NOV 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine

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Choosing the correct raw material for aquaculture cage netting

- How wood can bridge the protein gap International Aquafeed - Volume 21 - Issue 11 - November 2018

- Sustainable shrimp nutrition - Can you farm sea urchins? - Discussions from the World Nutrition Forum - Making floating and sinking feed with twin-screw technology - Expert topic - Japanese Amberjack Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

November 2018

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International Aquafeed (IAF) is introducing changes in 2019 to reflect the rapid development of global aquaculture. Aquaculture is continuing to adapt modern technologically-based practices and equipment for all farmed species and IAF needs to be at the forefront of this development now that it is monthly and in four languages. We congratulate and thank Professor Simon Davies on completing a decade as editor and for leading our development to date. He will continue to head our nutrition and species section within the magazine from January as we expand to be more inclusive of all aspects of aquaculture and not just feed.

Roger Gilbert, Publisher, International Aquafeed



high yield, insufficient attention to s we all know, 2018 quality and safety, and lack of concern is a very unusual for environmental protection and year. Breaking news sustainability. Now the Chinese have continues to shock realised that this developmental model us from around the will inevitably pay a heavy price and is world, and this is unsustainable. especially true in aquaculture. AQUA 2018 Therefore, the original developmental of WAS took place from August 25-29 in Professor Kangsen Mai pattern must be changed into a new the beautiful French city of Montpellier. Chinese language editor, International Aquafeed one: protected and rational use of The conference not only demostrated the resources, optimal production scale, achievements of the rapid development the best benefits (including economic, social and environmental of global aquaculture and related industries, but also exposed benefits), attach great importance to the quality and safety of the tremendous challenges facing the industry: the problems of products, and protect the environment and ensure sustainable quality, safety and sustainable development. development. As the most important aquaculture country in the world, China As the largest aquaculture country in the world, China has a is facing unprecedented challenges. In fact, China’s problem very high diversity in terms of geographical distribution, farmed of aquaculture is the epitome of aquaculture’s problems in all species, farming patterns, consumers’ eating habits and so on. It developing countries. In 2018, China’s aquaculture administration departments, universities, research institutes, industry associations is not easy to realise the transformation of development mode in the short term. Only through sufficient scientific research, and enterprises held more than 100 symposiums, workshops and technological innovation, administrative measures and the industry development forums to study and discuss the challenges formulation and implementation of laws and regulations, can and opportunities of aquaculture in China, and to find new ways China carry out the transformation from a big aquaculture country for the healthy and sustainable development of aquaculture in to a strong aquaculture country. China to flourish. The reform and opening policy in the past 40 years is the In 2018, there are two main forces driving the transformation, fundamental reason for China’s great economic success. The upgrading and innovative development of aquaculture in China: Chinese Government supports globalisation and multilateral unprecedented environmental storms and the unprecedented Sinomechanisms. Therefore, China will continue to adhere to the US trade war. China’s most stringent environmental protection policy of reform and opening up. law and food safety law put forward higher requirements for In this way, China’s aquaculture can continue to learn from the the safety of aquaculture products and the sustainable use of aquaculture powers outside, learn from their advanced experience aquaculture environment. and technology, strengthen exchanges and cooperation, overcome The Sino US trade war has greatly pushed up the price of the challenges of China’s aquaculture, and contribute to the feed ingredients, thus significantly raising the cost of farming. Therefore, it is necessary to study more accurate feed formulation, healthy and sustainable development of China’s aquaculture. We should make full use of the publication platform, such as more scientific feed processing technology, and greatly improve of our journal, International Aquafeed, to exchange information feed efficiency. on aquaculture technology, nutrition knowledge, feed technology Looking back over the past four decades, it can be seen that and so on, and jointly promote the healthy and sustainable aquaculture in China had the same developmental characteristics development of aquaculture in the world. as other industries in China: extensive consumption of natural Professor Kangsen Mai resources, extensive expansion of scale, one-sided pursuit of

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies

November 2018 Volume 21 Issue 11



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle Editorial team Rebecca Sherratt Matt Holmes Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris William Dowds Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy ©Copyright 2018 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service


Industry News

38 Expert Topic - Amberjack 50 Technology showcase 52 Industry Events 60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 7 Antonio Garza de Yta

10 Dr Neil Auchterlonie

12 Sven-Olof Malmqvist 14 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 16 How wood can bridge the protein gap 20 Cage based aquaculture in the inland open waters of India 24 Sustainable shrimp nutrition 26 Can you farm sea urchins? 30 Discussions from the World Nutrition Forum 36 Making floating and sinking feed with twin-screw technology


THE BIG PICTURE New Zealand’s Cawthron Institute is celebrating the official opening of the new Finfish Research Centre, located at the Cawthron Aquaculture Park. The new facility, which boasts systems and capacity unique to New Zealand, will provide a world-class centre for finfish research, further anchoring Cawthron as aquaculture research experts. See more on page 8

46 Choosing the correct raw material for aquaculture cage netting 48 Mort removal - Meet the remarkable 'Foover' from UCO


Professor Simon Davies Editor, International Aquafeed

Reflections and advancements Here in Harper Adams University I start another academic cycle with a new intake of Masters Students in aquaculture from diverse backgrounds. I also teach a module for undergraduate students taking agriculture and veterinary biosciences, who are amazed about the aquatic animal production industry and its increasing contribution to global food production in terms of seafood supply. I have set two essay topics each year and these students have been able to write excellent reviews in aquaculture at a most professional standard on a variety of topics, including GMO salmon and the novel scientific research being conducted in areas of their choice. Final year students have much enthusiasm and I am hopeful of mentoring a steady input of talented young persons into the industry. I do hope that commercial sponsorship continues to support postgraduate students and certainly provide assistance to projects and training. One area of interest will be my new distance learning programme to educate technical persons on farms in specific species related topics such as salmon, trout and tilapia, leading to a credited Diploma in Aquaculture at Level 5, equivalent to second year undergraduate degree. A more advanced Level 7 version would equate to Masters Attainment for the Postgraduate Certificate award. These are innovative ideas to allow study at the workplace and will prove very successful I am sure for many around the world. On the travel front, I will make my first visit to Mexico this month as a guest of my colleague Kurt Servin of Jefo and speak to shrimp farmers about specialist topics on feed additives and functional supplements. There are so many new developments, and this will be a really good opportunity for dialogue and a learning exercise exchange! I hope to report on this in the next issue of IAF with some colourful photographs included. I am a very big supporter of using safe, high quality rendered animal by-products in aquafeeds and been very much involved in previous work to support this agenda leading to legislative changes. We must strive to ensure acceptability by the consumer so that we can forge ahead with viable materials to complement fishmeal. Fishmeal has been our gold standard protein for most carnivorous fish and shrimp but now more strategic incorporation of this excellent resource is advocated and we must continue to appreciate the great contribution it still makes to ensure the core quality of our protein base in many feed formulations. Who cannot notice the roles of feed additives such as prebiotics, probiotics, functional ingredients and bioactive supplements in our approach to disease management with ever increasing concerns for antimicrobial resistance and ways to seek alternative approaches within the feed? We have seen a plethora of studies and novel products in this field with more work no doubt on the agenda of many active researchers and companies throughout the world. Another area we have seen grow in the last 10 years was the quest for Omega-3 enriched ingredients to help support the controlled use of marine oils for this essential fatty acid within fish flesh and emphasising the needs of the consumer to promote continued health and wellbeing. Many novel algal sources have been explored and there is now much information available on this topic. A related area is the potential for terrestrial GM plants to produce the EPA and DHA levels required for use in particular for salmonid species. Also, the advent of GM salmon, and gene editing techniques will warrant a new re-assessment of fish nutritional requirements in future as will the ever-expanding use of land based RAS systems and deep offshore systems for fish rearing putting more demands on feed quality. Clearly, I will have much to consider and with others too in the years to come. The industry is now so complex with many specialisms that we will endeavour to provide soon a more comprehensive analysis with broader ranges of expertise. It has been a real pleasure to have been the face of this prestigious trade journal and to have met so many of you at conferences and meetings globally. I think the best years are still to come! 5 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

New Managing Editor at International Aqua Feed


erendale Features Editor Vaughn Entwistle has been promoted to the role of Managing Editor of International Aquafeed magazine. Entwistle joined the publishing company in February 2018. In previous employment he has worked as a writer/editor in a number of technology industries including wireless communications, materials handling systems, automotive engineering, radio control hobbies, digital photography and more. “I am thrilled about my new role with Perendale. I am particularly excited by the fast-developing world of aquaculture, an industry I believe will be crucial to the continued welfare of the global population for years to come. “My goal for the next year will be to expand the focus of International Aquafeed so that the magazine serves the entire field of aquaculture. Originally, the magazine exclusively covered aquafeed. A few years back, we added a fish farming technology focus. In my role as Managing Editor, I look forward to further expanding the technology component while continuing our comprehensive and worldleading coverage of the global fish feed market.�

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UN GC action platform for Sustainable Ocean Business moves forward

Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre’s RAS facilities ready to accelerate and support growth

he Action Platform for Sustainable Ocean Business, launched in June, has made a threeyear plan for its work on the role of the ocean in achieving the 17 sustainability goals. A roundtable on Sustainable Ocean Business takes place in New York during the regular session of the UN General Assembly and the UN Global Compact Leader Summit. Partners to the platforms and the Action Platform Secretariat will over the coming days address each of the areas important for a comprehensive overview on the role of the oceans. Cermaq’s approach through many years has been to engage in collaboration to address material sustainability issues in the aquaculture industry, specifically the salmon industry and value chain. However, global ocean challenges cannot be solved without multi-stakeholder dialogue, between government, business, research institutions and civil society. The work of the Action Platform for Sustainable Ocean Business will address four key areas, ocean business principles, in order to promote ocean health and productivity and ocean frameworks, to focus upon how regulations and enforcements support businesses. The third area has been termed ocean business cases, discussing how businesses can establish sustainable oceans and the final point is ocean opportunity, wherein business opportunities to help the SDGs are discussed.

kretting have recently expanded its Lerang Research Station in Stavanger, Norway, including a state-ofthe-art recirculation hall. The new facilities have been created to enable researchers to conduct experiments and tests on its latest closed system feed formulations in strict environmental conditions. The facility comprises of 12 independent recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), which will primarily be used for salmon product testing, alongside enabling research on feed and formulations. “Attempts to mitigate the biological risks associated with traditional aquaculture is leading to a lot of momentum for closed fish production systems, and this is happening all over the world”, ays Dr Paulo Mira Fernandes, RAS expert at Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre and International Director on the Aquaculture Engineering Society Board of Directors. “"Skretting has been operating within this space for a long time; we brought the first recirc-specific diet to the market in 2009. The knowledge and expertise that we continue to amass, along with the R&D facilities that we have in place will prove invaluable as more and more of these systems come on stream”, he continues. “Skretting has multiple research facilities dedicated to closed containment systems. As well as developing feeds that can help optimise our customer’s production, we have built an unprecedented knowledge bank of the most effective ways to manage and apply this technology. We know that feeding the fish means feeding the system, and our knowledge in this area ensures that we can help our customers maximise their production capacity”, concludes Fernandes.



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Taking aquaculture into new frontiers


he future of fish farming looks bright, as a new innovative software tool for targeting an improved environmental footprint and optimising processes may soon be able to boost the aquaculture business into a new frontier. This is the aim of a new project, launched by leaders in aquaculture innovation in Denmark, that combines a higher degree of knowledge sharing, better research and optimised production follow up. Aquaculture is rapidly evolving as it approaches the same high levels of other types of animal husbandry such as pig farming. Several ongoing research projects aim to speed up this process, including an exciting new project under the umbrella of the Danish Green Development and Demonstration Programme (GUDP). The GUDP-project aims to develop an advanced tool that can gather and process data from stakeholders throughout the aquaculture business including suppliers and fish farmers, in a shared cloud-based database. “The GUDP-project aims at combining IT and aquaculture to develop smart, easy-to-deploy, user-friendly tools that can lead to a new era of connected, responsible and efficient, and thus, sustainable aquaculture”, says Paw Petersen, Managing Director, Oxyguard International A/S. For data processing, the software will build on technologies such as big data, internet of things (IoT) and machine learning. This will lead to enhanced husbandry in the farms, optimised usage of feed and oxygen, and a significant range of other things that all in all will help reduce the environmental impact of aquaculture. Ole Christensen, Vice President for BioMar’s EMEA Division said, “for BioMar, the aim is to help our customers to become more efficient and more sustainable in an economically viable way. Our participation in projects of this kind helps us deliver on our strategy of innovating for a sustainable aquaculture for today, and tomorrow”.


Antonio Garza de Yta When will we stop being the copier of the national agenda?

bout a month ago, I was dining at La Pesca, Tamaulipas with the friend of all the sport fishermen of Latin America, Mr Pedro Sors, who ​​ told me an allegory that I found very interesting and that I would like to share with you: A man inherits a company and then he arrives like everybody else, with a lot of worries and pressures. A friend, relatively close, comes and asks

him something. “Hey, friend, now that you take this new position with a lot of responsibility, do you think I could support you by managing the company’s copier?” “The copier of the company?” replied the second. “Do I have a copier?” “Yes, notice that within your company there is a copier that does not generate much profit, but that caters to a lot of people, and that I, although I do not know anything about it, can manage it. Nobody has ever treated it as it should, but I promise you it will not give you problems. “ “Go ahead, as long as you do not cause me trouble in the company” And so, the person who does not know anything about copies starts to take over the copier within the new administration of the company, taking care not to grow too much so that the business is not attractive to anyone closer to the owner and avoiding any problem that this generates, although it is necessary to confront it so that the activity develops. The country’s aquaculture and fisheries sector has been the copier of the national agenda for too long. We have had managers who either have not known anything about the issue or have not fought for the sector of aquaculture as it should be, for being afraid of losing their job. When will we stop being the copier? When will the aquaculture it deserves be given relevance? When will it be understood that not only is it the most nutritious and sustainable source of animal protein in the world, but it is also the only one that can still grow and develop to feed the growing world and national population? When will it be seen as a tool not only to achieve food security, but also to generate wealth? When will we have someone who is a true professional of the sector, with vision, with experience, and with proven results at the helm of the activity? When will we see all the potential we have and bet on developing it? When? If today, we live a true transformation ... I hope it is immediately. During the meeting of the World Aquaculture Society in Montpellier, France, work began on the conformation, finally, of the African Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society. I am sure that this will contribute fundamentally to the consolidation of a network of aquaculture professionals in the region. As we know, Africa is a continent with an impressive diversity of ideas, religions and cultures. It is an enigmatic, magical and exciting place. I have always been a lover of Sub-Saharan Africa, I consider it one of the most soulful places on the planet, and I hope that we will soon see how the aquaculture activity consolidates and grows at an unprecedented rate. I would like it not to be the only continent where the availability of fishery and aquaculture products per capita decreases despite FAO’s predictions. I am sure that, in the coming months and years, our colleagues in the region will overcome any obstacle that may arise and very soon we will have our second regional event in Africa and that we will be true factors of change! Finally, we hope that everyone has enjoyed the LACQUA 18 in Bogotá, Colombia. As one of its creators, I rejoice to see how LACQUA continues to consolidate itself as the most important regional event in aquaculture. We hope that in 2020 I will return to Mexico, I will keep you informed. Antonio Garza de Yta, Ph.D in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture Global Consulting, Director World Aquaculture Society and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is currently Rector, Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas Bicentenario.

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 7

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New Finfish Research Centre will provide a boost for New Zealand aquaculture


ew Zealand’s Cawthron Institute is celebrating the official opening of the new Finfish Research Centre, located at the Cawthron Aquaculture Park. The new facility, which boasts systems and capacity unique to New Zealand, will provide a world-class centre for finfish research, further anchoring Cawthron as aquaculture research experts. The centre was officially opened by Her Worship the Mayor of Nelson, Rachel Reese on October 9, 2018. The Finfish Research Centre will deliver commercially relevant science to enable improved stock management, breeding, and husbandry and will support the development and growth of the aquaculture industry, says Cawthron Institute’s Aquaculture Group Manager, Dr Serean Adams.

Dr Adams says that the efficient salmon research programme currently underway in the facility will combine new, innovative analytical tools with industry-wide data analysis, environmental monitoring, and controlled trials. “This will translate into a step-change in industry knowhow and selective breeding of finfish to boost production efficiency, leading to greater economic returns and sustainable environmental management,” she says. “For farmers, fish growth rates, how healthy their stocks are and how efficiently they convert feed into weight gain are important factors for optimising productivity and make a big difference to the economic bottom line and to environmental sustainability. Feed is the largest cost of farming fish so knowledge about food conversion efficiency and the underlying biological processes that determine it is extremely important.” Cawthron Senior Aquaculture Scientist, Dr Jane Symonds, is leading the efficient salmon programme and says that it’s important to identify and fill knowledge gaps. “By understanding processes that influence finfish feed conversion, industry can improve its performance, profitability, and sustainability,” says Dr Symonds. This multi-disciplinary research involves multiple New Zealand and international collaborators and the Cawthron team has been joined by five new technical staff working at the Centre.

8 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Cermaq’s new closedcontainment system in Horsvågen begins production


ermaq have recently transferred smolt into their new closed containment system in Horsvågen, Norway. The closed containment system is built to provide maximum bio-security and fish welfare. The system is 120 metres wide, with a volume of 10, 400 m3. Its production capacity also exceeds 400 tonnes of biomass. Water will be pumped into the pen from 13 meters depth, preventing sea lice from entering the pen. The tarp wall is made of strong and flexible composite, which minimises escape risk. This is the world’s largest closed cage using flexible walls. “We have been working on this project for a long time, and we are happy that we now are ready to put fish into the pen”, says Frode Holmvaag, Manager Seawater Nordland in Cermaq Norway. Cermaq focuses on innovations that improve sustainable farming on existing location in coastal areas. The new closed containment system, which has been constructed in partnership with Botngaard AS and Serge Ferrari, is certified for locations with a significant wave height of two meters and can be used at most existing sea sites. Botngaard has long experience with constructions for the aquaculture industry. “The delivery and start-up of the closed cage in Horsvågen mark a milestone for Botngaard and our development program for closed cages. We will now work together with Cermaq and our industry partners to further improve the technology and daily operations of the cage”, says Magnus Stendal, System Delivery Manager in Botngaard. Serge Ferrari, world leader in innovative flexible materials, has developed the membrane wall that makes the containment system flexible and safe. “After 6 years spent on R&D on various topics such as non-toxic formulation, as little elongation as possible and excellent lifetime, Serge Ferrari has come up with a new membrane dedicated to flexible closed cages: our Biobrane Aqua 2050. This highly secure fabric gives security against fish escape, more than ever”, says Gabriel Faysse, Market Manager Environment and Energy at Serge Ferrari. Going forward, Cermaq will cooperate closely with groups of scientists to optimise the new closed containment system.

Leiber® Beta-S – β-glucans for: Improvement of the cellular & humoral defence mechanisms Support of immunological competence in larval & juvenile stages Improvement of feed conversion

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 9

KnipBio announces success with third single-cell protein product


Dr Neil Auchterlonie The crucial future of fishmeal

ttending the GAA’s GOAL conference in Guayaquil, Ecuador, recently, brought back into focus the large amount of effort that is being put into the promotion of novel ingredients for aquafeeds, largely at the expense of the materials that have supported the development of the sector, i.e. fishmeal and fish oil. There is a lot of excitement in conferences such as the GAA’s GOAL event, about some of these possible new ingredients, with liberal use of the word “innovation” in the discussions. IFFO’s position on the novel ingredients sector is clear. IFFO recognises the need for more volume of ingredients to meet the growing requirement for more aquafeed, in turn to support additional aquaculture production. With an annual finite supply of approximately five million tonnes of fishmeal, and a little under one million tonnes of fish oil, growth will not come in the production of these ingredients to any marked degree. Although, as a side note, it is interesting to note that there are still opportunities for the collection of more processing byproduct material from fisheries, and that with the development of aquaculture there will be more raw material available through that sector as well. No, the production of fishmeal and fish oil is unlikely to change significantly over time, and the feed industry will have to look to some of these other ingredients to make up the shortfall in volume that is a reality of the situation. In all this it is, however, important to realise that fishmeal and fish oil will continue to be the foundation for future aquafeeds, despite the communications to the contrary. Consistent use of the term “replacement” does nothing to help this message, and it is revealing that in private many of the contacts in these companies agree that the reality is “supplementation” of fishmeal and fish oil rather than replacement, but that message seems to change a little in the public arena. There are very good reasons why fishmeal and fish oil importance will be maintained or even enhanced, all related to the nutritional values and contributions made by fishmeal and fish oil. Fishmeal is the gold standard reference aquafeed ingredient for protein so it is perhaps natural that the novel (protein) ingredients would set their stall out in comparison to the marine environment’s finest feed material. The situation with the providers of new sources of long chain omega-3 fatty acids is somewhat different in that the supply of EPA and DHA is known to be a very real constraint to the development of the salmon farming industry with these being essential fatty acids in Atlantic salmon nutrition. It is also known that the western diet is largely deficient in omega-3 consumption, and with more science emphasising the nutritional benefits of EPA and DHA likely to appear over time, it is important for the supplementation message to be promoted by us all. Salmon are an ideal vehicle for the delivery of EPA and DHA. In order to support and make a success of the tremendous opportunity that exists for continued aquaculture growth and protein supply for the global population we really do need to all work together to make best use of the available ingredients.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University.


assachusetts-based biotech company, KnipBio, who are currently developing alternative proteins for the animal feed industry, announced the fruitful completion of a feed efficacy trial on Atlantic salmon using KBM500, the company’s astaxanthin-rich protein. This marks the third version of KnipBio’s single cell protein (SCP) to pass initial quality and efficacy trials. Larry Feinberg, CEO of KnipBio, says, “to make this feed trial possible, we had to first scale production of KBM500 to the interim manufacturing stage. This marks the third KBM product to be scaled to this size and is further demonstration of the maturity and reproducibility of the KnipBio Meal manufacturing technology.” The feed trials showed no significant difference in feed conversion ratio or weight gain for Atlantic salmon fed diets containing five percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent KBM500, when compared to fish fed a standard diet. The trials were conducted over a period of 28 days by an independent, third-party research organisation. Feinberg continued, “we have now completed successful efficacy trials with three different protein products: KBM203, which is rich in prebiotic compounds, our high-protein KBM324 ingredient, and now KBM500. “The tests have been conducted on commercially important finfish and crustacean species including salmonids, yellowtail, and Pacific white shrimp, and demonstrated KBM-based aquafeed diets offer equal or better performance than fishmeal. “We view this is strong evidence that KBM is highly suitable as a protein replacement for soy or fishmeal in an aquafeed, while at the same time providing additional functional feed benefits. I am increasingly encouraged by these trial results, particularly in the area of reduced animal mortality and overall growth performance.” This recent palatability test is part of KnipBio’s ongoing efforts to advance it’s Proteinplus nutritional platform technology. Approximately 20 trials have successfully confirmed the effect of KBM on growth rates and feed conversion ratios and have also confirmed KBM has no discernible effect on fish’s taste, colour, or texture.

10 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Sven-Olof Malmqvist


Do not fool yourself!

ust arrived back from China and made some reflections. The cuisine they have in Eastern China, or at least in Nanjing, the capital of the Jiangsu province, is very fresh and tasty, much better than in many other places in China. The Moutai, the distilled Chinese liquor produced from fermented sorghum, can taste very different depending on the brand. Another note in my book is the number of people, even in a remote city, is massive. When taking the high-speed train from Shanghai to Nanjing I asked someone about the population and the reply was that it is not a big city, just seven to eight million people. In Sweden we have a total number of nine million, so you understand where I am coming from! Walking around in these cities feels quite safe even during the evening/night but one thing you have to be observe is the silent electrical vehicles suddenly turning up behind you. I ´d really like to have a couple of those at my farm, very practical ones, worked like small trucks. Another fancy one I saw, in an office, was very tiny and could be folded and carried on the train and onto other mean of transportation. My main reason for going to China was, of course, the VIV feed show located in Nanjing with a number of exhibitors, both domestic and international. I met a whole bunch of potential suppliers of feed material and feed additive, some with old fashioned products but also some with some new innovative inventions. I had also the opportunity to visit some plants as well further inland. The good thing with these kinds of events are that you will make new contacts when you least expect it, and your network grows, which is good for the business as such. But if you think that China is the heaven of inexpensive labor you better think again. There are many other countries you should consider in that case, but if you are after good, intelligent, innovative, hard-working people go and invest in China. The working morale is high, and you will be surprised how far they have come already. And think about the buying power the growing middle class have, it´s heaven if you have the right product to sell. Sven Olof is an experienced export manager with a demonstrated history of working in the chemicals industry. He is skilled in marketing management, market planning, business planning, international business and sales management. He is a strong sales profession who graduated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Malmoe.

hileo has recently announced the launch of Prosaf®, an innovative solution to better value plant-based diets by increasing feed intake and performance. As over-population continues to plague the world, the demand for food only continues to drown in the face of a huge sustainability challenge. “Working at the crossroads of nutrition and health, we are committed to delivering innovative solutions that enhance farmed fish and shrimp health and performance,” says Otavio Castro, Global Species Manager Aquaculture at Phileo. “This is the context in which we’re delighted to unveil Prosaf®, a truly innovative product that will bring new flexibility to balancing aquaculture diets for optimal performance.” The use of marine ingredients, such as fishmeal and fish oil, is being drastically reduced in aquafeed production due to the decreasing availability of such items worldwide. While manufacturers are turning instead to more sustainable items, such as plant-based ingredients, their inclusion remains challenging, especially at high levels. This is due to negative impacts on feed intake, perturbations of metabolic and health status, and growth performance slowdown. In response to this issue, Phileo R&D developed Prosaf®, a highly palatable source of small size bioavailable peptides, free amino acids and nucleotides, designed to boost fish growth, performance and disease resistance. Prosaf® is a water-soluble purified yeast extract, obtained by primary fermentation with a high protein content. Officially analysed by HPLC, Prosaf® has been confirmed as containing only small peptides, more than 88 percent of which are below 3.6 kDa, with 38 percent below 1 kDa. As such, the product offers highly bioavailable nutrients to increase the palatability and digestibility of plant-based diets. Pre-launch studies, based on shrimp, have proved that supplementing low-fishmeal diets with Prosaf® results in the same feed intake, growth performance and restored immune status, as comparative diets with three times as much fishmeal content. There is also trial evidence that Prosaf® strengthens the natural defenses of shrimp in comparison to fish which are fed on a non-supplemented lowfishmeal diet. According to a trial carried out at Prince of Songkla University, supplementing a low-fishmeal diet (5%) with 2.5 percent Prosaf® for 62 days significantly increased the total hemocyte count in whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hemolymph.

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IFFO’s Annual Conference features high level panel and the EU commission FFO president, Eduardo Goycoolea, opened up the 58th IFFO Annual Conference, by declaring that the conference will answer and challenge the toughest questions facing the aquaculture industry. Goycoolea led a panel discussion with industry leaders on the future of marine ingredients and the key challenges facing the industry. Panellists represented core stakeholder groups around marine ingredients and were Árni M Mathiesen (Assistant Director-General, FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department), Ole Eirik Lerøy (Chairman of the Board, Marine Harvest ASA), Michiel Fransen (Head of Standards and Science Team, ASC), Dr George Chamberlain (President, Global Aquaculture Alliance) and Jim Cannon (CEO, Sustainable Fisheries Partnership). On opening the panel, Goycoolea stated that, “if we ask the tough questions and engage our stakeholders, we can ensure the future of this vital industry. Marine ingredients are a reliable, stable and vital food source with potential growth through byproducts. Let us be proud of what we do and the industry that we have”. The overall message from the discussions is that the industry plays a key role in global food security but to continue to prosper the industry needs to adapt and remain innovative, while continuing to increase responsible and sustainable practices. Mathiesen called the industry to “tell your story honestly, act sustainably and responsibly to remain mainstream, if you help meet the global food challenge then you will be respected, and if you do this in an innovative way then you will be admired. “As an industry you have

adapted your products to ensure the success of the aquaculture industry, but as resources continue to become scarcer, more innovation will be needed. There are huge opportunities in producing further new marine ingredients from our oceans, your future is in your hands, be true to your name.” Chamberlain echoed Mathiesen by stating that, “marine ingredients are the gold standard, but supply needs to increase through by-products and the development

of new innovative sources.” The closing presentation of the first day was by Paolo Caricato, the Deputy Head of Unit, Health & Food Safety Directorate General for The European Commission. IFFO invited Caricato to the conference to give further clarification on the requirements under EU regulations for the importation of fish oil for human consumption into the EU, a topic which has featured heavily in the public domain and created some confusion.

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gels! How is the gyprock in your garage flame-retardant certified? It is coated with alginates. Wonder why the water does not go through the paper goblets of your water fountain at work? They are coated with carrageenans. Underground drilling is quite tough on bits; they need to be cooled down with alginate mud.

An evolving industry

Dr Thierry Chopin Seaweeds: A multi-purposed bioresource well-suited for Integrated Sequential BioRefinery (ISBR) processing


or the last seven decades, westerners have been eating/ using seaweeds without really knowing it because it has been through extracts known as phycocolloids – the gelling, thickening, emulsifying, binding, stabilising, clarifying and protecting agents known as carrageenans and agars (extracted from red seaweeds) and alginates (extracted from brown seaweeds) – used in the food, brewing, textile, pharmaceutical, biotechnological, coating, drilling, etc industries. Why is your ice cream smooth and not full of big ice crystals? It contains carrageenans! The cocoa powder of your chocolate dairy drink is not all at the bottom of the bottle and you believe the product has not been on the shelf long: the microscopic carrageenan mesh did it again! Green olives with pimento strips inserted in the pit hole? Sorry, these strips are made of a carrageenan paste with a colorant and antioxidant (asthaxanthin from microalgae) and two drops of artificial pimento flavor! For fast relief of heartburn, you can take alginate tablets or liquids, which block acid reflux from your stomach. Some breweries have a clarifying step for your beer that involves the red seaweed called Irish moss. Fine printing on textile/silk is only possible if the material has been soaked in a carrageenan or alginate solution, which will then keep the dye in place. All the DNA analyses used to identify who did the crime on the CSI television series: banding patterns on agar

Figure 1

The phycocolloid sector, however, now represents only a minor part (11.4% of the tonnage and 10.8% of the value) of an industry in full mutation. The worldwide seaweed aquaculture production in 2016 was 30.1 million tonnes, worth US $11.7 billion, and represented 96.5 percent of the world seaweed supplies. The use of seaweeds as sea-vegetables for direct human consumption has become much more significant (77.6% of the tonnage and 88.3% of the value). Five genera dominate the edible seaweed market: Saccharina and Laminaria (kombu), Undaria (wakame), and Porphyra and Pyropia (nori). If the use of seaweeds as edible human food is well-established in Asian countries, a lot of work is still needed to educate westerners regarding cooking with seaweeds and going beyond the superfood fad, to have them understand the benefits of including these crops in their regular diet. The phycosupplement industry is a fast-emerging component (11.0% of the tonnage and maybe an underestimated 0.9 percent of the value). This includes soil additives, agrichemicals (fertilizers and biostimulants), animal feeds (supplements and ingredients; increasingly for aquaculture), fine and bulk chemicals, small biopolymers, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, functional foods, biooils, health anti-applications (anti-oxidants, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, anti-viral, antiinflammatory, anti-diabetic, etc.), botanicals, pigments, colorants, aromatics, brewing components, biomaterials/biocomposites, thermoplastics, adhesives, etc.

Seaweeds are prime candidates for integrated sequential biorefinery processing

For too long, seaweeds, like other fishery and aquaculture products, have been processed according to a simple scheme: one species - one process - one product. However, seaweeds remain a relatively untapped resource with a huge potential for integrated sequential biorefinery (ISBR) processing (Figure 1). We will have to change our attitudes and business models to evolve from this linear approach to move towards the ISBR approach (one species - several processes - several products) within a circular economy framework, where there are no longer wastes and by-products, but coproducts, which can also be marketed. With careful planning at the time of harvesting, and with sequential processing, more than one product can be manufactured from seaweeds: on one hand, a wide range of bio-based, highvalue compounds (cited above); on the other hand, lower-value commodity energy compounds (biofuels, biodiesels, biogases, bioalcohols, aldehydes, acids, heat/steam and power/electricity generation, etc.). We have already adopted this ISBR diversification approach with our own Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) products, focusing on those

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Many steps before (cultivation, harvesting, dewatering, pretreatment, transportation and storage) and during (separation,

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Optimising the entire value chain

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of the first type: seaweeds for human consumption, beer, cosmetics, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, partial fishmeal substitution, organically-certified IMTA kelps, and kelps for biochar production as a substrate for freshwater IMTA (or aquaponics). We have stayed away from the biofuel bandwagon, as things do not add up. It is doubtful that the surface area needed to secure the raw material for significant biofuel production will be societally acceptable, especially in the western world. Seaweed biomass production is highly seasonal, while people refill at gas stations 52 weeks of the year. Scaling up from laboratory experiments to commercial markets needs reality testing. Moreover, to be economically competitive, seaweed biofuel would have to be at least as cheap as the fossil biofuel presently used, i.e. petroleum. We have no interest in trying to sell seaweeds at several cents/ tonne fresh weight (FW) when we cannot produce them that inexpensively. On the contrary, we are interested in a spectrum of products ranging from a few $/kg FW (phycocolloids, fertilizers and feed), to several tens of $/kg FW (human food and fine chemicals), to around 100 $/kg FW or more (pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals).

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fractionation and sequential processing) the different technological pathways of an ISBR still require elucidation and sustainability assessment. The processing steps to extract, separate, fractionate and purify multiple products will have to be eco-, chemico- and enzymatico-friendly. In order to not denature products obtained later, mild extraction conditions will have to prevail at the beginning of the process, to then move to moderate and harsher extraction conditions at a later stage on subfractions, if needed. Functionalities will have to be maintained, as much as possible, along the process for optimal use/valorisation of the multi-purpose biomass, and not necessarily the maximisation of just one end-product, as some co-products could reveal themselves to be the real drivers of the emerging ISBR concept. To optimise the integration of biorefineries, aquaculturists and the different multi-sector end users will need to become inter-disciplinary in their approach. They will have to learn to collaborate and share/integrate the biomass cultivation and processing steps (production, harvesting, pre-treatment and transportation, separation and fractionation, and sequential biomass processing), while aiming at the lowest resource and energy inputs. Market volumes/values, ecosystem services, and public acceptance will have to be considered and included in the business models.

Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc. since 2016.

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 15




by Amélie Drouault & Emily Glenn, Arbiom, USA

rojections indicate that, by 2050, animal-derived protein is expected to double to more than 465 million tonnes of meat and one billion tons of milk. As demand continues to expand, there are growing concerns about the availability of resources—including fish meal and fish oil—to safely and sustainably feed the world. Considering fish protein already contributes 17 percent of the global human population’s intake of animal protein, it is safe to say this trend is a major societal concern. Aquaculture, due to its high feed conversion ratio and low land utilisation, must step up to the challenge of feeding our growing global population and increasing appetites for more animal protein. In order to sustainably and economically expand production of farmed fish and shellfish, aquaculture producers are fast searching for new solutions and innovations to improve their operations across the production process. In particular, feed is one area that offers a host of opportunities to both improve animal and, thereby, human nutrition, as well as reduce agriculture’s impact on the environment. There are several challenges currently facing feed formulators when it comes to sourcing raw materials – including volatile pricing, inconsistent quality, toxicity and rancidity risk, lack of transparency/traceability, biodiversity and environmental concerns. These challenges are encouraging aquafeed producers to find new solutions that deliver improved animal nutrition and cost-performance and have minimal impact on biodiversity and the environment. As we approach the limits of conventional agricultural production systems, alternative protein sources are emerging

and could expand to encompass up to a third of the market by 2054. In this article, we will explore the advancement of alternative protein sources to complement fish meal with a focus on Single Cell Proteins (SCPs) derived from an unlikely source.

Introducing Single Cell Proteins

As aquafeed producers have searched for new resources to meet protein demand, much of the focus has centered around a two-fold question: How can we produce more food using less resource inputs while also reducing agriculture’s impact on the

16 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed


Why is wood a solution to the global food challenge? • Wood is sustainable, abundant, and environmentally-friendly • No irrigation or fertilizer required • Strong mature industrial supply chains in forest products & paper industries, that generate high volume of wood waste & residues during the production process • Advancements in global silviculture practices ensure forest health, productivity and biodiversity are maintained/enhanced • Additive to food supply chain; does not compete with food crops • Available year-round • A source of organic carbon with ~99 percent content of fermentable matter environment and biodiversity? Single Cell Proteins (SCPs) include microbes such as yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae, which can be produced via fermentation, requiring less land, water and fertilizer than traditional plant or animal sources. Several strains of SCP’s can serve as high-quality protein sources for aquafeed, with high protein content and essential amino acids, along with micronutrients.

Wood as a solution

Until recently, SCP’s potential was limited due to production challenges. Producing a high-protein SCP product in

commercially-relevant volumes for animal feed in a way that is both economical at a commercial scale and safe in terms of feedstock and production inputs simply has not been achieved. There are several companies expanding production of SCP for animal feed. Arbiom is one company that is unique in this space as its technology relies on an unexpected feedstock to industrially produce SCP: wood. Wood is the most sustainable and readily available organic carbon source in the world and has historically not been a part of the food supply chain, even though it is a source of fermentable organic carbon (~99% percent of the dry weight of wood is organic matter potentially fermentable to SCP). Despite wood’s promising attributes, bioconversion processing technology to extract its fermentable components has not been effective or efficient to make it economical. Arbiom is commercialising its ‘wood to food’ technology to unlock wood’s potential to help address global protein supply challenges. Scientists from Arbiom have developed bioprocessing technology that can maximise the value of woody biomass by extracting its fermentable components and optimising conditions for SCP production with optimal properties for its use in animal feed, in particular, in aquafeed. The proprietary technology integrates upstream wood pretreatment and downstream processing with state-of-the-art fermentation technologies of an enhanced strain of Torula yeast (brand name: SylPro), enabling production of a highly-digestible, high-protein ingredient from wood.

Arbiom SylPro: Leading the next evolution of aquafeed

Arbiom’s proprietary enhanced strain of Torula yeast delivers additional benefits as a protein ingredient thanks to its improved amino acid profile and high digestibility. SylPro provides




supported by organised by

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valuable building blocks that improve nutrition and performance, making it an alternative option to replace or supplement conventional plant and animal protein sources in feed. Not only does SylPro have the attractive nutritional profile for feed formulators, but because it is a naturally enhanced strain of Torula yeast, it is already globally approved as a feed/food ingredient with a history of safe use. Therefore, making the path to market much shorter than other SCP microbes. Gut health is another consideration for producers when it comes to feed sources, as microbes in the digestive tract play a key role in the wellbeing and growth of animals. Torula yeast contains functional fibers, such as beta glucans and mannanoligosaccharides, which are known to positively impact gut health as immunomodulators and pathogen binders – thereby assisting an animal’s ability to fight disease. This is especially worth considering in light of regulatory and consumer pressure to reduce antibiotic use. Additionally, torula yeast does not contain endogenous allergens and antinutritional components that are found in milk, egg, wheat and soy products, making it an ideal protein source for susceptible populations. Contrary to other new classes of SCPs, torula yeast has regulatory approval for use in feed and food applications, and a history of safe use. Arbiom SylPro is differentiated from many other alternative proteins in the market, as it is produced using wood hydrolysates as the substrate for microbial fermentation. SylPro is an ideal high-quality alternative to soy protein concentrate and fish meal, delivering nutritional, economical, traceable and sustainable protein source for multiple species. Torula yeast is also a globally-approved feed ingredient, and, thus, it does not face the same regulatory barriers as

other microbial strains of alternative proteins, such as novel bacteria.

A win-win for all

The aquaculture industry is not the only sector that can benefit from wood-based SCP. Arbiom’s technology offers an opportunity to produce a higher-value end-product from wood and wood wastes, leveraging the forest products industry’s strong supply chains and asset base dedicated to sourcing and processing wood, as well as the high volume of by-product material, residues and wastes that lumber and paper mills produce, which is typically burned on-site. Some paper mills, for example, typically experience 3034 percent mass losses on site in the form of slabs, edgings, sawdust, fines and bark. By aligning themselves with a partner in bioconversion technology development, these companies may be able to find a more profitable use of their current wood wastes and/or new market segments to explore. Wood offers important advantages over the use other feedstock material for SCP production, such as waste and wastewater, methane, and glucose from food crops.

Bridging the gap

As the aquafeed market requirements continue to evolve, technology is expected to play a significant role in meeting protein supply-demand needs. New SCP-based protein solutions offer promising ingredients for aquafeed formulators and ultimately end consumers, while opening the door to a new era of renewable resources that can be utilised to meet market demands head-on. It’s a win-win for the feed and aquaculture industries and a milestone for driving healthier, more sustainable solutions to meet global nutritional demands.

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18 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed


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International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 19


Cage based aquaculture in the inland open waters of India


by Dr B Laxmappa, Department of Fisheries, India, lobally, India stands second in inland fish production next to China, but there is a huge gap in fish production between these two leading aquaculture countries. The prime objective of cage culture in inland open water is the stocking of reservoirs and culture of economically important fishes for

augmenting fish production. Cage culture in inland open waters is being evaluated as an opportunity to use existing reservoirs and meet the increasing demand for animal protein in the country. Reservoirs in India offer substantial scope for implementation of technology for intensive cage farming to realise water productivity, entrepreneurship and employment opportunities.

Cage culture

Cage culture is an emerging technology through which fishes are reared from fry to fingerling, and then from fingerling to marketable size while kept captive in an enclosed space that maintains the free exchange of water with the surrounding water body. A cage is enclosed on all sides with mesh netting made from synthetic material that resists decomposition in water for a long period of time. In India, cage culture in inland water bodies was initiated for the first time in air breathing fishes in swamps, for raising major carps in running waters in Jamuna and Ganga at Allahabad, and for raising carps, snakeheads, and tilapia in lentic (still water) bodies of Karnataka. Thereafter the cages have been used for rearing fry in many reservoirs and floodplain wetlands to produce advanced fingerlings for stocking main water bodies. India has 19,370 reservoirs spread over 15 states with an estimated 3.15 million ha surface area at full capacity, and this is expected to increase due to the execution of various water projects in the country.

Evolution of cage culture

In India, the Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute (CIFRI) attempted cage culture in the 1970s with the production of air-breathing fish in cages. Subsequently, trials with major carps were conducted in cages installed in river Yamuna and Ganga at Allahabad. Similar attempts were made with common carp, silver carp, rohu, snakeheads and tilapia in a still water body of Karnataka. The growth of cage farming got momentum during 2010-2012 with funding support from National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), National Mission on Protein Supplementation (NMPS), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY), etc. This paved a way for the dissemination and adoption of this technology in a number of reservoirs belonging 20 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed


to more than 15 states in ‘Mission Mode’ through NMPS scheme. The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh have widely adopted and upscaled cage culture technology. Cage culture has received substantial attention from researchers, entrepreneurs and policy makers in recent years. At present, there are more than 15,000 floating cages of different dimensions and materials, such as bamboo, galvanized iron (GI), high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in inland open water resources of India. In India, GI cages and HDPE modular cages are being widely adopted for fish farming in inland waters. Modular ‘Pontoon type’ fibre or HDPE cages have gained popularity due to their robustness, long life and low maintenance cost. The new generation cages of size 5 x 5 x 4 m or 6 x 4 x 4 m are commonly used in reservoirs. The private firms and entrepreneurs are now venturing into cage culture due to high profitability.

Species and stocking rate

The stocking density of fish depends on the carrying capacity of the cages and feeding habits of the cultured species. For those species which are low in the food chain, stocking will also depend on the primary and secondary productivity of the sites. The optimal stocking density varies with species and size of fish and ensures optimum yield and low disease prevalence. The culture of a number of candidates fish species like striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus), Tilapia (Monosex), puntius (Puntius javanicus), Labeo bata, barramundi (Lates calcarifer), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), besides air breathing fishes, snakeheads and ornamental fishes have been attempted in cages and encouraging results obtained in terms of growth and survival.


Many biological, climatic, environmental and economic factors affect the feeding of fish in cages. Fish growth rate is affected by feeding intensity and feeding time. Each species varies in maximum food intake, feeding frequency, digestibility and conversion efficiency. These, in turn, affect the net yield, survival rates, size of fish, and overall production from the cage. The artificial floating feeds with crude protein varying from 20 percent to 30 percent are being used for iridescent shark (P. hypophthalmus) farming in cages. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.3-1.5 has been obtained for table size fish production of Pangas species.


Regular monitoring of some water quality parameters, including dissolved oxygen, pH and free ammonia, inside cages

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is necessary. Normally in Indian reservoirs, with the objective of raising fingerlings in cage culture, water quality is not conducive to good fish health and on very rare occasions, with a dense algal bloom, some parameters cause stress for the fish. Therefore, cages should be cleaned with a soft coir brush fortnightly to remove biofouling organisms like algae, sponges and debris. Routine checking for loose twine, torn meshes from predators, anchors and sinkers is also necessary.

Harvesting and production

Cages are usually harvested by moving them into shallow water, crowding the fish into a restricted area, and then simply dipping the fish out of the cage. Or, the cage can be lifted partially out of the water so that the fish are crowded into a smaller volume, and then the fish dipped out. This makes it possible to partially harvest fish from cages as needed for local niche markets or personal consumption. The CIFRI has




facilitated implementation of cage culture through introduction of non-native species and has achieved a production level of 50 kg per m3 in cages stocked at 60 per m3. Although there is enormous potential for fish production in cages, a modest beginning of 15,000 cages in Indian reservoirs could produce 67,500 tons of fish.


The oligotrophic nature of medium and large reservoirs of the country offer ample scope for implementation of cage culture technology for intensive fish production system. The cage culture of commercially important diversified species will be useful for realisation of water productivity, entrepreneurship and employment generation paving a way for the empowerment of fishing folk in the country. Stocking with the right fish species, using seed of appropriate size and introducing it at the right time are essential to optimising fish yield from reservoirs.





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Sustainable shrimp nutrition


Supporting shrimp performance and health in reduced fishmeal diets with Prosaf®

by Otavio Serino Castro and Nadège Richard, Phileo Lesaffre Animal Care, France

ishmeal usage in commercial feeds has decreased from an average of 30 percent to 15 percent in recent years, subject to shrimp life stage, production systems and intensity. In addition, recent estimates suggest that fishmeal usage can be reduced further, potentially achieving average levels as low as 5 percent by 2025. To nutritionally rebalance shrimp feed formulas, different strategies can be adopted using specific protein sources. These range from premium ingredients, such as soybean protein concentrate and krill meal, to lower grade alternatives like rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and rendered animal by-products, such as feathers and blood meal. For each adopted strategy, nutritionists will assume different levels of risk when it comes to maintaining feed efficiency and growth performance. This is especially true for field conditions that impose additional challenges related to stress and shrimp health.

powerful of these attractants are small water-soluble molecules such as amino acids, small peptides, amines, nucleotides, nucleosides and quaternary ammonium bases. Reducing these key compounds, which are generally found in fishmeal and marine ingredients, can compromise the attractiveness and palatability of the feed concerned. Another negative aspect is that using a slower and less efficient feeding process can lead to increased losses of nutrients in the feed by leaching, alongside reduced feed intake and poor feed conversion ratio. Furthermore, water and environmental quality can also be negatively impacted. Identifying solutions to improve low fishmeal diets, while mitigating and neutralising any detrimental effects on shrimp performance and health, can be a valuable tool for the aquaculture feed industry, enabling them to extract the best use and value from alternative protein sources, especially plant-based raw materials.

Challenges associated with low fishmeal diets for shrimp farming

Different yeast products have been used in relation to aquaculture nutrition alongside different target applications. These include inactivated and spent yeast (protein source), yeast cell wall (mycotoxin binder and immune-stimulation), purified B-glucans (immune training), purified nucleotides (nucleotides supplementation), etc. To address the growing protein challenge for the aquaculture industry, Phileo - Lesaffre Animal Care has invested in the research and development of a premium soluble yeast extract (Prosaf®), a product which is rich in free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides, qualities which can help support nutritionists who are working with reduced fishmeal diets. Prosaf® benefits from being a primary culture of a selected proprietary baker’s yeast strain, produced under a standardised autolysis, solubilisation and purification process. This enables a high protein content yeast extract to be produced efficiently with a consistent composition, full safety control and traceability. Containing a minimum of 63 percent crude protein, Prosaf® has a well-balanced essential amino acid profile consisting of more than 56 percent amino acids in the total composition (26% in the free form). Prosaf® is composed only of small peptides: 95

Replacing fishmeal in shrimp diets can affect growth in several ways. Among the main factors which limit alternative protein utilisation are the reduced digestibility of essential nutrients; decreased attractiveness and palatability, and the presence of antinutritional factors that might not be completely inactivated or destroyed during feed processing. The reduction of nutrient digestibility in alternative protein sources is generally linked to higher fibre and ash content; the presence of antinutritional factors, such as phytic acid which can bind essential nutrients, and losses which occur during ingredient storage and processing, which are generally caused by reduced freshness, high temperatures or chemical treatments. Antinutritional factors also not only negatively impact shrimp performance by making nutrients unavailable, but also due to direct action on digestive and metabolic functions, enzymes activity, nutrients transport, etc. The behavioral response of farmed shrimp to feed in the water, such as feed detection, orientation and movement, is moderated by the presence of chemical signals in the water. The most

Premium soluble yeast extract as an innovative tool to support sustainable aquaculture production beyond fishmeal replacement

24 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed


percent of the product is classified as being under 3.6 kDa with 45 percent being below 1.9 kDa. Glutamic acid accounts for 10.9 percent and nucleotides 7.7 percent of the total composition. Bringing all these qualities together, Prosaf® was selected to undergo a battery of tests to enable it to be validated and launched for use by aquaculture feed manufacturers in their feed formulation strategies.

Prosaf® application in shrimp

feeding regime, was used to measure feed consumption preference as assessed in 13g-shrimp over a period of 15 days (two meals per day). Feed supplemented with Prosaf® achieved significantly higher feed intake compared to the LFM diet, being consistently consumed at a higher rate on a daily basis. A third trial was conducted to evaluate the impact of Prosaf® supplementation on shrimp growth and health in LFM diets (5%), compared to an HFM group (15%). Shrimp fed on the LFM diet recorded a numerically lower body weight compared to the HFM group. The supplemented diets (0.5 and 2.5%) delivered a final weight which was statistically comparable to the HFM group. Prosaf® at 2.5 percent significantly increased the final body weight of shrimp compared to the control. The same response was observed concerning shrimp specific growth rate. No statistical differences were found in feed conversion rate results, although a trend towards a decrease was observed in response to increasing Prosaf® supplementation. Some health parameters also improved significantly with both inclusion levels of Prosaf. Total hemocytes counts and phenoloxidase activity in the haemolymph were increased with Prosaf® supplementation in the LFM diet, demonstrating additional benefits to the animals. Prophenoloxidase, in the group supplemented at 2.5 percent, was also numerically superior, even when compared to the HFM diet.

A three-phase scientific project was carried out to validate and prove the efficacy and potential of Prosaf® supplementation in low fishmeal diets for shrimp. During phase one, the In vivo digestibility of the product was assessed to assure the bioassimilation of the nutrients. This featured a trial application of the indirect method using yttrium oxide as a marker in 14g shrimp, demonstrating Prosaf’s digestibility for crude protein at 89 percent, lipid 90 percent and energy 83 percent. The average essential amino acid digestibility was higher than 95 percent. A further trial evaluated the impact of increasing dosages of Prosaf® (0.5% to 2.5%) in low fishmeal diets (LFM, 5%) on total diet digestibility, compared to a high fishmeal diet (HFM, 15%). Prosaf® supplementation was effective in restoring protein digestibility in LFM to the same level as for HFM. Usage at 2.5 percent significantly improved protein digestibility compared ture | 2018 to Hatchery Adresults Campaign Theme: Ad-2 IanofJefferds | Design: A | Version: 1 LFM. These prove the| high bio-availability the product’s protein content and its positive impact when included Conclusion rnational Aqua Feed | Size: Half Page | Dimensions: 7.5” x 5.1875” (190mm X 132mm) in feeds. Prosaf® as a premium functional ingredient can be an innovative A trial carried out during phase two was designed to assess and cost-effective tool to reduce aquaculture industry risks the effect of Prosaf® on shrimp feed consumption preference. A when developing strategies to support the rational utilisation of alternative proteins while still maintaining feed efficiency and paired trial using a low fishmeal diet (3%), fed both with and optimum performance. without Prosaf® supplementation (2%), under a simultaneous

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International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 25


Can you farm sea urchins?


by Rebecca Sherratt, Production Editor, International Aquafeed

ea urchins don’t immediately come to mind when thinking of the variety of delectable goods we farm from the seas, but they soon might be. A team of three companies, based in Canada and Norway, are researching into the perfect feed for sea urchins to make this spiny echinoderm a popular food source for consumers worldwide. Sea urchins (Echinoidea) come in 200 different varieties, distinctive by their long spikes completely covering their hard shells, which they use to move about and trap particles of food. They dwell upon the ocean floor and coral reefs worldwide, typically preferring warmer temperatures. They are omnivorous creatures, but mainly feed upon algae on the rocks, and sometimes treating themselves to decomposing matter such as mussels, decomposing fish, sponges and barnacles (but this is not natural for them). They can live between 15 years to an astonishing 200 and can grow between 3-10cm in size. Japan is in fact, one of the only countries which farm and regularly eat sea urchins. Often compared to the taste of scallops, with a smooth and custard-like texture, the Japanese regularly have sea urchin (uni) sushi, and sea urchin roe, which is actually the reproductive organs of the sea urchin. Considered a delicacy, sea urchin roe can retail for over US $450 per kg, served raw as sashimi or often

with soy sauce and wasabi. In the Mediterranean, people often eat sea urchin with lemon, whilst in New Zealand ‘kina’ is the name of their raw delicacy of a sea urchin nature.

The companies behind the magic

Canadian company Green Seafoods is working with Memorial University scientists on grow-out trials for sea urchins. However, this isn’t the first time Green Seafoods have tried this. Back in 2000, the company tried similar tests, however, they came across issues when trying to use a feed which increased the roe to a marketable size. Mark Sheppard, Operations Manager for Green Seafoods, describes the difficulty the company had in using the right kelp-based feed for the sea urchins; “Fresh kelp is difficult to gather year-round here and when we fed [sea urchins] any fish for protein, they ended up tasting like what they had just eaten. We couldn’t sell them.” Despite the attempt all those years ago being a failure, Green Seafoods are now determined to try again, with the help of Norway-based Urchinomics. Urchinomics is a global organisation that ensures the use of sea urchins in scientific testing, taste profiles and business operations are safe and sustainable. They transform specific forms of kelp into feed for sea urchins, feed which finally look like they can successfully make sea urchins marketable to an international industry.

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Urchinomics has engaged fishers, ecologists and scientists and distribution partners. This 360° approach benefits from over 20 years of insight in the feed department from partners like Nofima, a Norwegian fisheries institute, who supplied an urchin feed recommendation and research to Japan’s Mitsubishi Corp, who are currently tweaking the urchin feed in preparation for commercialisation. Urchinomics has been supplying their technology globally for growout trials over the past several years. At Newfoundland’s Memorial University’s Ocean Sciences Centre, they finally think they are onto a winner. Sheppard sounds especially confident, stating that, “We know that [Urchinomics feed] works in the lab. We are going to do some full-blown commercial trials.” Sheppard states that he thinks the best area for farming sea urchins is in Canada, where green urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) swarm the area in abundance and are available throughout the year. Sea urchins are also much easier to maintain than normal fish that are farmed for aquaculture purposes, not having the same food or water flow demands that many finfish require.


The feed formulations at Urchinomics have undergone intense, detailed enhancements, to ensure that the future of sea urchin farming only continues to expand. Urchinomics President, Brian Tsuyoshi Takeda, says they are now in the process of refining the feed formulation, in order to enhance performance and ecological footprint. “Our first major step was to replace all animal-based ingredients (fish oil and fishmeal) with sustainably harvested kelp alternatives. This makes our feed even more environmentally sustainable as we are now fishmeal and fish-oil as well as hormone and antibiotics-free”, Takeda clarifies.

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 27


Among these changes, the variety of kelp utilised in the feed has also changed. The largest kelp variety that Urchinomics now use in their sea urchin feed is Japanese kombu (Laminaria japonica). “This kelp species is naturally incredibly high in umami (savoury taste), so we have high hopes that by using the best ingredients, we can also make the best urchins”, continues Takeda. Urchinomics unique approach also benefits kelp restoration. Kelp forests are the ocean's natural nurseries for fish and marine

diversity. Human overfishing of predatory species like lobsters, crabs and cod from the worlds oceans has uleashed a population explosion of sea urchins that have decimated some of the world’s most productive kelp forests. This has created the perfect conditions for the humble sea urchin to reproduce unhindered, to overgraze on the kelp forests and creating ‘urchin barrens’- a near lifeless environment, an empty desert void of shelter and breeding grounds for fish. The irony is that, after destroying the kelp forests and collapsing its dependant food chain, urchins draw down on their energy stored in their roe sacs and starve. These empty urchins become unattractive for predators or human consumption as they have little or no roe in them, one of the world’s most exclusive seafood products. If nothing is done, urchins will occupy once-productive kelp forests, keeping them barren for decades or even centuries, and likely expand to new kelp forests to ravage, making them a dangerous environmental threat that can be minimised with the development of sea urchin farming, also known as ranching, in most countries.

The Solution

The Urchinomics solution is to engage fishers, ecologists, and scientists to identify and remove empty, unproductive urchins that hinder kelp forests from recovering and place them in quality ranching facilities to encourage economic gain for local communities ready for export. The benefits to mass sea urchin ranching are plentiful. Before, when fishers would gather sea urchins when out at sea, these urchins would prove useless and void. With the introduction of a feed that renders sea urchins worthy of mass-farming, each harvest will only prove to be a success. Sea urchins are easy to farm and will be cost-effective to harvest, as they can be harvested in almost any conditions at any time. The low-maintenance of sea urchins also makes them a desirable and prospering business. Urchinomics’ sea urchin farms are only small yet provide ample space for their produce. With Urchinomics feed, even empty sea urchins with small roe’s can be fed up and enlarged in just six to 10 weeks. Prior to the refinement of Urchinomics feed, one additional reason why sea urchins were so rarely farmed in Western markets was due to their unreliability. Wild caught sea urchins tend to vary in taste, roe yield and colour. Farmed sea urchins remove this problem, creating a healthy, desirable batch of urchins regularly and without worry. Overfishing of sea urchins’ natural predators, such as crabs, lobsters and cod, also mean that sea urchins are plentiful. By farming these spiky urchins, some alleviation will be provided for other, overfished wonders of the sea.


“We are taking barren urchins, harvesting them sustainably and using a land-based system to turn them into a high-value product that can support our Canadian labour costs”, Sheppard concludes. “Given our proximity to Europe, we are going to look for markets in that direction first.” Sheppard’s optimism is contagious, and as trials continue at the Marine Sciences Centre, we could all soon be seeing sea urchins on the menu.

28 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Discussions from the World Nutrition Forum Biomin held the 8th World Nutrition Forum in Cape Town South Africa between October 3-5, 2018. Perendale was among 800 delegates from 76 countries who attended the event and will be bringing reports from the conference in coming editions. Dr. Jan Vanbrabant, Managing Director of BIOMIN and CEO of ERBER Group said: “Our goal has always been to support sustainable agriculture, now and in the future ‌ Our main contribution to sustainability is the application of our solutions in livestock.

30 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

#1 Plenty of fish: The future of aquaculture


An overview of Julian Conway McGill's presentation by Matt Holmes, Features editor, International Aquafeed

ulian Conway McGill works for consultancy LMC international - a leading independent economic and business consultancy for the agribusiness sector around the world. Dr McGill is the head of south east Asia at LMC and he gave a presentation to the World Nutrition Forum in Cape Town, South Africa called: ‘Plenty of fish: How will the choice of species being domesticated influence aquafeed demand?’ The growth in beef production has been slower than pork and chicken. This also combines with the perceived health benefits of white meat. “A less commonly noted though equally remarkable transformation, has been the growth in aquaculture production,” says Dr McGill. “Fish are even more efficient than livestock at converting feed into edible weight. As fish are buoyant, do not expend energy to warm their body and as they excrete nitrogen waste directly through their gills, they are able to channel more energy into weight gain than land animals.” Livestock, by contrast, need to expend energy to stand, maintain their body temperature and convert ammonia into urea among other energy requiring functions. “Aquaculture therefore has the potential to be a very efficient

source of meat”, he continues. “At their most efficient, salmon can achieve a ratio of oneto-one, with each kilogram of feed resulting in a kilogram of additional meat. This makes them 20 times as efficient at converting feed to meat as cattle.”

Advantages of aquaculture

One of the challenging aspects of aquaculture is the sheer variety of different species in the sea with over 400 types of fish being successfully farmed as compared with fewer than 10 land animals. Dr McGill explains fish can be split into two broad categories: bulk white fish and luxury fish. Bulk white fish farming has grown exponentially, thanks to its hardiness compared to higher value fish. These species provide protein at a low price and demand has been increasing with growing population. They have also replaced cheap fish from wild fisheries. The growth in these species has been predominantly driven by rapid production growth in China and South East Asia and is narrowly concentrated into three main groups: carp, catfish and tilapia. In contrast production of luxury fish such as salmonids, high value white fish and crustaceans is largely driven by exports and demand is increasing with higher incomes. There are marked differences between these three categories.

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International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 31

With salmonids, Atlantic salmon has witnessed a spectacular growth in the last 30 years thanks to a combination of improved farming techniques and greater market appeal compared to other fish. The industry is dominated by a small number of global players, in particular Norway and Chile. There is a large variety of high value white fish which are farmed, but only two species account for large volumes: seabass/ seabream and amberjack. Market growth for both species has traditionally been limited, by their lower versatility compared with salmon. Aquaculture only accounts for a negligible share of total volume with most species still reliant on wild capture. China’s increasing demand for these species may mean production is forecast to expand in the future, says Dr McGill. The crustacean category mainly consists of shrimp and prawns, which account for around 60 percent of output. Until the mid2000s, capture accounted for most volumes, however, cultured shrimp has taken over in the last decade. The white leg prawn has come to dominate the market and the situation is likely to continue with white leg shrimp production growing rapidly, particularly in China. Dr McGill says there are major differences in the extent to which the species have been domesticated. “The most visible expression of the success of modern aquaculture in the west is salmonid culture, especially trout and Atlantic salmon. Both were formerly scarce and expensive luxuries and now are ubiquitous and comparatively inexpensive”, he says. “The Atlantic salmon industry is expected to continue to grow at fast rates. However, with limited potential for new sites and restrictions on biomass in Norway, production growth will be slower compared with historical rates. “Chile will grow comparatively quickly as it recovers from the disease outbreak and advantage is taken of unused capacity in production licenses in favourable zones. “Though many have been heralded as the ‘next salmon’, so far no species of high value of white fish has emerged which can compete with the success of Atlantic salmon. “By contrast, crustacean production has expanded at the fastest rate of the high value species.” Since 2008 farmed shrimp have accounted for a greater volume than caught shrimp. High demand for imports of shrimp by the US and EU as well as growing consumption in Asia have propelled shrimp production to even greater volumes.” He also adds that the fact that shrimps have multiple crops per year means their growth has been exponential rather than linear. Dr McGill says the aquafeed is the most significant factor in determining the success of aquaculture. Feed determines the size and speed of growth in fish and influences the operation of the immune system and affects their disease resilience. It can also affect the environmental impact of aquaculture with undigested aquafeed, leading to ammonia leaching and pollution.

The impact of aquafeed

Aquafeed is usually the largest single operating cost in most aquaculture operations. The central challenge facing most species is that they presently require fishmeal produced from the capture of oily fish, such as anchovy and herring. However the capture of oily fish has been falling since the early 1990s. Since its peak in 1994, the annual capture of oily fish has declined from 38 million tonnes to 26 million tonnes a year. This has reduced the availability of fishmeal – a crucial feed ingredient. The solution would appear to be replacing fishmeal with cheaper protein sources such as soybean meal. “However, persuading fish that vegetable protein sources are in

Source: LMC International Aquafeed and Aquaculture to 2025

fact as delectable as fishmeal has proven to be a great challenge,” says Dr McGill. Fish do not have a specific requirement for protein and lipid as such, they require amino acids and fatty acids that are constituents of the protein and lipid provided in the diet. Not all feed ingredients provide these essential amino acids and fatty acids and this needs to be taken into account when formulating aquafeed. There are over 400 species of fish each with a different feed requirement as opposed to livestock where the number of livestock is fewer than 10. There are a number of other problems which limits the ability to substitute different ingredients. The mix of ingredients needs to be digestible and palatable to limit the amount of feed left unwanted in the water and it needs to be pelletable to ensure it is in a form which can be consumed by the fish. Complicating this are the differences in the size of the mouth of different fish and the manner which they catch and devour their feed: tearing, grinding, chewing or sucking their food depending on the species. The constancy of the pellet has to be such that it does not dissipate in the water. “As a result the feed requirements of fish cannot be solved through least cost linear programming. “Instead aquafeed remains more an art than a science, constantly in flux and reliant on experimentation and research,” says Dr McGill. Atlantic salmon is the one species that has achieved a significant reduction in fishmeal without compromising the health and growth of the fish. “Solving this challenge for shrimp remains a major challenge, but also one that should prove immensely profitable to the successful feed ingredient producers, suppliers and compounders,” Dr McGill concludes.

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#2 Antibiotic resistance in animal nutrition An overview of Konrad J Domig's presentation by Matt Holmes, Features editor, International Aquafeed

ntibiotics were placed firmly on the agenda at Biomin’s World Nutrition Forum in Cape Town. Konrad J Domig, of the BOKU University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, spoke about the relevance of antibiotic resistance in animal nutrition. “Since their discovery, antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine. The fundamental problem of antibiotic resistance development has long been known and was initially countered with the development of new active substances. “After hardly any new active ingredients have been approved in the last two decades, the fundamental problem of the widespread use of antibiotic agents has become acute. This challenge has been taken up by different legislative bodies with different approaches to implementation.” This also concerns the possible application of antibiotic agents in the practice of livestock farming. Mr Domig said, in addition to the challenge of antibiotics resistance in livestock husbandry, further drivers of the problem can be named. “A rapidly increasing human population that in parallel develops a disproportionality high demand for animal protein for nutrition, as well as challenges in the supply of drinking water and the disposal of municipal wastewater and waste. It should be emphasised that the antibiotic resistance problem that currently exists in human medicine has also mainly developed in this environment. “On the other hand recent resistance monitoring data show a strong linkage of resistance development in human and veterinary medicine and both of them can be seen as drivers of the antibiotic resistance development in the environment.” Mr Domig added that any use of antimicrobial substances leads to resistance development in microorganisms. This also applies to other antimicrobials such as disinfectants and heavy metals. “The underlying resistant microorganisms or resistance

genes can nowadays be detected not only in the application environment, but also far away. In the end the direct danger to humans lies in the potential treatment failure of infections that means that no effective antibiotics are available against defined multidrug-resistant pathogens.” Mr Domig says that a large number of monitoring systems in human and veterinary medicine are established. “Regardless of the discussion concerning the complete recording of the amounts of antibiotics used and their correct assignments to the treated animal equivalents, as well as the critically considered random sample analysis of selected indicator bacteria, they nevertheless provide a rough insight into the global development of antibiotic resistance.” Mr Domig says that a number of small steps is needed in order to achieve the future viability of livestock production. This strategic approach can be summarised by the European Food Safety Authority’s (EFSA) keywords: reduce, replace, rethink. It is also important to evaluate the use of antimicrobial agents in the context of risk considerations and to consider appropriate alternative measures and to implement them with corresponding success. “Although the current situation of the resistance developed in the livestock sector is still a small direct threat to the consumer, it is important to be active on a broad front,” said Mr Domig. A corresponding risk assessment for the spread of microbial resistance must also assess the risks of the alternatives and should include risks in livestock husbandry and risks along the food chain, in the consumer sector and in the environment. “The multiple challenges of minimising antibiotic resistance require a risk-based use of antibiotics combined with high levels of management and hygiene and appropriate on-demand animal nutrition. The further development of preventive measures (from animal breeding to vaccinations), drug development (From new antibiotics up to new principles of action) as well as novel feeding concepts are necessary to make modern livestock farming economical and sustainable.”

34 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed


Making floating and sinking feed with twin-screw technology by Alain Brisset, Clextral, France


oday’s worldwide consumed sea food can be split between aquaculture production and wild capture: this represents respectively 80 million metric tons (53%) for breaded animals and 71.2 million metric tons (47%) for the captured fishes. These aquatic animals include finfish, crustacean and mollusks. Among the cultured animals in 2016, some are fed manufactured feed (56.6 million metric tonnes), whilst some are not fed manufactured feed (23.4 million metric tonnes such as oysters, mussels, ..) Finally, it is estimated that 35 to 40 million metric tonnes per year of feed is needed for the aquaculture industry.

Floating and sinking feed

In order to meet this demand, feed may be distributed as food wastes or/and as prepared feed. Different technologies are available to prepare the feed such as mixers, pellet-presses, expanders and extruders. Extrusion technology is a relatively recent technology used in the aquaculture industry, originating approximately 40 years ago. Extrusion is a thermomechanical process consisting in forcing a product through a small size hole, under pressure and temperature thanks to a mechanical device named an archimede screw. The functions of an extruder are generally considered to be for feeding, conveying, compressing, cooking and shaping continuously. The expansion is due to the water flash off caused by the pressure difference out of the die. (Figure 1)

Twin-screw extrusion

A fundamental difference between single and twin-screw technology is the mixing ability of a twin-screw extruder (TSE). This unit operation is generated by the two intermeshing screws

co-rotating in a closed cylinder (the barrel) while a single screw extruder (SSE) works with only one archimede- type screw. Conveying in an SSE relies on friction between the material being processed and the inner surface of the barrel, while a TSE can transfer any mixture from pure water to high viscous doughs even containing high levels of fat, similar to a positive pump. A TSE is not sensitive to “slip-inducers� such as water and fats. The mixing properties of TSE allows a very homogeneous transfer of mechanical shear and temperature in the processed dough, giving it a homogenous form of cooking and viscosity. It is also possible to mix into a TSE liquid such as water and fat, in order to fine-tune the final expansion degree. Additionally, the lower availability of fish flour and fish oil have led the manufacturers to use alternative raw materials in their recipes: plant proteins, processed animal proteins, mixtures of different oils and new materials such as insect meals, krill meals, single cell proteins. We need a very flexible machine to handle these ever-changing recipes and possible raw material compositions as well.

Floating and sinking feed

A TSE gives an extreme high flexibility because of its mixing ability; additionally, to the process of different raw materials, it offers independence of parameters, such as feeding rate and screw speed, and very fine temperature and shear control in the different modular zones of the extruder: this is a perfect tool to easy master the sinking and floating parameters. The extruded feed must comply with the nutritional needs of the animal, but also with the physical requirements and behavior of the animal: fast sinking feed for the benthic or demersal species, slow sinking for the pelagic or surface species. The salt content (marine, fresh and brackish waters) also plays a role with this request.

How does one control this?

Figure 1

First, the preconditioning must be efficient with optimised cooking of the starch and protein denaturation. Because some recipes present a low starch contain (8-10% for many), it is important to start the gelatinisation with a good device to mix equally water and steam with the powder. It is also crucial to maintain the right holding time to let the steam condense and give its latent energy. Other 36 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed


aspects must be considered, such as the safety, cleaning and automated parameter-control which help in switching quickly from one recipe to another. Then a key process takes place in the extruder itself: for sinking pellets, we need a high apparent density, relatively hard, but digestible and water stable granulate. We will obtain a water stable pellet when the starch and proteins are well cooked; the extruder must have the right screw configuration to control the shear and the temperatures along the barrel. (Figure 2) If we want to adjust the right apparent density for example to reach values between 350 and 580 g/L, we have to control the expansion degree of the granulates. We therefore have to increase/decrease the internal viscosity of the processed material in the extruder. This will be achieved with a corresponding temperature profile and an efficient internal cooling of the modular barrels; above 580 g/l, we can use a venting system what recovers the vapors/ energy into the preconditioner. Due to this system, one can immediately decrease the temperature of the mass and extrude a high viscous cooked dough which will show a limited expansion. With such a process it is possible to reach densities up to 750 g/l, which is a good value for shrimp feed. The water stability must obviously remain correct (for example: 3-10h depending on recipe for shrimps). One can finally extrude the cooked and viscous dough through the die. The die-design and extrusion surface contribute as well to the expansion degree (and therefore the floating/sinking properties). For high expanded floating pellets, you can choose relatively short channels for the die: 1.0 to 1.5 in diameter, and with a relatively small extrusion surface (MM2/extruded kg/h).


A TSE machine offers the highest flexibility to accurately control the process parameters and adapt itself quickly to recipe and raw-material composition changes. It enables the production of floating and sinking fish feed pellets in range of 350 to 750 g/l, according to the recipes and product size. A TSE will perfectly cook, absorb some variations, and control the temperatures, shear and residence time of the processed material. Using a density-control device combined to the right screw and die-design will definitively give technical and economic advantages to the manufacturer, with the fine control of the expansion degree insuring a consistent quality.

Figure 2

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 37




Japanese amberjack (Seriola quinqeradiata) culture began in 1927 in the Kagawa prefecture of Japan where wild juvenile amberjacks were first reared in shore enclosures. Waste accumulation and poor water quality led to this type of culture becoming swiftly obsolete, and so refined commercial production began in the 1940s, which expanded rapidly in the 1960s. By 1970, amberjack production was exceeding 43,000 tonnes, reaching a peak in 1995 of nearly 170,000 tonnes. The industry hit a record height in the late 1990s, where production reached between 132,000 and 160,000 tonnes.

Plentiful production

Japanese amberjack features in the fisheries of the Western Central Pacific Ocean, from Japan and the eastern Korean peninsula to the Hawaiian Islands, but its farming occurs primarily in Japanese waters. The Republic of Korea is the only other country reporting production to the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). The aquaculture production of Japanese amberjack constitutes over 50 percent of the total farmed marine finfish production in Japan, a surprisingly high amount when considering the rarity of this fish in the Western market. Amberjack can be eaten as sashimi or grilled when sold as fillets. It has a firm white, mild tasting flesh. The common name of Japanese amberjacks varies with size. Those that weigh under 50g are called ‘mojako’, whilst those

by Matt Holmes, Features editor, International Aquafeed weighing between 50g and 5000g are named ‘hamachi’. ‘Buri’ is the name granted to the amberjack which weigh in at over 5000g. These fish spawn along the 200 mile contour in the East China Sea, juveniles migrating north towards Hokkaido, where they feed for three to five years until reaching sexual maturity, when they migrate south for spawning. Adults of 70-80cm approach the western coast of Kochi prefecture, Japan, in March-April. From season to season, various sizes can be caught in different parts of Japan. The optimum rearing water temperature for Japanese amberjack is 20-29 ºC and the optimum salinity is 30-36 percent. Aquaculture of amberjack is primarily dependent on seed supply from the wild, although imported seed is also available from the Vietnam and the republic of Korea. Soon after spawning, larvae less than 15mm long are brought near the coast by the Kuroshio Current, where they are caught in fine mesh nets, and sold to fry specialists. Although artificial propagation of Japanese amberjacks has been successful, the number of juveniles produced through induced breeding has not yet reached a level where it can make a significant contribution to the demand of juveniles for aquaculture. In fact, there remain some problems in larval rearing: feeding is particularly critical, as imbalanced larval feed leads to heavy mortalities. Efforts are being made to improve this situation. The design of suitable larval feed by using mass-produced food organisms, such as rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii fortified with n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) and formulated feeds, may soon make the production of healthy fry in large numbers possible.

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The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to offer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city.


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Extruders and Expanders Almex extruders are used for : » Pet Food extrusion » (floating) Aquafeed extrusion » Animal Feed extrusion » Oil seed extraction » Cereal processing extrusion » Compacting » Pre-conditioning prior to other processes InternationalAquafeed-November2018 | 39




EXPERT TOPIC Japanese Amberjack

By Matthew Holmes, Features editor, International Aquafeed


mberjack farming in Japan began at the Ado pond in Shikoku 90 years ago. After peaking in the late 1990s the level of production has now levelled off and continues to maintain itself at a steady level. Commercial Japanese amberjack culture occurs, primarily, in nylon netting alongside the occasional use of metal sea cages. Net-pens are the most common tools used, as their steel frames facilitate harvesting in a much more efficient manner. A cheaper alternative is also the non-steel net-pen, an appliance which is inexpensive whilst also proving strong enough to withstand severe tides and typhoons. Harvesting operations through this method can, however, be challenging and arduous. The size and number of cages used in farming varies, depending upon the size of the operation and environmental conditions. A relatively small-scale production site may have five cages of 10 x 10 x 8m, while a relatively larger production site may often have over 20 cages of 18 x 22 x 8m or 12 x 12 x 12m. Even larger pens, up to 50 x 50 x 50m are in use, particularly, to grow larger-sized amberjack. As net-pen culture has developed over the past few decades, increasingly larger pens are now used, and the frames have transformed from simple wood to metal and often reinforced plastics. Larger net-pens are now desirable to produce highquality meat with the correct fat levels. Wild Japanese amberjack juveniles are reared in 5x5x5m net-pens and are sold to growers when the fish have grown to between 50-100g.


The first task of the fry specialists is to grade the larvae into small, medium, and large categories. A failure to grade early can 40 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

EXPERT TOPIC result in high mortality rates due to cannibalism. After grading, the larvae are stocked into floating nylon netpens. In 5 x 5 x 5m net pens the stocking rate of 0.5-10g amberjack ranges from 10,000 to 30,000 and the harvest size ranges from 20-200g with average survival of 90 percent. It is important to feed wild caught juveniles with good quality feed while the fish are on the collecting boat, to avoid growthrelated problems in the later grow-out phase. A typical floating raft (30 x 30 x 15m) can be used to rear 25,000 amberjacks with an average body weight of approximately 2kg. The stocking density is also dependent on cage-site conditions, such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, mesh size and water exchange rates. Depending on water temperature, smaller amberjack (mojako) can usually be stocked from April through to July. Fingerlings of 8-50g stocked in June reach 1.0-1.5kg by December. The fish that remain in the cages until the following farming season usually reach an impressive size of 2-3kg.

Sustainable resources

Water temperatures can be subject to variations in the areas where Japanese amberjack culture is carried out. In each region, the farmers have developed a characteristic method of rearing by considering this local factor. For young amberjack (hamachi), the ranges for economical and maximal growth are 17-30 ºC and 22-27 ºC, respectively; for adult amberjack (buri) they are 15-30 ºC and 20-26 ºC. Japanese amberjack culture used to depend on locally available


trash fish, such as pacific sandeel (Ammodytes personatus), anchovy (Engraulis japonicus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), sardine (Sardinops melanostictus), and pacific saury (Cololabis saira). Japanese amberjack culture expanded due to the massive catches of the low-cost fish used for feeding, such as sand-lance and sardine which are readily available in the East China sea. The availability of freezing equipment has made it possible for the farmers to feed minced frozen sardine to their amberjack, creating an affordable and readily available food source for their livestock. In recent years, however, there has been a decline in the sardine resources caught around Japan and the cost has therefore increased. This has forced many farmers to shift to the utilisation of formulated feed. R

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AMBERJACK are still facing problems in culturing larger fish on extruded pellets. Larger fish (>3 kg) prefer eating raw fish to extruded pellets, and it is difficult to attain daily feeding rates of two percent on extruded pellets, especially during winter. The feeding frequency of amberjacks range from five times per day to once every three days, depending on body weight, growing stage, and seawater temperature. Food consumption drastically reduces at temperatures below 17 ยบC, particularly when a dry diet is fed.

Weighing the whoppers

Pellets versus raw fish

Formulated feed production has increased dramatically in the recent years and the number of extruded pellets is now roughly 40 percent of the total food used for Japanese amberjack production. Feeding amberjack extruded pellets for the first year of culture, during the growing season, has become very popular amongst farmers. The use of raw fish or moist pellets is still somewhat common when water temperatures are reduced in cooler seasons. Feeding is crucially important because feed costs represent about half of the total budget of the average farmer. With improved knowledge on nutritional requirements it has become possible to produce moist pellets and formulated feeds for Japanese amberjacks which also prove to be sustainable and environmentally friendly. Yet, despite these successes, farmers


Most Japanese amberjack growers target a market size of approximately 2-5kg, while some even raise the fish to a remarkable 7-8kg. The average harvest sizes are 6kg in 19-20 months in hightemperature areas, 5-6kg in 27 months in medium-temperature areas, and 3.5-4.5kg in 27 months in low-temperature areas. The size of amberjack at harvest, and the length of the growout period, not only varies according to the mean annual water temperature but also on the desired market size. In order to maintain optimal product quality, the fish are fasted before harvesting. The main purpose of this is to evacuate the ingested feeds, as they may contribute to rapid deterioration in flesh quality. During harvest, Japanese amberjacks are collected from the net cage by scooping them up with nets attached to long steel pipes at both sides. Fish that have been collected in the canvas netting are then subsequently released onto a selection stand, where they are size-graded and counted. Japanese amberjacks are slaughtered individually on a rubber mat instantly after harvest. The fish are then packed in corrugated boxes under ice, or placed into a tank submerged in chipped ice, before the harvested fish are transported in individual containers on refrigerated trucks. To maintain freshness for a longer period the fish are killed immediately after being taken from the water and completely bled.

An optimistic future

w w w. t s c - s i l o s . c o m

Recently consumers have shown greater interest in fresh fish and are ready to pay higher prices for premium products. Consequently, there is growing business interest among Japanese amberjack producers to supply fresh fish directly to the end-users, avoiding the complicated wholesale network. Japanese amberjack meat is mostly eaten raw as sashimi and a relatively small proportion of the total production is being consumed in soups or via grilling. The meat can be served as sashimi when cold-stored for no more than three days (the actual maximum storage time depends on rearing conditions and post-harvest treatments). In retail shops Japanese amberjack is mostly sold as fillets, whereas in supermarkets both whole fish, as well as fillets, are available for purchase. In aquaculture operations, fry and feed together account for most of the total production costs of amberjack. On average, half of the total annual farm expenditure goes towards feed procurement. The feed conversion rate for farmed Japanese amberjack, using raw fish, is about 7-8:1. The market price of Japanese amberjack fluctuates widely, depending on the availability of captured fish, and is also dependent on harvest size. Generally, wild-caught fish fetch more than farmed fish and the larger fish fetch a higher market price. 42 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Image: FISA Supra netting leaving machine

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 45

This month’s issue features some innovative technology that addresses many critical needs for fish farming operations. Fibras Internationales SA has specialised in net making for more than 70 years. The company employees the latest technology fibres in their nets so they can endure the extreme conditions of temperature and stress that aquaculture cages are exposed to. But it’s not just all about using the strongest materials. As the article explains, part of the art of net making is matching a material’s unique tensile and physical properties to the application. We also look at Morts, which are a potential source of infection that must be quickly removed from fish cages. In response to this need, Scottish company Underwater Contractors (UCO) has developed the FOOVER, an ROV specially equipped with a cage and vacuum system for collecting and removing morts.


Choosing the correct raw material for aquaculture cage netting

by Elihai Radzinski, Fibras Industriales SA, Peru

Image: Shogun twisted knotless machine


In the netting industry, FISA, official name Fibras industriales SA, is one of the world’s leading fishing net and cage manufactures with over 70 years’ experience”. They are a vertically integrated company that starts its process with the extrusion of polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE) followed by twisting and weaving of pp, pe, nylon, polyester and other materials for the twisted knotted netting, braided knotted netting and twisted knotless shogun netting or knitting for the raschel knotless netting. After finishing our products with pre-shrinking, heat setting and applying the most adequate bonding, we transfer the netting and ropes to our 28,000m2 specialised net loft where the process of rigging nets for purse seiners or cages, for all species of farming, will take place. In our previous article, from July 2017, we covered the importance of abrasion and UV resistance for fish cages and we specified in detail the different benefits of various type of products such as FISA’s Polymax and Polytar ropes. We emphasised the importance of accelerated abrasion and UV tests, thus reflecting the behaviour of the material over time and the effect these forces have over the products. This effect can possibly lead to a situation where a product with a higher initial breaking strength turns out to have a very low UV and/or abrasion resistance and after a short period of time (12-18 months). On the other hand, what seemed like a lower resistance product retains more of its characteristics and turns into a longer life product. Following, there will be a short description of the differences and potential advantages or disadvantages of the different raw materials available for manufacturing the netting used in aquaculture fish cages.

The main choices

In a nutshell, our many years of experience have taught us that there is no specific raw material that is better than another. Each raw material has its advantages and disadvantages, and in each case is more or less adequate for one end user than another. For example, when looking at Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE), products claimed to have the highest initial breaking load and are usually compared to the strength of steel. It is important to notice that they also have extremely low elongation, thus leading to a low working load and less efficiency in cages located in high current zones or even worse in the open sea. Also, one must consider that UHMWPE loses its tensile strength when twisted, thus the breaking load that must be used when comparing with other raw materials is that of the actual netting and not of the UHMWPE filament. What would seem to be the biggest advantage of UHMWPE is its light weight when compared to the other materials, thus allowing for easer handling when used in extremely large cages. This article will not go into the details of the potential disadvantages of extremely large cages, but it should be mentioned that larger concentrations of fish in one area/cage lead to easier and faster transfer of disease and there is a higher risk of mass escape of the fish from one single accidental or natural event. As for fouling effect, a factor that contributes to fouling concentration on netting is the number of filaments on the netting. UHMWPE is a multifilament product thus it won’t be the most effective against fouling accumulation as compared to monofilaments product such as FISA’s SUPRA, assuming both products have the same total diameter..

Advanced fibres

It is important to mention that a good bonding or antifouling agent will help lower the amount of fouling, but this is an additional procedure and the number of filaments in the netting is a more 46 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

root-based solution. Polyester does not have the highest initial breaking load but it does have relatively good elongation and, more importantly, it is very resistant to abrasion and to UV rays; thus after a relatively short period of use it will be much more work efficient than other materials and thus will have a longer lifespan. On the other hand, one must take into consideration the fact that polyester is around 16 percent heavier than nylon, making the cage slightly heavier for a similar initial working load—but considering the fact that polyester absorbs less water than nylon, part of this effect is mitigated. Nylon is probably still the most common material used in aquaculture cages. Nylon has a slightly stronger initial breaking load when compared to polyester and its elongation is also higher, thus leading to a better working force. But over time the effects of UV and abrasion can take a toll, and after a couple years of use it might not have as good characteristics as a polyester cage used under similar conditions. One of the biggest advantages of nylon over polyester and UHMWPE, when using knotted netting for fish cages, is the loss of memory of the material, thus leading to better adjusted knots for those customers who prefer that material. An important consideration to contemplate when using nylon or polyester netting is to make sure the manufacturer of the netting (not the net loft/cage rigger) has pre-shrunk the material. If the netting has not been pre-shrunk, a process some manufactures skip in order to cut costs, after a short period of use the shape of the cage will change and will cause what would otherwise be unnecessary labour adjusting the size and shape of the cage. As a reference, a pre-shrunk nylon cage could shrink an additional four percent to seven percent while a nylon cage that did not go through the pre-shrinking process can shrink between


12 percent and one percent and not necessarily in an even way... especially if the netting used to build the cage is not all from the same production batch. In comparison, a preshrunk polyester material will only shrink an extra two percent to a maximum of four percent, thus what you get in the beginning is basically what you will have after a prolonged period of use. Supra Advanced Fibres is third generation HDPE netting. Introduced to the aquaculture market roughly four years ago through the help of companies such as Marine Harvest Chile, and Aqua Chile and Cooke Aquaculture, using it for market nets employed in the fattening stage of the fish and predator netting used to protect the cages from various predators such as sea lions, crocodiles, sharks, and piranhas etc. The netting goes through a rigorous procedure of depth ways stretching, in order to adjust the knots, thus helping solve the problem of the material’s natural memory. At the same time, the fact this is a high-density polyethylene, made of monofilament fibre, means that the fouling has fewer fibres to stick to and it is a much easier product to wash between uses. Supra netting is extremely resistant to UV and has a minimum shrinkage.


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Meet the remarkable 'Foover' from UCO by Underwater Contracting, Scotland


Mick Bower has made a splash back into the aquaculture industry after leaving it almost 15 years ago to pursue senior diving roles in the oil and gas field. With a wealth of knowledge from both industries, Mick has developed an innovative new system for fish farms – the Foover. Although he had the idea several years ago, Underwater Contracting (UCO) was launched last year and the Foover systems have since completed more than 20,000 dives in commercial operations around Scotland. The ‘patent pending’ system consists of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) with a collection cage attached, that when dropped into a fish pen, hoovers up dead fish. The collection unit can cram up to 750kg of fish into the cage which equates to around 150 large salmon. As well as having a large capacity, the Foover works very quickly. It takes one minute to plunge 30 meters into the depth of the pen, just three or four minutes to collect 150 morts, and another minute to return to the surface. The sites where the system is currently operating report that the whole process takes no more than six minutes in total. Impressively, a 10-pen site in 25 meters of water with an average amount of morts, can be rendered 100 percent mort free with visual verification through the camera system in under 2.5 hours. Customers are mainly using the Foover for mort removal; but once on site, they can really see the potential for other uses. This generally involves net inspections and the cleaning of cages and pipes leading back to the feed barge. The Foover is easily installed on-board typical workboats with deck space of less than three square metres and can be deployed and recovered from the pen using the workboat crane. It’s simple to control with a joystick from the wheelhouse of the boat, with a monitor that displays information from the ROV, whether it’s inside the pen or performing operations outside of it. UCO maintain that at this stage the Foover doesn’t necessarily replace divers, but it does significantly reduce the amount of time personnel spend underwater. The traditional method carries inherent risks, while working for longer times and deeper depths, with no restrictions on the amount of diving undertaken. When Mick was a fish farm diver, the cages were 15-20 meters deep but now they are closer to 30 meters in the centre. Therefore, there is higher risk of decompression implications and diver illness adding to the risk of scuba diving in fish cages. As one can imagine, UCO performed several in-water trials with various ‘mort-like dummies’ before approaching fish farms with the system. Luckily, Mick’s old contacts who had been farm operatives and managers alongside him, were now area managers and allowed him to perform the initial trials at their sites. With headquarters in Aberdeen, Scotland was the obvious target area to begin with, but UCO fully expect further orders from Norway and, perhaps, in Spain and Chile, following serious enquiries. Still in its first year of operation, UCO now has six Foover systems in place with another two to be delivered by the end of 2018. The company is flexible in its approach and can provide both full service and rental only agreements for clients. Most customers like to hire the system along with a UCO Operator for the first 4-8 weeks for trials onsite before committing to using the system full time. Others prefer a UCO Operator on site longer term, for troubleshooting and maintenance. Following trials of the clients chosen length, UCO can train nominated staff in-house so that the Foover can be rented on long term agreements at vastly reduced costs. UCO will carry on maintaining and updating the system as technology evolves in conjunction with further UCO developments. UCO is now progressing other potential applications for the Foover including the removal of excess feed, fish waste from underneath pens, net repair systems, net weight installation, ‘hamster wheel’ cleaning and the list goes on. UCO is confident that the UCO Foover system could cover all general subsea maintenance in the aquaculture industry in the future so watch this space. 48 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

TECHNOLOGY SHO Top aquaculture technology NOVEMBER This month the International Aquafeed team has more technological innovations to bring you that will make your fish farming business that extra bit better. We have a wide variety of machines on show this month, ranging from conveyors, typhoon fish feeders, smart ROVs and oxygen monitors. Each machine has been hand-picked by us as an interesting and innovative piece of equipment that is definitely worth researching and considering adding to your business.

DO1022 Transport Unit Aquaculture Equipment Ltd have created a state-of-the-art oxygen monitoring, twin channel unit, perfectly designed to maintain the oxygen levels of tanks containing fish that are being transported. With its twin-channel technology, the DO1022 can monitor two tanks on the move at once, and the galvanic dissolved oxygen probes will ensure that fish remain healthy on their voyages. The clear and easy-to-read display provides accurate and precise readings. If the oxygen levels of the tank reach lower than the preset limit, the tank flashes to alert of a potential issue. The unit can also be automated to open an oxygen valve in the event of low oxygen. This monitor can also be tailored individually to suit up to ten tanks at once.

Simatek Drum Feeder The new Simatek Drum Feeder makes pendulum bucket elevators very suited for conveying complex powders that are non-easy flowing, fragile, abrasive or explosive. By adding a screw feeder module to the patented Simatek Drum Feeder it is possible to secure a high filling degree of the elevator buckets. This feeding system is based on individual batch feeding of the elevator buckets without product spillage. In combination with the Simatek Drum Feeder it is possible to convey with elevator buckets without overlap. This is to eliminate mechanical contact between the buckets, friction and the use of guides. Simatek Bulk Systems offers bearing suspended buckets. With these buckets the wear on the roller chain is basically eliminated. The closed and lubricationfree bearing construction generates less friction and has a documented 40 percent power consumption reduction.

Self-Cleaning fixed idler conveyor boot assembly Lambton’s Self-cleaning fixed idler conveyor boot assembly improves clean out, by reducing leftover materials left on the conveyor line, therefore reducing the chances of cross contamination between commodities. It also has a reduced length when compared to the standard boot. This shorter length enables it to be used in tighter spaces, reducing the length of the receiving pit and providing additional flexibility in retro-fit applications. The self-cleaning fixed idler conveyor boot assembly can also be mounted directly to the receiving hopper section, for up to an additional one foot in reduction length.

FFF Cannon Feeder Fish Farm Feeder’s Cannon feeder range is an innovative and specialised feeder selection what perfectly suit the aquaculture industry. Available in a range of hopper capacities, from 100kg in size upwards, with a feeding distance from between 7-20m in length, the FFF Cannon Feeder collection can suit every need with their variety of options. Dosification is quick and easy, with the machines processing up to 25kg per minute. FFF Canon Feeders are also able to take pellets as small as 2mm in size, but also much bigger ones, rendering them adaptable and flexible machines for use with a variety of fish feeds. Hoses are available in a 40mm diameter and the petrol engine for the feeder comes in models from 5.5 HP upwards.

50 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

OWCASE Flexicon Twin Bev-Con Flexible Screw Conveyor Newly released from Flexicon, the Twin Bev-Con Flexible Screw Conveyor system is a vital device for transporting bulk materials. With a common hopper and mobile base constructed and attached, this new conveyor boasts ease-of-use and flexibility in adaptation. Ready to plug-in and run, the self-contained system can fill two vessels with the same material simultaneously. Mounted on a frame with locking castors for in-plant mobility, it can be utilised in multiple locations, and rolled to a wash-down booth. Discharge housings of the conveyors are supported by dual booms cantilevered from the mobile base, allowing discharge of material into processing equipment or storage vessels up to 3.5 m above the plant floor. The hopper has a capacity of 550 litres and is designed with a steep back wall and diametrically opposed side walls skewed to form a trapezoidal area, the divergent angles causing non-freeflowing material to topple into the conveyor charging adapters.

Norfab Typhoon Feed Cannon The Typhoon Feed Cannon is a simple, reliable macine that blow fish feed from a workboat directly into an aquaculture farming pen. The Typhoon series from Norfab is available in various capacities, between 200-500kg hopper sizes, with direct enginedriven blowers. The Typhoon Feed Cannon range are powered by single-cylinder Lombardini diesel engines, available both with recoil and electric start, driving the blower through twin v-belts. An electronic sensor counts the revolutions of the rotary valve spindle, giving metered feeding delivery. The count is then displayed on the clear, LED screen on the machine, so users can keep clear count of how much feed is being used.

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 51

Industry Events Events listing NOVEMBER

6 – 8/11/18 Seawork Asia 2018 China WEB: 7 – 9/11/18 - AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference USA WEB: 13 – 16/11/18 - Eurotier Germany WEB: 13 – 16/11/18 - World Ocean Council Sustainable Ocean Summit Hong Kong WEB: https:// 13 – 16/11/18 - FENACAM 2018 Brazil WEB: 21/11/18 - Sturgeon International Conference Poland WEB: http://sturgeoninternational. com


04/12/18 - Algae Europe 2018 The Netherlands WEB:


17 – 19/01/19 - Lanka Livestock 2019 Sri Lanka WEB: 31/01/19 – 02/02/19 - AquaEx India 2019 India WEB:

Geelen Counterflow offer dryer & cooler training A record number of 28 dryer customers, from around the world, participated in Geelen Counterflow’s Dryer & Cooler Training 2018. Dryer customers from Poland, Indonesia, Ecuador, Peru, Thailand, Japan, China, Nigeria, Denmark, Serbia and France learned how to optimise their counterflow dryers for extruded aquafeed or petfood for best efficiency, uniformity and lifetime. Now in the 11th year of the annual event, Geelen Counterflow are extremely pleased with the results of their course. During the three-day training, participants learn about the thermodynamics of drying and cooling, relative humidity, dew point temperatures, wet bulb temperatures, mollier diagrams, enthalpy, sorption isotherms, diffusion coefficients, radiation and convection. Beginning with a few hours of theory each day, the course shifts into practical assessments in the afternoon, wherein participants follow four different workshops about dryer process calculations, dryer controls, air systems, and process measurement. In addition to learning about the thermodynamics, subjects include sanitation, condensation control and sustainability. In addition, there are plenty of networking opportunities with colleagues from around the world, alongside various social activities. Over the years more than 200 dryer customers have followed this course. The next Dryer Training for Geelen Counterflow dryer customers will take place in Haelen, the Netherlands in October 2019.

AlgaEurope 2018 International Conference Park Plaza Amsterdam Airport Hotel in the Netherlands is the location of the 2018 AlgaEurope International Conference. This conference focusses upon the thriving microalgae sector, as a supply of both food and non-food products. Keynote presentations and panel discussions will be taking place, as well as forums and chances for networking. There will be over 60 speakers, 50 posters, 11 speaking sessions and attendees from over 40 countries. Over 160 organisations will be present at the AlgaEurope 2018 International Conference. Confirmed speakers at the event include Isabel Sousa of the Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal, Fritz Wintersteller of Schott AG and Ana Cerar of Algen Algal Technology Centre in Slovenia. The conference runs from 4-6 December 2018.

For more industry event information - visit our events register

VIV Asia 2019 previews upcoming features VIV Asia is back on March 13-15, 2019, as the leading Feed to Food international show in Asia. The grand show preview took place at the Nanjing InterContinental in China, at the presence of the international and Chinese press, a selection of industry leaders and partners. The show fills up the whole BITEC in Bangkok with more than 1250 exhibitors representing all species and sectors of the value chain. At the VIV Asia grand show preview, Mr Wang Yimin, Vice President of Hejun Consultant Co Ltd and Director of Hejun Agriculture Research Centre, presented the current Chinese market’s leading role in Asia with regards to consumption upgrading trends, growing meat processing requirements and new opportunities from new retailing, e-commerce and block chain. The Asian market’s development is leading to higher investments in advanced technologies and processing equipment that are used to add value to the animal protein end-products. Mrs Panadda Kongma, Project Manager of VIV Asia, continued at the grand show preview by underlining the multi-species nature of the event, focusing on poultry meat, eggs, pork, grains, aquaculture and dairy. Leading aquaculture figureheads will be delivering talks at the event, discussing the latest technology and innovations. 52 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture 2019 Aquaculture – The Big Easy Choice! ow New Sh Dates 1 7-1 March

March 7 - 11, 2019 New Orleans Marriott New Orleans, Louisiana


ASSOCIATE SPONSORS American Veterinary Medical Association America's Tilapia Alliance Aquacultural Engineering Society Aquaculture Association of Canada Aquaculture Feed Industry Association California Aquaculture Association Catfish Farmers of America Global Aquaculture Alliance

International Association of Aquaculture Economics and Management Latin America & Caribbean Chapter WAS US Shrimp Farming Association US Trout Farmers Association World Aquatic Veterinary Medical Association Zebrafish Husbandry Association

For More Information Contact:

Conference Manager P.O. Box 2302 | Valley Center, CA 92082 USA Tel: +1.760.751.5005 | Fax: +1.760.751.5003 Email: |

Industry Events

reliable storage projects and total solutions.” He went on to by Tuti Tan, Events and circulation manager, International Aquafeed outline Zheng Chang’s development, praising the “decades of professionalism and craftmanship” which has enabled The Zheng Chang Group came together to celebrate 100 years of leading animal feed production in China. Perendale Publishers Zheng Chang to become a “global leading feed equipment, storage equipment and integrated system service provider.” were represented at the auspicious celebrations by Tuti Tan, Circulation and Events organiser. “Zheng Chang has made groundbreaking achievements in many areas, such as having built more than 3,600 feed and More than 100 dignitaries joined with senior staff members from Zheng Chang as they looked back on 100 years of innovation at the storage projects at home and abroad, attracted all types of global forefront of animal feed technology. enterprises top invest in Liyang, and shared its fruits with others. “In the past century full of hardships, Zheng Chang has grown The atmosphere of the celebration was warm and the so big and strong: the staff of Zheng Chang has moved ahead at a performances such as “Encouraging the New Era”, “Innovating steady pace to continue the writing of the centennial history and the World” and “The Power of Endeavour” all represented Zheng create brilliance with the spirit of struggle, innovation, valiancy, Chang’s 100-year culture and century glory. pioneering and devotion with support and help from the leaders at President Hao Bo gave a speech to the gathered delegation at the all levels, our clients and friends. stadium in Liyang Jiangsu. “Looking today we are in endless struggle – innovation has made He said, “Innovation is the fount of Zheng Chang’s permanent Zheng Chang China’s only company with intellectual property development. Zheng Chang was founded by the name of Zheng rights for feed and storage equipment.” Chang Oil Mill in 1918 and transformed into a public-private joint Mr Hao Bo praised Zheng Chang’s core culture of venture in 1956. “It was successfully restructured in 2003 into the Shanghai Zheng “concentration, innovation, integrity, stability, harmony, value Chang International Machinery Engineering Company Ltd. To start creation and result orientation.” He said he hoped Liyang would become the “feed machinery exploiting the international market we responded to the national capital of the world” and the “home of Chinese feed machinery.” “One Bet One Road” initiative in 2014 and founded Zheng Chan “Not only is Zheng Chang a time-honoured Chinese enterprise, Brazil Co Ltd in 2015 as the first base in South Africa. but it is aspiring to go global on behalf of Chinese brands. “By then we had automated manufacturing, and filed in many “Zeng Chang is growing into a leading wealth factory with gaps. Up to now, Zheng Chang has grown into a national grain sustainable profitability, to build a better future.” storage engineering company that specialises in offering stable,

100-year anniversary of the Zheng Chang Group

54 | November 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Vietstock 2018


A thriving livestock and aquaculture platform by Peter Parker, SEA and Oceania Representative, International Aquafeed

ietnam’s premiere international feed, livestock, aquaculture and meat industry show, the Vietstock 2018 Expo and Forum took place October 17-19, 2018 at the Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre in the heart of Ho Chi Minh City. The theme was ‘enhancing processing capability in livestock and aquaculture production and connecting to potential markets’. Vietfeed, Vietmeat, and the Aquaculture Vietnam Conference 2018 are all co-located events. Vietstock is hosted by the Vietnamese Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and organised by UBM Asia. The three-day event brought together members of the livestock and feed industry from all over Vietnam to connect with potential associates from the domestic and international industries. This, the ninth edition of the show, saw a 54 percent increase in international visitors, with participants being made up from 46 countries. The opening ceremony was witnessed by a number of distinguished guests, including Mr. Tran Thanh Nam, Vice Minister, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Mr Xuan Duong Nguyen, Director General of the Livestock Production Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), Mr Jime Essink, CEO of UBM Asia, and Mr M Gandhi, Group Managing Director and Senior Vice President of UBM Asia. Vietnamese dancers excited the crowd with a performance which is said to have reflected the soul of Vietnam. Mr Gandhi said, “The US Department of Agriculture now estimates that commercial animal and aquafeed will reach 21.9 million tonnes in 2018, a 6.7 year-on-year increase, making Vietnam the biggest feed producer in ASEAN. “Vietstock 2018 is the ideal opportunity to see these latest products and technologies, but it is so much more than just a three-day show. It has developed a well-earned reputation not just as an effective business platform, it has also become a regional hub for innovation, giving the opportunity to talk with and learn from leading ASEAN and international experts.” Mr Nguyen Xuan Duong commented, “Vietnamese aquaculture is continuously thriving, forming highly competitive sector such as that

of shrimp and pangasius (catfish) farming and processing. In 2018 Vietnam aquaculture is expected to reach the production and export target, in which export value may reach US $9 billion. “We need to continuously invest in developing new technology, innovations, and advanced management procedures in order to improve productivity, quality and food safety in livestock production and processing, overall enhancing livestock and aquaculture product value.”

Vietnam’s aquaculture industry

According to FAO FishStat, in 2016 Vietnam produced 3.6 million tonnes of aquaculture product, a trend of year-by-year increase since the late 1990s. The vast majority of Vietnamese aquaculture occurs in freshwater farms, with about a third in brackish water, and a relatively small amount in marine environments. The FAO website explains that, “the aquaculture sector in Vietnam began with small scale extensive culture systems such concurrent or alternating rice and fish farming as well earthen ponds in the early 1960s. The rapid growth the sector has achieved during the last two decades has been a direct result of the sector diversifying its farming practices and adapting to the production of exportable species at increased levels of intensification. “The farming of giant tiger prawn and pangasius are the most developed sectors reaching production levels of 290,000 tonnes and 315,000 tonnes respectively in 2004.”

Aquaculture Vietnam Conference

Aquaculture Vietnam 2018 presented the latest innovations in aquaculture, fisheries, and seafood. The two-day conference ran from October 18-19th in a large conference hall within the Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre. The conference was broken into five sessions covering every aspect of the value chain from production, to processing and packaging, to the plate. The plenary session was opened by the immediate past Secretary General of the International Feed Institute Federation (IFIF) and International Aquafeed magazine’s Director, Roger Gilbert, who discussed the importance of aquaculture as a protein source. Emphasising that we must convey the message to the consumer that aquaculture products we produce are not only healthy but are also cost-effective to buy and a sustainable protein production system for

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Industry Events

Official ribbon cutting ceremony with honourable presidents of industry and trade associations and distinguished guests

future generations. It is Mr Gilbert’s belief that we have an opportunity through aquaculture to end hunger, a result that can only be achieved via collaboration and trust in the industry. The other plenary speaker was Mr Dinh Xuan Lap, Deputy Director of International Collaborating Centre for Aquaculture and Fisheries Sustainability (ICAFIS), who discussed the value chain of the Vietnamese aquaculture. Mr Lap brought up the point that 80 percent of Vietnam’s aquaculture industry can be considered small scale, whereas only 14 percent of it is large scale. During his presentation Mr Lap outlined a wide range of quality assurance programs including BAP, Global GAP, FOS, Organic aquaculture, ASC, SELVA, and NATURLAND; he emphasised the importance of adoption a quality assurance program to improve market opportunity especially given the later point regarding the makeup of the industry. This year's Aquaculture Vietnam Conference is collocated with Vietstock, but in 2019 (October 16-18) UBM will organise the Aquaculture Vietnam exhibition & conference in Can Tho province in the Mekong Delta area, regarded as the hub for aquaculture production of Vietnam.

Vietstock awards

During the opening ceremony Vietstock awards were presented to company and organisation representatives to recognise best practices, management method, and innovations that make contribution towards sustainable development in the fields of livestock production, aquaculture, meat and dairy processing. The best aquaculture cooperative society award was presented to Nuoi Trong Thuy San 30/4 cooperative, from the Bac Lieu province. The group was initially established in 2012, with 18 members and 50ha of production

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 57

Industry Events

area, for white leg and black tiger shrimp. The cooperative uses a model of applying intensive farming methods while producing clean shrimp that complies with international standards. The cooperative has successfully connected suppliers that ensure traceability, increased quality, and decreased production costs. The cooperative is one of 30 farmer groups supported by the project ‘Sustainable and Equitable Shrimp Production and Value Chain Development in Vietnam’, funded by the EU and implemented by ICAFIS and Oxfam in Vietnam. Having also signed a contract to apply ASC standards, this cooperative’s activities seemed to align with the common theme of the conference, to produce high quality, and assured produce that meet the requirements of the market both domestically and internationally. The best aquafeed producer award went to Uni-President Vietnam, a company with almost 20 years’ experience in the aquaculture field.

Aliphos Marketing Director, Frank Ruyseveldt at the Aliphos booth

Dr Pradeep P Jayaprasad at the Leiber booth

Improved information and show accessibility

According to Group Director of ASEAN, UBM Asia, and show organiser, Rungphech Chitanuwat ‘Rose’, “generally farmers do not like to travel to shows due to their lifestyle and language barriers. The majority of the livestock and aquaculture industry are still built on their home farm mix, this is why it is especially important that the farmers can attend the information platform that is Vietstock.” In working with the government UBM Asia have improved the accessibility of the show to remove these barriers. “Vietstock is an important platform for the development of the industry, people from Ho Chi Minh City and neighbouring areas attend, capturing a local audience of about a 400km radius, they come to learn, see what is new, and to develop their production,” said Rose. To increase the interest for attending the show whilst educating the industry, pre-seminars are run for all species including swine, poultry, ruminants, and aquaculture about four months prior to the show. This time around, the preseminars were focused on the swine industry, providing lectures on topics such as biosecurity. During these sessions the industry are informed of the great opportunity that comes with visiting the show and see the innovative technology. Tailor-made transportation services were arranged for groups made up of 30 people minimum in neighbouring

Yin Kong Liang, Roger Parfitt, and Huang Wei at the FAMSUN stand. Okanin Wu and Hieu Pham at the Bühler stand

The de heus team

Konstantin Anissimov at the 4B Braime Components booth

Biorigin Manager for Vietnam, Zhang Quoqiang at the Biorigin booth

Gökhan Çınar at the Yemar stand Nutriad Country Sales Manager for Vietnam, Huynh Cong Kha Tu

Industry Events

Nguyen Quang Hao and Pham Viet Trung at the STIF booth

Awila Product Manager Sebastian Geers at the Awila booth

Front row: Ms. Salmiza Salim - Sales Operation UBM Malaysia (the 3rd from the left), Mr. Ngo Tien Dung, Country Sales Director BIOMIN Vietnam ; Ms.Rungphech Chitanuwat, Group Director of UBM Asia, Ms. Rita Siow Ying Lau Sales Operation UBM Malaysia Back row: Mr. Anwar HASAN, Regional Technical Sales Manager – Aquaculture, BIOMIN Asia-Pacific (2nd line, in the middle); Gangga Idyanugraha,Regional Technical Sales Manager - Poultry and BIOMIN Vietnam team

provinces to visit Vietstock, using a bus-in service. As Vietstock is such a large show it can be difficult to exactly who or what you are looking for, this year the LeadEX Application and Business Matching Program were operating to help with this. The LeadEX App helped both exhibitors and visitors to capture their potential business partner’s details during the visit. The Business Matching Program is customised to help exhibitors and visitor find suitable products, buyers, or suppliers effectively, and assists with arranging in person business meetings. According to Rose, this year the organisers put themselves in the shoes of the farmers and realised that language could be a challenge. To overcome this all presentations given during seminars and the conference in English were translated live into Vietnamese, and those in Vietnamese into English.

A promising future

UBM Asia are already underway with the organisation of the next edition of Vietstock which will be held once again at the adequate Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre, 14 – 16 October 2020. According to the organisers 90 percent of exhibitors have already rebooked their stands for this show. Based on my experience at Vietstock 2018, and interactions with attendees, it seems as though Vietnam provides a huge opportunity for business in the livestock and aquaculture sector. The biggest challenges appear to be language barrier, the product registration process, and the current state of the industry where approximately 80 percent of fish farmers are small scale. All three issues I witnessed being addressed through cooperation between UBM Asia, government, and industry.

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Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 TSC Silos +31 543 473979

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4B Braime +44 113 246 1800


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VAV +31 71 4023701

Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650

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Colour sorters A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Satake +81 82 420 8560

Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

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Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 Andritz +45 72 160300 Brabender +49 203 7788 0 Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

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Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133

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Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40

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Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

APC +34 938 615 060

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411

Jefo +1 450 799 2000

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40

SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website:

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CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770

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NIR-Online +49 6227 732668

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Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917


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Second hand equipment A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651

Tornum AB +46 512 29100 TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Sensors Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 Agromatic +41 55 2562100

Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31

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Muyang +86 514 87848880

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580

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Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11

all industrial Plants sectors.

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550

FISA +51 1 6196500


Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054

International Aquafeed - November 2018 | 61

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00

the interview Jan Vanbrabant, Chairman and CEO of the ERBER Group Jan Vanbrabant was appointed Chairman and CEO of the ERBER Group in April of 2017. He has been the CEO of Biomin Asia since 2009 and has played a very important role in the development and the success of the Asian region as Managing Director Biomin Asia based in Singapore. Dr Vanbrabant holds a master’s degree in Biotechnology and a PhD in Biochemistry from the University of Ghent in Belgium, with fields of expertise in microbiology and biochemistry. From applied scientific research at the University of Ghent, Jan moved to the business world, where he has held positions in sales, marketing, and general management.

When did you first become interested in animal agriculture? Are you from a farming background or did you gain an interest in livestock and nutrition at university for instance?

I actually ended up in animal agriculture by coincidence, as I do not come from a farming background, nor did I study animal nutrition or veterinary science. I studied biotechnology and did a PhD in microbiology, after which I started working in human clinical diagnostics. It was only later, that I got the opportunity to join our industry. Coincidently, this was at the end of the 90s, while I was doing my MBA and in the middle of the [internet] boom ... as you can imagine my fellow MBA classmates were not overly excited when I informed them I was joining a company active in the animal nutrition sector. Before taking this decision, I had a deeper look into this business, and it was clear to me that agriculture and, more specifically, animal nutrition, had a lot of potential for the future. Global population keeps on growing, they need to eat and as part of the daily diet they need protein, which in most cases is and will be from animal origin. It also did not take me very long to understand that I joined a high-tech industry, where my biotechnology background was a good asset.

Do you feel that your company is making a contribution to the world’s food supply? If so, how is that being achieved?

Yes, I do! Even more, we are making a contribution to a sustainable world’s food supply. In Biomin we are contributing to a more sustainable production of animal protein, that is safe and affordable. Together, with our other sister companies in the Erber Group, Romer Labs and Sanphar, active in food safety diagnostics and animal health. Biomin is the global leader in mycotoxin management, which is gaining importance with the growing challenge of mycotoxins, as a result of global warming. Next to this, with our Gut Performance Programme, we help animal producers to stop using antibiotic growth promotors and move to antibiotic-free feeding, which is becoming standard practice in most of the world now.

Science and scientists seem to have a less authority and public confidence today than in the past. What has caused this and how do you see agricultural science in particular addressing negative public opinions and concerns now and in the future?

I would say the agriculture industry, including animal agriculture, has done an amazing job during the last decades in providing sufficient food to our growing population. This is something we should not forget, and we should be proud of. As I mentioned earlier, before I joined this industry, I did not realise what a high-tech industry this is, and I believe most consumers also do not know. I am convinced that as an industry, we have to do a better job of “selling” ourselves. From what you see in the news on animal production, you sometimes have the impression that these questionable individuals are the rule rather than the exception. This is due to these NGOs that will use every small opportunity they get to show this. Here lies a great opportunity for us. Animal protein is a safe source of protein that is and will be essential to feed the 10 billion people that will be living on our globe in 2050. We

have to make sure this protein is produced sustainable and keeping in mind the well-being of the animals, and we have to show this to the world.

What are the constrains to successful food production - namely, availability, safety and affordability - in meeting world demand by 2050 and how do we overcome them?

As I mentioned already earlier, in order to meet the world demand in 2050, the food of the future needs to be safe, affordable and most importantly produced in a sustainable way. I do not see many potential constraints if we do things right. There are enough resources available, we just have to use them in the right way. We have to stop using antibiotic growth promotors, to tackle antibiotic resistance, and keep antibiotics for treatment, what they were developed for. We have to further increase production efficiency, thereby reducing environmental impact and as much as possible use renewable ingredients. The potential constraints I do see are not production related, but rather political. In the near future one-third of the global population will live in Africa, and this continent has all the potential and enough resources to feed these people. However, they will have to do the right things, otherwise they are going to face major challenges.

What impact can a company such as Biomin and Erber Group have in meeting these challenges, particularly in the developing world?

With Biomin and ERBER Group we are present in more than 120 countries in the world. As a group we have seen our strongest growth in the last 5 - 10 years in Asia and South America. Early October, we had our World Nutrition Forum in Cape Town, South Africa. This location was not coincidence, as we strongly believe that the explosive population growth that is expected on the African continent in the next decades, will lead to major challenges in the food supply there. We are increasing our business activities in Africa to help the producers over there to be ready for the future challenges.

Will science, rather than politics, play a greater role in helping food producers meet consumer demands in the second half of this century?

Interesting question! During my talk at the opening of the World Nutrition Forum, I touched on this topic also. For sure, science will help the food industry meeting consumer demands. In order to achieve this, they will need the support of politics. Nowadays we see more often that politics or politicians are the unpredictable factor in all this. The current situation in Africa is an interesting example of this. It was mentioned more than once during our WNF 2018, and also during the Africa Focus satellite symposium that Africa can supply enough food to feed the growing population on this continent. Even more, it was shown that only Congo already has enough resources to feed the whole continent. However, political instability is resulting in a shortage today and it is expected that also in the future Africa will be a net importer of food, as a result of this.

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THE INDUSTRY FACES AB Vista’s Ali Gahkani triumphs in international NIR Competition


B Vista’s Senior R&D Applications Specialist, Ali Gahkani, has been awarded first prize in the council for the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy’s global NIR data analysis competition, hosted at the recent International Diffuse Reflectance Conference (IDRC), for his work in aquaculture.

Ali Gahkani

“The competition this year was based around the field of aquaphotomics – which involves examining water-light interaction across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Our challenge, as participants, involved analysing the differences in the spectrum of water, in order to draw conclusions about the components dissolved in it,” says Dr Gahkani. Dr Gahkani’s original methodology – which was presented at the conference by his colleague Simon Flanagan – is believed to be an industry first, having never before been used in conjunction with aquaphotomic data. Next month Dr Gahkani celebrates his tenth year of working with commercial NIR. He recently contributed to AB Vista’s guide to NIR, which explores key areas relating to NIR technology.

Jim Ren joins Perstorp as Vice President for Feed and Food


eading chemicals company Perstorp has appointed Jim Ren as Vice President of the Asia Pacific Region, responsible for the company’s Feed & Food Business Area.

Ren has over 10 years’ experience working in China and five years in South East Asia. He came to Perstorp after several years with Evonik. Ren is a Chinese national and has a PhD in Veterinary Science from the China Agricultural University in Beijing.

Jim Ren

“I would like to continue to work in this area to produce animal protein in a safe and sustainable way,” Ren said. “When I was a child, food - especially animal protein - was in short supply in China, and many people could not afford to eat meat very often. It has always been my ambition for everybody to have the choice of having meat in their diet if they wanted to.”

Marit Solberg retires from Marine Harvest Scotland


arit Solberg, Chief Operating Officer for Marine Harvest Scotland, Canada, Ireland and the Faroes, retired at the end of October. Solberg’s contributions to the aquaculture industry are extensive, and her dedication to the industry has been admired worldwide. “For more than three decades Marit Solberg has served in several key roles in Marine Harvest, and we would like to thank her for her extensive contributions through all these years”, said Marine Harvest in a statement.

Marit Solberg

MiXscience welcomes Maxime Hugonin


axime Hugonin has joined MiXscience as a new Aquaculture Product Manager.

Maxime holds a MSc in Biology, and an Engineering diploma in Farming, having specialised in Aquaculture. He has also had different working experiences in the industry in France and Canada. After five years in Asia, where he worked as a Technical and Marketing Manager for Virbac, he will be responsible of the MiXscience aquaculture products portfolio management and development within its growing Aqua team.

Maxime Hugonin

IFFO announces new Director General


he Marine Ingredients Organisation (IFFO) announced the promotion of Petter Martin Johannessen as the new Director General. Johannessen was previously Global Business Director for Risk and Management Sourcing at Cargill Aqua Nutrition and, prior to that, the Supply Chain Director and Global Sourcing and Purchasing lead at EWOS Group. While at EWOS, he worked closely with IFFO and presented on behalf of the feed sector at the IFFO Annual Conferences.

Petter Martin Johannessen

“I am excited to be joining such a professional organisation and working with the IFFO team in support of this fascinating and dynamic industry. I look forward to continuing Andrew’s legacy, focusing on IFFO’s evidence-based approach in communicating the vital importance of marine ingredients and the responsible practices of the industry.”

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