and production costs for farms. Alongside achieving these benefits, operators must ensure they are meeting food and feed safety requirements. In Europe, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 lays down requirements for feed safety in Article 15: 1. Feed shall not be placed on the market or fed to any foodproducing animal if it is unsafe. 2. Feed shall be deemed to be unsafe for its intended use if it is considered to: â€˘ have an adverse effect on human or animal health; â€˘ make the food derived from food producing animals unsafe for human consumption.
Pellet quality, as well as size, should therefore be a key issue for operators. Studies have shown that feed formulation (40%), particle size distribution (20%) and mash conditioning (20%) have the highest impact on standards. If we assume formulation and particle size distribution are constant in the production process, conditioning of the mash is the most significant process variable that feed mill operators can influence to improve the quality.
Chemical preservatives are subject to restrictive regional regulations (e.g. 70/524/EG in the European Union), so heat treatment is a focus for feed producers when reducing and controlling bacterial contamination of feed mash in the production process. Equipment manufacturers have developed several approaches to deal with this challenge. All of them consider conditioning temperature and time as relevant parameters for the successful reduction of bacteria in the process. By inducing more thermal energy into the mash, mechanical influence factors, such as changes in raw material properties and particle size distribution, can be better balanced in the compacting or pelleting process.
Adapt conditioning according to formulation
In feed production, a wide variety of raw materials and formulations are pelleted. With raw materials of agricultural origin, handling and processing properties vary over time based on provenance, weather conditions during growth and harvest, preprocessing and storage conditions, as well as shelf life. Besides bulk density and particle size distribution, humidity or water content is the most prominent physical property affecting feed processing. Among chemical properties of raw materials, protein, fat and starch contents, as well as ash and fibre contents, have the most impact on nutrition and processing. Researchers and feed mill practitioners have found approaches, over the years, to address different physical and chemical properties of raw materials in diets by adapting the conditioning process. Assuming that inclusion of liquids is defined in the diet, theoretically the only parameters that pellet mill operators could adjust besides the feed rate would be steam pressure and temperature. As a rule of thumb, approximately 0.6 percent of dry steam added
26 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
into the conditioner will raise the temperature of the mash by 10°C. In practice, steam consumption will be affected by steam pressure and quality of the steam-jack including insulation, function of condensate traps, pressure reduction ratio and thermal losses in the conditioner. In this context, it is also important to remember that, with dry steam, pressure and temperature are strictly related. With pressure, steam temperature increases. Therefore, less highpressure steam is needed to increase mash temperature. On the other hand, more low-pressure steam and moisture will be added to the mash to reach a certain temperature in the conditioner before the pellet mill. Keeping this in mind helps operators to understand recommendations of researchers and practitioners to use different steam pressure to optimise conditioning of certain diet types. For example, in diets with high starch contents, low-pressure steam provides not only temperature increase but also humidity that must be present to support starch modification.
Examples of sanitation processes
Several equipment suppliers present solutions developed on the design of the barrel type conditioner: ripening conditioners subsequent to the steam conditioner or molasses machine provide volume and retention time for the mash. The size of the equipment will be chosen to meet customers’ requirements for throughput and retention time. Two minutes at 80 – 85°C is generally considered as a good starting point. It is important to note that, by design, the barrel shaped ripening conditioners ensure first-in, first-out for the mash in the process so that all particles are exposed to high temperature treatment for the same time. Enough insulation of the steam conditioners and retention conditioners must be in place to prevent thermal losses and condensation on the inner surface of the barrel, as this would result in encrustations and cross contamination. At the same time, easy access for maintenance and cleaning is necessary. For longer residence times (up to eight minutes and more), Kahl Group suggests their concept ‘Retention Plus’ including a vertical ripening vessel, the so-called long-term conditioner. Due to the long residence time in this process, higher inclusion rates of liquids such as molasses are possible without compromising pellet quality. As the ripening vessel operates under ambient pressure, conditioning temperatures of up to 100°C are possible. A third example for a different technological approach in sanitation is the expander. Expanders operate with short retention times in the range of several seconds. As product is pressed through a ring die in the outlet, process pressure can be adjusted up to 80 bar. Steam can be injected directly into the barrel and process temperatures of up to 150°C are possible.
Nutritional aspects of conditioning processes
The main purpose of steam addition is to condition the mash for the compacting process while choice of length and diameter of the die will also result in more or less heat. The sanitary value is of high importance as it directly affects animal health by managing or controlling pathogens. However, the nutritional value can also be affected by heat. One example is the availability of dietary energy. All organic compounds in feed can deliver energy to the metabolism of the animals. With respect to the macro-nutrients (protein, International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 27
lipids, carbohydrates) which all can be energetically utilised by the animals, particularly different fractions of carbohydrates should be distinguished. While dietary crude fibers are only little digestible and, thus, only little available to monogastric animals such as chicken or swine, they are much better utilised by ruminants.
Impact of heat on nutritional additives
Over-processing will negatively impact the nutritional value. So, any compound susceptible to higher temperature will suffer. Prominent examples are certain vitamins, enzymes and unsaturated fatty acids, which will be oxidised or destroyed. Therefore, respective feed additives are usually added after the conditioning and pelleting process or with vacuum coating after extrusion. Amino acids, in contrast – are added into the mixer before conditioning and are, thus, exposed to heat. In an experiment we conducted, stability and recovery of MetAMINO®, Biolys®, ThreAMINO® and TrypAMINO® was examined at increasing extrusion temperatures ranging from 100°C up to even 190°C, lasting for about 15 seconds. Concentrations of supplemental amino acids in the feed mixture were not reduced compared to initial levels, even at the harshest condition of 190°C. A further investigation focused on various processing techniques for shrimp feed. Shrimp feed was either extruded using a single-screw or twin-screw extruder or was pelleted. It can generally be stated that total protein and amino acids were not susceptible to damage under the conditions tested. Recovery of amino acids ranged between 95 percent and 102 percent. At the same time, analysis of free amino acids revealed high recovery, too, and suggested high stability during feed processing. Free amino acids do not behave differently from protein bound amino acids. Therefore, these studies suggest high stability of amino acids under the conditions tested. On the other hand, it is well established that especially over-heating negatively impacts amino acid digestibility which in turn would reduce their availability to the animals and thus the nutritional effectiveness of the diet.
Benefits and drawbacks of heat regarding nutritional value
The impact of heat treatment on amino acid digestibility and availability has been investigated in the context of raw material processing rather than in compound feed, although the consequences and principles behind are similar. In addition to beneficial effects on feed hygiene, heat treatment is required to destroy or at least to reduce anti-nutritional factors (ANF) while over-heating compromises digestibility of amino acids to the animals. ANFs include e.g. trypsin-inhibitors (e.g. soybean) which impair protein digestion, glucosinolates (e.g. rapeseed), gossypol (cotton seed), or lectins (e.g. lupins). These examples are all heat sensitive. While heat treatment is needed to reduce ANF, exceeding optimal heat exposure can cause impaired amino acid availability. A series of trials we conducted with broiler and swine confirmed this for several ingredients. Initially, soybean products as well as Distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS), were systematically and harshly heat treated in an autoclave at 135°C up to 30 minutes (Fontaine et al. 2007). Amino acid analyses revealed losses, particularly for lysine, arginine and cysteine – amino acids known to be heat sensitive. However, not only total amino acids but also reactive lysine was determined. The free amino group of lysine tends to react with sugars under heat exposure forming so-called Amadori compounds, which cannot be cleaved in the digestive tract. Thus, this lysine is not available any more to the animals. Reactive lysine represents the fraction, which did not undergo this Maillard reaction. In the above experiment by Fontaine et al. (2007), levels of reactive lysine in low (43%) and high (47%) protein soybean meal, full-fat soybeans as well as in low (23 percent) and high (27%) DDGS diminished stronger than total lysine, indicating a much stronger impact on the nutritional value than suggested by total amino acid analysis – although considered in raw material analysis the latter can alleviate the performance depression of the animals to a certain degree. Ongoing research focused on amino acid digestibility generally revealed that over-heating impairs the digestibility of all amino acids in both broilers and swine. While the magnitude of response differs between amino acids within, as well as between, animal species, it can be concluded that over-heating affects all amino acids resulting in a more or less severe reduction of the nutritional value. Evonik Nutrition & Care developed a rapid method (WO 2018/146295 A1) to quantify the impact on the nutritional value due to overheating, at least for a couple of raw materials. Respective data can be used in the feed formulation process. However, for compound feed production this method is not available. Overall, it is concluded that exceeding certain temperature loads should be avoided in order to avoid reductions of animal performance. Overall, it can be summarised that ingredients and feed mixtures are exposed to heat during processing. While on the one hand heat is required to a certain extent for conditioning for example for the pelleting process as well as for sanitary reasons and reduction of anti-nutritional factors. On the other hand, over-processing will have detrimental effects, which at first glance might not be obvious but will affect animal performance. www.corporate.evonik.com
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Iran’s contribution to the global seafood market by Wesley Malcorps, PhD student, The Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK and Dr Arash Shirvani, Owner, Modern Bio-Treasures of Qeshm, Iran Over the past few years I travelled several times to Iran to experience its culture, kind people, great food and to discover its stunning nature on land and below water. Iran’s geography, size, diversity of water bodies and climate shows great potential for aquaculture, however, this is relatively unexploited. Curiosity was the driver to write this brief article about the Iranian seafood sector together with my friend, fellow aquaculture enthusiast and scuba diver; Dr Arash Shirvani.
Locally produced carp and sturgeon at a supermarket in Tehran, Iran
Ferry from Qeshm Island to Bandar Abbas, Persian Gulf, Iran
he Islamic Republic of Iran (also called Iran or Persia) is located in the Middle East with a large coastline (including islands) of over 5,800km, bordering the Caspian Sea in the north, the Persian Gulf in the south and the Gulf of Oman in the south-east (Mousavi et al., 2008). This unique location, in combination with the size of the country and diversity of landscapes, give Iran a variable climate. While these factors indicate a potential for seafood consumption this is not reflected in the statistics, as Iran consumes approximately 10kg per capita in 2013, which is around half of the global average (FAOStat). Nevertheless, Iran’s size, climate and the available freshwater resources for different types of aquaculture (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017) shows great potential to participate in fulfilling the growing global demand for seafood. This became clear over the past two decades, as fisheries and aquaculture combined grew about 11.5 percent annually since 2004, reaching a production of approximately 947,000 metric tonnes (MT) in 2014 and over one million MT in 2016 (NordOest, 2017). This resulted in an increase in employment over the years, reaching a total of almost 250,000 people in 2014, according to the FAO.
Delicious locally produced sturgeon dish in Bandar Abbas, Iran
Capture fisheries played an important role and saw an increase in production from 314,165 MT to 535,865 MT in 2004 and 2014, respectively (IFO, 2013; IFO, 2015). The fishery sector is seen by the local population as one of the most promising industries (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017) and this is reflected by government investments increasing from five million dollars to 83 million dollars from 1995 till 2013, respectively (FAO, n.d.). Despite the increase in capture fishery production, the share of aquaculture production followed up quickly from 26 percent (approximately 124,560 MT) in 2004 to 39 percent (approximately 371,840 MT) in 2014 (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017). Iran is currently one of the most important aquaculture producers in the Persian Gulf region and ranked 19th by volume in 2016 on the global aquaculture production list, according to the FAO.
The Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman coast are the most important regions for capture fisheries, responsible for approximately 93 percent of the domestic capture fishery (marine and inland combined) production. It is estimated that around 50 percent of the marine harvest consist of large pelagic species, with a majority tuna and tuna-like species. The other half consist mostly (approximately 35%) of demersal
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fish species, such as javelin grunt (Pomadasys kaakan), tigertooth croaker (Otolithes ruber), largescale tonguesole (Cynoglossus arel) and silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus). Additionally, shrimp fisheries (Indian white shrimp (Penaeus indicus), banana shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus)) in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman accounted for approximately 8,500 MT in 2013 and 2014. On the other hand, inland fisheries (freshwater lakes and brackish Caspian Sea) where the species groups: caspian sea sprat, bony fish and sturgeon represent almost 40,000 MT in 2014 (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017; IFO, 2015; IFO, 2013).
According to the FAO, aquaculture production has increased from 27,000 MT (1990) to 320,000 MT (2014) and 398,000 MT (2016), while the IFO estimates a total production of 371,840 MT in 2014. This is reflected by the amount of fish farms, which increased from 7276 (480,267 hectares (ha)) to 18,795 (804,227 ha) from 2004 till 2014, respectively (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017; IFO, 2015; IFO, 2013). The production sites are diverse, ranging from lakes, reservoirs and dams all the way to earthen ponds and raceways. However, intensive and super-intensive aquaculture production methods are not common due the relatively high costs and inadequacy of production equipment (NordOest, 2017). Aquaculture is dominated by freshwater species, such as cyprinids, trout, sturgeon, crayfish, but also marine shrimp and marine fish species. Currently 63.5 percent of the total production is carp species (16,254 farms - 50.853 ha), followed up by 34 percent for rainbow trout (1595 farms and 225 ha) and 2.5 percent for shrimp (518 farms - 7,053 ha) (NordOest, 2017).
It should be noted that production from inland water bodies is classified as aquaculture to conform to the FAO statistical guidelines for data collection on fisheries since 2002. Additionally, small quantities of sturgeon (650 MT), cage culture of marine fish (123 MT), ornamental fish (204 MT), crayfish (70 MT), were produced in 2014. Rainbow trout and sturgeon farming are very important for Iran, as they are globally one of the biggest producers of rainbow trout, biggest exporter of sturgeon fish meat, while caviar is one of their most valuable export products (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017). The FAO highlights that mariculture is relatively small, but that its focus on shrimp production resulted in an increase in production from 2,500 MT to 22,500 MT in 2006 and 2014, respectively. Main shrimp species produced nowadays is the white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).
According to the FAO, carp is one of the dominant aquaculture species in Iran and includes silver carp (75%), bighead carp (10%) and other species such as common, grass and local carps species (20%). The production increased from approximately 61,000 MT to 170,000 MT in 2003 and 2013, respectively. According to the projections, carp production is projected to hit approximately 263,000 MT in 2020, according the 6th Five Year Plan developed by Shilat Iran, The Iranian Fisheries Organization (IFO) (FAO, n.d).
Iranian aquaculture started with trout farming and experiments back in 1959 in Tehran. Most of the trout farms nowadays are raceways and located in the mountainous areas with cool
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summers and cold winters in the north and northwest. Beside raceways, rainbow trout is also grown in integrated aquaculture farms (approximately 13% of total production), in between rice fields and cages. The use of these integrated systems increases aquaculture productivity and are currently promoted and funded by the Iran Fisheries Organisation (IFO) (NordOest, 2017). The production saw a rapid increase from 208 MT in 1978 (NordOest, 2017) till 126,515 MT in 2014 (IFO, 2013; IFO, 2015). Consequently, rainbow trout fish farmers surface almost doubled from approximately 105 ha till 225 ha between 2004 and 2014, respectively. According to The Fish Site, Iran officials have said they aim to support the growth of trout aquaculture in the Caspian Region. They are supporting this by providing licences, land and juvenile fish to private farmers and is building government owned building, hatcheries and on-growing units in order the fulfil the global demand for trout (NordOest, 2017; IFO). This support would increase production, which is expected to hit 210,000 MT by 2020, according the 6th Five Year Plan for fisheries (explained in the last chapter) (FAO, n.d).
Sturgeon fisheries and caviar
Sturgeon fisheries declined from 2004 till 2014 from 500 MT to 41 MT (IFO, 2013; IFO, 2015), as a result of overfishing, pollution and changes in habitat due human activities in river systems and the Caspian Sea (Adeli, 2002; Bronzi, Rosenthal and Gessner, 2011). However, the aquaculture production of sturgeon species showed an increase from 363 MT in 2009 to 650 MT in 2014 (IFO, 2013; IFO, 2015). Despite this, a decline of sturgeon stocks in the wild, export and lack of pricing regulations and
counterfeiting resulted in an increase in price of caviar and a decrease of share of Iranian caviar on the global market (Adeli and Namdar, 2015; Feyzabadi, Gholamnejad and Ramezani, 2009). Additionally, the Iranian market was heavily affected by political sanctions, which decreased the export of caviar from 40 MT in 2000 to just 1 MT in 2014 (NordOest, 2017). Despite the low production compared to other caviar producers (eg Norway and Korea), Iran produced the second most valuable caviar of 1300 dollars per kilogram after Azerbaijan, selling caviar at 2600 dollars per kilogram (Adeli and Namdar, 2015). Nevertheless, Iranian caviar markets is influenced by the decline in sturgeon population and the current and upcoming caviar producers in Asia, Uruguay, Israel, Vietnam and Argentina (Bronzi and Rosenthal, 2014).
Iran’s Fisheries Organisation (IFO) plans to support further fisheries and aquaculture sector through the 6th Five-Year plan (2016-2020), as mentioned before. This plan has a main focus on (1) increasing fish share in domestic food security, (2) responsible harvesting of aquatic resources, (3) increasing productivity and (4) improving the fish import/export balance. This could be achieved by increasing domestic fish production and consumption (per capita annual fish consumption from 9.2 kg in 2014 to 14.8 kg in 2020) and improving aquaculture productivity. This plan also includes infrastructure development to improve quality, fresh fish handling and processing to satisfy EU regulations and consequently increase exports (FAO, n.d.). These factors should contribute to an increase in seafood production from 947,000 MT in 2014 to 1,879,000 MT in 2025,
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in which more than half is produced by aquaculture. Cage farming in brackish water and along the coast of Iran has great potential for sustainable aquaculture expansion, according to the Iranian Fisheries Organisation (IFO) (NordOest, 2017; FAO, n.d.). The Persian Gulf is relatively isolated through the narrow Strait of Hormuz. This result in a long water residence, low freshwater input, high water temperatures and salinity levels, creating a unique marine ecosystem. The Gulf of Oman is relatively sheltered, but its link with the Arabian Sea results in higher water exchange and high marine biological productivity as a result of upwelling of nutrients (FAO, 2016). These factors could partially contribute to a total cage farming production of 400,000 MT in 2025, while additional seafood cage production potential for the Persian Gulf and Oman is estimated around 150,000 MT and 450,000 MT, respectively. At the northern coastline, the Caspian Sea shows potential for another 300,000 MT in the long term (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017). Mariculture could introduce new species to the aquaculture portfolio of Iran, such as groupers (Serranidae), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), silver pomferet (Pampus argenteus) and fourfinger threadfin (Eleutheronema tetradactylum) (Kalbassi, Abdollahzadeh and Salari-Joo, 2013), but also the Caspian Salmon (Salmo trutta caspius) (Dorafshan et al., 2008). According to the Fish Site; Iranian officials have said to support the aquaculture of sea bream and barramundi species in the Persian Gulf. Additionally, experiments with seaweed have been conducted in the past few years. In total, 130 species of seaweed were found in the country, with a focus on the more commercial species such as Gracilaria spp., Sargassum spp. and Eucheuma spp. On the other hand, different research projects are conducted with a focus on pearl farming and the production of sea cucumber species (Holothuria lecospliota and Holothuria scabra) and oyster species, such as the black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017; Kalbassi, Abdollahzadeh and Salari-Joo, 2013). It must be noted that Iran is promoting and funding new techniques to increase agriculture and aquaculture productivity in order to be more resource efficient (NordOest, 2017). According to researchers from the Islamic Azad University, integrated farming system, such as rice and fish farming is low cost and with high value protein and minerals in return. Additionally, the land is used efficiently with less use of fertilisers and pesticides (Noorhosseini-Niyaki and BagherzadehLakani, 2013). On the other side, aquaculture adaptability is important in central regions in Iran, which are affected by increased salt content. However, this wouldnâ€™t be a problem for certain trout species as they can tolerate brackish water, according
to the Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute (IFSRI) (Alizadeh, Dadgar and Hafezieh., 2016).
Aquafeed production and prospects
The intensification of Iranian aquaculture production requires additional feed production for hatcheries as well as growouts. The highly important artemia for hatcheries is found at 17 locations throughout the country, but its population size is affected by different factors, such as drought, floods, decrease in water salinity and introduction of freshwater fish in lakes (Abatzopoulus et al., 2006). This could potentially result in an increasing dependency on artemia imports to fulfill demands for hatcheries. The provision of aquafeed for the domestic grow-out phase is almost self-sufficient, as 90 percent of the aquafeed is produced in 17 factories across the country (NordOest, 2017). However, the production of certain ingredients declined, such as fishmeal, as a result of the fluctuating catches of sprat in the Caspian Sea (Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017). Nevertheless, dependency on fishmeal for increased domestic aquaculture production (and increasing demand from the poultry industry) could possibly be met by lantern fish fisheries. The 6th Five Year Plan (IFO) indicates a 70,000 MT catch from the Gulf of Oman for the year 2020 to meet demand for food as well as fishmeal for its aquaculture and poultry sector. It must be noted that the Iranian animal feed sector is relatively self-sufficient, but shows dependency on certain raw materials from Brazil, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan, such as livestock corn, soy meal, colza meal, cottonseed meal and sunflower seed meal (Financial Tribune, 2017). Increasing demand on terrestrial crop ingredients exposes the aquafeed sector to fluctuating global ingredient prices (Troel et al., 2014). Additionally, increasing demand and diversification of aquaculture production species could potentially lead to an increase in the import of feed ingredients. This could potentially affect the resilience of the Iranian aquaculture industry. Iranian aquaculture has immense growth potential from a geographical, resource and climate point of view. The 6th Five Year Plan developed by the IFO is designed to fully exploit this potential in the short term. However, this plan is ambitious and requires massive growth in a relatively short period of time to achieve its targets. This is especially difficult because of the lack of technical knowledge among farmers, improper broodstock production and feeding management, lack of cage culture diseases, slow growth rates and low cultural species diversity. These targets also require additional investment to improve water quality, implement intensive farming techniques, disease control, hatcheries, stocks and feed management (NordOest, 2017; Harlioglu and Farhadi, 2017; Kalbassi, Abdollahzadeh and SalariJoo, 2013). These investments and developments could boost the aquaculture production, which is beneficial for the Iranian market, export, employment as well as the global seafood market. However, climate and political obstacles emerged, and this could potentially affect the aquaculture production and seafood import and export in general. This makes the future of Iranian aquaculture hard to predict. Nevertheless, Iran is definitely a country with great potential to participate in fulfilling the growing global demand for seafood. Collaboration is essential in order to support the sustainable growth of the Iranian seafood sector and to advance the availability of healthy, diverse and nutritious seafood globally. www.stir.ac.uk
34 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Feed Manufacturing for Aquaculture: From support to existing operations to new, integrated mills “The decision to integrate
an existing aquaculture production operation into manufacturing its own feeds is a significant undertaking that merits serious consideration”
by Thomas R Zeigler, PhD, Senior Technical Advisor; Matthew P Zeigler, MS, VP Operations & Process Engineer; Sidinei Valle, Manager–Global Business Development & Operations, Zeigler Bros., Inc., USA
Integration in the animal feed manufacturing industry is a common practice. Integrations take place backwards (feed and seedstock production) or forward (processing and marketing of branded products). The decision to integrate an existing aquaculture production operation into manufacturing its own feeds is a significant undertaking that merits serious consideration, analysis and evaluation of options, and due diligence. Various risks must be carefully considered, and significant benefits to be achieved. It is important to consider early on the selection of qualified advisors. Integration is a common practice for many businesses that grow and produce animals as food for people around the world. In general, integrations can occur along the production value chain as backward integration into the production of feed or the production of seed stock, or forward integration into processing and marketing of branded products. In the United States, this practice has been on-going for close to 50 years, especially in the poultry business. In the aquaculture industry, there are numerous examples worldwide where feed production has been successfully integrated into businesses producing fish and/or shrimp. Even though feed manufacturing may not be for everyone, the most talented and ambitious business managers do consider and evaluate this opportunity at some time. In this article, we introduce our Zeigler Bros Inc (ZBI) feed mill licensee program and also offer some perspectives and a framework to assist those considering a feed manufacturing facility, to help them better evaluate the project and to make an informed decision.
The ZBI Feed Mill Licensee Program
At ZBI, we produce aquafeeds for all life stages of many of the most commercially important, farmed aquatic species around the world, including shrimp, tilapia, salmonids and several other valuable commercial species. We can help existing feed manufacturers, aquaculture production enterprises and new projects with their needs to build and support a better aquaculture production environment, from support for better feed manufacturing to new plant development and operation for integration into existing aquaculture businesses. We recognise that integrating into feed manufacturing could be a significant opportunity for a number of fish and shrimp producers, and we are available to assist through our Feed Mill Licensee Programme, on-going now for over 30 years. This licensee program has supported the successful development and transformation of seven new and existing feed mills in various countries in Asia and Latin America into highly capable, aquafeed manufacturing facilities. 38 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
ZBI strongly backs its licensees with support in all aspects of aquafeed production, from mill design/redesign; aquafeed formulation and quality control (including updated information from our active R&D program); logistics and ingredient sourcing; and overall operations analysis. Our program allows the licensee operator to utilise the globally recognised Zeigler name brand. The ZBI Feed Mill Licensee Program offers a proven, turnkey solution for providing locally manufactured aquaculture and specialty feeds. With a history of feed technology experience that began in 1935, Zeigler’s team of qualified nutritionists, biologists, and process engineers can assist in bringing products to market that have a proven track-record of success. Zeigler’s Feed Mill Licensee program began in the 1980s and has developed a long track record of successful technology transfer partnerships throughout the world. And unlike other programs, Zeigler offers on-going R&D collaboration to provide advancements and technologies needed to meet ever-changing market conditions. Regarding plant design, our considerable experience enables us to competently assist in proper equipment selection and process flow, both critical to meeting targeted production capacities
and efficiencies. With seven successful plant start-ups, ZBI’s knowledge of a variety of production conditions can facilitate decisions with capital requirements, which could potentially save time, reduce risk, and improve return on investment (ROI). Zeigler personnel can assist with plant start-up and provide ongoing production and QA training for plant personnel. Production efficiencies and quality standards are initially established, and then evaluated through regular audits aimed at providing continuous improvement. Zeigler personnel are trained in ISO9000, HACCP, as well as other quality certifications to help assure customers and licensee meet their market requirements.
Support for existing feed mill operations
Zeigler can support feed formulation, new ingredients, quality control and assurance, and other aspects of the operation of existing feed mill operations, as well as assist with plant technical audits and recommendations for equipment upgrades and other technical topics. We have over 50 years of formulating and manufacturing our own specialty diets for commercial production, with the additional benefit of offering products with a proven track record of success. To support formulation
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY development, we are able to utilise our proprietary, large database of superior ingredients, and can assist in assessing the feasibility of locally available raw materials and their supply sources. Changing market conditions and advances in feed technology continuously require updated and new formulation and manufacturing strategies. Unlike other programs, Zeigler provides on-going support through its active research and development program. New ingredients, health-based additives, advanced processing techniques, and technical field consultations are just some of the ways Zeigler can help to assure on-going success. We can also provide technical support to existing feed mills through production and quality assurance training for plant personnel. We do this by first, establishing particular production efficiencies and quality standards, and then we evaluate them through routine audits aimed at providing continuous improvement. Zeigler personnel are trained in ISO-9000, HACCP, as well as other quality certifications to help assure your plant meets your market specific standards and requirements.
wholesomeness and nutritional contribution, and the consistent supply and composition. This information is essential to assist in the decision of the feed plant location and is also important in determining the type of equipment and storage facilities required. Feed mill equipment, design and process flow are determined by the products that will be manufactured, as well as the volume required per unit of time, which must be accomplished to meet the requirements of the animal production phases of the business. Regarding formulations, as few as five and as many as 50 different formulations may be required, and these can be manufactured in as many as 12 different product sizes. Some additional product characteristics that must also be considered include colour, attractability, palatability, water stability, buoyancy, hardness, product coatings, and others. Early in the planning process, the specifications for all required products should be determined, as these will affect a number of important decisions.
Reasons for integrating feed manufacturing
Pelleting and/or extrusion equipment are used to manufacture most aquaculture feeds. Each process has specific advantages and limitations that must be clearly understood. The manufacturing equipment - including the required boilers for steam generation - represents the most expensive individual items in the feed mill. Other major equipment includes ingredient grinders, mixing and weighing equipment, computerised batching systems, and also storage for bulk ingredients. The most important considerations when sourcing equipment include their initial and operating costs and efficiency, maintenance and repair costs, country of origin, and ready access to replacement parts. Locally available equipment should be evaluated and considered, and also used equipment if it is available and in good condition.
There are several reasons why an existing or new aqua-business would consider manufacturing its own feed. Probably the most frequent reason is to create a separate revenue stream and incorporate the profits related to feed manufacturing into the primary business. Others goals can include having more control, greater protection for and confidentiality of intellectual property (IP); ready access to improved and fresher feeds; faster access to special feeds needed to improve farm productivity; managing environmental constraints – like salinity, temperature, diseases and others; providing a marketing advantage for the final product; and finally, the ability to improve logistics related to feed used in production, including its ordering, transporting and inventory management. We believe the final decision should include most, if not all, of the above, as all these arguments can significantly contribute to improving the profitability, sustainability and competitive advantage of the core business.
Consider professional advice and support
Manufacturing aquaculture feeds is significantly more intricate and sophisticated than making conventional farm feeds. Aquafeeds contain more ingredients and require specialised equipment and more demanding processing methods which are essential in to properly meet the nutritional and the physical requirements to effectively feed the variety of species and sizes being produced in aquaculture production systems. Therefore, in developing a feed manufacturing plan, an early consideration must be to select qualified advisors, and there are numerous options available. Both equipment and ingredient suppliers can assist prospective feed manufacturers. And companies that engineer and design feed manufacturing facilities can provide support, and a number of independent consultants or companies can provide and support technology transfer. When qualifying potential technology support companies, both a track record of success in aquaculture feed production, as well as integrity, are important to select the proper resource.
Identifying ingredients and products
Superior feeds can only be produced starting with superior ingredients (“quality in: quality out”). Therefore, an important next step is to identify the ingredients and their suppliers, their
Proper equipment selection is critical
Formulation, processing and quality assurance
Knowledge of ingredients and their composition - and of nutritional requirements of targeted species to be fed at their various life stages - are necessary for the formulation of effective feeds. The feed formula can substantially affect the operating efficiency of the manufacturing equipment. The feed formulation essentially determines the ability of the animals to express their genetic production potential. Together - considering both the formulation and manufacturing process - producing the “right” product requires the consideration of up to 25 different product parameters, in addition to the specific nutrients required. The aquaculture feed manufacturing process includes the following several sequenced steps: receiving, storage, grinding, weighing, mixing, re-grinding, processing (pelletising and/ or extruding), cooling and or drying, crumbling, sifting, top coating, packaging, storage and shipping. It is important to consider that most ingredients are dry, but some are in liquid form. The process flow and operating capacity of the equipment determines the plant throughput and its efficiency and must be considered during the early planning stages. To produce wholesome, high-performance feeds, assuring product quality is vital and the pertinent provisions must be made. These include developing both ingredient and product standards, and quality assurance procedures, and also assuring the availability of adequate laboratory equipment and the presence of properly trained staff – their critical importance should not be underestimated.
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
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The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to oďŹ€er everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerickâ€™s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city.
www.ul.ie International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 41
We have the largest work placement programme of any university in Ireland, with a network of over 1700 employers Amazing academic and sporting facilities on a stunning campus Graduate employment rates that are 18% above the Irish average
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Risk assessment
Judicious due diligence and proper plant location, design and construction can minimise environmental risks such as wind, rain, hurricanes and floods. And with proper operating procedures and safeguards, fire risks – which can be devastating – can be prevented. And the risks associated with financing feed sales can be adequately managed with the proper credit policies and proper securities. Possibly the most difficult risk to evaluate when considering the integration of an aquafeed mill is the issue of prevailing diseases, which can severely affect the amount of feed required, and thus, plant operations and costs. Examples of major diseases that have globally caused billions of dollars in losses include the Early Mortality Syndrome – also known as Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) – in the penaeid shrimp farming industry, and the Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA), a viral disease of Atlantic salmon. Before making the final decision to produce your own feeds, it is highly advisable to consider visiting with existing feed manufacturing companies and look into creating a strategic alliance or negotiating to obtain some or all of the benefits desired.
Proper planning and continuous improvement
The decision to integrate into the feed manufacturing business should only be made after careful due diligence and the preparation of a feasibility study including both a business plan and an in-depth economic analysis. The total cost for a new feed mill can range between US $3,000,000 and $15,000,000 including inventories – these are not insignificant investment amounts - and certainly one of the decision criteria must be if the project provides adequate return on investment. Another important step in the planning process is to project the monthly tonnage through the mill over the next five and possibly 10 years. If increased tonnage is in the forecast, it is important to plan for that increase in the initial design and build phase of the mill. Installing a properly sized electric service and providing the space for additional equipment will save significant sums of money in the future, as retrofitting undersized mills can be very expensive. A business option to consider could be outside sales; selling feed to other aquaculture producers can significantly reduce operating costs by increasing the number of tonnes produced, but the associated accounts receivable can increase the cash required to operate. Most aquaculture animal production systems are of a cyclical
nature, requiring different products in different quantities at different times. Therefore, the production plan must consider the capability to produce the maximum quantities of the different products that are required during any specific time of the production cycle, or to provide sufficient warehouse space so that the products can be produced in advance, stored, and be available as needed from inventory. Compliance with new and possible future regulatory standards concerning food safety must be considered, and major certification programmes - such as those from the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s Best Aquaculture Practices, or from GlobalGap - also have standards for feed plant compliance. Businesses that operate successfully know that the only thing that is constant is change and dealing with change must be part of the operating strategy. This requires developing specific tactics to maintain excellence in critical areas of the project, such as employee training and retraining to assure proficiency; product improvement through ingredient selection and formulation; testing new feed ingredients and additives; properly designed animal trials adequately compare new products and formulations, and expeditious problem-solving. It is also extremely desirable to carry out independent audits of the feed manufacturing enterprise to assure efficient and cost-effective production and guarantee compliance with quality assurance as well as with regulatory standards and procedures.
At Zeigler, we can help both existing feed manufacturers and aquaculture production businesses, as well as new feed mill or integrated projects with all their needs to build and support a better aquaculture production environment, from technical and operational support for better feed manufacturing all the way to new plant development and operation for independent operation or for integration into existing aquaculture businesses. The decision to integrate an existing aquaculture production operation into manufacturing its own feeds is a significant undertaking. It requires serious consideration, analysis and evaluation of options, particularly because the investment can be significant, and because the process and its management are more involved and complex than just producing feeds for farm animals. And the decision to make better feeds in an existing operation is also a significant one. Zeigler can give technical support to standalone feed mills through various paths, including technical audits, and production and quality assurance training for plant personnel. This is accomplished by establishing particular production efficiencies and quality standards, and then by evaluating these through routine audits to generate continuous improvement. Our personnel are trained in various quality certifications to help assure each plant meets your market specific standards and requirements. In summary, as our past industry successes in several countries and over many years demonstrate, there can be significant benefits to be achieved with Zeigler support for both existing feed mills as well as for new plants, which may operate independently or be part of a larger integration. We stand ready to help and are available to assist interested parties who want to make better feeds or get started in the production of their own feeds. When it comes to the decision to make better feeds in an existing mill or develop a new feed plant in an integration, we believe that doing the “right” things will lead to the “right” decision for growing profits. www.zeiglerfeed.com
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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
HardRIB The single most important factor for a boat is its seakeeping abilities.
MINIMAL MAINTENANCE PRACTICALLY UNSINKABLE
That is why we have put enormous effort into the design of the hull of the HardRIB. Full control even at high speed, low fuel consumption, near indestructibility and fantastic seakeeping ability is a benefit for all users.
The various equipment options ensure that you can customize the boat for your use without compromising any of the above attributes. The hull is developed in collaboration with Ola Lilloe Olsen and tested in Stadt Towing tank. So, whether you are a fish farmer, a diver or simply a boat enthusiast, this is the right choice for you.
STABILITY DURABLE RECYCLABLE
steinsvik.no International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 43
FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
Why is fish waste a profitable waste stream often overlooked by the industry? by James Tyler, Director, Tidy Planet, UK Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in Scotland, with salmon farming having been a major contributor to the Scottish economy since the early 1970s. Over time, it has transformed itself into the country’s second largest food export – valuing £600m in 2017 – but the waste disposal side of fish farming operations is an area that continues to make waves and divide opinion. James Tyler, Director at organic waste company Tidy Planet, explores why the industry should consider this waste stream as a valuable resource, instead of it being overlooked and perceived solely as a costly, problematic issue. The rationale as to why fish farms are bypassing the potential of Category 2 fish waste and mortalities is not overly complex – it is simply because they don’t have a compliant, environmentally sustainable facility available to them. That, and there have been no concrete plans to redesign and implement a localised, strategic solution. So, with circa 10,000 tonnes of fish mortalities occurring from a stock of 150,000 – as reported by Zero Waste Scotland – it is no surprise that they are regarded by marine producers as an expensive consequence of fish production. The ways in which fish producers are able to deal with their wastes has changed vastly over the last five years. This came to light the most in 2013, when the Scottish Government introduced a derogation – meaning animal by-products (ABP) from Scotland’s remote fish farms could be landfilled. But an alteration to the legislation in 2016 meant that the landfilling option could only be applied to terrestrial livestock. This ABP policy change therefore meant that remote fish farms could no longer landfill their waste – a crucial, and positive, turning point for the aquaculture industry, as it must now look towards alternative disposal options that harness the potential of this waste stream. There are currently two methods that fish farmers can apply when dealing with their fish waste – either by shipping to the countryside for eventual landfilling, or by ensiling it with formic acid to be transported for incineration or anaerobic digestion. But
both of these methods are weighted with a large carbon footprint. Yet, what is important for the industry to realise is that these costly ABPs can be converted into valuable resources – if processed correctly through legislation-compliant technology – such as fishmeal and fish oil, both of which can be used for the generation of energy. For example, fishmeal can be utilised as a non-conventional fuel to generate heat, or as a slow-release, incredibly nutrient-rich fertiliser – this is due to the compost’s high nitrogen content. One major benefit of this fish-derived compost is that it is far more environmentally friendly than its chemically-derived counterpart and being able to produce it on-site via a bespoke dehydration system, omits third-party haulage costs and closes the loop in the wider fish farming process. Dehydration is a new process that has been developed to deal with the industry’s marine mortalities and involves the thermal evaporation of a 150-degree mixture of macerated fish material – kept above 100 degrees for six hours. The result is a dehydrated oily paste that is then processed to further separate the meal from the oil – this can reduce the weight of the overall material by approximately 60 percent. Naturally, this would also offer considerable savings where transportation costs are concerned. The diversity of fish oil also means that this can be used to produce electricity – when processed in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system – or even sold for conversion into biodiesel. Taking the estimated annual 10,000 fish mortalities into account, the Zero Waste Scotland report indicates that 1,500 tonnes of oil could be produced from this net total – a figure which highlights the true resource leakage taking place in the industry right now. The interesting and sobering truth is that marine farming companies, which have been or are continuing to landfill their fish waste, are losing out financially. This is not only because of the costs associated with transportation and landfilling gate fees, but because the equipment does exist for lower-cost and more eco-friendly waste processing – it’s just a matter of the industry recognising and embracing this. www.tidyplanet.co.uk
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TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology June 2019 This month in International Aquafeed we take a look at the latest solutions to help assist industry members in their everyday tasks. We have a variety of products, ranging from cameras, seal deterrents, ROVs and data loggers. Gael Force Group’s SeaGuard Acoustic Seal Deterrent The SeaGuard 2-channel Acoustic Seal Deterrent is a proven ‘must have’ for aquaculture producers and fish farms. Using the renowned Airmar DB+ II projector which has been modified and redesigned with approval, performance and lower power consumption. The SeaGuard does not use sound alone to deter and maintain deterrence of seals, it uses physiological techniques rather than psychological ‘scaring’. This is used to create an acoustic barrier or guard around each cage and the site. SeaGuard has been designed with simplicity in mind and with an emphasis on reliability. With just two projectors per controller on a pen, this means there are no unnecessary cables running between pens. This reduces the likelihood of damage to cables and provides ease of maintenance. www.gaelforceaquaculture.com
DT Revolution ROV Deep Trekker has recently showcased its latest line of underwater robots at AUVSI XPONENTIAL 2019 – the largest tradeshow for unmanned and autonomous systems across the commercial and defence industries. The Deep Trekker line-up delivers the all new Revolution remotely operated vehicle – making its debut in North America. Engineered with carbon fibre and stainless steel, Revolution is more powerful than ever seen before - equipped with auto-stabilisation, wireless connectivity, augmented recording capabilities and 4K Ultra HD video resolution. Revolution is based on an automated station holding, allowing the camera, sonar and manipulator arm to rotate a full 260 degrees for advanced situational awareness and unmatched flexibility. It can be remotely controlled to depths of 305-metres underwater. The vehicle’s manipulator arm has a close strength of 70 lbs and the ROV tether can pull up to 300 lbs to the surface. Revolution is designed to assist divers, investigate mine-like objects and safely conduct underwater inspections in currents of up to 3.5 knots. Coupled with the driving force of BRIDGE, Revolution provides advanced stability in underwater environments. www.deeptrekker.com
Deep Water pH Data Logger The Fluidion portable Deep Water pH Data Logger is a smart sensor that can connect to various gliders, AUV’s, ROV’s, and ARGO-like profilers through a standard high-pressure electrical connector and it communicates via a serial protocol. The sensor implements automatic temperature and pressure corrections, using internal sensors. Reliable system deployment is possible to a depth of 2000m, which makes it ideal choice for deep-water exploration (including Arctic deployment), aquaculture and environmental monitoring. With a low energy consumption mode, the system boasts excellent autonomy for longterm glider/AUV and profiler deployments. Field maintenance and calibration between campaigns can be performed through a simple procedure allowing for quick redeployment, enabling the user to concentrate on the mission objective rather than on equipment details. The unit can be easily programmed and controlled via a simple serial communication protocol. www.fluidion.com
46 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
HOWCASE MC-2 Mini Camera JW Fishers MC-2 Mini Camera is an underwater camera designed for a variety of applications. It is the second generation of the very popular MC-1 mini camera system. The differentiating difference from the MC-1 is that the filament bulbs are now replaced with 1500 lumen LED’s. The Mini Camera is so compact and lightweight it can easily be mounted to a diver’s helmet or lowered into a pipe for internal inspections. The MC-2 can assist the commercial diver performing underwater structure inspections or be lowered into the water on a pole to perform shallow water inspections from the surface. Two light options are available; an internal LED light ring or external 1500 lumen LED lights. The LED light ring is excellent for close up viewing of underwater objects, the external light(s) are more powerful and have a broader beam for viewing objects at a greater range. www.jwfishers.com
Oceanbotics SRV-8 ROV Building on parent company RJE International’s 27 years of supporting civilian and military underwater operations, the SRV-8 combines agility/manoeuvrability, ease of use, extensive versatility and affordability, making aquatic search, inspection and observation missions a viable option for all aquaculture companies. Eight independent thrusters give full 360° maneuverability along six axes. The operator “flies” the SRV-8 like a quad-copter. Advanced programming reduces the time needed to train an operator. Using a standard joystick controller, which allows near-instant familiarity, the ROV can perform complex manoeuvres such as crabbing, climbing and rolling. Or, it can be moved up, down, left, right, forwards or backwards with a single thumbstick to allow precision station-keeping without changes in attitude. In addition to getting up to six+ hours of operation on a single charge (using Lithium batteries), the batteries provide enough power to get the SRV-8 onstation as rapidly as possible. The SRV-8 is rated to depths as low as 300 metres (-1,000 ft). www.oceanbotics.com
Divelog Shark Marine Technologies Inc have a variety of software solutions for aquaculture, one of the most innovative being Divelog. It integrates mission planning, post processing, report generation, navigation, sonar control, video control, communications and vehicle control into one simple to use intuitive software. Until DiveLog’s introduction, operators would have to master a different software for each piece of equipment or task, greatly increasing the complexity and chance of human error, or missing data. This one software solution simplifies using a wide range of hardwares and sensors. The device can review all recorded data from any number of devices with complete geodetic referencing, plan missions and operations and automatically generate reports. www.sharkmarine.com
ViscoQuick: Determine viscosity in a fast-track procedure Due to its diverse application possibilities, the Brabender ViscoQuick is suitable for the investigation of a wide variety of materials. With the help of this compact universal viscometer it is possible to analyse the gelatinisation properties of starches, to qualitatively determine alphaamylase activity in flours and to measure the absolute viscosity of Newtonian fluids. The product-specific viscosity curve can be used to determine the best applications for a raw material and to optimise production processes. The consistency of a product is decisive for the determination of process parameters such as sample temperature and processing time. These parameters can also be precisely determined by a ViscoQuick analysis. www.brabender.com
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International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 47
EXPERT TOPIC Pikeperch
Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new-emerging candidate fish species for the expansion of the European aquaculture industry – the DIVERSIFY project (EU FP7-GA603121)
by Rocio Robles, Dissemination Leader (CTAQUA, Spain) Constantinos C Mylonas, Project Coordinator (HCMR, Greece) Costas Tsigenopoulos, Reproduction & Genetics - pikeperch leader (HCMR, Greece) Ivar Lund, Nutrition pikeperch leader (DTU, Denmark) Pascal Fontaine, Larval husbandry - pikeperch leader (UL, France) Patrick Kestemont, Grow out husbandry - pikeperch leader (FUNDP, Belgium)
Figure 1: Close up of a pikeperch specimen (Sander lucioperca)
ollowing the previous international Aquafeed issues on the DIVERSIFY Project in which we presented the project’s achievements with halibut and meagre, this month we present the project results on pikeperch (Sander lucioperca). Pikeperch, S. lucioperca, is a freshwater fish considered to have the highest potential in Europe for inland aquaculture diversification (see Fig.1). Pikeperch flesh has a neutral taste lending to different forms of preparation. Moreover, the filets do not have bones—unlike carp, which competes in the same market segment. Year-round production of pikeperch requires production in RAS (Recirculating Aquaculture Systems). The use of RAS also supports production at high densities, 80-100 kg m-3. Recognized by a survey addressed to fish farmers, DIVERSIFY identified the major bottlenecks for further expansion of pikeperch culture today: (a) lack of knowledge of the genetic variability of the used broodstocks, (b) low larval survival (typically 5-10 percent); a high incidence of deformities, and (c) high sensitivity to stressors, handling and husbandry practices that result in high and sudden mortalities. All these bottlenecks have been addressed by the research carried out by DIVERSIFY.
Identification of genetic relationships among different broodstocks, inbreeding phenomena, and loss of heterozygosity is important in aquaculture, since it may result in subsequent reproductive and productive failure (reduced progeny survival, growth, food conversion efficiency and increased frequency of deformities). It is also important to know how domesticated stocks differ from their wild counterparts, which could potentially be a future source of fish to include in breeding programs. Overcoming the above bottlenecks is very important to reduce production costs and, therefore, expand the aquaculture production of pikeperch in the EU. The first task of DIVERSIFY’s pikeperch research was to assess the genetic variability of captive broodstocks in commercial farms in Europe operating in RAS, and then compare this variability with that of wild populations. A total of 21 populations/broodstocks were sampled and analysed, which included 13 captive broodstocks and eight wild origin populations. The results have indicated that some broodstocks have adequate genetic variation, but as some of them originate from few fish, attention should be paid in the future to establish breeding programs. In general, there was agreement with the stock origin and our studies provided evidence that pikeperch populations in Europe are part of at least two genetically differentiated groups. The first group is found in northern Europe from the Netherlands/Denmark to the West, Poland (at least) to the East, and Finland to the North. The second group comprises all remaining populations in Central Europe to as south as Tunisia (and probably Spain, Italy and northern Greece). Based on this grouping, it can be stated that most 48 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
analysed populations seemed to contain fish of a single origin; nevertheless, in few domesticated populations this ratio varied from 5-19 percent, possibly due to the mixing of fish from multiple sources.
In the area of pikeperch nutrition, trials have shown that pikeperch larvae require both high dietary inclusion levels of phospholipids and essential Long Chain (LC) PUFAs to perform optimally. This requirement is unusual for freshwater fish larvae and is more commonly observed in marine species. Phospholipid level is generally low in dietary oils used in fish feeds, but some fish oils may have high concentrations. Phospholipids may be particularly important in fish larvae, as these lipids have an important function during larval development and are particularly present in larval brain and cellular membranes. Phospholipids may improve digestion and lipid feed utilisation and have positive benefits in larval development. It was thus important to determine optimal phospholipid levels and levels of essential FA (EFA) in dry feeds for pikeperch larvae on the performance and development. Three dietary levels of phospholipids were tested in larval dry feed diets: Total phospholipid level ranged 3.7 percent ww (PL1), 8.2 percent ww (PL2) and 14.4 percent ww (PL3) to evaluate their effect on larval growth and development. Additionally, supplementation of EFA in three other diets (PL1H1-PL3H3) was tested: 0.5 percent ww PL1H1, 2 percent ww PL2H2 and 3.4 percent ww PL3H3. Larvae were fed the dry diets from 10 days until 30 days after hatching. Results showed either a specific effect of the EFA, Ω-3 fatty acids or a combined effect of phospholipids and fatty acids.
Figure 2: Weight of pikeperch larvae 30 days after hatching according to feeding regimes
Figure 3: Pikeperch larvi feeding on Artemia nauplii
Combined supplementation of up to 14.5 percent phospholipids with EFA, Ω-3 fatty acids lead to the highest growth (see Fig. 2) and lowest anomalies. Survival was much lower for larval groups reared on the lowest phospholipid level PL1 and PLH1. The highest phospholipid EFA level improved enzymatic activity in the larval digestive tract, which was likely due to a higher
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www.almex.nl International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 49
Figure 4: Diagram of the experimental facility (UR AFPA, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France): a ten (two rows of 5 tanks) 700-L indoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) using mechanical and biological filters, as well as a UV sterilisation unit (same water quality in all tanks). Tanks 2-9 were used during the experiments, while tank 1 served as an additional moving bed filter
maturation of the gut followed by growth improvement. Several of the proteins expressed in the liver (which is the main metabolic organ in the body) such as FAS (fatty acid synthase) showed a marked increase, when larvae were fed low levels of EFA in the diets, suggesting a higher energy demand of these smallest larvae. An increase in dietary phospholipids from 3.7 up to 8.2 percent did not lower the incidence of skeletal deformities, but inclusion of 14.5 percent phospholipids significantly reduced the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies, and was lowest in larvae fed 14.5 percent phospholipids + EFA. Combinations of nutritional requirements and husbandry rearing conditions during early ontogeny are poorly studied in pikeperch. The substitution of marine oils with vegetable oils has reduced stress tolerance and caused neurophysiological changes in pike perch larvae, but effects of environmental cues are limited. Saline water influences on a range of physiological functions during early fish larval ontogeny and may affect FA metabolism, so that larvae are better able to convert non-essential fatty acids to essential fatty acids and thus have less requirement for essential fatty acids provided by the food (see Fig. 3). The results of an experiment with pikeperch larvae fed different sources of non-essential fatty acids and reared at three different salinities (0, 5 and 10 ppt) showed that salinity had no effect on the growth performance of the larvae. Larvae possessed a marked specificity to incorporate and esterify essential Ω-3 fatty acids especially ARA (arachidonic acid), EPA (eicosapentanoic acid) and DHA (docosahexanoic acid) into lipids. Salinity had no effect on the ability of larvae to esterify and incorporate unsaturated
PUFA precursors and thus to biosynthesise lipid classes containing essential fatty acids. A confinement stress test caused high acute mortality in all groups (50-70 percent); however, significantly lowest for a control group given high levels of essential Ω-3 fatty acids. The prevalence of severe skeletal anomalies was generally high, affecting over 75 percent of the larval population with negative effects by increase in salinity. It is recommended that essential Ω-3 fatty (EPA + DHA) must be supplied in diets of pikeperch larvae for normal development and to reduce stress sensitivity. The results pointed out a high occurrence of deformities and increased incidence at higher salinities.
Until now, several bottlenecks have influenced the reduced the success of pikeperch larval rearing. Three major bottlenecks have been identified: (1) high mortality due mainly to cannibalism, (2) high rate of deformities and (3) a large size heterogeneity between larvae cohorts at various ontogenic development stages. Using a pilot scale larval rearing system (RAS, ten 700 L tanks (see Fig. 4), and based on existing protocols used by the SMEs, successive experiments were conducted using factorial designs (four factors tested with eight experimental units) which are efficient methods to successfully optimise larval protocols. Such methodology allows (i) to integrate the effects of each simple factor tested and interactions between them, (ii) to rank and evaluate the effects induced by factors or interactions, (iii) to identify rapidly an optimal combination of factors that
Figure 5: Examples of two environmental conditions applied on pikeperch juveniles studies. White spectrum, 100 lx; Red spectrum, 100 lux.
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EXPERT TOPIC increase larval survival, and (iv) to establish a first modelling of the complex multifactorial determinism of output variables. This method has been already applied successfully in fish larviculture. Our objective was to study successively the effects of environmental, nutritional and population variables. For each experiment, the choice of these factors was a trade-off between data available in the literature and the constraints of our system (i.e. the impossibility for varying the temperature in each tank). From each experiment, according to results obtained, the most influential factors, and modalities were conserved and integrated in the following experiment in order to optimise the protocol. Effects of environmental factors: The effects of light intensity (5 or 50 lx), water renewal rate (50 or 100 percent per hour), water current direction (at the bottom or the surface of the tank) and time of tank cleaning (morning or afternoon) were studied. The multifactorial experimental design was based on the application of eight combinations of factors. From the spawn of a domesticated broodstock 500,000 newly hatched larvae (<1 dph) were obtained from the SME Asialor (Pierrevillers, France). Then larvae were distributed into eight tanks (62,500 per tank, 90 larvae L-1), where water temperature was initially kept at 15-16°C. Photoperiod was fixed at 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness with a progressive increase of light intensity (from 0 to 5 or 50 lx) from 07:30 to 08:00 and a decrease of light intensity (from 50 or
5 to 0 lx) from 19:30 to 20:00. Temperature was incrementally increasing by 1°C per day to 20°C. The frequency of feeding was a meal every 1.5 hours during the light period. Dissolved oxygen was maintained above 6 mg L-1. In this experiment (39 days), it was demonstrated that weaned juveniles of 0.50±0.06 g mean body weight can be produced in 5 weeks, but survival rates (0.3-2.6 percent) were very low. Finally, it appears that a water inlet at the bottom of the tank
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International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 51
is better to reduce size heterogeneity. Considering the growth results, we recommend to apply a light intensity of 50 lx, a water renewal rate of 100 percent, a cleaning of the tank during the afternoon and an inlet of the water at the bottom level. According to behaviour, this first experiment allowed us to know that it is possible to determine the “personality” of pikeperch juveniles and maybe highlight in a future experiment the link between personality and cannibalism. Effects of nutritional factors: a second experiment (53 days) was done in order to evaluate the effects of four feeding factors: the timing of the beginning of weaning (at 10 or 16 dph), the method of food distribution (continuous or discontinuous during the lighting period), the implementing or not of a co-feeding approach (6 day before the weaning period) and the weaning duration (3 or 9 days). Larvae (240,000, 30,000 larvae per tank ca. 43 larvae L-1) were obtained from the SME Asialor (Pierrevillers, France). The results suggest, that a later onset and longer duration of weaning followed by discontinuous feeding will improve larval survival, growth and reduce deformities in pikeperch populations. Effects of population factors: A third experiment (52 days) tested the effects of the initial larvae density (50 or 100 larvae L-1), sorting out fish jumpers (yes or no), stocking sibling or not sibling larval group (larvae from one or two females) and female weight (< 2.8 kg or > 3.3 kg). Larvae (420,000) were obtained from the SARL Asialor (Pierrevillers, France) and transferred to the UL experimental platform (UR AFPA, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France). Results obtained in the platform larval facilities suggest that the higher final biomass could be correlated to a higher initial larvae density (100 larvae L-1) and to the use of larvae supplied by bigger females, but independent of jumper sorting and the use of sibling population.
Identification of optimal combinations of factors
According to the best results obtained in the previous experiments, an optimal combination of factors (see Table 1) was proposed to improve pikeperch larval rearing and tested in the same rearing system using seven replicates (52 days).
Environmental conditions grow out
In the area of grow out, the studies identified the optimal conditions for improving growth and welfare of pikeperch in aquaculture and characterised the effects of major husbandry and environmental factors on growth and physiological status of this species. In a screening experiment, eight factors considered as relevant for the welfare of pikeperch were compared in two modalities using a fractional multifactorial design (28-4). Each experimental unit represented a combination of eight factors in two modalities which included grading, stocking density (15 vs 30 kg/m3), feed type (floating vs sinking), light intensity (10 vs 100 lux), light spectrum (red vs white), photoperiod (long vs short), dissolved oxygen (60 vs 90 percent) and temperature (21 vs 26°C). Fish sampling occurred on days 36 and 63. Stress markers – glucose, cortisol and brain serotonergic activity – and changes in humoral immune activities and immune gene expression in kidney were assessed. Light intensity and the type of feed clearly appeared as directive factors for pikeperch culture (see Fig. 5). The use of a sinking feed led to the best results in terms of final individual weight, the specific growth rate, and the weight heterogeneity. High light intensity affected survival. The main influence on physiological and immune status was imposed by light characteristics, including intensity, spectrum and photoperiod, as well as temperature.
Table 1: Applied modality for each factor. This combination of factors was repeated in 7 experimental tanks (n = 7). Factor Density Sorting of fish jumper Sibling or not sibling Female weight Feeding schedule
Modality 100 larvae L-1 No Not siling Large (> 3.3 kg) Discontinuous
Weaning start (dph)
Weaning duration (days)
Water renewal rate (tank vol./h)
Tank cleaning period Tank current direction
Morning Bottom to top
The Pikeperch species is sensitive to its light environment. Its preference for dark environments are explained by specific adaptations of its retina, including a tapetum lucidum that is a specific anatomo-histological tissue which greatly amplifies the eye sensitivity to light. It was shown that light intensity and light colours can both affect the vision of various fish species, affecting food intake, reproduction, growth and even survival. It is thus essential to maintain fish in an optimal light environment. However, the effects of the light environment, including the light intensity and the light spectrum, on the physiology and immunity of pikeperch, and more generally of teleost, are poorly documented. And considering results from the multifactorial experiment, an in vivo experiment was performed in order to further validate and deepen the effects of the light intensity and light spectra on stress status, humoral innate immune response and expression profiles of immune-relevant genes in pikeperch. A stock of 1000 pikeperch juveniles were distributed in 24 indoor 100L tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system. After an acclimation of 30 days in constant conditions (spectrum: white; light intensity at water surface: 10 lx; photoperiod: 12L(8:0020:00)/12D) new light conditions were applied, with six tanks per experimental condition: 10-lx white; 10-lx red; 100-lx white; and 100-lx red. Light intensity was measured at water surface and spectra included a white (industrial white—Osram, cool white 840 Lumilux) and a red colour (red filter, 610 nm; Loomis). Samplings occurred during scotophase at 04:00 and photophase at 16:00, at both days one and 30. To avoid repetitive stressful events on fish and potential artifacts on results, 12 tanks (three per condition) were assigned at each time of sampling. The results defined that the use of a high light intensity was followed by long-term stress and an immune suppression. Light spectrum has only little influences. In addition, results demonstrated that high stress status may have impacted melatonin production and secretion by the pineal organ. The drop in circulating melatonin and the increase in stress status may both be involved in the immune suppression. Extended information on the production of pikeperch can be found in the free-downloadable Technical Production Manual included in the project’s website www.diversifyfish.eu This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE-2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY). Further information for the project is available at www.diversifyfish.eu .
52 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
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International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 53
Industry Events 2019
13-15 VIV Turkey 2019 Istanbul, Turkey www.viv.net
10-13 SPACE 2019 Rennes, France http://uk.space.fr
19-21 Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2019 Chennai, India www.was.org
18-19 Aquaculture NZ Conference 2019 Blenhiem, New Zealand www.aquaculture.org.nz/conference
26-28 Aquaculture Philippines 2019 Manila, Pasay City, Philippines www.livestockphilippines.com
18-20 ILDEX Indonesia 2019 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com
Co-located with the Livestock Philippines and PhilMeat 2019 Expo presents the very latest innovations in aquaculture, fisheries and seafood. The successful launch of Aquaculture Philippines 2017, together with the 2nd National Aquaculture Summit and SEAFDEC Technical Seminar, set the pace for the 2nd edition of Aquaculture Philippines, from 26-28th June 2019, at a new venue, the World Trade Centre, which is co-locates the Livestock Philippines and PhilMeat 2019 Expo. The Philippines’ annual output for its aquaculture industry is about 1.3 million metric tons. Milkfish and prawns still dominate the aquatic farming produce in the Philippines. 2019
July 3-5 IndoLivestock 2019 Surabaya, Indonesia www.indolivestock.com
August 20-23 AquaNor 2019 Trondheim, Norway www.aqua-nor.no
Since 1979, Aqua Nor has been an important international meeting place for the aquaculture industry, and it is today the world’s largest aquaculture technology exhibition. In recent years, the Aqua Nor exhibition has drawn about 20,000 visitors from up to 76 nations to its halls. All the latest innovations of importance are presented to the industry. The aquaculture industry has grown tremendously during the years since Aqua Nor first opened, and technology, processes and services related to farming salmon, marine species, molluscs etc are represented at Aqua Nor. All the major aquaculture nations are present, either as exhibitors, visitors, or in official delegations. During Aqua Nor a number of seminars, mini-conferences, presentations, lectures and debates are organised to contribute to give visitors an up-date on professional information. In 2019 we are planning a new series of seminars following up on the topics covered in 2015 and 2017. 2019
19-21 VIV Qingdao 2019 Qingdao, China www.viv.net
December 3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France https://algaeurope.org
January 15-16 VIV health and nutrition Asia Bitec, Bangkok, Thailand www.viv.net14
14 Aquatic Health and Nutrition Asia Conference Bitec, Bangkok, Thailand www. aquafeed.co.uk
25-26 Seagriculture 2019 Ostend, Belgium https://seagriculture.eu The Seagriculture 2019 Conference gathers top speakers, who will share their know-how within seaweed for feed, food, offshore cultivation, biorefinery of seaweed and much more. Don’t miss this unique opportunity to network with colleagues from all over Europe within industry and research. The two-day program will go into the many different applications of seaweed that exist now and will combine plenary sessions with interactive poster presentations, trade shows and debate sessions, among others Seagriculture experts and professionals from all over the world will gather together in six plenary sessions to discuss seaweed biology, norms, regulation, seaweed economics and seaweed production. 2019
October 7-10 Aquaculture Europe 2019 Berlin, Germany www.aquaeas.eu
17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA www.namamillers.org
21-24 ☑ Aqua Expo 2019 Guayaquil, Ecuador http://aquaexpoguayaquil.cna-ecuador.com 31-2 Aquaculture Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan www.aquaculturetaiwan.com 2019
November 6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2019 Florida, USA www.afia.org
10-11 ☑ Aquaculture Innovation Europe 2019 London, UK https://aquaculture-innovation.com
20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica www.marevent.com
54 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
February 9-12 Aquaculture America 2020 Hawaii, USA www.marevent.com
4-5 Algae Tech Conference 2019 Madrid, Spain https://algaetech-conference.com
☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event
20-22 World Ocean Council Sustainable Ocean Summit (WOC SOS) Paris, France https://sustainableoceansummit.org
March 24-26 VICTAM Asia 2020 Bangkok, Thailand https://victamasia.com
VICTAM Asia is firmly established as an innovative event dedicated to the animal feed processing industry within Asia. The exhibition will be organised from March 24-26th, 2020, at the BITEC in Bangkok, Thailand. The conferences and technical seminars will take place simultaneously on the second floor. VICTAM Asia is the premier event for the sophisticated technology that is required in the processing and manufacture for the animal feed industry. The show also covers the important and very necessary ancillary equipment and systems that are utilised in a feed mill. 2020
April 7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia www.livestockmalaysia.com
AsIAN PACIfIC AquACulTure 2019 Chennai - Tamil Nadu - India June 19 -21, 2019 Empowering the Self Sufficiency in Food Security
All info: www.was.org Conference management: email@example.com Trade show & sponsorship: firstname.lastname@example.org
JUNE 19 - 21
International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 55
For more info on the CONFERENCE : www.aquaeas.eu
For more info on the TRADESHOW : email@example.com
For info on TRADESHOW & SPONSORSHIP:
firstname.lastname@example.org - www.marevent.com For more info on the CONFERENCE:
www.was.org - email@example.com Gold Sponsor
Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 19
Sustainable Aquaculture = for Social and Economic Development
November 20-22, 2019 HERRADURA CONVENTION CENTER (Wyndham) San José, Costa Rica Get our meeting mobile app
Seafood Security and SAFEty:
An Aquacult ure Pe rspe ct ive 4th Annual Aquaculture Conference & Exhibition
2-4 October 2019
School of Applied Science, Temasek Polytechnic, Singapore
Topics of Discussion The annual meeting of E A N CHA PT
Food Security - Sustainable Aquaculture Production Sustainability - Across the Aqua Supply Chain Innovation in Value Chains for Seafood and Nutrition Security
E R ICA N &
For info on TRADESHOW & SPONSORSHIP:
firstname.lastname@example.org - www.marevent.com For more info on the CONFERENCE:
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www.aquasg.com Tel: +65 6481 1722 | E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
56 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 57
Symposium 2019: Advances in eDNA-based Approaches to Fish Ecology and Management Over the last ten years the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) has become one of the most promising new approaches to obtain biodiversity data in aquatic environments, especially for fish. The technologies which underpin eDNA research evolve constantly, leading to a rapidly increasing quality and quantity of data. This has opened up exciting new opportunities for applied and fundamental research alike, but also challenges in terms of data analysis and interpretation. eDNA methods are rapidly penetrating biomonitoring for management purposes and increasing our understanding of ecological interactions within communities and of the drivers for biodiversity decline. Sessions on eDNA have become a regular feature of fisheries and ecological conferences but to date there has been no dedicated conference for eDNA research. This symposium will, for the first time, bring together the
international community of fish eDNA research and provide an overview of the field. We are adopting a broad definition of eDNA to include DNA which has not been sampled directly from the targeted organism, including DNA extracted from water and sediment as well as from faecal and gut samples. Topics will range from the development of methods to addressing fundamental ecological questions, as well as applied aspects of biodiversity monitoring, molecular food webs, population level analysis, metagenomics and much more. This symposium will take place at the University of Hull, UK on 15-19th July 2019. Confirmed speakers include Chris Jerde from the University of California, Elise Furlan of the University of Canberra, Alice Valentini, founder of SPYGEN and many more.
58 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
Women in Aquaculture seminar A seminar looking at ways to ensure greater gender diversity at all levels of the aquaculture sector is scheduled to take place in Berlin on October 9th, as part of this year’s Aquaculture Europe (AE2019) conference. Jointly organised by the European Aquaculture Society (EAS) and The Fish Site, the Women in Aquaculture seminar will offer first hand insights into how women can overcome perceived gender- related obstacles and build thriving careers right across the aquaculture sector. “Many promising young researchers and many of the top aquaculture executives from Europe and beyond will be in Berlin for the annual EAS conference and this special session aims to help companies engage with proactive strategies for building diverse workplaces,” explains Alistair Lane, Executive Director of EAS. The one-hour event will be co-chaired by Nofima’s Synnøve Helland, who is a board member of EATIP and leader of the Gender Panel of EURASTIP, and Rob Fletcher, Senior Editor at The Fish Site – which has been responsible for a number of women in aquaculture initiatives over the course of the last year. “The Fish Site ran a series of articles on women in aquaculture during 2018 – both to tell the stories of women’s achievements in the sector, and to help attract talented people. The series has had nearly 40,000 visitors, with readers eager to find out why these women chose aquaculture, how their careers have progressed and how their hard-won insights can help others succeed. We hope this seminar will help to build on this success,” explains Rob.
The event will include a panel discussion featuring prominent figures from academia and the aquaculture industry, who will discuss key issues related to the benefits of diversity in the workforce and ways to ensure that aquaculture organisations pursue recruitment policies that allow talented people, regardless of gender, to succeed. “It is vital for the further success of the industry that it can compete successfully for the best talents. This session is a unique possibility for managers from industry and academia to learn what measures are working, so that others can learn how to recruit the competent women as well as men,” says Synnøve.
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International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 59
THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.
More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.
An exhibit area of 16 Ha.
100 conferences over 4 days.
Free farm visits program.
Obtain your free pass on : www.space.fr
10 - 13 SEPT. 2019 RENNES - FRANCE +33 2 23 48 28 90 firstname.lastname@example.org
Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com
Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com
Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com
Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz
Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com
Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com
Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com
Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com
VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl
Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com
STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com
GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org
Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com
Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com
Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com
Colour sorters A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com
Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com
Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com
Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com
Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl
Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com
Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de
Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com
Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com
Coolers & driers Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com Muyang Group +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com
Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com
Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng
62 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
Feed and ingredients
Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com
Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net
Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com
Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com
APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt
Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com
Safety equipment A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr
PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com
Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu
Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu
Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu
Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com
FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com
Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com
Moisture analysers CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr
Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com
Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com
Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com
Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com
Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com
Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com
Nets & Cages
Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com
Muyang +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com
Sensors Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr
all industrial Plants sectors.
Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com
CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com
Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr
Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com
NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de
Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk
Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com
Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com
Second hand equipment
FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe
Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com
Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng
Probiotics Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com
Pulverizer (large fine) Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Roller Mill - vertical Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
International Aquafeed - June 2019 | 63
Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com
Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services
Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk
Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com
Wet expansion machine Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw
Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com
Bernd große Holthaus, CEO of Ge-Pro Bernd große Holthaus joined Ge-Pro in 1992 and has been dedicated to the animal meal industry for over 27 years. Ge-Pro’s various solutions for protein concentrates and feather meal have faithfully served the aquaculture industry for many years, establishing their position as one of the largest producers of feather meal in Europe.
What drove your own, unique passion, for the animal ingredients industry? How did you come to be involved in this industry?
I am the son of a family that has been active in animal production for many generations. I have chosen the profession of the farmer myself because it is my affair to grow up with the diversity of nature and the environment and to develop it further. So, I have come into this branch of the recovery of high-quality by-products, which are used today with versatility in the chain of sustainable food production.
What do you believe will be a big issue for the industry in the next five years, and what can we do to combat and resolve this issue?
A major problem is and will remain to be to convince the human and the consumer at the same time that the production of meat and other foods is the best and most sustainable way forward in Europe. Only together, in a united Europe, can we face the problems and cope with them. Another big problem will be the bureaucracy of politics and administration in Europe. Here it has to be successful not to inflate but to dismantle those. The protection of the climate and the environment is also the highest priority for our industry.
Your company has a very rich history in animal ingredients and nutrition, and you clearly also hold a great deal of passion for this sector. How would you recommend young people get involved in this rewarding, and in some ways not very well advertised, industry?
We have been working in this industry since 1965 and have continuously developed ourselves. We have also further developed in the field of qualitative improvement of proteins and fats and further developed in the field of reduction of energy utilisation and better treatment of wastewater and residues. Transforming the meaningful and sustainable recovery of byproducts from food production into high-quality proteins and fats is the best advertisement for our business. We have no problems with junior staff, and we are happy about the lively interest in our company.
How much of your research is aimed at improving the health of animals? How is this achieved?
Much of our investment goes into the continuous development of our products and production processes. A close and trusting cooperation and our customers and suppliers leads to ever higher quality products. To confirm this, we work very closely with universities and institutes.
What improvements do you think we will see in the upcoming years, that will help improve the feed industry- whether they be an alternative source of feed, or a new scientific breakthrough that could give feed a host of new benefits and refinements?
We already produce safe and sustainable products today. The non-use of these products in the food cycle would mean an irresponsible waste of resources. Ever more gentle manufacturing processes by, for example, air and spray drying, a better and more selective use and use of slaughter byproducts result in better conditions of use in food production, but also in humanitarian use.
How important is the aquaculture industry, in order for us to meet the protein needs for a growing global population?
Consumers need to be more involved with nature and available resources. There has to be a balance between the use of nature’s products, man and climate and environmental protection. Only when all this is sustainably coordinated, are we able to meet the growing demand.
Are your company working on any big project at the moment, that you think consumers would love to hear about?
Yes, we are constantly working to improve our products. This is the only way we have been able to offer more than 30 products from the original four products on the market today. Further developments are being made in the direction of alternative proteins and hypoallergenic products, which further contribute to the health of the animals.
64 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
THE INDUSTRY FACES
AFIA names new CEO
he American Feed Industry Association’s (AFIA) Board of Directors has selected Constance Cullman, current President of Farm Foundation, to succeed Joel G Newman as President and Chief Executive Officer of the association, upon his retirement later this year. She will also become the president of the industry’s public charity, the Institute for Feed Education and Research. Cullman will officially join AFIA on July 29th.
AFIA’s Board chair Bruce Crutcher made the following statement upon the announcement, “Over the past several months, AFIA’s Board selection committee has interviewed a diverse range of highly qualified candidates looking for someone who is a visionary leader with strong communications skills and is proven to bring together teams across the organisation and industry to lead on priority issues. Constance Cullman not only has a high track record of success, but she has the vision, integrity and passion for leading the US animal food industry into its next chapter.
BioMar appoints Managing Director in Australia BioMar is pleased to announce the appointment of David Whyte as the Managing Director of their new fish feed manufacturing plant in Tasmania. The plant, currently in its construction phase will be ready for commissioning in early 2020.
David is a marine biologist with 32 years’ experience in aquaculture production and supply companies in Scotland, Australia and New Zealand. David was the first Technical Manager at BioMar’s UK plant in the late nineties and returns to BioMar to lead the start-up of the company’s first Australian mill. Dr Patrick Campbell, Vice President of BioMar’s Salmon Division announcing David’s appointment said, “David will bring an impressive combination of experience to our business. He possesses a deep understanding of aquaculture built up over a lifetime in the industry. His breadth of knowledge and commitment to customers makes him ideally suited to lead BioMar Australia in the next phase of its development.” David will join the company in mid-July 2019.
VIV worldwide under new leadership from Asia
r Heiko M Stutzinger took full leadership of the VIV worldwide on April 1st, 2019. This includes all trade shows executed by VNU Exhibitions Europe, a fully owned legal entity of Jaarbeurs B.V.
Heiko recently started as Managing Director at VNU Exhibitions Asia-Pacific in Bangkok, Thailand. The directorship of VNU Exhibitions Europe and VIV worldwide, including related events and VIV Online 24/7, will be combined with his role as MD of VNU Exhibitions Asia-Pacific.
Heiko M Stutzinger
Former VIV worldwide Director, Mr Ruwan Berculo, will continue to be on board and boost new business initiatives like VIV Health & Nutrition, while making Heiko acquainted with the world of VIV. Over the past few years, VIV activities in Asia have gained significantly in importance. “With VIV Asia as the largest of all VIV trade shows and the recent launch of VIV health & nutrition Asia, it becomes absolutely logical to transfer leadership of VIV to the centre of future developments - this is the right moment to make this long-expected transition”, comments Ruwan Berculo.
Morten Lernes joins AKVA group
ernes holds a bachelor’s degree in Aquaculture Operations and Management from Nord University, as well as a degree in Finance and Administration from Norwegian Business School (BI).
“My ambitions in the short term is to get up and running and be able to work independently as soon as possible. In the long term I want to contribute to strengthen the consultancy department further - making new and existing customers satisfied in the process,” says Lernes. “We are very happy to have a person with such a solid industry experience joining our team,” Marie Engan, Head of Professional Services says.
New AquaChile CEO announced
ady Delgado has been announced as AquaChile’s new CEO. This very important position will secure Sady Delgado as CEO of the second largest salmon farm in the world, with an empire that consists of Los Fiordos, Friosur, Salmones Magallanes and AquaChile
“We want to form a single large company, integrating human teams, brands, customer networks, production systems and information, among other aspects. This will allow us to generate synergies to make salmon production in Chile and the world more efficient and sustainable, contributing to the development of the geographical areas where we operate, delivering the highest levels of service to our customers, and offering a high product portfolio. added value,” said José Guzmán. 66 | June 2019 - International Aquafeed
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