DEC 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine

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With the world’s population growing, the need for more sources of protein like seafood increases too.

International Aquafeed - Volume 21 - Issue 12 - December 2018

- Fumonisins in aquaculture - Grinding of raw materials for aquafeeds - Marine ingredients - Autonomous capability with live remote operation ROV - Managing farmed fish with electric fields in pipelines - Expert topic - Blue crab Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

December 2018

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Croeso - welcome

positive way. I have always therefore Welcome to the last issue of International served to give a balanced and educated Aquafeed for 2018. What an amazing year it has viewpoint as best I can to my abilities been, with conferences around the world, where based on over 35 years in aquaculture I had the privilege to attend and meet up with so research and teaching. many loyal readers of this now prestigious trade I am confident that the magazine will magazine representing the aquaculture industry, go on in the 2020’s, to remain a bastion including so much more of the associated of robust opinion and healthy debate, to technology advancing each year to support the Professor Simon Davies give this industry a voice and political wider fish and shrimp farming needs. Editor, International Aquafeed capacity to influence legislator’s, NCO’s Back in 2008, when Roger Gilbert asked me to international agencies and government become the Editor in Chief with my first editorial bodies and academic institutions etc, thus presented in 2009, little could I have imagined providing a powerful and informed mechanism to promote aquaculture the vast global audience I would be reaching with our hard-printed and give the world an agenda for a prosperous and sustainable future for professional magazine, and the ever-increasing digital platform, with its aquatic food production. ability to target so much more and keep you all up to date? International Aquafeed will be relaunched in 2019 to reflect these You have all come to know me and relate to my absolute enthusiasm much wider technologies in such fields as engineering and materials for the subject and disciplines from a practising academic professor and science that are now at the fore of aquaculture in all its heterogeneous consultant in realisation of the need for a true and sustainable bespoke forms. There are many new interdisciplinary areas covering novel animal feed industry that caters for the 21st century. candidate species, breeding and genetics, disease and prevention, Indeed, I am always complimented by so many for the way this diagnostics, health management as well as new business and marketing magazine has developed and evolved and although so grateful for domains. this acknowledgement, I am indebted over the last decade for the fine We have to appreciate that all these affect the aquatic feed industry editorial staff, and the team at Perendale in Cheltenham. England for much more than in the past and we too must embrace these initiatives at their amazing input of skills in acquiring such interesting articles and IAF. In the last month’s November issue, Roger Gilbert announced our feature, news and briefings that have given this magazine its deserved changing face and format, and I take this opportunity to thank him so reputation as a leader. much for his appreciation of my Editorship over these last 10 years. The technical and scientific community, as well as academia, around Many colleagues and friends can now have their opportunity as Guest this planet Earth, with its finite resources within the aquatic and marine Editors for engagement with you and to bring their vast experience and and terrestrial environment giving us our seafood supply, is a crucial knowledge to our global community and help enter into a new phase for embodiment of this requirement. Over the decade, I have been able to growth and dissemination to reach new frontiers. meet so many talented and wise people from all walks of life and every I will still be present, and our International Aquafeed and Nutrition nation it seems. brand will continue as before in a new and very exciting context! Please Learning is a two-way event, and I have been able to appreciate the enjoy our latest Issue! many changes and developments in this dynamic and fast flowing I wish you all a very happy seasons greetings for Christmas and a great field with the introduction of so much new science and technology that New Year celebrations for 2019! has impacted on our magazine, ethos and mission statement in a very



FUMONISINS: Fumonisins in aquaculture - page 22

WORKBOATS: The Steinsvik HardRIB - page 40 ROV: New ROV combines autonomous capability with live remote operation - page 46

MARINE INGREDIENTS: Asking the tough questions to ensure a prosperous future for marine ingredients - page 28



EXPERT TOPIC: Blue crab - page 34

GRINDING: Grinding of raw materials for aquafeeds - page 26

Blue crabs are named so due to their sapphire claws. Their shells, or carapace, are a mottled brown colour, whilst females have red highlights on the ends of their pincers. Their Latin name, callinectes sapidus, also literally translates into savoury, beautiful swimmer, so it is unsurprising that they are so very popular in coastal towns for their tender, sweet meat.

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies

December 2018 Volume 21 Issue 12



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle Editorial team Rebecca Sherratt Matt Holmes Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris William Dowds Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092


34 Expert Topic - Blue crab 48 Technology showcase 50 Industry Events

60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy ©Copyright 2018 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service

Industry News

Industry Faces


Rebecca Sherratt

7 Ioannis Zabetakis

12 Dr Neil Auchterlonie

16 Sven-Olof Malmqvist 18 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 20 Fish for the Future 22 Fumonisins in aquaculture: The most sensitive species 26 Grinding of raw materials for aquafeeds 28 Asking the tough questions to ensure a prosperous future for marine ingredients


THE BIG PICTURE Steinsvik recently launched a new boat with an old name: the HardRIB. Many will remember the HardRIB name fondly, and the old boat’s reputation for toughness and longevity is clearly evident in the DNA of the newest boat to share that illustrious name.

See more on page 40

40 The Steinsvik HardRIB —Making aquaculture sexy? 42 Managing farmed fish with electric fields in pipelines 46 New ROV combines autonomous capability with live remote operation


The year International Aquafeed Magazine reinvents itself!



Vaughn Entwistle

Roger Gilbert

ur aquaculture industry is growing rapidly - moving from traditional fresh- and marine-water systems to modern, highly-sophisticated farming structures that involve much advanced technology that generate the maximum output from the inputs being used. For the past 27 years, International Aquafeed magazine has focused its attention on the nutritional requirements of farmed species serving researchers, nutritionists and farmers alike. However, technology is forcing us to re-evaluate our niche area of expertise and consider combining with a sharper focus on technological advances in fish farming that support greater efficiencies in feeding farmed fish. This has not suddenly come about. For the past two years, we have included a section within the magazine on ‘Fish Farming Technology’. Now - from January 2019 – we will complete this transition by focusing primarily on farming technology and supporting that focus with our traditional offering of information on nutrition, fish species and other aquaculture practices that has been addressed under the Aquafeed banner, until now. Our editor, Professor Simon Davies, has been with us throughout this journey and has achieved much in terms of the content we have been able to provide to readers over the past 10 years and we thank him for his efforts. Professor Davies will remain with us, heading up our editorial board and continuing to prepare the forward for the Aquafeed section, but leave the way clear for us to invite ‘Guest Editors’ each month to address both the technology as well as the nutritional issues surrounding fish farming. We are very pleased to be making this change in emphasis, bringing the technology section to the front of the magazine to highlight key advances being made globally and supported by the magazine’s nutritional/species section. We are pleased also to have our magazine translated into Spanish, Chinese and Norwegian to provide even greater reach through the printed versions, the online editions and our Apple/ Google app. We hope you will continue to find our magazine of value and that the information we provide helps to ensure you get the best from your aquaculture activities. I pass on our best wishes to you and your staff for a peaceful Christmas and a successful New Year. Roger Gilbert Publisher

he Aquaculture industry is growing, expanding, and evolving at an ever-faster rate. Because of this, International Aquafeed magazine must also evolve and change. For over 20 years, we have been the premier periodical covering the world of fish health, fish feed, and feed processing and manufacturing. That will not change, and we remain committed to providing the best balance of technical and scientific journalism covering the fish feed industry. With so many innovations from companies around the world responding to the need for sustainable feed that enhances fish health, while reducing the need for antibiotics, the field remains as dynamic as ever, and we look forward to championing the industry’s advances by sharing with our global readership news of breakthroughs and innovations. Modern aquaculture is scarcely more than 40 years old. But it is a technology-intensive industry that is advancing at a tremendous pace. To reflect this, a few years ago we added Fish Farming Technology to our masthead and began reporting on the “hardware” side of aquaculture. Our plan for the years going forward is to retain our thorough coverage of fish feed, while increasing our coverage of technology until we achieve a balance. The magazine will likely grow in size, adding pages as we expand our editorial scope to cover all forms of aquaculture technology from RAS (Recirculation Aquaculture Systems), to ROVs (Remotely Operated Vehicles) to cage systems, feed barges, and software that combines technology such as IoT (Internet of Things) with commercial fish farming activities. With this in mind we are actively reaching out to aquaculture companies who want to feature their innovative technology in the pages of our magazine. Unlike other aquaculture magazines, which focus on a limited number of species being farmed in discrete regions, we are committed to an international focus on multi-species aquaculture and will report on everything from shellfish to prawns, crayfish, crabs and shrimp, to finfish species ranging from amberjack to salmon. For the editorial staff at Aquafeed magazine, the past 20 years have been an exciting journey. We believe the next 20 years will be even more exciting, and we are eager to share them with our readers and advertisers. Finally, on behalf of myself and the entire team here at Perendale Publishers we’d like to wish you all a Happy Christmas and a prosperous New Year. See you in 2019! Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed

4 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

Seasons greetings from International Aquafeed The International Aquafeed team would like to wish all our advertisers, columnists, aquaculture industry supporters, and most of all you, our readers, for another brilliant year of support.

In 2018, our magazine has continued to expand and excel, and, as our magazine transforms and gains a new look for 2019, we are excited to say that International Aquafeed will only be getting bigger and better! The team would like to wish you all a prosperous 2019! Rebecca Sherratt, Production Editor, International Aquafeed

Ioannis Zabetakis When the dietary guidelines on fish are…wrong


ne of our latest papers is on the dietary guidelines in Ireland, with regard to meat and fish. We need to bear in mind that we rely on dietary guidelines provided often in a form of a pyramid. The current food pyramid in Ireland (see figure one) was published in December 2016. When such a pyramid is projected on a piece of paper, or a screen, it looks like a triangle with several shelves. The lower the shelf a food occupies, the healthier this food is and therefore the more often it must be consumed. Therefore, we can get a general guideline on what to eat and how often by looking at the pyramid. This is widely available and is also taught in all secondary schools around the country. Alas it is wrong! And this is why… The concept of food pyramids stemmed from the pioneering Seven Countries Study that was inspired by Ancel Keys in the 1950s and was carried out in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Keys’ research collaborators around the world screened the diet, the levels of serum cholesterol and the incidents of heart disease in different populations around the world. They found a clear linear relationship between serum cholesterol and

heart disease in countries like US, Finland and Netherlands. The higher the cholesterol in the blood, the more fatal heart incidents were observed. However, no such correlation was found in countries like Greece, Italy and Japan, i.e. blood cholesterol did not have an impact on heart-related deaths. Their observations were used, in order to design the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, by combing all the dietary habits in these countries. The message of this pyramid is that this diet has a cardioprotective effect and cholesterol does not cause heart diseases. Here’s the current version of the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Taking into account this data and the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, we would suggest that the Irish Food Pyramid should be edited as soon as possible to convey the correct dietary message to the public. This would include: Do not group fish, meat and poultry together and move fish to a lower shelf of the pyramid Nuts and olive oil should be moved to the same group as fruits and vegetables The moderate amount of one to two glasses of red wine per day could be encouraged in line with the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (see glass of red wine on the left of that pyramid).

Ioannis Zabetakis is also pleased to announce that his new book, ‘The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases’ will be available to buy from January 1, 2019. Written with fellow nutrition experts, Ronan Lordan and Alexandros Tsoupras, the book presents the latest in published research on the role of food in inhibiting the development of cardiovascular diseases, analyses of statin therapy, and a bioscientific approach towards inflammation and the lipid hypothesis.



Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier. 7 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Gael Force stake investment in Corpach Boatbuilding Company orpach Boatbuilding Company has joined Gael Force Group Ltd, in a strategically significant move which could strengthen the West of Scotland’s boat building industry and see the introduction of steel feed barge building on the West coast. With potential to expand workforce and capabilities at the boatyard, the group will continue to support existing operations at Corpach while progressing towards its longterm strategic objective to build a new range of steel feed barges for aquaculture customers. This latest development will be viewed as a major opportunity for Scottish producers of farmed salmon to benefit from an innovative, competitive and home-built substitute to imported steel feed barges. Many of the competing steel feed barges are currently manufactured outside the UK in Eastern Europe. Gael Force Group Managing Director Stewart Graham commented, “we are delighted to welcome Corpach Boatbuilding Company as part of an expanding Gael Force

Group. Throughout our discussions it was clear we share the same motivation for close customer collaboration with an aim to deliver outstanding quality in product and service. “We look forward to working with our colleagues at Corpach to grow the existing business as a first-class boat builder and achieve our long term objective of offering an innovative Scottish built substitute to imported steel barges. Additionally we see this development as strategically critical to Scotland’s boat building and servicing capability and also for Lochaber’s exciting development plans too”. Corpach Boatbuilding Company has specialised in the construction and repair of commercial boats together with other engineering and fish farm related services since its inception in 1992. Its dedicated team of skilled craftsmen are experienced in the construction of steel craft and the repair and modification of seagoing vessels in steel, aluminium, wood and GRP.

8 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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New study shows potential future of aquaculture feed


ith both fish meal and fish oil suffering from price issues, along with concerns over sustainability, a new study has been received which could save the future of aquaculture. The study shows that the amount of fish meal can be reduced, if krill meal is added to feed, with growth performance actually improving. Conducted at the Institute of Sustainable Aquaculture and Marine Ecosystems (ECOAQUA), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, and focusing on gilthead seabream juveniles, the 12-week trial evaluated the growth of fish, when split into groups and fed a diet including 3 percent, 6 percent or 9 percent krill meal. Directed by researchers from the Aquaculture Research Group (GIA) and Aker BioMarine, triplicate groups of fingerlings were randomly distributed in six experimental tanks, at a density of 55 fish per tank. Fed manually one of the diets, three times a day, for 12 weeks, feed intake was calculated by recording uptake every day, as well as the number of uneaten pellets at each feeding point. There were no significant differences in feed intake between the control group and those fed krill meal during the trial, and survival was high in all groups, around 97 percent. Results showed that the juveniles fed the 9 percent krill meal diet had significantly higher body weight (32.76g), compared with fish fed the control diet (30.30g). This is due to krill meal’s unique profile. Protein rich with strong

palatability effect and naturally containing astaxanthin and chitin, it also has an excellent lipid and mineral profile. Enhanced production of high quality and healthy fry is of course a key driver for the successful expansion of the aquaculture industry. Developing a better understanding of the mechanisms that control early development and muscle growth is therefore critical, as it enables the key periods during development that introduce growth variation to be identified. Armed with such knowledge, growth can be maximised and the incidence of developmental disorders that have a negative impact on product quality can be greatly reduced. Offering a glimpse into the potential future of aquaculture feed, whereby fish meal can be reduced and replaced by alternative plant proteins, supplemented with krill meal, the study is an important step forward for diet and growth performance research. Yemmak imaj ilanı (Global Experience)-baskı AQUAFEED.pdf

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International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 9



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Sonardyne acquires maritime specialist Chelsea Technologies will remain independent while greatly eading subsea technology benefiting from the added, engineering developer Sonardyne and financial support offered by this International Ltd, a leading acquisition, in addition to accessing subsea technology company, a broadened international reach. Of have acquired maritime and marine particular strategic importance is the science technology specialist Chelsea option we have to use Sonardyne’s Technologies Group Ltd. volume manufacturing capabilities to Chelsea, based in West Molesey, Surrey, (L-R) Chelsea’s Brian Phillips and satisfy our burgeoning order book for has a broad base in environmental sensing John Ramsden, Sonardyne maritime products.” technology spanning markets in fresh and In acquiring Chelsea, Sonardyne will waste water, oceanography and a wide both strengthen its presence in the maritime, marine and range of industrial applications. In addition to its optical ocean science sectors and create new opportunities in the engineering capability, it provides underwater acoustic water environmental, defence and process control markets. products to both civilian and defence customers. Chelsea will gain access to Sonardyne’s considerable Fuelled to no small degree by its involvement in the research, production, testing, compliance and global rapidly developing, maritime/green shipping markets, where it has introduced a number of new products, Chelsea distribution capabilities, allowing the company to access has seen considerable expansion over recent years. Its many more international territories. innovations include FastBallast and Sea Sentry, used for “Chelsea, like Sonardyne, is a UK-based, privatelyship ballast water compliance testing and ship exhaust gas owned, technology driven company with a deep scrubber, wash water monitoring. understanding in software and sensor development,” says Sonardyne Managing Director John Ramsden. The acquisition is part of a long-term growth strategy “They have strong footholds in shipping, hydrographic for Sonardyne, to diversify into markets where it sees and ocean science markets, which complement our an opportunity to build on its core technology base and expertise in underwater acoustic and optical communications, capabilities. We believe there are exciting opportunities for us in these sectors, which will be part of our future navigation and autonomous monitoring systems. growth.” Brian Phillips, Executive Chairman, Chelsea, says, “we


Improving salmon management with HealthPortal ollaborative tool, iWise HealthPortal, recently launched in Norway, is a new tool aimed at improving the management of fish health in the salmon industry. The system has been developed by Benchmark in close partnership with two of Norway’s leading fish health service providers, MarinHelse and Akerblå. Ralf Onken, Head of Software at Benchmark says, “we are delighted to launch a new tool designed to allow effective collaboration between producers, health providers, third-party inspectors and suppliers across the Norwegian salmon sector. The HealthPortal is the result of successfully combining Benchmark’s diverse and international expertise, with our partners’ deep understanding of the particular conditions and challenges in Norway. We believe industry collaboration is critical to realise our vision for a more sustainable and resilient food system”. The iWise system allows farmers and producers to collect, visualise and analyse all of their health-related data and share this with their health partners, and third parties. Disease is one of aquaculture’s most limiting factors and the iWise HealthPortal is a critical tool in driving wellinformed action to improve fish health. Lene-Catrin Ervik, Director of Fish Health at Åkerblå, a Norwegian Fish Health provider, explains why they joined this initiative,“several of our big customers who produce salmon across multiple regions of Norway had expressed a strong need for collecting all their health data in one standardised way, storing it in one safe place, independent

of one particular health provider. From my experience as a fish health professional I know that creating a tool for the whole sector will be a gamechanger in the management of fish health at an industry level”. The iWise Health Portal is a cloud-based system that will improve efficiency in regular fish health work through automatically generated templates, tables and figures. It arrives already connected with established suppliers and plug-ins including FishTalk, Mercatus and The Aquaculture Register. Furthermore, Health Portal simplifies registration of data, report and journal generation required by food safety authorities and standards like Global GAP, and ASC. All information is stored on a secure database, users retain full ownership of their data and control over who they share information with. Per Anton Sæther, Fish Health Director at MarinHelse, also a partner in the project, says, “the HealthPortal is an important tool to safeguard the quality and efficiency of the work we do. Together we have worked hard to develop a dynamic fish health journal that also lets us disseminate health developments in an easy and clear way.”

10 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Ecuadorian FIP accepted onto the IFFO RS Improver Programme

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he International Fish Feed Organisation Responsible Supply (IFFO RS) is delighted to announce that the Ecuador small pelagics Fishery Improvement Project (FIP) has successfully met the criteria for acceptance on to the IFFO RS Improver Programme. This step forward will allow better management of the fishery and enable producers of marine ingredients to demonstrate their commitment towards responsibly sourced raw materials. The Ecuador FIP comprises of 18 Ecuadorian fishing and processing firms and three international feed producers, representing an estimated 80 percent of the country’s small pelagic fishing companies. During the IFFO RS Improver Programme process, the Ecuadorian FIP will have to meet a series of time-bound improvement milestones with the aim to apply for full IFFO RS Certification once all the improvements have been implemented.

Dan Lee from the GAA said, “this is a major milestone towards sustainable seafood production in Ecuador. Markets are demanding responsibly farmed shrimp and this includes responsibly sourced marine ingredients in aquafeeds. GAA’s Best Aquaculture Practices program helps to provide linkages along the supply chains to incentivise positive change and it’s impressive to see how Ecuador has stepped up to meet the challenge.” Michiel Fransen from the ASC says, “the application of the Ecuador small pelagics FIP to the IFFO RS Improver Programme is an important step forward for the Ecuadorian Marine Ingredients Industry. Moving the FIP through the IFFO RS Improver Programme is an important step in becoming fully IFFO RS certified. Not only will this allowance into the Improver Programme open up possibilities with demanding supply chains, but more importantly, it will move the fishery gradually towards better management which will eventually benefit the longevity of the industry. We’re looking forward to seeing the FIP becoming fully certified in due time”. Blake Lee-Harwood from the SFP says, “the credibility of the Ecuador small pelagics FIP builds upon the commitment of a variety of stakeholders to improve the fishery. On the one hand the national industry (industrial producers and fishmeal processors), represented by the Camara Nacional de Pesquería, and their supply chain (the fish feed producers Vitapro, Alimentsa and Skretting), whose contributions made possible the development of the design phase of the project. On the other hand, the commitment of the government, who is providing support as part of the GEF funded Global Marine Commodities project, a global programme implemented by the governments of Ecuador, Costa Rica, the Philippines and Indonesia with the technical support of the United Nations Development Programme and the SFP.”

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International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 11

Nutriad present at AquaExpo Ecuador

Dr Neil Auchterlonie Unravelling fishmeal


ll roads led to Rome for IFFO members this October, as the IFFO Annual Conference was held in the eternal city. It was really a fascinating event this year, and the panel discussion in the opening session set the tone for an event that really explored the true value of fishmeal and fish oil as aquafeed ingredients. It was pleasing to hear that the feed companies really respect the nutritional value of these materials and acknowledge that they will continue to be the foundation of fish nutrition for years to come. Our technical session maintained this theme. One presentation, in particular, generated a real buzz which has lasted well beyond the conference. I have since seen it referred to in at least another two external events, including the presentation of a slide or two (fully acknowledged, of course) and heard many conversations about the slides. Professor Brett Glencross of the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, provided a summary of some IFFO-funded project work that he is delivering on behalf of our members. Entitled “Unravelling Fishmeal: What makes this resource so special?”, Brett talked through the availability of feed ingredients for aquafeed, the evolution of feeds in the context of a changing raw material supply base. He has a great presenting style that links detailed technical information with practical application, reflecting his career roles in academia, government and industry. Brett opened with the view that fishmeal free diets are a reality and it is possible to produce salmon without the use of fishmeal in the diet. Nothing startling there, of course, although perhaps a bit controversial for an audience of fishmeal producers, but the real question that flows out of that statement is how to create value from something that may no longer be essential. Having said that, Brett proceeded to talk about essential amino acids and essential fatty acids, and although the descriptor here is a technical definition, and fishmeals are not the only sources of these important materials for fish nutrition, they are incredibly important blocks in the manufacture of suitable feeds with fishmeal known to be a comparatively rich source of both. As Brett mentioned, the formulation of feeds could be regarded as a complex risk management process where several formulation specification constraints including nutrient requirements, raw material tolerances, antinutrient thresholds, processing parameters, legal frameworks, social attitudes, and, not least, price, all need to be taken into account. Further points made emphasised the vitamins and minerals in fishmeal, a subject that we often speak about in our IFFO presentations, and a fascinating slide summarising some of the compounds unique to fishmeal as a feed ingredient that are of much interest in identifying why the material is so beneficial in feeds. Again, fascinating stuff. All this came together in slides that looked at critically appraising performance in aquafeeds. Professor Glencross rounded off with a request for further fishmeal samples from across the IFFO membership, with which to populate our ever-growing database, that provides a library of different fishmeals, the raw material from which they are derived, and the analysis. Samples are being provided for analysis from all over the world and will be characterised for various quality parameters. In this way IFFO hopes to support its members with a growing scientific evidence-base on fishmeal quality for many years to come.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 12 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed


elgium headquartered Nutriad, specialty feed additives producer for shrimp and fish participated in the International AquaExpo 2018 in Guyaquil, Ecuador, organised by the National Chamber of Aquaculture (CNA). The AquaExpo has become a reference in the shrimp industry in the Americas and receives increasing global attention, due to the importance of Ecuador in the global shrimp production. The shrimp sector employs an estimated 200,000 people directly and indirectly in Ecuador. In 2017, the country produced and exported more than 400,000 metric tons of shrimp with industry expecting to grow 4-5 percent in 2018. This year’s event attracted more than 750 attendants, mostly from South America, but also from Europe and Asia. 31 international speakers presented different topics on nutrition, health, genetics, diseases, biosecurity, management practices oriented to the farming of white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In Ecuador Nutriad is working with Biobac, which distributes their aquaculture specialties. aqua team supported the Biobac booth with focus on programs for aquaculture additives supporting the prevention of shrimp diseases (Sanacore GM, Bactinil Aqua) and species-specific digestive/ metabolic enhancers to reduce feed cost and improve performance in shrimp (Aquagest, Lipogest). Peter Coutteau, Business Unit Director of Aquaculture for Nutriad, commented, “Nutriad has been working with producers in South America in general and in Ecuador for many years. Our philosophy of sharing insights and working together with local professionals has helped us establish a leading position in the aquaculture markets.” Nutriad is an industry leading specialist in the development, manufacture and marketing of animal and aqua feed additives worldwide. Headquartered in Belgium, Nutriad delivers products and services to over 80 countries worldwide through a network of own offices and distributors, supported by four application laboratories and five manufacturing facilities located on three continents.

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ET-302.indd 1

102.13 [2594]

52.19 [1325]

111.12 [2822] 195.72 [4971]

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 13


278.03 [7062]

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CYL. Disch.


What the Competition Offers

3 _ High Maintenance 3 _ Many Promises 3 _ Limited Capacity

19.16 [487]

64.83 [1647]

108.59 [2759]

30.00 [762]


2/2/18 10:01 AM

284.00 [7214]

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Skretting plans to cease UK production due to market overcapacity

Global seafood leader Marine Harvest, to change name to Mowi in 2019


owi is strongly rooted in the history of the company. The company we know as Marine Harvest today was originally founded as Mowi by Norwegian aquaculture pioneers more than 50 years ago. “I am really excited that we are now taking the company to the next level. Through implementing our MOWI branding strategy, we can communicate our integrated value-chain from feed to the consumer’s plate. We are looking forward to announcing our new MOWI product line in the coming months”, says Alf-Helge Aarskog, CEO of Marine Harvest. The company will launch the MOWI brand into selected markets. The branded product line – yet to be announced – will provide customers added value in taste, convenience, nutrition and traceability. “Mowi is an inspirational name that recalls our pioneering spirit that has developed over the past 50 years,” says Mr Aarskog. “Since the first salmon was farmed in 1964, we have grown into a global fully integrated company, including breeding, feed, farming, processing and sales. Throughout the past 50 years, we have always remained true to our core value - the care we have for our people, our fish, our customers and the environment.” The proposed name change is subject to shareholders’ approval, and the company has summoned an Extraordinary General Assembly to resolve the name change with effect from January 1, 2019.


kretting, a global leader in aquafeed, has announced that the company has started a process of consulting with employees with the view to cease production in the UK at the end of April 2019. Sophie Noonan, Skretting spokeswoman says, “the consultation process with employees has just begun. Of course, this means that we cannot say for sure, but we don’t anticipate that any feasible alternative solutions will be proposed. “To that effect, we are working towards a shutdown of all sites at the end of April 2019. This does include the plants at Invergordon and Longridge, head office at Northwich and a warehouse at Shetland.” This move is aimed at reducing the overcapacity in the highly competitive salmon feed market, and better utilise the company’s existing production facilities in Europe. The company has no plans to stop production in other markets and will continue to pursue its firmly established growth strategy. Skretting is the global leader in providing innovative and sustainable nutritional solutions for the aquaculture industry. Skretting has production facilities in 19 countries on five continents and manufactures and delivers high quality feeds from hatching to harvest for more than 60 species. “Unfortunately, we are experiencing unsustainable market conditions in the UK. With a new large feed plant becoming operational in Scotland early 2019, the total feed capacity in the region is expected to exceed the total market by more than 50 percent. This is driving down prices, leading to an unsustainable commercial environment”, says Therese Log Bergjord, CEO of Skretting. Skretting will continue to supply to the UK market where economically viable. While Skretting experiences regional market challenges in the UK, the group actively pursues further sustainable expansion of the global aquaculture industry from its operations in 19 countries across all continents. “Aquaculture is an increasingly important and attractive solution to meet growing demand for healthy food. As the global leader in aquafeed, we are fully aware of our responsibilities. That is why we are prepared to take tough decisions to ensure sufficient profitability to finance our future and to remain a pioneer of continued sustainable development of the aquaculture industry”, says Log Bergjord.

14 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed


The exhibition is FREE to attend, register at: In association with

Technical Program in association with


for Argyll and the Islands, Jennifer Nicoll said, “We very much welcome this considerable inward investment project to our region and the jobs it will create. Aquaculture is a major employer in Scotland and of growing significance, particularly in rural areas where it supports local economies and community resilience. “The R&D work at the new hatchery will complement Oban’s status as a university town, and the commercial, research and educational activities at the nearby European Marine Science Park at Dunstaffnage. There will also be wider benefits across the region, as Scottish Sea Farms has operations up the west coast and in Orkney and Shetland. We look forward to working with the company as the new facility takes shape.”


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cottish Sea Farms is to receive UK £1.28 million in R&D support from Scottish Enterprise, towards its pioneering work to further enhance fish welfare and go beyond compliance with regards to protecting the environment. The funds will assist Scottish Sea Farms in its latest R&D drive – worth a total of UK £18.3 million – helping to accelerate both the innovative work itself and the anticipated benefits. The investment was welcomed by Minister for Public Finance and Digital Economy, Kate Forbes MSP, during a visit to the new hatchery. She said, “Scotland has a thriving food and drink sector with salmon exports alone growing by 35 percent during 2017, recognising the global reputation for our quality produce. “Ensuring that the sector grows in a sustainable way remains a priority for us. It is great to see an ambitious and respected company like Scottish Sea Farms investing in innovation to improve environmental control, health issues and production efficiencies. I’d like to congratulate the company on raising the bar, and wish them every success on their sustainable growth journey.” Working closely with Scottish Enterprise and Scottish Sea Farms to deliver this project, Highlands and Islands Enterprise Area Manager

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Scottish Sea Farms to receive £1.28m to accelerate innovation

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Catch The Next Wave in association with:

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 15

ASC implements planned requirements on plastic disposal


Sven-Olof Malmqvist Good deeds pay off in the long run


here are quite an extensive amount of aquafeed producers in the world, but some companies differ, at least I believe so. One of these is Aller Aqua, as shown by their activities in Africa. Apart from the normal production of feed, sales and marketing they also try to achieve something extra in the community in which they are operating. They are also using different social platforms, telling everyone who wants to know what they are actually doing. They also involve themselves in education, both locally and internationally. Maybe there are other companies doing the same thing but not telling the public in the same way as Aller Aqua is? Another company doing a good job in Africa is Skretting, setting up catfish production on a small scale in Nigeria, together with the local government and various NGO’s , universities and other stakeholders. I know there is one big feed company in Bangladesh doing the same thing, helping the smallholders with education, and also financing, in order to start up individual business. I would like to challenge the big companies to compete on the world stage with numerous activities to stimulate production and progress, irrespective of what type of production it is and where it is. For those who has been reading my previous columns, you may remember my failure with crayfish production in one of my ponds at the farm, due to the drought earlier in the summer, which actually dried it out totally and my dream of having my own crayfishes died out as well. But I am happy to inform you that after some rain the water level is back to normal, and the other day I spotted at least one survivor! It will be rather interesting to find out next year if the lone crayfish gets more friends? It gives you the insight how important water is for all life but also tells you how strong the instinct to survive is. Sven Olof is an experienced export manager with a demonstrated history of working in the chemicals industry. He is skilled in marketing management, market planning, business planning, international business and sales management. He is a strong sales profession who graduated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Malmoe.

n the ongoing fight against plastic waste in the aquaculture industry, the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) have now implemented specific requirements for farms to properly dispose of plastics and aquaculture gear. They are also the first and only aquaculture body to join the Global Ghost Gear Initiative (GGGI). The GGGI is an alliance of organisations working to find solutions to the problem of lost, abandoned or discarded fishing gear – known as ghost gear. While the issue of ghost gear from fisheries entering the oceans has been well documented, and it is known that every year at least 640,000 tons of ghost gear is left in the oceans, the impact made by fish farms remains unexplored. The ASC’s knowledge and influence in the aquaculture industry will help widen the impact of GGGI to include fish farms, and ASC will learn from the experiences of its GGGI partners with an eye towards applying lessons learned to aquaculture production.

“As with fisheries, plastics are have become increasingly important materials for much of the equipment used in aquaculture, such as nets, pens, and buoys. Many of these materials have allowed big improvements in efficiency and productivity of the sector. But with so much plastic entering our oceans we decided that action was required to assess how aquaculture can reduce the impacts of plastic from the sector,” said Marcelo Hidalgo, Standards and Certification Coordinator for ASC, who is leading the work. “We’re excited to have the Aquaculture Stewardship Council join the Global Ghost Gear Initiative. Aquaculture is a huge part of the industry and it’s wonderful to see ASC wanting to engage proactively on the issue of gear loss,” said Joel Baziuk, GGGI Secretariat. “We’re looking forward to working together to find solutions to lost gear in the aquaculture sector in addition to our ongoing work in wild capture fisheries.” ASC has begun comprehensive research into the most commonplace and highest-risk plastics used in aquaculture equipment, and new criteria on plastic disposal are currently being drafted ahead of a public consultation. With ten standards covering over 700 ASC-certified farms on six continents, when the criteria are approved it will have a global impact on the disposal of plastics and aquaculture gear by the aquaculture industry.

16 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Aqua-Spark announce its investment into CageEye


nvestment fund Aqua-Spark, a fund exclusively focussed on aquaculture sustainability, recently announced their investment into Norwegian technology company CageEye. As a software and hardware developer focused on farm management, CageEye is known for its echo-sounder technology – which uses acoustic data and machine learning to measure and analyse biomass movements. This enables farmers to make informed decisions about the welfare of their fish, and automate and optimise common procedures, such as feeding. The current iteration of CageEye’s echo-sounder is focused on improving the salmon industry’s feeding practices, as feed is the single biggest cost input for any aquaculture operation. Inexact feeding regimes result in over- or underfeeding, which leads to significant feed losses, higher feed conversion ratios, and slower growth. Even though the Norwegian salmon industry has some of the most advanced feeding practices, there is still a significant potential for improvement. Long-term, CageEye aims for its innovations to reach more species and the aquaculture industry at-large. “Current market practice is to use optical underwater cameras, which cover a very limited field of view and lead to highly subjective decisions,” explains Bendik S Søvegjarto, CEO of CageEye. “Our acoustical system covers the whole feeding zone and makes consistent decisions meal after meal, which improve as we continue to train our models on growing datasets of salmon behaviour and accompanying feed operator decisions.” “We are very excited to have Aqua-Spark on our team with

their vast network and expertise within seafood, beyond salmon which is our current focus,” Søvegjarto adds. “Aqua-Spark also aligns very well with our core value of sustainability and shares our vision on how to feed a growing population without sacrificing our planet or the environment” “Improving feed and addressing feed loss have been a priority within our portfolio from Aqua-Spark’s inception, as it’s the greatest challenge for any fish farm,” said Mike Velings and Amy Novogratz, co-founders of AquaSpark.“With CageEye, we’re able to support improvements in cage farm management, including how feed is distributed. Beyond this, we’re excited to see how their behaviour assessment technology will impact other areas of farming as the company matures.” With this round, CageEye has raised a total of €5.3 million in funding and grants since 2016, when it first began to offer its products for commercial use. The company has also already secured a total of €2.5 million in funding for 2019.

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 17


Dr Thierry Chopin Why is Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) developing more easily, and at a larger scale, in China than in the western world?

n both Asian countries (particularly in China) and western world countries, there is a renewed interest in the development of what we now call Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture or IMTA. The approaches are completely different, resulting in very different speeds of adoption and implementation of the practice; however, the differences are maybe not an extreme case of apples and oranges, and there is great merit in analysing their differences and convergences to develop what should become the efficient and responsible food, and co-product, production systems of the future.

The western world FIS and the Asian SIF approaches

7) all the above led to farmers increasing their income. Because of these advantages, demonstrated over centuries, there is strong government support at all levels for the practice, and practical policies have been put in place. Moreover, over time many variations appeared: rice-fish-crab, rice-fish-duck, rice-shrimp, etc. Land-farmers in China are not given a restrictive license to grow only certain species, but can decide and retain the combination of crops that works for them. It, then, appeared logical to apply the same approach to aqua-farmers, who respond relatively rapidly to market demands and evolving prices and returns. Something that generally strikes westerners eating at a restaurant in Asia is the highly diversified offering of seafood and the number of species, the many colours of many varieties, and the many ways of preparing all these succulent dishes. This is certainly part of the Asian culture; however, it is only possible if there is a reservoir of biodiversity in the number of species being cultivated (and fished). The government becomes involved in basic and applied research into new cultivation systems and new species. Scientists have developed projects, supported and approved by the authorities, and have been engaged in teaching farmers new techniques and protocols, and how to operate the different systems in different parts of China. As fishery resources have declined all along the coast, fishers are looking into switching their activities from capture fisheries to aquaculture and are being trained. Increasing productivity in agriculture and aquaculture, and maximising the short-term economic output of a fixed water surface, are the main driving forces in China. However, people are now realising the ecological costs and the need for remediation of deteriorating waters. The Chinese government, academics, industry, and people are looking for sustainable development solutions and IMTA is advocated as one. Interestingly, there are efforts to educate the general public and disseminate the message broadly. For example, in Qingdao, both the museum of the Institute of Oceanology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS), and the entrance of the Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute (YSFRI) of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, have displays of IMTA models within obvious plans for integrated coastal area management (ICAM). The company XunShan Group Co, Ltd, one of the biggest Chinese seaweed and IMTA companies, has converted part of its factory in Rongcheng, in Shandong Province, into a very interesting museum

Several western world research groups working on IMTA have spent the last two-to-three decades developing small-scale, mostly pre-commercial, IMTA operations, by modifying relatively small fish sites to co-cultivate invertebrates and seaweeds. Modern fish aquaculture (F) developed in the 1970-80’s, and invertebrate and seaweed aquacultures (I and S) were added in the 2000’s. This is what we can call the FIS approach (70-80’s/00’s/00’s). Commercial scaling-up has not been easy: while the biological and environmental advantages of this practice are generally accepted, adoption barriers have been mostly economic and regulatory. Asian countries have a long tradition of using different types of IMTA, long before this acronym was created in 2004. The approach in modifying their sites has been diametrically opposed: seaweed sites have Figure 1: Display at the “ocean ranching” museum of the company XunShan Group Co, Ltd, showing the diversity of organisms that can be used in an IMTA system. seen the development of smaller invertebrate, and later fish, infrastructures (the SIF approach; 50’s/80’s/90’s). IMTA operations are now covering vast dedicated areas.

A historical background favourable to the development of IMTA in China

There is a long tradition of operating freshwater IMTA systems in China. Rice-fish systems have existed for more than 1,200 years and covered 3.3 million hectares in 2000. The benefits are at several levels: 1) full use of limited agricultural land; 2) fish nutrients are available to rice; 3) fish eat rice pests; 4) there are reduced fungal infections; 5) farming the sea is generally more lucrative than farming land (no irrigation, in particular); 6) there is an increased diversification of agricultural products; and 18 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

Moving IMTA along the Research & Development & Commercialization continuum will require profound regulatory changes. The apathy for changes can be frustrating. We should recognise that we are still in the infancy of western IMTA (after all, we have been improving agriculture for centuries and it is still not perfect). Science and society need time to think and evolve. IMTA adoption will not happen overnight in the western world, which presently prefers monocultures, linear processes and short-term profits. Looking at the evolution of transformational cars could help put things in perspective. The first battery electric car, the Toyota Prius, has been in development since 1993 and the first sales occurred in 1997. The first hydrogen fuel cell car, the Toyota Mirai, has been in development since 1992 and the first sales occurred in 2014. However, these cars are still not the predominant vehicles, as there have not been any real incentives to promote them, and refueling logistics remain issues.

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A western world still in the infancy of IMTA with many impediments to overcome

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of “ocean ranching� (another variation on the IMTA concept; Figure 1), with an adjacent IMTA demo-farm where tourists can spend the day. The ludic and educational aspects, for people of all ages, have been intimately combined in a remarkable museology.

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For Toyota, a company with a much bigger budget, selling everyday commodities, the new horizon will be 2050. So, should we be more impatient with IMTA because its adoption is relatively slow? In fact, we will need patience, determination and persistence to get people to see the environmental, economic and societal advantages of growing complementary species together, creating circular economy processes and seeking sustainability in the long term. Western IMTA has generally developed within the confined limits of existing fish sites, which does not reflect how aquaculture farms really function, and has constrained its development. An ICAM strategy is in dire need. Mentalities will have to change: nutrients are not necessarily wastes or byproducts, but should be considered as co-products, useful for the co-cultivation of other crops in more efficient and responsible food production systems, while bioremediation of coastal nutrification takes place. The disproportionally small revenue contribution of extractive species, compared to that of fed fish, in initial western IMTA configurations may act as a barrier to IMTA adoption at this time. However, in regions where salmon production has declined in recent years, as in Atlantic Canada, crop diversification could provide economic stability and incite industry development, rendering IMTA a more attractive practice in the future, if current hampering regulatory hurdles can be resolved.

Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc. since 2016.

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 19



for the Future


by by MSD Animal Health, a division of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, N.J., USA

eef and chicken often come to mind when people think about protein. But with the world’s population growing, the need for more sources of protein like seafood increases too. “Fish provide an excellent source of protein, vitamins, minerals and heart-healthy fats,” says Luc Grisez, PhD, Executive Director, Global Aquaculture Research and Development, MSD Animal Health. “The challenge is to prevent deadly diseases that can compromise animal well-being and threaten entire fish farms and the food supply. Protecting fish from disease and controlling bacteria, viruses and parasites is vital to ensure consistent fish harvests, which contributes to fish health, welfare and safety.” Fish account for about 17 percent of all animal proteins and seven percent of all proteins worldwide. On average, fish provide about 3.2 billion people with almost 20 percent of average per capita intake of animal protein. In fact, China, Japan and the United States eat the most fish of all countries globally. MSD Animal Health is one of the world’s leading developers and marketers of medicines and vaccines that help treat and prevent diseases, especially in salmon and tilapia. The company’s focus is to identify and treat specific aquaculture diseases, delivering both preventative and treatment options, and work with fish farms around the world to implement good farm management

practices and protocols to ensure cleaner and healthier fish. After all, fish health, welfare and safety need to be effectively managed during the treatment cycle and at key points in the production cycle. “Fish diseases are prevalent everywhere and they can disrupt production in an instant,” says Chris Beattie, PhD, Executive Director of Aquaculture, MSD Animal Health. “It’s important that we discover which diseases are present, how to maintain control, and how to effectively protect fish from future exposure.”

20 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed


Keeping fish healthy

Approximately 600 aquatic species are raised via aquaculture, according to the World Ocean Review Report. Keeping these fish healthy is no small task for fish farmers. Vaccinating early helps to reduce the need to treat with antibiotics when fish get sick. Aquatic diseases pose a serious threat to the farmed-fish industry. Infected populations can cause harvests to dwindle, resulting in significant losses for producers. Some of the most common diseases among farmed tilapia worldwide are Streptococcus agalactiae and iniae. Fish may receive vaccinations in a single-dose application, such as with an injection vaccine providing protection against several diseases in a single shot at an early stage in the fish’s lifecycle or through immersion or oral vaccine application. For example, in salmon, the fish can be vaccinated during the first year of life in the fresh-water phase, before they are transferred to the seawater phase of the farming cycle where they are likely to encounter the pathogens. “We have responded to the emergency of pancreas disease in salmon with new multivalent vaccines designed for the farmer and less stress for the fish. Other innovations include an oral vaccine for the control of infectious pancreatic necrosis and a convenient and effective in-feed antibiotic to control many common bacterial diseases,” says Dr Beattie.

Biosecurity solutions

Working alongside the Aquaculture Industry Association and other concerned companies, MSD Animal Health believes that biosecurity measures can lead to numerous improvements in many kinds of fish farms.

“Biosecurity is a critical part of the many procedures and processes that prevent or minimise the transmission of infectious diseases and pathogens. It, often times, reduces and controls the overall pathogens in farms, ensuring better fish health overall,” Dr Beattie says. Reducing morbidity and mortality rates, ensuring healthier animals and better control of disease are just a few ways that biosecurity raises the standards on fish farms. “Improving biosecurity standards can help to manage issues more effectively in aquaculture,” Dr Beattie says. From an economic standpoint, biosecurity can maintain a sustainable environment and help with overall fish health and welfare. In fact, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has adopted biosecurity as one of its priority areas, helping to promote, develop, and enhance a common strategy of food, agriculture, fisheries and forestry policy and management framework.

Science-based sustainability

In addition to vaccines and medicines to help keep fish healthy, MSD Animal Health provides technical support to farmers in the main salmon and tilapia growing regions, where aquaculture helps feed the world. The company’s global technical service specialists train farm personnel to implement and maintain farming practices that will keep fish healthy today and in the future. What does the future look like? The aquaculture industry is ripe for innovation with the integration of farming, technology, and sustainability. “In fact, a key benefit of the fish industry is its sustainability beyond any other food production species,” says Dr Beattie.




supported by organised by

WWW.VIV.NET International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 21



Fumonisins in aquaculture:


The most sensitive species by Rui A Gonçalves, Biomin Holding, Austria

n aquaculture, fumonisins (FUM) have generally been associated with reduced growth rate, feed consumption and feed efficiency, and impaired sphingolipid metabolism. Fumonisin toxicity is related to this ability to inhibit sphinganine (sphingosine) N-acyltransferase (ceramide synthase), a key enzyme in lipid metabolism, disrupting this pathway. This is due to the long-chain hydrocarbon unit (similar to that of sphingosine and sphinganine) in these mycotoxins, which plays a role in their toxicity.

Sensitivity of freshwater species

Little information is available on the effects of fumonisins on aquaculture species, and most research focuses on freshwater species. The channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is the most widely studied species. These fish can tolerate relatively high levels of FUM, with a sensitivity level of around 10 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1)/kg feed. Adverse effects of fumonisin-contaminated diets have also been reported in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): various experiments have observed scattered lesions in the exocrine and endocrine pancreas, and interrenal tissue, probably due to ischemia and/or increased endothelial permeability. In another study by Pepeljnjak et al., 2003, one-year-old carp were fed pellets containing 500, 5,000 or 150,000 µg FB1/

Overview of the experimental conditions

kg body weight, resulting in weight loss and alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in target organs. Tuan et al. (2003) demonstrated that feeding FB1 to tropical species at 10, 40, 70 and 150 mg/kg feed for 8 weeks affected growth in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. In this experiment, average weight gain in fish fed diets containing 40,000 µg FB1/kg or more were lower. Hematocrit was only reduced in the tilapia given 150,000 µg FB1/kg feed. The ratio of free sphinganine to free sphingosine (Sa:So ratio) in the liver increased at 150,000 µg FB1/kg feed.

Pacific whiteleg shrimp

To the author’s knowledge, the only crustacean species studied to date with respect to sensitivity to FUM is the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Despite slight variations in testing levels, the few studies available suggest that Litopenaeus vannamei is much more sensitive to FB1 than previously described in freshwater species. García-Morales et al. (2013) have shown that soluble muscle protein concentration was reduced, and changes were observed in the thermodynamic properties of myosin, after 30 days’ exposure to FUM in Pacific whiteleg shrimp fed 20 to 200 µg FB1/kg feed. The same authors reported marked histological changes in the tissues of shrimp fed a diet containing 200 µg FB1/kg feed, and changes in meat quality after 12 days of ice storage in fish fed more than 600 µg FUM/kg feed. The effect of FUM on muscle

Water parameters being controlled during experimental period

22 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed


quality may be of great importance, especially for shrimpexporting countries, as it directly affects shelf life. The study by Burgos-Hernández et al. in 2005 also confirmed that FB1 causes histological changes in the shrimp hepatopancreas as a result of alterations in trypsin and collagenase activity. Mexía-Salazar et al. (2008) also observed marked histological changes in the hepatopancreas, as well as necrotic tissue, in shrimp fed 500 µg FB1/kg. These authors also observed changes in both the electrophoretic patterns and the thermodynamic properties of the myosin extracted from shrimp exposed to FB1.

Marine species as more susceptible

All aquaculture species tested for sensitivity to FUM to date have been omnivorous or herbivorous, and all have been freshwater species, with the exception of whiteleg shrimp. High levels of FUM have been measured in plant meals commonly used for carnivorous marine species, but there have been no studies investigating the possible effect of FUM on marine species. To fill this knowledge gap, two trials were carried out in marine species, where there is potential to use plant meals. One of the studies was conducted with gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), one of the most important aquaculture species farmed in Europe and a good model to study the effect of FUM on carnivorous marine species. In this study, which is still being evaluated, triplicate groups of 35 gilthead seabream (315 fish in total), with a mean initial body weight (IBW) of 28.8 ± 2.1 g were fed one of three experimental diets for 60 days. The experimental diets were: FUM 1, containing 168 µg FUM/kg feed; FUM 2, containing 333 µg FUM/kg; and a control diet, free of mycotoxins. Preliminary results indicate that the FUM inclusion levels

Table 1: Effect of FUM on the main growth indicators in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), compared to the control diet. FBW

















Table 2: Effect of FUM on the main growth indicators in turbot (compared to the control group). FBW FUM 0.5


FUM 1.0


FUM 2.0


FUM 5.0






















tested affect total growth. Table 1 summarises the effect of FUM at 168 and 333 µg/kg feed on the main growth indicators: final body weight (FBW), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed intake (FI) and protein efficiency ratio (PER), compared to the control diet. The FUM levels tested did not affect survival rates. A second study was carried out in turbot (Psetta maxima; formerly Scophthalmus maximus), a benthic carnivorous species, considered to be the most important flatfish species farmed in Europe and one with a great potential for East Asia. In this study, which is still being evaluated, triplicate groups of 30 turbot (450 fish in total) with a mean initial body weight (IBW) of 83.7 ± 2.9 g were fed diets containing 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 or 5.0 mg FUM/kg for 63 days (diets labeled FUM 0.5, FUM 1.0, FUM 2.0 and FUM 5.0, respectively).

Future proofing your aqua feed production starts with co-creating the perfect fit. Let’s build or upgrade your aqua feed mill

All great ideas start with a dialogue. What’s your ambition? We at van Aarsen believe that sharing know-how and co-creation are essential in finding the perfect fit. Whether you are looking to modernize or expand your aqua feed production, want to replace aging machinery with future-proof innovations, or need advice in the planning and setup of a completely new aqua feed mill, Van Aarsen is the knowledge partner for you. Take a look at our website.

2018-10-05, Adv. Aqua feed Mill 190x132 .indd 1

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 23

5-10-2018 16:53:07


Results to date demonstrate that 5 mg FUM/kg feed significantly increased mortality (p < 0.05). Final mean body weight, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio were significantly lower in the fish fed the FUM 1.0, FUM 2.0 and FUM 5.0 diets, and feed conversion ratio was higher, than fish fed the control or FUM 0.5 diets. 1–5 mg FUM/kg feed reduced the height of the villi in the distal intestine brush border and reduced hepatic lipid inclusion (p < 0.05). Results to date from these two trials Preparation of experimental feed manufacturing - Courtesy of Biomin are of great potential interest. To our knowledge, they are the first trials conducted in marine species, investigating a pelagic and a benthic describes the synergistic effect of aflatoxin and fumonisins species. Furthermore, FUM levels tested in previous trials are perfectly. within the contamination levels often found in commercial The authors observed that mortality only starts to increase (to aquafeeds, which highlights the importance of screening and 17%) above 2,000 ppb FUM and similar mortality is seen at preventing FUM in feeds. aflatoxin levels of 215 ppb. However, when both mycotoxins Marine fish and shrimp species may be highly sensitive to were combined, the authors found that mortality increased to 75 relatively low fumonisin levels (< 5000 µg FUM/kg feed), percent at 1,740 ppb FUM plus 255.4 ppb AF. affecting growth performance and immune status. This is much This synergistic effect was also observed in rainbow trout lower than the sensitivity levels of most freshwater species, and (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with AFB1 at 100 ppb and FB1 at also lower than livestock species. 3,200 ppb (Carlson et al., 2001); in Pacific white leg shrimp This presents additional challenges to the marine aquaculture (Litopenaeus vannamei) with 300 ppb AFB1 and 1,400 ppb FB1; sector as the European Commission guidance values for and in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with AFB1 at 7.3 ppb FUM (fumonisins B1 + B2) in complementary and complete and FB1 at 15,000 ppb. feedingstuffs for fish is 10 mg FUM/kg feed (European Commission, 2006), which might be too high, at least for Sparus Conclusions aurata, Psetta maxima and Litopenaeus vannamei. Further Seabream, turbot, and Pacific whiteleg shrimp appear to be research is required to confirm whether other marine species are highly sensitive to FUM contamination. Sensitivity levels in these as sensitive to FUM, and to better understand the effect of other species are below the European Commission guidance values mycotoxins co-occurring with FUM. for FUM (fumonisins B1 + B2) in complementary and complete feedingstuffs for fish of 10 mg FUM/kg feed. We understand that these guidance values are based on the Synergism can reduce sensitivity levels sensitivity of freshwater aquaculture species. The immense Although FUM is the predominant mycotoxin in plant meals diversity of species makes it difficult to produce guidelines for and the subsequent feed, an average of 80 percent of all finished the aquaculture industry. Further evaluation of FUM sensitivity feed samples are contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. in other marine species is essential to determine the risk that It is, therefore, important to understand the effects of FUM and FUM may present to aquaculture feed manufacturers and its interaction with other mycotoxins that may be present in the farmers. feed, especially other Fusarium mycotoxins that are produced Although freshwater species are less sensitive to FUM, it is alongside FUM. Synergism, i.e. the interaction of two or more important to remember that feeds used in these species contain mycotoxins to cause a combined effect that is greater than the high levels of a wide range of plant proteins. This significantly sum of their separate effects, has not been fully described in increases the probability of mycotoxin co-occurrence in aquaculture. However, aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins are known to freshwater aquafeeds, increasing sensitivity to these mycotoxins interact synergistically in fish and shrimp. The study conducted in the feed. by Mckean et al. (2006) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)








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by Arthur vom Hofe, CPM Europe, Netherlands

ammermills are commonly used for grinding a broad range of materials used in the production of aquaculture feeds. This article is for people who always wanted to know more about a hammermill, but also especially for those who are not so much interested because they have already a hammermill which is running fine‌ already for twenty years. Or also those who are going to purchase a machine and think that the purchase price is the key. The fact is that a hammermill can use >50 times its purchase price during its life time in energy, proves that energy efficiency is thus the determining factor when choosing a hammermill. Let’s have a closer look to what is really happening in a hammer mill. A hammermill consists of a fast-rotating rotor with swinging hardened hammers. Product entering the grinding chamber is reduced in particles size by the impact of the rotating hammers. The particles are leaving the chamber through a screen with small holes.

Grinding chamber shape

Well understandable is that the speed differential between the product and the hammer determines the impact, which is required to reduce the particle size of the incoming product. A tear-drop shaped hammermill chamber will maintain the speed differential better than traditional circular chambers. This because the rotation of the product in the chamber which didn’t escape after the first hit is effectively reduced. One of the most recent innovations is the specially designed fine grind inserts. These are abrasive resistant beater bars that follow part of the rotation of the hammers to increase grinding impact area. They are installed in the upper corners of the hammermill

grinding chamber and are replaceable. The fine grind insert system improves overall fineness of grind and efficiency. It also allows for a larger screen hole size to achieve desired product, and helps to achieve an increased screen life.

Tip speed (& relation screen hole diameter)

Depending on the application, an ideal tip speed can be selected. For more efficient fine grinding, fibrous materials at a high tip speed should be selected, while course grinding and brittle products ask for a lower tip speed. Tip speed is simply a factor of mill diameter and motor RPM; so for fine grinding the larger diameter mill is the most efficient. With a higher tip speed (larger diameter hammermill) a finer

26 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed


Hammer pattern

Hammer patterns (the number and distribution of the hammers on the rotor) and positions (setting the hammer closer to or further from the screen) have a profound effect on the performance of any hammermill. Because different materials grind differently, the ideal number of hammers and clearance to the screen will need to be adjusted according to each application. For course grinding it is most efficient to grind with a limited number of hammers, but for fine grinding aquaculture applications it is best to use an extra heavy hammer pattern to achieve the very fine finished products desired. If the rotor is equipped with a larger amount of pins (12), the total number of hammers is increased significantly. This without putting an excessive number of hammers on (four or eight) pins, which could lead to high stress and the possible failure of the rotor plates. For optimal hammer life and most efficient operation, a hammer with a flared hard face end is preferred. Single hole hammers are grind can be achieved at a certain screen hole size compared to generally preferred to maintain balance of the rotor and minimise lower tip speeds (smaller diameter hammermills). It is not hard the potential for catastrophic hammer failure. to imagine the benefits of grinding with larger diameter holes It is important to realize that energy consumption of the mill towards energy consumption and screen wear (operational costs). increases drastically when the hammers are reaching the end of their serviceable life. The use of long-lasting tungsten carbide Screen area (relation capacity & motor power) hard-faced hammers not only save on labor costs but also are The whole idea of efficient fine grinding is that the particle more energy efficient. size reduction is done by the impact of the hammers. With a lture | 2018-19 | Theme: Instant Algae | Design: | Version: 2-print On top ofAthe before mentioned subjects other fine grinding largerHatchery screen areaAd the Campaign product escapes more effectively from enhancers are proper screen sealing and backing screens for the grinding chamber. Smaller screen surfaces keep the product ernational Aqua Feed | Size: Half Page | Dimensions: 190mm x 132mm (7.48” x 5.20”) protection of the thin small hole grinding screens. longer in the grinding chamber causing increased energy Following the above guide line might help you making the right consumption (heat) and wear. A typical design range is 120cm²/ decisions when analyzing an existing grinding system or setting kW total screen surface or an “open hole area” of >34 cm²/KW up a new one. installed motor power.























International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 27


Asking the tough questions to ensure a prosperous future for

marine ingredients by Petter Martin Johannessen, IFFO, UK


ince I joined IFFO as Director General in September, and after travelling and meeting members and stakeholders, I see great interest in developing this unique industry to meet the future nutritional needs in feed. The IFFO team is spread across three offices (London, Lima and Beijing) to engage with our largest markets, gathering data across 40 countries, leading technical projects and assisting members. Once a year the whole team gathers together for the Annual Conference, and I was fortunate to have this early in my new role as Director General. I was previously in touch with IFFO as a member through Cargill Aqua Nutrition (also known as EWOS) and attended the conferences, and I am impressed at how the team works together organising this high-level event. This year’s conference in Rome was a success and the bold overall aim was to question where the industry is and look at what needs to be done for sustainable development and growth for the industry. The stage was first set with IFFO’s President Eduardo Goycoolea leading a high-level panel of industry leaders from across our supply chain to discuss the future of marine ingredients and the key challenges that we face. Discussions from the panel highlighted key themes which were then echoed by other speakers throughout the conference. The first point that was made from across the panel, was the vital role that marine ingredients play, but the increasing challenge of population growth and resource scarcity. Árni M Mathiesen, Assistant Director-General, of the FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, painted a clear picture of the challenge that we face, in terms of global food security with the number of undernourished people rising to 821 million in 2017. He noted that, with less resources, the industry must respond with more innovation. This was echoed by George Chamberlain, President of the Global Aquaculture Alliance, who called marine ingredients the gold standard, but stated that supply must be increased through new

"As an industry we need to better understand the value drivers downstream to better predict future impacts and identify areas of growth. This is an area that I have experience in from my previous roles and one that I will focus IFFO’s efforts on" innovative sources and the increase use of by-products. Ole Eirik Lerøy , the Chairman of the Board for Marine Harvest ASA, emphasised the importance of aquaculture in producing more food, and stated the clear reality facing his company, that they had reduced the use of marine ingredients as much as they could in their feed chain and growth would now have to come from alternative sources. In terms of by-products, the industry has some obvious potential for growth and an IFFO-funded study, by Jackson and Newton in 2016, showed that in 2015 although roughly 66 percent of fishmeal was made from whole fish, by-products accounted for 34 percent. There are some practical difficulties in collecting some of the raw material, and it may not be possible to achieve total recovery given the way the global seafood sector is structured, but there are certainly opportunities to achieve more with capture fisheries and aquaculture by-product.

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Estimates showed that the current raw material total of approximately 20-23 million tonnes could be as high as 35 million tonnes with this additional volume. The report also indicated that as aquaculture grows, there will potentially be even more raw material available for fishmeal and fish oil production,

and the decade through to 2025 could see this available volume rise as high as 45 million tonnes. There is another angle to this as well. In terms of the salmon farming industry, a study published earlier this year, by the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture and University

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of Massachusetts at Boston, found that by-products in Scottish salmon farming are generally well utilised, but total by-product value output could be improved by 803 percent (£23.7 million), based on 2015 figures, adding 5.5 percent value to the salmon industry. Segmentation of by-product will add value to the aquaculture industry and, of course, this is entirely reliant on fishmeal and fish oil as the nutritional foundation in the first place. The potential is there and it’s now up to the industry to adapt and make use of these previously wasted resources. Examples of the new developing ingredients algal oil and single cell proteins were also presented at the conference and show promise to supplement traditional feed options and investment in this area is growing. It is going to be a combination of all these ingredients, used in a strategic manner, which will allow for further growth in aquaculture. The next theme of discussion focused on responsible supply and social practices, in areas such as South East Asia. Much work has been done by the industry since the AP investigation back in 2014 with a range of Fishery Improvement Programmes (FIPs), and IFFO together with the GAA has funded work looking at raw material supply and fishmeal production in the region. That project is about to report, and we look forward to the recommendations that will be part of the outcome of that work. IFFO is aware that there are some other regions of the world where there may be some scope for improving practices and in 2019, we will be looking into some of the criticisms of the sector in West Africa, for example. As I’ve already mentioned this industry, like many others, is complex and this is mostly down to its far-reaching supply chain. This is the next theme that appeared over the conference and one

that I believe is key to our success. Simply put, we need to map and engage our value chain. As an industry we need to better understand the value drivers downstream to better predict future impacts and identify areas of growth. This is an area that I have experience in from my previous roles and one that I will focus IFFO’s efforts on. Following on from this, the final theme focused on our responsibility to communicate the role that we play and our contribution to global food security across the value chain. Pål Korneliussen, a publisher for IntraFish Media, stated that, in general, as an industry we are understood by only a few and give little access to information to the outside world. Our industry plays a key and unique role but at the moment only those around us know it. IFFO has been following an evidence-based approach when communicating to ensure we stick to the facts and be transparent in order to be trusted. An example of the evidence-based approach was given by Prof Brett Glencross, of the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, who gave a compelling presentation on what makes fishmeal such a special resource. His presentation showed the clear abundance of beneficial and complementary nutritional factors in fishmeal, highlighting the high protein content as key, as well as the abundance of those essential amino acids and lipids. He also noted that it is a renewable protein source which is available globally and with a range of options as raw material. In short, he noted that fishmeal is among the best ingredient available for absolute protein content and while there are ingredients with higher protein, they are rarely cost-competitive. We have the evidence and the story, and now as IFFO, and the wider industry, we need to tell it.

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Blue crabs are named so due to their sapphire claws. Their shells, or carapace, are a mottled brown colour, whilst females have red highlights on the ends of their pincers. Their Latin name, callinectes sapidus, also literally translates into savoury, beautiful swimmer, so it is unsurprising that they are so very popular in coastal towns for their tender, sweet meat. These Western Atlantic crustaceans weigh in at between one to two pounds, being up to four inches tall and nine inches wide. Blue crabs have short lifespans, only living between one and three years and are unfortunately beginning to struggle due to the extensive farming and harvesting of their species. Over the past ten years harvesting limitations have been put into place in many bays, in order to ensure the continuation of the species and to prevent overharvesting. Blue crabs are often found in coastal lagoons and estuaries, all over the world. From up north near Nova Scotia, through the Gulf of Mexico, and down south near Uruguay. They also commonly travel and expand elsewhere. In the 1940s reports of blue crab sightings were seen in Egyptian waters, and in the past few decades they have additionally been reported in Italy,

by Rebecca Sherratt, Production Editor, International Aquafeed Israel, Greece and Turkey. They are considered to be particularly excellent swimmers, their back legs being especially well designed for swimming, with their paddle-like shape. As omnivores, blue crabs eat almost anything they can get their claws on. From mussels, snails, fish and plants, the occasional blue crab will also grow cannibalistic and eat smaller blue crabs if desperate. They are considered crucial to their local ecosystems, as their recent decline in numbers has resulted in their chosen food increasing drastically in numbers, especially periwinkles and marshgrass-eating snails. The lack of blue crabs also causes problems for those marine animals that would usually feed upon them, especially menhaden, oysters and other filter feeders who frequently indulge in blue crab larvae. The Chesapeake Bay in Virginia, USA, is the world’s largest blue crab fishery, established in 1607. Originally famous for its oyster harvests, Chesapeake Bay soon became the hotspot for blue crabs, providing over 60 percent of the nation’s blue crabs. The bay now fights issues that are threatening the abundance of these brilliant crustaceans, such as pollution, habitat loss and underwater grass restoration. In 2014, as part of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Agreement, the bay committed to the goal of maintaining over 125 million adult female blue crabs, alongside working with recreational crabbers towards a sustainable method of harvesting these crustaceans.

32 |December2018-InternationalAquafeed


The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to offer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city.


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EXPERT TOPIC One of the most sought-out shellfish in the mid-Atlantic region by Rebecca Sherratt, Production editor, International Aquafeed


he blue crab is one of the most soughtout shellfish in the mid-Atlantic region, caught commercially for food, but also recreationally by many fishers residing upon the coast, or simply travelling to the coast for some relaxing crabbing. Areas with ample cover, particularly areas ripe with submerged aquatic vegetation, are the places where blue

crabs tend to nestle. Blue crabs can be caught relatively easily, usually they are harvested only with simple gear such as a pot, trotline, handline, dip net, scrape or dredge. The equipment used to catch crabs has little to no effect on habitat, however, the mass number of crustaceans being harvested has led to multiple associations establishing regulations to maintain and increase their numbers.

Declining Numbers

Since the 1990s, fishermen have gone to an extended effort to ensure that less crabs are harvested from the oceans. Since then, a drastic improvement has been seen in the numbers of crustaceans,

34 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

EXPERT TOPIC however, there still remains a steady decline in numbers. The Chesapeake Bay Stock Assessment Committee (CBSAC) reported numbers exceeding 49 million blue crabs being harvested from their bay in 2016 alone. Recreational harvests were estimated to be 3.5 million pounds, while commercial harvests from those waters were estimated to be 53.1 million pounds. These numbers were 40 percent higher than the harvest of 2015, which came to 35.2 million pounds, but was still considered to be a below average harvest. By the start of the 2018 crabbing season, approximately 147 million female adult blue crabs, at over one year old, were estimated to be present in Chesapeake Bay, a worryingly low figure compared to the Bay’s aim to have 215 million female spawning-age crabs. It is not the first time that the bay has fallen short of numbers; in 2017 the Bay, aiming for 254 million crabs present, had even less numbers than in this current year. The total abundance of male and female blue crabs in the Bay has reportedly decreased 18 percent, from 553 million crabs in 2018 to 455 million crabs in 2017. The reports suggest that juvenile crabs rarely survived into adulthood or were harvested before reaching maturity. Based upon the Bay’s 2017 Blue Crab Advisory Report, these declining numbers are not yet at a worrisome level and blue crabs’ numbers can still somewhat easily be increased. The blue crabs in Chesapeake Bay are not considered to be over-fished or over-harvested, and the 2018 Blue Crab Advisory Project also supports this statement.


Despite blue crabs being very flexible in terms of locations


and habitats, they are especially sensitive to changes in relation to breeding and the mating season. Chesapeake Bay have experienced extreme declines in blue crab spawn rates, when certain conditions have not successfully been met, which have by extension led to negative carry-on effects for the ecosystem. The clams, oysters and mussels usually eaten by blue crabs have been noted to be overpopulated due to the lack of crabs eating them, whilst the blue crab natural predators, such as striped bass, red drums and herons have been struggling due to the lack of food present. Female blue crabs mate only once in their lives. Their egg mass develops under their chests, which are also called aprons. These aprons can contain up to 2 million eggs, but only one per million will survive into adulthood. The female will carry the eggs for two weeks, before releasing them into waters what carry them out into the ocean. The larvae, also called zolt, will molt over twentyfive times before returning to the estuaries and salt marshes as maturing crabs, ready to start reproducing with their partner. Crabs that pair up to mate are called doublers, and the woman is called sponge crab when carrying the eggs. Sponge crabs are under especially strict protection, and if they are caught they must be released immediately. These females usually appear in rivers and oceans in early April and are common until August or September.


Despite less blue crabs, in numbers, being harvested, the farming of these crabs for commercial value has increased significantly from 2014 onwards. A 15 percent increase in commercial harvesting was present in Maryland, a 24 percent increase


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for Virginia and 60 percent increase for the Potomac river, all alternative sources for blue crabs aside from Chesapeake Bay. Recreational harvest of female blue crabs is no longer permitted in or around the Maryland tributaries, so the eight percent of commercial harvest of blue crabs around this area consists solely of male blue crabs. Blue crabs remain such a popular animal to be farmed, due to their flexibility of habitat and environment. These crustaceans can be farmed in irrigation ditches, pond systems, fry farming systems, cage systems and integrated recycling systems, to name a few. They are therefore an easy form of livestock for farmers to include in their fish farms, taking minimal effort and requiring only a small amount of space. Crab farmers focus on the state of the carapace, when farming these animals. In order to grow, blue crabs must shed their hard carapace, at which point they are called ‘peeler’ crabs. Experienced crabbers can quickly spot signs that a crab is due to molt, and these specific crabs are harvested and held for a brief amount of time in shedding tanks until they molt. These newly molted crabs are then removed from the water and sold. Catching crabs at this specific stage is crucial to a successful harvest. The most common method of farming blue crabs is using a crab pot, which involves a cubical wire trap, and two-to-four entrance funnels. The pot has two chambers, the lower chamber comprising of the primary entrance funnels and some bait, often a fish head or some chicken. The upper chamber is separated by a partition with two holes. The crabs enter the chamber for the bait, and the entrance closes. When trying to escape the crustaceans naturally swim upwards and enter the second chamber what also closes securely. These crab pots were introduced into Chesapeake Bay in 1936, and soon became a common crabbing tool from the 1950s onwards. If you want to fish with more than two crab pots simultaneously, then a crabbing license is required. Drop nets, dip nets and collapsible traps are also used to catch blue crabs, often baited with herring. These methods require a long-handled dip net and multiple yards of string. Recreational crabbers are more likely to utilise these methods. It is considered the prime time to harvest blue crabs between October and December, when they are a most common occurrence in rivers and creeks. To continue supplying more crabs for both harvesting and sustainability, the Blue Crab Advanced Research Consortium is a

development programme that focusses on hatchery technologies. The research team are looking at the production of juvenile crabs, in order to improve the quantity of world stock and enhancing the development of aquaculture techniques for the year-round production of soft-shell, young blue crabs.

Health benefits

Blue crab is the perfect meal for someone who is looking for plenty of protein. With a significantly lesser amount of fat, when compared to beef, chicken and pork, blue crab is also low in calories. Blue crab meat has the best protein-to-calorie ratio, when compared to all other types of crab we eat. Omega-3: Also known as fish oil, these polyunsaturated fatty acids help us maintain normal metabolisms, alongside lowering the risk of heart disease. Omega-3’s can often be prescribed to you by a doctor as a supplement, but blue crab is a great way to get some from the source. Selenium: Key for a healthy immune system, reproductive health and cognitive function, selenium is a trace mineral found in a variety of foods. The best sources of selenium include brazil nuts and seafood. Riboflavin: Formerly known as vitamin G, riboflavin assists in fighting off anaemia by promoting iron metabolism. It also provides great antioxidant protection and serves well as a source of energy. Blue crab can be purchased either fresh or pasteurised, where it is heated and sealed to kill any pathogenic organisms. Crustaceans in general are usually most flavourful between June and August, when they are harvested, and the largest specimens are usually found in September and October. Crabs are often measured in bushels or jimmies, which equate to roughly 60-70 crabs. A half-bushel of male blue crabs can cost approximately £100. Male crabs are more expensive, but much more easily accessible than female blue crabs.

Ensuring sustainability

This admired crustacean is continuing to prove its popularity amongst consumers, and the market for blue crab only continues to grow. Provided regulations and companies like Chesapeake Bay and the Blue Crab Research Consortium continue to work hard to ensure their numbers improve and they are cared for accordingly, the blue crab will continue to be a staple meal and key aquacultural form of livestock.

36 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 39

Our technology section this month delves deep into a variety of topics, including the latest Steinsvik HardRIB boat, electric field pipelines for aquaculture and Aquabotix’s latest ROV. Whilst all this technology has helped make fish farming a much more efficient and easier affair, the introduction of the ROV to aquaculture has considerably helped with the safety of industry workers. Traditionally, specialist divers would enter the waters and perform routine checks and maintenance, something which could often prove remarkably dangerous. Checking damage underwater, also, is not particularly an easy affair. In the darkness, accidents can easily happen, and mistakes can be made. Remotely operated vehicles, or ROVs, have helped fish farming considerably. No longer need divers risk their lives in dangerous maintenance work. The portable units give accurate and detailed information on what is going on underwater and are also able to measure a variety of variables, such as temperature, pressure and other facets humans would not be able to measure. With the variety of accessories also available for the ROV, other tasks can also be undertaken, such as mort removal. As technology continues to evolve, 2019 will surely bring the evolution of even more brilliant fish farming technology.


The Steinsvik HardRIB —Making aquaculture sexy?

by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing editor, International Aquafeed


The workboats used in aquaculture are not meant to be sexy. These boats are the workhorses of the industry, and are typically employed in hauling fish farmers, sacks of fish feed, tools, netting and other heavy equipment. They must endure a rough and ready life, pounded by heavy seas, or being beached on stony shores. It’s not a glamorous life, but Steinsvik has recently debuted a new boat which demonstrates that when-form-follows-function, the results can be surprisingly alluring. Steinsvik recently launched a new boat with an old name: the HardRIB. Many will remember the HardRIB name fondly, and the old boat’s reputation for toughness and longevity is clearly evident in the DNA of the newest boat to share that illustrious name. When Steinsvik opted to re-introduce the HardRIB they decided to do everything right. The new hull was developed in collaboration with Ola Lilloe Olsen, who is known, among other things, for his work on Palmer Johnson boats. The result is that this new edition of the HardRIB achieves a new level of seaworthiness and the way the boat is designed and constructed ensures that it can take a beating without suffering battle damage.

Unique hull design

Steinsvik has a patent pending on the boat’s entire structure. The hull is built around the two pontoons and a unique keel tube that combine to produce a dynamic boat. The hull is 46 degrees in the bow, 27 degrees amidships, and 19 degrees aft. This ensures fantastic turning characteristics while providing stability and excellent fuel economy. The fuel tank is mounted low in the boat, below the water level, to optimise stability.

40 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Practically unbreakable

The pontoons are constructed in 15mm PHED and the keel pipe in 20mm PHED. The chosen material and the thickness ensure that this is a boat that can take abuse and soldier on. The HardRIB can take rough weather conditions as wells as a mooring on the cag or barge, day after day, and year after year.

Purpose designed for the aquaculture industry

The HardRIB is designed specifically for the aquaculture industry. But with its rough appearance and robust design, the boat is also a great tool for everyone from hobby fishermen to divers. The hull is made from HDPE-100, which is recyclable, corrosion-free, and durable. The boat is also virtually unsinkable and requires very little maintenance. All boat parts are machined and welded by approved plastic welders according to current standards.

Great cargo capacity

Cargo space is important, and the boat is certified for up to 12 people, or up to 1600kg of cargo. Smart solutions for fastening and maximum use of load space relative to hull size ensure that you rarely need to make two trips.

Tested in the Stadt towing tank

When Steinsvik decided to re-introduce the HardRIB they decided to do it properly. The design and hull have undergone extensive tests and CFD analysis in the Stadt towing tank, perhaps the market’s most advanced laboratory for testing and verifying vessel seawater properties. It has been tested at several load conditions and shows good speed characteristics and carrying capacity both in quiet sea conditions and in waves. The tests carried out confirm that the boat can maintain high speeds even in rough waters. The technical specs are very impressive, and I find the HardRIB to be one gorgeous boat. I can’t help but daydream about steering one of these beauties through the Florida Key.


Reliable & efficient compressed air & blower solutions

Aquaculture applications: • Cages

• Feeding systems

• Fish processing

• Barges

• Wellboats

• Feed manufacturing


• Aeration

• Fish packing International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 41


Managing farmed fish with electric fields in pipelines by Robin McKimm and Martin O’Farrell, Fish Management Systems, (UK-Ireland)

“Many fish farmers are concerned about the fish harvest methods they deploy”

A pest control business known to us has an introductory paragraph which reads, ‘most people don’t think about pests, but when they discover that they have a pest problem in their home, they can think about nothing else’. In the world of aquaculture, a similar concentration of the mind applies to fish harvest methods. Many fish farmers are concerned about the fish harvest methods they deploy. They know that regulators and society in general, as represented by the consumer, are concerned, and they know they must do better! Their fish deserve better. We have attended many aquaculture tradeshows throughout Europe and the USA and, during discussions at our booth, we meet aquaculture managers who tell us how they are currently harvesting fish. They describe batch electrical systems deploying AC electric fields where several minutes of operation are

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY required to ensure that every fish in the batch is dead. They know they need to improve on harvest practice because their harvested fish have a high percentage of bloodspots. They also know that regulatory authorities and the consumer will not continue to ignore harvest practices which fail to meet humane standards. They also understand that poor handling/harvest practices during the last minutes of fish life are compromising their good husbandry practices from egg to harvest time. And they inform us about their experiences e.g. operators of percussion stunners complain that up to 30 percent of the fish are not correctly stunned before bleeding/operators of dry-electrical stunners state that up to 7 percent of the fillets have bloodspots. In the world of wild fish management in freshwater environments, the generation of electric fields in water has long been a useful tool in the non-destructive capture of fish for scientific study or selective removal from water bodies (electrofishing equipment) and also in the blocking/guiding of upstream/downstream migrating fish and the exclusion of

invasive fish species (electric fish barriers). Waveforms used in electrofishing equipment and electric fish barriers are typically direct current (DC) and/or pulsed direct current (PDC). The deployment of AC electric fields in water has long been discontinued for such purposes in most parts of the world due to the danger posed to fish wellbeing and operator safety. It is well known, from a multitude of scientific papers, that AC electricity physically damages fish, internally and externally, yet in-water and dry-electric fish stunners still use this waveform

SPECIALIST IN BUILDING FEED MILLS. Containerised feedmills are a unique concept developed by Ottevanger Milling Engineers. The complete unit is pre-assembled in the factory, this reducing the installation time on site by 80%. The containerised mills can be supplied in the range of 1 to 45 tonnes per hour. The equipment is installed 20-foot container which can be handled as separate modules.

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY during farmed fish harvest operations. It is also known from those same sources that the fish must be maintained in the stun field for more than three seconds, more likely eight seconds for non-recovery, before being killed by another method e.g. bleeding. Assuming that fish are being pumped at 1.5m per second, that equates to a 12m long pipeline to do it properly, or 4.5m long pipeline at an absolute minimum. Â To overcome the latter short recovery period the applied voltage must be increased to hit the fish harder. Higher applied voltage means even more fish damage and more power requirements, which increases as the square of the voltage. Higher voltages not only stress the power supplies but increase the chance of stray voltages and currents, which needs to be avoided to protect human operators. Â Some of these devices have, surprisingly, won awards although their designs contradict academic, practical and production evidence. We took note of those academic papers, and, in particular, the wild fishery papers which plead for a ban on AC electric fishing and we, at Fish Management Systems, have produced a device which does not use AC electricity in the water. The result is a pipeline which is longer but incorporates low voltage reliable power supplies, runs at relatively low power and has fully controllable waveforms. These all lead to a harvested fish which is free of damage and which now obtains the best market price.

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY The electric, in-line, in-water, pipeline fish management technology, developed by Robin McKimm at Fish Management Systems can operate at water conductivities ranging from 20 µS/cm – 55,000 µS/cm (full strength seawater). As the electric fields are controllable, the same device can be used at low settings for grading and vaccination purposes and at higher settings during harvest operations. Two systems have been developed as follows. Firstly, an in-line, in-water, stun-kill system (SKS) has been developed for the harvest of portion sized farmed fish. At the time of harvest, fish are pumped from net-pens/raceways/tanks and pass through a convoluted pipeline which is approximately 100m long. This pipeline is typically mounted on a frame and occupies a footprint which is 11.5m long x 2.6m wide x 2m high. On entry into the pipeline, the fish are rendered senseless in less than one second. The fish continue their passage through the pipeline, which takes about 90 seconds, during which time the electric stun is maintained and the fish die of anoxia. A de-watering tower separates the fish from the water as the harvested fish exit the pipeline and are collected in suitable containers for delivery to the processing plant. Systems have been in operation in Scotland for a number of years, during which time an estimated 10 million farmed rainbow trout, averaging 500g, have been harvested. The system is capable of processing 10,000 fish (five tonnes) per hour. Less than one percent of fillets from this harvesting process have exhibited blood spots (haematomas) and companies using the technology have been awarded RSPCA Assured Certification by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty of Animals (RSPCA). Secondly, an in-line, in-water, fish management system (FMS) has been developed, which is suitable for fish transfer activity, fish vaccination, fish grading and electric stunning at the time of harvest. Fish are pumped from net-pens/raceways/tanks and pass through a pipeline which is approximately 16m long. The electronic equipment and some of the pipeline are typically housed in a 6.2m long container. The 10m of pipeline outside the container can be installed to suit the space available for the system. When the FMS is used to electrically stun fish prior to slaughter (bleeding), the fish are rendered senseless in less than one second after entry into the pipeline. The fish continue their passage through the pipeline, which takes about 15 seconds, during which time electric fields maintain the stun, which lasts for up to four minutes after fish exit the pipeline. A de-watering tower separates the fish from the water as the harvested fish exit the pipeline and are collected in suitable channels for bleeding etc. The system can process approximately 4000 –8000 fish per hour (depending on size) and, in accordance with the pipeline diameter selected, fish up to 7kg can be processed. Where the system is used for fish transfer, fish grading or sea lice removal, lower intensity electric fields are deployed to calm/ mildly sedate fish to facilitate the desired fish management procedure. A system is currently being used in full strength seawater to grade yellowtail kingfish while another system is being trialled for Atlantic salmon sea lice control. The electronic technology, has proven successful everywhere systems have been commissioned. The systems have been developed with the assistance of selected aquaculture companies and with very little state / institutional support. We can also state that our SKS and FMS are in regular use and perform as expected. None of our commissioned SKS or FMS installations are lying idle or perhaps used occasionally during audits. We have not competed for any prizes and we have not copied any other product. International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 45


New ROV combines autonomous capability with live remote operation by Aquabotix, Australia/USA

“THE INTEGRA AUV/ROV CAN BE CONFIGURED AND MANEUVERED BY AN EASY-TO-USE INTUITIVE PLATFORMY” Based in Sydney, Australia and Fall River, Massachusetts, USA, Aquabotix is an established underwater robotics company which manufactures and sells commercial and industrial-grade underwater drones and networked underwater cameras for commercial, high-end consumer and military applications. UUV Aquabotix Ltd (ASX: UUV) recently introduced its second-generation hybrid underwater vehicle, the Integra AUV/ROV (autonomous underwater vehicle/remotely operated vehicle). Singleperson deployable, portable and lithium ion batterypowered, the Integra AUV/ROV allows users to conduct multiple underwater missions, while providing a costefficient alternative to deploying separate AUVs and ROVs for individualised tasks.

Mission configurable

The Integra AUV/ROV can be configured with multiple sensors and maneuvered by an easy-to-use intuitive platform accessible from any web-enabled device. The vehicle is designed for use across several sectors, including law enforcement, research, environmental assessment, defence and infrastructure, and can search wide areas using AUV mode (untethered) while conducting detailed inspections using ROV mode (tethered). Users can easily switch from AUV mode to ROV mode by attaching the tether to remotely control the vehicle’s six degrees of freedom of motion. When running the vehicle in autonomous operation, all mission planning is completed in an intuitive Windows-based application.

Autonomous capability

“With the Integra Hybrid AUV/ROV, we have added more functionality to a single vehicle,” said David Batista, CEO of Aquabotix. “Because this vehicle has the brain power to conduct autonomous missions as well as detailed inspections in a single setting, operators have immediate and complete control. The introduction of the Integra AUV/ROV is the next step in the evolution of underwater vehicles and illustrates how Aquabotix continues to successfully meet the demands of underwater exploration and inspection.”

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Other features of the Integra AUV/ROV include: • Five high-torque motors • Live Remote Control and data sharing • Configurable sensor suite: Side scan sonar, multibeam sonar, scanning sonar, DVL, USBL, INS, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and environmental sensors available • Sensor package including depth, temperature, orientation and GPS • 1080p true high-definition camera with pan and tilt • Depth Rating 100m or 300m models available • 5 pounds of payload capability • Up to 8 hours battery life • High Intensity LED lighting (4400 Lumens)

Live remote capability

Aquabotix recently announced its new Live Remove Control product feature, which customers can use to pilot underwater vehicles, store, analyse and share data, from any web browserenabled device, remotely, from anywhere in the world. Aquabotix’s entire family of products, including the Integra, are now equipped with this class leading functionality.


“Our second-generation hybrid, the Integra, leverages the strongest innovative capabilities of both types of underwater vehicles. Yet in utilising our hybrid digital platform, users no longer need two vehicles to explore and conduct tasks underwater. Now, they can activate AUV mode for broad range searches, while switching to ROV capabilities for more in-depth analysis of underwater conditions,” said Durval Tavares, Chief Technology Officer of Aquabotix. “Simply put, the Integra AUV/ROV is a force multiplier for our customers.” International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 47

TECHNOLOGY SHO Top aquaculture technology DECEMBER This month the International Aquafeed team has more technological innovations to bring you that will make your fish farming business that extra bit better. We have a wide variety of machines on show this month, ranging from conveyors, typhoon fish feeders, smart ROVs and oxygen monitors. Each machine has been hand-picked by us as an interesting and innovative piece of equipment that is definitely worth researching and considering adding to your business.

Baader Belt Grader 1801 The Belt Grader 1801 consists of a feeding area, dynamic scale and distribution in one, robust conveyor, with one modular belt. The grader is designed to ensure efficiency in simple grading and sorting jobs at minimum operational costs. The Belt Grader 1801 is designed to grade up to 120 pieces per minute, depending on the product type, and provided correct spacing between products. Product loading can be either manual or automated if the grader is integrated in a more extensive solution. The machine is robust, durable and designed to the highest hygienic standards to prevent microbial growth and minimise cleaning time.

Kroma Filetmaster 180 The Kroma Filetmaster 180 can be used to fillet different fish types, so it boasts flexibility and adaptability. Filetmaster 180 is designed with a very strong frame to ensure machine stability under all conditions and at all times. The machine is equipped with a cam belt drive that is very simple to adjust and maintain. The cam belt drive is very efficient at pulling the fish forward through the machine and prevents unnecessary production stoppages. The machine can fillet whole fish or fish that have been already gutted. If the machine is meant to process whole fish, we recommend that you install vacuum so as to be able to remove the fish entrails. The machine is made of AISI 304 stainless steel, with a bead blasted finish.

Vónin Net Washing system Vónin’s Net Washing system thoroughly washes nets of all sizes for the aquaculture industry, effectively minimising the effectiveness of spreading fish diseases. The Vónin Net Washer is made of AISI 316 acid-proof stainless steel, which is strong, durable and highly-resistant to corrosion. The Vónin Net Washer can be custom made, with a size of up to 50m3, with adjustable washing programmes and a heavyduty washing drum. It comes with a large waterproof sealing door for loading and unloading the nets and is 100 percent water-tight.

Optilice 4 Optimar have devised an innovative new solution to remove sealice from your farmed fish, with no need for chemicals or medicals. Optilice 4 removes 98 percent of sea lice, by bathing the caught fish in tempered water up to 36 degrees Celsius. This completely natural method works on salmon, trout and lumpfish, and the Optilice can easily be placed on-board any type of vessel. The temperature setting are adjustable, the Optilice is environmentally friendly and the machine is easy to control and access. Optilice has a capacity of 120-150 tons/hour per line, with an integrated O3 system for hygienic self-cleaning.

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OWCASE Vónin Net Washing system Vónin’s Net Washing system thoroughly washes nets of all sizes for the aquaculture industry, effectively minimising the effectiveness of spreading fish diseases. The Vónin Net Washer is made of AISI 316 acid-proof stainless steel, which is strong, durable and highly-resistant to corrosion. The Vónin Net Washer can be custom made, with a size of up to 50m3, with adjustable washing programmes and a heavy-duty washing drum. It comes with a large waterproof sealing door for loading and unloading the nets and is 100 percent water-tight.

Cretel RS 25 The Cretel RS 25 fish scaler ensures the fast and efficient removal of scales from all kinds of fish. The inner drive cable is made up of two layers of steel, and is spray water protected. The outside of the machine is also rust-proof, to ensure extended life. The. RS 25 has a 1.5m cable and the spindle moves at 1360rpm. Optional extras are also available, including a 2m long drive and housing cable, and a spindle type, named extra. A polyacryl protection cover is also available.

Simatek Drum Feeder with Forced Feeding System Simatek Bulk Systems introduces a new Forced Feeding System which – in the combination with other initiatives – makes pendulum bucket elevators very suited for conveying complex powders that are non-easy flowing, fragile, abrasive or explosive. By adding a screw feeder module to the patented Simatek Drum Feeder it is possible to secure a high filling degree of the elevator buckets. This feeding system is based on individual batch feeding of the elevator buckets without product spillage. In combination with the Simatek Drum Feeder it is possible to convey with elevator buckets without overlap. This is to eliminate mechanical contact between the buckets, friction and the use of guides. In traditional pendulum bucket elevators the buckets are suspended between parallel roller chains. However, certain powder types will generate significant wear and therefore roller chains are generally not the best solution for abrasive and fine powder types. However, when it comes to very abrasive products or applications for which chain lubrication is not an option, Simatek Bulk Systems offers bearing suspended buckets. With these buckets the wear on the roller chain is basically eliminated. To document the effect of conveying with a Forced Feeding System, clients are offered a free test run of their product in the Simatek Bulk Systems test center.

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 49

Industry Events Events listing DECEMBER

04/12/18 - Algae Europe 2018 The Netherlands WEB:


17 – 19/01/19 (rescheduled, new date to come) - Lanka Livestock 2019 Sri Lanka WEB: http://www.lankalivestock. com/ 31/01/19 – 02/02/19 - AquaEx India 2019 India WEB:


13-14/02/19 - AquaFarm 2019 Italy WEB: en/ 25-27/02/19 - Oceanology International Americas USA WEB: https://www. oceanologyinternationalamericas. com/


7-11/03/19 - Aquaculture 2019 USA WEB: meetings/default.aspx?code=AQ2019 13-15/03/19 - VIV Asia Thailand WEB: viv-asia-2019-bangkok

Aquaculture Feed Formulation Database Training goes worldwide in 2019 A workshop training program using the International Aquaculture Feed Formulation Database (IAFFD) will be expanded to global regions beyond Southeast Asia in 2019, according to the International Soy in Aquaculture Program of the US Soybean Export Council (USSEC), which has been involved in development and training of this database since its inception in 2014. The IAFFD, a joint venture of academia and commercial interests and made possible with seed funding from USAID and USSEC, is the first standardised, publicly available tool for feed formulators in the global aquaculture industry. Since 2015, training workshops on the database have been held for feed formulators in Southeast Asia. In the first half of 2019, USSEC will start hosting IAFFD workshops in Latin America, the Middle East, China and India as well. “As we move away from fishmeal and fish oil to more complex formulations, we want the industry to consider a nutrient basis rather than ingredient basis for feeds,” says Lukas Manomaitis, USSEC’s Aquaculture Program Lead Technical Consultant. “Even though the IAFFD is not a USSEC database, by focusing on nutrients we can show the value of highquality US soy and how it benefits aquaculture species.” The two-day workshops in expanded regions in 2019 will be open to key aquaculture formulators, who can usually also bring one observer. The first day typically features technical presentations targeting the feed industry with topics such as digestibility, shadow pricing, and use of enzymes. The formulators then participate in guided formulation exercises on the second day using the IAFFD database and a trial version of a commercial feed formulation program.

Oceanology International Americas The San Diego Convention Centre, California, will be the location for the 2019 Oceanology International Americas exhibition. Celebrating the 50th anniversary of Oceanology International, the event will deliver world-leading technological marine innovations to attendees. The exhibition is free-to-attend, offering brilliant networking opportunities and its own conference, discussing strategies for measuring, developing and operating in the world’s oceans. Over 200 companies are expected to attend, with 15 presentations taking place over the three days. Live on-water demonstrations and vessels will be available to view at the event, and a special section dedicated to IT technology, named Ocean ICT Expo, will also be taking place. Oceanology International Americas is taking place 25-27th February, 2019.

For more industry event information - visit our events register

AFIA strikes liquid gold at 48th Liquid Feed Symposium The 48th annual Liquid Feed Symposium in San Diego, California, was held by the American Feed Industry Association (AFIA) recently, bringing together leaders in the liquid supplement industry to hear from experts on the latest intelligence, research and innovation happening in the field and to commend outstanding individuals. “At this year’s Liquid Feed Symposium, 163 highly engaged people within the liquid feed industry came together to learn about ways to improve their businesses and the entire industry,” says Paul Davis, PhD, AFIA’s Director of Quality, Animal Food Safety and Education. In a presentation on committing your business to “agvocacy,” Kim Bremmer of Ag Inspirations highlights ways for people to communicate with consumers about agriculture. She recommended communicating with EASE, a system which emphasises engagement, acknowledging questions and concerns, sharing the basics and earning trust. “People don’t buy what you do, they buy WHY you do it,” she says. “Make every conversation count!” LFS covered a number of other hot topics, including updates on regulations and legislation affecting the liquid feed industry, ingredients and nutrition, customer service, the environmental impact of livestock and more. The 49th annual Liquid Feed Symposium will take place in Omaha, Nebraska, Sept. 9-11, 2019. 50 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture 2019 Aquaculture – The Big Easy Choice! ow New Sh Dates 1 7-1 March

March 7 - 11, 2019 New Orleans Marriott New Orleans, Louisiana


ASSOCIATE SPONSORS American Veterinary Medical Association America's Tilapia Alliance Aquacultural Engineering Society Aquaculture Association of Canada Aquaculture Feed Industry Association California Aquaculture Association Catfish Farmers of America Global Aquaculture Alliance

International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Latin America & Caribbean Chapter WAS US Shrimp Farming Association US Trout Farmers Association World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association Zebrafish Husbandry Association

For More Information Contact:

Conference Manager P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 Email: |

Industry Events


and the VIII Congress Colombian Aquaculture


by Carolina Amezquita, World Aquaculture Society, US

he Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2018 - LACQUA18 and the VIII Congress Colombian Aquaculture - VIIICCA took place from October 23-26, 2018 at the Ágora International Convention Centre in Bogotá, Colombia. These important events were organised by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, the Colombian Federation of Aquaculturists and the Latin American and Caribbean Chapter of the World

Aquaculture Society. The event had 1609 attendees registered in the different categories, from 37 countries. A total of 511 scientific papers were presented, 330 being oral and 181 being posters. The commercial exhibition housed 43 companies and public and private institutions, who presented supply of inputs and services for aquaculture. The inaugural session was led by Dr Alejandro Flores Nava from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), who, in his conference ‘Aquaculture and Peace in the Region’, presented information on countries in the process of implementing peace agreements, where the restoration of aquaculture areas affected by the conflict should be a priority, as it is an activity multiplier of the local economy. Later, Dr Sara Patricia Bonilla, Executive Director of the Colombian Federation of Aquaculturists, presented the conference ‘Aquaculture in Colombia, Today and Future’, where updated data on the growth of national aquaculture, certifications implemented by producers and potential for export of species such as tilapia and trout were discussed. The sessions with the highest number of papers presented were the health of aquatic organisms, fish diseases, toxicology, sanitary management, diseases of shrimp and immunology. In these sessions, case studies were presented, as well as advanced technologies for the control of diseases such as vaccines, genetic tools and food additives. In the commercial exhibition, the companies that stood out were the ones discussing the provision of

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Industry Events

services and inputs for the implementation of biosecurity measures and offering high quality food. A very important session in this event was social aquaculture and in indigenous communities, where results of work with populations, that have incorporated aquaculture as an option for the improvement of their quality of life and increase in the contribution of animal protein to their diet, were presented. The attendance of more than 180 students from countries such as Mexico, Peru, Brazil and Colombia was significant; they participated actively in the different sessions and activities. The students received awards in the oral category, on topics such as welfare of elasmobranches, functional foods for stimulation of the immune system in shrimp and in replacement of fish oil in shrimp diets. The featured posters addressed issues as a design of a low-cost oxygenation system for aquaculture, detection of shrimp and photoreactor diseases for algae production. A total of 61 attendees from Israel, Mexico, Peru, Sweden, Colombia, Spain, Brazil, Chile, United States United and Norway participated in the scheduled technical visits. The company visited was La Mariana Aquaponics, where rainbow trout is produced intensively and integrated with vegetables such as lettuce and tomatoes. There was also a visit to an intensive system of production of tilapia in biofloc at Granja El Nogal and another farm, Tropcol, where intensive ornamental fish production is carried out. The congress was the propitious space for specialised meetings, like the one summoned by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation - UNIDO ‘Improvement of the productivity and competitiveness of the fishing value chains in Latin America’. The meeting ‘Entrepreneurial Challenges of Aquaculture in Colombia’ was also developed by the Colombian Federation of Aquaculture - FEDEACUA. In addition, meetings were held for the foundation of the ‘Colombian Academic Association of Aquaculture’ and of the ‘Colombian Network of Technicians, Technologists and Professionals in Aquaculture Health’. The balance of LACQUA18 / VIIICCA is positive, surpassing expectations, confirming the importance of aquaculture for the Latin American and Caribbean region and posing challenges in socio-economic, environmental, educational and research aspects for the future. We look forward to your presence at our next regional meeting LACQUA19, which will be held in San Jose, Costa Rica, from November 19-22, 2019!

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Industry Events

Aquaculture New Zealand Conference 2018 The NZ Aquaculture Conference took place on September 26-27, 2018 at the Marlborough Convention Centre in Blenheim, New Zealand. The event was organised by Aquaculture New Zealand, an organisation primarily funded through an industry levy. The chief role of the organisation is the implementation of an industry strategy which aims to see the sector grow to earn NZD $1 billion annually by 2025.

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Industry Events

ver 500 people from all corners of the sector came together to help realise the tremendous opportunity aquaculture offers to grow vibrant communities by sharing our waters to sustainably farm amazing seafood. The two-day show, comprising of a technical and a conference day, gathered authorities from across a spectrum of disciplines that intersect our industry; including climate change, storytelling, community representatives, conservationists and international industry experts, all of which shared their ideas and knowledge to explore how our industry can help build a sustainable and prosperous future for New Zealand. According to figures provided by Aquaculture New Zealand, it is estimated that in 2017 the industry was valued at NZD $612 million ($420 million USD). Whilst the range of species produced by New Zealand’s aquaculture industry is increasing, it is primarily composed of three species; Greenshell™ mussels (Perna canaliculus) NZD $348 million, King Salmon (Chinook salmon) NZD $232 million, and pacific oysters NZD $32 million.

by Peter Parker, Oceania representative, International Aquafeed

Marlborough, the heart of New Zealand aquaculture

This year, the show relocated from Nelson to Blenheim, a town located in the Marlborough region in the north-eastern tip of New Zealand’s South Island. Blenheim is often in the running for the sunniest town in New Zealand and it delivered with warm sunrays for the duration of the event.

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Industry Events

The event organisers commented that the move was to bring the show back to a central point of New Zealand aquaculture where mussel farming began almost 40 years ago. According to the Marlborough District Council, the sheltered bays and clean waters of the Marlborough Sounds evoke the rich history of mussel farming, which has now been expanded to include salmon, oysters, paua and seaweed. With over 600 aquaculture farms, the Marlborough Sounds are responsible for 80 percent of the country’s farmed seafood. This is made up of an average 65,000 tonnes of mussels and about 6000 tonnes of salmon harvested per year.

Cargill/EWOS Technical Day

Wednesday was the Cargill/EWOS sponsored Technical Day, which saw a range of technical presentations covering a range of topics including precision technology, climate change, food safety, feed production, the importance of the entire ecosystem, and more. A large section of the day was split into a salmon stream and a resilience/best practices stream. During the opening address, the Aquaculture Manager for one of the event’s platinum sponsors, Sanford, Ted Culley acknowledged that it hadn’t been an easy year for the industry, with its hottest summer on record, and between January and March there was over 200 percent more rainfall than the longterm average in the Marlborough Sound, a key location for New Zealand’s aquaculture. Mr Culley accepts that our world is changing and welcomed the presentations throughout the day that would give some insight into how industry might meet these challenges and others going forward. As well as offering some insight into future opportunities to improve productivity, performance, and social licence. During the Technical Day, Aquaculture New Zealand’s Environmental Manager, Rebecca Clarkson, gave an update on A+, a sustainable management framework developed which enables New Zealand aquaculture farmers to better engage with communities. A+ was developed by the New Zealand aquaculture industry for itself to ensure that the entire industry could meet sustainable objectives, improving environmental practices in the process while demonstrating to customers that seafood is carefully, responsibly, and ethically produced. Ms Clarkson explained that the objectives of A+ align with other international standards such as ASC and BAP. “A+ objectives and values are maintaining healthy ecosystems, protecting the aquatic environment, managing waste responsibly, using resources efficiently, safe and ethical seafood, respecting iwi values (Māori communities) and all underlying cultural responsibilities”, she said. A+ operates as a continuous cycle of implementation, reporting, independent verification, review, and improvement. Dr Petra Pearce, Climate Scientist, NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research), presented on climate change and what it means for aquaculture. According to Dr Pearce, the main potential climate challenges are ocean warming, ocean acidification, extreme rainfall events, and sea level rising. The oceans are going to get warmer, fresher, and more acidic. Dr pearce went into vivid detail about the ocean heatwave that affected much of the local industry, as part of what was the hottest summer on record in New Zealand. Ocean warming affects metabolic rates, food availability, and also pests and diseases. The oceans take on about 93 percent of the excess heat generated by greenhouse warming, they take up a lot of the heat that the atmosphere also contains.

The atmosphere was buzzing with excitement throughout the cocktail function evening

A beautiful place for some fresh air if you walked behind the conference venue

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Industry Events

There has been a recent surface warming trend, especially in the winter season, an increases trend which has only began recently. The potential pests are expected to be those that are currently in the tropics and increase in water temperature could see them appear in New Zealand’s waters, which are currently too cool. Dr Pearce discussed a project currently going on at NIWA, alongside the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, focused on predicting sea surface temperature changes. This has found some good results, the next step will be heat wave prediction, a study which will be most welcome to the industry, given the summer just gone. Finally, Dr Pearce did acknowledge that it is not all bad news for the New Zealand aquaculture industry, saying, “the production of our local industry is not predicted to be as negatively affected as some other regions in the world, and the increase in water temperature brings the potential for new species to be farmed here.”

Aquaculture New Zealand Conference

Mt Cook Alpine Salmon among other companies sharing samples of their produce during the cocktail function

Thursday saw the conference take place, which was a soldout event. Archdeacon Harvey Ruru topened the conference with a Mihi Whakatau (traditional Māori welcome). Mr Ruru acknowledged the importance of our decisions we make as an industry for the protection of our oceans and land for generations to come. Mayor John Leggett highlighted the point that there is little chance of progress when positions become entrenched.

Richard Kibblewhite and Richard McLean of Marine Services NZ at their stand, one of the exhibiting companies at the show

International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 57

Industry Events

“There are genuine concerns about the environmental effects of aquaculture on the coastal waters, the need to have and maintain a social licence to operate must be well understood by all”, Mayor Leggett notes. “It has been reassuring to see the industry and community working alongside each other, which has been seen with the development of environmental best practices for seabed health and water quality.” Mr Legget went on to say, “Make no mistake, aquaculture is one of the pillars of Marlborough’s primary production economy, we are very proud that half of the countries mussel production and more than half of the salmon production comes from our waters. We all want the same thing: mutual understanding and compromises that will give us a workable plan for the future of aquaculture in our region.” The conference was loaded with inspiring speakers, one stand out speaker being Dr Solveig van Nes from Marine Prospects Ltd, who gave an inspiring international perspective and told the story of Norway’s success with aquaculture. Volker Kuntzsch, CEO of Sanford, believes that, as New Zealand makes up a tiny amount of international aquaculture, it highlights the country’s opportunity as a niche player in the market. “If you look at New Zealand’s position as a seafood provider worldwide, we make up less than 0.4 percent. Volume and commodity are not the basis on which we should compete upon, we should find different ways of selling our product at the highest possible value internationally”, he said. He went on to explain, “Our competitors are not in New Zealand, I think the one aspect that I have appreciated since I came to New Zealand is the trait that makes Kiwis stand out: that is ‘care’. If we could sell this care for our environment, the way we talk about the Marlborough region, the way we talk about what we do with our precious marine resources, if we could sell that feeling that you get when you sit in an environment like this, I think we would be able to gain so much more value for every kilogram that we sell internationally.”

Dr Solveig van Nes from Marine Prospects Ltd presenting on the role of aquaculture for a greener future

Hon Stuart Nash, New Zealand’s Minister for Aquaculture presenting and taking questions from the audience

The Marlborough region is also renowned for its high quality vineyards and wineries

Cocktail function

The ultimate networking opportunity, and what I am sure is the highlight for many attendees, is the Sanfordsponsored cocktail function on the closing night. Throughout the evening, the delicious kaimoana (seafood) of the industry is celebrated with companies sharing the fruits of their labour in the form of immaculately prepared seafood dishes. Salmon, mussels, and oysters, along with an open bar, makes for a fun evening and a great way to end the conference.

A bright future for New Zealand aquaculture

The New Zealand aquaculture industry continues to grow due to the efforts of all shareholders involved. It is through understanding and compromise between government, industry, and community that we can continue to innovate and adapt to the many challenges that lay ahead. This development is greatly facilitated by the Aquaculture New Zealand organisation, who provide a single voice and guidance towards the goal of having a NZD $1 billion industry by 2025. This important meeting couldn’t happen if not for the generous sponsorship it receives, notably from Sanford and New Zealand King Salmon, who provided a platinum sponsorship. 58 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

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AQUACULTURE WITHOUT FRONTIERS (UK) Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) is a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries.

Registered charity No. 1165727 International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 59

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

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60 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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all industrial Plants sectors.

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International Aquafeed - December 2018 | 61

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

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the interview Interview with Dr May Myat Noe Lwin (PhD) Dr May Myat Noe Lwin currently works as Technical Advisor for the USAID Sustainable Seafood Industry Development Project, which promotes regional cooperation for regulated and legal fishing in the Asia-Pacific region. Dr Lwin also serves as the Country Manager for the US Soybean Export Council (USSEC).

When did you start working in aquaculture?

After 2005, I started a soft shell crab farm. I started with 10,000 crab boxes because that was all the money I had. With the trading I’d been doing I had some money but the crab work was seasonal. So, I started with the 10,000 boxes but, because I am in Thailand and I can speak Thai and Burmese, I chose a town in Myanmar that borders with Thailand.

How did you come to be working for USSEC?

I started another farm and I was also seafood trading. I bought seafood from Myanmar suppliers and sold it to Thai buyers in Bangkok and Phuket. Then I opened a soft shell mangrove crab farm.

How many crabs do you have?

In Thailand only 150 because it is one crab for one box and that means that one box already costs one dollar. So you have a lot of crab boxes. And not only in Thailand. I also have a farm in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh farm has more crab boxes. I am closing the Thailand farm down because we want to start a new farm in Myanmar.

What do you feed the crab and from which company do you get the feed?

We only feed them trout. We don’t feed them formulated diet, or a compound feed. That’s why I decided to go to the US and get my PhD, so I could learn about making a diet for soft-shell crab production. Because the crab are in individual boxes, all you have to do is feed them is put the trash fish inside the box. In Thailand we have 100,000 crab boxes, and in Bangladesh we have 150,000 crab boxes. Our target is to reach half a million crab boxes in the next few years.

So you are still running the farms and also working for USSEC (United States Soybean Export Council)?

I was doing crab farming and seafood trading when one day I was invited to India Aquaculture 2009 and I made a presentation. Most of the speakers were really well known while I was the only farmer. They wanted me to share how I did it, so they invited me to speak. In 2012 USSEC wanted to have a programme in Myanmar and they asked if I could connect them with people in the industry. We did one workshop in Myanmar but during that time Ang San Su Kyi was still under house arrest so we jumped in before anything opened up and in 2013 USSEC decided to have a programme so I worked for them part time. Soft shell crab farming is very intensive – you have to check the crabs every four hours. I was working part time for USSEC and I wanted to go back and forth between Myanmar and Thailand. We started introducing USSEC technical assistance for farmers etc. In 2012 not a lot of people know what US soybeans were but now they import 300,000 metric tonnes of US soy and it is increasing every year.

It is a big market in many ways because not many people are doing these soft-shelled crabs. Where is your major market basically?

Our major market is Japan, USA, China, Australia and even Europe, but Europe is more of a niche market, it doesn’t have the volume, like you are selling one million metric tonnes. That revenue income should be very significant because just to supply to China alone, where they love soft shell crabs. But our price is much better, because we are selling with the soft

shelled at 15 US dollars, which is a good price.

And you have a factory that makes your feed?

In Thailand we used to have one feed mill. Farmers there don’t believe that formulated diets work so it is challenging for a feed miller to produce it in a large volume and eventually they stopped producing it. The other thing I find now is the crab is like Asian sea bass. Asian sea bass, if you want to start feeding them the formulated diet, you need to start weaning with the pellet. Even though crabs eat everything you put in the crab boxes, you need to train them a couple of days there and they get used to it with the pellet and also compared to the trash fish, the trash fish has a really good smell and you can really see the crab behaviour there. When I did my experiment when you feed the crab trout, they are so happy, they eat it straightaway. When you feed the pellet, the first couple of days you need to starve them until they are really hungry, you have to practice them, feed them. I also find that if you feed them in the evening they are more willing to take it.

Did you have to have special machinery to produce pellets?

So my research is to look at the crab and see whether it will take a pellet or not and then I find out whether they take it in terms of weight gain, survival and moulting frequency. Whether they stay the same like the trash fish or not and we change the pellet like three or four times because the other challenge we have is crabs have big claws and when they eat it, they hold it first but their claws are so powerful and if your pellets is not hard enough, it just breaks down and within those small boxes, it is just wasted. It’s important that it is hard enough for the crab to hold it and like to eat like using chopsticks, very slowly; it is very interesting. We use different kinds of binder.

Have you had any special challenges being a woman in aquaculture or has it been pretty open for you?

When I started a farm in Thailand everyone was saying ‘oh she’s just like a girl and maybe in one- or two-year’s time she will be gone.’ It has been pretty open for me as a woman, maybe because of my personal philosophy, I don’t think you should be treating me a certain way because I am a woman. Maybe I have a different opinion because most of my staff are men. I do not have that many women working for me. If you are a good role model, instead of saying do this or do that, we work together and make women part of the decision making. Also from and also it’s just like you need to work hard.

What is your view of the future for Myanmar? What is your view of the prospects of the feed industry? In China, the feed industry asked the government not to tax feed to help ensure there are no hungry people in China. Do do you think that could happen in Myanmar?

In Myanmar we have a really good aquaculture situation with the rivers and the sea. We do a lot with marine fish, but many areas have never done any fish farming. It would help if our government adopted a policy encouraging people to do more and to export more. Before, when we were under sanctions from the US and the EU we had to stick with species that we only sell domestically. But now, if we target the right species we can export them and sell it to anyone, to China, the US and the EU and the industry will be growing very fast in the next five to ten years’ time.

62 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES Diane Morrison appointed to Marine Harvest Canada West as new Managing Director

D Diane Morrison

r Diane Morrison has been appointed Managing Director for Marine Harvest Canada, after having led their Fish Health and Food Safety Department for the past 18 years. She replaces Vincent Erenst, who is departing the company after 12 years’ dedication. “I am very passionate about our business, the health of both wild and farm-raised fish, and about the great team we have at Marine Harvest Canada. I am excited to share my experience and build a sustainable future together for our local communities,” says Dr Morrison. Dr Morrison has served on multiple research teams publishing on aquaculture and wild salmon in British Columbia and has also been an active participant in the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAS) process managed by Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Nutriad hire new Regional Sales Manager for Aquaculture


utriad have announced the appointment of Mr. Goud Dhanunjaya as Regional Sales Manager Aquaculture for the Indian sub-continent (ISC). The move is part of the continuous strategic expansion of Nutriad into the rapidly developing aquaculture market, aiming to have experienced local staff in key markets.

Goud Dhanunjay

Mr. Goud has a Master of Fisheries Science (Aquaculture) from the College of Fisheries, Ratnagiri, India and 15 years of hands-on experience in aquaculture sales and technical support to shrimp farms, shrimp hatcheries, aqua feed manufacturers and fish growers in Asia.

Kyle Farmer joins AquaTactics


r Kyle Farmer has joined AquaTactics Fish Health, as one of their newest fish experts. In his new role, Dr Farmer provides fish health consultations and medicine for ill or injured fish in need. He has been noted for his uneneding passion for ocean conservation. Dr Farmer obtained a undergraduate degree in marine Biology at the University of North Carolina, before progressing to get his Doctorate in Veterinary Medicine from North Carolina State University.

Kyle Farmer

““I am thrilled to enter this field with such an exceptionally talented group of professionals at AquaTactics Fish Health,” Farmer says. “This company has been providing unparalleled service to the aquaculture and fish culture community for nearly a decade through health consultation, products and research. I could not ask for better individuals to work with. AquaTactics has an intimate understanding of the profession and the growth that is projected.”

Peter and Frances Bender titled 2018 Australian Farmers of the Year


eter and Frances Bender, founders of Huon Aquaculture Company, have been internationally recognised with their latest award. The Kondinin Group and ABC Rural gave the couple the title of 2018 Australian Farmers of the Year. Huon International produce premium quality salmonid products, and their company now boasts over 600 staff and a $318 million turnaround.

Peter and Frances Bender

“It was a real leap of faith getting into fish farming and a huge financial challenge, but I think it was because of that beginning, our previous farming knowledge and the values that Frances and I have, that has led us to the successful position we are in now”, says Peter Bender.

Thomas Pierrot joins the MiXscience Aquaculture Division


homas Pierrot’s 25 years of experience in aquaculture has been welcomed in his new role as Aquaculture Business Director for MiXscience. Based in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam, he will be in charge to develop new business opportunities and managing the existing ones all around the world, jointly with the aqua team of MiXscience.

Thomas Pierrot

Thomas built his strong expertise in aquaculture production and industrialisation through different experiences in Equator, Indonesia, New Caledonia, Argentina, Colombia and Australia.

64 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed



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