FEB 2019 - International Aquafeed magazine

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How regulations may inadvertently prevent innovation in aquaculture

International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 02 - February 2019

- There is more to methionine than growth - A bio-reactor recycling low energy organic waste into high-quality protein and oil - Aquaculture workboats net big gains with autonomous technology - UV products - Know what you are purchasing

See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

- Expert topic - Rainbow Trout Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

February 2019


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WELCOME We’re back on course to produce our IAF Bringing together print and digital & FFT magazine at the beginning of each Please don’t forget that back issues of the month, following a relaxing break for magazine can be read in our app. The QR Christmas and the New Year. I am very code to take you there is on our front cover pleased to see our newly-expanded edition and I recommend you download it so that being received so well throughout the you can catch up on the topics we publish industry. We have received initial, good whenever you want. feedback (if you have a view on what we Just because it was a 2018, edition doesn’t have done or how we might improve, please mean to say the information is out of date. let me know – rogerg@perendale.co.uk). We are constantly surprised by readers Our January 2019 edition had a great balance wanting back editions and the easiest way between health-nutrition and farm technology. to access them in online via our app – Roger Gilbert In fact, it was interesting to note that the not only in English but also in Spanish, Publishers, International Aquafeed magazine had grown in total page numbers Chinese and Norwegian. on the introduction of the new Fish Farming We also launched our new website in 2018 Technology Section to reach a record number at 72 pages. and it’s now carrying a wider range of content that can be gleamed at What does this new section and more pages mean to readers? any point during the day - from your desktop or your mobile device. It means that not only do our readers become more familiar with We are proud to say that we make our content more readily available our magazine throughout our whole aquaculture industry, but the than almost any other publication, so that you don’t have to rely upon importance of feed - nutrition and health - the original staple of the one means of communication alone. magazine- will be spread to an even wider audience. We are keen to develop a print-linked-digital package that will serve While traditional readers will have the opportunity to see how all our readers throughout the month with relevant and timely content. farming technology is impacting our industry for the better, it will offer them new ways to view future developments that are impacting This edition the industry globally. This month we feature our four regular columnists, towards the front I was fortunate enough to be invited to last year’s Taiwan’s of the issue, and several pages of international news that we have International Fisheries and Seafood Show held in Kaohsiung. My gleamed and reported upon over the past few weeks. This is all before report was in the January 2019 edition. you find yourself in the Aquafeed’s ‘Nutrition and Health Section’ It certainly brought home how the technological developments which is edited by Professor Simon Davies. He identifies the ‘plethora around feed and fish feeding is pushing our industry to adopt the latest of new feed supplements and additives that add another dimension’ to technologies to stay competitive as we grow to meet demand. specialised feed production. As publisher, my goal is to provide our readers with a balance of Our Fish Farming Technology Section features Peter Holm, who is thought-provoking news, views and features that make us think afresh the European Director of Sea Machines Robotics. He sets the scene about what we are doing and how we are going about it. for the ‘Fish Farming Technology Section’ by informing us of the This magazine also has a responsibility to carry messages from the booming nature of the aquaculture industry and believes that our companies supporting our industry and we want to give them the space industry will see much more pressure put upon it to provide for our to explain why their developments - both in nutrition and engineering global growing population in future. - can benefit us and help us to protect our environment, keep us as Each section hosts five and three key features each respectively and sustainable as possible, minimise waste and spoilage both in the use of are worthy of your time and contemplation. feedstuff and the production of the cultures we raise. It’s important to The one good thing I find about a printed magazine (my own copy) learn of their philosophies as well and the technologies they develop. verses a digital version of the same edition is that you give yourself the Minimising mortality for example, by keeping diseases at bay, will time to contemplate more thoughtfully what you are reading. It’s not just ensure farmers get the most from their specialist feeds, nutritional a matter of how quickly you can access relevant information, but how packages and investments in new technologies. The two sides of our you absorb the critical points on offer that does take a little more time. industry are impeccably connected in this regard. Finally, if you have anything you’d like to contribute to IAF/FFT If you haven’t read the report from the Taiwanese show, I would that would be of interest to our readers then please let myself of our encourage you to revisit the January 2019 edition. editorial team know. Details are on the Contents Page. Thank you.

INSECTS: A bio-reactor recycling low energy organic waste into highquality protein and oil - page 22

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY BOATS: Aquaculture workboats net big gains with autonomous technology - page 40


Aquaculture round-up

EXPERT TOPIC: Rainbow Trout - page 50

REGULATIONS: The case of New Brunswick, Canada - page 32

A rich source of omega-3


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY on-board operator. Already a booming global industry, Sea Machines’ marine autonomy technologies it’s no secret that aquaculture is on have been designed by a team of mariners the fast-track for massive growth. To specifically to enable and protect today’s keep pace with the nutritional needs hardworking crews. With autonomousof a growing global population, command technology on board, mariners can aquafarms will be pressured to reserve their energy for higher-level tasks – produce higher quantities of seafood leaving the computers to manage redundant and organic materials. As resources and predictable work. Marine autonomy is are stretched, those in the industry available 24/7, doesn’t get tired or distracted, will explore creative new ways of Peter Holm and it works at optimal levels, even in meeting demand while reducing cost. European Director of Sea Machines Robotics challenging sea states. One way the industry can effectively As aquafarms creep farther and farther offshore, marine meet these needs is by adopting modern-day technologies that autonomy reduces transit risks with obstacle avoidance and can improve both operations and output. We hear a lot about the mitigate mariner fatigue with pre-programmed, ECDIS-based opportunities to update netting and fish feeding systems, but route following. Predictable routes can be saved and remotely not so much about updating the capabilities of the aquaculture or autonomously deployed, helping to optimise fish-farm boats themselves. maintenance and other tasks. Workboats, which serve as the life line for aquaculture sites, Redundant vision allows our computers to identify important make up an average of 20 percent of the total costs of fishmarkers and hazards – even when the human eye can’t. And farming operations. Because most marine assets still operate in a when unmanned vessels are warranted, the risks to mariners of highly manual manner, there are substantial gains to be made by over-the-rail transfers or poor weather conditions is eliminated. modernising them with emerging autonomous technologies. Autonomy is already reshaping so many industries, from In the past several years, marine autonomy for commercial auto, rail, mining, agriculture and more. As the value of it is vessels has made great strides. This technology has gone from a repeatedly demonstrated across these sectors, it is only a matter working concept to reality, most recently with the launch of Sea of time before autonomy takes hold of the marine industry, too. Machines’ SM series of autonomous-command and remoteEarly adopters in the aquaculture space are uniquely positioned control products. The SM series – which is now available – to establish themselves as leaders and innovation-seekers, installs quickly aboard new or existing aquaculture workboats while laying the necessary groundwork required to meet rising and immediately improves the capability, performance, global demands. predictability and safety of operations. When considering which new technologies can best help the How? In the case of Sea Machines, our products allow aquaculture industry succeed in the future, marine autonomy workboats to do more with less. Fleets outfitted with SM cannot be ignored. And while selecting the right products products can be operated via remote control from a second for any given operations is key, it’s important to know that boat or shoreside location, or can be operated autonomously. Sea Machines is leading the industry with purpose-built Tandem workboats can work collaboratively, offering the technologies that help workboats operate more productively, benefit of a force-multiplier effect. Remote payload control lets with greater capability and with reduced risk. Those who get on a workboat’s equipment, sensors, feeding systems and cameras to be managed by an offsite worker, eliminating the need for an board early will have the most to gain. The REC Report and Brexit are playing heavily on the UK and not least of all the aquaculture industry. It will be March before we hear where either might lead. One key bit of fish farming technology that is continually evolving and adapting is ROV’s - an important piece of kit used to inspect nets and moorings. As the sea water is no friend to these machines, often they are hired allowing for others to care William for them. This is followed by veterinary practice for when smolt are vaccinated for PD and other ailments and for when fish get adjusted. Underwater cameras and light are used to monitor fish feeding patterns. These are exciting times for Scottish aquaculture and the world, as the industry plans to increase output for 2019. Scottish Sea Farms has open a new hatchery at Barcaldine, helping to increase output from its sea farms. For example, Mowi (formerly Marine Harvest) production is expected to increase to 65,000 tonnes, up 60 percent on the 40,000 tonnes harvested in 2018.

Other news highlights include the world’s largest wellboat, the Ronja Storm by the Norwegian company Solvtrans, has just been built in Turkey and is currently under tow and bound for Havyard in Fosnavag to be completed and then in the summer she will be Tasmania bound, delivered to Houn. The wellboat tanks are more than twice as large as any of the largest currently in service, further evidence in the expected increase in output of salmon worldwide, Houn the largest Dowds Salmon company in Australia farms some of the largest pens at 240-metres. Last but not least, let us all extend a warm welcome to Professor Selina Stead, former Dean, Public Orator and Professor of Marine Governance and Environmental Sciences at Newcastle University. She trained as a lecturer in two social science university departments (1996-2004) in policy analysis and socio-economic surveys. As of the March 1, 2019 Selina has taken the role of Director of the Institute of Aquaculture at Stirling University, the world’s leading aquaculture university, moving from sunny Newcastle.

NUTRITION & HEALTH terms of my academic role to continue Aquaculture nutrition and feed technology our efforts to better understand fish is now truly a global subject and very nutritional requirements and to evaluate multi-disciplinary in nature, with a different feed ingredients arising from multitude of stakeholders ranging from new processing technologies and to test the major feed ingredient suppliers dealing novel dietary supplements in various with commodities like soybean meal, species. pulses, grains and fish meal as well as As a professor, I am pressured animal by-products used in many countries to produce such peer- reviewed throughout the world. publications and this is one of the most The plethora of new feed supplements and Professor Simon Davies Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed pleasing aspects of my job. I work additives being advocated add another with scientists from all over the world dimension to this area with specialised and this greatly amplifies the effect products including probiotics, prebiotics, and relevance of the work adding value and require a diverse and bioactive agents for mitigating mycotoxins, natural techniques and methodology. I have learned that fish nutrition antioxidant compounds to protect feed and fish, and plant and aquaculture biosciences much team effort to achieve good derived phytobiotics produced by established and emerging results. companies to enhance health. These are but a few of the diverse Another nice part of my role is to disseminate these findings products being advocated and developed. to a global audience and to explain the science to industry The list appears endless, but our magazine has been most and practitioners of aquaculture in a transparent manner. The successful in its presentation of excellent features and articles meetings and venues allow much contact with key players in covering such developments with timely inclusion. We receive academia and industry and this helps to improve future planning widespread support from the leading compounders that for research that can be meaningful and advantageous for the manufacture feeds for fish and shrimp and linked to this is the tax payer and commercial investors. engineering used to produce stable and more effective balanced Indeed, I have just returned from a week in Chile as a diets based on the art and science of extrusion and advanced guest of the Chilean government and the University of Los feed milling technology. Lagos. I will report on my visit in the next issue of the Aquaculture is highly dependent on an array of expertise in magazine. This follows visits to China and Mexico last year all such aspects of feed formulation, choice of ingredients for to important conferences and meetings. In March, I speak at different fish species and the management of feeding schedules VIV Asia and will see many of you there, hopefully in the by the practising farmer. social events too. In recent years, the focus has also been directed towards Fish nutrition and aquafeed technology attracts much business maintaining fish and shrimp health and welfare as well as and interest so I trust you enjoy this section and can learn much enhancing growth and feed utilisation performance. The from our range of topics that include specialised species and environmental impact of feeds has been a major issue, as well, news sections and the articles and reports on matters of nutrition and great progress been made to this effect to produce high and feed. quality diets that give superior feed conversion ratios and I know that many students of aquaculture read this magazine reduced discharge into the aqueous environment. and my sector in particular, so please contribute to us and we The modern fish feed is ‘light years’ above those I encountered would like to hear from you and your academic leaders. I look some 30 years ago at the start of my career. forward to this as you are the future! The past year has been a very busy period for myself, in

AQUATIC ASIA 2019 Bangkok, Thailand March 14, 2019



Presenting a one-day conference program featuring international experts in fishfarming nutrition and technology addressing quality, safety, the environment and new technologies - taking place on the second day of VIV Asia 2019


Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle vaughne@perendale.co.uk

February 2019 Volume 22 Issue 02



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.co.uk Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.co.uk Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erik@perendale.co.uk Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Rebecca Sherratt rebeccas@perendale.co.uk Matt Holmes matth@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris darrenp@perendale.co.uk William Dowds williamd@perendale.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 ivanm@perendale.co.uk Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 nathann@perendale.co.uk Design Manager James Taylor jamest@perendale.co.uk Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk

REGULAR ITEMS 6 Industry News

50 Expert Topic - Carpet shell 48 Technology showcase 54 Industry Events

60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 9 Ioannis Zabetakis 12 Dr Neil Auchterlonie

©Copyright 2018 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service

FEATURES 18 There is more to methionine than growth 22 Insects - Sustainable/eco-friendly solutions 26 Evaluation of Functional Feed Additives against Shrimp pathogens 30 Free nucleotides, β-glucans, and MOS 32 The case of New Brunswick, Canada: How regulations may inadvertently prevent innovation in aquaculture

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 40 Aquaculture workboats net big gains with autonomous technology

THE BIG PICTURE The sustainability of the aquaculture industry depends on how efficient we are in using available resources to supply an increasing population with affordable and nutritious protein. Put simply, we need to produce more and better, with less. - There is more to methionine than growth See more on page 32

42 UV products; Know what you are purchasing

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Aker BioMarine go digital to attain sustainability goals


ker BioMarine and Cognite are now scheduled to digitalise their harvesting and manufacturing operations, following the signing of an agreement to improve their sustainability efforts. The initial goal for Aker BioMarine will be to use data contextualised in Cognite’s platform, and AI applications developed together with NextBridge Analytics, to increase efficiency, including the reduction of fuel consumption. By using live data and machine learning, the company will optimise and better manage harvesting patterns, production flow and maintenance. “Ever since Aker BioMarine’s establishment, we have challenged how things are done in our industry. By teaming up with Cognite and NextBridge Analytics, we are taking one step further. I believe we are among the first companies in our industry to implement machine learning at the core of operational decision-making,” says Matts Johansen, CEO at Aker BioMarine. “Aker BioMarine has teamed up with the best to gather, structure, and analyse big data systematically from across our harvesting and manufacturing operations. Considering Cognite’s track record in other industries and NextBridge Analytics sophisticated AI expertise, we are confident that

Shandong Yuwang Pharmaceutical obtain Friend of the Sea certification for softgel and fish oil


he oil comes from Engraulis ringens, also known as the Peruvian anchoveta, and is high in Omega-3. It is sourced from the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation’s area 87 in the southeast Pacific and meets the Friend of the Sea’s standard for sustainable fishing, including good management, selective fishing gears and social responsibility. Albert Ho, Business Manager at Shandong Yuwang Pharmaceutical says, “we decided to join the Friend of the




this project will yield tremendous results,” says Johansen. Deploying Cognite’s industrial data platform will enable Aker BioMarine to use data from different parts of their operations, including krill exploration and the manufacturing process. Aker BioMarine also envisions easier access to live and historical data from multiple sources, helping the company better understand the Antarctic marine ecosystem and further improve the sustainability of all the company’s operations. “We look forward to support Aker BioMarine’s operations by using the Cognite Data Platform to provide secure and instant access to live data from across company’s krill harvesting and manufacturing operations. By liberating their data, Aker BioMarine will be able to further improve their sustainable business model. We are happy to welcome them aboard the Data Liberation Front,’’ says Dr John Markus Lervik, CEO at Cognite AS.

Sea project because we are eager to give our contribution in conserving the marine habitats and protecting them for future generations.” Shandong Yuwang Pharmaceutical, which processes 20,00 tonnes of crude fish oil and produces 10,000 tonnes of refined fish oil, is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of refined fish oil, exporting to markets in America and Europe. Paolo Bray, Founder and Director of Friend of the Sea, says, “the approval of Shandong Yuwang Pharmaceutical as a Friend of the Sea certified company consolidates the presence of our certification in China and is the confirmation that more and more fish oil manufacturers are committed towards environmental sustainability.”





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Biomar prepare to build new line for extruded shrimp feed in Ecuador


o accommodate the growth in volumes sold, BioMar Group has decided to invest in additional capacity at its factory in Ecuador. The extrusion line creates the foundation for development of new product ranges and is expected to be ready early 2020. BioMar Group announces further investments in the factory in Ecuador. A new extrusion line will add approximately 40,000 tonnes capacity and is expected to enter operation in Q1 2020, just one year after the latest capacity expansion, which is due in Q1 2019. “We have experienced a strong growth in Ecuador since the acquisition of Alimentsa in 2017 and we currently operate at our capacity limit. For our customers, the new line will mean increased flexibility and increased choice, as it will significantly expand our capacity for extruded and value-added feed solutions,” explains Henrik Aarestrup, Vice President Emerging Markets in the BioMar Group. Shrimp production in Ecuador grew with double digits in 2018, placing Ecuador as the third largest shrimpproducing nation in the world. “The Ecuadorian shrimp sector will continue to grow in the coming years, however, at a somewhat slower pace than in 2018, where we have seen an exceptionally high growth. Ecuador has a competitive edge when it comes

to producing shrimp in a responsible manner with high focus on both sustainability and product quality. Recent initiatives, like the launch of the Sustainable Shrimp Partnership, will further enhance this position”, says Henrik Aarestrup. The investment is part of BioMar’s strategic plan for the shrimp business, which also includes a recently inaugurated research and trial unit in connection with the plant in Ecuador. Apart from the shrimp feed business in Ecuador, BioMar currently produces extruded shrimp feed in Asia and Central America plus some support production for Central America and Ecuador coming from BioMar’s factories in Chile. Larval diets for shrimp are distributed worldwide under the LARVIVA brand from BioMar’s French production site.

8 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Marine Stewardship Council awards first accreditation for sustainable fishing to Indonesia


he PT Citraraja Ampat Canning, Sorong Pole and Line Skipjack and Yellowfin Tuna fishery (PT CRAC) was recognised by DNV GL as meeting the Marine Stewardship Council’s (MSC’s) criteria for sustainable fishing and has become only the second fishery in Southeast Asia to do so. As the world’s second largest seafood producer, Indonesia has a vital role to play in safeguarding global oceans and seafood supplies. This certification, which follows 18 months of site visits and consultation, requires that the fishery meets international measures for sustainable fish stocks, minimises environmental impacts and demonstrates effective management. “PT Citraraja Ampat Canning is leading the way in sustainable fishing in Indonesia and Southeast Asia,” said Patrick Caleo, MSC’s Asia Pacific Director. “The efforts made by the fishery to achieve MSC certification will help safeguard livelihoods, seafood supplies and healthy oceans for future generations. We hope to see other fisheries follow their lead by joining the global movement for seafood sustainability.” DNV GL determined that the fishery meets the MSC Fisheries Standard but set six conditions of certification to be delivered over the next five years. These conditions require improvements to harvest strategies and harvest control rules to ensure healthy tuna stocks are maintained. Complying with this will involve collaboration with other member states of the Western Central Pacific Fisheries Commission to promote effective harvest strategies for skipjack and yellowfin tuna. Together, these states are responsible for 60 percent of the world’s tuna catch.


Ioannis Zabetakis On the value of fatty acids

atty acids belong to a category of biomolecules, called lipids, that have a common characteristic: they are generally water-insoluble but highly soluble in organic solvents. Chemically, a fatty acid is a nonpolar long aliphatic hydrocarbon molecule chain that has an acidic carboxylic acid group (-COOH) at one end of its molecule, and a methyl group (-CH3) at the other end, which is designated omega or ω. The -COOH group being at one end is what makes these molecules acids. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms (from four to 28). They have the general structure of CH3(CH2)nCOOH. Fatty acids are primarily categorised through the degree of saturation of chain length. A saturated fatty acid has no double bonds. Saturated fatty acids are solid at room temperature, have high melting points and are common in animal and plant fats. Unsaturated fatty acids have one or more double bonds, are liquid at room temperature and have low melting points. Among unsaturated fatty acids are monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), which have one double bond in the fatty acid chain; and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which have two or more carbon–carbon double bonds. MUFAs and PUFAs exist as triglycerides, i.e. they are esterified at the glycerol backbone. We have a triglyceride with three fatty acids, in position sn-1, sn-2 and sn-3. In the case of having a polar group (e.g. phospho-choline) at the sn-3 position, we are talking about polar lipids, since this polar group makes the whole triglyceride molecule polar. Saturated and trans- fats are generally considered to be unhealthy fats, because they raise both total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad”) cholesterol.

Essential fatty acids (EFAs)

Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty

e: ioannis.zabetakis@ul.ie

acids that humans must ingest because they are biologically necessary for good health. The body cannot synthesise them, so they must be ingested through diet, hence the term “essential.” All other fatty acids can be produced by the body. Currently, there are two known PUFAs that are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid). These two fatty acids cannot be synthesised by humans, because we lack the desaturase enzymes required for their production. Conventionally, long-chain PUFAs are not considered essential. Because long-chain PUFAs are sometimes required under some developmental or disease conditions, they may be considered as “conditionally essential fatty acids,” but not essential to healthy adults.

Roles of EFAs in the body

Adequate intake of EFAs results in numerous health benefits. There are many documented benefits, which include: heart health (reduced risk of heart disease— atherosclerosis, reduction of triglycerides and blood pressure), brain health (improved cognition, depression, etc.) and inflammation. The American Heart Association recommends all adults eat fish, particularly fatty fish, at least twice weekly, which is associated with reductions in cardiovascular disease risk. The American Heart Association (AHA) also has recommendations for omega-3 intake, specific to heart health. AHA advises patients without coronary heart disease (CHD) eat fatty fish at least twice weekly and consume oils and foods rich in ALA. AHA further recommends people consume at least five percent-to-10 percent of calories from omega-6 fatty acids. It’s recommended the omega-6 comes from foods, not supplements.


Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier. International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 9

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Aker BioMarine and VARD launch world’s first purpose-built krill harvesting vessel


amed Antarctic Endurance at a ceremony in Ålesund, Norway, Aker BioMarine’s one of a kind, energy efficient krill harvesting vessel showcases the very best of Norwegian maritime engineering expertise and innovation. Constructed by Norwegian shipbuilders at VARD, the naming ceremony and official launch are the culmination of over two years of design, collaboration and construction. With a total of 40 Norwegian vendors contributing to the vessel, the two-year build and final fit-out has kept in excess of 900 people busy working to have the vessel ready for the 2019 harvesting season. Matts Johansen, CEO Aker BioMarine says, “We have put all our experience and know-how into building a vessel capable of matching our ambitions and operational needs, a vessel we could have only dreamt of when we started our very own Antarctic adventure for more than a decade ago”. The Honourable Alexandra Shackleton, granddaughter of renowned British Polar explorer Sir Ernest Shackleton and godmother of Antarctic Endurance was invited to officially name the vessel. She says, “It is an incredible day for me to see my grandfather and his crew’s heroism honoured in this way. Antarctic

Clean Seas Seafood signs agreement


lean Seas Seafood, the largest aquaculture producer of Yellowtail Kingfish outside of Japan, have recently signed an agreement with Hunyan Haiyan in China, to further distribute the fish in the region. The Kingfish are grown in South Australia’s Spencer Gulf, which also supports Western King Prawn and

Endurance is a symbol and reminder of the importance of our shared polar expedition legacy and an important part of the history for both Norway and The United Kingdom. My grandfather Sir Ernest Shackleton had his vessel, Endurance, built in Sandefjord in Norway and now a new vessel named Endurance built in Norway is on its way to Antarctica”. Yard director Fredrik Mordal Hessen from Vard Brattvaag says, “We are incredibly happy to see Antarctic Endurance set sail from our yard for its debut harvesting season. A unique project, in partnership with Aker BioMarine we have overcome a number of challenges to deliver what we believe is an industry defining vessel”. A custom designed newbuild, rather than an existing supply or trawler vessel with equipment retrofitted to it, Antarctic Endurance is fitted-out with a host of innovative technologies and equipment from a wide variety of Norwegian companies. Along with reflecting the core operational needs of our business, the new vessel has been meticulously designed and equipped to maximise energy efficiency. Utilising a number of innovative processes and technologies onboard, the vessel is 30 percent more environmentally efficient, compared to today’s trawlers.

Southern Bluefin Tuna industries. Hunchun Haiyan has a proven seafood distribution capability with annual sales of King Crab of approximately 6000 tonnes. David Head, Chief Executive of Clean Seas Seafood, says, “We are excited to secure a distribution partner of Hunchun Haiyan’s reputation and capability. This partnership represents a material step forward in executing our international growth strategy,” he added. 10 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

The non-exclusive agreement with Hunchun Haiyan is the first in a number of planned collaborations with Asian partners. “We are also in discussions with a number of leading food exports in Australia with existing supply channels into premium Asian seafood markets,” says Mr Head. “We expect to formalise a number of nonexclusive distribution partnership deals across these channels over the coming 12 months.”

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Sea Machines establishes global dealer programme


Dr Neil Auchterlonie IFFO RS Improvers Programme

here is often comment in the media on the raw material supply for the fishmeal sector, especially the fisheries that supply many of the whole fish that are used for reduction purposes by the industry. This is very likely a part of the landscape of impending doom that seems to accompany global fisheries management issues in general, even if, as we have explored in this column previously, the fish that are used for fishmeal and fish oil production are dominated by the small pelagic fish species that are comparatively well managed. The high level of adoption of the IFFO RS certification scheme by the industry, to a rate of roughly 50 percent of global annual supply, is a reflection of that fact. The fishery sourcing component of the IFFO RS scheme is based on the FAO’s Code of Conduct for Responsible Fishing (CCRF) so it has a degree of rigour behind it that befits the position and perception it holds in aquafeed supply chains. The unit of certification is the fishmeal factory, thereby, occupying an important niche in aquaculture supply chains. Fishery Improvement Projects, known by the acronym FIPs, are an effective means of promoting positive changes in fisheries management, and are, thus, an important step on the sustainability journey. As the readership for this magazine is principally aquafeed and aquaculture-based, the concept may not be one that the majority of readers have come across, but, nevertheless, it is likely to be one that increases in importance over time. The continual rise and adoption of certification in both fisheries and aquaculture is the real reason for increased reference to FIPs. Material that originates from FIPs, whether it is destined for seafood or aquafeed supply chains, is recognised as having in place a plan of action for fishery improvements within a specific time period. FIPs are great examples of multi-stakeholder working, as their success is dependent on the involvement of all the actors within the specific fishery, aligned and working together on the action plan for improvement. This includes, but is not limited to: the fishers, NGOs, government, regulators and scientists. The FIP mechanism has, in some instances, expanded over time to include what is termed the ‘post-harvest’ sector, potentially including aquafeed companies and even aquaculture companies, who may wish to support the positive change being driven through FIPs in relation to their local (or wider) business interests. The IFFO RS scheme has the Improvers Programme IFFO RS IP), that supports a process of continual improvement in raw material supply. The IP, through FIPs, will support improvements in the fisheries that supply raw material for fishmeal and help to support an increase above that current 50 percent figure of global annual supply. It will take time, but the scheme is at an exciting point in its development, where it can start to have some marked influence on the performance of some fisheries that, so far, have not been able to make the grade for full IFFO RS and other schemes. Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University.


ea Machines Robotics, a Bostonbased developer of autonomous vessel control technology, recently announced the establishment of a new dealer programme, to support the company’s global sales across key commercial marine markets. The programme includes many strategic partners who are enabled to sell, install and service the company’s line of intelligent command and control systems for workboats. The SM Series products, SM300 and SM200, provide marine operators a new era of taskdriven, computer-guided vessel control, bringing advanced autonomy within reach for small- and large-scale operations. The Sea Machines dealer network includes the initial builders and specialists, located in strategic regions such as Naytronics, USA, Marine Group Boat Works, USA, La Conner Maritime, USA, Seacoast Marine Electronics, Canada and many more. “Establishing this dealer network ensures that customers have access to Sea Machines products and service on a global scale,” says Phil Bourque, Director of Business Development. “We consider each dealer an extension of the Sea Machines factory team, as they are ready to support SM series products from initial sale through post-installation. We look forward to announcing additional dealers in the coming months.” Sea Machines Robotics CEO, Michael Gordon Johnson, also notes, “with four years of technical development and product testing now completed, we are offering the SM Series of products to the global marine market with extreme confidence. Autonomous and remote-control capability unlock real value in traditional marine operations and open new opportunities on water. Our focus is on tech that enables a new era of marine and maritime operations, one that is empowered with increased capability, productivity and profitability. I am pleased to be working with this group of first-class integrator/dealers that share credence in progress and innovation.” Sea Machines SM product series is available now and can be installed aboard existing or new-build commercial vessels, with return on investment typically seen within a year. The company is also currently developing advanced perception and navigation assistance technology for a range of vessel types, including container ships. In December 2018, Sea Machines announced that it had raised another US $10 million in venture funding, marking one of the largest venture rounds for a marine- and maritimefocused technology company.

12 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 13




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Malaysia’s fish farming evaluated in new study


mall-scale fish farmers in Malaysia earn 2.5 times more farming aquaculture in brackish-water, compared to fresh water, according to a study in the ‘Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities’. Aquaculture is a common source of income in Malaysia and Roslina Kamaruddin, a researcher from Universiti Utara Malaysia, wanted to understand why some fish farmers are more successful than others. Kamaruddin queried 216 small–scale freshwater and brackish-water pond fish farmers from the state of Kedah about their assets, such as education and investment capital, fishing strategies, and household income. Overall, higher education level and experience, as well as higher investment and operating costs positively correlated with higher levels of best management practices and household income.

The highest incomes were among brackish-water fish farmers – in part because brackish-water species generate higher profits, but also because brackishwater farmers are more likely to use best management practices than freshwater farmers. Brackish-water species require intensive care, so farmers use best management practices such as pond preparation and fish health management to help ensure high survival rate and best quality produce. “Good management is crucial for sustainable aquaculture and this study showed that fish farmers need more training and financial support to implement best practises,” Kamaruddin said. While brackish-water species generate more profit, they also require high investment, operating costs and technical knowledge. More brackish-water farmers are financed by banks and agencies, whereas freshwater farmers are more likely to use personal financial resources. Freshwater fish farmers often supplement their income with other sources, such as agriculture. Not all aspects are better for brackish-water farmers, however. The study shows they experience higher levels of stress, worry and anxiety when their underwater farms were adversely affected. In addition, brackish-water farms had a higher impact on the environment as they used more fertilisers and antibiotics. Measures to boost education, training, and financial investment should be prioritised to improve fish farmers’ livelihood, the study notes. For example, credit institutions could provide credits or loans which cater to smallscale farmers. Training for best aquaculture practises should also be readily available. Other policies could include differentiating between aquaculture products from farms with good management versus poor management, or penalising farmers who do not follow best practises.

14 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

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Gael Force Group announce new company name and logo


rusted supplier of aquaculture equipment, technology and services, Gael Force Group, has announced new company names, logos and jobs for its fish farm pen and boatbuilding businesses. The name changes represent the ongoing seamless integration of both Fusion and Corpach into the Gael Force Group and highlights the Group’s aim to demonstrate its ability to provide end-to-end product and service supply to the aquaculture sector. They will also adopt new Gael Force style logos, demonstrating the integral part both business units form within the Group. The businesses were acquired in 2018 by Gael Force Group and have since been working together within a larger group, accelerating the development of new innovative projects and conducting R&D in order to deliver better value for its customer base. The company has started the year by undertaking its largest ever recruitment drive with up to 40 new positions being required over a range of job roles. The primary driver for increasing its workforce is greater customer demand for its range of aquaculture equipment, including offshore pens, concrete and steel feed barges, and marine technology systems. Commenting on the name changes, Group Marketing Manager Marc Wilson commented, “Both companies have been an excellent fit within the Group, sharing in the common values we believe to be vital in achieving our vision and

mission, and ultimately enabling us to provide our customers with a first-class competitive product offering. “Both workforces have been utterly commendable in their motivation and willingness to integrate as part of a bigger team – a huge credit goes to those colleagues. We are all very much united in our approach and therefore the changing of names and adoption of new logos is the natural next step to take.” www.knipbio.com

International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 15

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KnipBio rainbow trout feed trial success


nipBio Inc announced the successful completion of an extended series of trials studying the efficacy of its single-cell protein ingredient KnipBio Meal (KBM) in the diet of fingerling rainbow trout. The trials were done over a sixmonth period on close to 5000 animals and are some of the most comprehensive dedicated evaluations ever conducted using a single cell protein as an aquafeed ingredient. The trials compared diets containing varying inclusion rates of KBM against multiple standard trout diets. The results confirmed that juvenile trout fed a diet where KBM replaced a portion of other proteins performed equally well, or better, than trout fed standard diets, in terms of weight gain and animal size (length). The experimental populations also generally experienced equal or higher specific growth rates (SGR) and a better feed conversion ratios (FCR) than the control diet populations. Larry Feinberg, CEO of KnipBio, commented, “We were determined to invest sufficient resources in these trials to ensure we could demonstrate statistically meaningful results that would provide our customers a high degree of certainty regarding the effectiveness of KBM as a feed ingredient. “We partnered with a respected independent research institution to ensure objectivity and evaluated the effect of diet on growth using more than 250 experimental populations. The trial results have proven to be

overwhelmingly positive and we believe provide strong evidence that KBM is a highly effective feed ingredient for salmonids including juvenile rainbow trout”, Mr Feinberg continues. Two of the trials studied the effect on growth when poultry meal and soy protein concentrate (SPC) were replaced with KBM. The other two trials substituted KBM for SeaPro 75, a high-performance fishmeal containing at least 75 percent protein. In each of the trials, the experimental design used 60 aquaria, each containing twenty trout randomly assigned to one of twelve populations groups. The control population was fed a standard industry diet, while the other populations were fed diets where varying amounts of KBM replaced a portion of the fishmeal, chicken protein, and soy protein concentrate. Each trial was conducted over a twenty-eight day period, and measurements were taken at fourteen days and at the end of the trial. More details on the design and results for two of the trials can be found in the White Paper page of KnipBio’s website.

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MSC certification recommended for Atlantic menhaden fishery


draft report by independent certification body SAI Global recommends that the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certify the Atlantic menhaden fishery as sustainable. MSC is the world’s most recognised fishery certification organisation, and its certification indicates that current harvest levels are sustainable. “Omega Protein and the Atlantic menhaden fishery have operated according to the highest standards of sustainability for a long time,” says Monty Deihl, the Company’s Vice President of Operations. “Today’s report is an encouraging sign that our hard work is paying off. We look forward to working with MSC, going forward to ensure that we continue to meet their high standards.” The report was produced by a team of independent scientists and assessors employed by SAI Global to carry out the Atlantic menhaden assessment against the MSC fishery standards. Fisheries that pursue an MSC Sustainability Certification undergo a rigorous process. They are evaluated against 28 performance indicators in three categories: sustainability of the stock, efforts to minimise environmental impacts, and effective management. To be certified, the fishery must score a minimum of 60 out of 100 in all 28 indicators, and an average of 80 in each overall category. The assessment includes an analysis of all relevant information about the fishery, site visits and interviews with managers and stakeholders, peer review by independent third-party experts, and a public review. The MSC assessment of the Atlantic menhaden fishery came at the request of Omega Protein in June 2017. The Company also requested an assessment of the Gulf menhaden fishery, which is expected to be completed in the coming months. The Atlantic menhaden fishery has previously been found to be healthy and sustainable. According to the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), the interstate body that manages Atlantic menhaden, the resource is not overfished nor experiencing overfishing. Due to the strength of the stock, the ASMFC raised the coastwide quota for Atlantic menhaden in every year from 2015 to 2017.

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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 17

There is more to methionine than growth


by Sarah Séité and Karthik Masagounder, Evonik and Stéphane Panserat and Iban Seiliez, INRA/ University of Pau and Pays de l’Adour, France.

he sustainability of the aquaculture industry depends on how efficient we are in using available resources to supply an increasing population with affordable and nutritious protein. Put simply, we need to produce more and better, with less. There is, therefore, an important opportunity for industry and academia to work together on the specifications of fish feed formulas that cost-efficiently optimise the nutrition and health of fish throughout their entire production cycle, for example, using methionine.

Changing diets

Modern aquaculture diets are produced with low or no fish meal and higher amounts of plant protein sources. This change in diet formulations results in methionine being typically the first limiting amino acid – one that is in insufficient amounts in a food – in the fish and shrimp diets. Methionine has a central role as a building block in protein

synthesis, along with several other functions. Recent research shows it to be a key regulator of antioxidant defence, immune response, overall fish health status and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Additionally, as a precursor of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), methionine can modulate the expression of genes related to the growth and health of animals by DNA methylation reactions.

Protein turnover

Inside the body of fish and shrimp, protein mass gain is the net gain of body protein deposition over protein loss, under the biological process called ‘protein turnover’. This is a continuous process in all tissues, involving both protein synthesis and protein breakdown (proteolysis). Protein turnover is affected by the nutritional composition of the diet and the nutritional status of animals. For a growing animal, it is important to keep the diet balanced for amino acids, while providing enough energy from non-protein energy sources. Commercial feed producers have found that supplementing methionine levels in aqua feed results in better animal production. Recent studies in fish have demonstrated that methionine

18 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

deficiency modulates a key intracellular signalling pathway, resulting in increased expression of several genes involved in protein degradation and inhibition of protein synthesis. For example, a methionine-deficient diet (formulated to supply 32 percent less methionine than the normal diet) in rainbow trout (40g, initial body weight) was demonstrated to affect the phosphorylation of translation initiation factor (eif2α), and induce the expression of several factors involved in the two major muscle proteolytic pathways (proteasome and autophagy). Overall, recent studies have improved our understanding of the role of methionine in fish growth at cellular level. This has provided important biomarkers to assess fish performance in methionine deficient diet.

Oxidative stress

Intensive farming is becoming more common to meet the growing demand for global fish consumption. Under this method, animals are often exposed to various biotics (e.g. high stocking density, pathogen exposure) and abiotics (e.g. poor water quality, transportation, imbalanced diet) stressors. These lead to constant production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are basically chemical substances containing oxygen (e.g. superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxy radicals) and give rise to reactive free radicals (molecules with unpaired electrons). These free radicals participate in oxidative reactions that damage biological molecules such as lipids, proteins and the DNA of animals. Animals undergo oxidative stress when they don’t have the capacity to detoxify the free radicals or to repair the resulting damage. Methionine is an essential compound for host defence against oxidative stress. It assists in the formation of glutathione (GSH) and taurine; essential compounds for host defence against oxidative stress. Methionine is also easily oxidised by ROS, forming methionine sulphoxide, which can readily be repaired by methionine sulphoxide reductase. It therefore constitutes an important antioxidant defence mechanism that may play a role in redox signalling; a form of cellular communication. Several studies have shown that dietary methionine deficiency may reduce reservoirs

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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 19


of GSH, the most important intracellular antioxidant, and thus, increase oxidative damages in several tissues. Yellow catfish fed a methionine deficient diet (formulated to supply 37 percent less methionine than the normal diet) displayed peroxidative damage by ROS, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and GPX), indicating methionine deficient diet causing oxidative stress in the yellow catfish. In contrast, a previous study showed that dietary methionine restriction (formulated to supply 45 percent less methionine than the control) does not affect the amount of total glutathione in the liver tissue of juvenile salmon under laboratory conditions. Research has also demonstrated that dietary methionine deficiency (formulated to supply 55 percent less methionine than the control), decreased of the oxidative status in the liver of rainbow trout. This indicates that the negative effects of methionine deficiency on the oxidative status of fish depend on the factors, including level of methionine deficiency, in relation to the need of animal and the level of oxidative stress. Factors, including the life stage of fish, production intensity and growing conditions can all influence oxidative stress. Under intensive farming conditions, where animals are prone to oxidative stress, the methionine requirements of fish and shrimp can be higher than the values determined under favourable laboratory conditions.

long-term deficiency of methionine may be detrimental to fish growth and health.

Immune response

Methionine deficiency can have different impacts on overall health. For example, methionine deficiency can lead to the development of cataracts in several fish species, e.g. rainbow trout, hybrid striped bass and Arctic charr. Although the mechanism behind this is not well understood, it is thought that glutathione synthesised endogenously from methionine or cysteine, is likely to play a role in preventing the formation of disulphide bonds which lead to the insolubility of lens protein and the development of ocular opacity. Moreover, methionine has been shown to play a role in gut health in jian carp. Microbial populations in the digestive tract of fish (such as Firmicutes) have been shown to be closely correlated to fish health and nutrition. Bacteria of the fish digestive tract could secrete digestive enzymes, which promote digestion of nutrient substances and synthesise nutrient substance that the fish need. It has also been demonstrated that methionine could influence the balance of intestinal microflora by promoting the growth of beneficial bacterium and depressing the growth of harmful bacterium.

Deficiency of certain amino acids has been known to impair immune function and increase the susceptibility of animals to infectious disease. Amino acids affect the immune response of an animal, either directly or indirectly, through their metabolites. Dietary methionine deficiency has been shown to decrease innate immune response and thus the protection against the infection of bacteria (A hydrophila) in juvenile yellow catfish. In addition, during infection or inflammation, fish fed the methionine-supplemented diet are better protected against micro-organisms (such as bacteria) and bactericidal activities. This response might be due to the role of methionine on cell proliferation.

Intermediary metabolism

The liver is the main site for intermediary metabolism (including, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism). Hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis have been shown to respond to dietary methionine imbalances in fish. These disturbances are also reflected in fish at the phenotype level. When salmonids were fed low-methionine diets, hepatic triglyceride (TAG) accumulation was recorded. It is believed that liver TAG accumulation, following low methionine diets, is due to the reduced availability of phosphatidylcholine involved in the transport of lipids from the liver to the peripheral organs. Phosphatidylcholine is synthesised from phosphatidylethanolamine, where SAM, produced from methionine, acts as an important methyl donor. Therefore, methionine deficiency can affect the endogenous synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. Another hypothesis is that methionine deficiency can decrease the availability of taurine, which is an important precursor in the synthesis of bile salt (taurocholic acid). Bile salt is highly important in the digestion and absorption of fat and fat-soluble vitamins. In addition, bile acid synthesis is the major route of cholesterol metabolism, as about half of the cholesterol produced in the body is used for bile acid synthesis. Overall, methionine has important roles in the proper intermediary metabolism of nutrients, and

Nutritional programming

Early nutritional events exerted during critical developmental windows may result in permanent changes in the later life of animals, namely affecting their growth potential, health and metabolic status. Those events are the results of the so-called nutritional programming and open a new field of research and opportunities towards the optimisation of nutrition and health of farmed animals, with obvious economic implications. Nutritional programming, through epigenetic mechanisms of methylation reactions, such as the DNA and histone methylation, is directly dependent on SAM, and thus of its major precursor: methionine. Dietary methionine levels and their adequacy in meeting animals’ requirements at early stages, may therefore constitute a critical factor in modulating animals’ phenotype throughout their production cycle. Recent studies with rainbow trout show that feeding of brood stock with diets limiting methionine at 50 percent affect various traits in the offspring, some of which persisted during the first weeks of exogenous feeding. Whether epigenetic mechanisms are behind those effects, requires further investigation.

Overall health

Changing the way we look at methionine nutrition and fish health

Considering the number of metabolic pathways requiring methionine and/or its derivatives, it is not surprising that dietary methionine not only affects growth but also metabolism and the overall health status of fish. Evidence of the functional role played by methionine in fish is growing and suggests we need to change the way we look at methionine nutrition and the health of fish. It has been proven that the first-feeding stage in fish is a critical window for nutritional programming and that there is a positive impact of the early-feeding of a plant-based diet on its future acceptance and utilisation. Working together, industry and academia need to establish whether it is possible to programme the future growth and health of farmed fish through optimised nutrition. And, if so, the response criteria that should be (re)considered to define methionine (nutrient) recommendations that best optimised nutrition and health of fish. corporate.evonik.com

20 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 21


Sustainable/eco-friendly solutions

A bio-reactor recycling low energy organic waste into high-quality protein and oil


by Silvia Nogales-Mérida, HiProMine, Poland

nsects are not only a natural source of protein and energy to fish, but they also provide minerals, vitamins and active compounds, such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and the chitin. Chitin and AMPs may act against pathogen bacteria, fungi, and other parasites. All these factors are already known, but recently they have captured the attention of many researchers. Besides, insects have always been a part of the diet of many wild fish species, especially continental fish. With all this knowledge, a group of researchers from Poznań, Poland, decided to implement the idea of industrially farmed insects to be used in animal nutrition, especially in fish nutrition. They believe that insects are the ‘philosopher´s stone’ of the 21st century – a natural bioreactor that will turn the organic waste

into life-giving proteins, oils and nutraceuticals – the most sought substances in times of the global food deficiency.

Building the foundations

Over millions of years, thousands of insects’ species have evolved to serve the sole purpose of processing organic matter and assimilating biogenic elements. It is due to this fact that certain species of insects were carefully selected to undertake a process of ‘bio-recycling’ - to utilise the waste and by-products of the agri-industry, converting them into HiProMine products. Such is the origin of the ‘insect business’, and the company, named HiProMine, short for ‘high protein mine’, was settled in Robakowo. The first production and selection of over 30 species of insects started in 2015. In 2016, HiProMine SA won the Deloitte´s 2016 Most Disruptive Innovation Award, as well as the BioForum

22 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

2016 contest Master of Innovation. Additionally, it has been participating in different events and fora in order to promote the use of insects in animal nutrition, especially in fish nutrition. Moreover, this brand-new company is an active member of the International Platform of Insects for Food and Feed (IPIFF) which on July 1, 2017, got the approval for the use of insect meals in the aquaculture sector in the European Union. All these successes have been possible because of the strong team of enthusiastic specialists in animal nutrition and aquaculture. The CEO and co-founder of HiProMine, Professor Damian Józefiak, is an expert in Monogastric Animal Nutrition at the Poznań University of Life Sciences. Another member of the team, Professor Jan Mazurkiewicz, is a specialist in Fish Nutrition and Aquaculture. In addition, the international personnel consists of engineers, entomologists, veterinaries, biologists, and animal nutritionists who concentrate their efforts on improving the mass-production of insects in fully-controlled conditions. Since the beginning, HiProMine SA has supported the research as a basis for its growth and development. Many trials in fish nutrition have been conducted with the cooperation of the Poznan University of Life Sciences and the Aquaculture Research Centre of Muchocin in Poland, to test the use of some insect meals in rainbow trout, siberian sturgeon, sea trout, and carp, among other species. Currently, the company is co-operating with the Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR) of Portugal, as well as with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, testing the use of some insect meals in marine and continental fish nutrition. The in vivo trials have been conducted to test not only the growth performance and feed efficiency, but also how the insect meals affect the gastrointestinal health of the animals. This has

International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 23

been done through the histological and microbiological analyses of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, the company is working on several species of insects, most notably the yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), super mealworm (Zophobas morio), and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens). Innovative techniques have been used to improve insect nutrition, as well as their reproduction. The company also ensures the biosecurity, which allows for breeding insects free of potential pathogens. Final products, produced from insect biomass, are analysed for presence of different pathogens i.e. Salmonella, but also protein and fat quality, in terms of aminoacids and fatty acids composition.

During rearing, the insects are fed with only vegetable organic-based diets, supplemented with selected vitamins and minerals. The nutritive value of the insect feed is designed to improve final quality of the insect biomass. To ensure that the insects keep their nutritional values constant, the diets are constantly monitored in both the internal, and external laboratories. Once the larvae have reached their commercial size, they are collected, and processed according to the standards of HiProMine SA, based on research and good manufacturing procedures. At present, our company offers a variety of products manufactured from yellow mealworm and black soldier fly larvae. As an example, in the full-fat insect meals the content of protein can vary from 39 percent to 55 percent; the values depend on the type of insect meal. In the case of the protein concentrate, it can fluctuate from 58.5 percent to over 70 percent of crude protein. Insect meals are a rich source of lysine, the content of which can vary from 2.6 percent through 3.4 percent, depending on the type of insect meal, and the type of product. Similar analyses are performed in the case of the lipid content and the type of fatty acids that are present in the insect meals, as well as in the oils. We believe that global insect production will continue to rise, since they have always been a natural source of protein for many fish species, not only continental, but also marine. Therefore, HiProMine will continue to work on new sustainable insect-based products to offer the alternative nutrient source for feed operators and fish farmers. www.hipromine.com

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In a study conducted at Cairo University *, Hilyses® demonstrated its efficiency on zootechnical indexes, showing a drastic reduction of the mortality rate of Nile tilapia (O. nicoticus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila.


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* Fish Diseases and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt, 2017

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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 25

Evaluation of Functional Feed Additives against Shrimp pathogens with emphasis on Vibrio parahaemolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Litopenaeus vannamei by Farshad Shishehchian, Krit Khemayan, Zahra Javidi, Blue Aqua International Group of Companies, Thailand


hrimp aquaculture has been dramatically affected by many pathogenic diseases, mainly caused by V. parahaemolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential use of two functional feed additives of AlphaGuard*L Plus (Liquid) and AlphaGuard*P (Powder) composed of essential oils (eucalyptus, thyme, oregano belonging to the Myrtaceae and Lamiaceae family respectively), Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCTs) and natural bioactive compounds in shrimp against disease-caused pathogens, especially V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV. The results indicated that AlphaGuard*L Plus effectively delayed disease progress in shrimp. These results suggest that the functional feed additive of AlphaGuard*P and AlphaGuard*L PLUS could be used in order to promote shrimp’s defense against pathogens.

to stimulate shrimp immune and improve shrimp performance specially to control viral and bacterial pathogens in recent treat shrimp diseases such as V. parahaemolyticus that caused Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) that caused White Spot Disease (WSD), combined with the implementation of biosecurity measures. The composition of AlphaGuard composing MCT and essential oil are being recognised as GRAS practice. In this study, the efficiency of the AlphaGuard product was obtained by a combination of the data from disc-diffusion test results,


The practice of aquaculture intensification is impeded by health and nutrition affecting growth performance. To untangle these consequences, functional feed additives have been used

Figure 1: Antibacterial activity from Disc-diffusion test. Abbreviation L or P with number represented liquid or powder form with percentage of AlphaGuard*L Plus or AlphaGuard*P

26 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

disease challenges and histology, together with an evaluation of AlphaGuard product effects on the shrimp diseases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS Pathogenic bacteria and viruses

Two virulent pathogens in shrimp, V. parahaemolyticus and V. harveyi in glycerol stock, have been sub-cultured in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) + one percent NaCl, incubated at 37oC for 24 hours, before streaked onto thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose agar to obtain its pure culture. WSSV suspension was prepared from the muscle of WSSV infected shrimp. Briefly, the WSSV-containing in shrimp muscle was removed from storage at -80°C and cut into uniform pieces under cold sterile conditions then homogenised in TN buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, 400 mM NaCl, pH 7.4) at 0.1 g/ ml. After centrifugation at 2,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4°C, the supernatant was diluted to 1:100 with 0.9 percent NaCl and filtered through 0.45 micron. The resulting supernatant was stored at -80°C, until it was used as a source of WSSV injection for the challenge experiments.

Figure 2: Cumulative mortality rate of V. parahaemolyticus challenge test. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05) Figure 3: Mortality and survival rate of V. parahaemolyticus challenge test. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05).

The antimicrobial activit - Disc-diffusion test

5 µl of the of AlphaGuard*L Plus and AlphaGuard*P, concentration ranging from 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 10 percent dilution with NaCl 0.85 percent, were absorbed into five millimetre diameter, 0.9 mm thick paper discs then air dried before being placed into 105 cells of bacteria culture in a petri dish 100 x 15 mm wide. 0.85 percent NaCl solution was used as negative control. Three replicate plates for each treatment were used and observations were recorded after 24 hours.

Artificial infection with V. parahaemolyticus and determining the number of Vibrio in shrimp hemolymph (HL) and hepatopancreas (HP) V. parahaemolyticus was reactivated from storage at -80°C and cultured in TSB + one percent NaCl at 37°C overnight. The




supported by organised by

WWW.VIV.NET International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 27


culture was centrifuged at 5,000 rpm for 10 minutes, to remove the supernatant, and the pellet was re-suspended in sterile 0.85 percent NaCl to a density of 8.4×106 CFU/ml. The shrimp, on the fifth week, were infected by injecting 100 μL of the bacterial suspension into the second abdominal segment of healthy shrimp at fifth week of culture and mortality was recorded for seven days. Shrimps were collected randomly on the third day after infection for each treatment and washed three times with sterile water. HL was withdrawn from the pericardial cavity using a one-mL sterile disposable syringe under sterile conditions and added to an equal volume of sterile anticoagulant (adding 10 mM EDTA-Na2 to 450 mM NaCl, 10 mM KCl, 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.3, 850 mOsm.kg-1 or 10 mM Tris-HCl, 250 mM Sucrose, 100 mM Sodium citrate, pH 7.6). The HL and ground HP were serially diluted 10-fold with cold sterile PBS. Each dilution was spread on TCBS agar plates placed upside down in a 37°C incubator and cultured for 16–20 hours. Plates containing 30–300 bacterial colonies were counted, then the numbers were recorded as CFU/ml or CFU/g.

Figure 4 Vibrio spp. count of V. parahaemolyticus challenge test reported as CFU per ml or gram. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05) Figure 5 Cumulative mortality rate of WSSV challenge test. Means with different superscripts are significantly different (p<0.05)

Artificial infection with WSSV

ml of the filtrate was injected intramuscularly into healthy shrimp at the fifth week of culture. Shrimps were collected randomly six hours after infection for histopathology examination and mortality f was recorded for seven days.

Shrimp growth conditions and experimental groups

Shrimp were purchased from local Thai farms. They were tested negative for V. parahaemolyticus-caused AHNPD and WSSV by PCR analysis. After having acclimatised for one week in an aquarium, prior to the experiment, apparently healthy shrimp with uniform body length were divided randomly into three groups with six replicates per group, 20 shrimps per replicate. The aquarium capacity was 100 litres, containing 60 litres of sea water. Saline water property was maintained at 15 ppt, pH 7.7-8.0 and DO>4.0 mg/L. Each treatment contains juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 2.6 g randomly stocked in each tank.

Shrimps were fed to satiation up to around 2.5-3 percent of their body weight, three times per day for five weeks. Feeding was adjusted daily, according to their ingested rate, to make sure that feed was totally consumed. Before feeding, molts, feces, and dead shrimps were removed, 20 percent of the water in each tank was exchanged every three days by new seawater.

Experimental diets and data collection

All groups were kept, during the experiment, under the same conditions as acclimation. The control group was fed by commercial shrimp pellets, coated with one percent chitin-chitosan. Treatment groups were fed by AlphaGuard*L Plus sprayed on or AlphaGuard*P, mixed with Figure 6: Histology after challenged by WSSV in shrimp fed by commercial shrimp pellets and coated AlphaGuard*P and AlphaGuard*L Plus by one percent chitin-chitosan, at dosage 5.0 ml or g/Kg feed. Mortality and water quality parameters were recorded daily. At the end of the trial, the survival rate was evaluated.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis experimental units, tanks, and aquariums were distributed in a completely randomised way. Quantitative data was checked for normality and homoscedasticity. Data was analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to search for significant (p < 0.05) difference among treatment means.


The antibacterial activity by discdiffusion methods and inclusion in shrimp diet on disease resistance of AlphaGuard*L Plus or AlphaGuard*P 28 2019 -- International International Aquafeed Aquafeed 28 | | February February 2019

Disc-diffusion test

The concentrations of AlphaGuard*L Plus and AlphaGuard*P at least one percent inhibit both V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus, however, there was higher inhibition efficacy for V. parahaemolyticus compare than V. harveyi. The effective concentration of AlphaGuard might have be lowered if we diluted in lipid solubles, such as ethanol, for testing. Essential oil compositions, assay techniques and the mode of action have been intensively reviewed. This study did not investigate at molecular detail for its mechanisms, however, the main effect of bacteriocidal properties might be related to their interference of membrane integrity and permeability as the lipophilic compound from essential oil and MCTs. Different fatty acids in MCTs have a different minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), depending on the type of fatty acid, microorganism, and environmental pH. The synergistic and antagonistic aspect between ingredients in AlphaGuard is not elucidated in this study. The essential oil in AlphaGuard also acts as an antioxidant to prevent or slow down oxidation of unsaturated MCTs to prolong its shelf life besides anti-stress in shrimp.

V. parahaemolyticus challenge test

At the end of the feed trial experiment, shrimps were challenged by V. parahaemolyticus. Cumulative mortality rate was plotted out (see figure two). The results of mortality rate, after the V. parahaemolyticus challenge for a seven-day interval, showed that groups of shrimp fed by AlphaGuard*P and AlphaGuard*L Plus had significantly lower mortality rates than compared to the control group after day four of infection. Both AlphaGuard*P and AlphaGuard*L Plus had the same

statistical mortality rate after day five of infection. At the end of experiment, in contrast, the survival rate was not statistically correlated to mortality rate for AlphaGuard*P, (see figure three). The ability of shrimp clearance from Vibrio spp. after three days of infection was plotted, (see figure four). The results indicated that the Vibrio spp. count in the hemolymph of shrimp fed by AlphaGuard*P and AlphaGuard*L Plus were lower than the controlled groups. The ability of shrimp to defend against bacteria in HP, fed by AlphaGuard*L Plus, had also a much better ability to defend than shrimp not fed AlphaGuard.

WSSV challenge test

WSSV challenge test was conducted after five weeks of the feeding trial. The cumulative mortality was plotted, (see figure five). The group of shrimp fed by AlphaGuard*L Plus showed significant delay in mortality, compared to the groups of control and AlphaGuard*P-fed shrimp during their second, third and fourth days, (see figure six). This is coincided with no histopathological sign of H&E staining WSSV infection tissue at the area of injection, except the generalisation of muscle necrosis that is likely related to the shrimp defense mechanism after three days of infection. Nevertheless, all groups ended up with 100 percent mortality.


The results of this trial suggested that the application of AlphaGuard*P and AlphaGuard*L Plus feed additive at 0.5 percent with commercial feed proved the efficacy on promoting the shrimp defense against pathogen. AlphaGuard*L Plus especially displayed a better performance.

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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 29

Free nucleotides, β-glucans, and MOS:

The perfect combination to increase the survival rate in fish and shrimp production


by Liliana Borges and Melina Bonato, P&D ICC Brazil

he wide expansion of commercial aquaculture, over the last 15 years, has been followed by a global increase in fish farmed in fish ponds. However, producers face health-related issues with the consequent use of medications, like in any intensive farming activity, which causes tissue and environmental microbial flora accumulation. Fish, like mammals, have an innate and an adaptive immune system; the innate system provides quick, primary, unspecific and no-memory responses against recontamination. On the other hand, the adaptive system provides specific responses or, in other words, intense responses using pathogen-specific antibodies. Macrophages, neutrophils, dendritic cells, and natural killers are the most widely known cells in the innate immune system. Toll-type receptors, located on the surface of immune cells, recognise microbial standards and induce an immediate innate immune response. After such induction and phagocytosis, phagocytes show the adaptive immune system a processed fragment of the pathogen and stimulate a non-pathogenic response. Therefore, phagocytes are called antigen-presenting cells. Pathogen recognition, by the innate immune system, triggers immediate innate defenses and, subsequently, activates an adaptative immune response. Therefore, the use of compounds or diet additives to increase the survival rate, disease resistance and growth of fish and shrimp have been more frequent and more successful. Sacharomyces cerevisiae yeast is a natural and immunostimulant additive used in farming to promote better intestinal health, thus resulting in greater disease resistance and better production rates. Yeast is composed of manno-oligosaccharides (MOS) and β-glucans 1.3-1.6 and is a rich source of RNA and amino acids, especially glutamine and cytoplasm proteins. To make these nutrients fully available, ICC Brazil, a leader in the production of yeast-based compounds for animal nutrition, has developed Hilyses® - hydrolyzed Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast

obtained from sugarcane fermentation in ethanol production. The yeast is RNA and polypeptide hydrolysed by some added specific enzymes, resulting in free nucleotides and nucleosides, highlydigestible amino acids, and short-chain peptides and polypeptides. Hilyses® also contains yeast cell wall, composed of MOS and high levels of β-glucans 1.3-1.6 (immune system modulators). Free nucleotides and nucleosides can be readily absorbed by enterocytes in the intestine and are especially important in rapid proliferation of cell tissues, having limited capacity for de novo synthesis. Free nucleotides can be used by the recycling pathway, where the body can synthesise nucleotides using less energy, resulting from recycling bases and nucleotides from the metabolic degradation of nucleic acids derived from dead cells or food. However, when endogenous supply is insufficient, the (food) sources of exogenous nucleotides can become semi-essential nutrients. Although nucleotides are not strictly defined as immunostimulants, they are bound to this process, as they provide the immune system with substrates and co-factors needed for the activity, considering that they are involved in all cell processes. The use of nucleotides in fish nutrition has several benefits, including increased food intake, rapid intestinal repair, and improved intestinal flora in the mucosa and mucosal surfaces. These have been used in aquaculture as a source of nitrogen or as a functional food for water animals, and can compensate for insufficient nucleotides in food with high content of vegetable protein. Every component in Hilyses® provides a synergetic effect, improving intestine integrity and health, promoting higher cell proliferation and strengthening the immune system. This is important for animals during accelerated growth periods (initial phases), reproduction, stress and challenging conditions posed by diseases. In a study conducted by Abu-Elala, et al. (data not published) in Cairo University School of Veterinary Medicine, in Egypt, 270 Oreochromis niloticus (50.7 ± 0.8 g of body weight) were used and divided into three experimental groups: Control, 0.2 percent and 0.4 percent Hilyses®; and 90 fish were assigned to each treatment group (3 repetitions/tank). For two months, fish performance was measured every two weeks and, at the end of the study, five fish/repetition were euthanised to assess clinicopathological parameters, oxidative and antioxidative substances, immune-related gene expression by quantitative PCR, phagocytosis activity and rate (%), and lysozyme activity (µg/mL). After two months, fish were challenged with Grampositive Lactococcus garvieae and Gram-negative

Chart 1. Effect of Hilyses on the mortality of Oreochromis niloticus challenged with Grampositive Lactococcus garvieae and Gram-negative Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria.

30 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Table 1 - Performance, clinicopathological results, oxidative stress, immune-related gene expression, innate immunity Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria, and mortality and mortality parameters for O. niloticus. abc Means with different letters in the same line are significantly different rates were observed for one week. based on Tukey’s test (P<0.05). Hilyses® diet supplementation at 0.4 percent Parameters Control 0.2% Hilyses 0.4% Hilyses increased fish body weight after two months in Performance Body Weight (g) 2 months 97,86 b 123,6 a 130,5 a 32.6 g (+33.3%) compared to the control group. Weight gain (g) 48,1 b 71,3 a 80,5 a Additionally, there was a 67.3 percent weight Food conversion 2,1 b 1,7 a 1,52 a gain increase and a 28.6 percent reduction in Oxidative and Catalase 268,73c ± 43,85 354,87b ± 39,60 402,27a ± food conversion (P<0.05). Antioxidative compounds 25,39 Hilyses® at 0.4 percent improved results for G-reductase 142,70b ± 3,55 160,76b ± 2,34 269,93a ± 20,6 catalase and G-reductase activities (P<0.05). Immune-related gene IL1-β gene 1b 0,6b ± 1,9 4a ± 2,2 Nucleotides found in Hilyses® provide support expression by quantitative to cellular mechanisms that increase antioxidant PCR activity, and β-glucans stimulate the immune TNF-α gene 1b 3,07a ± 0,2 4,28a ± 0,3 system, where some cells produce hydrogen Innate immunity Phagocytic activity (%) 57b 66a 68ª peroxide as a form of defense against bacteria. Phagocytosis rate 1.8b 2,3a 2,1ª The joint action of both compounds promotes the Lysozyme activity (µg/mL) 435,8b 466,1a 481ª increased activity of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and G-reductase). Hilyses® diet supplementation in 66.7 percent and 89 percent, respectively. A. hydrophila showed a significant increase in pro-inflammatory challenge showed that Hilyses® at 0.2 percent and 0.4 percent cytokines and TNFα immune gene in both supplemented groups and reduced mortality in 60 percent and 100 percent, respectively increased IL1-β gene at 0.4 percent (P<0.05). (P<0.05). The innate response was influenced by both treatments, These results confirm the efficacy of β-glucans in the innate conferring improved phagocytic activity and lysozyme activity, immune system, of MOS acting against pathogenic bacteria, and as well as increased phagocytosis rate (P<0.05). β-glucans act in of nucleotides that provide support to immunity cell mechanisms. the innate immune system, i.e., where the first immune response Innate immune system modulation can be one of the strategies to pathogenic contamination is observed, avoiding higher use used to fight contamination, reduce mortality and improve fish of energy during an extended inflammatory process and more and shrimp productivity. When yeast is offered to animals at an quickly engaging the adaptative immune system, avoiding early stage, the immune system is modulated and gets ready to production losses and high mortality rates. detect different infections or contaminations. The results of L. garvieae challenge showed that Hilyses® http://www.iccbrazil.com supplementation at 0.2 percent and 0.4 percent reduced mortality



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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 31

Aquaculture round-up

The case of New Brunswick, Canada

How regulations may inadvertently prevent innovation in aquaculture


by Thierry Chopin, Professor of Marine Biology and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, University of New Brunswick, Canada

he way property rights are attributed by governments, and the way governments intervene in the management of these rights, may have an accelerating or decelerating effect on the evolution of an industry structure. The situation in the province of New Brunswick (NB) is used here as a case study; however, readers will be surprised by the similarities in their own jurisdiction, particularly in the western world, and, hopefully, will be able to reflect on the unintentional long-term consequences of enacting insufficiently thought-out regulations in periods of crises.

The early phase of development of the aquaculture industry in New Brunswick

Initially, part of the reasons the federal and provincial governments, of Canada and NB, wanted to foster aquaculture development were that they wanted to provide alternative employment in the wake of the decline in the ground fish fishery, brought about by a public management system that encouraged too many fishers in a fishing industry that was in a free-fall, biologically and economically, from the 1970s until the cod moratorium in 1992. It is not clear whether those with a fishing license were required to surrender their licenses in exchange for entry into the aquaculture program. The offer of salmon site licenses in the beginning was restricted to licensed fishers. In 1989, the number of sites attributed was 15, and the number of sites grew at an average of about 10/year until 1996 (with the exception of a twoyear moratorium during this period), with a total of 96 sites being allocated. There appeared to be problems early on, with backlog of requests and delays in administrative procedures, which

Above: An Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) site in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada: Two salmon cages (front, left), one mussel raft (front, right) and two kelp rafts in the background (photo credit: Thierry Chopin).

became more complex over time. Licensed fishers also benefitted from small subsidies ($5,000/ site), help with business loans, and technical assistance. It is, therefore, reasonable to assume that not all of those who were attracted to the sector were necessarily innovators or early adopters of aquaculture technology. In the early development stages, average per unit production costs were at $0.95/pound, whereas the farm-gate price was $6-7/pound. Therefore, some aquaculture license holders essentially became land-lords, leasing out their sites for as much as $30,000/hectare/year, before the first round of consolidation in the industry.

First round of consolidation in 1996

The first round of consolidation was largely driven by competitive forces, including the declining world prices of salmon, problems with disease risk externalities, and variability in management efficiency among the incumbents. Issues of health and disease control came to the fore during that time. It became apparent that the stocking of multiple mixedyear classes in the same environment, without a fallow season, promoted disease risk externalities, which was a contributing factor to bankruptcies of some firms during the late 1990’s, leading to the first round of consolidation. By early 2000s, the number of working sites fell to 60, with 42 companies.

Development of the Aquaculture Bay Management Areas (ABMAs) Policy and the second round of consolidation in 2006

The emergence of disease risk externalities resulted in a major regulation change, called the ABMAs Policy, in 2006. Firms were

32 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture round-up

to produce single homogeneous year classes of the same capacity in each of three separate bays. By the end of the third year, salmon would be harvested, and the site would remain fallow for a minimum of four months, and the AMBA for a minimum of two months, in order to minimise infections by sea lice and infectious salmon anemia. The industry was actively involved with the federal and provincial governments in the research/search for a solution. This regulatory change provoked a wave of consolidation, because it favoured companies who were already spatially diversified, and who were large enough to accommodate the new regulation, based upon a three-year spatial rotation, from the time the smolts were put into the pens after Year One. This regulation likely resulted in a precocious maturation of the industry. It caused some growers to apply for new sites within one or two of the new ABMAs where they were not operating previously, or to attempt to buy or swap leases from other growers. Those who were processors faced potentially unbalanced production from year to year, which may have added to the costs of production. The rule, unintentionally, tended to favor larger and bettercapitalised firms, who were ready to benefit from the economies of scale imposed by the new rule. The regulatory costs imposed by the NB Department of Agriculture, Aquaculture and Fisheries (NBDAAF) and Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) may have unwittingly selected these firms. The language of the law specifically identifies applicants, for sites or lease sales, who can prove managerial competence, who have access to accounting and legal services to draw up documents, and who are sufficiently capitalised to pay for all of

Rope of sugar kelps (Saccharina latissima) cultivated in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada (photo credit: Steve Backman, Magellan Aqua Farms Inc).

the services offered by specialised consultants in fulfilment of the regulatory requirements, which can be substantial. Such managerial competence was not required at the beginning of the industry, which may have led to speculation by fishers who sought to cash in on the value of site leases and licenses. The number of salmon-producing firms declined from 45 companies in the early 1990s to two at the present time. The enactment of this regulation and technological innovation, aimed at disease control, essentially triggered two industrial responses. The first was further concentration of the industry in NB, through the buyout of lease-licenses among those who were not able to achieve the scale necessary to continue production. The second response was that some growers began considering expanding their production outside of NB, where disease risk externalities are less of a problem, and where the regulatory environment is more propitious; Newfoundland, for example. Moreover, the number and quality of sites in NB, compared to

International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 33

Aquaculture round-up

other opportunities elsewhere, are now more limited. In the present regulatory and technological environment, most site opportunities in NB have already been identified and are being used. Site swaps and amendments to existing sites, to optimise production, are the only remaining options.

The legal structure of Canada with regard to submerged lands

NBDAAF gets its management authority from the NB Department of Natural Resources (NBDNR), which in turn gets its authority from the federal government of Canada. The province obtains title for lands from the federal government for specific uses. However, the process of obtaining a parcel is driven by the applicant. An initially eligible applicant (someone already in the industry or a licensed fisher) would make an application for a specific site. Once the site is approved, NBDAAF requests a title transfer to NBDNR. In the Canadian system, the producer does not hold title to the submerged land. The producer holds instead three instruments: an Aquaculture Occupation Permit, an Aquaculture License, and an Aquaculture Lease. The Permit is for a renewable fixed term of three years. The License can, in principle, be for up to 20 years; however, the NB Aquaculture Act states that it can be “for a shorter period as is specified by the Registrar”. Further, “the term of an aquaculture license shall not extend beyond the period of time during which the licensee has a right to occupy the site”; in other words, the three-year maximum of the Permit. Finally, there is the Lease, which is normally granted for a 20-year period. A derivative market emerged very rapidly for the exchange of rights to aquaculture sites, with apparently no move on the part of NB to impose barriers to these exchanges. The title to the land stays with NB; so, what is being traded? There is some disagreement among those involved in the industry. NBDAAF staff consider the Lease to be the tradable

An underwater suspended lantern containing sea scallops at the Magellan Aqua Farms Inc site in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada (photo credit: Steve Backman).

instrument. However, other industry members consider that the License is the instrument having value, because the Lease (along with the Permit) only authorises occupation, not production. The lease-license bundle has, therefore, taken on the character of a title in a derivative market. This bundle can be sublet, loaned, willed, offered as collateral (and seized in the case of default), or sold to an eligible buyer. However, NBDAAF apparently takes no interest in the values of these transfers and has no public record of them. Transfers of the bundle are effectively private, even though the public goods nature of this particular market, and the reasons for the public management in the first place, are compelling.

Consequences of the present regulatory framework and the attribution of property rights on the industry structure and its evolution

The history of the industry suggests that the objectives of DFO and the NB government were to provide fisheries license holders in failing fisheries with alternative employment, and possibly to create small family businesses. However, the unintended consequence has been that the industry is, presently, composed of two firms, that also operate in several other countries. Producers have property rights, but these rights are circumscribed by the province and the federal government. Practically, the right extends only to producing salmon, using a configuration defined in the production plan for a particular site. Deviations from these parameters are strictly controlled, in part because the sites are still officially in the public domain and the desire is to minimise negative external effects on third parties. The instrument of exchange is the lease-license bundle with a restrictive time horizon of three years and a longer horizon (for the lease) of 20 years. This is essentially a derivative market, because the title to the land itself stays with the NB government and the rules (as well as their costs) define the market. A production plan must be filed every three years as part of

Steve Backman (Magellan Aqua Farms Inc) holding a line of cultivated sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima) ready to be harvested (photo credit: Thierry Chopin).

Cannot be more local! From the Magellan Aqua Farms Inc site to the kitchen of Chef Chris Aerni (Rossmount Inn in St. Andrews): Kelp salad and sea scallop carpaccio with infused herb and kelp oil (photo credit: Thierry Chopin).

Diversifying aquaculture in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick, Canada, through Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA): Sugar kelp line from a raft in proximity to a salmon cage (photo credit: Thierry Chopin).

Steve Backman (Magellan Aqua Farms Inc) and Thierry Chopin (University of New Brunswick Saint John and Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc) with their production: Sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) and sugar kelps (Saccharina latissima) (photo credit: Taylor Widrig, Mermaid Fare Inc).

34 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture round-up

the Permit process. Approval for changes in production [for example, increasing the capacity of production, reconfiguring growing sites to allow for the use of different capital equipment, or innovating new production techniques such as integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)] is long (up to two years) and can be expensive. The cycle of production under the ABMAs Policy is three years. Therefore, a producer seeking to make modifications to a production plan is confronted with a six-year planning horizon on a lease that can only be exercised with certainty within three years. It is not hard to see how the current rules could engender costs that would further select for large, well-capitalised companies capable of dealing with the logistics of production.

Regulatory impediments to the development of innovative aquaculture practices

IMTA is a technological innovation that has been developing world-wide in its recent form, although some economies have practiced it in some form for more than 2000 years, both as a means of dealing with the environmental effects of nutrient release and increasing profitability through crop diversification (fish, seaweeds, and invertebrates). However, most areas where this innovation is taking place at a large scale are in countries with a high degree of centralised planning, like China, where enterprises are able to find both the scale size and the regulatory latitude to try different production models. IMTA in Canada is presently still at an experimental/ small commercial stage. Part of the reason for this may be the transaction costs associated with getting approval for technological changes and innovations, and the opportunity cost of land engendered by these transaction costs.

In other countries, it is possible to provide habitat, capture wild larvae or provide cages for grow-out, without provoking a lot of paperwork and delays from the government. In Canada, some of these practices are not allowed as part of an overall production strategy; producers may be, in effect, limited to monocultures, in order to prevent conflicts with other users, but also, possibly, to render analysis, and approval of projects, by NBDAAF as less onerous. Most changes in production are relatively incremental, and costly to implement. Producers must apply for such changes and approval can take several years. For example, it took eight years to modify the Canadian Shellfish Sanitation Program to make IMTA legal in Canada. Therefore, the capacity of producers to innovate, even in areas which would yield environmental and economic improvements, is limited by the specificity of the lease and license. More importantly, innovations may also be limited by the implied opportunity cost of the land. Once a producer goes through the administrative effort of producing a plan for salmon, the spaces allowed for that type of co-culture may not be propitious, for example, for seaweeds and invertebrates. The marginal cost of securing the land for production compared to the marginal benefit from salmon aquaculture could quickly argue against IMTA in Canada, because the marginal costs of securing land may well outweigh the private benefits. The argument for such specificity in Canada is that producers are using multiple-use public land, of which the title cannot be ceded under the laws of Canada. However, the trade-offs for such an institution are a slower pace of innovation, a more costly management process that favors firms that can attain monoculture economies of scale necessary to absorb these costs,

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Let’s build or upgrade your aqua feed mill

All great ideas start with a dialogue. What’s your ambition? We at van Aarsen believe that sharing know-how and co-creation are essential in finding the perfect fit. Whether you are looking to modernize or expand your aqua feed production, want to replace aging machinery with future-proof innovations, or need advice in the planning and setup of a completely new aqua feed mill, Van Aarsen is the knowledge partner for you.


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International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 35

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Aquaculture round-up

and ultimately, the delocalisation of firms to other places in the world where these transaction costs are lower.

Learning from the past to, hopefully, enable more flexibility and pragmatism in the evolution of aquaculture practices

Economists have long argued that longer-term concessions to public goods - even as long as 20-25 years - prevents “short termism” in economic planning and may reduce the overall regulatory costs significantly. However, worries over environmental impacts have led many governments to opt for stricter regulations. At the same time, these considerations need to be set against the reality that too much strictness can ultimately reduce investment and innovation. One solution is the so-called “evergreen lease”, already used in the forestry sector: a longer lease (20 years) renegotiated mid-way through at ten years. Strictly adhering to science-based decision-making, rather than arbitrary rule-making, would also help reduce management costs. The rules concerning who could get a license for aquaculture may have led to the selection of persons who were not welladapted to the industry as it evolved. In the early years, figures of as much as US $30,000/hectare for a sub-lease was apparently not uncommon. Eventually these individuals sold out to those remaining. However, would the trajectory of industry adjustment have been slower, and would there have been less speculation, had the program been extended to any resident of NB willing to take a basic course in aquaculture, possibly even targeting individuals of college age, with the added proviso that they have to give up their fishing license as a quid pro quo? One can suspect that, in fact,

industry adjustments would have been more gradual, with less economic waste. Responding to crises, making mid-course corrections, and solving practical problems is not unique to the Canadian aquaculture industry. Along with the regulatory structure, the attempts at controlling disease and parasites may well have pushed producers to adopt rules that further consolidated the industry. Does this mean that mono-aquaculture, by its nature, can only be done efficiently at a large scale, or is this an artefact of the regulatory structure and the rules in place? NB may not have regulatory models that favor innovation in the industry and may need to provide itself with the regulatory means, and economic incentives (such as considering ecosystem services and nutrient trading credits), to explore different production models and remain competitive. This may require more flexibility and pragmatism in the evolution of its aquaculture practices. Countries that are able to form large firms, with more solid guarantees over productive areas, and a more flexible and enabling regulatory framework, like China, seem more likely to adopt the IMTA concept and other technical innovations, because such firms have access to scale and something like “title” through affiliation with governments. For Canada, the conundrum is that to be competitive on the world stage it is necessary to innovate in many directions. However, the costs of innovation in Canada is presently quite high, mainly because of the regulatory environment. To be competitive and to innovate, it may be necessary for Canadian regulators to allow more of the “title” to be used by producers and not just “title to produce salmon”. Striking the right balance in order to remain competitive is likely to be the next big challenge to the aquaculture industry in NB and Canada.


Let Us Build and Supply your plan for aqua feed industry. We provide turnkey projects and offer excellent after sales service. CREATING MICRO-FLOATING FEEDS TO MEET THE DIVERSE NEEDS We developed ø 0.5 mm (dies) floating fish feeds extruder , it can do production in continuous without dies blocking and running for 8 hours. The most powerful thing is the Extruder parts are made in precision casting and hard-wearing alloy steel. It can be fitted with user various products requirement and machine durable using. If you want to know more, let's discuss with us.

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36 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

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Tech update

Sea Machines Robotics’ SM200/300 US-based Sea Machines Robotics have designed programmable workboat systems that work collaboratively to effectively ensure easy carrying out of processes such as marine anchoring, drilling, dredging and infrastructure design. These workboats can maintain speeds and distances, set by the operator, whilst carrying out tasks efficiently via remote control. The SM200 and SM300 ensure easy, hassle-free fish farm maintenance.

International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 39


Aquaculture workboats net big gains with autonomous technology


by Amelia P Smith, Sea Machines Robotics, USA Already providing nearly 50 percent of the world’s fish for human consumption, the fisheries and aquaculture industry will grow exponentially between now and 2050 to meet the nutritional demands of an expanding global population, which is expected to jump from seven-to-nine billion people during that same period. Establishing new fish farms, particularly those found nearshore and very far offshore, is one way to support future demands, but today’s industry leaders also must look at ways of increasing productivity and efficiency, as well as reducing operating costs, of existing operations to meet future needs. Nearshore and offshore fish farms are reliant upon a critical network of workboats, which may include any combination of live fish carriers, tugboats, fish feed barges, crew transfer vessels, pontoon boats, platform supply vessels (PSVs), dredgers and other types of utility craft. While each is specialised in some way, the total fleet is generally targeted towards three primary activities: fish handling; infrastructure installation and deactivation; and maintenance, support and transfer activities. In most cases, these marine assets provide the only access to offshore fish farms and others located in remote areas. Workboats account for 20 percent of the total cost of aquaculture – a reality that can hinder companies’ ability to expand operations and increase yields. The good news is that innovative, new technology, specifically Sea Machines autonomous-command and remote-control products, can be installed aboard existing or new-build aquaculture boats to dramatically increase productivity, predictability, efficiency and safety. Read on to learn how.

Fish handling

The workboats that transport and distribute live fish and feed, perform delousing treatments and perform all other fish handling tasks, are ideal candidates for marine autonomy. With a Sea Machines system on board, vessel routes can be programmed to optimise transport or station-keeping (especially to deep-sea fish farming sites), ensure obstacle avoidance and reduce crewing requirements. These benefits save time and money, while increasing safety, and ultimately helping operators to be more productive and efficient.

Infrastructure installation and deactivation

Operators looking to establish new farms will require towing and mooring support, marine anchoring and drilling, infrastructure construction and dredging. Each task will be performed by workboats, which can be optimised by autonomy. Pontoons and PSVs hauling out cage materials, construction supplies, and fish-farming equipment benefit from programmed routes and plans. Multiple workboats can be programmed to work collaboratively while maintaining a set speed and distance. This multiplier effect is especially beneficial for routine work, such as the installation of mooring 40 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY and anchor systems. Using autonomous systems and operators aboard a mothership can also control a second unmanned workboat, such as a tugboat or daughter-craft via remote control to reduce crewing costs. During deactivation phases, all the above capabilities apply, making decommissioning work more productive, efficient and safer.

Maintenance, support and transfer

The majority of workboat costs are associated with the maintenance of farms. Once established, automated aquaculture workboats can optimise most routine tasks. Workboats using programmable routes and patterns to haul feed, monitor operation sites, clean nets and dredge the sea beds beneath farms can be tasked to operate in an unmanned autonomous configuration or via remote control. Sea Machines-enabled boats don’t require stop-work periods for crew shift changes or reduced nighttime operations. When operators’ boats are equipped with complementary technology, such as thermal cameras, autonomous and unmanned workboats can operate 24/7, in nearly all sea states and conditions (ideal for offshore farms). Obstacle avoidance features also prevent costly on-site incidents that can damage cage systems and marine assets. The workboats that transfer personnel, such as feed barge operators and divers, similarly benefit from obstacle avoidance, collaborative and remote operations and more. Further, the programmed routes and station-keeping capabilities reduce operator fatigue, a major casualty factor in marine incidents during nighttime operations, long-distance transfers and challenging sea states.

Sea Machines hooks into on-board equipment

Sea Machines designed its products to work collaboratively with other remote-operated systems and on-board equipment that supports cage fish farming. These may include payload controls for marine equipment, such as winches and cranes, surface, underwater and thermal cameras; specialised sensors; and aquaculture monitoring systems. Such connectivity optimises performance and data collection.

Closing the net

Leaders in the fisheries and aquaculture industry are already starting to optimise their operations with autonomy. Those who take advantage of Sea Machines products will, in most cases, see return on investment realised within a year, thanks to increases productivity, predictability and efficiency. The Sea Machines SM300 or SM200 can be added to workboats as a retrofit or as part of new-build specifications, typically requiring only 10 components to install. Most vessels can be outfitted with a Sea Machines system in just a couple of days. Even for small fleets, the system is surprisingly accessible, thanks to an affordable price point or flexible leasing options. These systems are designed to support fish-farm workboats in a wide range of coastal, harbor and offshore aquaculture activities and across all climates, from the Arctic to the tropical. Sea Machines ensures aquaculture fish farming workboats perform at the most productive and efficient level, allowing operators to feed and grow fish. www.sea-machines.com


Reliable & efficient compressed air & blower solutions

Aquaculture applications: • Cages

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• Aeration

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www.kaeser.com International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 41


UV products; Know what you are purchasing: UV treatment systems, all quotes are not equal by Jim Fraser, CTO, RK2 Systems Inc One of the primary jobs the sales and marketing team at RK2 has—with relation to UltraViolet (UV) water treatment systems—is customer education. ‘Why is that?’ you may ask. Unfortunately, while the concept of UV treatment appears simple, the actual application of the technology is anything but. In fact, capable OEM suppliers take great care to ensure that the customer is able to meet their actual treatment needs, in all practical operational scenarios, today, and as the system ages. In many cases a potential customer may notice that one quote for a UV product may come in at a significantly higher cost than that of another. Good news, right? Lowest bid wins! Well, perhaps the company that provided the lowest bid wins, but the real loser may be the customer. In the UV treatment industry, as in many others, it is the hidden or unknown factors that can greatly impact whether your system actually delivers the intended UV dose, or ‘treatment’, or not. In fact, UV water treatment is such a complex technology that the USEPA and other regulatory bodies worldwide have standardised sizing and application regulations for municipal drinking water and waste water. While aquaculture does not abide by regulations per se (there are regulated aquaculture applications in some countries), capable OEM suppliers use these regulations as guidelines to ensure that the customer has the treatment they require when they purchased their UV system—to ensure adequate protection of their investments at all times. Figure 1

UV treatment – Basics you need to know about UV-C and UV dose

As with any technology, fundamental knowledge is key to understanding the products you purchase. As a customer, being an expert in a given technology is not required. However, the more knowledge you have, the more likely you are to be a satisfied customer. To that end, it may be helpful to explain some of the key areas of interest with regards to UV water treatment: There are four primary parts of the UV spectrum: UV-A and UV-B can make it through the earth’s atmosphere. UV-C and UVVacuum are blocked by the earth’s atmosphere. In disinfection typically only UV-C is used. The amount of UV-C light that is emitted by a light source is called the ‘lamp intensity’. This is typically listed as mW/cm2. UV-C for disinfection is usually measured only at the wavelength of 254nm and is not visible to the human eye. UV dose is fairly easy to understand. It is the lamp intensity (mW/cm2) x time. Dose units are typically listed as mJ/cm2. Lamps with higher UV-C intensity can have the target organisms exposed to light for a shorter period of time than would lower power lamps, for the same overall dose. They both are equal in effectiveness; if the final delivered dose is the same. Contrary to popular belief, UV-C is not used to ‘kill’ organisms at the doses commonly prescribed. Organisms are inactivated by UV and are not able to reproduce—a harmful bacteria that cannot reproduce does no harm. It so happens that UV-C photon energy has the capability to inactivate organisms over a broad range of the spectrum, with 262nm being at the peak of this curve. The closer the light energy wavelength is to 262nm, the more effective the photons are at inactivation. The accepted wavelength range for disinfection is typically from 220nm-to-280nm.

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UVT meter

Okay, so now we know that UV-C, particularly at 254nm, can inactivate organisms. But do all organisms need the same dose to be inactivated? No, they do not. Figure 1 lists some common ‘Dose Response Curves’ of organisms of concern. The collimated beam is a laboratory device designed to deliver precise doses to the samples of the organism in question. The dose response curves are generated by exposing the organisms of concern to various doses. The dose, in mJ/cm2, that was used to reduce the amount of organisms logarithmically, is then determined. A viable organism, or one that is not inactivated, is identified after exposure, as it does reproduce. The inactivated organisms do not reproduce. By comparing the inactivated to still active organism, we can understand the reduction in viable organisms in our water. For example, if a litre of water had 10,000 viable target organisms and you delivered a three log reduction, you would now have 10 viable organisms – 10,000 to 1,000 (one log) to 100 (two log) to 10 (three log).

UV treatment – Applying the photons

Now that you understand UV-C, UV Dose and log reduction, we will discuss UV system light sources. There are some key factors that you should be aware of when selecting a specific lamp type in a UV treatment system. Mercury has been safely used in UV lamps for over a hundred years. In fact, it is very likely that the water you drink every day, whether it be from a tap or a bottle, was treated by a UV system. Mercury is used in lamps because the mercury emits photons, primarily at the 254nm wavelength (nm is short form for nanometer) when excited by an electrical discharge - and this 254nm emission is right near the peak of microbiological inactivation for most organisms of concern. There are two families of mercury-based lamps used in disinfection - monochromatic lamps that emit primarily at 254nm, and polychromatic lamps that emit with a broad spectrum, where the usable disinfection wavelength range is from 220nm to 280nm. Low-pressure, low-pressure highoutput and amalgam lamps are all considered monochromatic in output. Medium-pressure lamps are considered polychromatic. Lamp efficiency is overlooked by many people, however, if electrical power consumption is important to you, you may want to consider this factor. Lamp efficiency is the ratio of the amount of UV-C output of the lamp, as compared to the electrical input. Efficiency can range from ~35 percent or more for some light sources, to as low as a few percent for others. International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 43




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(RAStech 2019 is formerly the ICRA Conference hosted by Virginia Tech)


The premier conference on recirculating aquaculture systems is back and it’s bigger! Formerly the International Conference on Recirculating Aquaculture (ICRA), RAStech 2019 is the venue for learning, networking and knowledge sharing on RAS technologies, design and implementations across the world.



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RAS Feeds Management


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There are three primary types of light sources used in aquaculture UV water treatment: Low-pressure or low-pressure high-output lamps – These are the most efficient lamps at about 35 percent, or even more. However, these lamps are also relatively low power, so more lamps are required for a given application. In addition, these lamps are more sensitive to changes in water temperature – water temperatures must be taken into account by the system designers. This type of lamp is typically very reliable. These lamps are considered to be monochromatic, as the useful UV-C output is almost all at 254nm. These lamps like to run at about 40°C for maximum output. Amalgam Lamps - These are the primary ‘go to’ lamps in many treatment systems. In addition to high efficiency in the 33-to35 percent range, they have relatively high intensity, and great reliability. These lamps like to run at roughly ~110°C for maximum output. All of these factors allow for an efficient, thermally stable and relatively compact system design. Medium-pressure (high-pressure) lamps – Oversimplifying, medium-pressure lamps are basically low-pressure lamps with more mercury and driven with much higher currents and voltages. When mercury lamps are overdriven, they do not glow anymore, they create an arc. These arcs emit 254nm predominately, but also emits many other wavelengths. Some of these wavelengths are in the useful 220nm to 280nm range—remember our inactivation curve? At 254nm these lamps are only about 8% efficient, however, if considering the range of 220-to-280nm for inactivation they are about ~11 percent efficient. In addition, medium-pressure lamps like to run at about 600 to 900°C. That is very hot. As well, these lamps operate at higher voltages and currents, which again can create some challenges to system designers. So why use them you may ask? They are very powerful for a given lamp arc length. No other water treatment lamp can match medium-pressure lamps in raw intensity. A very intense lamp can mean a system that has very few lamps and is very compact. They do waste much more electrical power than the other lamp types, however, and are much more difficult to engineer to be reliable.

factors that, if not accurately determined and accounted for, can cause the UV system to not be able to deliver the dose required. UVT is basically the measure of how much other elements in the water absorb UV-C. If this UV-C is absorbed by non-target organisms, it cannot do the work. UVT is measured with a specialised meter. Here is a rough analogy - If you are trying to read a poster just in front of you at night, but the light comes from across your yard from the top of a light standard, you will need a certain amount of visible light to be able to read it. If, however, there is in addition a light fog present, you will need much more light to be emitted. The fog is preventing your light source from doing the job intended—you need more light in order to complete the same task.

Turbidity is not UVT

While turbidity may affect UVT, it is related to visible light transmission; remember, UVT is only related to the transmittance of photons in water at 254nm. Even visually clear water may have low UVT, dependent on the contaminants present.

EOLL, not another acronym!

As mentioned, when designing a UV system, the output of the lamp is used to determine the dose. Experienced and principled suppliers always design their UV systems based on the output of the lamp at the listed End-Of-Lamp-Life (EOLL), which is described in lamp hours. A 12,000-hour lamp, for example, has its UV-C output measured at that time for system design and sizing purposes.. By designing a UV system with EOLL UV-C output values, the engineer is then confident that the lamp, and thereby the system, will always deliver the minimum,or more, intensity

System design

So now that we know that dose is intensity x time, and we understand light sources, we can design our system, right? Sort of. The dose can be delivered is various ways. A low system intensity (few lamps) and with a low flow rate can achieve the target dose. However, if a higher flow rate is required, more intensity is required to achieve the same dose as the targeted organism is typically in the UV system for a shorter period of time. We can either add more lamps or select a more powerful lamp. So now we can select the best lamp type, and number of lamps needed, in order to achieve the dose required in the most reliable, low cost and practical way possible? But, no, we can’t yet. We must first take into account other factors, such as the UVT or light transmittance of the water at the wavelength the lamps operate at – 254nm. Visual light transmittance is not UVT.

UVT, what is that?

UltraViolet Transmittance, usually referred to as UVT, is the percentage of light at 254nm that can go through a 1cm water layer of the water in question. While many factors can affect system design, UVT is probably the most misunderstood factor, and one of the biggest influences on system design. It is also one of the biggest International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 45

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY and subsequent dose required. Past the rated lamp lifetime, the dose requirement may not be met as the lamp UV-C output will be less than required. Typically, UV-C lamp output at end of lamp life is about 80-to-90 percent, as compared to a new lamp. This number however is not very important as the system design takes this into account—you will always have the required intensity, or more, if you change your lamps at end-of-lamp-life. UV-C output degradation is considered to be fairly linear over the lamp lifetime. Beware! A system quote that comes in with very few lamps, as compared to other quotes, is likely not designed with endof-lamp-life taken into account. This means that, while you may receive proper dose at the beginning of lamp life, as soon as hours are accumulated on the lamps and output begins to drop, your system will not be providing the required dose! If you targeted a three-log reduction of a specific organism you will receive that when the lamps are brand new, but as soon as the lamps age at all you will be delivering less than that requirement. Systems with EOLL taken into account will always deliver the minimum required dose or more.


Fouling is what happens to the quartz lamp sleeve. It can be biological or mineral-based. If you do not service your system as required, you are effectively reducing your applied UV-C intensity as it is blocked from getting to the water. Principled system designers add a small fouling factor to the system size so that the customers water receives the proper dose when the sleeves are slightly fouled between maintenance cycles.

So, what is required information when ordering a UV treatment system? Your application – Single pass, multi-pass (recirculation), etc. Flow rates – Normal, peak, do you have times with no flow? Targets – Organisms of concern, UV-C delivered dose requirements Water quality – UVT, turbidity

Water temperature – Minimum and maximum required and present

Installation location – Indoors, outdoors, space availability for maintenance, i.e. lamp removal

Lamp orientation – Vertical or horizontal. The above information is the basic information required in order to design a UV system for your application. You supplier will also have other questions they can assist you in answering and will also help you to understand the ‘why’ behind your system design - as well as the ‘what’. RK2 systems customer focus – Previously, we have discussed how to properly size and design a UV treatment system. RK2 can also help you determine, clarify and solidify the factors that will drive the system design. Did you know that many of these factors can change throughout the year? Care is taken to ensure that you, the customer, will have a UV system that protects your investment. But what about service and support? One of the keys to a satisfied customer market is the support after the sale. Be it maintenance support, parts or just advice about the use and care of your UV system, a good supplier will always be there in a timely way to help you.

Aquaculture is what we know – The people at RK2 are very knowledgeable and experienced with regards to aquaculture and UV treatment systems. Experience counts in a supplier. Leverage it. www.rk2.com

HardRIB The single most important factor for a boat is its seakeeping abilities. That is why we have put enormous effort into the design of the hull of the HardRIB. Full control even at high speed, low fuel consumption, near indestructibility and fantastic seakeeping ability is a benefit for all users. The various equipment options ensure that you can customize the boat for your use without compromising any of the above attributes. The hull is developed in collaboration with Ola Lilloe Olsen and tested in Stadt Towing tank. So, whether you are a fish farmer, a diver or simply a boat enthusiast, this is the right choice for you.



steinsvik.no 46 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology FEBRUARY

Baader 408 Handling and Optional Gutting System The Baader 408 works with a variety of fish, such as cod, haddock, saithe, merluza de cola and besugo tilapia. It has a throughput rate of 40-60 fish per minute, and supports at least two filleting machines. This machine is largely independent, so is low-effort to maintain and easy to use. It increases productivity drastically, and optional devices can also be added to the machine, including a tail-cutting device and vacuum device for gutting. The extended version of the machine has a throughput rate of 80 fish per minute. www.baader.com

This month we explore some of the aquaculture technology which we think will help you save money, time and perform at an expert standard. We have a variety of products on show in February, ranging from washers, feed systems, fish counters and a intuitive phone app that monitors your water quality. YSI AquaViewer II app Monitor your fish farm with ease, with the new YSI AqyaViewer II app. When used in accordance with your YSI continuous monitoring and control aquaculture instruments, such as the 5200A, 5400 and 5500D, the AquaViewer app enables users to keep a close eye on the water conditions in their facility. The current data is updated every 10 seconds and is logged every 10 minutes, for historical data. Information is stored on the cloud and the easy-touse menu is compatible with a wide variety of mobile devices. www.ysi.com

Aquacare Oxyflow Oxyflow is the premium solution for dissolving oxygen gas into your fish farm water, which also boasts being very cost-effective. The Oxyflow operates at 0.3 bar. With no restrictive parts or moving passages, the Oxyflow is also simple to use and low maintenance. Oxyflow utilises one large high-pressure jet, rather than several smaller jets at low pressure, for a more efficient process, as well as better mixing. Oxyflow is available in several models in arying sizes, from 2.2-2.85m high, and 0.72-2.21m wide. Its efficiency is estimated to be around 85 percent, and treated water flows from 25-400 l/s. www.aquacare.com

Arvo-Tec T Drum 2000 Feeder The Arvo-Tec T Drum 2000 Feeder is a high-accuracy feeder, that is multifunctional and is suitable for a range of applications, whether starting feeding in hatcheries, on-growing tanks, ponds and cages. The product is available in one, six or 10 litre sizes, with 50, 150 or 600 white hoppers. It can fit pellet sizes of between 0.3-8mm, and with an accuracy normally of no less than 98 percent. A 316 stainless steel bracket ensures that the product is strong, and it has a standard motor of 24 VAC.. www.arvotec.fi

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HOWCASE Faivre Fish Grader Helios 60 For very large fish from 100 gr to 4 kg. Helios 60 is ideally suited to grading species such as salmon, barramundi, carp and others. Utilised with a 550mm diameter fish elevator or a fish pump, it is an important part of sorting installation for big fishes. The machine has a sorting capacity of 8,000 fishes per hour, and has two sorting channels and three sorting sizes on each sides. The machine is made of AISI 304L or 316L stainless steel. www.faivre.fr

Smith-Root PES Portable Electrosedation System The Portable Electroanesthesia System (PES™) is used to render fish unconscious and insensible quickly, without use of chemical anaesthetics. The system is portable to facilitate handling and tagging activities in the field, aboard boats and ships, and aquaculture, hatchery, and other research settings. Developed by Smith-Root, the patented PES™ is an effective tool for achieving chemical-free sedation in multiple locations and situations by the aquatic science community. Fish are quickly anesthetised, either individually or in batches, and, since the PES™ uses no chemicals and requires no withdrawal time, fish can be immediately released when research-related procedures are completed. www.smith-root.com

Do you have a product that you would like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to rebeccas@perendale.co.uk

AsIAN PACIfIC AquACulTure 2019 Chennai - Tamil Nadu - India June 19 -21, 2019 Empowering the Self Sufficiency in Food Security

All info: www.was.org Conference management: worldaqua@was.org Trade show & sponsorship: mario@marevent.com

JUNE 19 - 21

International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 49




A rich source of omega-3

by Rebecca Sherratt, Production Editor, Fish Farming Technology & International Aquafeed


50 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

ainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) are freshwater fish, that can be identified by their broad, purple stripes that run along their flanks. They are native only to North American rivers and lakes, but their popularity has led to expansion in every other continent, with the exception of Antarctica. They are silvery-brown fish, that can be recognised by their dark spots. This fish can grow between 50-70cm long and weigh up to 14kg. Their average lifespan is four-tosix years. Their growth rate differs, based upon the water temperatures they reside in. Rainbow trout comes in a variety of consumable products, ranging from being served fresh, smoked, whole, filleted or canned. It can also be eaten boiled, broiled, fried and baked. Rainbow trout farming has been taking place for several hundred years, and only continues to expand. The systems currently being used are wellestablished, but development is continually being done to enhance the production efficiency and sales of fish. Geneticallymodified hormones have proved effective in enhancing the production rates of rainbow trout, but many issues prove to arise, when on the topic of genetic modification in fish farming. There are migratory rainbow trout, that leave the rivers and enter the ocean. These



are anadromous, or nicknamed ‘spearheads’, due to the silvery markings they obtain. Rainbow trout eat eggs, insects, crustaceans and very small fish. Their natural enemies are larger fish, racoons, eagles and herons. They are not considered endangered in any way, and over 15 subspecies of rainbow trout. are native, just in North America alone. Various subspecies include eagle lake trout, golden trout, beardslee trout and the kamchatkan rainbow trout, to name a few. Female rainbow trout form nests for their eggs in gravel, and lay egg clusters of between 200-8,000 eggs at a time. Fertilised eggs are then left on their own, for four-to-seven weeks, to incubate. Newly-hatched rainbow trout feed on the remnants of their yolk, during the first two weeks they are alive. Following this period, they devour zooplankton. Juvenile rainbow trout are known as ‘parr’, or fingerlings, and develop dark, vertical stripes along their bodies. At three or four years old, they reach sexual maturity, and spawn in the very streams they were born in.

A nutritious meal

Humans have come to consume a vast quantity of rainbow trout, due to their delicious meat becoming popular as a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B. Rainbow trout is especially popular in Western cuisine, with its nutty flavour. Since the 1950s, rainbow trout production has increased drastically, especially in Europe and Chile. Primary producing countries include Italy, France, Denmark, Spain and Germany. Trout eggs are artificially spawned into aquaculture systems, in a variety of production numbers, depending on the needs of the fish farm and its schedule. The most commonly used sex-ratio is one male for every three females for broodstock, and the genders are usually kept

AQUACULTURE WITHOUT FRONTIERS (UK) Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) is a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries.

Registered charity No. 1165727

aquaculturewithoutfrontiers.org.uk International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 51



separate. Over population of broodstock can be an issue if they fish numbers are not correctly controlled, which proves quite costly. The most common method of reproducing rainbow trout is through the dry method, which involves eggs being removed from the females (who are subject to anaesthetic), by applying pressure to the pelvic fins and the vent area. Up to 2,000 eggs per kilogram of body weight are collected in a dry pan, and they are kept dry to enhance the fertilisation. Males are then stripped in a similar way- their milt is collected in a bowl, to avoid water and urine contamination. This is then mixed with the eggs, along with water. This activates the sperm, causing the eggs to increase by 20 percent in size- a process known as water-hardening. After 20 minutes, fertilised eggs can be transported. Monosex culture has been growing in popularity in recent years. This is where females, or triploids, (fish with three sets of chromosomes, rather than the usual two), are housed separately, with no males, to improve production output. Vertical-flow hatching troughs are used to incubate the eggs, once fertilised. These are usually between 40-50cm wide, 20cm deep and up to four metres in length. Eggs remain in this stage, until they reach the eyed stage. As the eggs begin to hatch, at between four-to-14 weeks, the fry drop through the mesh of the hatching trough, into a bottom trough. The hatching time for rainbow trout fry varies depending on water temperature, taking roughly 100 days at 3.9°, and roughly 21 days at 14.4°C. Dead eggs are removed regularly, to minimise the risk of fungal infection. Infections can also be controlled through the use of formalin, (a 37% formaldehyde solution). By adding this solution to the inflow water at 1:600 dilution for 15 minutes each day, risk of infection decreases significantly.

Fibreglass or concrete tanks are the storage methods of choice, when fry are reared. These are preferably circular in shape, in order to maintain a regular current of water and uniform distribution of fry.

Trout farms

A Danish entrepreneur first introduced trout farming to the UK in the 1950s. Rainbow trout farms are the most the most popular farms in the UK, as their climate proves most complementary for the farming of trout. 16,000 tonnes of rainbow trout are produced in Britain every year, most of which are farmed in freshwater tanks, ponds, netting cages and raceways. Some of these will be farmed in sea cages. The pH levels of the water rainbow trout are comfortable to reside in varies, depending on their stage in their growth cycle. For developing embryos and fry, a pH level of 6.5-8 is desirable whilst their tolerance of a more varied increase in pH level increases as the trout grow older. The same is also true for the optimal water temperature which rainbow trout flourish within. For trout embryos and fry, 10°C is ideal, whereas for an adult rainbow trout, any temperature ranging between 7-18°C is also ideal. The temperature of the water also directly correlates with the appetite of rainbow trout, so if your trout seem to not be eating enough, then unsatisfactory water temperatures may be the cause. Planning the size of your rearing devices and production unit for rainbow trout is often done in a reverse method. Rainbow trout grow rapidly, and as a fairly large fish, it is wise to first plan and estimate the final size of your fish, to then calculate the size required for your production unit. The density of your fish must also be taken into consideration.

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The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to oer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city.


International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 53


We have the largest work placement programme of any university in Ireland, with a network of over 1700 employers Amazing academic and sporting facilities on a stunning campus Graduate employment rates that are 18% above the Irish average

Industry Events Events listing MARCH 5-7/03/19 - AgraME 2019 Dubai, UAE www.agramiddleeast.com/en/Home.html 5-7/03/19 - North Atlantic Seafood Forum 2019 Bergen, Norway www.nor-seafood.com/ 5-7/03/19 - World Ocean Summit 2019 Abu Dhabi, UAE www.woi.economist.com 7-11/03/19 - Aquaculture 2019 New Orleans, Louisiana, USA www.was.org 11-13/03/19 - 6th Global Feed and Food Congress Bangkok, Thailand https://gffc2019.com 13-15/03/19 - VIV Asia 2019 Bangkok, Thailand www.vivasia.nl 17-19/03/19 - Seafood Expo North America 2019 Boston, Massachusetts, USA www.seafoodexpo.com 25-26/03/19 - 2nd International Conference on Aquaculture & Marine Biology Paris, France www.meetingsint.com/agri-aqua-conferences/ aquaculture

Aquaculture 2019 On March 7-11th in New Orleans, US, Aquaculture 2019 will be taking place. The triennial event is the largest aquaculture meeting in the world, with over 4,000 attendees from over 90 countries expected to attend. A variety of meetings will be taking place at the event, including the annual meetings of the US Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society (WAS), the American Tilapia Association, the Striped Bass Growers Association, the National Aquaculture Association, and many more. Seminars and conferences will be taking place also, for aquaculture figureheads to voice their views and thoughts on the future of the industry. A variety of topics will be discussed and explored at the event, ranging from environmental issues, aquatic animal drug approval, farm energy cost reduction, regulatory costs, women in aquaculture and much more. The latest research will also be delivered on a host of topics, including, but not limited to, biofouling, shrimp, fish physiology, hatchery technology, artemia, aquaculture education, endangered species, frogs, feeds, fish oil, sea lice, abalone, sea urchins, catfish, finfish genetics, percids and mussels. Three Continuous Education Workshops will also be taking place at the event, a Commercial Aquaponics Workshop, Best Aquaculture Practices Workshop and a Water Quality Workshop. Farm tours will also be available to attend, where attendees can explore the University of Southern Mississippi’s Thad Cochran Marine Aquaculture Centre. The event is taking place at the New Orleans Marriott Hotel, and will be the 50th anniversary of the event.

Aquatic Asia 2019 Conference VIV Asia will be hosting the Aquatic Asia conference, encompassing all things aquaculture, on Match 14th. The Aquatic Asia Conference 2019’s theme will be Shrimp Farming and Farm Tech, and encompass all things relating to shrimp and their use in the aquaculture industry. The conference is aimed at fish and shrimp farmers, veterinarians, fish feed millers and investors. VIV are now calling for speakers and sponsors to participate in the conference. Each speaker will be given the opportunity to discuss a topic relating to the theme for 10-15 minutes, with a maximum of 10 PowerPoint slides per discussion (unless they are the Platinum sponsor for the event, wherein they receive a 20-minute slot). VIV are currently calling for speakers and sponsors for the event. For more information, please contact Rebecca Sherratt (rebeccas@perendale.co.uk) or Roel Schoenmaker (roel.schoenmaker@vnuexhibitions.com).

For more industry event information - visit our events register www.aquafeed.co.uk

Aqua Feed Extrusion Conference 2019 International Aqua Feed magazine and Dr Mian N Riaz, Head of Extrusion Technology at Texas A&M University System are hosting a one-day Aqua Feed Conference at VIV Asia, Bangkok on March 13, 2019, 8:30-16:30. This conference will focus on extrusion principles, raw material, grinding, aqua feed extrusion, different types of extruders and their application, drying of aqua feed, how to improve the aqua feed quality, managing the aqua feed facility and several other related topics. Several sponsorships have already been claimed, including sponsors by DSM, Wenger, Clextral, Amandus Kahl, Andritz and CPS. Confirmed speakers include Charles Engrem of Wenger, Dr Thomas Wilson of DSM, Nils Lastein of Andritz, Jonathan Iman of CPS and many more. The conference will be taking place in BITEC- Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre, Bangkok. Pre-registration is required for this event, tickets costing US $199. 50 delegate spaces are available. Participants will receive certificates for completing the conference. The conference programme is now available online. For more information, please contact Rebecca Sherratt (rebeccas@perendale.co.uk) or Dr Mian Riaz, (mnriaz@tamu.edu) 54 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture 2019 Aquaculture – The Big Easy Choice! ow New Sh Dates 1 7-1 March

March 7 - 11, 2019 New Orleans Marriott New Orleans, Louisiana


ASSOCIATE SPONSORS American Veterinary Medical Association America's Tilapia Alliance Aquacultural Engineering Society Aquaculture Association of Canada Aquaculture Feed Industry Association California Aquaculture Association Catfish Farmers of America Global Aquaculture Alliance

International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Latin America & Caribbean Chapter WAS US Shrimp Farming Association US Trout Farmers Association World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association Zebrafish Husbandry Association

For More Information Contact:

Conference Manager P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 Email: worldaqua@was.org | www.was.org

THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR ANIMAL PRODUCTION More than 1.400 exhibitors in 11 halls and 250 booths outdoors.

More than 100.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 121 countries.

An exhibit area of 16 Ha.

100 conferences over 4 days.

Free farm visits program.

Obtain your free pass on : www.space.fr

10 - 13 SEPT. 2019 RENNES - FRANCE +33 2 23 48 28 90 international@space.fr



Industry Events

Event update

OceanTech Program 2019

3rd World Aquaculture & Marine Biology Congress The 3rd World Aquaculture & Marine Biology Congress is taking place this June, in Osaka, Japan. The congress will be taking place June 19th-20th 2019, with the theme ‘Transformations in Fisheries and Aquaculture’. A variety of topics will be discussed at the twoday congress, such as aquatic science, aquaculture modelling and technologies, aquaponics, aquaculture nutrition and supplies, coastal and marine aquaculture, advances in seafood processing, open ocean aquaculture, coral reefs, limnology and much more. The event is aimed at CEOs, Managers, Directors, professors, students, research scholars and business entrepreneurs. It serves as a brilliant way for members of the aquaculture industry to come together and network and build connections for this ever-changing industry. A number of thrilling sessions and talks will also be delivered during the congress, which are part of ten sessions. Some of the topics include Industrial Aquaculture, Oceanography, Culture Nutrition and Feed, Mariculture, Fish Hatcheries and much more. Registration for the conference is open now.

OceanTech Program 2019 is an international showcase, exploring the latest in aquaculture technology in China. Organised by Ocean College, Zhejiang University and Together Expo Ltd, the event will feature a variety of technological services, such as workshops, live demonstrations of the latest in fish farming technology, a guided tour of the research facilities in Zhoushan, conferences, the OceanTech International Symposium and a variety of exhibitors, for businesses to network and connect with. Professionals from leading universities, institutes, companies and government agencies will be present, and an international turn-out is expected. Live demonstrations of technology, such as ROVs, AUVs, sonars, profilers and magnetometers will also be on display, at the Zhoushan Archipelago, as well as Ming Hui Lake, Acoustic Pool and Wave Generation Pool. The OceanTech Program 2019 will be held at Ocean College, Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, China on May 16-18th.

AQUATIC ASIA 2019 Bangkok, Thailand March 14, 2019

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Industry Events

22nd International Pectinid Workshop The biannual International Pectinid Workshop is a mustattend event for those in the aquaculture industry, who specialise in pectinidae. Since 1976, marine researchers from all over the world have gathered, to discuss the latest in technology and news for scallops, oysters and all forms of molluscs. The 22nd workshop will focus on the aquaculture, physiology, reproduction, genetics, ecology and fisheries surrounding molluscs. More than 100 delegates from 30 countries are expected to attend. The workshop’s primary aim is to bring together researchers, industry professionals and students for networking and research. The workshop will be held from April 24-29th 2019, in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.

Event update

Kuwait International Agro Food Expo

On April 10-11th 2019, at the Kuwait International Fair, the Kuwait International Agro Food Expo (KIAFE) will be taking place. This is the only expo of its kind in Kuwait and has been made possible thanks to the brilliant success of the first edition of the expo. The event is supported by the Public Authority for Agriculture Affairs and Fish Resources, Kuwait, and seeks to inform attendees on the rich and vibrant agricultural and aquaculture resources available in Kuwait. The event is ideal for those specialising in farming, poultry, food, feed, technology, food security and food safety. Attendees will secure opportunities to see the latest in agribusiness, as well as keeping informed on the latest trends and innovations in the food industry. Exhibitors will be able to promote their products as well as being provided a thrilling platform in which to reveal their latest products to a mass audience.

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com

Elevator & conveyor components

GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org


4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com


Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com

VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl

Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com

Colour sorters A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com

Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com

Coolers & driers

JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com

Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com

Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br

Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Muyang Group +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com

60 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com

Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com

SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt

Pellet binders

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

Pipe systems

Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com


Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Used around

Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu

Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com

Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Moisture analysers

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Nets & Cages

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng


NIR systems

Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net

NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de

Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com


Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com


Research Imaqua +32 92 64 73 38 www.imaqua.eu

Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com

Second hand equipment A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr

Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Sensors Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com

Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

Level measurement

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Muyang +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu

Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

Hatchery products

CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com

Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr

all industrial Plants sectors.

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe


Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk

International Aquafeed - February 2019 | 61

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

the interview Giles Shih, CEO and Chairman of BioResource International, Inc

Giles Shih and his father founded BioResource International, Inc in 1999, a business which rapidly evolved into an international powerhouse for the biotechnology and feed additive industry. Giles also serves on the Board of Directors of the North Carolina Biosciences Organisation and the Board of Directors of the North Carolina Agricultural and Life Science Research Foundation. Upon receiving his undergraduate degree at Cornell University, Giles went on to complete his graduate training at North Carolina State University (MS in Microbiology) and Emory University (Ph.D. in Microbiology and Molecular Genetics), followed by an MBA from the Fuqua School of Business at Duke University.

What brought you into this industry?

BRI was founded in 1999 by the father and son team of Drs Jason Shih and myself, Giles Shih, based on discoveries made while investigating the possibility of converting poultry waste into biogas energy. The first products BRI commercialised focused on enzymes that improve the nutritional digestibility and efficiency of feedstuffs, and BRI’s focus to this day remains on optimising animal nutrition.

Would you say that academia or hands-on training is more or less important for young people coming into the industry?

Both are important. Academia is important for building up technical skills, but hands-on training puts those skills to work in a realistic setting. BRI has continually brought students or recent college graduates into the company through internships or entry-level employment, to experience how a biotechnology company applies science and technology into value generating solutions. We have found these trainees can then apply that training to a variety of industry jobs or even take it back into academia for further education.

Do you think it’s important to see more young people coming into the fold of businesses such as yours?

It is always important to foster the next generation. BRI has a set of core values, one of which is growth. This growth can take many forms, but for BRI it is often exhibited by helping people still early in their careers develop their skills to use in the future, whether those endeavours include research, business, or other applications.

What do you think we could see, in terms of training opportunities, that would help the industry and the people working within it overcome future hurdles?

Working in teams and working cross-functionally are both training opportunities that would help the industry. It is increasingly more important to train people to have different skill sets including technical, marketing, and business skills. As businesses become more globally diverse, it is also important to highlight global awareness, including how to work constructively with individuals who are different from you. It is critical to appreciate differences, while working cohesively as a team, despite those differences.

What do you see as a possible challenge that the aquaculture industry may face over the next 5 years and how will your company play a part in prevention or solving it?

The largest challenge at hand is finding alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs). BRI has developed scientifically proven solutions as alternatives to AGPs. Another challenge in this industry is figuring out how to grow protein sources more sustainably. Aquaculture is a prime example

of sustainable protein production, and we have tested our products in the aquaculture space and see promising results in this area.

How do you think companies such as BRI can work together with aquaculture companies, to help create a sustainable food future for the world?

BRI is committed to drive innovation in the animal health and nutrition space. Our specially developed enzyme additives can be used in animal feed to help protein producers be more productive, in a way that’s good for animals, people, and the environment.

What makes your company stand out from its competitors? Do you have any projects or plans that we should look out for over the coming year from you and your company?

BRI applies the latest scientific advancements, tools, and techniques to further the animal health and nutrition industry. We developed and help launch the first successful protease feed additive in the market over a decade ago. In addition, we leveraged our strategic relationships and technical knowhow to develop and launch a high-performance xylanase feed additive in half the time and a fraction of the cost of other competitors. In the next year, we will continue to build our pipeline of high-performance feed additives, including next generation enzyme products, as well as novel technology platforms that have the potential to transform the industry.

You launched two products in November. Can you tell us about these products and what sets them apart from others on the market?

Phytamax™ is a granulated, thermostable, phytase with a high rate of phytate degradation in feed. It improves amino acid availability and energy utilisation, which leads to optimised animal performance and reduced overall cost for feed. EnzaPro™ is a unique blend of premium xylanase and multistrain direct-fed microbials (DFMs) that has been specifically designed to help improve animal performance. By including multi-strain DFMs, EnzaPro™ has both prebiotic and probiotic actions to improve performance and support a healthy gut.

What are you most proud of since starting BRI?

We are most proud of the team and the culture we have built at BRI over the years. When it comes down to it, even though we develop innovative animal health and nutrition products, we really are in the people development business. As they say, if we take care of our people, they will take care of our customers and our products! Some of our proudest moments as an organisation are seeing team members grow into new roles and responsibilities within the organisation and really add value to the company.

62 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed



he Minister for Agriculture and Water Resources has appointed Anna Willock to the role of acting CEO of the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA).

Willock has over 20 years’ experience in marine fisheries management in Australia, through the Pacific region and internationally. She first worked for AFMA in its infancy in 1992, mainly in the then South East Trawl Fishery, later serving in a senior policy role.

Anna Willock

According to AFMA, Willock is “looking forward to reconnecting across the many agencies and organisations that are key to fisheries management and compliance, both domestically and internationally, and to continue delivering sustainably-managed fisheries for Australia.”

Mary Fraser joins SAIC


he Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) has appointed Dr Mary Fraser as their new member in the Academy of Medical Educators.

In her new role, Dr Fraser will assist in aligning the skills taught to budding aquaculture and life science professionals with the industry’s ever-evolving requirements. She will also manage the development of the SAIC’s internship, graduate and master’s initiatives, whilst building its PhD programme.

Mary Fraser

“Aquaculture is an area of serious growth in Scotland’s economy, and with that comes demand for new skills and talent. We need to develop a greater awareness of its career prospects for younger people, through engagement with schools, colleges and social media- they need to see clear examples of successful careers in aquaculture”, says Dr Fraser.

BioMar icon Niels Alsted retires after 45 years in aquaculture


iels Alsted, Executive Vice President of Business Relations in BioMar, nicknamed ‘Mr Aquaculture’ by his colleagues, has retired after 45 years of service in the aquaculture industry.

Niels Alsted

“Niels has been one of the most important people forming, not only BioMar, but also the industry. His dedication to developing a sustainable and professional aquaculture has led to industry standards and the high-end feed ranges we see in the market”, said Carlos Diaz, CEO of BioMar Group. Over the last 32 years, Niels has held various positions in BioMar from R&D, sourcing, food safety and business relations and has been part of the executive management team in BioMar Group where he contributed to opening new markets like Chile and China. Niels is valued for his broad and deep technical knowledge and, while at BioMar, has published several papers on nutrition and sustainability. He was instrumental in the creation of the first ever environmentally friendly aquaculture feed product, Ecoline and is known for his scholarly approach to feed product development.

Roberto Munoz joins Benchmark Chile


enchmarks Genetics Chile has recently appointed Mr Roberto Munoz as their new Broodstock Production Manager. Mr Munoz previously worked for rival company, AquaGen. Mr Munoz will be reporting directly to the company’s Managing Director, Mr Matias del Campo. Mr Munoz’s previous expertise in genetics will no doubt be very beneficial for Benchmark Genetics Chile.

Roberto Munoz

Sylvia Wulf new AquaBounty CEO


S-based genetically-modified salmon farm, AquaBounty Technologies, have announced Sylvia Wulf is their new CEO, replacing Ron Stotish, who remains with the company as Executive Director. Wulf joins AquaBounty, from US Foods, where she was previously a Senior Vice-President. She is also on the Board of Directors and the Executive Committee of the National Fisheries Institute.

Sylvia Wulf

“[Wulf’s] wide and deep experience in the food industry in North America, and its fish sector, will be a vital asset in the production and marketing of AquAdvantage Salmon and in the development of additional products”, says Richard Clothier, Chairman of the Board of Directors at AquaBounty. 64 | February 2019 - International Aquafeed

Biotronic Top3 ÂŽ


breakthrough in

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The Permeabilizing ComplexTM blend in BiotronicÂŽ Top3 weakens the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, thus boosting the synergistic effect of its components, the organic acids and the phytochemical.


Naturally ahead

Naturally ahead

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