APR 2019 - International Aquafeed magazine

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- Insect meal - supporting the growth of sustainable aquaculture

International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 04 - April 2019

- Unlocking new potential for microalgae in aquafeed - Single cell protein: Is this space technology ready for aquaculture? - Aquaculture: Why the need for measuring, monitoring, and data logging?

See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

- Progressive RAS design - Expert topic - Meagre Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

April 2019


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WELCOME Fishing is one of the oldest human activities and has always been associated with rivers and lakes and, more primordially, with the oceans. But as aquaculture evolves at a dizzying rate, it seems that many are turning their gaze inland with the rise of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS).

do not support year-round marine cage aquaculture. This issue features two such leading RAS manufacturers who offer sophisticated systems incorporating the use of sensors and advanced data collection that allows close control of water conditions necessary to raise healthy fish. In this issue we at International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology The reasons for the switch are many: are very privileged to be the first RAS fish production neatly avoids Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed magazine to publish the results of the many of the pitfalls encountered with DIVERSIFY Project, an exhaustive marine cage aquaculture. RAS systems five-year study (2013-2018) funded by can be located inland close to major the EU to the tune of 11.8 million euros. population centres, saving shipping costs and reducing the The DIVERSIFY Project focused on six finfish species: meagre, operation’s carbon footprint. greater amberjack, Atlantic halibut pikeperch, grey mullet, Also, there are fewer contentious issues to deal with, such as the and wreckfish, to determine their suitability for European environmental side-effects of fish farms in sensitive coastal areas aquaculture. Importantly, this was a multi-disciplinary study that and the thorny issues of sea lice, unwanted escapes, the effects examined many aspects of aquaculture including warm water of uneaten fish food and faeces and the unwanted attention of and cold-water marine cage culture, pond extensive culture and predatory birds, seals and sea lions. Plus, environmental threats freshwater intensive culture using RAS. such as algae bloom or potentially cage-wrecking storms are What makes this project so especially relevant is that it was avoided. undertaken with commercial needs firmly in mind, and these As in everything there are issues that RAS also faces. Until species were chosen because they are large and fast-growing, recently, RAS farms have tended to focus on hatchery operations which makes them ideal candidates for processing into a range of rather than raising fish to table size ready for consumption. commercial products that can be marketed to the fish-consuming However, as more and ever larger RAS fish farms are developed, public. that is beginning to change. It is a fascinating and ground-breaking study and we are proud I recently attended Aquaculture American 2019 in New Orleans, to be able to debut it within our pages. This issue will feature where there were many RAS manufacturers who are offering the first of the six species studied in the project: Meagre. The turnkey systems of great sophistication. And judging by the remaining fish will be covered one-per issue for the next five increasing numbers of these companies at major shows, it months. Once again, I would like to thank all the experts at certainly reflects the rapid growth of this aspect of aquaculture, DIVERSIFY for the opportunity to publish this cutting-edge especially as many countries lack a coastline or access to the study. sea or are located in regions where ambient water temperatures


MICROALGAE: Unlocking new potential for microalgae in aquafeed - page 24

AQUACULTURE: Why the need for measuring, monitoring, and data logging? - page 32


Aquaculture round-up

SINGLE CELL PROTEIN: The Is this space technology ready for aquaculture? - page 28

EXPERT TOPIC: Meagre - page 42


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Everyone agrees that life is more complicated nowadays. In the past, universities had Departments of Zoology. Now there are Departments of Animal… Husbandry, Services, Care and Control, Health, Veterinary Martin O’Farrell Services, Welfare and Behaviour. The Fish Management Systems, UK welfare of farmed animals throughout their lives and, particularly, at the time of slaughter is now very high on the agendas of producers and consumers. The welfare of farmed fish, throughout their lives and at the time of slaughter is a relatively new consideration. We have been involved in aquaculture, one way or another, for about four decades. Our collective experience relates to rainbow trout, Arctic char and Atlantic salmon culture, humane slaughter and environmental impact. We have seen significant technological change and we have seen no change! At the end of the second decade of the twentyfirst century, modern seawater RAS systems are producing high value kingfish while freshwater flow through earthen ponds are still in use in rainbow trout production! Our focus now is on the humane slaughter of finfish produced in freshwater or seawater. ‘Humane’ is a word that requires definition. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the definition of ‘humane’ is ‘showing compassion or benevolence’. In the context of global fin-fish aquaculture, it is probable that only a very small percentage of farmed fish are treated humanely at the time of harvest. In the context of European finfish aquaculture, guidelines on the humane slaughter of farmed salmon and rainbow trout have been in existence for perhaps one decade. Many modern European fin-fish farmers have moved away from thermal shock (ice slurry) with or without CO2 (now banned in some countries) to dry electrical stunning, in-water electrical stunning and percussion stunning. Our expertise relates to in-water, in-line electrical stunning of farmed fish in freshwater or seawater where fish are stunned within one second of entry into a ramped DC field.

We have encountered fin-fish farmers using batch in-water electric stunning systems which deploy AC fields. We have been reliably informed that a period of about seven minutes is required to kill every fish in the batch Robin McKimm and that, unfortunately, a significant Fish Management Systems, UK percentage of fish exhibit carcass damage (blood spotting etc). Does in-water exposure to an AC electric field for up to seven minutes sound ‘humane’? Does dying from asphyxia in air over an even longer period sound ‘humane’? Of course, dying of asphyxia in air is also the fate of countless fish captured by commercial fishing vessels throughout the world. And this issue is now, finally, being looked at by some EU member states/agencies. There is a desire among fin-fish farmers to improve the harvest methods they deploy. However, many require customised solutions related to available space on harvest vessels/existing fish pump availability/electric power requirements etc. It is rarely a case of ‘out with the old and in with the new’ and more frequently a case of ‘in with the new provided it is compatible with some or all of the old’! The requirement for the new slaughter system to be ‘humane’ is measured against the old and less ‘humane’ slaughter system in terms of efficiency (manpower requirement/slaughter rate) and processing requirements (time to rigor mortis/carcass quality targets). When harvest/slaughter objectives are ranked, should they be weighted as part of the ranking process. Is it desirable to operate a ‘more’ humane system with a reduced slaughter rate or a ‘less’ humane system a with longer time to the onset of rigor mortis? We have presented at various aquaculture conferences and have used a provocative slide which shows pictures of fish, fowl and other farmed animals. The caption reads: ‘if you had to, which one would you rather kill’? The fish is the obvious choice. Those who continue to deploy less than humane harvest methods must know that their farmed fish suffer in silence at the end of their lives. This is no longer acceptable in civilised society.

As dedicated media sponsor for Aquaculture 2019, International Aquafeed/ Fish Farming Technology magazine took a trip across the pond to the triennial, world’s largest aquaculture gathering. Aquaculture 2019 was hosted in New Orleans, Louisiana by the New Orleans Marriot Hotel and organised by the National Shellfisheries Association, American Fisheries Society, World Aquaculture Society (WAS) and the National Aquaculture Association. Not since 2016 in Las Vegas had the world’s William aquaculture industry seen such a gathering, with the New Orleans event surpassing that of the prior Las Vegas rendition. This conference and trade show had attendees in excess of 3000 from over 90 countries and in over 300 exhibitors. This all-round successful event had many working tersely behind the seams, and to many I mention a thank you all and a

special thanks to Mario Steal and John Cooksy who have always made these events worthwhile to attend. If only they could organise a way to reduce my 17-hour travel! The trade show brought many new technology systems to the industry and in the coming months we will showcase many of them. The highlight of the tradeshow was the purchase of Calitri Technology by the American giant Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems who, in the past purchased, American company Aquatic and more recently Icelandic Dowds Eco-Systems company Vaki, further demonstrating the global expansion of aquaculture with rising demand for a more sustainable protein source. Our next trip across the pond is to Honolulu, Hawaii February 9 – 12th 2020 and the following WAS event in Singapore, from June 2 – 5th 2020, with a little trip to my homeland, Ireland, in September 2020.

NUTRITION & HEALTH We have challenges for fish due to the The aquaculture industry embraces effects of extrusion on the thermolabile so many disciplines and is reliant on nature of many enzymes but I am a vast array of technologies in the assured that much is being done to biosciences to advances in technology develop more robust and stable enzymes and engineering. It is obvious that such as xylanases and hemicellulases, large trade shows and industrial mixed function proteases and specific events will form an important gateway phytases that can greatly enhance the for the meeting of stakeholders such efficacy of plant based ingredients of as academics, commercial agents, Professor Simon Davies low fishmeal formulations. technologists and those in the feed Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed Everywhere I turned, there was much and health sectors particularly. These mention of the gut integrity and meetings can be transformative and functionality of various products and their positive interaction greatly contribute to joint ventures and lucrative trade of the immune system and effects on modulation and stability. agreements. Such was my experience last month in a most dynamic setting at Excellent graphics and brochures were available to support claims and a number of digital platforms and video illustrations the VIV Asia 2019 event I held in Bangkok, Thailand. It was an excellent opportunity to meet with the industry face on and meet that would be enviable in the classroom. Algae, microbial biomass, yeasts and novel plant protein up with so many past friends and to make new acquaintances. concentrates were all on display as well as a range of companies It was a very large venue and after a long 13-hour flight worth promoting vaccine technology for animals including fish and it all to see the many stands and exhibits from many countries also various chemotherapeutic agents against infection and making it really an international venue. parasites of all kinds. I cannot do justice to the many companies attending but I also had the pleasure of visiting my colleagues and friends at suffice to say that this reflected the wider animal production the prestigious Royal University of King Mongkut in Bangkok. industry with a strong emphasis on pig, poultry production as Dr Noratat Prachom hosted my visit and I was able to meet well as many examples of products for aquaculture. It was a with the Dean of The Faculty of Science and Technology and goldmine for IAF considering our new incorporation of fish staff to see developments and their investments in aquaculture farming technology as well as our long-standing expertise research focusing on tilapia, shrimp and integrative technology. in reporting developments in feeds and nutrition of fish and They have a strong nutritional theme and much talent for marine crustaceans. science and aquatic biosciences in many disciplines. The aquafeed area has many new opportunities to advance and We discussed collaborations and how I may help in future to I was delighted by the increased awareness that feed enzymes project their excellent initiatives internationally. I must thank all could play a major role to this effect. Many companies have the organisers and my Perendale colleagues for the professional excellent products at hand, and I was impressed by the display input and detail as well of course the VIV group from the of products at VIV Asia available for mono-gastric animal Netherlands. production that seem to work so well for poultry and pigs.

Professor Davies with his former PhD student Dr Alexandros Samartzis of Evonik Asia

Red meal from Chile- pioneers in natural astaxanthin from algae

Professor Davies with the Azomite Group at VIV Asia

Colleagues from King Mongkut University in Bangkok

With Jefo at VIV Asia

Professor Davies with visitors from Pakistan with interest in aquafeeds

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle vaughne@perendale.co.uk

April 2019 Volume 22 Issue 04



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.co.uk Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.co.uk Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erik@perendale.co.uk Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Rebecca Sherratt rebeccas@perendale.co.uk Matt Holmes matth@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris darrenp@perendale.co.uk William Dowds williamd@perendale.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 ivanm@perendale.co.uk Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 mohamedb@perendale.com Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 nathann@perendale.co.uk Design Manager James Taylor jamest@perendale.co.uk Production Manager Maryna Nobis martynan@perendale.co.uk Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk Communication Manager Pablo Porcel antoinet@perendale.co.uk ©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058

REGULAR ITEMS 6 Industry News 38 Technology showcase 48 Industry Events 60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 10 Dr Neil Auchterlonie

40 Expert Topic - Meagre Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new/emerging candidate fish species for expansion of the European aquaculture industry (DIVERSIFY). DIVERSIFY have kindly teamed up with International Aquafeed magazine to provide us with the results of the research carried out on the six species of the project. Over the next siz issues we will bring you the finding for; meagre, greater amberjack, halibut, pikeperch, grey mullet and wreckfish.

FEATURES 22 Insect meal 24 Unlocking new potential for microalgae in aquafeed 28 Single cell protein: Is this space technology ready for aquaculture?


THE BIG PICTURE In order to survive you must adapt and evolve. As the need for land-based fish farms and research centres grows, so does the need to advance the design and efficiency of such facilities and reduce operating costs to enhance long-term feasibility. In order to do this, new technological advances must be tested before they are implemented in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), which makes having an R&D Centre essential. See more on page 34

32 Aquaculture: Why the need for measuring, monitoring, and data logging? 34 Progressive RAS design

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New salmon farm delivers £3million windfall for Scottish businesses eading salmon farmer Scottish Sea Farms is to spend over UK£3m with suppliers throughout Scotland as it prepares to open its forthcoming new salmon farm off Lober Rock in the Scapa Flow, Orkney. The new farm, which is due to go live in autumn 2019, will see a total infrastructure investment of £3.3m; over 90 percent of which will be spent with Scottish businesses, bringing a welcome jobs boost. The newly-awarded contracts include a £1.74m deal with the Gael Force Group in Inverness to build a 200-tonne steel feed barge – the first to be built at the former Corpach Boatyard in Fort William – along with moorings, 12 x 80m salmon pens, underwater cameras and environmental monitoring technology. Another contract is worth a total of £665k with Macduff Shipyards in Aberdeenshire to build a 14m catamaran workboat, as well as a £324k deal with W&J Knox in Ayrshire, including Seal Pro netting systems, to help keep local marine life and salmon stocks safely apart, and maintain Scottish Sea Farms’ record of no seal shootings in Orkney for over three years. A deal with Leask Marine in Orkney for £106k has also been confirmed to secure moorings, barge and pens. Scottish Sea Farms’ Managing Director Jim Gallagher said, “These orders will equip our new farm with the latest technologies, ensuring we’re Scottish Technical Standard 2020 compliant and giving our salmon the very best environment in which to grow. “We’ve worked with several of these suppliers for many years now as part of our long-standing policy of buying Scottish wherever possible and

know their products to be tried and tested with regards to withstanding Orkney marine conditions.” The new salmon farm is set to benefit non-aquaculture businesses too. Scottish Sea Farms’ Regional Production Manager for Orkney, Richard Darbyshire explains, “Not only will we be working with local suppliers to the sector, but our salmon pens will be constructed by Gael Force Fusion on the remote island of Sanday, generating spend on everything from hauliers, ferry travel and accommodation at the nearby Kettletoft Hotel, to generators, welfare units and sundries for as much as three months or more.” In addition to generating revenue for Scottish businesses and service providers, the new farm will create six new full-time roles and lead to further job creation across the supply chain. Gael Force Group Founder and Managing Director Stewart Graham says, “As part of a planned increase of 10 new employees in Lochaber, we have already advertised six newly-created fabricator roles as a direct result of the barge being built at Gael Force Boatbuilding in Corpach, and we are also increasing our workforce with multiple new roles at our pen-building facility, Gael Force Fusion in Oban.” These latest contract awards come on the back of a year in which Scottish Sea Farms spent a record £113m across 676 local suppliers – £33m of which was investment in its new RAS smolt hatchery at Barcaldine – equating to 75 percent of total supplier spend in 2018, with plans to invest a further £25m in capital infrastructure projects over the next 12 months.

6 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

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The Veramaris algal fish feed solution


he Norwegian salmon producer Lingalaks is replacing fish oil in its production with omega-3 EPA + DHA fatty acids from natural marine algae for increased sustainability and product differentiation. Beginning in October 2018, Lingalaks has been feeding 50 percent of their salmon production a diet produced by Skretting, which includes omega-3 EPA + DHA algal oil produced by Veramaris. Feeding salmon with natural marine algal oil resonates strongly with the sustainability efforts of numerous retailers worldwide. German retail chain Kaufland is now the first to put the new salmon on the shelf. Kaufland and Lidl are part of the German Schwarz Group. Consumer demand for healthy and sustainably fed salmon is rapidly increasing. German retailer Kaufland sees great potential in the collaboration with Lingalaks and Veramaris. The company is pursuing a comprehensive corporate responsibility strategy of which the seafood portfolio, particularly salmon, is an integral element reflecting consumer demands. “Our customers have high demands on quality and competence of the assortment. The algal oil-fed salmon is an innovative and high-quality product that lives up to our customers’ high demands for good taste and healthy nutrition, and that meets the increasing sense of responsibility for conscious consumption of resources. We are convinced that this cooperation is a forwardlooking decision”, says Andreas Schopper, Head of Purchasing at Kaufland. As a first mover, Kaufland has been supporting this trend-setting development right from the start. As of 2019, Kaufland will be offering Lingalaks’ highquality salmon in its German branches. The feed for Lingalaks new salmon generation is provided by feed manufacturer Skretting. “As an industry leader with the knowledge to produce 100 percemt fish-free feeds on a commercial scale, Skretting is very happy to support Lingalaks in taking this innovative step,” says Mads Martinsen, Director Product Development, Skretting Norway. “It’s not as simple as just substitution, and many years of research have allowed this breakthrough. Omega-3 EPA + DHA from natural marine algae allows us to produce healthier and better salmon. It also gives us the unique opportunity to differentiate our company within a competitive market. Our courage to pioneer a new and more sustainable production method using algal oil resonated well with our philosophy. “By being the early adopter of this new technology, we found partners along the seafood value chain who supported us in realising our vision of superior, sustainable salmon quality and finding new outlets for it”, says Lingalaks owner Erlend Haugarvoll. Veramaris, a Dutch-based joint venture of DSM and Evonik, orchestrated the stakeholder dialogue of players along the value chain over the past few years, from feed producers, farmers, retailers to NGOs. 8 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

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You need to re-vote

Dr Neil Auchterlonie AquaFarm, Italy

ne of the great pleasures of working for The Marine Ingredients Organisation (IFFO) is the opportunity it presents to be able to communicate some of the realities of fishmeal and fish oil as feed ingredients and the reasons why these are not in reality replaceable as ingredients. There is so much confusion, or sometimes even deliberate misinformation, on the use of these materials in aquafeed that any opportunity to provide clarity or redress the balance in the public domain is one that we at IFFO always take up with enthusiasm. Recently, I was honoured to speak at the AquaFarm 2019 Conference in Pordenone. The AquaFarm conference has an interesting audience that comprises of largely Mediterranean aquaculture industry, support industry and academics. It is a practical information exchange platform where topics of specific interest and importance to the industry are highlighted. The presentation was within a session on fish feed and fish quality, described as “new formulations, ingredients, additives and integrators, and the circular economy”. The session was very ably moderated by Rebecca Sherratt, the Production Editor from International Aquafeed, and contained a round table of: Robert Tillner (Production Manager, Aller Aqua), Fabio Brambilla, (Fish Nutritionist, Naturalleva), Umberto Luzzana (Marketing Director, Skretting), and Andrea di Biase (Product Manager Aqua, Veronesi). Following the presentation, the round table fielded a series of questions about future potential feed ingredients, and although it was at the end of the day there was a lot of interest and energy in the room that reflected well on the importance of the session topic. The content of the presentation wasn’t markedly different from previous presentations I have given on the use of fishmeal and fish oil in aquafeed. Marine ingredients are equally as important for the farmed sea bass and sea bream that dominate Mediterranean aquaculture as they are in the salmon, shrimp, trout, catfish and other industries. The messages are largely the same that fishmeal and fish oil are effective means of supplying the required nutrition in aquafeeds, both from nutritional and economic perspectives. There was general appreciation in the session that they will continue to be included in aquafeeds, but more of the novel ingredients will become important in supporting the real volume of aquafeed growth that will be required in the future, in turn supporting aquaculture development. Of course, a lot of the novel ingredients are capturing media headlines, but the fact is that many of them have a long way to go to reach commercial volumes although that is much needed at this time. A feed company representative I sat next to at a recent workshop put it succinctly: fishmeal inclusion has been reduced to close to threshold levels (in salmon feed) and the growth in the novel ingredients is required to replace some of the vegetable protein in the feed in order to facilitate growth in feed volume. It was great to experience so much interest in feed formulations and optimising the nutritional benefits, in relation to fish growth, quality and health at the conference. It seems that maybe the rise of some of the novel ingredients may actually be driving a general interest in aquafeed formulations, which is good to see. Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 10 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed


n election of World Aquaculture Society Officers, Directors, and Bylaws changes for the year 2019-2020 was held during December 19, 2018 to February 3rd, 2019. However, due to electronic voting irregularities, the Board of Directors decided to void the result and ask the membership to re-vote after fixing the Internet voting system. The WAS Election Committee is now asking the membership to cast your vote again. Please, note that this is the same ballot approved previously by the Board of Directors. It contains the same candidates for President-Elect, Treasurer, and Directors, as well as the same proposals to Bylaws changes. One change to the voting system is that member ID can no longer be used as passwords. Members that had not changed their passwords were recently sent new passwords. If you had previously changed your password, that password is still valid and should be used. To prevent multiple voting, only ballots with correct member IDs will be counted. When ballots are received at the Home Office the member ID will be checked against a list of IDs (no member names) in order to ensure an anonymous vote and to eliminate repeat voting. Note that proxy vote is not allowed. Please use thefollowing link to vote: www.was.org/Ballot Users can alternatively email judya@was.org if they require a pdf version or you can print from the link above and return by post to ‘WAS Elections Committee 20182019, WAS Home Office, PO Box 397, Sorrento LA 707780397 (USA)’ Ballots must be received in the Home Office by May 29, 2019 either by online vote or by mail, fax, or email. Ballots received after this date will not be counted.

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International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 11




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Balancing shrimp microbial ecosystems ack in March at VIV Asia, Stéphane Ralite talked at the Aquatic Asia 2019 Conference in Bangkok about “Microbial and health management in shrimp farming”. By taking a microbiologist’s approach to shrimp health, he highlighted the importance of both gut and water microbial ecosystems on shrimp health and performance. This fresh approach to shrimp farm management was well received by an audience of around 100 aquaculture specialists. Based on practical examples, Ralite demonstrated the link between these microbial ecosystems’ equilibrium and shrimp health. He then discussed the possibility of contributing to secure

this equilibrium by managing gut and/ or water microbiota, as part of good shrimp farming practices Microorganisms play a crucial role in the success of shrimp farming, in the gut, but also in the water and pond soil. We start to have a good picture of the microbial composition of these three compartments, even though we are at the beginning of the story and much research still needs to be done in this area. Concerning the gut, the link between shrimp health and gut microbiota is reciprocal. If it is clear that the digestive microbiota plays a crucial role in shrimp health, it also appears that shrimp health, in particular the immune status of the shrimp, influences the composition of the digestive microbiota. The shrimp’s ability to maintain a

stable microbiota goes hand in hand with its resistance against pathogenic or environmental challenges. The application of new metagenomics techniques enables to show that it is possible to orientate shrimps gut microbiota with probiotics in order to help enhance their resistance against pathogens or sanitary challenges. The efficacy of probiotic bacteria Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M (BACTOCELL), the only probiotic authorised in the European Union for use in shrimp and fish, to help prevent the proliferation of vibrio in vivo was presented. In conclusion, shrimp microbial management should be a multifactorial approach, involving shrimp nutrition and management, as well as water and pond microbial management.


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International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 13

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For more info on the CONFERENCE www.aquaeas.eu

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For more info on TRADESHOW & SPONSORSHIP MarEvent mario@marevent.com www.marevent.com

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Blue Aqua International and Jebsen & Jessen Ingredients announce new distribution partnership


ebsen & Jessen Ingredients to serve as exclusive Blue Aqua distributor in Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Blue Aqua International and Jebsen & Jessen Ingredients announced a new partnership that will see Blue Aqua’s aquaculture and nutrition products distributed exclusively by Jebsen & Jessen Ingredients in Myanmar, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Led by Dr Farshad Shishehchian, CEO & Founder of Blue Aqua International, and Mr Marc Deschamps, Regional Managing Director & CEO of Jebsen & Jessen Ingredients – the contract signing took place at the biannual VIV Asia 2019, in BITEC Bangna, Bangkok, Thailand, on March 13, 2019. This new partnership will leverage the combined strength of Jebsen & Jessen Ingredients’ distribution service and Blue Aqua’s product portfolio to bring outstanding products and solutions to the aquaculture and animal feed industry. “Jebsen & Jessen Ingredient’s deep expertise in

specialty ingredients distribution and customer support is a perfect fit. We are excited to be moving forward with this new partnership to provide our customers better access to Blue Aqua’s exclusive product lines,” said Dr Farshad Shishehchian, CEO & Founder of Blue Aqua International. Mr Marc Deschamps, Regional Managing Director & CEO of Jebsen & Jessen Ingredients also commented on the partnership. “We are very happy to share future successes with Blue Aqua International. Strong distribution experience paired with an even stronger technological partner is a good recipe for growth.”

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International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 15

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Women welders have success in the salmon industry in Puerto Montt ver 20 women in the 10th region of Chile are working in the welding area of the Norwegian supplier to the aquaculture industry. They have been trained for the production line, thanks to a programme of feminine inclusion that has been successfully in place for a year, and that is promoting sustainable development. The Norwegian multinational AKVA group, which provides aquaculture technology and services to the salmon industry — with headquarters in Puerto Montt — last year created a programme that includes women in their productive processes and welding workshops. The purpose of this program is to promote the employment of local women in the workplace through a commitment to gender equality. “We want to see more empowered women working in the salmon industry. For a year we have been developing inclusion and training projects for women in the welding area, to create excellent products, with the best welders from both genders,” said Andrew Campbell, Regional President of AKVA group for America, UK, and Australasia. There are now 23 women in the welding workshop of the company. They were previously trained in the AKVA academy which initially offered men-only courses, then mixed classes, and finally, the first women-only course. “This is a call for women to accomplish everything they set their minds on, and we are willing to accompany them in this process. Sustainability is also about people, collaboration among local people and the local communities”, Campbell added. In welding, the women specialise in raw material, structure, and accessories, receiving training over six months, to produce pens and walkways of high quality, for the local and export markets. There are over 350 people working in Chile, including 46 women in different areas. At the beginning of the programme, there was a concern that it would not work, but today it has been successful. AKVA group has a multinational presence in Chile,

Norway, Denmark, Scotland, Iceland, Canada, Australia, Turkey, and Spain. Their products include pontoons, pens, recirculation systems, feeding systems, feeding chambers, submarine lights, environmental sensors, feeding assistants with artificial intelligence, production and process control software, etc., all which contribute to the world aquaculture industry with new and attractive solutions.

16 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

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BioMar Group reinforces commitment to Chilean aquaculture


ubject to approval by authorities, BioMar acquires the 50 percent remaining shares in the Chilean factory APSA. Ending 10 years of successful collaboration with AquaChile, this will immediately release important capacity for BioMar in Chile. Back in 2007, when BioMar acquired Provimi Aqua, the joint venture in the APSA factory was part of the package. Since then BioMar Chile has been producing feed to AquaChile and to various other customers from the JV. If approved by the authorities, BioMar Group will get access to a significant volume of flexible production capacity. Carlos Diaz CEO of the BioMar Group explained, “We are happy to announce this acquisition, which reinforces BioMar Group’s commitment to the Chilean market. With the transaction, BioMar Chile will achieve a better possibility to serve the broader customer base and plan for future upgrades and expansions of the facility. We experience an increasing demand for our high-end products and we need to take the next steps ensuring our ability to deliver during seasonal peaks”. The acquisition, representing a value of 17 million USD, takes place after AquaChile last summer was acquires by the new owners Agrosuper. “We have during the years experienced a fantastic cooperation with AquaChile, and we are happy that the new owners have facilitated a friendly and smooth negotiation to get the deal in place. I would personally like to thank the former owners for a collaboration that has helped us grow our position in the market, being the independent, agile feed supplier committed to an efficient and sustainable aquaculture”, stated Mr Diaz. Beyond this operation BioMar Chile continues the commercial relationship with Agrosuper and AquaChile. “Looking forward we expect to continue delivering feed to AquaChile. We are cooperating in a very positive way and we are determined to maintain a fruitful commercial relationship”, explained Mr Diaz.

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International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 19

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Major boost for fish welfare in Scotland quaGen, a world-leading salmon breeder and supplier of eggs, has signed a deal to buy Scottish Sea Farms’ freshwater hatchery at Holywood near Dumfries as part of a longterm strategic investment that will further improve fish welfare in Scotland. The acquisition follows a successful trial production of eggs under licence in Autumn 2018 and will enable the Norwegian-owned company to offer Scotland’s salmon farmers a reliable supply of eggs from locally farmed AquaGen broodstock, increasing food security. It will also facilitate a targeted breeding programme to identify the genetic and biological traits most suited to performing well in Scottish farming conditions, resulting in robust fish stocks and a high quality product for market. Welcoming the news, Cabinet Secretary for the Rural Economy Fergus Ewing said, “AquaGen’s investment speaks volumes of the confidence from the sector of doing business in Scotland and supports the aims of Scotland’s 10 Year Farmed Fish Health Framework, helping to improve the security of Scotland’s ova supply.” AquaGen AS Chief Executive Officer Nina Santi said, “We are committed to providing our customers in Scotland with a secure supply of eggs and this latest investment opens up the possibility of us supplying these eggs from locally-grown broodstock. We’re planning a series of

upgrades to the existing facilities at Holywood, using Scottish suppliers as much as possible, then we will go into full production later this year. “Deliveries will be from November to June initially; longer-term we hope to extend to year-round production of up to 50 million eggs annually.” Overseeing production and research will be AquaGen Scotland which was established in Autumn 2017, headquartered at Stirling University Innovation Park, creating two new roles. The team has since expanded to eight; four of whom are based full-time at Holywood with a further two new roles expected to be created at the hatchery as production develops. Unlike coastal hatcheries, the four-acre inland hatchery at Holywood uses groundwater drawn from a series of bore holes; a system that is known for its biosecurity, quality and constant temperatures, and is therefore well-suited to egg production. Scottish Sea Farms’ Head of Fish Health Ralph Bickerdike said, “This is a hugely promising development for Scotland’s salmon farmers, bringing world-leading breeding expertise and technologies to bear on homegrown broodstock so that their offspring can be adapted to specifically suit the Scottish marine environment. This, in turn, will bring a whole host of further improvements in terms of fish welfare and product quality.”

Cermaq launches brand platform: “True Arctic - slow raised salmon”

and identity, which so far have been very evident in food from agriculture. Now, Cermaq’s salmon from Norway will reach the customers with a clear Arctic identity. “The brand platform True Arctic Salmon is a foundation for our close cooperation with our customers to support their success in their communications and marketing. We focus on successful category growth for our customers, and believe this will be a useful tool for our customers. This is part of our strategy of being a leading customeroriented B2B company, “says Cermaq’s Global Sales and Marketing Director, Arild Åkre. The launch of True Arctic Salmon, which takes place at the Boston Seafood Expo, includes a separate web site True Arctic Salmon. The launch continues at the Brussels Expo in May. “The Arctic has its own identity, with magnificent nature, tough conditions, and cold and pure water. Here we produce salmon with Arctic effect that has specific product qualities. These are some of the elements in the origin of True Arctic Salmon, and what conscious consumers care about, “says Arild Aakre.


rctic salmon is raised north of the Arctic Circle, where the water is cold and the salmon grows slower, resulting in specific product qualities. Cermaq’s farming in Norway takes place north of the Arctic Circle, where the water is cold and the salmon grows slower, resulting in specific product qualities. As consumers increasingly pay more attention to the origin of the food, the Arctic effect represents market value. The salmon grown in the ocean is characterised by where it has lived. North of the Arctic Circle, the sea is colder both in summer and in winter, it takes three-to-four months more to grow a salmon, and this gives the salmon specific qualities we want to highlight. Cermaq call it the Arctic effect. There is a strong consumer trend of growing interest in geographical origin

20 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 21

Insect meal

Insect meal is emerging as a new natural and sustainable ingredient to support the growth of sustainable aquaculture


by Maye Walraven, Head of Business Development, Innovafeed, France

ver the past decades, the aquaculture industry has seen many innovations and major technological changes. In particular, on the feed side, where feed-formulators are in constant search of new ingredients and are continuously optimising feed formulas for better performance

and improved sustainability. This has led to many positives impacts, such as a significant decrease in the pressure on wild fish stocks by reducing the content of marine resources in the diet of carnivorous fish and replacing them by plant-based protein. Yet, with aquaculture continuing to experience double-digit growth and the shrinking of marine resources, feed formulators have continued to look for new alternative ingredients. Recently, the F3 conference in San Francisco reunited all the players in the aquaculture industry to discuss new alternative ingredients. Insect meal is emerging as a promising solution: it provides a sustainable source of protein, which is part of a wild fish’s natural diet. In 2017, after several years of studying the proposal, the European Commission amended its regulation and

authorised the inclusion of insect meal in aquaculture feed. Innovafeed, which has established itself as a leader in insect meal production for aquaculture, explains why they view 2019 as a turning point and how they plan to make insect meal a competitive alternative. Maye Walraven, their Head of Business Development, comments, “There’s a strong interest in insect meal from scientists, investors, feed formulators to fish farmers. First movers to adopt insect meal view it as an opportunity to create value rather than a threat - there’s a strong messaging for end-consumers on aquaculture’s benefits to using a natural and sustainable ingredient”.

Laying the foundations to scale up industrial and commercial activity

After several years of research at its R&D facility, the change in EU legislation was the green light for the French-based biotech to launch its first industrial production plant in late 2017 near Cambrai, North of France. Over 2018, this pilot site has enabled InnovaFeed to validate the ability to scale-up its industrial model and to start commercialising its product, ProtiNova. InnovaFeed only views it as the first step of their deployment to address the colossal needs of the aquaculture industry. “Looking ahead,” continues Maye Walraven, “we need to deliver on

22 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

volumes, ensure the highest product quality, and create value for our partners.” To meet the first of these objectives, InnovaFeed has announced the construction of its next factory that will significantly scale-up its production by the last quarter of 2019 and targets an annual production capacity of 50,000 tonnes of insect meal by 2025. Convinced of the sector’s strong potential and InnovaFeed’s executional capabilities, Creadev and Temasek (two large French and Singaporean investment funds) have chosen to back InnovaFeed in this scale-up effort. InnovaFeed’s next production unit will be located right next to a starch facility in Nesle, North of France, which is owned by Tereos, a leader in sugar, alcohol, and starch production. By partnering with Tereos, InnovaFeed secures quality 100 percent plant-based agricultural by-products as basic feed for breeding its insects, without generating any additional pressure on natural resources. “As a matter of fact, the quality and stability of the feed is a key factor to ensure the quality of the insect meal,” explains Guillaume Gras, co-founder of InnovaFeed and Head of Product Development. Furthermore, by integrating their industrial processes, such as sharing the utilities that have already been installed on the industrial platform, the two companies are contributing to minimising the impact on climate change.

The ambition: Establish insect production as a key segment of tomorrow’s agro-industrial landscape

Of course, the industrial challenge is only one part of the story. Along with the engineering challenges, also came various R&D and legislative barriers to overcome before InnovaFeed could start selling their insect meal. Indeed, the company had to obtain

all the permits and certifications to ensure the safety and total traceability of its entire supply chain – constraints which apply to all ingredients entering in the human food chain. Furthermore, InnovaFeed had to run many trials, both in their R&D facilities and at commercial farms, to demonstrate the performance of its insect meal. “On top of demonstrating that our product meets the nutritional requirements of the fish, we also wanted to prove that it has a positive impact of the quality of the fish for the end consumer” says Guillaume Gras. These efforts paid off: in late 2018, InnovaFeed was the first in the world to launch insect-fed fish in French stores, thanks to a unique collaboration with the French Retailer, Auchan. “This achievement is the result of the strong engagement of all actors of the value chain, who worked together over the past two years to integrate insect protein in fish feed and guarantee optimal quality for customers” shares Guillaume Gras. “We worked hand in hand with the fish feed manufacturers, the fish farmers, and Auchan France to enable the success of this pioneering initiative”. Available from the fish stalls, the “insect fed” trout is now distributed in 52 Auchan stores in the North of France region, a stepping stone before extending the initiative nationwide by the end of 2019. Looking ahead, InnovaFeed plans to continue collaborating with all actors in the value chain and across the world, just as it has done with Auchan Retail France, to co-construct a more sustainable food system that meets the growing needs of the sector and ensure the consumption of quality fish accessible for all. www.innovafeed.com

International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 23

Unlocking new potential for microalgae in aquafeed

by Jorge Dias, General Manager, Sparos, OlhĂŁo, Portugal, Paulo Gavaia, Researcher, The Centre of Marine Sciences, Faro, Portugal, and Andrew Spicer, CEO, Algenuity, Stewartby, UK


CCMAR is investigating the effect of lactoferrin- and phytase-expressing strains on bone development in zebrafish

ustainable food sources are essential for an ever-growing world population, putting additional pressures on a rapidly growing aquaculture industry. Effective production of healthy aquaculture species requires nutritionally balanced and cost-effective aquafeeds; the formulation of these feeds presents many challenges, and new solutions are constantly being sought. This article discusses the suitability of algae as a sustainable raw material in aquafeeds, as well as the health benefits genetically modifying algae can add, such as enhanced nutritional uptake, immunostimulation and gut health and wellbeing. The aquafeed industry is highly cost driven. Raw materials used in feeds must provide all the essential nutrients required by a particular species, but this must be balanced with cost. The availability of these raw materials is also a very important consideration, as factory outputs for the production of fish feed can be in the region of 150 to 200 thousand tonnes per year. Ingredients that are seasonal or have very low market availability are, therefore, best avoided. Not surprisingly,

researchers are continually looking for alternative feed solutions, and one of the most promising of these is microalgae.

Seeking novel aquafeeds

Microalgae have been used as part of the live feeds chain in aquaculture hatcheries for some time, but there is now a drive to exploit these organisms in formulated feeds. This technology is still in its early days and, at present, the use of microalgae as bulk feed ingredients is still some way off, due to costs and product availability limitations. As a result, the current focus is on the use of algal products as functional ingredients to enhance traditional feeds during sensitive periods of the production cycle, or in specific situations arising from farming practices. Microalgae have great potential as a source of functional ingredients, offering supplementary benefits alongside basic nutrition, filling a notable gap in the aquafeed sector.

Opening the door to new approaches in aquaculture

A decade ago, aquafeeds contained a lot of fish meal harvested from the sea, but this is a limited resource and an alternative source of protein and lipids – particularly lipids rich in the

24 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

Paulo Gavaia (front right) and the CCMAR team

Andrew Spicer (third from the left) and the Algenuity team

polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) – would be highly beneficial. Increasingly, fish are being reared on aquafeeds containing high levels of soya or vegetable proteins, but frequently show some degree of inflammatory intestinal response to these diets. As the proportion of globally consumed fish attributed to wild catches reduces, and the relative intensity of fish farms and pressure to produce more fish per unit area increases, the importance of fish health and wellbeing is becoming more urgent and more emphasis is being placed on the development and application of preventative strategies to reduce losses due to common diseases. Immunostimulants such as lactoferrin are potentially beneficial to the intestinal health of fish; the incorporation of lactoferrin into aquafeed would be a possible means of minimising the negative effects of other feed components. Lactoferrin can also act in an additional preventative capacity, enhancing the immune capacity of the fish to respond to a stress event or a disease, and improving their resistance to bacteria and viruses, potentially modifying the gut microbiome. This approach is being targeted by the UK-based algal specialist Algenuity, which has established a technology to produce commercially-relevant, recombinant microalgae strains expressing a variety of desirable proteins – including lactoferrin and others – with the aim of incorporating the modified algae as potential aquafeed functional ingredients. The protein and lipid-rich engineered microalgae contribute nutritional value, as well as specific bioactivity and associated health benefits, potentially both reducing losses and increasing gains in terms of feed conversion – a win-win situation. In collaboration with Sparos, a developer of novel products for the aquaculture industry, and The Centre of Marine Sciences (CCMAR), both located in Portugal, proof-of-concept trials have been conducted to explore the use and efficacy of this biomass as an incorporated ingredient in aquaculture feeds. Sparos has years of experience of providing researchers and aquaculture companies with experimental diets, as well as offering testing facilities to analyse any given diet. Currently, it is producing International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 25


small amounts of feed containing low levels of lactoferrin-enriched algae and evaluating these to determine the most effective dose to include in feeds, as well as the best formulation.

Enhancing bone development

While gains in overall growth and a reduction in losses are key benefits, the value and overall health of farmed fish can also be a function of their skeletal development and wellbeing. Accordingly, the team has also looked closely at the effect of lactoferrin-expressing strains on bone development in fish, using zebrafish – which are frequently used in biomedical research, for example, to study cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases – as the model species. The big advantage of zebrafish is their speed of development; meaningful results are available in days, rather than weeks, and can easily be transposed to other species. CCMAR is investigating the effect of the microalgae itself – with and without lactoferrin – rather than the diet, with promising results. In early experiments, larvae were exposed to water, ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) extracts of the microalgae for three days and the increase in bone development of the operculum was evaluated. The DMSO and ethanolic extracts showed increased bone development ranging from 27-43 percent, indicating that, in the context of biomedicine and nutraceuticals, there are anabolic factors associated with the microalgae. Both native and engineered microalgae were investigated, with positive results obtained from even the wild-type biomass, while the transgenic biomass produced an enhanced positive benefit, suggesting that the observed effects are due to a combination of compounds and/or proteins.

Further experiments have been performed by rearing zebrafish with rotifers fed on both the wild type and engineered algae for one month, and differences were observed in skeletal development. Lactoferrin is known to promote osteoblastic development in other models, and this was also noted in the zebrafish. Within 30 days, it was possible to make reliable gene expression analysis of the bone marker genes responsible for the differences between the two types of microalgae. With the engineered algae there was a clear increase in both the development and the quality of the skeleton, and the genes relating to the development of the osteoblast were also upregulated, producing more bone and additional cells.


Microalgae has great potential as a sustainable raw material, not only in aquaculture, but in animal feed in general. To date, the main issue is low market availability as well as perceived added value. Significant progress has been made to address this issue in recent years. Work has begun, for instance, in creating an efficient and cost-effective business model for large-scale production of algae-based aquafeeds. Further studies on zebrafish will explore the effect of the Algenuity engineered microalgae on immune system genes, histology and growth, before transposition into other fish species of commercial interest. The future for microalgae-based aquafeed ingredients looks very promising indeed. www.algenuity.com www.sparos.pt www.ccmar.ualg.pt/en

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Aquaculture round-up

SINGLE CELL PROTEIN Is this space technology ready for aquaculture?


by Bryan P Tracy PhD, White Dog Labs, USA

he concept of using single cell organisms (bacteria, yeast, fungus and algae) as a protein source was developed during the cold war for space travel. Today, UK’s Quorn Foods sells over US $250M of beef and chicken substitute, which utilises protein from fungus grown in large fermenters.

But could Single Cell Protein (SCP) become an alternative protein for fishmeal?

Creating an alternative for fishmeal has turned out to be quite a challenge. Vegetable protein is cost effective and scalable, but does not have the essential amino acid content, to match the quality of fishmeal. As early as twenty years ago, Norferm, a Statoil and DuPont Joint Venture, has produced high quality SCP for aquaculture. The company leveraged excess natural gas in the North Sea, as feedstock for methanotropic bacteria, that utilises methane as the energy and a carbon source in fermentation. The project was abandoned in 2006, due to high capital and operating cost, as well as lack of production worthiness – problems which still face recent attempts to revive the technology.

Creating an alternative for fishmeal has turned out to be quite a challenge. Vegetable protein is cost effective and scalable, but does not have the essential amino acid content, to match the quality of fishmeal. As early as twenty years ago, Norferm, a Statoil and DuPont Joint Venture, has produced high quality SCP for aquaculture.

A large number of algae start-ups, a decade ago, planned to leverage the sun and CO2 to produce a high-quality protein. However, open ponds proved to be susceptible to contamination, while closed systems had high operating costs. Today, there is a flurry of start-ups leveraging municipal waste to produce insect protein. While the product quality is good, it is way too early in the technology cycle to determine ultimate cost and ease of scalability. Based in the Netherlands, Rabobank is an international financial service provider, operating on the basis of cooperative principles. Yet, with all these issues, Rabobank’s Senior Seafood Analyst, Gorjan Nikolik, predicts that “novel feed ingredients will boost marketability of farmed fish and can reduce the cost of production.” White Dog Labs (WDL) is working very hard to prove Gorjan Nikolik right!

A new approach

WDL was established in 2012 in Delaware, USA, on the foundation of biotechnology and bioprocess development. It has invented a proprietary process, ProtocolB™, for the isolation, selection and cultivation of microbiome-derived Clostridia. Clostridia is a long known, but less understood, class of bacteria, with promising implications for nutrition and health. The company has also developed MixoFerm™, a fermentation technology that consumes sugar and CO2, thus increasing the cost effectiveness of bioproducts ranging from food and feed, to biofuels and chemicals. WDL’s first product is ProTyton™ - a non-GMO Single Cell Protein ingredient. It is produced from corn and it exhibits upwards of 80wt percent crude protein and over 40wt percent essential amino acids. Figure one compares ProTyton to other protein ingredients. The product is highly digestible and performs well in multiple aquaculture diets. Due to its high crude protein and essential amino acids, ProTyton allows incorporation of lower cost ingredients to reduce total feed costs, as summarised in figure two.

28 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture round-up

ProTyton is produced by anaerobic fermentation, and it is well known that anaerobic SCP can also contain immuno-stimulating secondary metabolites and nucleotides. Moreover, ProTyton SCP also contains low levels of butyrate, a short chain fatty acid commonly used as a terrestrial feed additive, to support gut health and reduce antibiotic use. ProTyton was thus expected to provide health benefits, beyond its nutritional value, and has indeed demonstrated an ability to counter Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS) in shrimp. As can be seen in figure three, 20 percent inclusion of ProTyton has onethird the mortality rate of a commercial diet that is formulated especially for shrimp health.

Production strategies

While all the tests reported above were carried out by the Centre for Aquaculture Technologies Canada (CATC), several major aquafeed companies have qualified the product and WDL has already secured off-take for its first plant. The company is currently producing ProTyton for qualification by major feed companies in its pilot facility in Delaware, using the 18,000-litre fermenter shown in figure four. ProTyton fermentation, similar to that of ethanol, is a simple anaerobic process, thus allowing straightforward use of ethanol plants for ProTyton production. WDL has reached an agreement to locate its first plant inside the MRE ethanol plant in Sutherland, Nebraska. The plant will produce 3000 tons/year of ProTyton, starting in the fourth quarter of 2019. For every one kilogram of ProTyton, the plant will produce three kilogrammes of MiruTyton – a Butyrate rich co-product.

Since MiruTyton is a valuable feed-additive in its own right, the plant is expected to be profitable even at a ProTyton price of US $1000/ton. WDL has developed a strategy for rapid production expansion by licensing ethanol plants the right to produce ProTyton. There are over 200 ethanol plants in the US because, in 2007, the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) mandated a market for cornderived ethanol. Even with the RFS in place, ethanol plants have experienced boom and bust cycles that have hurt the industry. These cycles, combined with the uncertainty of the RFS renewal in 2022, have created a desire for product diversification. WDL has received positive responses from small and large ethanol producers, and have already granted the first license for a full plant conversion. Converting each one percent of the US ethanol capacity will result in 200,000 tonnes/year of ProTyton. This is only part one of the WDL story – please stay tuned – we hope to prove Rabobank’s Gorjan Nikolik right next year! www.whitedoglabs.com


It’s hard to imagine the grain and bulk processing industry without the use of the Cryloc rotary sifters. Due to the Atex 20 certifcation, the Cryloc is specifically designed to be added above your Hammermill. Before grinding, the fines are sifted out so that only the raw materials are processed through the Hammermill. Thus creating an optimal and safe grinding process.

WWW.WYNVEEN.COM International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 29


Tech update AKVA group’s FNC8

AKVA group’s powerful remote net cleaner is based on a patent pending principle that ensures the rig is in balance regardless of whether it cleans horizontally, vertically or upside-down. The rig is easy to operate via a handheld mobile console or from a control room. Four IP cameras combined with several sensors and powerful LED lights give the operator complete control of every move. Thruster propulsion eliminates the need for wheels or tracks, making the FNC8 one of the gentlest net cleaners on the market. AKVA group recently introduced a new and improved version of the FNC8 that supports a higher water flow than before. This makes it possible to reduce the water pressure without affecting the cleaning performance. A new positioning system developed by Water Linked is also offered as an option. The positioning system makes it easier to control the FNC8’s movement pattern, automatically generates documentation for each job and allows the operator to mark points of interest for future inspections. www.akvagroup.com International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 31



Why the need for measuring, monitoring, and data logging? “When it comes to working

with offshore or freshwater cage systems, it’s crucial to analyse and log the levels of oxygen and temperature”

by B. Serdar Yildirim, Akuamaks, Turkey When it comes to working with offshore or freshwater (river/pond/dam) cage systems, it’s crucial to analyse and log the levels of oxygen and temperature in order to have a strong emergency plan, a good feed conversion ratio (FCR), risk free transport and a healthy stock. The measurement when it’s performed manually may not be as efficient and correct for several reasons such as lack of staff, high workload, calibration defects, harsh weather conditions or cable length of the appliance. Measuring monitoring, and data logging • Measures dissolved oxygen, temperature and saturation levels instantaneously • In standard equipment, the user can set the alarm limits • In “Barge + Cage Model”, instant measurement results are transferred to the tablet in Barge from the cages where it’s connected by Wi-Fi connection, allowing the staff to monitor the data immediately • The results are transmitted to the central server over the Internet connection at intervals of five minutes from the tablet, which is monitored in Barge • In cage facilities without barge, if the distance of the measured cages to the land is less than 400 meters and if there is an office with Internet connection on land, the same system can be used.

Some needs can’t be postponed

We use a system with a direct transmission module in facilities where the cages are located at a distance of 400-metres and where there is no barge. In these types of installations, the fact that they can be connected to the Internet via a mobile phone on those cages to be measured indicates that there is enough signal for data flow. Measurements made in cage five minutes to the central server over the data line at intervals. All measurements are recorded on the central server. 32 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed


There is a separate file for all systems in the central server. All measurement results can be viewed up-to-date as soon as they are received, as well as recorded. The records can only be accessed by authorised personnel by using a user name and a password. All data can be accessed via tablets, mobile phones and computers anywhere on the globe with Internet connection. The results can be displayed either graphically or as an Excel spread sheet, instantly or by selecting a specific time period.

Access current and historical data from anywhere across the globe

The module, easily assembled with only four bolts in the top of the cage, meets the needs of the battery in the waterproof IP 68 housing, which is supplied with the required solar panel. Mounting on module, the next generation optical technology probe has a cable length of 15-metres. It can be lowered from the side surface of the cage to the deep side, from the midpoint; it can provide access to the deepness of the level that fishes are fed. Thus, the dissolved oxygen, temperature and saturation measurements at the depth are transferred to instantaneous results.

Impeccable measurement without membrane and solution needs new generation optical oxygen probe

In this technology, there is no need for the membrane and solution

that are required for the galvanic probes. As with galvanic probes, there is no risk of calibration deviation due to membrane puncture and solution depletion, which means there is no false measurement risk. Optical probes are very durable and have no feed for frequent calibrations as is the case with galvanic probes. They have a technology that makes accurate measurements. Visual checks can be performed through the protective cover; the probes can be used safely and can be cleaned even by wiping with a finger.

Optional equipment • • • • • • • • • •

Dissolved oxygen probe 15-m cable length (standard) Temperature (standard) Saturation (standard) pH probe (optional) Salinity probe (optional) Turbidity probe (optional) Chlorophyll-A (optional) GPS (optional) Cable length longer than 15-m (optional) Buoy (optional) You are safe with us: AKUAMAKS Aquaculture Engineering & Solutions www.akuamaks.com

Compressors made for aquaculture


M 50 AQUACULTURE • NEW air inlet guard design • NEW durable multilayer paint • NEW external fueling

Built for OFFSHORE conditions

Visit us at bauma 2019 from the 8th-14th of April in Munich, Germany, open-air exhibition grounds FM, Stand 708 International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 33



Progressive RAS design by Rob J Davies, Principle Aquaculture Consultant and Head of RAS Projects at AquaBioTech Group, Malta

In order to survive you must adapt and evolve. As the need for land-based fish farms and research centres grows, so does the need to advance the design and efficiency of such facilities and reduce operating costs to enhance long-term feasibility. In order to do this, new technological advances must be tested before they are implemented in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), which makes having an R&D Centre essential. Moreover, the newer facilities need to see tangible benefits from these recent advances; the more you build, the more efficient and lower the operating costs should be. Replicating the same design over and over is a recipe for failure. A selection of these new technologies, in combination with those already established, have enabled rapid progress in RAS design in the last few years. The use of micro-dosing of oxygen and ozone using in-system redox and DO probes has allowed for a considerable reduction in the operating costs of these expensive gasses. The implementation of nano-bubble technology (not to be confused with micro-bubble), where super-saturated oxygen remains in the water for longer without degassing, means that not only the injection efficiency of this gas has improved and is elevated beyond maximum saturation, but its secondary effects of partial sterilisation of water (reducing bacteria and pathogens) and lowering its density (thus helping to reduce pumping costs), has added more benefits to the overall operating efficiency. Lastly, the use of ozonated protein skimming in both sea and freshwater, cannot be underestimated. The benefits of this technology are on multiple fronts: Removing micro-particulates- (Much beyond the capability

of low micron mesh drum filters), enhancing water clarity, gas transfer efficiency, sight of feed and appetite, whilst reducing gill irritation and risk of hydrogen sulphide poisoning from excess solids in the system Constant partial sterilisation of the system - Reducing detrimental bacterial colonies and pathogens, and various life stages of some parasites Fish stress reduction - Especially when in handling situations, which improves appetite upon recommencement of normal operations and enhances general health Reduced heterotrophic competition in the biofilter - Increasing its efficiency, whilst partially directly reducing ammonia and nitrite with the use of low levels of ozone Increased degassing of CO2 - Especially with the use of cascade type skimmers which combined the skimming process with degassing, and increased oxygen levels in the system as the ozone reverts to oxygen Despite these operational benefits, realised through the use of ozonated protein skimming, there are still RAS facilities that are being built without this technology. In my experience, this is mainly due to the lack of having in-house R&D capabilities (where working with and testing these technologies encourages advancement of the whole RAS design), as well as the increased capital expenditure of the project with their inclusion. However, once they are implemented in a facility, the savings and benefits on an operational side far out-weigh the initial expense. There are many new RAS facilities that cannot achieve a good water quality and clarity because of this and hence do not reach their production targets.

34 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Scottish salmon hatchery

One case study of a facility that has included such advanced technologies and is extremely operationally-efficient, is the new salmon hatchery and research facility recently built for the University of Stirling in Scotland, developed by AquaBioTech Group. The 240,000 fish hatchery will produce totally clean, reliable and robust stock of salmon that are not challenged by external parasites and do not suffer from low-level disease problems, which will validate the accuracy and reliability of their research. Alastair McPhee, the Aquaculture Facility Manager, said that the systems improve the longer-term value of our research results and potentially prevent trials having to be repeated to test key conclusions. "Our design is commercially relevant, with the inclusion of special features being driven entirely by our research requirements”. He adds that “Our system, for example, will allow us to recover any feed which isn’t consumed and collect any waste created, which are both essential factors when carrying out dietary trials.” The intake treatment system has been designed to filter a relatively high number of suspended solids and tannins in the

water, transitioning it from a brown, muddy appearance to almost perfect clarity. This is being achieved by use of ozone micro-dosing through a cascade freshwater protein skimmer, automatically controlled with a redox probe measuring the ozone level at the highest point of saturation. The system is also fitted with degassing, UV sterilisation and a secondary redox probe as further treatment and safety features. The use of the ozone, protein skimming and UV with incoming water of such low quality, demonstrates the extent of the cleaning ability that this treatment process can have, even in freshwater.

HardRIB The single most important factor for a boat is its seakeeping abilities.


That is why we have put enormous effort into the design of the hull of the HardRIB. Full control even at high speed, low fuel consumption, near indestructibility and fantastic seakeeping ability is a benefit for all users.


The various equipment options ensure that you can customize the boat for your use without compromising any of the above attributes. The hull is developed in collaboration with Ola Lilloe Olsen and tested in Stadt Towing tank. So, whether you are a fish farmer, a diver or simply a boat enthusiast, this is the right choice for you.


steinsvik.no International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 35

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY The egg incubation room is supplied with top-up water filtered to one micron and the ambient air temperature is controlled to closely match the water temperature. The custom-built incubation trays are individually fed so that each of the eggs obtain a uniform amount of oxygen and new water, providing the best environment to produce healthy, robust fry. The 24 tanks in the on-growing system are equipped with full environmental and monitoring system control, including such features as photoperiod and temperature manipulation, as well as oxygen and ozone micro-dosing, low-level ozonated protein skimming, carbon dioxide monitoring and degassing, and full individual feeding control and pellet/faeces collection. The water is clear, with efficient macro and micro-particulate solids removal and constant partial sterilisation. The high degree of filtration is clear in the abundance of brown foam produced by the ozonated protein skimming and sludge from the drum filter effluent. The design features of this facility and the minimal operating costs evident by the low power consumption of the singular pumping point in the system, show what is possible to achieve in a truly modern and advanced RAS with a progressive design. If this efficient use of oxygen, ozone and power was to be utilised in large scale fish farm designs for new facilities, their operating costs would be kept to a minimum and RAS feasibility for post smolt salmon and other species would increase.

quality currently exists (as evident in the new salmon hatchery and research facility for the University of Stirling). It just needs to be implemented by potential RAS farm owners, choosing to invest in a facility that includes the latest technology and that will provide the lowest operating costs - as opposed to the lowest capital investment with unachievable production targets and unobtainable financial projections. Aqua BioTech Group have also been recently announced as being shortlisted for the Aquaculture Awards 2019, for their multi-species hatchery and smolt facility in Scotland. www.aquabt.com

The future of RAS

Many failures in RAS facilities over the past 20-30 years have their roots not only in their fundamental design constraints, operational costs and lack of management with the correct RAS experience, but also in their financial plan and the production target. I have recently visited several large-scale RAS farms across Europe and have yet to see one with water quality and clarity good enough to provide optimal growth conditions to produce healthy fish. Many of the new seawater facilities for post-smolts still do not utilise oxygen, ozone, protein skimming and pumping power in the most efficient way, but instead use an old design with substandard grade materials and equipment that consume a large amount of power, with the result being high operating costs, but low design and construction costs. The outcome being that the facility is unable to produce the expected tonnage or numbers as the sub-optimal water quality suppresses the growth of the fish. This, together with the high operating and maintenance costs, means that the farms are likely to fail to meet their projected financials. In the near future, this approach must change to ensure sustainable farming operations. The constant development and testing of new technologies and inclusion into modern largescale RAS is paramount in order to reduce operating expenditure and provide the fish with truly optimal conditions, to achieve maximum growth potential and fulfil the financial projections of the farm. As a former large-scale seawater RAS manager, I have experienced these complications first hand, but in the last 10 years I have seen that the technology to produce a truly welldesigned RAS farm with low operating costs and good water

Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) is a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries.

aquaculturewithoutfrontiers.org.uk Registered charity No. 1165727

International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 37

TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology April This month we take a look at some more of the innovative technology present at AquaFarm in Italy, as well as the latest innovations that help make processes easier for those in the industry.

ProMinent AEGIS II Controller The new AEGIS II provides reliable control and offers the most flexible communication options to optimise efficiency and profitability for all your cooling, boiler, and waste water or disinfection applications. The device features a built-in wireless access point and ethernet, easy menu navigation with its refined keypad, 10 status LEDs, as well as an integral data logger. Optional add-on are also available such as the MODBUS/BACnet communications option. There are also eight digital inputs for multiple flow meters or status indicators. http://integrated-aqua.com

Brabender TwinLab-F 20/40 With the TwinLab-F 20/40, Brabender offers a laboratory extruder that is particularly convincing due to its surprisingly flexible application possibilities in product development. The new TwinLab-F 20/40 is a laboratory-sized twinscrew extruder with a modular, food-grade design that can be used for a wide variety of experiments in the food and feed sector. Conveying, kneading and mixing elements can be combined according to the process sequence. Four liner openings at the top and two at the side allow the addition of ingredients such as solids and liquids at several process points. Optionally, a dosing unit can be used. The TwinLab-F 20/40 is controlled via the MetaBridge software, which is equipped with a user-friendly, intuitive interface. Several measuring instruments can be connected to each other and measurement data can be automatically evaluated. In addition, the software allows simultaneous control of several laboratory instruments. http://integrated-aqua.com

RS Aqua aquaMeasure RS Aqua’s aquaMeasure is a family of submersible environmental sensors with underwater and in-air wireless communications. The aquaMeasure sensors send environmental data from the farm to your phone in real time, with everything backed up to the cloud. All aquaMeasure sensors measure temperature and tilt along with a range of different parameters including dissolved oxygen (DO), salinity (SAL), chlorophyll, turbidity, blue green algae (BGA), dissolved organic matter (CDOM/FDOM) and depth. The sensors are simple to install, built for the roughest of open ocean conditions, and are field-ready and factory-calibrated. www.rsaqua.co.uk

New Amandus Kahl Extruder family The new extrusion product family comes with four different machine sizes covering the whole range of performance from lab-scale up to 10 t/h industrial large-scale applications. All machines are available as machine-only or as turnkey extrusion lines comprising all required process steps like milling and mixing, steam conditioning, extrusion, drying, coating, cooling and packing. The new extruder comes with the proven Amandus Kahl stop bolt technology for perfect mixing and venting in the first barrel section. Dedicated process zones for compaction, cooking and pumping assure high flexibility and various adjustment options. Exchangeable screw elements ensure perfect adaption to changing formulations and quality parameters. Extensive prototype testing in our test center in Reinbek showed very good results in terms of product quality, capacity and process stability for the production of sinking as well as floating fish feed. The first series machines were sold to the upcoming countries in northern Africa, commissioning is expected to be finished in early 2020. See this product first at Victam International, June 2019 in Cologne, Germany. www.akahl.de

38 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed


Steinsvik Orbit series With Steinsvik Orbit underwater cameras, users can get images with sensor information from all over the cage since their cameras can be moved both horizontally and vertically with winch systems. The cameras can rotate 360 degrees in all directions. The underwater series has different sensors integrated. The cameras are mainly used for feed control and oxygen measuring, but also for inspection of dead fish and other areas in need of inspection. The whole series is made of very robust and corrosion free material and will last for many years if serviced right. Steinsvik’s latest camera in the Orbit series, the Orbit 3600, has temperature, depth, compass, oxygen and gyroscope features. With high light sensitivity, 360-degree endless horizontal movement, 210-degree vertical movement and integrated sensors, the Orbit 3600 gives you not only a view of everything needed within your cage but also the oxygen level of where the camera is positioned. https://steinsvik.no/en

Mørenot’s Aquacom Offshore Mørenot have a variety of database services available for both offshore, onshore and vessels in the aquaculture industry, in order for users to gain a full overview of all their technical equipment. All technical components - both over and underwater can be placed in the Aquacom Offshore module and the users will get instant access to all certificates, expiration dates, technical specifications, checklists, user manuals etc. The system can also autogenerate a weekly report for all sites and send this by e-mail to responsible leaders. More than 300 marine fish farm sites in Norway and Scotland are using the Aquacom Offshore module in their day to day maintenance and surveillance of technical components. www.morenot.com

Wedeco Quadron UV disinfection system Xylem’s Wedeco Quadron Series is a proven, compact UV solution for the disinfection of process water, and other high UV transmittance liquids, whenever a closed-vessel, medium pressure UV system is preferred. Sensor signals are gathered via field bus technology in a compact junction box to transfer these to the control cabinet. This not only considerably reduces the wiring work required but makes the installation less susceptible to electrical interference signals. The Quadron’s electronic ballasts are optimised to the UV lamps to minimise power consumption and enhance operational safety and lamp life. Variable lamp power from 30-100 percent combined with Wedeco OptiDose control ensures that the UV system is operated at just the power level needed. Conserving energy and ensuring a lamp life, of more than 8,000 hours. www.xylem.com

International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 39

Do you have a product that you would like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to rebeccas@perendale.co.uk

EXPERT TOPIC DIVERSIFY have kindly teamed up with International Aquafeed magazine to provide us with the results of the research carried out on the six species of the project: meagre, greater amberjack, halibut, pikeperch, grey mullet and wreckfish. DIVERSIFY selected these species based upon their economical and biological potential and have carried out innovative research on all these fish species to discover how to create the most profitable, healthy, economical and beneficial final product for consumers, fish farmers and everyone in-between. For this first article, DIVERSIFY partners are telling us more about the potential of Meagre. Stay tuned next month to find out more about the next fish species that could soon be at the heart of aquaculture. For more information about the project visit: www.diversifyfish.eu


Alicia EstĂŠvez

Species Leader for Meagre

Daniel Montero WP Leader for Nutrition

Constantinos (Dinos) C. Mylonas

Rocio Robles

Neil Duncan

Pantelis Katharios

Dissemination Leader

Project Coordinator

Gemma Tacken

WP Leader for Socioeconomics

Luis Guerrero WP Leader for Product Development

WP Leader for Reproduction and Genetics

40 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

WP Leader for Fish Health




@ The Capitol Hilton

(RAStech 2019 is formerly the ICRA Conference hosted by Virginia Tech)


The premier conference on recirculating aquaculture systems is back and it’s bigger! Formerly the International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture (ICRA), RAStech 2019 is the venue for learning, networking and knowledge sharing on RAS technologies, design and implementations across the world.



• • •

Hear from leading experts in the global aquaculture industry about the latest developments in RAS technology and design Network and share best practices on RAS and sustainable production Learn from case studies and success stories Access to leading providers of products and services in the global RAS market


RAS Engineering

Marine Species in RAS


RAS Feeds Management


Shrimp Culture in RAS

RAS Energy Management

Fish Health in RAS





EXPERT TOPIC MEAGRE Exploring the biological and socio-economic potential of newemerging candidate fish species for the expansion of the European aquaculture industry – the DIVERSIFY project (EU FP7GA603121)

Constantinos Mylonas and Rocio Robles


Meagre juveniles during sampling

he European Union (EU) is the largest importer of fisheries and aquaculture products in the world. Aquaculture provides only 20 percent of the seafood produced in the EU, and capture fisheries provide the rest (Eurostat 2018), while the worldwide contribution of aquaculture towards seafood consumption is already >50 percent. This situation can be attributed partially to a lack of diversity of aquaculture products in Europe, since European demand increases for a diverse range of fish products, especially for fish fillets and other fish processed products. Nevertheless, aquaculture is undertaken in all EU states, and plays an important role in the supply of high-quality seafood to the European consumer. The EU aquaculture is a modern industry providing direct employment for 85,000 people, producing 1.3 million tonnes worth â‚Ź4 billion. Many world-class researchers and facilities exist in research centres and universities throughout Europe, while the private sector employs highly skilled and educated personnel, with modern production facilities. Therefore, the sector is well positioned to become the world leader in the efficient and sustainable production of safe seafood of the highest quality and nutritional value, considering consumer preferences and lifestyles, and the immense diversity of aquatic products from the wild, to which the consumer is accustomed. Even though some 35 aquatic species are cultured in Europe, finfish aquaculture production is dominated both in volume and value by a handful of species --such as Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata)- that, in turn, limit the number of aquaculture processed products available in the market. In fact, the ten most common species account for up to 90 percent of the production and 87 percent of its value (Eurostat 2018). An efficient, sustainable and marketoriented expansion of the EU aquaculture sector based on new species and products will reduce the dependence of the EU consumer on imports from countries of questionable production, health, environmental and social standards, and it will reduce the pressure on over-exploited fisheries in the EU. The objective of DIVERSIFY -which ran between 2013 and 2018- was to support the EU aquaculture industry in diversifying its production with new/emerging species with important advantages over the ones cultured currently, such as fast growth, large size or low requirement in fishmeal and fish oil. In addition, the project identified the drivers for market acceptance of the new food prototypes in order to position the EU aquaculture sector in relation to imports from outside the EU. Although the emphasis of DIVERSIFY was on Mediterranean cageculture, fish species suitable for cold-water, pond/extensive and fresh water aquaculture have been included as well. The fish species studied were meagre (Argyrosomus regius) and greater amberjack

42 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed



An adult specimen of meagre

(Seriola dumerili) for warm-water marine cage culture, wreckfish (Polyprion americanus) for warm- and cool-water marine cage culture, Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) for marine cold-water culture, grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) a euryhaline herbivore for pond/extensive culture and pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) for freshwater intensive culture using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). A strong socioeconomic component was included in DIVERSIFY in order to address important bottlenecks in aquaculture development, beyond biological/production issues. The socioeconomic part of the project had a science based applied market development approach, with a lot of components. These included the perception of aquaculture products in general and processed products specifically, market potential and demand factors, consumer and professional buyer preferences, new product development, creating added value in relation to raw products and market development. An important limitation in aquaculture consumption is that in many countries and/or

segments of the EU market, aquaculture fish have a weaker image than wild fish. Parallel to technological improvement of production methods for the new species, expansion opportunities for the EU aquaculture sector have been identified. The combination of biological, technological and socioeconomic research activities developed in DIVERSIFY are expected to support the diversification of the EU aquaculture industry and help in expanding production, increasing aquaculture products and development of new markets.

Meagre in the DIVERSIFY Project

Reproduction- The industrial bottleneck to implement genetic breeding programmes for meagre was addressed by genetically sampling over 435 breeders from broodstocks in 13 breeding centres and seven countries using 18 microsatellite markers. The broodstocks originated from a limited number of families from three wild populations or groups. Although broodstocks appeared to have sufficient variation for

Extruders and Expanders Almex extruders and expanders are used for : » Pet Food extrusion » (floating) Aquafeed extrusion » Animal Feed extrusion » Oil seed extraction » Cereal processing extrusion » Compacting » Pre-conditioning prior to other processes

www.almex.nl International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 43



breeding programme(s), the majority required an increase in the number of families. Both genetic tools and protocols to control reproduction for breeding programs were developed. The muscle and liver transcriptome were determined and the first genetic linkage map for meagre was constructed using the ddRAD (double digest restriction-site associated DNA) methodology, which identified 731 markers organised in 27 linkage groups. The model mapping identified five quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on two linkage groups, which exhibited significant evidence of linkage at the genome level and multiple QTLs were related to differences in body weight and length. Protocols for the induction of tank spawning in paired crossing had a 76 percent efficacy of spawning pairs with male rotation and produced a total of 61 families (full and half-sib) that had >200,000 eggs with >80 percent fertilisation success. However, a decline in spawning success that was observed with repeated induced spawning with male rotation was a possible drawback that was highlighted. Protocols were also developed for in vitro fertilisation for planned crosses. Meagre sperm had a mean sperm density of 3.21·1010 ± 1.18 spermatozoa/mL, motility duration was 1:43± 0:18 min, mean percentage of initial motility of spermatozoa was 48.17 ± 2.80 percent and the mean initial spermatozoa velocity (VAP) was 90.69 ± 5.76 µm/s. Different sperm storage methods and cryopreservation techniques were modified to provide protocols for meagre sperm. The optimal period for stripping eggs was 38-39 hours after the application of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) and a ratio of 150,000 motile spermatozoa to egg was recommended. The results of DIVERSIFY provided the technology required to implement industrial breeding programs and scientific advances in the reproductive control of marine fish in general, as well as sperm characterisation and genetic resources for meagre and related species.


Despite the interest of meagre for aquaculture diversification in the last decade, there is a lack of information on nutrition during larval development. Dietary HUFA levels of three percent improved larval growth and lipid absorption and deposition. Besides, among fish fed three percent HUFA, increases in vitamin E and vitamin C improved significantly body weight, as well as lipid and HUFA contents in the larvae. Thus, weaning diets for meagre must be optimised increasing HUFA levels up to three percent and vitamins E and C >1500 and 1800 mg kg-1, respectively, in order to spare these essential fatty acids from oxidation. A 0.4 percent dietary HUFA is not enough to cover the essential fatty acid (EFA) requirements of meagre larvae. It is also important to supplement meagre weaning diets with 2.4 mg/kg vitamin K, since the absence of this vitamin reduced markedly larval survival. Meagre seemed to be very sensitive to hypervitaminosis D and only mildly sensitive to hypervitaminosis A, since supplementation with these vitamins lead to a growth reduction. Taurine supplementation did not have any effect in meagre larvae performance. The nutritional requirements and optimum levels of HUFA for meagre fingerlings were examined, evaluating its effects on survival, growth performance, feed utilisation and fish composition. Meagre showed the ability to selectively conserve key fatty acids (FA), particularly Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) and Arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6) over other FA, in response to essential FA-deficiency.

Newly hatched meagre larvae

Furthermore, meagre seems to have active Δ6 desaturases and Elovl5 elongase, but their activities were insufficient to produce DHA and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) from PUFA precursors to sustain fast growth. The EFA deficient meagre in the present study also showed a higher incidence of granulomas than fish fed two percent n-3 HUFA. Based on our results, DIVERSIFY showed that the requirement for HUFA for meagre fingerlings is at least 2two percent Dry Matter (DM) in diets containing 16.5 percent DM lipids, a ratio of 0.9 EPA/DHA and 0.4 percent ARA of total FA content.

Larval husbandry

The main task for meagre larval research in DIVERSIFY was to provide the industry with an early weaning protocol for this species, that included co-feeding live prey with artificial micro diets. The standard method for meagre larval production is to start weaning the larvae around 20 dph (days post hatching). In the trials carried out in DIVERSIFY we showed that weaning time can be advanced successfully to 15 and 12 dph using a commercial micro diet with a gradual transfer from live prey to the artificial diet over a minimum period of five days. However, larval survival was low due to cannibalism, a major problem in the culture of many marine fish larvae. Size variation is the primary cause of cannibalism in larval fish, together with factors such as food availability, larval density, feeding frequency, light intensity, water turbidity and shelter. This project demonstrated that meagre larvae have the same capacity to digest live prey and microdiets and they can be weaned earlier reducing the production costs if some measures to reduce cannibalism are in place. These measures include increasing feeding frequency, removing dominant individuals and keeping the larvae in the dark when the food was unavailable or in short supply.

Grow out husbandry

The development of size variability in meagre culture was

44 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed


described and was observed at all stages including early juvenile stages when cannibalism was a problem. There was no compensatory growth of slow-growing fish and it was recommended that slow growing fish were not selected for grow out as an economic analysis indicated that these fish would need six months more to attain 500 g. Genetic differences were observed between fish that grow at different growth rates and genetic markers were identified that were associated to growth. A wide range of husbandry parameters did not alter the variable growth rates and consequently did not alter the wide size distribution obtained. These included light conditions (shaded or unshaded cages), depth (eight- or six-metre cages), feeding methods (self-feeding, hand feeding or automatic feeding), time of feeding (night or day) and depth of feeding (surface or bottom of the cage). In addition, the studies indicated many aspects that can improve feeding methodologies: mortality and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were lower in deeper cages (eight metres). High light intensity from natural sunlight had negative effects on feeding behaviour. The structure of the visual system indicated that meagre are a nocturnal species that prefers low light intensity environments. A total of 50 percent of the stomach content had been transferred to the rest of the digestive channel eight hours after feeding. Self-feeding fish feed during the entire 24-hour period throughout the year. Feeding behaviour was stimulated by both visual (light) and mechanical (aeration) cues. In conclusion, variable growth rates appeared to be related only to genetic differences, which suggested that genetic breeding programs and domestication might be the solution to this problem. The information obtained, indicated that an optimal feeding methodology should adjust to the biological characteristics of meagre by feeding when light intensity is low (dusk, dawn and night), using stimuli to ensure a good feeding response from fish that often cannot be observed and fish should be left to digest during periods of high light intensity (daytime – particularly mid-day).


During the course of the DIVERSIFY project, all major diseases and health-related issues of meagre were recorded and studied. Through the various tasks, studies of key disease states, development of appropriate treatments, and a first characterisation of the meagre immune system/immune responses were carried out. One of the most important bottlenecks of meagre production is Systemic Granulomatosis (SG), a pathological condition affecting the majority of farmed populations. Through various tasks we tried to identify the etiology of the disease; we have run various feeding trials to identify potential nutritional causes of SG and we monitored meagre populations farmed in various locations in order to isolate and identify Nocardia spp., or other granulomaassociated pathogens. The general conclusions from these tasks were that nocardiosis is not the cause of SG; the addition of vitamin D3, selenium and manganese did not stop the development of the disease, while high dietary content of phosphorus, vitamin E and C in a fishmeal-based diet seemed to improve the condition. From the pathological assessment performed on various fish samples, a diagnostic protocol for SG was created based on the results of visual inspection, histopathology, electron microscopy and on the assessment of selected blood biochemical parameters. Meagre is one of the fish species that are sensitive to Chronic Ulcerative Dermatopathy (CUD). The results of the studies in DIVERSIFY indicated that CUD is induced by the use of borehole water; however, neither pH nor CO2 are the underlying causative agents. The causative agent is still unknown, however a full description of the syndrome in meagre was made using histology and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), as well as osteoclast activity using molecular markers. Most of the currently important diseases in meagre are of parasitic etiology, such as the monogenean Sciaenacotyle panceri. One of the tasks was focused on the use of essential oils with vermicide properties in order to test their efficiency as parasiticide. Overall, cinnamon showed immunostimulant properties and a clear potential to treat a parasitosis with Sciaenacotyle pancerii when administered orally to juvenile meagre. Furthermore, the first report of Diplectanum scianae infecting cultured meagre and the first report associating this parasite with fish mortality was recorded within the project framework. Regarding the other pathogens of meagre, a wide range of molecular protocols for diagnosis by PCR have been developed that can be used for the detection of Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus, Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida and Nocardia spp. Moreover, based on the results obtained of the occurrence of different pathogens and experimental challenge test, recommended protocols have been developed with the recommendations on specific antibiotic dosages and treatment regimes. Furthermore, since meagre is a relatively new species to aquaculture it was necessary to document the immune response of specific genes under conditions of vaccination and against pathogens of significance for commercial aquaculture, such as Vibrio anguillarum as it is a pathogen with broad host-range and likely to be of concern for intensive rearing facilities of meagre. In total, 28 assays have been developed for measuring the expression of genes related to the immune function in this species. Moreover, two different vaccine preparations were evaluated in the trials performed that appeared to stimulate positively immune responses of a diverse repertoire. Further, immersion vaccination against V. anguillarum showed that it

International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 45



conferred protection in vaccinates when challenged with V. anguillarum. These data, and related published work from this project, show the potential to modulate immune responses in meagre in culture, such as by delivery of immuno-stimulants, to enhance particular immune pathways at a time of disease risk such as prior to transport.


Breeder specimen at HCMR facilities

There are some important bottlenecks in aquaculture consumption in Europe, such as the fact that a large proportion of EU consumers is product-loyal in buying food and, therefore, also in fish products and that in many countries and/or segments of the EU market, aquaculture fish have a weaker image than wild fish. Thus, the introduction of new species requires in depth market research, as it has been done in DIVERSIFY. So, parallel to the technological improvement of production methods for the new species, expansion opportunities for the EU aquaculture sector have been identified. Market research identified market potential for aquaculture fish products in cross-cultural consumer segments, with increasedto-strong interest in new products in the main EU fish markets (France (F), Germany (D), Italy (I), Spain (ES) and United Kingdom (UK)). In this project processed new fish products were developed and sensory and conceptually tested by consumers in the five selected countries. This resulted in a sensory positioning in regard to other species in the market and framing suggestions for marketing. Buyers and consumers would welcome new species, if they are a) sustainably farmed, ideally in domestic or EU waters; b) fresh (especially southern-EU) or mildly processed (northernEU); c) easy to prepare and/or ready to eat; and d) competitively priced. Concerning product development from the DIVERSIFY species, the first steps were to consult and discuss with different focus group, discussions with consumers and interviews with experts in the selected countries of the project (UK, D, ES, F, I). This research provided a list of ideas for new product development that were further tested in the experimental and quantitative research that touched upon the two main areas of the work, namely related to development and selection of new product concepts from selected fish species, and evaluation and optimisation of newly developed fish products. Interviews with experts were conducted by using a structured questionnaire in each of the five countries to explore the possibility of creating new fish products from the ideas gathered from the focus groups. Experts from different countries agreed that the created products were attractive and feasible ideas that have potential in the market. They considered that overall these ideas could increase fish industry profits due to the higher diversity of choice. New product concepts, generated combining information of the market perceptions and the technical limitations and the economical prospect efficiencies, were submitted to a quantitative screening. From this screening, 12 concepts or ideas out of 43 that acquired the highest scores were suggested for product development. These 12 ideas covered different options: mass market products, products targeted to specific market segments and added-value products. Meagre has been studied for its fillet composition, technical yield, fillet sensory properties and mechanical texture. The physical prototypes from the developed meagre products were designed based on the market potential, the product concept, consumer value perception and segmentation, physicochemical

Sperm collection for in-vitro fertilisation

characteristics of the raw material, the technical properties of the products and the process and the availability of similar products in the market. Meagre was used for the development of the “frozen fish fillets with different recipes”, “fish burgers shaped as fish” and “ready to eat meal: salad with fish”. The necessary information to obtain these new products, as well as a number of guidelines, processing conditions, technical specifications and troubleshooting were also described. In addition, basic information regarding the packaging of the food products, conservation conditions, preliminary product shelf life and consumer handling/cooking specifications were provided as well. The technical feasibility suggested that it was possible to produce these products at an industrial scale, which was corroborated by the presence of other similar products in the market. The technical quality of the developed products was also assessed. The total proximate composition of the products (protein, lipid, moisture, inorganic and carbohydrates content), the energy contents of the selected products, the quantitative nutritional value in aspects of fatty acids and the sensory profile of each of them was determined. As expected, processing had an effect on both the proximate composition and fatty quality of the products when compared to the raw fillet tissue. However, the effect depended on the processing method used as well as the inclusion of additional materials (such as olive oil) during the product formulation. Processing generally had a negative effect on nutritional quality reducing the proportion of essential fatty acids, i.e. EPA and DHA, of the majority of products when compared to the corresponding fish fillets. Regarding sensory properties, all processed products exhibited unique sensory profiles. The processed products showed a more complex sensory profile, with more attributes than the unprocessed cooked fillet of the species. The developed characteristics of the processed products in their majority were connected to the added materials and/or the processing method. Finally, the correlation between the fish dietary history (e.g. dietary fat and protein levels, fat sources, etc.) or other rearing parameters (e.g. rearing system, temperature, or density) and the end-product quality was evaluated. Results indicated that filleting yields and protein contents did not seem to be influenced significantly by rearing and dietary histories at grow-out stage. Meagre filleting yield and protein content were quite attractive.

46 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

EXPERT TOPIC Its total fat contents did not seem to be highly influenced by the dietary or growing history, displaying low contents of fat, which is an attractive feature for low fat dietary regimes.

Business model and marketing strategy

Each of the DIVERSIFY species has advantages in relation to the current aquaculture fish assortment in EU stores. The selection of species has been broad and diverse. However, production challenges make production process outcomes still uncertain for some of the species (e.g. wreckfish and grey mullet) and a constant and high-quality supply is therefore still difficult. Consequently, selling to large retail chains could be difficult or impossible at this stage. This channel demands a continuous stream of production. Based on this, suppliers of the experimental species are advised to begin by selling to smaller retailers/parties and local restaurants. This strategy will help generate cash flow that can be invested to further professionalise production. For these producers, collaborating with innovative channel partners (for co-creation and co-investment) is the best bet. The more promising business opportunities and thus business models concern meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch, and Atlantic halibut. For these species, most bottlenecks in production have been addressed satisfactorily. The challenge now is to grow customer demand and market acceptance. The newly developed products can help give an impulse to this effort. The results showed a coherent business story for these four species, which is the first litmus test for any viable business model. The value propositions for meagre is based on the fact that


meagre is a white-flesh fish with an attractive shape that offers lean fillets with excellent texture and mild flavour. Its firm texture makes it very versatile; it is suitable for a large variety of recipes. Its rapid growth rate allows producers to farm them to larger size than many other farmed competitors (e.g. European sea bass or gilthead sea bream). It is appropriate for filleting and further processing. Promotion of this marine fish could stress high omega 3, leanness, and excellent taste. The fact that the species is known under different names in different countries requires attention. While very good possibilities exist for the above productionready four species, results did show that firms should increase their attention for marketing and relationship building with channel partners. Although farmers will benefit from enhancing their production processes to further increase quality/growth and decrease cost, investments in marketing and sales/channel management generally lag behind. This could jeopardise the chance of penetrating the market and reaping profits from their efforts. However, only with a buy-in from distribution partners and adequate marketing efforts can consumers be reached and convinced to adopt and continue purchasing these new species and products. Marketing can benefit from using country/region of origin branding and health claims (e.g. high omega 3), among others. Certification issues also need to be remedied, particularly since, for example, super markets consider this a key purchasing requirement. Without proper certification, market development may proof difficult at best. A technical production manual and a fish health manual have been produced for meagre, and can be downloaded from the project’s website at www.diversifyfish.eu



Animals need to eat well to grow. But they will not eat what they do not like, no matter how much you try. That is why Phileo created ProsafÂŽ, a highly palatable source of bioactive peptides, free amino acids and nucleotides to boost growth, performance and resistance, especially in young animals, and better value plant-based diets. Save your explanations and give them a balanced diet they will really love.

International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 47


Industry Events Events listing APRIL 8-12/04/19 - 12th Asian Fisheries & Aquaculture Forum Iloilio City, Philippines http://12afaf.net 10-11/04/19 - Fish Waste for Profit 2019 Reykjavik, Iceland www.icefishconference.com 28/04/19 – 03/04/19 - 23rd International Seaweed Symposium Jeju, Korea www.iss2019.org 30/04/19 – 02/05/19 - SIAL Canada 2019 Montréal, Canada https://sialcanada.com/en

MAY 13-16/05/19 - AFIA Purchasing and Ingredient Suppliers Conference 2019 Orlando, Florida, USA www.cvent.com

JUNE 2 – 5/06/19 - IFT Annual Event and Food Expo 2019 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA www.ift.org 10-14/06/19 - SeaWeb Seafood Summit 2019 Bangkok, Thailand www.seafoodsummit.org 12-13/06/19 - European Environmental Ports Conference 2019 Antwerp, Belgium www.wplgroup.com/aci/event/environmentalports-conference 12-14/06/19 - VICTAM International 2019 Cologne, Germany https://victaminternational.com/home 13-15/06/19 - VIV Turkey 2019 Istanbul, Turkey www.viv.net

Aquaculture UK- Aquaculture Awards On May 29th at Dynamic Earth, Edinburgh, UK, the Aquaculture Awards will be taking place, as organised and hosted by Aquatic UK. These innovative awards recognise those who have given exceptional contributions to the industry and cover a variety of topics, such as those who farm with increased and exceptional environmental awareness, as well as the best in aquaculture husbandry and high-quality products being delivered to national and international markets. Categories are sponsored by various aquaculture innovators such as Mowi, BioMar, Cargill and the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre. Tickets to attend the awards give registrants entry into the awards dinner, presentations, three course meal and the entertainment. Tickets cost UK £70 each and the event begins at 19:00PM. Previous winners of the 2018 awards include Moules Frites of the Scottish Shellfish Marketing Group Ltd, for Aquaculture Seafood Product of the Year, as well as Sara Last of Scottish Sea Farms for best Fin Fish Farm Manager and Enviro Nets, for their circular pens as the Most Innovative Product.

For more industry event information - visit our events register www.aquafeed.co.uk

Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2019 Taking place at the Chennai Trade Centre in Chennai, India, Asia Pacific Aquaculture will be the crucial aquaculture event to attend in 2019. The event is organised by the World Aquaculture Society – Asian Pacific Chapter (WAS) and has a variety of associated institutes, including the Asian Fisheries Society (AFS), National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Marine Product Export Development Authority (MPEDA) and many more. Several workshop and conference sessions will be running during the event, which will cover all aspects of the aquaculture sector, including catfish, pre and probiotics, shrimp culture, rid land aquaculture, epidemiology and much more. Registration grants attendees access to all sessions, seminars and the trade show.

1st Symposium on Welfare in Aquaculture: Welfare Indicators for Novel Species FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

On May 14th, 09:30-17:00 at Swansea University, UK, the 1st Symposium on Welfare in Aquaculture will be held for members of the industry to listen and engage in intriguing talks and debates about the sector. The primary discussions will involve the more novel species being farmed and their own unique challenges they bring for the aquaculture industry, as well as best practices guides. The event is free to attend, and involves a morning symposium, alongside a workshop on the welfare of lumpfish, one of the fastest-growing farmed fish in Europe. Six talks will take place in the morning symposium and include topics such as ‘Development of operational welfare indicators for lumpfish’, ‘The effects of stress on the welfare of farmed fish- Uses and misuses of cortisol measurements’, ‘Maintaining good welfare under aquaculture intensification’ and much more. The workshop session begins at 13:00 and will also discuss what the consumer expects, as well as the most meaningful welfare indicators and welfare needs for lumpfish. 48 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

all info on: www.was.org

ASIAN PACIFIC AQUACULTURE 2019 Aquaculture for Health, Wealth and Happiness June 19 -21, 2019 Chennai Trade Center Chennai Tamil Nadu - India

This event includes: • Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2019 • ISTA 2019 • SAP Industry Session

JUNE 19 - 21

Hosted by: Tamil Nadu Dr.J.Jayalalithaa Fisheries University Organized by: World Aquaculture Society - Asian Pacific Chapter

Gold sponsor

Silver sponsor

WAS premier sponsor

Conference sponsor

Professional partner

WAS-Asian Pacific @ Pacific Chapter contactWAS ForWAS-Asian more information conference manager: @WASAPC WAS APC APC Chapter P.O. Box 2302 - Valley@apcwas Center, CA 92082 USA - Tel: +1.760.751.5005 - Fax: +1.760.751.5003

THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.

More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.

An exhibit area of 16 Ha.

100 conferences over 4 days.

Free farm visits program.

Obtain your free pass on : www.space.fr

10 - 13 SEPT. 2019 RENNES - FRANCE +33 2 23 48 28 90 international@space.fr



Industry Events

VIV Asia


by Rebecca Sherratt, Production editor, International Aquafeed

n March 13-15th in Bangkok, Thailand, the Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre (BITEC) played host to VIV Asia, the 2019 rendition of the biannual exhibition and trade show that brings members of the food and feed industry in their masses from all over the world. The exhibition was a glorious affair, with hall after hall brimming with companies that specialised in every aspect of the food and feed production industry for aquaculture, poultry, livestock, swine and more. Over 45,000 visitors were confirmed over the three-day span of the event, and dozens of conferences were also held for industry members to attend. VIV reported a seven percent increase in visits from those outside of Bangkok this year, proving that the event is only becoming more and more international and gaining more of a reputation as one of the best-serving events for the sector. Overseas visitors came from over 120 countries, the top ten visiting markets being reported as China, India, the Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, the Republic of Korea, Taiwan and Pakistan. Compared to the 2017 rendition of the event, a remarkable 1,245 exhibitors were confirmed (an 18% increase) and they covered an extra 30 percent of the floorspace at BITEC. In my time exploring VIV Asia I discovered a variety of innovations for the aquaculture industry that will no doubt become integral for the future of fish production. VIV Asia was, also, not just about the exhibition: there were plenty of conferences to be had- two of which were organised by International Aquafeed magazine! More information about one of our conferences, the Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference, can be found in this issue, and a report about our second conference, the Aquatic Asia Conference, will be available in our next issue! The next VIV event for aquaculture will take place once more in Bangkok, January 15-16th and will be entitled VIV Health and Nutrition Asia 2020.

Matador Chinese machinery company Matador were also showcasing their latest pellet mill, the M-Type, at VIV Asia. Seven varieties of the M-Type Pellet Mill are available from Matador, each one different to suit the user’s ideal needs and requirements. Capacities are available up to 40 tonnes-per-hour, and pellet production can be easily customised, for pellets to be created between the sizes of 1.8-12mm. Each part is easily interchangeable for upgrading, so users never need to fully swap out their machine for a new one at massive expense, and each part is made of corrosion-resistant and rust-resistant material. The inner die ca come in sizes between 350-762mm.

Jefo Jefo were present at the exhibition and were promoting their various products for the aquaculture industry, such as Profeed, Eazyaqua and AG 175 which boasts improved gut health for fish, crustaceans and all forms of aquatic species. Their unique forms of enzymes contain a natural heat stability to resist manufacturing conditions, as well as providing realistic cost savings.

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Industry Events

Sahapaphop Sahapahpop are a local business based in Thailand, founded in 2013, that specialise in the spare parts users may need for their food machinery systems, such as oxygen sensors, thermocouples, air filters, sealing rings, engines, gas engine management systems, spark plugs and much more. Bühler Bühler’s stand advertised a great variety of their solutions for aquafeed, such as the PolyTherm Preconditioner- a variety of preconditioner that Bühler have available in six sizes, ranging from 100-1,600 litres capacity. Another solution offered was the PolyTwin, a twin-shaft extruder that can be created and adjusted according to the user’s specifications. The twin-shaft technology ensures that users get the best quality extruded feeds available for a smart price. The company also had their AHHC/AHHD Pellet Mill out for show on their booth, which gathered a great deal of attention for its various advantages and innovative features. The AHHC/AHHD Pellet Mill from Bühler is able to handle conditioning temperatures over 95°C, to ensure the eradication of any harmful pathogens and microorganisms, as well we also enhancing the pellet quality. The large clean-out door also ensures clean out is quick and easy, and reduced residue has been implemented through a novel design of the mixing tools. The inlet of the pellet mill has heating pads, and minimal space is needed for the machine, thanks to Bühler’s advanced pellet mill design. The user can also select their ideal die speeds, due to the refined power transmission engineering. Optional functions can also be added to the machine, such as automatic lubrication, roll gap adjustment, a hotsil pad and fullyautomatic control.

Enhalor Founded in 2000 and based in Beijing, China, Enhalor focus on the intricacies of animal nutrition and develop premixes and yeast cultures for animals. Their Aquatic Animal Nutrition laboratory contains renowned experts in aquatic nutrition who produce feed premixes for the aquaculture industry. They had some of their premixes and solutions on show in largerthan-life scientific test tubes and their emphasis was clearly on the scientific, as their staff were eager to explain the intriguing science behind their products and what makes their solutions so unique for the industry.


ALIPHOS, EUROPE’S LARGEST PRODUCER OF FEED PHOSPHATES, ALSO OFFERS WINDMILL® AQUAPHOS FOR USE IN AQUACULTURE. YOUR BENEFITS • Windmill® Aquaphos has been specially developed for use in modern, highly concentrated aqua feeds. • Tests with both cold and warm-water fish but also shrimp prove that the phosphorus digestibility and retention of Windmill® Aquaphos is superior to other phosphates used in aqua feeds. • Use of Windmill® Aquaphos reduces the loss of phosphorus in the environment.

For more information about our product range, contact us now at animalnutrition@aliphos.com • T. +31 10 445 2777

International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 53


Industry Events

Zheng Chang Zheng Chang’s stand was dominated by their incredible MZLH range pellet mill, which can effectively use by-product wood to assist in the production of pelleted feeds. The capacity in the MZLH range has increased by 15 percent, compared with previous models, and also boasts the ability to produce feed pellets between 6-12mm in size with engine outputs of between 90-280kW. Their smallest model, the MZLH 420, has a production rate of up to 1.5 tonnes per hour, whilst their most heavy-duty model, the MZLH 858 can produce up to four tonnes of pelleted goods per hour, an amazing amount to behold. Production has also been increased by a remarkable 15 percent, through higher gear transmission rates for boosted efficiency, a larger transmission torque and larger roller friction. Also on show by Zheng Chang was their SPLG Automatic Microelement Batching Scale, to solve the problem of troublesome weighing, batching and feeding- ensuring each process can easily be integrated into your factory’s working process line. This machine has a stainless-steel self-cleaning U-type scraper, corrosion resistance and preventative measures towards cross contamination and residue to ensure the machinery remains easy to use and free from debris.

Atacama Bio Natural Products Biotechnology company Atacama Bio Natural Products cultivates algae to extract healthy ingredients for humans. Based near the Atacama desert, from which it derives its name, their 250-acre facility houses photobioreactors. They call their microalgae product they harvest Red Meal, which contains natural elements from haematococcus pluvialis and serves as a very good source of protein, energy, nucleotides, astaxanthin, minerals and vitamins. Red Meal serves as an antioxidant for fish when utilised as fish oil, and the use of microalgae is proven to increase egg quality and quantity, as well as increase rates of larval survival. Crustaceans and salmons fed this microalga also show a better survival and growth rate, as well as it providing them with optimal nutrition in their diets. While attending their booth, we discovered that Red Meal is the only microalgae which exclusively produces astaxanthin. Whilst astaxanthin can be produced via the chemical fermentation process of GMO yeast or from petrochemical synthesis, these methods contain up tp 75 percent enantiomers (3R, 3’S) what is extremely undesirable due to its unpredictable physiological effects on aquatic life. Atacama Bio natural products is, as the name suggests, completely natural, and their products serve as great examples of the many benefits of going all-natural with your aquatic solutions.

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 19

Sustainable Aquaculture = for Social and Economic Development

November 20-22, 2019 HERRADURA CONVENTION CENTER (Wyndham) San José, Costa Rica Get our meeting mobile app

The annual meeting of











Hosted by



mario@marevent.com - www.marevent.com For more info on the CONFERENCE:

www.was.org - worldaqua@was.org

54 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

AAT19_Intl Aquafeed Ad-W200xH148mm_Mar.pdf 1 2019/2/15 上午 10:36:20

Industry Events









International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 55

Industry Events

The Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference @ VIV Asia The one-day Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference was organised by the International Aquafeed magazine, VIV and Dr Mian N. Riaz, world leader in extrusion technology and head of the extrusion technology program at Texas A&M University. The conference was held during the VIV Asia exhibition in the BITEC conference centre and, I can happily say, proved to be an astounding success. This conference was attended by more than 50 participants from several different countries, including Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and several other countries. Participants were enthusiastic and eager to learn about all the varieties of extrusion technology and feed processing technologies. Participants appreciated learning about the latest knowledge and information about aqua feed extrusion technologies. All the participants received a certificate of completion at the end of the course.

Talk two- Project planning and design considerations for aquatic feed facilities

by Jonathan Iman, Corporate Project Services Jonathan Iman provided an intriguing talk on the wider aspects of the utilisation of machinery such as extruders- the necessity of proper project planning when building a new factory or expanding your operation. Mr Iman stated that there are five areas to consider when planning a project: feasibility, inputs, design, food safety/sanitation and equipment. A project should be feasible with a good return on investments, as well as a manageable total cost of ownership. Location, permits, air quality and water quality are also important considerations. Design is a complex feature to consider, as this depends on the building layout and easy integration of machinery that all flows smoothly from process to process, whilst ensuring everything remains hygienic. Ingredients must also remain sanitary by remaining separated and proper analyses must be carried out to ensure food is all kept hygienic.

Talk one- Introduction and principles of extrusion technology by Mian Riaz, Texas A&M University

Once Mr Roger Gilbert of International Aquafeed completed introductions, Dr Riaz kicked off the conference with the first talk, which gave a very comprehensive and thorough overview of the intricacies of extrusion and how such technology works to process your raw materials. Extrusion technology, he stated, first began being used in 1948, but since that time it has evolved drastically to become a somewhat more common and refined process. He stated the many benefits to extrusion, such as the low-cost of the process as well as its remarkable energy efficiency and high product quality. The difference between single-screw and twin-screw extruders was also discussed (twin-screw extrusion, although more expensive, provides a higher-quality level of quality control and flexibility).

Talk three- Complete plant solutions for production of extruded aquatic feeds by Olaf Näehrig, Amandus Kahl

Mr Näehrig’s discussion went into some detail regarding the impressive history of the Amandus Kahl company and their various turnkey solutions, as well as the latest innovations in their new extruder line: The Extruder 0EE 25 NG (Next Generation). This new product has a capacity of up to 10 tonnes-per-hour and features state-of-the-art processing tools, to ensure superior performance for sinking and floating aquatic feeds. Amandus Kahl’s latest extruder also works extremely well with their other machinery, and Mr Näehrig described the other great products the company offers, such as their vacuum coaters and belt driers which seamlessly integrate with Amandus Kahl extruders.

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Industry Events

Talk five- Feeding and fuelling the planet Talk four- The design and development of an effective and efficient micro aquatic extrusion process by Charles Engrem, Wenger Manufacturing

Mr Engrem discussed micro extrusion solutions for the feed industry and the importance of fully analysing the need to develop precise solutions that comply with all required specifications. The process for proper project management was also discussed, from building a project charter, project execution and the closure and completion of projects. The quality of feeds was also discussed, as well as the various benefits of pre-grinding.

by Nils Lastein, Andritz

Andritz presented an interesting talk on how extrusion can be used to create the ideal form of feed for tiger prawns, white leg shrimp, white shrimp and Indian prawns. Feeds for these aquatic creatures varies greatly, depending on the growth stage of each of these creatures- whether they need larvae, postlarvae, starter, grower, finisher or broodstock feeds. Mr Lastein also discussed the various feed requirements that are needed for shrimp and prawn feed, such as whether the feed sinks or floats, any coating that may cover the feed, spots, uniformity, water stability and particle size distribution. Going through each process carried out in the feed mill process systematically, Mr Lastein presented useful information for the best tips on how to create the optimal feed.

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Industry Events

Talk six- Making floating and sinking feed with twinscrew extrusion technology by Olivier Dréan, Clextral

Mr Dréan spent his presentation discussing the many benefits behind twin-screw extrusion technology, a process that has refined the extrusion process since its first invention some 40 years ago. He noted that the demand for quality feeds that provide all the necessary nutrients for animals is as essential as ever, as the demand for food sourced from aquaculture is only increasing as our population drastically continues to expand. Mr Dréan estimates than an incredible 30-40 million tonnes of compound feed are required for aquatic animals every year, which does not even take into account livestock, poultry, swine and ruminant feeds.

Talk seven- Aqua feed production by extrusion and heat sensitive ingredients and additives by Thomas Wilson, DSM

Dr Wilson’s discussion specialised in the use of and complications with heat in the extrusion process, particularly hot spots that occur as the extruder runs. Every step of the extrusion process from grinding, preconditioning, drying and top-coating, to name a few, produces heat which provides alterations to the feed as it is produced. These long heating times also cause feeds to lose vitamins, cartenoids and feed enzymes- this is especially true in the pre-conditioning process, which takes between two-to-four minutes, as well as the dryer process, which can take up to 20 minutes to complete.

Talk eight Raw materials for extrusion processing by Mian Riaz, Texas A&M University

Dr Riaz concluded the Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference by emphasising the importance of raw materials in aqua feeds. He noted that particle size has significant impact on creating an improved product appearance, as well as ease of cooking and a better retention of liquid coatings. Selecting the best ingredients, he continued, also helps enable your feed to remain perfectly uniform, easy to process, have a pleasing texture, as well as remaining economically viable and palatable. He also explained the importance of protein and starch, both of which are extremely common components of aquatic feeds with a high level of each inside them. After this, he also discussed the importance of lipids, and the best ways in which to add them to your feed.

A successful and informative day

The conference proved especially popular this year with over 50 registrants and a full room of people eager to hear our speakers present their talks. The environment was especially pleasant, as the audience proved their dedication and intrigue with regular questions after each speech, and a willing interest in talking with our speakers after the event and during the lunch and coffee breaks. Following the completion of the presentations, Mr Roger Gilbert of International Aquafeed magazine and Dr Riaz thanked the audience for their attentiveness, and I came onstage to help distribute certificates to all of the attendees of the conference. We are exceedingly well pleased with how this rendition of the Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference went, and we look forward to organising the next one very soon! If anyone has any enquiries about the conference or requires information about the next edition of the Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference, you are welcome to email me at rebeccas@perendale. co.uk.



VIV MEA 2020




VIV MEA 2020








VIV Russia 2020




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60 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - April 2019 | 61

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the interview Niels Lundgaard, Commercial Director for Africa, Aller Aqua Niels Lundgaard graduated from Aalborg University with a Graduate Degree/HD in Marketing Management. For more than four years he has worked in Aller Aqua, originally serving as their International Relationship Manager, before progressing onto being the Commercial Director for Aller Aqua Africa.

What is your current role with Aller Aqua?

My role as Commercial Director for Africa at Aller Aqua has many aspects, and my days are therefore very different. My tasks span from development and implementation of overall commercial strategies, through establishing and developing our market cultivation, and to the important aspect of staying in continuous contact with local farmers, partners and employees. We focus on our slogan “Let’s grow together”, which basically means that we help ensure that the individual fish farmer can achieve the best possible output, and thereby profitability. We work consistently hard at providing the best conditions for our customers to achieve this. We want to be more than a supplier; we want to be a trusted partner. Having a diverse job means that I am constantly challenged, and my markets are very interesting. My African colleagues are highly skilled and motivated, and we have found a good connection and way of cooperating, despite the physical distances. At the same time, I do travel to Africa a great deal to ensure closeness to the market.

What do you like about working in aquaculture?

At Aller Aqua we seek to create a positive difference in the markets we operate in. Working in a sector with the potential we see in aquaculture, and a company with this many capable and dedicated employees, as well as customers who are passionate about creating a profitable and sustainable business, it is impossible not to feel positive about this business. Aquaculture has the possibility of having a huge impact on many of the UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals. Goal 2: Zero Hunger, Goal 8: Decent work and economic growth, Goal 13: Climate Action and Goal 14: Life below water are all obvious, and very applicable to Aller Aqua. However, the aquaculture sector has the potential of a wider reach. I find it motivating to see our customers’ businesses prosper, whilst we can supply them with feed which deliver a better result and a minimal environmental impact compared to traditional feeds. Aquaculture is seen as the solution to delivering food to the growing world population, and I am proud to be a part of the solution to this complex problem.

What are some of the unique challenges to operating in this region?

African aquaculture is constantly growing and, thus, the need for product optimisation is increased throughout the value chain. Addressing the main challenges in the individual markets is fundamental in the company’s strategy and business structure in Africa. Through dedicated effort from our colleagues in Africa, Germany and Denmark we ensure reliable availability. Our R&D department helps achieve the optimum feed conversion ratio, whilst Quality Assurance ensures a high and consistent quality. Locally, we arrange training and seminars in order to ensure that fish farmers have the right tools to help their business grow.

Can you tell us a little about Aller Aqua’s CSR activities?

Aller Aqua has been working with CSR for many years but are more actively communicating it now. We are participating in several projects to improve conditions for people around the world. At the same time, we have employee schemes in our factories which, in many countries, are better than national standards. We cooperate with educational institutes and WorldFish for an increase in education in different areas. We support several good causes, and I am part of our own cycling team, Aller Aqua Cycling. We participate in cycling races to raise money

for a charity called Bylling Foundation. It feels motivating that my daily work makes a difference on many levels.

What are the major challenges to sustainable aquaculture that must be addressed in the coming years?

There are a few that are important. Transparency in the value chain needs to be improved. A few initiatives are tackling this in different ways, but it needs to be more widespread. The public opinion needs to be considered. An increased understanding of the benefits of aquaculture would be beneficial to everyone. Furthermore, the sectors dependency on marine resources must be lowered – both in terms of potential overfishing, and in terms of the cost of the feeds. A great deal of research is going into this, but so far, fish meal-free diets cannot effectively match the output of feeds for carnivorous fish with fishmeal.

What unique challenges does African aquaculture face?

Africa is a big continent, and the various countries and regions each have their own challenges and positive sides. Aquaculture in Africa is high on the agenda for many politicians and has been deemed of very high importance to help feed the growing population on the continent. Practically, it is harder to find support for aquaculture and bureaucracy can be limiting. We have become founding gold sponsors of the African Chapter of World Aquaculture Society. Their finest task is to promote the growth of aquaculture in Africa. It is important for us to continue to have a positive impact on aquaculture globally. Aquaculture is experiencing significant growth, and it is vital to support initiatives which help ensure that growth of aquaculture is facilitated all over Africa. This is done through research, as well as sharing knowledge. Besides our own activities, we can help achieve this through our support of the WAS African Chapter and their efforts. I am pleased that WAS has chosen to focus on aquaculture in Africa and, through the African Chapter, recognise the large diversity on the continent. We experience it when meeting with customers from the various African countries Another challenge for African aquaculture is the fast growth coupled with traditional feeding methods, which creates pollution. Part of the solution is education, to show how using professional extruded feed increases the yield and improves other important parameters such as growth and water quality. One of our initiatives in Africa is our seminars, which are attended by many fish farmers each year. Last year, in Nigeria alone, we had more than 2,000 participants. The idea of the seminars is to provide tools and information to give the farmers better prerequisites for growing their businesses. We are positively surprised by the large extent of interest we see in upcoming seminars.

Many regulatory agencies around the globe want to restrict the use of antibiotics in feed. How is Aller Aqua responding to this?

In the day-to-day running of fish farms, our high-quality extruded fish feed promotes both health and growth of fish. In addition to our fry and grower feeds, we have a range of functional feeds which are composed to enhance the natural immune system of fish and help them prepare for stressful situations such as grading, transport, decreased water quality, vaccination, temperature changes and disease pressure. Functional feeds are preventative rather than reactive.

62 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES Veramaris expand team with Christian Martin


hristian Martin is Global Business Development Director at Veramaris. Prior to his current position, he was Global Category Manager, Aquaculture and Global Key Account Manager at DSM Nutritional Products within the Animal Nutritional & Health team and a Joint Management Team lead within the DSM – Evonik algal omega-3 joint development effort.

Christian Martin

Christian joined DSM in 2011 through the company’s acquisition of Martek Biosciences Corporation, where he held various positions ranging from market research through sales, project management, corporate development and leading the animal nutrition business group. He holds a bachelor’s degree in Neurobiology & Physiology from the University of Maryland as well as a Master of Science degree in Biotechnology from the Johns Hopkins University. “I have been dedicated to application of the biological capabilities of algae to commercial applications, including aquaculture, for over a decade and am passionate about the role of EPA & DHA omega-3 fatty acids in aquaculture and human nutrition.”

Einar Wathne joins Bakkafrost


ecently resigned head of Cargill Aqua Nutrition, Einar Wathne, is now due to join the board of Bakkafrost, Faroese salmon producers. Mr Wathne has 32 years’ experience in the aquaculture industry and Bakkafrost have expressed their utmost pleasure to now have Mr Wathne join their team. Mr Wathne recently left Cargill on February 1st but expressed his desire to continue his work in the aquaculture industry.

Einar Wathne

Espen Fredrik Staubo hired as CTO in AKVA group


KVA group’s current SVP Technology and Development, Trond Severinsen, is planning to resign after more than 25 years with the company. In his place will be Espen Fredrik Staubo.

Espen Fredrik Staubo

Espen Fredrik Staubo has a PhD in Nuclear Physics and extensive management experience from a number of international businesses, including McKinsey, Elkem and Elopak. Between 1997 and 2005 he worked for Stolt Sea Farm, including four years as President for the company’s European business. “AKVA group has been a pioneer and technology driver in the aquaculture industry for more than 45 years. Our ability to offer innovative solutions that break the ground for new opportunities in the industry, streamline daily work operations and promote good fish welfare, is fundamental for us in order to succeed. Mr Staubo will play an important role going forward and we are excited to welcome him to the team” says CEO Hallvard Muri.

Ian Carr joins Veramaris as Global Business Development Director


an is passionate about sustainable aquaculture and has substantial experience in aquafeed innovation, marketing and sustainable development from earlier roles with EWOS, Cermaq, and Cargill. Ian holds an MBA from the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland and also pursued studies in aquaculture.

Ian Carr

“I think Veramaris’ breakthrough innovation in marine algal oil can make a meaningful contribution to the healthiness and sustainability of aquaculture products. It’s a topic that fascinates me and I’m excited to join the team and play my part in making this happen!”

Mark Richmond joins Young’s Seafood


he New Group Operations Manager for Young’s Seafood has been announced as Mr Mark Richmond, due to replace Steve Lidgett who is now retiring. Mr Richmond will be tasked with overseeing all the company’s manufacturing operations, and his appointment will begin next month.

Mark Richmond

Prior to joining Young’s, Richmond was the Divisional Operations Director for the 2 Sisters Food Group Meals Solution Division, responsible for operations across seven sites with over half a billion pounds of turnover. Bill Showalter, Chief Executive of Young’s Seafood, said, “I’m pleased to announce that Mark Richmond will join our business as Group Operations Director, and member of the Young’s Seafood Ltd Board. Throughout his career, Mark has driven best in class quality, commercial and customer focussed organisations that are able to succeed in demanding industries.” 64 | April 2019 - International Aquafeed

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