MAY 2019 - International Aquafeed magazine

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New-emerging candidate fish species

- Feather meal for aqua feed

International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 05 - May 2019

- Trust and consistency for sustainable aquaculture - The shrimp feed sustainability conundrum - The Monaco Blue Initiative - The Antarctic Endurance: A pioneering feat of marine technology

See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

- Hydro-optic ultraviolet disinfection Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

May 2019

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I just returned from the American equally well represented. Aquaculture 2019 show in New All four days of the show were Orleans, Louisiana. While my busy, with exhibitors seeing a healthy colleagues and I enjoyed this amount of visitors at their booths. This vibrant city, the show was definitely seems to reflect the rapid growth of the star of our visit. The event aquaculture and the increasing vibrancy is called the “triennial” because of the industry. it is a coalition of the National On a different topic, this month’s Shellfisheries Association, The issue features the second instalment Fish Culture Section of the from the DIVERSIFY Project, the American Fisheries Society, World five-year, 11.8 million euro study Aquaculture Society and the that evaluated six different fin fish Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed National Aquaculture Association. species for their suitability for intense This Triennial event is the largest fish farming. Last month we covered aquaculture conference and meagre; this month focuses on Atlantic tradeshow held in the world and draws nearly 4000 halibut. We are very privileged to be chosen to share the attendees from over 90 countries results of this five-year, EUR 11.8 million study with our You will find a full report along with photos of just some readers. of the highlights of the trade show. Meanwhile, a full This month we have a terrific mix of both nutrition and program of conferences ran, contemporaneously, from technology stories such as: Thursday through Monday, and the diversity of the fourProssential, Feather meal for aquaculture; Olmix Group, day program was representative of the triennial nature of Supporting gut health in fish and Diana Aqua discussing the event. protein hydrolysis. In our technology section we also have All forms of aquatic species where covered in the Aqua Optima’s intriguing story concerning RAS systems, lectures, from mussels and oyster reefs to shellfish health as well as information regarding Aker Biomarine’s new and diseases, shrimp and decapod crustaceans (such as krill-harvesting vessel, the Abtarctic Endurance. crayfish) and most of the commonly varieties of fin fish And as always, we are always looking for news and including zebra fish, and tilapia. Even some species such items of interest in the world of aquaculture, so if you have as largemouth bass and tuna that are not the usual found a story you’d like to share, please contact me at vaughne@ in aquaculture, were included. Both offshore and on-shore Thank you and I hope you enjoy this RAS-based aquaculture were month’s magazine. Aquaculturists - both those It was fitting that the 10th providing nutrition from fed edition of ‘Monaco Blue or non-fed species alike Initiative’ was held back should be major stakeholders at the Oceanographic in the challenge to reduce the Institute on the shores of the impact of human exploitation Mediterranean in Monaco last on fragile ocean eco-systems, month. yet this year’s MBI in After a decade of engaging Monaco largely overlooked conservationists and a range their role. of NGOs and stakeholders Aquaculturists work their associated with work related Roger Gilbert cages and farming operations to our oceans and Marine Publisher, International Aquafeed 24/7 all year round and have a Protected Areas (MPAs), MBI constant presence in the costal has achieved much in terms of and ocean spaces they occupy. They must be opening up communications, identifying critical seen as key potential caretakers or stewards in areas for intervention and connecting shorethe protection of the sea in and around their based communities all under the umbrella of operations and be included in the design coastal and ocean protection. and management of MPAs. The successful breeding and outgrowing They have much to offer including of the humble sea cucumber in Madagascar experience, knowledge, staff and is also celebrating its 10th anniversary and even financial support. Remote or is an impressive and timely example of how seasonal management of MPAs, where coastal communities can improve their income Aquaculturists are excluded, may generating powers while at the same time prove more costly and less effective in positively impacting shoreline and ocean achieving their objectives. conservation.

Conservationists celebrate the 10th MBI in Monaco See our special reports on the Monaco Blue Initiative event on page 26

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY downwards to 40cm below the surface of the One of the key process technologies required water. for intensive fish farming is dissolving oxygen These buoyant bubbles flow upwards, counter to gas into the farm water. There are many the downward water flow in such a way that the technologies available to accomplish this, downward velocity is not strong enough to carry ranging from simple low head oxygenators the bubbles out of the chamber, hence the only (LHO) to very elaborate, multi-stage way the oxygen gas can escape the Oxyflow® processes operating at elevated pressures and controlled by computers. unit is to become dissolved in the water. Bubbles What the commercial fish farmer really wants that break the water surface inside the unit Henning Gatz and needs is a simple, reliable process for are again subjected to the turbulence of the President of Aquacare Environment Inc. dissolving oxygen gas into the water that does downward jets until they become dissolved. not cost more than necessary and can be maintained by farm Thus, the goal of reliable, cost effective transfer of gaseous oxygen personnel without a huge time requirement. Above all it needs to be into dissolved oxygen is accomplished. While the oxygen use reliable, even during disruptive events like power failures. efficiency of the Speece Cone may be marginally higher than In 2010, JLH Consulting and Aquacare began an initiative to lower the Oxyflow®, the 5 x energy cost of the Speece Cone more than the cost of land-based intensive fish farming operations. This outweighs such benefits. initiative focused on two of the largest cost factors: pumping head and An example would be dissolving 10kg O2/h at 28°C into fish oxygenation. The pumping head has now been reduced by several farm water. The Oxyflow® requires 3.9 kW while the Speece Cone meters by lowering the biofilter and CO2 strippers to a level where requires 21.4 kW, a savings of 82 percent for the Oxyflow®. This gravity can supply them, and only pumping clean filtered water back translates into over US $18,000 savings per year with electricity to the fish tanks with high flow, low head pumps. This reduction in at $0.12/kWh. The savings are even better at cooler water pumping head led to another challenge: oxygenation with lower head. temperatures. These savings are due to the Oxyflow® operating at In 2012, we had the good fortune to meet the people at France 0.3 bar versus three bar for the typical Speece Cone. Oxygenation (FOX) who have developed and market a simple, The Oxyflow® and its related devices have been in use on fish reliable and efficient oxygen saturator under the name of Oxyflow®. farms in Europe since 1994. There is currently an installed base of over 200 units in Europe, 61 units in the US and Canada, and 33 in Upon closer examination, this unit process technology was exactly Australia. The Oxyflow® has a very reliable design, with no moving what we were seeking to lower the cost of dissolving large amounts of oxygen into the fish farm water, reliably and efficiently. parts or restrictive passages. FOX was established as a specialist oxygenation technology The traditional Speece Cone is somewhat similar but only with one company in 2005, after founder Bohumil Sevic developed the large jet at high pressure instead of multiple low-pressure jets that technology in 1977 as a research engineer for Air Liquide in create more oxygen/water contact area at much lower pressure. The France. He was able to retain the IP after leaving Air Liquide. Since LHO is also similar but loses head as water flows through it and is then Mr Sevic has continued to refine and evolve the technology to less efficient at dissolving oxygen. where it is today. Furthermore, the Oxyflow facilitates the oxygenation of all the Essentially, the Oxyflow® is an LHO that operates in a sealed water supplied to the fish tank, not just a side-stream loop, for more consistent oxygen levels throughout the tank. This has important vessel thus not breaking head pressure. Process water enters the benefits for the fish in the tank, with better mixing and more even top of the unit under mild pressure of about 0.3 bar. The water oxygen distribution inside the tank. The Oxyflow® can be combined next passes through a horizontal drilled plate with specially shaped orifice holes (number and size determined by flow rate required) with a constant pressure pump to maintain proper flow through the which jets the water downward though an oxygen atmosphere process unit under varying conditions. A barge mounted option is approximately 20cm deep. available for oxygenation of sea cage sites. When the jets strike the water surface below, they cause a high OxyFlow® is distributed in North America and Australia by turbulence and create a bubble cloud of pure oxygen that extends Aquacare Environment Inc.

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY KRILL: The Antarctic Endurance: A pioneering feat of marine technology - page 36

SPECIES EXPERT TOPIC: Atlantic Halibut - page 46

SHRIMP: The shrimp feed sustainability conundrum - page 24

Aquaculture round-up

MONACO BLUE INITIATIVE: Ocean MPAs to become more inclusive for all stakeholders - page 26

NUTRITION & HEALTH This society, that has traditional roots I am writing this from my home base, in animal production, celebrated 75 Llanelli in Wales, for the Easter Spring years since its foundation. At the break. It is a beautiful Carmarthenshire Scottish capital many famous names town steeped in the history of coal were present, such as Professor Colin mining, steel and tin production. It Whittemore FRSE, known for his is also abundant in good fishing and longstanding work on animal nutrition seafood with laver bread (seaweed) on and agriculture. our plates and sewin, wild sea trout in He gave an inspiring and thoughtlate summer and autumn. Professor Simon Davies provoking talk on our strategies One of the benefits of working in my Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed for research and interpretation of field is the opportunities to attend various experiments with some focus on our conferences and meetings globally. These current limiting statistical approaches and dependency on international venues were often out of reach in the past, due commercial funding driving the research agenda sometimes at to the pressure of academic activities and commitments in my the expense of fundamental blue skies research of yesteryear. university roles. In my present redefined situation, I am enabled to keep in contact with so many active researchers and technical In my aquaculture session, I had five speakers with Professor as well as academic staff in universities and companies involved Sam Martin of the Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Aberdeen as my keynote speaker who gave an in aquaculture. excellent review of his current work and the significance Although my main expertise is fish nutrition, I am increasingly of nutrition on the salmon immune system and effects of crossing the divide into the realms of fish immunology and alternative protein concentrates in our goal of reducing fish disease as we explore the importance of nutrition and diet meal and soybean inclusion levels in diets with novel plant composition on the complex processes governing immune ingredients. competence and defence mechanisms in fish and shrimp. My colleague, Dr Stephen Mansbridge from Harper Adams We now know that various nutrients can be vital in this University in Shropshire, England chaired a session on context and in particular specific amino acids, zinc, selenium pig nutrition with much emphasis on feed additives and and vitamin C, to name a few. The latter ascorbic acid is of supplements with functional properties. My university does importance as an anti-oxidant vitamin and as a co-factor in excellent work in mono gastric nutrition and the interaction hydroxylation reactions such as in the hydroxylation of lysine with our pig and poultry nutritionists provides an enriched that is essential in the proteins of the immune cascade and environment for knowledge exchange and offers huge complement activation. Fish too need a regular dose of vitamin advantages for our fish nutrition interests. C and especially under stress. It was a most encouraging meeting and our next venue will be at My recent trip was to the British Society of Animal Science the University of Nottingham where I am an honorary Professor 2019 event at the Edinburgh Convention Centre, where I of Nutrition Biosciences. After Edinburgh, I moved on to the chaired our second session on aquaculture, the first being in University of Stirling where I am an alumni and met with their Dublin last year. new Head of the Institute of Aquaculture, Selina Stead, exNewcastle University where I am also an alumni, so we had lots to discuss. The institute offers one of the best Sustainable Aquaculture Master’s degree course in Europe, with dedicated and experienced staff in all of the key areas and disciplines with extensive global connections and opportunities for students, and I will be endorsing their research and teaching qualities on my travels. After all, its where it all began for me! On other matters, I am fully engaged with collaborative work at the National University of Ireland, Galway and at the University of Los Lagos, Chile where I am soon to be a visiting professor and working on Pacific, as well as Atlantic salmon and seagrown rainbow trout. This, along with projects in Thailand, South Korea and Mexico, well into the next decade, will all help to keep my air miles active. I now mark 33 years in academia with little turbulence except for some strong head winds back in 2014, resulting in some unexpected detours and navigational changes, but my flight plan is on track for some more innovative work and a productive journey with leading and financially secure institutions.

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle

May 2019 Volume 22 Issue 04



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies Rebecca Sherratt International Marketing Team Darren Parris William Dowds Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 Design Manager James Taylor Production Manager Martyna Nobis

REGULAR ITEMS 8 Industry News 44 Technology showcase 50 Industry Events 62 The Market Place 64 The Aquafeed Interview 66

Industry Faces

Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy Communication Manager Pablo Porcel

COLUMNS 8 Antonio Garza de Yta 10 Dr Bernhard Eckel 14 Dr Neil Auchterlonie

©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at ISSN 1464-0058

46 Expert Topic - Atlantic Halibut Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new/emerging candidate fish species for expansion of the European aquaculture industry (DIVERSIFY). DIVERSIFY have kindly teamed up with International Aquafeed magazine to provide us with the results of the research carried out on the six species of the project.

FEATURES 18 Feather meal for aqua feed 20 Biodegradable, edible film kills pathogens on seafood 22 Trust and consistency for sustainable aquaculture 22 The Monaco Blue Initiative

THE BIG PICTURE Antarctic Endurance is the name of Aker BioMarine’s latest flagship vessel for krill harvesting, which began its first venture in January earlier this year. The 130-metre long ship is truly a technological marvel, with innovative harvesting technology on-board that ensures Aker BioMarine can quickly and efficiently harvest all the krill they need from the depths of the arctic. See more on page 35

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 36 The Antarctic Endurance: A pioneering feat of marine technology 40 Texas fish hatchery uses hydro-optic ultraviolet disinfection for treatment of toxic golden alga

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Sea Machines opens new technology centre in Boston

Antonio Garza de Yta We need to think and dream big

f your humble servant wouldn´t have never dared to dream, probably today I would be working on an obscure pottery plant in Santa Clara, Ecatepec, Mexico. For many, what I have achieved in my life might not be much but being able to wake up every morning and do what I love while trying to transform the life of hundreds of young aquaculturists and aquaculture in Mexico and in the world is a true honor and privilege. I was not born in a noble family, everything I possess I have earned with hard and honest work, and that is something I also want to spread among my colleagues, students and professionals around the world: No matter where you are born or where you come from, with passion and perseverance you can achieve your goals. Today, we are in the middle of a very interesting election inside the World Aquaculture Society (WAS) which has generated a lot of controversy; although none of the candidates have done any statements as of yet regarding why any of us want to head this organisation. Before anything, please let me state that my rival during this election is an outstanding person and professional as well as honest and hardworking; I consider it a privilege to be honored with her friendship. I would never issue a negative comment about her, so I will only limit myself to express the objectives or opportunities for improvement that I consider could apply to our beloved society. First, so it is perfectly clear, on the contrary to what some people have expressed, on my humble opinion WAS is not living a major crisis. As many have expressed before, I am confident that WAS is the best platform for knowledge exchange worldwide; in addition, we have a system of global conferences that practically let us reach the whole global aquaculture community. I don´t want to destroy what has already been built, on the contrary I want to build on top of what extremely committed people from all races, creeds, genders and countries have constructed during the last five decades. Over this foundation my proposals to strengthen the society are: WAS must increase its representativity among the aquaculture sector worldwide. Today we only represent 0.017 percent of the people that are working in aquaculture, so our global membership needs to increase considerably The proportionality in WAS should improve. We cannot consider we are a global society while 50 percent of our members come from one country. While Asia hosts 85 percent of the people involved in the sector, at WAS they only represent 25 percent of the membership. The proportionality must improve among the society as well as in the board of directors WAS needs to take a more active role on the promotion of aquaculture and start collaborating with other organisations on the promotion of the activity and its benefits; including the publication of white papers pro-aquaculture Any member that wants to participate on the board of directors should have the right to be included in the ballot. The pre-selection of candidates by the elections committee needs to be eliminated to avoid favoritism and inbreeding We need to improve the quality of our conferences, as well as the services we provide to our members. Those who have had the opportunity to assist to events of other organisations will agree that the opportunity of improvement is huge and that we need to get ourselves busy as soon as possible so we don´t keep falling behind. To some, the ideas expressed above might represent a dramatic change, for others something that is absolutely necessary; regardless, I will always respect the different perspectives and opinions of the members. I don’t want to play the minority card, I think only small-minded people can think that the value of someone is determined by his creed, race, gender, social status or any other kind of preference; the real value of someone comes from their soul, from their willingness to achieve things. No one can tell anyone else how far they can go because of not meeting the requirements of a club. We fix our own limits, so let’s think big. Always adding and multiplying and never subtracting or dividing we will reach our objectives. I hope I can count on your support. Antonio Garza de Yta, Ph.D in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture Global Consulting, Director World Aquaculture Society and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is currently Rector, Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas Bicentenario. 8 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed


S-based developer of autonomous vessel control systems announced today that it has opened a new advanced technology centre in Boston, US. The workspace, which is dedicated to accelerating product development and accommodating an expanding team, is located adjacent to the company’s headquarters and vessel testing sites in East Boston’s historic shipyard. The fully renovated space offers a collaborative, open working environment; expansive conference and meeting areas; and is near local restaurants, Logan International Airport and Boston’s public transit system. “The new Sea Machines technology centre is exciting as it enables us to collaborate more effectively and develop autonomous marine technology for commercial and government customers,” said Jim Daly, Chief Operating Officer. “The waterfront location and engaging work environment will be attractive to the region’s top talent and aligns with our core values of having fun while developing innovative new products.” Earlier this year, Sea Machines announced the establishment of a new global dealer programme to support the company’s sales across key commercial marine markets. The fast-growing programme includes many strategic partners who are enabled to sell, install, retrofit and service the company’s line of intelligent command and control systems for workboats. The company is also currently developing advanced perception and navigation assistance technology for a range of vessel types, including container ships. The company is currently testing its perception and situational awareness technology aboard one of AP Moller-Maersk’s new-build ice-class container ships.

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Dr Bernhard Eckel Aquaculture: The beneficial properties of plants

ood nutrition is a pre-condition for a healthy and productive life for humans (FAO, 2019). Therefore, we see a globally increasing demand for seafood (fish, crustaceans and molluscs) and growing consumer awareness of environmental sustainability and wholesome food. Combined with the limited natural resources of capture fisheries, aquaculture plays a central role in seafood supply. Aquaculture production has grown rapidly over the years, reaching the point where it accounts for approximately half of the total seafood production. Intensive farming is typically practised to maximise growth rate and minimise production costs. On the other side, intensive production can result in increased levels of stress for the animals, which in turn affects their health and performance. Important stress factors in fish and crustaceans are, for instance, disease and parasites, high stock densities, low water quality, and sudden changes in water temperature and/or oxygen levels. Aquaculturists need to manage carefully all aspects of aquaculture production that positively affect the welfare of the animals they raise and consider animal welfare as necessary for good growth, health, and a successful business. It is important to invest some time to look above the waterline. A lot of challenges known from swine or poultry production will also be encountered in the aquaculture production. Fish respond to stressors through their stress response, similarly to mammals. Following a stressful event, the hormone cortisol is released. The prolonged activation of the stress response has deleterious consequences on their physiology. These include loss of appetite, impaired growth and fitness, immunosuppression and increased mortality. Stressors such as environmental hypoxia and hyperoxia contribute to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in oxidative damage, because the fish are unable to detoxify ROS. Furthermore, oxidative stress can have an immunosuppressive effect and make the animals more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as Vibrio spp. or Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome (AHPND) in shrimp. Stress triggers inflammatory pathways generally associated with sub-optimal nutrients/energy utilisation and reduced performance. At farm level, this is noticeable as variable growth, decreased feed efficiency and high mortality rates. In order to ensure animal welfare and maintain animal health while at the same time striving to meet the ever-growing demand for seafood protein, aquaculturists around the world are looking for solutions that can help to master the challenges of intensive production systems. Innovative phytogenic feed additives, known to modulate the anti-oxidant capacity and the immune response at cellular level, have great potential for protecting the animals against different stressors and minimising stress-related losses in aquaculture production. In particular, polyphenol-based additives rich in flavonoids are reported to have beneficial effects on animals and humans. These plant extracts display anti-oxidant properties and improve the immune response of the animals as well as their health and performance. In view of the reduction of the usage of antibiotics in farming, one of the biggest challenges will be addressing inflammation and managing its effects on feed intake, performance and animal health. Feed additives, and especially phytogenics, have a great potential and represent a valid alternative that is worth our consideration. While paying attention on the above-mentioned topics, aquaculture may play the key role of, as the FAO recently put it, “feeding people by increasing the availability, affordability, and consumption of diverse, safe, nutritious foods and aligned with dietary recommendations�. Bernhard Eckel, an agronomist holding a doctorate in animal nutrition, got to know the industry from scratch. He established Dr. Eckel with founder and CEO, Antje Eckel and was the first employee. As Vice President Sales, he is responsible for sales both in DACH and ROW and thus plays a major role in the success of the company. 10 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

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Merck Animal Health introduces Aqua Care365®


erck Animal Health (known as MSD Animal Health outside the United States and Canada) recently announced its Aqua Care365® initiative to support fish farmers in their efforts to provide the best quality care for their operations. The program includes a series of employee training modules featuring industry experts; interactive quizzes; standard operating procedures (SOPs) and certificates of completion to document training. All are available at “Merck Animal Health is committed to providing the aquaculture industry with best care practices to advance the health and well-being of fish, which contributes to the ongoing success of our customers’ operations,” said Tim Kniffen, DVM., MS, Technical Services Manager, Merck Animal Health. “Covering topics important to fish farming provides valuable information to help reduce stress and prevent diseases, which are essential for a healthy food supply.” The first educational training module focuses on normal and abnormal salmon behavior and is taught by Jimmy Turnbull, BVM&S, MSc, PhD, ILTM, MRCVS, Professor at the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling. Turnbull encourages farmers to spend as much time as possible watching fish behavior, both on the surface and underwater, to gain an understanding of their behavior, as it changes day to day, pen to pen and in association with a variety of factors. “It may take observing fish for an entire production cycle before employees become familiar with the basics,” he says. “Fish typically move in a circular pattern in the pen, but their movement depends on their size, feeding time, light level and the water current,” explains Turnbull. “Being observant on the farm is important. Employees need to be trained so they know when to report abnormal behavior, as it may require immediate intervention for the health of the fish.” SOPs are included in Aqua Care365 to elevate care protocols. “I encourage farm managers to work alongside their veterinarian when drafting SOPs, as they know how a farm operates and what has been successful on other farms,” says Kniffen. “Well-written SOPs help train new employees and provide a backup when employees are needed to step in to do another’s tasks.” Merck Animal Health recognises progressive fish farmers depend on information from experts to minimise disease threats. Future training modules will be developed on the topics of sea pen handling and farm fish examination. 12 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

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Dr Neil Auchterlonie GFFC – What do we need to do to get fish recognised as a world force in the feed industry?


ne of the very fortunate aspects of working for the IFFO is that, in representation of the marine ingredients industry, we find ourselves attending very many interesting meetings in different locations around the world every year. March was an opportunity to attend the 6th Global Feed and Food Congress, held in Bangkok, Thailand, an event organised by the International Feed Industry Federation (IFIF). The Congress is held every three years, this year having a theme of “The Future of Feed & Food – are we ready?” This was a really interesting event that afforded the opportunity, that sadly only happens occasionally given time constraints in the normal day-to-day business, to think strategically about where the ingredients sectors, the feed industry and the food that is produced across the world for humanity is produced. A series of very interesting sessions and presentations was held over three days, from intergovernmental organisation representatives such as the FAO, academics, and other thought leaders in the field. The audience was treated to a view of the fourth agricultural revolution – that of digitalising agriculture, which included strong reference to precision livestock farming, and the application of new technology such as Blockchain in securing the traceability of animal protein production systems. For some time, we at the IFFO have been considering how Blockchain may have a role to play in the fishmeal and fish oil sector, so it was interesting to see what the adoption level is like in other industries. One of the more regularly communicated messages about the importance of managing environmental impacts was raised, and there was a very strong quote from one speaker that “we can only manage what we can measure”. With an increasing focus on the adoption of approaches that align with or adopt life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, this is coming increasing to the fore. Having been involved with similar work for the fishmeal industry, it is clear that the sector shows some favourable results in some categories and, as usual for the feed manufacturers, it will be a case of looking at all available ingredients with which to formulate nutritionally complete feedstuffs with good environmental performance. Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) also brings with it a very clear emphasis on the importance of customising nutrition. As has been discussed in this column many times before, that really drives forward a great opportunity for fishmeal and fish oil, which, although low in volume (comparatively), are high in impact through the nutrition they deliver in feeds, and especially aquafeeds. PLF really represents a fabulous opportunity for feed manufacturers to sue the materials strategically and to best effect in their products. One of the more, perhaps alarming, presentations was on the opportunity for lab-grown meats in the market. From the information presented, this looks to be close to commercial reality. It is going to be really interesting to see how the market for artificial meat and fish develops over time, if at all. Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 14 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

MSD completes acquisition of Antelliq Corporation to become leader in emerging digital technology for livestock


SD (tradename of Merck & Co, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ, USA [NYSE:MRK]), recently announced the completion of its acquisition of Antelliq Corporation from funds advised by BC Partners. The announcement positions the company as a global leader in animal health digital tracking, traceability and monitoring technology and complements the existing portfolio of vaccines and pharmaceuticals. Antelliq will be an operating unit within MSD Animal Health. “The animal health industry is rapidly evolving with revolutionary digital solutions to manage the health and well-being of livestock and companion animals with animal identification, animal monitoring and smart data management as critical components of this technology,” said Rick DeLuca, President, MSD Animal Health. “Through our commitment to the Science of Healthier Animals®, we are dedicated to advancing the health and well-being of animals and the people who take care of them. We are excited to take this step forward with Antelliq and its brands, Allflex Livestock Intelligence, Sure Petcare and Biomark, as we add market-leading technology and services, which extend the range of solutions we can provide to our customers.”

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2100 dm3 = 100%

Download the factsheet at: International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 15

VIV TURKEY 13-15 June Booth: D31 Hall: 9


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In land pre-fattening food systems for salmon


he company Feeding Systems SL (FishFarmFeeder), specialise in the manufacture of automatic centralised systems for aquaculture and has a line of feeding systems fully adapted to the precursor of salmon in farms on land. According to its CEO, the experience the company have gained in salmon pre-fattening installations on land in recent years, has now allowed them to standardise a series of automated central feeders to feed salmon on land farms. With their equipment they have achieved optimisation of feed conversion ratios (FCR), by increasing the number of daily doses considerably. Also improved is their savings in relation to feed consumption. As manual feeding is not necessary, these resources can be utilised towards other means. The correct use of dispersers also avoids having to make

continuous classifications and leads to faster feeding rates. All these improvements contribute to the welfare of the fish, which eat in a more regular and balanced way and are subjected to less stress. At FishFarmFeeder, they continue adding technology to their equipment. In order to have remote access and maintenance to the equipment, FFF have just launched an app for mobile devices at the beginning of this year, which will allow the farmer to monitor the feed system in real time and remotely.

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16 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 17

Feather meal for aqua feed: How to make the best choices


by Mélanie Guédon, Market & Product Manager Aquaculture, Prossential, France

or some years, feather meal has enjoyed growing interest from aquafeed producers. As a protein source, it has indisputable advantages for replacing fishmeal in aquaculture feed: nutritional advantages in terms of protein content and digestibility, but also economic benefits. However, not all feather meals are equal and their quality is closely related to the manufacturing process. Let’s see how to choose the feather meal you need. We’ll start with the process. Feathers are mainly made of keratin, so they are extremely rich in protein. But as such, they are not bio-available after a simple grinding. There is only one way to obtain a digestible feather meal: hydrolysis, which is literally defined as “a chemical reaction in which water is used to break down a compound”. Thermal hydrolysis, which is the conventional process, is simple in its principle: it consists in cooking poultry feathers in a quantity of water, at a given temperature and pressure, during a certain time, so as to break down the keratin chains in order to obtain, after drying, a digestible protein powder. From that point on, it is clear that all feather meals are necessarily hydrolysed, whether they are called “hydrolysed feather meals” or simply “feather meals”. It is also useful to know that the name “hydrolysed” does not constitute a distinctive sign of quality between the different feather meals offered in the aquafeed market, since hydrolysis is the only way to produce them. There are different products on the market in terms of protein levels and digestibility. Why? Which parameters affect the final quality of the products throughout the chain? And how to be certain to make the right choice?

Raw materials matter

To begin with, there is the raw material quality. Feather meal

will not be the same depending on whether the manufacturer uses 100 percent poultry feather materials or that its original blend is more heterogeneous and contains, even in small amounts, blood, necks, feet, or other undesirable parts of the animal. To collect pure poultry feathers, it is crucial to master the sourcing and to have engaged with poultry slaughterhouses— strict quality approaches to eliminate these undesirables. Another important element affecting feather meal quality is freshness and therefore the collection-to-process timing. The shorter it is, the less likely the raw materials will have time to degrade and the best chance to preserve all nutritional qualities.

The heart of the process

Hydrolysis: Hydrolysis, it has been said, is the heart of the process to obtain feather meal. It aims to break the keratin chain and destroy the potential pathogens present in the raw material. At this point, four parameters are important: the temperature, the duration, the pressure and the amount of water. The best optimisation of these four parameters is the guarantee of a good quality product, on both nutritional and sanitary sides. This is the heart of the manufacturers’ know-how. Drying step: The drying step for evaporation of moisture from the wet hydrolysed feathers resulting from the hydrolysis is the last step before grinding and sieving. Nutritional quality of feather meal is greatly affected by the drying step, meaning by temperature and residence time. Indeed, the higher the heat, the more the nutritional characteristics are degraded. The main challenge is to employ efficient drying (that is to say to obtain a moisture content lower than 8% which allows the stabilisation of the shelf life of the product), while preserving the nutritional qualities. It will, therefore, be necessary to limit the temperature and/or the residence time to the strict minimum. On this point, obviously, all processes are not equal. As we said, there are several qualities of feather meals. Although they may have the same name, their characteristics

18 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

are not the same. Producers jealously guard their manufacturing secrets and it is sometimes complicated to have precise information on the parameters of hydrolysis and drying.

So, how to choose?

As a last resort, there is price, which is often related to the quality of the product, and which reflects the level of technology employed in the process and the care of the raw material. There are some feather meals which are half the price of fishmeal. A price that must be justified by performance, and which remains very much lower than the price of fishmeal. That being said, aquafeed manufacturers need guarantees. In vitro analyses can give a certain amount of information (proximate composition and pepsic digestibility for example). But they do not provide sufficiently precise indications of the actual nutritional performance of the products in fish or shrimp, which can only be attested by in vivo tests. If you plan to replace part of the fishmeal used in your fish or shrimp diet formulas with feather meals, in vivo performances of the product must be taken into account. Only few manufacturers today have embarked on such tests and the communication of their results. Nevertheless, these tests will be an utmost important element for the choice of the quality of the feather meal and its incorporation rate in your pellets. In view of these objective criteria, feather meals within the Prossential range offer a number of concrete benefits. When

presented at the Aquaculture 2018 trade show in Montpellier at the end of August in France, they aroused interest. We have launched - and patented - a vacuum drying process that allows a reduction of the drying temperature and thus improves preservation of the nutritional qualities of the product. Since we control the full process from raw feather collection to transformation and production of the finished product in our plants in France, we can ensure a stable, high quality product all year round. In vivo trials on sea bream confirm interesting results for a high-rate substitution of this LT feather meal (low temperature) and inclusion rate of up to 15 percent. This feather meal drying process was not the only novelty presented in Montpellier. For 2020, a technological leap is announced. Its goal is to offer a “next generation” feather meal with even better nutritional qualities, but also enhanced organoleptic and physical properties.

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Antimicrobial Biodegradable, edible film kills pathogens on seafood


by Andrea Borodevyc, Pennsylvania, USA

biodegradable, edible film made with plant starch and antimicrobial compounds may control the growth of foodborne pathogens on seafood, according to a group of international researchers. “We have the ability to develop a film with antimicrobial activity that can kill foodborne pathogens on food surfaces,” says Catherine Cutter, Professor of Food Science, Penn State. “Given the recent outbreaks that we have seen with a number of food products, coming up with something that can be used by the industry to kill microorganisms on the surfaces of food is a noble area of research to investigate.” Seafood may be contaminated with bacterial pathogens, such as vibrio and salmonella. Vibrio naturally occur in marine environments, and salmonella can contaminate seafood during production or processing. Both types of bacteria are linked to gastrointestinal problems when consumed. Because both types of bacteria can survive long-term freezing conditions, the contamination of these bacteria is a concern for the seafood industry. Freezing does not kill bacteria. However, when freezing food, ice crystals can form from the water in food. The ice crystals, Cutter says, can act like “daggers” and pierce the bacterial cell wall, causing damage to the cell. “Vibrio and salmonella are somewhat susceptible to freezing,” says Cutter. “So, if you treat bacterial cells with antimicrobials and then freeze them, the approach can be more lethal.” The researchers from Thailand used a blend of thermoplastic starch, a biodegradable polymer made from cassava — tapioca powder, and a gelatine coating containing antimicrobials known as Nisin Z and lauric arginate (LAE). The team of researchers in Thailand then created a ‘culture cocktail’ of the bacteria and inoculated slices of tiger prawn and big-eye snapper. The experimentally inoculated seafood samples were tested, using different compositions of Nisin Z and LAE, to see which variations would give the ‘best kill.’

After dipping the samples into the edible film composed with antimicrobials, some of the slices were vacuum packaged and chilled for up to a month, and other samples were frozen for 90 days. “If you just dip shrimp into any antimicrobial — it’s not going to stick very well,” says Cutter. “But if you put the antimicrobial into an edible film, and then dip the shrimp into the film and pull it out, that film is going to form around the shrimp. The film then releases the antimicrobials over time.” Cutter emphasises the importance of a “controlled release” of the antimicrobials over time, in order to get the “maximum kill,” which is made possible by the edible film’s unique properties. Applying just the antimicrobials directly onto the food products would result in the antimicrobials dripping off or diluting. “If you’re going to make an edible film, you want to make a film that has similar properties to plastic,” says Cutter. “You want these edible films to be transparent, because consumers aren’t going to buy something they can’t see, you want them to be flexible, and you want the film to mould to the food product. By using edible films, you are doing it in a way that is biodegradable.” Cutter says a big challenge that the food industry faces is reducing the reliance on plastic packaging, something the food industry has been using for the past 40-50 years. “How do you get the industry to change something they and consumers are so used to using?” questions Cutter. “This research demonstrates, through proof of concept, that antimicrobial edible films work. So how do we get this type of packaging into a commercial application? That’s the next logical step in the progression of this type of research.” The team’s findings were recently published in the February issue of the International Journal of Food Microbiology. Others responsible for this project include Rinrada Pattanayaiying, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand; Amporn Sane, Kasetsart University, Thailand; and Penchom Photjanataree, Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technology.

20 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

Trust and consistency for sustainable aquaculture

“We’re improving the efficiency of marine proteins and using less resources to grow more healthy fish and shrimp. We believe our products are part of the solution to decrease the global aquaculture footprint”


- Jérome le Friec, Diana Aqua CEO

iana Aqua, worldwide leader in the manufacturer of natural and sustainable ingredients for aquaculture, hosted a series of seminars on March 12th in Bangkok, on the occasion of VIV Asia 2019. The event, entitled “PEPTI’DAY – Trust and Consistency for Sustainable Aquaculture”, gathered more than 100 people, including renowned scientists and aqua feed mill professionals from all over Southeast Asia. Diana Aqua has been developing, for more than 15 years, very advanced solutions based on peptides production and understanding. The event aimed to provide insights and share expertise on “The Peptides concept”, the DNA of Diana Aqua. During the first presentation ‘Adding Value to Aquafeed: A Success Story’, Dr Fabio Soller, Diana Aqua ASPAC Technical Director, talked about how challenges and adversities on a personal life story and a Diana Aqua collaboration story were overcome for successful and fruitful partnerships among managers/employees, and companies for a win-win solution. “Every person and company want to utilise their full potential and be the best they can be. But the road to reach this goal is full of hard work, self-evaluation, relationships assessment, and openness to new ideas. Collaborating with different people or companies typically is the best route to success”, Dr Fabio said. The second topic was about Protein hydrolysates, shown to be nutritious feed ingredients and aid in fish meal replacement in aquafeed with beneficial biological effects when fed as part of formulated diets, e.g. improved growth performance, feed utilisation and non-specific immune response. Diana Aqua protein hydrolysates generally have well-balanced

by Diana Aqua, part of Diana, the Nutrition division of Symrise AG, France amino acid profiles with its large proportion in the form of short chain peptides, produced from the native proteins during the protein hydrolysis; such bioactive peptides have been reported to possess physiological and biological functions including immunomodulatory, antimicrobial or antioxidant activities depending on their molecular weight and amino acid sequences. Dr Bundit Yuangsoi, Assistant Professor at Khon Kaen University, presented a study conducted in indoor and outdoor systems to investigate ‘The effects of different types of protein hydrolysates in different culture system on growth performance, feed utilisation and immune response of Snakehead fish (Channa striatus)’. The results of indoor phase and outdoor phase trials indicated that growth performance of fish revealed that gross weight was significantly increased with fish fed diet with Diana Aqua protein hydrolysate. Hematological parameters were similar among treatments, but serum lysozyme and myeloperoxidase levels increased significantly for fish fed protein hydrolysate. Overall, the study indicated that diet inclusion of the Diana Aqua protein hydrolysates could improve growth performance and enhance non-specific host defense mechanisms for Snakehead fish. Then, Dr Vincent Fournier, R&D Manager at Diana Aqua, shared his expertise on ‘Protein Hydrolysates Benefits and Mechanisms of Actions in Fish and Shrimp Feed’, demonstrating that, for many years, protein hydrolysates have confirmed their potential to improve fish, shrimp and feed performances. Diana Aqua has communicated (through peer-review publications, articles in specialised journal, conferences) on many results of trials conducted in fish and shrimp to make the proof of concept of protein hydrolysates. “It is today well established that the production of protein hydrolysate requires high expertise in hydrolysis processes and very specific analytical capabilities to guarantee high levels of standardisation as well as consistent hydrolysate peptide profiles and resulting performances in fish and shrimp”, said Dr Vincent Fournier during the conference. Understanding the mechanisms of actions of protein hydrolysates is also a very important question to address in order to better characterise the benefits of such functional ingredients. For the last five years, Diana Aqua has conducted a lot of research to understand how dietary protein hydrolysates modulate the animal metabolism.

22 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

There is now new evidence that protein hydrolysates enhance feeding behavior, nutrition and immune metabolism as well as gut health in fish and in shrimp. ‘The best practices of liquids application in aquafeed mills’ was also part of the programme. “Today, global demand for animal protein in aqua feed production is increasing year-on-year, with the operation cost of feed production increasing as well. Some of the challenges for feed millers are to reduce overall aquafeed cost and improve feed conversion ratio for the farmers. Processing feed with additives has been an important approach to maximise farm productivity, being a key success factor to overcome this challenge and achieve sustainable global food security”, explained Komkiat Kruepengkul, Technical Manager at Multi-Engineerings Co. Ltd. Liquid application in aquafeed is the state-of-the-art technology solution to support and enhance this new aquafeed revolution. The presentation highlighted the best practices in aqua feed liquid applications systems, such as liquid applications in aqua feed mill process, method and technology, liquid application system surveys before application, liquid applications equipment selections guides and liquid applications for hydrolysate in aqua feed processing. The last conference focusing on ‘Sustainability in Aquafeed Industry: What & Why?’, was presented by Chakrit Ridmontri, Project Manager at Asian AgriBiz. To produce more farmed fish/ shrimp to meet the current and future demand, we are left with no choice but to use feed raw materials and natural resources more efficiently. At the same time, we need to minimise environmental impacts as a result of our activities as much as possible. This is the fundamental that will make the aqua feed business thriving in the long run. Based on this, there are many things we can do to make

the industry, the environment, surrounding communities and the society sustainable. Chakrit Ridmontri went through a list of examples of sustainable actions such as ‘Reliance on renewable energy sources, clean energy, responsible sourcing, Less energy, high throughput.’ This Pepti’day was a great success and Diana Aqua intends to renew it in 2021, along with VIV Asia.

About Diana Aqua

With a proven performance based on ethically managed fish and shrimp AQUALIS testing centers, deployed in France, Ecuador and Thailand, Diana Aqua develops and delivers sustainable functional marine ingredients meeting fish farmer’s expectations around productivity, palatability and bionutritition. Testing their products in fish and shrimp is a key step for Diana Aqua before launching any newly developed functional hydrolysate. That is why they operate their own aquaculture testing facilities along with a worldwide aquaculture research network. Diana Aqua products are distributed under the AQUATIV range. Valorising marine co-products, Diana Aqua acts as a responsible and trustworthy partner contributing to the sustainable growth of aquaculture industry, providing advanced functionalities to the aqua feed players while enhancing aqua farms performance. Diana Aqua worldwide team works in close intimacy with a unique global network of technological and scientific experts to constantly deliver the highest quality standards in all its products along with an embedded top technology. Diana Aqua is part of Diana, a division of Symrise, a global supplier of fragrances, flavorings, cosmetic active ingredients and raw materials, as well as functional ingredients.

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International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 23

The shrimp feed sustainability conundrum: Substituting fishmeal with plant ingredients by Wesley Malcorps, PhD student, The Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK and Björn Kok, MatureDevelopment BV, The Netherlands


urrently, more than 50 percent of shrimp supply originates from aquaculture. The shrimp industry is one of the dominant consumers of fishmeal in the aquaculture sector. However, in order to meet the demand for a growing industry in the face of a finite supply of marine ingredients, feed manufacturers have decreased the inclusion of fishmeal in commercial diets. In 2000, 19-40 percent fishmeal was included in shrimp feed, however, that fell to 11-23 percent in 2014. Over the years, and in response to fishmeal price increases, fishmeal has been increasingly substituted by plant ingredients. This approach is widely recognised as being more environmentally friendly due to the reduced pressure on the marine environment. However, substituting fishmeal in aquaculture feeds with plant ingredients may not be as beneficial for the environment as many people think, according to a new study. This research was conducted by an international and multidisciplinary team of experts and academics from the aquaculture industry and beyond, including; MatureDevelopment BV (The Netherlands); Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling (UK); Research Institute for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Belgium); Mexico Aquaculture Research Inc (Mexico); Association of International Seafood Professionals (Australia); Aquaculture without Frontiers (USA); Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas (Mexico); IFFO, The Marine Ingredients Organisation (UK); Utrecht University (The Netherlands); University of Zürich (Switzerland); and Harper Adams University (UK). The study assessed the impact on marine and terrestrial

resources, such as fish, land, freshwater, nitrogen and phosphorus by modelling incremental fishmeal substitution, from 20-30 percent to zero, by plant ingredients. This includes ingredients, such as soybean meal concentrate, rapeseed meal concentrate, pea protein concentrate and corn gluten meal, commonly included in modern shrimp feeds for the two main shrimp species produced globally, whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) and black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The results show that complete fishmeal substitution by plant ingredients could lead to an increasing demand for freshwater (up to 63 percent), land (up to 81 percent), and phosphorus (up to 83 percent). These are significant increases, as only a share of 20–30 percent of the feed is actually substituted. This is mainly caused by the inclusion of resource-intensive crops and their derived ingredients to meet nutritional requirements, such as soybean meal concentrate, rapeseed meal concentrate and pea protein concentrate. These ingredients caused a considerable rise in freshwater, land and phosphorus use. However, nitrogen demand remained relatively stable in most scenario’s, which is caused by crops requiring little to no nitrogen fertiliser, due to their ability to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Nevertheless, some of these crops use relatively more phosphorus, explaining the increase in demand of this valuable resource, already heavily strained under existing agricultural demand.

Complex dietary requirements

Additionally, it must be noted that complete substitution of fishmeal and fish oil with plant-based ingredients, without affecting shrimp performance, is very difficult. This is caused by the complex dietary requirements of shrimp

24 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

species. Therefore, a small percentage of fish oil remains in the diet when all fishmeal is substituted, explaining the remaining demand for fish in the feed formulation. Increasing dependency on plant ingredients could lead to competition for agricultural crops from a terrestrial system and its essential resources, which are already under pressure to meet global demand for food, feed, biofuels and bio-based materials. These additional pressures on essential agricultural resources could lead to socio-economic and environmental implications, which may affect the resilience of the global food system. Additionally, increasing dependency on plant ingredients for aquafeed could also affect the nutritional value of farmed seafood. An excessive dependency on the use of plant ingredients for aquaculture could lead to deleterious effects on the environment and indirectly impact human health by altering the nutritional value of the aquaculture products, likely underestimating the impacts of this feed transition. Consequently, even though the production of shrimp feed (or aquafeed in general) utilises only a small percentage of the global crop production, a shift from fishmeal to plant ingredients should not be taken for granted as a sustainable solution, to meeting a rapidly expanding (shrimp) aquaculture industry.


The potential to improve

There is much potential to improve the sustainability of feed for (shrimp) aquaculture. First, fishmeal can be used more strategically in various aquafeed formulations. This requires more research and innovation in order to optimise its value in relation to alternative ingredients. Strategic management and utilisation of fish by-products shows potential for higher resource use efficiency of valuable marine resources. Additionally, improvement of feed conversion ratios, side streams up to 30–40 percent of the global food system, and novel protein sources might allow acceptable solutions to supplement high quality fishmeal. Promising supplements include the innovative use of byproducts and novel ingredients, such as microbial biomass, insect meal, yeasts, micro/macroalgae and macrophytes. All these options should be explored further. As well as innovative production systems, such as integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), biofloc systems and aquamimicry, reducing feed use and its embodied resources. Such a feed strategy would contribute to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations. This would enable the shrimp farming industry to operate and contribute in a sustainable manner to global food security and the economy, providing the much needed highly nutritionally valuable seafood. The paper, ‘The Sustainability Conundrum of Fishmeal Substitution by Plant Ingredients in Shrimp Feeds’ is available at the open access journal ‘Sustainability’. Malcorps, W.; Kok, B.; van ‘t Land, M.; Fritz, M.; van Doren, D.; Servin, K.; van der Heijden, P.; Palmer, R.; Auchterlonie, N.A.; Rietkerk, M.; Santos, M.J.; Davies, S.J. The Sustainability Conundrum of Fishmeal Substitution by Plant Ingredients in Shrimp Feeds. Sustainability 2019, 11, 1212.

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International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 25


Aquaculture round-up

Ocean MPAs to become more inclusive for all stakeholders by Roger Gilbert, Publisher, International Aquafeed

Launched in 2010 on the initiative of HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco, the MBI is a platform for discussion that is co-organised by the Oceanographic Institute, the Prince Albert I of Monaco Foundation and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation. Its members meet annually to discuss current and future challenges of ocean management and conservation. The 10th meeting clarified the ambition and method necessary for setting the scene for the post-2020 period, when current global MPA targets are set to be achieved.


he 10th edition of the Monaco Blue Initiative (MBI) convened to discuss the importance of ecological and social networks for ensuring the effectiveness of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as well as their links with the wider economy of the ocean on Monday, 25th March, 2019 at the Oceanographic Institute of Monaco. The three-session event with keynote presentations, gathered more than 140 participants representing international organisations, governments, academia, NGOs and the private sector. HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco opened the meeting, stating that the MBI helped put MPAs on the international agenda. He stressed the role of MPAs as an effective tool against the threats facing the ocean, as well as their economic benefits. He highlighted that challenges ahead include the need to reinforce existing MPAs and to increase both their and network. He warned that vague MPA categories could lead to confusion and called for precise goals and a global vision for implementing new MPAs. Finally, he underlined the importance of involving all stakeholders in assessing different options for MPAs.

Session 1: How to collectively continue developing MPAs whilst ensuring their efficiency

Chaired by Jane Lubchenco, Oregon State University, her panel brought together: Romain Renoux, Association for the Sustainable Financing of Mediterranean MPAs; François Houllier, CEO, Institut français de recherche pour l’exploitation de la mer (Ifremer); Mark J Spalding, President, the Ocean Foundation, and Ricardo Serrão Santos, Member of the European Parliament (in absentia). Dr Lubchenco introduced the key issues of: MPA definitions and objectives; progress, challenges and ambitions; MPAs and economic development, and MPAs in the wider context of the sustainable use of biodiversity. She stressed the need to address three specific questions on MPAs: What can be considered an MPA; when can an MPA be considered a true protected area; what

26 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture round-up

are the different levels of protection for MPAs? She highlighted that a coalition of governmental and NGO partners will soon release an MPA guide that will help harmonise the language used to describe MPA stages of establishment and levels of protection to inform work on the post-2020 agenda of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Point made by – Serrão Santos (words in absentia and transmitted by Dr Lubchenco) said there is nothing worse than inefficient MPAs or ‘paper parks’ to discredit MPAs. He stressed the problem is not that the targets are too ambitious in terms of area coverage, but rather bad implementation of these targets. Romain Renoux focused on the Mediterranean, of which seven percent of the area is covered by MPAs but less than 0.05 percent by MPAs with strong protection (no-go MPAs). He stressed the problem of insufficient and sporadic funding for ensuring effective management of these MPAs, with only 12 percent of the financial needs covered for the region. François Houllier highlighted the lack of scientific knowledge for marine conservation and stressed the specificities of MPAs regarding species connectivity and the absence of strict boundaries in the ocean. He highlighted the role of research institutes for filling knowledge gaps and for supporting public policy by demonstrating the benefits of establishing MPAs. Mark Spalding recalled that MPAs are tools to manage human activities. The goal is to decrease anthropogenic pressures in order to maintain life in MPAs. He reflected on the success of the previous 10 years and stressed that MPAs require political will. He then highlighted that the ocean is the common heritage of all humankind, and that this should be reflected in the negotiations on the protection of marine biodiversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction.

Session 2: How do coherent MPA networks contribute to protecting species?

This session was chaired by Alexander Tudhope, Professor, University of Edinburgh. His panellists included: Rachel Graham, CEO, MarAlliance; Haydee Rodríguez, Vice Minister of Waters and Seas, Costa Rica; Serge Planes, Research Director, National Centre for Scientific Research, France; Olivier Laroussinie, Deputy Delegate to the Sea and Coastline, Ministry for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition, France and Purificacio Canals, President, Mediterranean Network of Marine Protected Areas (MedPAN). Professor Tudhope said essential elements for successful MPA networks are recognition of diverse life histories and ecological connectivity’s, as well as explicit support for MPA managers and other key stakeholders to form communities of practice and sharing. Point made by Rachel Graham said what galvanised the creation of MPAs was the protection of species, but that data was missing on these species and the way forward is to rely on and empower local and traditional communities. She highlighted that community-driven MPAs are the most successful, due the high level of compliance. Haydee Rodríguez presented the specificities of Costa Rica in terms of biodiversity protection, stressing that what has been done on land should now be done at sea while Serge Planes stressed the recurrent oppositions between local and national interests in MPAs, and the importance of building networks of communities inside and outside. Olivier Laroussinie discussed how to link national MPAs to

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International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 27

Aquaculture round-up

larger ecological networks when these networks cross different jurisdictions. He stressed that some tools already exist and that more coherence is required between them. Purificacio Canals talked about the importance of having networks of managers to improve the effectiveness of MPAs, stressing that actions must be based on scientific and traditional knowledge, as well as on social skills.

Roadmap, and the result of a debt swap mechanism that allows the financing of MPAs through a trust fund. Abdou Karim Sall presented the MPA Joal Fadiouth in Senegal, which is based on a shared governance mechanism between government and local communities, with the objectives of improving both biodiversity, conservation and the socioeconomic conditions of local communities.

Session 3: What is the next step after the evaluation of ecosystem services?

Closing notes

Maria Damanaki, Global Managing Director, The Ocean Conservancy, chaired this session. The panel included: Peter Herzig, Director, GEOMAR; Olivia Langmead, Plymouth University; Mia Pantzar, Institute for European Environmental Policy; Vincent Meriton, Vice-President of the Republic of Seychelles; and Abdou Karim Sall, President, MPA; Joal Fadiouth, Senegal. Ms Damanaki introduced the session by stressing that if ambitious goals for MPA implementation requires financing and that the private sector must be at the table. She called for the creation of a ‘coalition of actors’ for financing MPAs. Points made by Peter Herzig called for: half the oceans to be covered by MPAs by 2050; making the Southern Ocean and the High Seas an MPA; strong protection, that is “no take, no change, no impact”; more solution-oriented research and internationally binding rules. He also questioned why there was a European Space Agency but no European Ocean Agency, and an International Seabed Authority but no International Ocean Authority. Olivia Langmead said one of the main limitations being the availability and quality of data on how species and habitats support the delivery of ecosystem services. Her modelling approach explores the linkages between seabed habitats and their potential to provide ecosystem services. Mia Pantzar talked about growing evidence of tangible economic benefits from MPAs in Europe, in terms of income and new jobs. However, she highlighted the lack of robust empirical evidence with most of the numbers being extrapolations from models. Vincent Meriton said the Seychelles’ blue economy was built on four pillars: food and nutrition; economic diversification; maritime safety and security, and protection of marine and coastal ecosystems. He presented the Seychelles’ Marine Spatial Plan, a governmentled, multi-stakeholder process. According to the Plan, 15 percent of Seychelles waters will be under strong MPAs, 15 percent under a sustainable use regime and 70 percent for multiple uses. He explained that this Plan was part of his country’s Blue Economy

François Simard concluded the meeting by stressing that for MPAs to be effectively and equitably managed, more work needs to be done on: partnerships, connectivity aspects and MPAs’ integration into the wider seascape and blue economy. He highlighted the emerging discussion about including in the negotiations on the High Seas the concept of common public goods as this new UN treaty is of concern for all of humankind.

Points from Keynote Addresses

Brune Poirson, French Secretary of State to the Minister for the Ecological and Inclusive Transition, highlighted the need for more ambition for the ocean. She stressed that the ocean is currently seen as a lever of economic opportunity, but that sustainability and MPAs should be at the heart of the discussion. She also underlined the issue of financing for biodiversity protection, insisting that the money should come from those who harm biodiversity Karmenu Vella, European Commissioner for the Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, highlighted the EU’s MPA network, which is equivalent in size to Spain, but noted significant differences in coverage and implementation across regions. He stressed that well-managed MPAs benefit the economy and highlighted the work of the EU to help create MPAs in Africa and the Caribbean and train MPA managers Chuanlin Huo, Deputy Director General of the Department of Marine Ecology and Environment, Chinese Ministry of Ecology and Environment, said China promotes “a community of shared destiny” based on its experience in fighting pollution. He outlined China’s progress on MPAs including: expansion of the network; an MPAs roadmap in several provinces; improvement of the legal system for MPAs; establishment of marine monitoring stations for long-term research and action at international level José Apolinario, Portuguese Secretary of State for Fisheries, underlined his country’s efforts to lead the race on MPAs in Europe and announced that the Second UN Ocean Conference will be held in Lisbon in June 2020. He also stressed the creation of a coalition of Portuguese stakeholders that brings knowledge and expertise upon which to design new MPAs.

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Aquaculture round-up

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Aquaculture round-up


Opening remarks of HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco (Photo credit: Thierry Chopin)

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs): Beyond the target numbers, we have to ensure their effectiveness

A by Thierry Chopin

t the end of March, I had the pleasure of participating in the Monaco Blue Initiative (MBI) for the fourth time. This conference, initiated in 2010 by HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco, is a platform for dialogue and networking coorganised by the Oceanographic Institute, Prince Albert I of Monaco Foundation and the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation. Its members meet annually to discuss the current, and anticipate future, global challenges of ocean management and conservation. This year, the tenth edition of the MBI, 145 participants discussed topics related to marine protected areas (MPAs), including the ambition and actions needed to set the scene for the post-2020 period (when the current target to conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas is to be achieved), the importance of ecological and social networks for ensuring the effectiveness of MPAs, and the links between MPAs and the economy of the ocean. The meeting, convened under the presidency of HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco, took place in Monaco, after being held in Edinburgh last year. In his opening remarks, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco stressed the role of MPAs as an effective tool against the threats facing the ocean, as well as their economic benefits.

The need to go beyond the target number game

The overall MPA progress to date is that 14,882 MPAs have been reported, covering 7.59 percent of the Oceans. However, only 4.8 percent of the MPAs are implemented and actively managed; approximately 2.2 percent are in strongly protected no-take marine reserves. The overall distribution is extremely skewed, with just 20 of the largest MPAs contributing about 70 percent of the total reported coverage. Thierry Chopin raising the topic that certain types of aquaculture and fisheries could be compatible with MPAs (Photo credit: CĂŠdric Fruneau)

In the Mediterranean Sea, 7.14 percent of the sea surface is covered by MPAs, with only 0.04 percent being no-go or nofishing zones. Only 12 percent of the funding is in place to allow MPAs to be effectively managed. During the conference, it became clear that the global community may meet the 10 percent quantitative target by 2020, but will clearly miss meeting the qualitative elements to have all these MPAs actively, efficiently and equitably managed and well connected (development of corridors, as is already done on land for biodiversity protection). In Canada, as of April 25, 2019, 8.27 percent of marine and coastal areas are contributing to marine conservation targets. On that date, the Government of Canada adopted a new approach to marine conservation by distinguishing two forms of protection: MPAs and marine refuges. Four key industrial activities will be prohibited in MPAs: oil and gas activities, mining, dumping and bottom trawling. Marine refuges will offer more targeted protection to species and their habitat from the impacts of fishing (note: the announcement is silent on aquaculture). Activities will be assessed on a case-by-case basis, and will be allowed if they are consistent with the conservation objectives of a specific area. This is presented, by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, as a balanced approach providing high levels of environmental protection, while also recognizing and allowing for economic activities, not harmful to sensitive areas, to continue to take place.

Asking the right questions and bringing clarity to be able to progress

Jane Lubchenco (Oregon State University) chaired the first session of the conference, which was well-organised and very instrumental in clearly positioning the issues: how to collectively continue developing MPAs whilst ensuring their efficiency? When do we start to count a MA as really protected? When it is announced/proposed; when it is legally designated; when it is implemented; or when it is actively managed? That will seriously affect the percentages of the reported truly operational MPAs. Reflecting the goals and priorities of communities and governments, MPAs vary hugely in the uses/activities allowed or disallowed, and in their conservation outcomes. For example, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) recognises seven types of reserves, with types V and VI allowing some sustainable activities. Jane Lubchenco indicated that a MPA Guide will soon be released to harmonise and clarify the language used to describe the MPA stages of establishment and levels of protection. As underlined by HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco, during his welcome address, clarity and transparency will be needed to

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Aquaculture round-up

avoid confusion and lack of efficiency, and it will be important to involve all stakeholders in assessing different options for MPAs.

Economic benefits and buy in by local communities are essential for the proper functioning of MPAs

One of the key issues in the adoption and implementation of MPAs, and, therefore, resistance to their development, can be the local human populations, that, if not involved from the beginning in the process, can feel displaced, devolved of responsibilities and without jobs. I pointed out that if we want economic development/economic benefits/buy in by and for the local populations, then, some kind of activities should be allowed as long as they are compatible with the goals of an MPA. To my surprise, if some types of aquaculture and fisheries were part of the discussion during the three previous MBI editions I participated in (SĂŁo Paulo in 2016, Monaco in 2017 and Edinburgh in 2018), they appeared to be kind of white elephants (white whales?!) in the room for the 2019 edition of the MBI, until I intervened in the afternoon. I believe that certain types of aquaculture, like integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), and certain types of fisheries, are truly compatible with the objectives, management and governance of MPAs. However, if we want to progress in this discussion, we need to evolve beyond this emotional, negative reaction, so frequent in Europe and North America, where the perception is that aquaculture can only be equated to salmon aquaculture. Aquaculture is needed urgently as food production systems that can be sustainable for providing food and health benefits to an ever-increasing human population. It is important to have in mind that, worldwide, 51.2 percent of mariculture is seaweed aquaculture, 28.7 percent is mollusk aquaculture and 11.2 percent is finfish aquaculture; salmon aquaculture is just a fraction of these 11.2 percent. So, there are aquaculture practices other than salmon aquaculture throughout the world and we should not reject them a priori.

Recognising and valuing the ecosystem services provided

The need to properly estimate the ecosystem services of MPAs was noted by several speakers. The question of how to use these tools to help integrate their values into the blue economy development was raised. It was noted that we are starting to have good data on provisioning services, but that there are still some gaps in the valuation of supporting, regulating and cultural services. I made the point that extractive aquaculture (seaweeds and International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 31


Aquaculture round-up

invertebrates) provides several ecosystem services. For example, seaweeds 1) are excellent at recovering and remediating dissolved nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon; 2) in an IMTA setting, they can be cultivated without fertilisers and agrochemicals; 3) they do not need to be irrigated at a time when water is becoming a pressing issue on this planet; 4) their cultivation does not need more arable soil nor deforestation; 5) they can be used for habitat restoration; 6) they provide oxygen, while all other aquaculture components consume oxygen; 7) by sequestering carbon dioxide, they can participate in slowing down global warming; 8) they can also participate in reducing coastal acidification; and 9) their participation in a multi-crop diversification approach can be an economic risk mitigation and management option for addressing pending climate change and coastal acidification impacts.

Improving the effectiveness of MPAs

The concepts of ecosystem services and natural capital should help in valuing intangible benefits into tangible economic benefits from MPAs. I believe that the types of aquaculture and fisheries compatible with the management of MPAs could be part of the bio-economic development tools and benefits to use when moving towards sustainable and actively managed MPAs in different parts of the world, including in Canada.

The MPA Guide – The conservation outcomes will be a result of the level of protection provided and the stage of establishment reached by the MPAs (Photo credit: Thierry Chopin)

By being involved in driving the management of MPAs strategically, local communities could gain resilience, and buy more willingly into the process leading to successful MPAs, with high levels of compliance. If a number of speakers at the MBI were recommending being bold in our ambitions, specifics as to what actions to undertake were not always provided. However, some interesting case studies were provided such as the Marine Spatial Plan for the Seychelles: 15 percent of the waters will be under strong protective MPAs, 15 percent under a sustainable use regime and 70 percent for multiple uses; the financing of the MPAs is secured through a trust fund resulting from a debt swap mechanism.

Remaining bold to go beyond the 2020 targets

HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco and Thierry Chopin both wearing the tie of the National Federation of the Order of the Maritime Merit of France (Photo credit: Cédric Fruneau)

During this tenth edition of the MBI, Thierry Chopin had the great pleasure and honour to present HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco with a tie and a commemorative medal of the National Federation of the Order of the Maritime Merit of France, an Order of which they are both members. In fact, the colours of the ribbon of the Order fit them perfectly: the background is ultramarine blue with two green borders on each side. Thierry Chopin has always said that there is a need to make the Blue Economy greener, and, therefore, that we should now think of the Turquoise Economy, especially with regard to aquaculture, which, if developed properly (as with integrated multi-trophic aquaculture systems) can be compatible with the development of marine protected areas. Thierry Chopin was pleasantly surprised when he saw the Prince wearing the tie to the end of the conference; a gesture for which he was very appreciative, as was the National Federation of the Maritime Merit. This side event of the conference was also a testament to the commitment of the Prince to the world of the sea and seafarers from all ways of life.

The tenth edition of the MBI was useful for taking stock of the situation in 2019 and reassessing what will be needed in the post2020 period, after the current global MPA target will, hopefully, have been achieved. A lot remains to be done and bold/ambitious actions need to be taken if we want to go beyond merely announcing proposed MPAs to having MPAs that are really effective, connected, and actively and equitably managed, with high compliance levels and full valuation of the ecosystem services they – and the compatible, sustainable activities within – can provide. François Simard (IUCN), in his closing address, emphasised where we need to step up to deliver real tools demonstrating real economic benefits to be full player in the development of a greener Blue Economy (what I like to call the Turquoise Economy). There is a need for clarity and transparency to gain efficiency, and for partnerships and networks to build capacity for effective management. Local communities need to be empowered to co-drive processes with the different levels of government, in which interdisciplinary approaches allow to integrate natural and societal sciences with traditional knowledge. Initiatives need to be adequately funded in the long term so that what may presently be intangible benefits become real economic benefits, that will provide full valuation to MPAs, whose existence and place within the economy of the ocean will, then, not need to be justified to the general public, economic players and policy makers, but will implicitly be accepted in a wider seascape.

Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the owner and President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc., since 2016.

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Aquaculture round-up

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Tech update Antarctic Endurance

Antarctic Endurance is the name of Aker BioMarine’s latest flagship vessel for krill harvesting, which began its first venture in January earlier this year. The 130-metre long ship is truly a technological marvel, with innovative harvesting technology on-board that ensures Aker BioMarine can quickly and efficiently harvest all the krill they need from the depths of the arctic. The boat cost 1.1 billion NOK (US $118 million) to construct and the cargo can hold an impressive 3,150-tonnes of processed krill, which is then transferred to their supply vessel, La Manche, before being shipped to Uruguay and then to the end customer.

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The Antarctic Endurance: A pioneering feat of marine technology “Krill-harvesting company

Aker BioMarine are making a big splash in the fish farming technology sector with their recently-revealed flagship boat, the Antarctic Endurance”

by Rebecca Sherratt, Features Editor, International Aquafeed The Antarctic Endurance; a 129.6-metre-long flagship vessel featuring the latest state-of-the-art harvesting technology that can withstand even the harshest arctic conditions for months at a time. The innovative Norwegian vessel cost 1.1 billion NOK (US $118 million) to construct and Aker BioMarine are certainly very pleased with the results. Yard Director Fredrik Mordal Hessen from Vard Brattvaag says, “We are incredibly happy to see Antarctic Endurance set sail from our yard for its debut harvesting season. A unique project in partnership with Aker BioMarine, we have overcome a number of challenges to deliver what we believe is an industry-defining vessel”. The incredible bit of aquaculture equipment got its name in Alesund, Norway and is certainly one-ofa-kind. The boat is 30 percent more energy efficient than all of Aker BioMarine’s previous vessels and is designed to run for months at a time in the harshest arctic conditions. Even crew members will be treated like luxury whilst onboard the Antarctic Endurance, with various fitness and recreational facilities onboard such as a hot tub, sauna, cinema and sky lounge for crew to take in the incredible ocean views.

Construction and completion

The Antarctic Endurance - Norwegian shipbuilders at VARD ran this amazing project which took them two years to complete, a total of 900 shipbuilders tasked with creating the Antarctic Endurance and over 40 Norwegian vendors submitting equipment and solutions to build this immense technological marvel.

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Norwegian shipbuilders at VARD ran this amazing project which took them two years to complete, a total of 900 shipbuilders tasked with creating the Antarctic Endurance and over 40 Norwegian vendors submitting equipment and solutions to build this immense technological marvel. The hull of the ship was constructed in Romania then transferred to Brattvåg in Norway, in order for the technical equipment and interior solutions to be installed. Matts Johansen, CEO of Aker BioMarine says, “We have put all our experience and know-how


into building a vessel capable of matching our ambitions and operational needs, a vessel we could have only dreamt of when we started our very own Antarctic adventure more than a decade ago. “Named in tribute to polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton’s Norwegian-constructed vessel, Endurance, the name also reflects our own perseverance over the years. Energy efficient and equipped with a host of environmentally friendly technologies, Antarctic Endurance is specifically designed and constructed for our unique business, with direct input from our experienced crew. It is truly one of a kind, and our very first purpose-built krill harvesting vessel” he continues. The Honourable Alexandra Shackleton, granddaughter of the much-renowned British polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton,

officially named the vessel and expressed her gratitude to be involved in this project. “It is an incredible day for me to see my grandfather and his crew’s heroism honoured in this way. Antarctic Endurance is a symbol and reminder of the importance of our shared polar expedition legacy and an important part of the history for both Norway and the United Kingdom. My grandfather Sir Ernest Shackleton had his vessel, Endurance, built in Sandefjord in Norway and now a new vessel named Endurance built in Norway is on its way to Antarctica”.

A feat of technological innovation

Aker BioMarine have ensured to optimise every aspect of the Antarctic Endurance to ensure maximum energy efficiency, crew

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Built for OFFSHORE conditions

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satisfaction and safety as well as optimal performance: Sustaining the planet- The innovative krill vessel was created with a host of special features, such as low resistance hull lines to ensure enhanced speed and low fuel consumption, alongside excellent manoeuvrability, good stability and high capacities. Ensuring to remain environmentally friendly, Aker BioMarine also highlighted the importance of implementing an environmentally-friendly design with low emissions. The boiler system on board was created to use the energy from the exhaust to produce steam, as well as efficiently reusing the heat from the engine systems. The Promas propeller nozzle and two-stage reduction gear from Rolls Royce also enhance the vessels’ overall efficiency. LED lighting by Luminell also drastically reduces the energy output for the ships lighting by an amazing 75 percent. In addition, a SeaQ Green Pilot system monitors the vessels energy and fuel continually, enabling the crew to easily optimise their energy use whilst onboard the vessel. Peak performance- The on-board facility also holds three processing lines, as well as research labs and more facilities for external observers. The primary goal of these facilities was to ensure that the crew members are able to work, no matter the external weather conditions, definitely a wise choice when working for months at a time in Antarctica! The Optimar processing plant at the heart of the vessel was approximately a third of the total cost of the ship and Aker BioMarine ensured it was kitted out with only the best technology. The main engine is a MAK 12 VM 32 E that boasts an immense 6,720 kW of power, and all the latest technologies are also included on board, including the latest electronic radars, Rolls Royce Azimut thrusters and a SeaQ main switchboard to ensure the boat can travel at 18 knots. The deck equipment also guarantees that Aker BioMarine are prepared for any situation, with two three-tonne unloading cranes, deck cranes and traverse cranes. Four three-tonne beam cranes for cargo handling are also on deck, alongside one three-tonne beam crane for net workshop, along with a trawl, windlass, mooring and netting. MRPC’s latest rolling damping system was also installed onto the boat. Crew security and satisfaction- An enclosed net store was added to the Antarctic Endurance so the crew can simply close the door and work on the nets indoors, with heating and music, should the weather be unpleasant outside.

To help minimise clean-up work for the crew members, clean-inprogress (CIP) systems have also been added to the production area which automatically clean components after they have been used. In addition, better lighting, reduced noise and better ventilation also provide crew members with a much more enjoyable and productive experience on-board. A new bridge set-up also ensures that the captain remains comfortable and secure. The bridge setup can also be tailored to the user’s needs via tablet, with the SeaQ Bridge solution. Safety-Completely customdesigned, the Antarctic Endurance comes with an amazing variety of technological innovations. Third-generation Eco-Harvesting technology features a triple-tank-sequence system that ensures a steady flow of krill from the trawl due to a constant vacuum system. A hydraulic-driven wagin connects the Eco-Harvesting hose to a submerget inlet below the waterline, ensuring there is a reduced risk of striking ice, as well as minimising possibilities for the ship to suffer from air leakage and other potential exterior problems. The steel frame is also extremely resilient to the outside elements and is made with the finest materials to ensure every member on board is safe from risks.

Ensuring krill meal is the future of feed

The Antarctic Endurance will primarily be used to harvest krill from the Antarctica for Aker BioMarine to use in their various krill-based feed products. The cargo hold can accommodate an incredible 3,150 tonnes of processed krill, which is then offloaded while at sea to Aker BioMarine’s supply vessel, La Manche which, in turn, transports the product to Montevideo, Uruguay. From here it is then sent to warehouses or to the end customer directly. During the Aquatic Asia Conference at VIV Asia 2019 in Bangkok, organised by International Aquafeed magazine, Dr Panukorn Totubtim spoke in more detail about the various benefits of krill meal. Aker BioMarine’s products are primarily gathered from Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba), one of the largest krill species. This unique crustacean feeds on phytoplankton, glows in the dark and aggregates in large, dense swarms. Using a hose, trawl module and trawl net, Aker BioMarine bring krill onboard their vessel for production. Krill meal is especially rich in proteins (making up a total of 58% of their krill meal composition), omega-3 fatty acids (25% composition), phospholipids and astaxanthin and is proven to also lead to enhanced growth, increased stress tolerance, reduced cost, improved flavour, increased pigmentation and much more in shrimp feed. The Antarctic Endurance serves as an awe-inspiring example of sustainable harvesting technology, energy efficiency and the potential for the ever-evolving aquaculture industry. Aker BioMarine’s boat has now become the new standard for harvesting vessels and is already proving itself to be a very worthy technological marvel.

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HAB SPECIES Texas fish hatchery uses hydro-optic ultraviolet disinfection for treatment of toxic golden alga

by Greg Southard, Senior Scientist/Aquatic Animal Health Inspector (AFS-FHS), Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Inland Fisheries – Analytical Services Laboratory, USA: David Prangnell, Brandon Early and Hunter Hrncirik with Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Inland Fisheries, USA It has been estimated that costs related to harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, a small subset of algal species that produce toxins and/or bloom to excess, amount to US $82 million per year in the US due to fishery income losses, decrease in recreational opportunities and tourism, public health costs, and expenses for monitoring and management. All US coastal states have experienced HABs events. For more than 30 years, however, fish kills associated with the HAB species Prymnesium parvum (P. parvum) have increased in the inland waters of Texas and other parts of the US (Sager et al., 2008).

Golden alga in Texan waters

In 2001, P. parvum (aka golden alga/GA) fish kills began to wreak havoc across Texan waters, affecting numerous state water bodies and negatively impacting fisheries, aquaculture and local economies (Southard et al., 2010). Fish production at the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department (TPWD) Dundee Fish Hatchery was adversely affected by

massive fish kills from GA, and source water for two TPWD freshwater hatcheries (Dundee and Possum Kingdom) was problematic for fish rearing and fingerling production. From 2003 to 2007, the TPWD expended more than $2m in state and federal grant funds to support internal and external research efforts aimed at understanding and controlling toxic GA blooms (Southard et al., 2010). The TPWD investigated several control treatments to aid in the development of management strategies that allow fish production and prevent the spread of the alga into unaffected hatcheries and state water bodies. For pond water treatment, ammonium sulfate, coppercontaining algaecides, and potassium permanganate were reviewed for GA control. For incoming hatchery source water and intensive culture systems, low-pressure ultraviolet (UV) light at 193-220 mJ/cm2 or ozone at 0.4-1.2 mg/L for six minutes destroyed P. parvum and reduced (or eliminated) ichthyotoxicity (Barkoh et al., 2010). It was determined that a combination of UV and ozone treatment will provide the best results; however, successful treatments depend on dosage relative to GA cell density and toxin concentration (Barkoh et al. 2010). In 2012, the TPWD implemented ozone treatment for P. parvum control at the Possum Kingdom Fish Hatchery. While effective at GA control, a great deal of care was needed to eliminate the residual ozone from the treated stream to guarantee no impact on fish.

Bench scale test of HOD UV for toxic golden alga bloom management

Trailer-mounted pilot Hydro-Optic™ ultraviolet (HOD UV) system installed at the Dundee fish hatchery

After learning about Atlantium Technologies’ novel HydroOptic™ ultraviolet (HOD UV) medium pressure technology in 2018, TPWD undertook a bench scale test on August 8th, 2018, using a collimated beam apparatus (CBA) and laboratory-grown

40 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

Figure 1: GA Cell Density (cells/ mL), varying HOD UV doses

Figure 2: Ichthyotoxic Units (ITU) at two hours, varying HOD UV doses

Figure 3: FHM % mortality at six hours, varying HOD UV doses

Figure 4: FHM % mortality at 24 hours, varying HOD UV doses

P. parvum culture to determine effective UV doses to eliminate GA cells and toxicity. These trials were followed by a pilot study on December 5-6th, 2018, at the Dundee State Fish Hatchery to evaluate the efficacy of the HOD UV technology to manage toxic GA blooms in situ. The goal of the study was to determine the approximate HOD UV dose needed to eliminate GA cells and effectively manage toxicity during toxic HAB episodes. Atlantium supplied a trailer-mounted pilot HOD UV system to accommodate a flow rate of 23 gpm (5.2 m3/hr). The pilot

system was designed to treat water with UV transmittance (UVT) values as low as 70 percent UVT and installed at the Dundee Fish Hatchery Pond #10 where elevated levels of GA were present in early December 2018. Basic water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, and temperature were taken from the toxic pond prior to testing each day and determined to be non-factors and safe for the FHM fry (see Table 1). The HOD UV technology was evaluated using different doses ranging from approximately 60 mJ/cm2 (typical for zebra mussel

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Table 1- Basic water parameters before testing

veliger treatment) to 484 mJ/cm2. Incremental studies were done on dose rates of approximately 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 mJ/cm2 (and some levels between) for two trials conducted at the site. At the start of the study, raw (untreated) water was evaluated to ensure GA cells and high toxicity (≥25 ichthyotoxic units/ITUs) levels were present. Controls were used to ensure the dilution water and/or cofactor solution did not contribute to mortality in the bioassays. The bioassay was adapted from Israeli aquaculturists who detected lethal (water sample by itself) and sub-lethal levels of toxicity (by addition of cofactor and diluted sample plus cofactor) (Ulitzer and Shilo, 1964). Test organisms are typically seven to 10-days old Fathead Minnow (FHM) fry, which are commonly used organisms to detect aquatic toxicity. The bioassay is conducted at 28°C, the temperature that GA toxins are most active. The bioassay is run for two hours to generate a quick result that monitors hatchery ponds for impending toxicity so that mitigation can be undertaken to prevent fish mortality (Southard and Fries, 2005). The TPWD reviewed mortality of the FHM fry for all HOD UV treatment levels at two hours using the standard bioassay (undiluted sample, undiluted sample + cofactor, 1/5 dilution + cofactor) to determine ITUs. Toxicity levels also were evaluated as percent mortality of FHM fry in undiluted samples at six hours and 24 hours post-treatment. Cell counts were estimated using a hemacytometer pre- and post-HOD UV treatment to determine efficacy in GA cell destruction. For all HOD UV doses tested (approximately 60-484 mJ/cm2), GA cells were eliminated in all trials (see Figure 1). The HOD UV dose rate (60 mJ/cm2) commonly used to inactivate

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8.9 – 9.8 mg/L


1.9 ppt

zebra and quagga mussel veligers was also effective at GA destruction (Pucherelli and Claudi, 2017). This dose rate would be useful in eliminating both GA cells and potential dreissenid veligers from hatchery source waters when GA toxic blooms are not occurring. The HOD UV dose of 240 mJ/cm2 was needed to significantly reduce highly toxic conditions (≥25 ITU) to acceptable levels (<5 ITU) and 484 mJ/cm2 was effective to completely detoxify (0 ITU) GA toxic pond water (see Figure 2). This UV dose correlates to the level determined to eliminate acute toxicity levels (two hours post-treatment) in collimated beam apparatus (CBA) testing conducted on August 8th, 2018. CBA testing showed that an HOD UV dose of 200 mJ/cm2 was able to detoxify the P. parvum cultures grown in the lab. TPWD also evaluated percent mortality of the undiluted sample by itself at six hours (Figure 3) and 24 hours post-treatment (Figure 4) to ensure treated water did not possess any sub-acute toxin levels. For both six- and 24-hours post-treatment, HOD UV doses of approximately 240 mJ/cm2 and greater were deemed safe and non-toxic to FHM fry. For all HOD UV doses tested (approximately 60-484 mJ/cm2), GA cells were eliminated in both trials. The HOD UV dose rate (60 mJ/cm2) commonly used to inactivate zebra and quagga mussel veligers was also effective at GA destruction. A HOD UV dose of 240 mJ/cm2 significantly reduced highly toxic water (≥25 ITU) to acceptable levels (<5 ITUs). Approximately 484 mJ/cm2 was needed to completely detoxify GA toxic pond water (0 ITU) after two hours post-treatment. Zero mortality occurred at six and 24 hours post-treatment in undiluted treated samples at HOD UV doses ≥240 mJ/cm2. This UV dose level correlates to levels determined in collimated beam apparatus (CBA) testing conducted on August 8th, 2018, before the HOD UV pilot study (December 5-6th, 2018). CBA testing showed that a HOD UV dose of 200 mJ/cm2 was able to detoxify the P. parvum cultures grown in the lab.

Environmentally-friendly disinfection solution

The pilot study demonstrated the ability of the HOD UV technology to address GA HABs. A HOD UV dose rate of approximately 240 mJ/cm2 removed GA toxicity during toxic episodes while lower doses, approximately 60 mJ/cm2, eliminated GA cells. Unlike ozone treatment that requires a great deal of care to eliminate the residual ozone from the treated stream to guarantee no impact on fish, UV treatment does not produce a residual disinfectant. As a result the HOD UV will have no deleterious impact on fish within the dose range tested. As a physical process, HOD UV does not have the inherent engineering, installation, and operational limitations of ozone. Ozone is plagued with off-gassing problems that negatively effect operating staff health and require excessive labor to operate the system. Furthermore, ozone requires a high cost of construction and capital equipment investment when compared to the HOD UV. Fisheries facilities interested in treating toxic HABs will benefit from evaluating the HOD UV technology as a proven, nonchemical, and environmentally friendly disinfection solution. 42 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed BOOK NOW AND SAVE! EARLY BIRD ENDS MARCH 8



@ The Capitol Hilton

(RAStech 2019 is formerly the ICRA Conference hosted by Virginia Tech)


The premier conference on recirculating aquaculture systems is back and it’s bigger! Formerly the International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture (ICRA), RAStech 2019 is the venue for learning, networking and knowledge sharing on RAS technologies, design and implementations across the world.



• • •

Hear from leading experts in the global aquaculture industry about the latest developments in RAS technology and design Network and share best practices on RAS and sustainable production Learn from case studies and success stories Access to leading providers of products and services in the global RAS market


RAS Engineering

Marine Species in RAS


RAS Feeds Management


Shrimp Culture in RAS

RAS Energy Management

Fish Health in RAS



TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology May 2019 In this issue of our Technology Showcase, we take a look at some of the best new innovations that can help refine your fish farming systems. This month we explore Deep Trekker's brand-new DTG3 ROV, as well as delve into a variety of aerators, water monitors, counters and much more.

Calitri Technology FC12 Belgian firm Calitri Technology produce fish and fry counters. They are available in various sizes from the FC12 which takes fry from 1-20g up to the FC2 which caters for fish from 300g to 4.5kg. They are also available with eight counting channels (FC8 model) and four counting channels (FC4 model). Fish which can be counted include trout, salmon, bass and bream. All electronic parts are waterproof – IP67 and easily removable and replaceable by the user on site.

Faivre Flobull Aerator This lightweight and easily transportable floating surface aerator is ideal for use in fish farms or for ponds. It has two handles integrated into the float. The Flobull Aerator projects a very emulsified spray of water into the air, which then enjoys maximum contact with the atmosphere. Thus, the oxygen of the air is transferred into the water. This process does not raise the temperature of the water because the ambient contact, sometimes warmer, is compensated for by cooling caused by evaporation.

Deep Trekker’s new DTG3 Deep Trekker, Canadian manufacturer of remotely operated vehicles, announced last month the official launch of the DTG3 and the introduction of Bridge technology. Bridge technology is comprised of custom hardware, software and integration, developed in response to a growing market demand. Utilising the latest in technology, this platform will become the base for future products, new and advanced features and third-party integrations by Deep Trekker. “Bridge allows the user to experience wireless control and viewing, multi-vehicle operation over the internet, and software upgrades from anywhere in the world,” says Chad Plesa-Naden, Embedded Systems Engineer Lead, Deep Trekker. Deep Trekker’s world-class robots are used by thousands of customers around the globe; for structural inspections, marine surveys, sample collection, drowning victim search and recovery, security checks and more. The introduction of the DTG3 ROV allows for advanced power, heightened capabilities and high-end performance at a breakthrough price. Reaching depths of 305 metres, the DTG3 is designed to last longer with hybrid power boasting 12-hour battery life. An enhanced viewing and recording experience provide smarter inspections with its live, 4K video and waterproof handheld controller.

RS Aqua aquaHub The aquaHub is the core of the Realtime Aquaculture system by RS Aqua and provides the communications link between your wireless aquaMeasure sensors and the cloud. The aquaHub can be easily mounted to existing aquaculture infrastructure and using a single underwater digital receiver can receive data from up to 100 aquaMeasure sensors in a 500-metre radius. The aquaHub was made with an understanding of the remoteness of aquaculture sites, so it supports WiFi, Cellular and Iridium communications, and has a rugged waterproof housing that stands up to rough open water conditions. The aquaHub contains internal backup memory, and third-party sensors such as weather stations, wave and tidal sensors can be integrated into its auxiliary sensor port. The hub is easy to mount and boasts ease of use.

44 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

HOWCASE Steinsvik Subfeeder Steinsvik have now created a product that enables the easy feeding of fish, no matter the weather. The Subfeeder is developed specifically for feeding fish below the lice belt and does so both quickly and efficiently. This is an easy way to ensure your fish get the proper nutrition they need on a regular basis. The Subfeeder can be connected to the 90mm feeding tube and the feed is brought down to the users desired depth. The Subfeeder is also produced in corrosion-resistant material and has no moving parts, ensuring that it is highly reliable and requires little to no maintenance.

Senect MONITOR|4 Senect offer a variety of water monitoring systems, one of their best being the MONITOR|4 system. This device can monitor water quality with up to four sensors, and checks for different features such as dissolved oxygen, pH levels, ORP, conductivity and more. It features an embedded barometer sensor and plenty of space for data storage. The MONITOR|4 can also transmit data wirelessly via WLAN, and remote access can be utilised via your smartphone for checking on your system whenever you are away. With each purchase, users get a free choice of Senect sensors.

Westair’s Multiways System Westair’s Multiways system is an innovative tool that enables users to transfer all types of products such as granules, powders and fluids, whilst also reducing the number of pipes needed in their aquatic systems. The service offers infinite transfer combinations. The system is also very easy to clean, and therefore also works perfectly for the food industry. Multiways is made entirely out of stainless steel and is especially hygienic. The system is completely watertight, with an antirodent system and works via pneumatic motors.

International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 45

Do you have a product that you would like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to


Figure 1: The Atlantic halibut (IMR, Norway)



Atlantic Halibut

Exploring the biological and socio-economic potential of new-emerging candidate fish species for the expansion of the European aquaculture industry – the DIVERSIFY project (EU FP7GA603121)

by Constantinos C Mylonas, Project Coordinator (HCMR, Greee), Birgitta Norberg, Reproduction & Genetics - Atlantic Halibut Leader (IMR, Norway), Kristin Hamre, Nutrition - Atlantic Halibut Leader (NIFES/ IMR, Norway), Torstein Harboe, Larval Husbandry - Atlantic Halibut Leader (IMR, Norway), Sonal Patel, Fish Health Atlantic Halibut Leader (IMR, Norway; currently at VAXXINOVA, Norway) and Rocio Robles, Dissemination Leader (CTAQUA, Spain)


ne of the species included in the EU-funded DIVERSIFY project, which ran between 2013 and 2018 was the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). The Atlantic halibut is the world’s largest flatfish and can attain a weight of over 300kg. It is highly prized at markets worldwide, but availability of wild Atlantic halibut is decreasing. Norwegian stocks are classified as viable, but fisheries are subject to strict regulation. This has led to a higher market demand for Atlantic halibut, which cannot be met by fisheries alone. The Atlantic halibut (see figure 1) is a semi-fat fish, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, with a characteristic flaky white meat with few bones. Cultured Atlantic halibut has an excellent reputation and is traditionally marketed as large fish steaks or cutlets. It can be smoked or marinated in the typical Scandinavian style. These characteristics led to the inclusion of Atlantic halibut in DIVERSIFY, as a great candidate for fish species and product diversification in European aquaculture. Research and cultivation efforts of Atlantic halibut started in the 1980’s, and although the total annual production of cultured Atlantic halibut is increasing, it still only reached ~1600 tonnes in 2017 (Norwegian Directorate of Fisheries). In Europe, Atlantic halibut farms exist in Norway and Scotland. The desired market size is 5-10 kg and production time is currently four-to-five years. Despite a significant research effort between 1985 and 2000, the complicated life cycle of Atlantic halibut made aquaculture progress slow, and very little research funding has been allocated thereafter. However, during this time slow but steady progress has been made by the farmers in order to improve production stability, and interest in both cage and land-based culture is growing. The remaining bottlenecks for increased and stable production are related to a steady supply of fry and a need to decrease the production time. The latter may be achieved with the recent establishment of “all female” juvenile production. This is expected to have a major impact on production time as females grow faster and mature later –80 percent of slaughtered fish <5 kg are mature males. The project DIVERSIFY addressed these important bottlenecks with a coordinated research effort in reproduction, larval nutrition and husbandry and vaccine development. The combination of biological, technological Figure 2- Atlantic and socioeconomic research activities halibut breeders developed in DIVERSIFY are expected 46 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed



to support the diversification of the EU aquaculture industry and help in expanding production, increasing aquaculture products and development of new markets.


Research in our project confirmed that wild-caught females spawned reliably and produced eggs consistently of very high quality (>85% fertilisation). Farmed females also produced eggs of high quality when their ovulatory cycles were identified, and stripping was carried out close to ovulation (see figure 2). For commercial production, as well as breeding purposes, it is not practical to rely on wild-caught females. However, relatively few farmed females produced eggs consistently with fertilisation rates >80-85 percent. As a consequence, it may be necessary to include wild-caught broodstock also in future breeding groups in order to ensure a broad enough genetic material. Plasma concentrations of sex steroids in farmed breeders were similar to what has been reported previously in Atlantic halibut, with annual profiles following ovarian growth and maturation. Highest 17β-estradiol (E2) levels were recorded just prior to spawning, in the beginning of February, while both E2 and testosterone (T) remained elevated through the spawning period. No differences in average concentrations were seen between wild-caught and farmed females. Plasma concentrations of the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were documented for the first time in Atlantic halibut. Mean FSH concentrations were relatively stable during vitellogenesis, from October to early February, consistent with a constitutive release of FSH from the pituitary. Plasma FSH decreased to low levels during spawning but increased again after spawning was completed. Plasma LH concentrations showed large individual variations through the reproductive cycle, but high levels were detected during spawning. This was consistent with previously reported results in other teleosts, including a number of flatfishes. Implantation with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) did not advance

Figure 3: Oocytes examined under a stereoscope for developmental stage Figure 4: First feeding stage larva



Extruders and Expanders Almex extruders and expanders are used for : » Pet Food extrusion » (floating) Aquafeed extrusion » Animal Feed extrusion » Oil seed extraction » Cereal processing extrusion » Compacting » Pre-conditioning prior to other processes

The main purpose of oil coating process is add extra oil and heat sensitive staff coating on the feeds. It is also improve lure flavor and taste to increase the feeds exchange rate. The oil coater is advantaged on precision control of feeds and oil coating volume. MEET US ON EXHIBITION ASIAN PACIFIC AQUACULTURE 2019 JUN 19-21 BOOTH NO.145 INDO LIVESTOCK 2019 EXPO & FORUM JUL 03-05 BOOTH NO.AP55


International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 47



spawning time significantly in Atlantic halibut females, but an apparent synchronisation in spawning time between individuals was seen, as treated females had completed spawning one month before control fish were spent. In commercial production, synchronisation between individuals can be an advantage as staff efforts in egg collection can be concentrated to a relatively short period (see figure 3). Atlantic halibut breeders need to be monitored for ovulation and stripped on a regular basis, and eggs are fertilised in vitro. Therefore, the use of GnRHa implantation offers a logistic advantage to the commercial broodstock management of the species, by reducing the spawning season.


For the development of a protocol for early weaning of Atlantic halibut larvae, we found a large difference regarding the larvae’s feed intake on three different commercial diets at 28 days post first feeding (dpff) (see figure 4). Larvae fed the commercial marine larval diet Otohime (Japan) had full guts after five days of feeding. This diet was used in an experiment aimed to find the earliest time of weaning at 15, 22 and 28 dpff. Weaning at 15 dpff resulted in almost 100 percent mortality, at 22 dpff approximately 30 percent mortality and at 28 dpff, almost zero percent mortality. The conclusion was that diet characteristics are important to ensure feed intake in Atlantic halibut larvae and that the larvae are ready to feed on a formulated feed only at 28 dpff. Further experiments are needed to evaluate if the early larvae grow and develop well on these diets. Also, a protocol for production of on-grown Artemia was developed and the nutrient composition was analyzed. Artemia grown for three days on the culture medium ORI-culture (Skretting, Spain) and then enriched with the medium LARVIVA Multigain (Biomar, Denmark) obtained an improved nutrient profile in many aspects. The protein, free amino acid and taurine contents increased, lipid and glycogen decreased, while the ratio of phospholipids (PL) to total lipids (TL) increased. The fatty acid composition improved at one experiment, but not at the one carried out at the commercial partner. The micronutrient profiles were not negatively affected by culture of Artemia on the ORI-culture medium. Since previous research had found that larvae fed on-grown Artemia developed into juveniles with better quality, larvae were fed on-grown Artemia compared to conventional Artemia nauplii in DIVERSIFY (see figure 5). There were no differences in growth, pigmentation or eye migration between the two groups and the nutrient composition of the larvae after three weeks of feeding was very similar. The conclusion was that Artemia nauplii produced with modern methods have sufficient nutrient levels to cover the requirements of Atlantic halibut larvae. Also, the hypothesis that larvae reared in recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) would have another micro flora in the gut and, therefore, have different uptake of nutrients was examined. However, except for higher levels of the vitamin K derivative MK6, we found no differences in nutrient utilisation between larvae reared in RAS or flow through systems. Finally, Atlantic halibut juveniles (one-gram body weight) were fed diets with five PL levels varying from 9 to 32 percent of TL. There were no effects of PL levels on growth or lipid composition in intestine, liver and muscle, 24 hours after feeding. However, time after the meal affected the lipid composition of the intestinal tissue, with higher levels of neutral lipids one and four hours post-prandial, and higher levels of polar lipids, cholesterol

Figure 5: Atlantic halibut larvae at the IMR facilities (Norway)

Figure 6- Atlantic halibut juveniles in a feeding experiment (IMR, Norway)

esters and ceramide at 24 hours post-prandial, reflecting absorption of the lipids early after the meal. It appears that Atlantic halibut juveniles regulate their lipid species composition to be independent of the diet when a range of PL/ Triacyl Glycerol is applied, as in the present study (see figure 6).

Larval husbandry

A protocol for on growing of Artemia nauplii was developed and described. Use of on-grown Artemia during the critical period of metamorphosis in Atlantic halibut larva did not differ from use of Artemia nauplii with regard to growth, mortality and fry quality. In addition, the production of on-grown Artemia was labor-intensive, and high personnel costs may be prohibitive in implementation of this live feed source in commercial larviculture. The commercial production of Atlantic halibut fry is currently carried out in flow through systems (FT), while there is a growing consensus that a RAS would offer more stable environmental and chemical water parameters that would lead to improved larval performance. Production protocols for yolk sac and first feeding larvae in RAS were developed in DIVERSIFY. No differences in survival were detected between RAS and FT rearing during yolk sac incubation. When systems were primed for one-month, larval growth was significantly higher in the RAS group during first feeding. High mortality occurred in one of the FT tanks. Taken together, results suggested that with adequate conditioning of the RAS, a stable system is established where growth and survival of larvae is as good as, or better than in FT systems with optimal conditions. The RAS was a more stable rearing system for Atlantic halibut larvae compared to the FT system. Metagenomic characterisation of the bacterial communities in rearing water and larvae revealed that at least 300-400 different bacterial genera were present in the rearing systems. Significant differences were detected in the micro biota composition of the RAS and FT systems: both in silos and tanks, and in the water and the larvae. No obvious correlation was seen between the micro biota in the water and the micro biota of the larvae. Characterisation of the micro biota composition provides important information for development of probiotic treatment of Atlantic halibut larvae.

Fish health

In order to develop a vaccine against Viral Neural Necrosis for Atlantic halibut larvae, the capsid protein of Nodavirus was successfully expressed recombinantly in three different systems; E. coli, Leishmania tarentolae and in tobacco plant, and as expected there was variation in the amount of expression between the systems. In addition, the recombinant capsid protein expressed in Pichia was provided from the EU project TARGETFISH. These four expression systems differ in the way the expressed proteins are post-translationally glycosylated. By constructing and using E. coli and Leishmania tarentolea expressing green fluorescent

48 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed


Figure 7- Blood sample collected from a juvenile (IMR, Norway)

protein (GFP), it could be visualised by fluorescence microscopy that Artemia filtered efficiently and ingested these microbes, and thereby the harboring recombinant protein. Artemia ingested recombinant Nodavirus capsid protein expressed by the various systems, which could be confirmed by immunoblotting. The recombinant capsid protein expressed by the different system was then fed to Artemia, which were fed to Atlantic halibut larvae at 100 dph. Ten weeks later, the juveniles in all treatment groups were challenged by an i.p. injection (see figure 7) with Nodavirus to check for efficacy. The challenged fish were terminated eight weeks post-challenge and tested for the presence of Nodavirus in the brain by realtime RT-PCR targeting the viral RNA2-segment. No significant difference could be seen between the different treatment groups, including the group with recombinant protein that has shown protection earlier. This indicates that the size of the fish and the need to sort fish to minimise huge variation between individuals in different phases at


the time of vaccination have its inherent limitations and should be carefully considered. In conclusion, although it has been shown that Artemia will take up and accumulate the various forms of recombinant Nodavirus capsid proteins and act as a vector for oral delivery to larvae of Atlantic halibut, the challenge experiments indicate that this strategy of antigen delivery does not induce protection against Nodavirus infection, at least under the conditions used in this study. A technical production manual has been produced for Atlantic halibut and can be downloaded from the project’s website at www. This 5-year-long project (2013-2018) has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY). The consortium includes 38 partners from 12 European countries –including nine SMEs, two Large Enterprises, five professional associations and one Consumer NGO- and was coordinated by the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece. In our previous article on the DIVERSIFY project dealing with MEAGRE, the author’s affiliation are: Alicia Estévez, IRTA, Spain Daniel Montero, FCPCT, Spain Constatinos C Mylonas, HCMR, Greece Rocio Robles, Ctaqua, Spain Gemma Tacken, SWR, the Netherlands Luis Guerrero, IRTA, Spain Neil Duncan, IRTA, Spain Pantelis Katharios, HCMR, Greece.



Animals need to eat well to grow. But they will not eat what they do not like, no matter how much you try. That is why Phileo created Prosaf®, a highly palatable source of bioactive peptides, free amino acids and nucleotides to boost growth, performance and resistance, especially in young animals, and better value plant-based diets. Save your explanations and give them a balanced diet they will really love.

International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 49

Industry Events 2019






7-9 Seafood Expo Global Brussels, Belgium

4-5 Algae Tech Conference 2019 Madrid, Spain

13-14 RASTECH 2019 Washington, USA

10-11 ☑ Aquaculture Innovation Europe 2019 London, UK

19-21 ALLTECH ONE19 Conference Lexington, Kentucky, USA

10-13 SPACE 2019 Rennes, France

6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference 2019 Florida, USA 20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica

20-22 World Ocean Council Sustainable Ocean Summit (WOC SOS) Paris, France

June 13-15 VIV Turkey 2019 Istanbul, Turkey

19-21 Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2019 Chennai, India

26-28 Aquaculture Philippines 2019 Manila, Pasay City, Philippines



December 3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France

Taking place from September 10-13th, 2019 in Rennes, France is the leading exhibition for animal production. SPACE 2019 will prove to once again be an unmissable event for the aquaculture industry and is bigger and better than ever. Over 100 conferences and symposiums will be taking place during the exhibition, as well as over 300 business meetings between exhibitors and international visitors. 18-19 Aquaculture NZ Conference 2019 Blenhiem, New Zealand


January 15-16 VIV health and nutrition Asia Bitec, Bangkok, Thailand www.viv.net14

14 Aquatic Health and Nutrition Asia Conference Bitec, Bangkok, Thailand www.

18-20 ILDEX Indonesia 2019 Jakarta, Indonesia


July 3-5 IndoLivestock 2019 Surabaya, Indonesia


19-21 VIV Qingdao 2019 Qingdao, China

25-26 Seagriculture 2019 Ostend, Belgium

August 20-23 AquaNor 2019 Trondheim, Norway


October 7-10 Aquaculture Europe 2019 Berlin, Germany

17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA

☑ See The International Aquafeed team at this event


50 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

February 9-12 Aquaculture America 2020 Hawaii, USA


21-24 ☑ Aqua Expo 2019 Guayaquil, Ecuador 31-2 Aquaculture Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan

The next rendition of the Aquatic Asia Conference, hosted by International Aquafeed magazine, Progressus and VIV Asia, will be held one day before VIV Health and Nutrition Asia 2020. The one-day conference will again feature a variety of expert speakers and cover the latest innovations and current discussions prevalent in the aquaculture industry. To register your interest in contributing towards the conference, please get in touch with us at aquatic.conference@progressus. asia

March 24-26 VICTAM Asia 2020 Bangkok, Thailand


April 7-9 Livestock Malaysia 2020 Malacca, Malaysia

Industry Events

AsIAN PACIfIC AquACulTure 2019 Chennai - Tamil Nadu - India June 19 -21, 2019 Empowering the Self Sufficiency in Food Security

JUNE 19 - 21

All info: Conference management: Trade show & sponsorship:

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Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 19

Sustainable Aquaculture = for Social and Economic Development

November 20-22, 2019 HERRADURA CONVENTION CENTER (Wyndham) San José, Costa Rica Get our meeting mobile app

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International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 53

Industry Events





by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing Editor, International Aquafeed

his year’s Aquaculture America coincided with the triennial meeting of the World Aquaculture Society. The event is called the “triennial” because it is a coalition of the National Shellfisheries Association, The Fish Culture Section of the American Fisheries Society, World Aquaculture Society and the National Aquaculture Association. The event ran for four days from March 6th through to the 10th at the Marriot Hilton in New Orleans, Louisiana. Spread over two floors, the 2019 event hosted a wide variety of aquaculture companies, ranging from fish feed producers all the way to system integrators offering turn-key RAS installations. In addition to the trade show, the show featured four full days of technical conferences (Friday, March 8th through to Monday, March 11th). The sessions covered a wide range of species, including everything from mussels to mainstream aquaculture fish such as tilapia and salmon, to newly emerging breeds including tuna. Fish health and disease were well covered as was the marketing and economic side of aquaculture. The trade show spanned two floors of the Marriot Hotel and featured exhibitors from around the world:

Water Analytics AM 2300 Multi-Input Controller Jeffrey Aghjayan demos the company’s AM 2300. The AM-2300 offers a real breakthrough in process control. It features the functionality of a PLC and a SCADA in a compact package at a very affordable price. The AM-2300 basic unit accepts four inputs from direct 4-20 mA output sensors, three square wave inputs from pulse instruments such as paddle wheel or magnetic flow sensors and four relay outputs which are programmable from any of the seven inputs or via the difference of two analogue inputs (virtual sensors). The basic unit can be expanded into a number of versatile configurations using the additional card slot and populating it with various expansion boards. More inputs, outputs and relays are configurable with the purchase of an appropriate expansion boards.

Ziegler Fish feed specialists Zeigler were on hand to show off their line of aquaculture feeds and nutrition for shrimp and fish, including trout, bass, tilapia, perch, sea bass, barramundi, yellowtail, pompano, and other marine fish species. They also promoted their feed mill technology including plant design, production engineering, feed formulations, nutritional support, and research and development.

Integrated Aqua Systems Integrated Aqua Systems were one of a number of systems integrators at the show who offer a range of services. They are aquatic systems integrator and equipment supply company that specialise in the design, fabrication and supply of advanced water filtration systems and tank systems to meet clients’ specific needs in aquatic research, aquaculture and commercial aquatic exhibits.

D/T Fiberglass RAS Gas Balancing Tower This California company’s gas balancing towers are a cost-effective method of stripping CO2 and oxygenating used water in aquaculture systems. The addition of pure oxygen into recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) increases oxygen solubility and reduces fish production costs by allowing higher fish and feed loading rates at lower water flow requirements.

54 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

Pentair Pentair had a large booth with plenty of their advanced pumps on display, including their new Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems Sparus Pump with Constant Flow Technology. This pump is quite unique in the market thanks to its large output of 20-140 GPM. The pump also features Pentair’s Flow Technology (CFT), which automatically calculates and self-adjusts to provide the exact speed needed to deliver the exact flow rate you establish. As system conditions change, the pumps CFT self-adjusts to deliver a constant user-specified flow rate. The 3-HP pump reduces the need to constantly be tinkering with manual valves to maintain the desired flow rate and promises the lowest electrical consumption for a pump of its size. Pentair’s on-board controller self-adjusts to determine the most-energy-efficient speed required to deliver the desired (and consistent) flow rate. Decreasing the speed of an electric motor to the minimum speed required to do the required work results in significant energy savings. This pump is self-priming and includes an oversized strainer basket and volute and is compatible with an assortment of aquaculture systems. The pump can operate from 1100 RPM to 3450 RPM with four pre-set flow rates of 40, 50, 60 and 70 GPM but allows for you to program flow rates from 20-140 GPM with up to eight programmable speeds/flows.

Joint Pentair/Calitri Cooperation David Calitri of Calitri Technology and Mario Learas of Pentair announced a joint venture whereby Pentair will now act as a dealer for Calitri fish counters and related products.

Bird Control Group Autonomic 500 As any operator of a fish farm can no doubt testify, seals and sea lions are not the only animals who love to predate on fish. Birds such as herons, eagles and ospreys are quick to learn where they can score an easy meal. Nets work, but are expensive and can entangle birds, but Bird Control Group has an effective bird deterrent system that is costeffective and fully automatic. If you attended Aquaculture America 2019 then you probably noticed the green laser dot sweeping across the showroom’s ceiling. This was produced by the Autonomic 500 doing its job. The system deters by projecting a harmless laser beam toward birds. This startles the birds who perceive the beam as a physical danger and fly away. Because birds no not become habituated to the laser it claims 70 percent effectiveness. Also, because it is automatic, the Autonomic 500 provides effective deterrence 24/7.

Searen Vacuum AirLift Searen’s The Vacuum AirLift (VAL) is a new, sustainable, and efficient water treatment system. It is an innovative and versatile, yet simple, technology platform with four basic functions. The vacuum is used to raise water within two concentric tubes. The vacuum pulls air through diffusers, which generate an airlift and, therefore, water circulation. The bubbles rise and create a foam at the top of the VAL. The foam, which is filled with microparticles, is then extracted by the vacuum. Water treatment is performed using less energy and without the need for additional chemicals or consumables. The vacuum pump can be positioned away from the water source, making the process safe, easy to operate and maintain. Water flow rates range between 10 and 5,000 gpm per unit, depending on the use Energy consumption is as low as 5 W/m^3 for water circulation CO2 stripped can range from 0.2 to 10 lbs/hour Depending on size and unit configuration, 0.2 lbs to 5 lbs of O2 can be dissolved per hour.

Deep Trekker ROVs Deep Trekker is an established ROV manufacturer that is a fixture at most aquaculture shows. This time they brought with them their pipe-crawling ROV with its magnetic ribbed wheels and they also showed off their shiny-bright brand new ROV, the DTG3 complete with Robby-the-robot claw affixed to its base. The new DTG3 can dive deeper (as much as 305 metres and features a hybrid power supply for a 12-hour battery life. (Read the full description in our Technology Showcase section.)

International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 55

THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.

More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.

An exhibit area of 16 Ha.

100 conferences over 4 days.

Free farm visits program.

Obtain your free pass on :

10 - 13 SEPT. 2019 RENNES - FRANCE +33 2 23 48 28 90



Industry Events



by Rebecca Sherratt, Features Editor, International Aquafeed

he biannual Aquatic Asia Conference, organised in conjunction with VIV Asia, International Aquafeed and Progressus, proved to once again be a brilliant event for all who attended. The conference took place on March 14th for one full day, and had a record number of 264 attendees, as well as international expert speakers from companies such as Phileo Lesaffre, Aker BioMarine, Singao, Bühler, Tanin Sevnica and Nutriad becomes Adisseo, to name a few. The theme for the 2019 conference was ‘Shrimp Farming and Farm Tech’ and companies from all walks of the earth were invited to speak about the intricacies of shrimp nutrition and the latest innovations in farming technology. Keynote speaker and moderator for the event, Professor Simon Davies of Harper Adams University, stated that, “The shrimp farming sector warrants special considerations, given the expansion of the industry with expectations that aquaculture will need to produce over 65 percent of seafood production in the next two decades to meet global demand. “It is imperative that the vigour of stock be improved to raise hatchery production, survival and growth performance. Shrimp production has been constrained in recent times by various pathogens such as white spot and EMS, causing serious economic losses. In this regard, nutrition and feed will play an ever-increasing role.”

Building tomorrow’s resilient shrimp: Nutritional strategies for a stronger, resilient shrimp for the 21st century

by Dr Simon Davies, Harper Adams University Following Mr Roger Gilbert, Publisher of International Aquafeed, giving the introduction to the conference and welcoming everyone aboard, Dr Simon Davies began his keynote speech on shrimp nutrition and how to provide for shrimp to ensure they remain increasingly more resilient and stronger. Dr Davies referred to many intriguing studies on shrimp diets and how they serve as the primary influencers for the growth and development of shrimp, discussing the different amino acid

requirements needed, as well as ideal complimentary protein sources gathered from by-products to help make the ideal shrimp feed. Disease prevention was also covered, through ensuring the balancing of intestinal microbes within the shrimp via probiotics and various other methods.

The importance of training

by Mr Yiannis Christodoulou, Progressus Director of Progressus, Mr Christodoulou, then went on to discuss the important of training for employees in aquaculture- a crucial topic in an industry that requires such precise knowledge. As new skills are continually needed in this ever-evolving industry, Mr Christodoulou noted that employees must be kept up-to-date with all the necessary and latest requirements in order to effectively carry out their jobs to the best of their ability. Mr Christodoulou also discussed the emerging factor of automation and the threat of machinery taking away people’s jobs, a further point that training is even more crucial so employees can ensure they are fully indispensable. The best method for how to approach your bosses for training were also clearly outlined.

Yeast paraprobiotics as a tool to increase shrimp health and profitability

by Dr Otavio Serino Castro, Phileo Lesaffre Phileo Lesaffre’s Global Species Manager for Aqua, Dr Castro, began session two of the conference with the various health challenges that are currently facing the shrimp industry. Sustainability was also a key issue he discussed, and sustainable tools for aquaculture were mentioned such as biosecurity protocols, vaccines, genetic improvements, BAP standards and new production technology such as RAS systems. Phileo’s various yeast probiotics have been scientifically proven to help provide shrimp with everything they need, and examples were given of their various benefits, such as their product Safmannan®, which can bind virulent Vibrio sp. bacteria in shrimp.

Krill meal, the alternative and sustainable aquafeed ingredient

by Dr Panukorn Totubtim, Aker BioMarine Dr Totubtim gave an engaging presentation on the use of Antarctic

58 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

krill (euphausia superba) for shrimp feed. Krill meal is especially rich in protein, phospholipids, astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids, and Aker BioMarine’s unique krill meal composition is 58 percent protein, 25 percent fat, 11 percent ash and six percent water. Aker BioMarine’s krill feed was shown as possessing a variety of benefits, a 10-week growth experiment with Pacific white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) proving that shrimp fed diets containing three percent krill meal achieved the highest final body weight with a lower FCR and higher yield, when compared to other marine ingredients.

The value of Windmill® Aquaphos as a source of phosphorus in shrimp diets

by Mr Sjo Zwart, Aliphos Aliphos’ Technical Manager of Feed Ingredients, Mr Sjo Zwart, presented on the innovative Millmill® Aquaphos feed for shrimp, as a source of phosphorus in shrimp diets. Mr Zwart discussed in detail a variety of studies that were carried out on whiteleg shrimp (L. vannamei) in RAS systems who were tested for the following phosphates: Dicalcium phosphate (DCP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), monopotassium phosphate (MKP) and Aquaphos. The 35-day trial proved that Windmill® Aquaphos resulted in much improved P-retention, as well as significantly improved phosphorus digestibility. The product also proved to be an efficient and economical P-source in shrimp nutrition, with a replacement rate of 55 percent vs MCP.

Power up your aquafeed

by Dr Peter Coutteau, Nutriad becomes Adisseo Dr Coutteau’s talk involved discussing the latest trends in shrimp farming and the primary issue most industry members face: disease management. Customers, he noted, ideally want antibiotic-free

solutions and supplements that will greatly assist in the resistance and strength of their shrimp. The latest big health risk for shrimp in Asia, Dr Coutteau continued, is Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP), a dangerous microsporidian parasite that can cause severe growth disabilities within shrimp. Bile salts, he noted, improve digestion and liquid absorption.

Innovative use of algae polysaccharide to support disease prevention in shrimp culture

by Mr Alexandre Veille, Olmix Group Olmix Group gave an intriguing presentation on their renowned speciality; algae and its role in helping disease prevention within shrimp feed. Mr Veille began his discussion by describing the various components of macroalgae, such as the various poly-anionic and sulphated polysaccharides, as well as the minerals and vitamins present in macroalgae. Olmix’s innovative feed composed of seaweed, called MSP® boasts better toxin excretion and better lipid intake due to its ability to stimulate bile production within shrimps. MSP, Mr Veille noted, also reduces fat accumulation in HP and improves molting hormone production within shrimp. MSP also grants shrimp better gut barrier protection and biological immunity from various diseases.

Microbial and health management in shrimp farming

by Mr Stéphane Ralite, Lallemand Animal Nutrition Mr Ralite’s presentation covered shrimp health management, where he discussed how ensuring a balanced nutrition for your shrimp is only one step towards ensuring you have healthy shrimp. Environmental management of shrimp is also crucial, to ensure water biochemistry and aeration are sufficiently managed, as well as proper veterinary

Future proofing your aqua feed production starts with co-creating the perfect fit. Let’s build or upgrade your aqua feed mill

All great ideas start with a dialogue. What’s your ambition? We at van Aarsen believe that sharing know-how and co-creation are essential in finding the perfect fit. Whether you are looking to modernize or expand your aqua feed production, want to replace aging machinery with future-proof innovations, or need advice in the planning and setup of a completely new aqua feed mill, Van Aarsen is the knowledge partner for you.

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International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 59

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Industry Events

maintenance, area management and biosecurity. Lallemand’s feed additive Bactocell® is proven to minimise the threat of various pathogens in diseases, by moderating and enhancing immune and antioxidant status in shrimp larva, thereby increasing stress resilience.

extruded feed is often processed via hot and cold extrusion. Going through each process in the feed process, Mr Wuest discussed the best methods for grinding, mixing, extrusion, vacuum coating and drying your feed to ensure optimal performance for your shrimp.

Functional land animal proteins support performance and health of young shrimp

The use of tannins in shrimp farming

by Dr Lourens Heres, Sonac/Darling Ingredients Session three began with Dr Heres’ discussion regarding the various benefits of land animal proteins for aquatic feeds. Gelatine binders prove especially useful in the use of land animal feeds, which increases the feed attractiveness, as well as improving gut health and performance in juvenile shrimp. Plasma powder was one particularly useful land animal by-product which Sonac discussed in more depth. Plasma powder reduces mortality in stressed populations, as well as being proven to support overall growth parameters.

Marine fish culture and feed technology development

by Mr Urs Wuest, Bühler Bühler’s presentation took a unique take on the benefits of the latest fish farming technology, in relation to shrimp. Cage systems and RAS technology allow for shrimps to be monitored in a variety of less intrusive ways. Mr Wuest also discussed extrusion in Asia, and the varying forms extruded feed take. China, he noted, place greater emphasis on twin-shaft extrusion, whilst Japan’s

by Dr Clara Trullàs, Tanin Sevnica Dr Trullàs gave a very engaging presentation at the Aquatic Asia Conference on tannins within shrimp aquaculture. Dr Trullàs noted that the shrimp industry urgently needs a solution that can adequately reduce the risk of diseases without the need for harsh antibiotics or chemical treatments. A solution is needed that also proves to be profitable, as well as ensure better survival rates for shrimp. This very solution, according to Tanin Sevnica, is tannins (water soluble polyphenols, commonly found in woody plants). Tannins are antibacterial, anthelmintic, boost immunity, reduce ammonia and have a whole host of benefits. Through displaying various studies, Dr Trullàs showed that tannins reduce the risk of many antibiotic-resistant strains of parasites, such as Streptococcus agalactiae.

The application of microencapsulated oil emulsified with bile acid in shrimps

by Mr Zhouwen Lai, Singao The final talk of the day was by Mr Lai of Singao, who discussed the benefits of microencapsulation and emulsification with shrimp feed- particularly Singao’s signature feed: Ω3. Mr Lai brought several studies to light which proved the benefits of Ω3, including its enhancement of both male and female shrimp reproductive capabilities. Microencapsulation, Mr Lai stated, also grants a reduction in mesenteric fats. In contrast, microencapsulation enhances the intestinal structure of shrimp, as well as immune-related enzyme activities.


The Aquatic Asia Conference was brought to a close by Professor Simon Davies and Mr Roger Gilbert, who thanked everyone for coming and expressed their pleasure at the conference being such a success. The International Aquafeed team are especially proud of how well this conference was conducted and very pleased by the turnout and speakers’ brilliant contributions. The next Aquatic Asia Conference will be Aquatic Health and Nutrition Asia and will be held at VIV Health and Nutrition in January 2020 in Thailand. Do feel welcome to email me at for more information. 60 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed



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Online 24/7 knowledge networking from feed to food

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

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Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

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62 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

Feed and ingredients


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Roller Mill - Vertical Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815

International Aquafeed - May 2019 | 63

Agromatic +41 55 2562100

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the interview Antonio Prati, Founder, PLP Liquid Systems International Aquafeed visited PLP Liquid Systems in Lugagnano val D’Arda in Piacenza in northern Italy in December 2018 to meet with the founder Antonio Prati and his son Marco who is taking over the business. PLP Liquid Systems is a business focused on dosing and weighing equipment for liquids and powders in feed, pet food, food and chemical businesses, with complete systems for liquid/powder dose control, continuous coating on finished products, emulsifiers, motorised sprayers, flow meters, pumps, filters, etc. He explains to us from his brand-new factory in the hills south of Parma how a modest family business can compete on a worldwide stage.

What made you consider starting your business and take up the challenge of meeting demand in the feed industry?

I was inspired to start the business when I was working for a petrol company in the mid-1970s. It began with the molasses. I knew nothing about how to apply molasses to feed but had been asked if I could design one by an Italian feed manufacturer. It was 1978 and I was on my way to the UK when I met an engineer from Royal Royce Engines who suggested I should try to apply an application system that was being used in the engines of airplanes. A simple drawing explaining the concept led to our first smoke sprayer. We made and installed the first and that was followed by more people asking for more. Over time I had a very close friendship with the engineer I had met and his family. I started the company in 1979 from that little drawing. From that small light of three people we now have a team of 22 people.

How do you manage to provide and service customers all over the world as a small family-run company in a remote village in northern Italy?

Much of the work in the early years was the travel involved in installation of the pipelines. However, today 90 percent of the projects don’t require us on site to do that work. We do the engineering and design and the installation is simplified and can be done by the customer. If the customer requires assistance we have local contractors who will do the installation for them. But we are providing mostly to feed mills and they understand this technology. Our machines are ‘plug-n-play’ and just need to be installed and pipes connected. We can provide remote support via the cloud to customers from Vietnam to South America. We have a full-time representative who sells for us in Italy to a range of Italian companies, but we are always looking for agents in individual countries.

Do you usually sell your products direct to the endconsumer, or to additive companies?

Our machines are well known in the feed and wine industries. Our customers are those related to these industries. We also sell to companies selling additives who then supply our machinery to their final customer for the application of these additives and at present we have three companies worldwide providing their customers with our systems.

spraying and micro dosing. Dosamix, for example, is a liquid dosing system using smog spraying which is unique in a liquid spraying system. We also have developed a ‘Post Stress Powder Application’ (PSPA) system and a MDP easy-batch system. This is our product range.

Are you using foreign components in your equipment?

As we are based in Italy, we are proud to say all of our components are made here in Italy.

In what specific regions are your business really growing?

This year it was Vietnam for aquafeed that saw a significant growth, and South America, spread all around from Chili to Bolivia and Guatemala. We gain these customers primarily through our own sellers and distributors as part of PLP Liquid Systems. We only started business in South America two years ago and we have already had great results. For a while we did not have a primary focus on the South American market, but as technology advances it is becoming a key area of business for us.

Where are the future markets for this type of equipment likely to be?

While it is difficult to see good growth here in Italy I think we have a good chance to grow in other markets. Our growth has to be achieved carefully as we are a family company. We will always have a technical advantage due to the fact we are based here in Italy. While there is not a new way of producing feed, the big players in our industry always get bigger and we journey together with them. I think being part of turnkey projects will become more common in future.

How do family-owned companies operate globally in your view?

For us we have to stay small and to rely on innovation and research and development to evolve for the future. That’s how we have survived and prospered. That’s why we are building a small test plant here for developing our spraying units. We are changing a range of small things on these systems all the time to make them better, easier to maintain and to add value to the customer. What we do is not really to invent something that changes the role of making things, it is just changing small things at a time so there is always something better- adding true value to our products.

We also focus on coating of micro liquids such as fat and powders, dosing into a mixer based on weighting and

64 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed


Dr Francesca Blasco takes over product development and innovations


rancesca Blasco recently became Vice President of Product and Innovation, a newly created position at Dr Eckel Animal Nutrition, joining Dr Antje Eckel (CEO), Dr Bernhard Eckel (Vice President Sales) and Sabine Felten (Head of Finance) in the company’s top management. She will be responsible for the development of the company’s new and existing innovative product solutions.

Dr Francesca Blasco

Dr Antje Eckel, who founded the company 25 years ago, is extremely pleased with the acquisition. “Francesca is a valuable asset to Dr Eckel, both professionally and personally. She has many years’ experience in animal nutrition and is also an accomplished and proficient manager with first-hand knowledge of the tasks and challenges of product development. Her passion for our industry and our products is evident in all she does.” Francesca Blasco comes from Catania, Sicily. After studying chemistry at the University of Catania, she obtained her doctorate in Technical Biochemistry in Stuttgart, Germany. She initially worked in Norway, subsequently moving to Switzerland and the USA.

Grieg Shetland joins SSPO


he Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation (SSPO) recently announced that their latest member is Mr Grieg Shetland.

“I’m delighted to welcome Grieg Seafood into the SSPO. Through the SSPO, the industry can demonstrate its unparalleled investment and commitment to research, technology and fish health”, stated Chair of the SSPO, Gilpin Bradley.

Grieg Shetland

The SSPO’s chief executive, Julie Hesketh-Laird, said, “It’s fantastic to welcome Grieg into SSPO membership, confirming our position as the authoritative voice of the industry. We look forward to working with Grant and his team.” Grieg Seafood was previously a member of SSPO as Hjaltland Seafarms but was excluded due to a contravention of the voluntary Code of Good Practice relating to the source of its smolts. The company is now fully compliant with the Code and its requirements on smolts.

Rebecca Sherratt promoted to Features Editor


nternational Aquafeed’s Production Editor, Rebecca Sherratt, has recently been promoted to her new role as Features Editor. In her new role, Rebecca will be increasing her visibility in the magazine as well as at exhibitions and trade shows and writing more articles for the magazine. Rebecca is very pleased with her new role and looks forward to increasing her visibility in the industry and the chance to write about more technical material.

Rebecca Sherratt

“In such a vital, yet sometimes overlooked industry, in my new role as Features Editor I look forward to helping engage younger audiences with the importance of ensuring a sustainable future for food production. We must still make sure to attain the goal of feeding 9.5 billion people by 2050!”

Simon Seward named Aker BioMarine’s new VP Qrill Sales Asia


orking for the past six years for Norwegian human nutrition group SanaPharma in a variety of management roles, Simon brings an in-depth knowledge of the international B2B nutritional market to his new position, along with invaluable hands-on experience of brand development, sales, marketing and distribution in South East Asia. “I am really excited to be joining Aker BioMarine, which consistently leads the way in this industry with its integrated sales and marketing strategy, supporting their one of a kind product offering”, says Simon Seward.

Simon Seward

In total, he has over 28 years of both client and agency-side B2B and B2C experience. Hailing from the United Kingdom, Simon is a Member of the Institute of Directors & Chartered Institute of Marketing and holds an MSc Marketing from Staffordshire University.

New MD appointed for Cermaq Chile


teven Rafferty brings broad global industry experience to Cermaq Chile, the second largest farming company in Chile

“I am very pleased to announce that Steven Rafferty will be the new MD for Cermaq Chile. He is definitely the right person for this task, bringing with him broad knowledge from the industry and is business savvy. He also knows Chilean culture and business well, which is important for building our operations in Chile,” says CEO Geir Molvik.

Steven Rafferty

“I very much look forward to lead Cermaq’s operations in Chile. Cermaq has changed significantly since I left in 2010 and I am delighted and excited to lead the Chilean operations and be part of the global management that will take the company into its next phase” says Mr Rafferty. 66 | May 2019 - International Aquafeed

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