OCT 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine

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World’s biggest seafood importer tightens seal protections

International Aquafeed - Volume 21 - Issue 10 - October 2018

- The effects of climate change upon aquaculture - Use of the microalga Tetraselmis in shrimp culture - Dry extrusion Vs wet extrusion - RAS systems - RBBR-technology - Intensive pond aquaculture in china - Expert topic - Milk fish

Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

October 2018


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Bogotá, Colombia October 23 - 26, write this editorial on my last day in 2018, no doubt shrimp production will China, having attended the VIV China strongly feature on the menu with many trade show in animal production, producers attending. that also featured a one-day event News from Ecuador is that new on September 18th, Aquatic China, strategies for raising shrimp are making that showcased the leading research significant progress towards quality developments in fish and shrimp nutrition and and health with much better survival. feeding. Professor Simon Davies Improved water quality management, This was arranged by this magazine’s publishers, Editor, International Aquafeed reduced stocking densities and the use of Perendale Press, and sponsored by several specialised feeds can consign the use of major companies and agencies involved in the antibiotics in shrimp farming to the past. Aquafeed sector. We had over 100 delegates With progress in the use of functional feed additives for shrimp diets making for a very packed auditorium in the Nanjing conference centre. we may herald a new era in the farming of this species and better I was delighted to follow our Roger Gilbert’s opening address and understand their role in enhancing the immune system, gut integrity deliver an overview of key developments spanning the areas pertinent to and mitigate against major and emerging diseases. nutrition, health and immunology with an emphasis on feed additives, I have often said that no matter how good our feed maybe, it’s diet supplements and novel feed ingredients. vital that fish have the genetic potential to utilize feed efficiently We also covered molecular techniques being employed in research and convert into body mass gain. New work from France serves to and applications. It was an excellent occasion and well organised address the potential to improve tilapia by genetic selection for such with translators on hand for both English and Chinese speakers traits. This work is being led by Dr Hugues de Verdal, from CIRAD, making for an interactive and educational forum. In the session the other main project partner is The French Poultry and Aquaculture breaks we were able to hold informal discussions and forge Breeders Association (SYSAAF), while it is being funded by the opportunities for new friendships as well as reacquainting with European Fund for Maritime and Fish Affairs (FEAMP). I hope established contacts. this will enable significant advances in tilapia on the lines of such It was a pleasure to see the younger generation attending, as well as success for salmon and trout. veterans from industry, with much to offer from their knowledge and In our current edition we report on the current state of the experience. I am indebted to VIV in supporting my attendance and powerhouse that is the salmon fishing industry, intensive pond look forward to the next even in Bangkok, Thailand where there will aquaculture in China and recent innovations using the microalgae be renewed focus on aquafeed and especially shrimp so important Tetraselmis, alongside much more news. to this region. Indeed, I have as my guest Kurt Servin staying Finally, I wish you all well for the autumn and please keep the news, with me and he has extensive knowledge of the shrimp industry in features and article flowing as we enter the last quarter of 2018 and Latin America, having consulted for JEFO with Mexican shrimp with the long hot days at an end for at least us Europeans. There are production being central to his interests. many venues for 2019 and so please refer to the WAS and associated I have learned much from Kurt and will hopefully be visiting him Chapters and Societies for upcoming meetings where International in Mexico in the near future. With the next major meeting being Aquafeed will be present. the Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2018 LAQUA in



FEED: SuperSmolt FeedOnly patent imminent for owner Europharma - page 4

PREDATOR CONTROL: World’s biggest seafood importer tightens seal protections - page 37

ALGAE: Use of the microalga tetraselmis in shrimp culture - page 24

RAS: New patented RBBR-technology - page 42



EXPERT TOPIC: Black-spotted Frog - page 32

EXTRUSION: Dry extrusion Vs wet extrusion - page 26

The black-spotted frog is an Eastern variety of frog, native to Japan, Korea and China, alongside parts of Russia. It has been noted by scientists that tadpoles of the black-spotted frog were first introduced into the Chinese ecosystem in 1959 – 1961 in the Hubei province, an area which they now densely populate.


Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Editor Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com

October 2018 Volume 21 Issue 10



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.co.uk Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.co.uk Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erik@perendale.co.uk Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Rebecca Sherratt rebeccas@perendale.co.uk Vaughn Entwistle vaughne@perendale.co.uk Matt Holmes matth@perendale.co.uk Alex Whitebrook alexw@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris darrenp@perendale.co.uk William Dowds williamd@aquafeed.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 ivanm@perendale.co.uk New Zealand Marketing Team Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 nathann@perendale.co.uk Design Manager James Taylor jamest@perendale.co.uk Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk ©Copyright 2018 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service


Industry News

32 Expert Topic - Milk fish 50 Technology showcase 52 Industry Events 60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 6 Ioannis Zabetakis 10 Dr Neil Auchterlonie 12 Sven-Olof Malmqvist 16 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 18 The effects of climate change upon aquaculture 24 Use of the microalga tetraselmis in shrimp culture 26 Dry extrusion Vs wet extrusion 28 Aquaculture in Africa


THE BIG PICTURE The Clewer rotating bed bioreactor (RBBR) is the basis of the Clewer Aquaculture RAS system. It was first developed as wastewater treatment plant for cleaning domestic wastewater fifteen years ago. Later it was used in car wash plants, where water consumption can be reduced by up to 10 percent, compared with conventional car washes. In both wastewater treatment and car wash plants, these reactors have been widely used around the world, from desert to urban environments. In aquaculture these bioreactors have been involved in large-scale testing for seven years. See more on page 42

38 World’s biggest seafood importer tightens seal protections 42 New patented RBBR-technology 46 Intensive pond aquaculture in china

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SuperSmolt FeedOnly patent imminent for owner Europharma


he European Patent Organization (EPO) has issued an Intention to Grant, relating to the smoltification feed known as SuperSmolt FeedOnly. SuperSmolt FeedOnly offers feed-based smoltification of salmon, eliminating the need for the growthinhibiting winter period associated with traditional hatchery smoltification. This feed was was developed by Europharma, a leading developer of fish health and welfare programmes. The Europharma innovation makes smoltification faster and more predictable, at the same time preventing the

problem of desmoltification. These qualities make it easy to produce homogenous fish groups where every fish has good seawater tolerance at the time of transfer, which again contributes to less mortality and faster growth. Speaking about this latest development, Paal Christian Kruger of Europharma said, “the EPO have now signalled its approval of our first and most important patent application on this product. After a nearly four year long process we are of course very happy about that. The decision will not change much, in terms of our daily work and focus, but we are pleased to have achieved the recognition from the EPO for our innovation. We have worked on smoltification over many years and put significant resources into developing SuperSmolt FeedOnly. The EPO has reached its conclusion after an extremely thorough assessment process and its decision is an acknowledgment of the innovative qualities of this product. “Going forward, our focus on providing a better way of smoltification for salmon producers around the world will continue. Compared to traditional smoltification methods, SuperSmolt FeedOnly is undoubtedly a giant leap in the right direction regarding both fish health and welfare, production efficiency and predictability as well as increased earnings for the salmon producers themselves. At a time where fish farmers increasingly demand bigger smolts, and the significance of low mortality and growth performance is ever more important, SuperSmolt FeedOnly has a big role to play. For us, this is one of the products we are most proud of having developed.”

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Alltech’s commitment to the aquaculture industry reaffirmed with new bioscience centre status


he Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre (ACAC) and its world-class research for the aquaculture industry have been recognised with the announcement that the ACAC is to become an Alltech bioscience centre. For over 15 years, the ACAC has carried out practical and applicable research within the field of aquaculture. In 2017, Alltech invested heavily in the facility, which will now become its fourth bioscience centre. This centre will be home to an expanded team of aqua researchers dedicated to quality, innovation and the development of new applications in aqua feed. Alltech Coppens are thrilled to announce that Dr Philip Lyons will be taking on a new role as a global aquaculture research manager to help coordinate research activities at the new centre with Alltech’s ever-expanding global research programs. “Alltech’s bioscience centres are laboratories that maintain close ties to nearby universities to maximise interaction with academic researchers, share equipment and allow students in Master of Science and PhD programs to work in an industry lab setting,” explained Dr Karl Dawson, vice president and chief scientific officer at Alltech. “There are more than 120 scientists working in our bioscience centres around the world. By becoming a bioscience centre, the ACAC allows for Alltech to address, research and solve aquaculture industry issues. The centre will interact directly with many of our 28 research alliances and will focus on activities with the six alliances who directly work in aquaculture.” “Key aquaculture research areas include developing novel tools for evaluating nutritional responses and defining strategies for utilising alternative feed ingredients and nutrients,” says Dr Dawson. “We are also carrying out research into nutritional approaches for enhancing disease resistance and health as well as optimising mineral nutrition and enhancing fat digestibility. We are also responding to market demand for new strategies for improving product quality and minimising the environmental impact of aquaculture in general.”

BioMar creates a premium shrimp with farmers


nnounced in connection with the Global Aquaculture Alliance’s annual conference (GOAL), BioMar have identified a sustainable shrimp product that they will be collaborating with shrimp farmers in Ecuador to bring to international markets. BioMar’s Global Sustainability Director, Vidar Gundersen shared his insights on how other species of aquaculture feeds have unlocked new markets and business opportunities around the world. “BioMar remains committed to sustainability and the work we started a decade ago. We can take the learnings from other species and apply them to create a truly sustainable shrimp choice for retailers and the end-consumers. We hope to initiate new projects with our customers, Vidar Gundersen, which can accelerate the BioMar Global Sustainability development of high value Director shrimp products”, says Vidar. Sustainability and raw material sourcing are hot topics throughout the entire seafood value chain, as consumers and retailers look for more sustainable options. Ecuadorian shrimp is well positioned to leverage this opportunity. Vidar Gundersen leads the development of BioMar’s sustainability platform BioSustain, the only program in aquaculture with successful collaboration partnership projects that have opened new markets and grown new business opportunities. Vidar Gundersen participated in another discussion panel at GOAL, covering the work of IFFO RS Improver Programme and how it benefits all parts of the seafood supply chain. BioMar has also teamed up with the Sustainable Shrimp Partnership (SSP) where they will share their experience and expertise to help drive the entire shrimp industry to the next level in terms of becoming more sustainable and responsible. “BioMar has placed a high priority on the shrimp industry with our recent acquisition of Alimentsa in to the BioMar family. We are committed to driving real sustainable change that will benefit the entire value chain. This is why we are directing resources not only towards industry initiatives like SSP but also to new innovations with the establishment of the BioMar Aquaculture Technology Centre in Ecuador which will open very soon”, concludes Henrik Aarestrup, Vice President, Emerging Markets BioMar. International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 5

Rainbow trout prosper on energy-rich feed


Ioannis Zabetakis The Salmon of Knowledge

nce upon a time (in one of my beloved Celtic stories), Fionn mac Cumhaill, the great leader of the Fianna of Ireland, was still a young boy and he was sent to live with a very wise man named Finnegas.

Finnegas was a poet who lived on the banks of the river Boyne and was renowned throughout Ireland for his vast knowledge. As well as being renowned for his skills in composing and reciting poetry, Finnegas knew more about the ways of the world, including the secrets of the birds and animals and plants and stars, than any other man in Ireland. It was because of his vast knowledge that Fionn had been sent to learn from Finnegas. Fionn loved to listen to the old man’s wonderful stories and his many words of wisdom which he too, in time, would learn to recite. In exchange for the wisdom Finnegas would pass on to him Fionn would help with house chores like cooking and cleaning, but also fishing for the old man. However, despite Finnegas’ vast knowledge, he did not know everything and there were times when Fionn’s endless curiosity got the better of him, and he was left unable to answer the young boy’s questions. ‘Is there a way to know everything?’ Fionn asked him. This was a question that Finnegas had asked once too and was the very reason why he now lived next to the river Boyne. It had been told by the druids of old that living in a still, dark pool in the shade of the overhanging hazel trees was the Salmon of Knowledge. It was as result of eating the nuts of these magical hazel trees that the salmon had acquired all the knowledge of the world. And so it was, that, according to prophecy, the one who would eat the salmon would gain the knowledge for themselves. Finnegas had been living on the edge of the river for several years now, attempting to catch the salmon and gain such wisdom. And the story goes on…and we still do not know if Finnegas e: ioannis.zabetakis@ul.ie

has been successful in his pursuit of the Salmon of Knowledge. This story came to my mind when I read the news from the other side of the Atlantic: “Fisheries and Oceans Canada is in Federal Court this week defending a policy that allows salmon farming companies to transfer juvenile salmon from land-based hatcheries into ocean pens without first testing for piscine reovirus or PRV”. Biologist Alexandra Morton, represented by Ecojustice, and the Namgis First Nation have challenged the federal policy in separate cases that will be heard together. They argue that PVR is a “disease agent” and therefore it should be illegal for salmon carrying the virus to be transferred into the ocean. The Namgis case also argues that the federal government failed to fulfil its duties to consult and accommodate when issued licenses for salmon farms to transfer juvenile salmon into the ocean without testing for the virus. “We are simply arguing that the Minister of Fisheries needs to screen for this virus,” said Morton ahead of the first day of hearings, few weeks ago. “Screening is the very least he can do, right now what he’s essentially done is cloak himself in wilful blindness to whether PRV is being delivered to our oceans through these fish farm hatcheries,” added Kegan Pepper-Smith, one of the Ecojustice lawyers representing Morton. In Norway and other regions around the world, PVR has been shown to cause heart and skeletal muscle inflammation in Atlantic salmon — a disease that can be fatal in some cases. It is a major concern for environmental groups and First Nations worried about the impact of fish farms on wild salmon. In conclusion, some authorities around the World need to have a bit more knowledge of the interdisciplinary issues between farmed and wild fishes. I may have to send them a copy of the story “The Salmon of Knowledge”…


Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier. 6 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed


rials on rainbow trout at Aller Aqua show significantly higher growth, lower FCR and improved nutrient retention in fry of rainbow trout when fed a more energy-rich feed. In relation to this new discovery, Aller Aqua have relaunched a higher fat and energy content version of their Aller Futura Ex, now fully dedicated to the nutritional requirements of rainbow trout and other salmonids. With a balanced protein to fat ratio, it is more suited to larvae and fry of marine species as well as species with lesser energy requirements. For the most delicate early stages Aller Aqua will this month launch its new premium starter diet for fish larvae and early fry, Aller Infa Ex Gr, assembling only premium ingredients, including high levels of krill meal, and the highest standards in production technology. With particle sizes as small as 0.1 mm, Aller Infa Ex Gr is perfectly designed for the delicate stages of fish larvae and early fry, to support healthy development, fast growth and high survival rates. By the time they start feeding, the larvae of many fish species are not fully developed. Some lack a fully developed stomach with the complete range in digestive enzymes, and the digestion of feed particles as well as the nutrient uptake is of highest importance to match the high potential for growth. To aid the developing fish in their digestive processes and organ development, Aller Futura Ex Gr, Aller Infa Ex Gr and Aller Thalassa Ex Gr are naturally enhanced to support organ development and health of the liver and the gallbladder, said Robert Tillner, product manager of Aller Aqua.

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Britain ready to lead the world on G7 Healthy Oceans commitments


he G7 summit in Canada in June 2018 opened up discussion regarding ocean plastics, coastal resistance and the Blue Economy. A commitment to support and drive ocean science was also signed. The Charlevoix Blueprint for Healthy Oceans, Seas and Resilient Coastal Communities has set out blueprints for the development of a more sustainable and climate-resilient future for oceanic and coastal communities, with a key focus on transparent data gathering and utilisation. The UK, as a leading maritime nation, is a key country that can carry out the goals outlined in said blueprints.

Through the UK Hydrographic Office’s (UKHO) marine geospatial expertise, the G7 plans are easily supportable and achievable. Marine geospatial information provides the foundations for critical decisions affecting trade, maritime safety and security decision-making, alongside the protection of habitats. John Humphrey, Chief Executive of UKHO, said; “We worked long and hard with our partners across governments to underpin the development of effective global goals for healthy oceans and sustainable Blue Economy growth in advance of the G7 summit. “It is extremely gratifying to see this global coalition of leaders commit to ocean goals that the UKHO knows, from experience, have a direct benefit on individuals and economies in coastal communities and nations around the world.” The Blueprint covers multiple issues and goals for a more sustainable marine economy, such as vowing to increase the availability and sharing of science and data, taking a lifecycle approach to plastics stewardship on land and at sea, alongside launching a joint initiative to deploy Earth observation technologies for the integrated management of coastal zones. The UKHO is continuing to invest in its technology, staff and facilities in its office in Taunton, to ensure that they can continue to provide leading global marine information for decision makers across the globe. The UKHO is expanding marine geospatial capabilities through data science and software development and will be working with government partners to support active strategies to achieve the G7 Blueprint.

8 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed


Dr Neil Auchterlonie Exploring ISAAH

ast week I was lucky enough to attend the International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health (ISAAH), held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island Canada. This event, held on a four-year cycle, draws aquatic animal health professionals from across the world.

The Symposium ran over the whole week, with many different sessions, and there was a great diversity of fish species discussed, reflecting the growth in aquaculture over time. As well as the usual suspects of the modern aquaculture industry, there were even special sessions devoted to the health of cleaner fish, ornamental fish, and zebra fish (for laboratory studies), so it really was all-encompassing in terms of the coverage of subject matter. I was not attending the Symposium out of personal interest though, nor was I on holiday, even though Charlottetown appeared to be a very picturesque location, and worthy of some time spent as a tourist. IFFO had submitted an abstract in order to provide a technical presentation within one of the sessions, the QASH project session. QASH is an acronym that stands for Quantitative Atlantic Salmon Health Assessment, and the project is a collaboration between scientists in Norway, Scotland, Chile and Canada, led by Prof Karin Pittman of the University of Bergen. The aim of QASH is to develop tools that permit rapid and accurate measurements of farmed salmon health, indicating very strong real-world applications of the research. Within salmon farming there are some clear health challenges, often linked directly to pathogens such as sea lice, piscirickettsia, gill amoebae, salmonid alphavirus. The session was split into three, focusing on biomarkers, barriers and stressors, and available toolboxes, with some lively discussion at the end. My IFFO paper focused on the link between nutrition and health in farmed salmon, exploring the changing profile of salmon feeds over time and the nutritional variability that has resulted. None of this is earth-shattering in terms of the messages and many are aware of the substantial progress that has been made in the substitution of marine ingredients over time. That research has largely been undertaken by the feed companies, responding to market competition over time with their changing formulations. Much of this research is understandably commercial and confidential. Although some of the information has reached the public domain, the majority has not. Fish performance, as measured by growth and feed conversion rate, over the time of these changing diets, has been maintained in comparison to the majority marine ingredient diets of 25 years ago. What these metrics fail to consider, is the health and robustness of farmed fish, and although growth is often regarded as a decent proxy for health and welfare it does not tell the whole picture. Equally important to understand is the ability of the fish to cope with infection and physical stressors relevant to modern farming practices. This is less a story about the provision of crude protein and energy in salmon feed and more a story of the micronutrients, and fishmeal is a tremendous source of many of those micronutrients. In terms of nutritional needs for the species, we need look no further than what Atlantic salmon eat in the wild, and in the process of developing my presentation I uncovered a paper that notes the prey items of wild post-smolts in the North Atlantic – blue whiting, sand eels and herring – all important raw materials for fishmeal! Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 10 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Targeting fish immunity and natural defences through nutrition


ew results were revealed in presentations at the AQUA 2018 conference, by Lallemand Animal Nutrition, involving our understanding of aquafeed ingredients and their betterment towards supporting fish health, performance and welfare. Functional feeds are growing to become a crucial component of modern aquafeed to support a responsible and high-performing aquaculture industry. Lallemand’s study discussed fish mucosal surfaces, which constitute an effective line of defences but are also constantly exposed to a high quantity of potential pathogens and non-infectious disrupting factors, such as a physical transfer or chemical exposure during production. Lallemand Animal Nutrition allows for selective application of certain functional ingredients to support and maintain the physical, immunological, and microbial components of the fish mucosal barriers. A study, developed in partnership with the University of Plymouth, followed the expression of 62 targeted genes implicated in mucosal responses, cell mediated immunity, stress and hormonal immunity. This genomic technology was designed to better understand immunomodulatory effects and downstream signalling cascades activated at the mucosal levels with selected functional feed ingredients, such as probiotics. Studies also were conducted in other fish species with a multi-strain yeast faction described for its positive effects on bacteria binding, immune modulation and fish skin mucous secretion. A trial carried out in rainbow trout at the University of Plymouth revealed the supplement had a positive effect on musical barrier protection at the gut and skin level. Skin mucus level was around 30 percent higher with the yeast derivative applied. This study indicated the potential of this ingredient at mitigating pathogens during challenging rearing or transfer periods.

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New salmon farm promises skilled jobs boost for remote Scottish islands


cottish Sea Farms was today granted approval for a new salmon farm upon Lober Rock, close to St Margaret’s Hope in Scapa Flow, opening up the opportunity for six new job roles at Orkney. After multiple years of research and planning for where in the Orkney waters is best to build this sea farm, the new £3 million farm has consent to grow 1,274 tonnes of salmon and is expected to go live in 2019. Consisting of 12 x 80m pens and a 200-tonne barge, it will be managed by a six-strong farm team, supported by specialist training and development. Independent economic and development consultancy Imani Development estimates that every direct job created by Scottish salmon farming supports up to five further jobs indirectly across the supply chain, creating a potential 30 additional jobs. Scottish Sea Farms’ Regional Production Manager for Orkney, Richard Darbyshire says, “this latest consent is hugely positive news. For the remote communities in which we live and work, the new farm will bring skilled jobs and training, additional business for local suppliers, and a boost to local economies in terms of increased disposable income. From a company perspective, the new farm will help us in our drive to meet demand for responsibly farmed salmon; demand that’s rising rapidly not only here in the UK but internationally as the global

population continues to grow – and with it, the need for sustainable protein sources.” According to the Global Salmon Initiative Sustainability Report 2018, salmon farming is increasingly considered to be one of the most sustainable forms of farming, delivering 61kg of edible meat per 100kg of feed – more than double that for poultry, pork or beef. It also has the lowest carbon footprints of all the farming sectors. The new farm at Lober Rock will bring the company’s Orkney estate to eight-strong with five farms acquired from Orkney Sea Farms in 2007, followed by the addition of the award-winning 1,909 tonne Wyre farm in 2015 and, most recently, a new 1,791 tonne farm at Westerbister in 2016. Combined, the expanded Scottish Sea Farms’ Orkney estate will have the capacity to grow over 10,000 tonnes of salmon (live weight) annually for customers in the UK and for export to over 18 different countries around the world.

International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 11

Bühler launches digital service MoisturePro for optimal food and feed drying

Sven-Olof Malmqvist


The future of Aquaculture

t is one thing to write a column in an aquaculture magazine and an entirely other thing to be a practical grower of any aquatic species. Years back I put a number of crayfishes (a form of fresh water lobster) in one of my ponds. It is vital that you have a constant inflow of fresh water and, of course, an outlet so there is sufficient circulation and oxygen. The pond isn’t that big and deep but is brimming with stones and hideouts, which are needed when the crayfish exuviate their shells and are vulnerable to attacks by their own sort. Nature is cruel! Anyway, I have been fishing every autumn when you are supposed to eat them but so far I have thought they are too small and have thrown them back again. In Scandinavia we normally go out in the night placing cages in the water. As bait one can use fresh meat, chicken or fishes as cray fish aren’t picky about their food. The next morning you pick them up and empty the catch. You boil crayfish in really hot water, together with dill, sugar and beer, and then let them cool down. You eat them cold as is, preferably sitting outside as it is rather messy, as you eat them with your own hands, so you need to cover your clothes to protect them. Shots of aquavit and many glasses of beer will also play an important role in this crayfish party. One important element in any aqua production is water and that has been lacking this year due to the drought and, for my production, it has been devastating with zero survival, so I have to start all over again. This just shows how important water is for any sort of production, both access to it and the quality. The major difference is that I am not depending on it as my livelihood, but others are. We need to assist the small holders with all the help we can both in terms of management and financial point of view. As a company you should look at is as a long-term investment, today they are receivers of aid, tomorrow a regular customer of your goods!

Sven Olof is an experienced export manager with a demonstrated history of working in the chemicals industry. He is skilled in marketing management, market planning, business planning, international business and sales management. He is a strong sales profession who graduated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Malmoe.


ühler have recently launched their new cloud-based digital service, MoisturePro, aimed at driving significant improvements in yield, reducing energy costs and environmental footprints of thermal processing for the food and feed industries. MoisturePro is not the only digital service Bühler offer, as their cloud platform offers a full suite of digital tools and services, all under the name of Bühler Insights. MoisturePro introduces a new level of customer-partnership that will result in significant sustainability improvements and efficiency increases. Following a first phase of testing and successful implementation with customers in the US, MoisturePro is now a reliable and proven service. “Leveraging the power of the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud technology we can make our expertise available to our customers at every stage of the drying process and drive real change”, says Paul McKeithan, Bühler’s Head of Digital Services.

As the product is discharged through a chute, moisture sensors send data to dryer software control. Bühler’s control algorithms continually adjust production parameters, so that optimum moisture content is both achieved and maintained, whilst also ensuring food and feed safety. Displaying a marked improvement when compared to the timely procedure of manual sampling and adjusting, MoisturePro minimises moisture deviation, reduces dryer yield consumption and improves dryer yield. Bühler’s goal is to build sustainable food value chains, reduce 30 percent of waste and 30 percent of energy in their customers’ processes by 2020. Digital innovations, such as the MoisturePro, are helping to shape this into reality. “The use of digital technologies has revolutionised food and feed processing. These changes have driven huge improvements in quality and efficiency” continues McKeithan. “Now, we are leveraging connectivity to drive the next revolution. With MoisturePro, our expertise is available on an ongoing, real-time basis to our customers, so that we can proactively help to create and sustain improvements. It’s a true partnership.”

12 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Global salmon and trout producer Cermaq introduces fish welfare policy


ermaq has implemented a new fish welfare policy based on the framework and recommendations in the FishWell report. This report’s recommendations ensure fish will perform better and be of better quality, due to their better standard of living. While Cermaq already reports on a broad set of fish health and welfare indicators, this is the first step towards developing KPIs for measuring fish welfare as defined in FishWell. A fish with good welfare is healthier, performs better and ultimately has better quality, which is essential for the productivity and sustainability of Cermaq’s farming operations. A wide group of scientists summarise the knowledge of fish welfare in the FishWell report and recommend how this can be operationalised in production processes as well as in procedures for handling the fish. Cermaq has used these recommendations to enhance fish welfare throughout its operations. Fish welfare depends on a range of biological and environmental factors. Cermaq continually strives to meet the needs of the fish, and constant improvement, research and innovation is a part of our company culture. “A real change maker for monitoring fish welfare will only be seen when we move towards individualised

farming. Then we can monitor and treat individual fish, not the entire stock in the pen. This is where iFarm provides a solution,” said Research and Development Director, Olai Einen. iFarm, when developed, can measure the external fish health and welfare parameters presented in FishWell. By sorting and treating individual fish, the welfare for all fish in the pen will increase and mortality rates will be dramatically reduced. Cermaq is one of the world’s leading companies in farming of salmon and trout, with operations in Norway, Chile and Canada. Cermaq is a fully owned subsidiary of Mitsubishi Corporation with head office in Oslo, Norway.

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Shrimp aquaculture: Nutriad sponsors Tars 2018 utriad, a pioneering company in species specific additive solutions in aquaculture, once more sponsored The Roundtable Aquaculture Series (TARS) which was held in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The theme of TARS 2018 was ‘Shrimp Aquaculture: Need for Change’ and Nutriad specialists presented views on the use of novel feed ingredients and additives to improve nutrition and health in shrimp production across the world. TARS 2018 attracted over 250 companies, including Cargill, CPF, Thai Union, Thai Union, TRF, Gold Coin, DeHeus, Biomar, as well as farm owners and major suppliers in the region, to share updates and experiences and explore workable solutions towards increasing efficiency in shrimp farming. “Low shrimp pricing is the main issue producers are facing this year, but we believe that we can still manage feed cost through innovative nutritional approaches,” said Dr. Fai, Technical and Commercial Manager of Nutriad Asia Ltd.

“In the past few years, farmers have managed to offset increasing production costs with strong global shrimp prices. At TARS, the industry sector advocated for an aggressive Need for Change towards more efficient production in order to sustain profitability of shrimp production,” says Allen Wu, Aquaculture Manager APAC for Nutriad. Dr Waldo Nuez, Nutriad´s Aquaculture Lead Scientist, shared his views on the potential of novel feed ingredients and functional feed additives to upgrade the current nutritional and functional value of shrimp feeds. His presentation received special attention and questions from participants, particularly feed producers, aiming to secure production efficiency and good health of shrimp by improving their formulations. “Traditional plant ingredients, novel oils and protein sources will improve the inputs of some but not all essential nutrients, so functional feed additives aiming to maximize the efficiency of absorption and utilization will be key to extract more nutritional value of each kilogram of feed,” said Dr. Nuez.

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COATING Create a vacuum environment in your production process? Then everything is possible! Such as applying and impregnating liquids homogeneously in powder, pellets and granules and to switch over easily and quickly to another recipe. More information:


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innovation and collaboration with the customers. In line with our strategy, we have managed to contribute with our global approach and knowledge base, maintaining the local agility”, explains Carlos Diaz, CEO of the BioMar Group. BioMar expects to reach revenue of DKK 10.0 billion DKK in 2018. Despite the full year forecast decreasing by DKK 0.5 billion, 2018 will be still remain a record year for the company. At the same time the company is preparing for growth constructing factories in Australia and China, as well as installing new lines in Denmark and Ecuador. Furthermore, a new research centre dedicated to shrimp farming is being built in Ecuador. “We are working in accordance with our growth strategy and we believe that the demand for high- performance feed will continue to increase in Europe as well as in our new markets. Our new lines will support highly advanced product concepts preparing us to set-off for producing the feed solutions embracing the possibilities of tomorrow. Together with our customers, we need to be prepared to be pioneers on what matters”, concludes Carlos Diaz.

chouw & Co have recently released the half-year report for the BioMar Group. The report notes that Biomar have increased both in volumes and revenue, when compared to 2017. However, the overall result is composed by results in the salmon markets declining slightly while other core markets and new business units have been performing inline with expectations. Biomar has performed a H1 with improved sales and stronger EBITDA compared to H1 2017, showing that they are improving strongly. The sales volume increased 8 percent, compared to same period last year, mainly driven by the new shrimp business unit in Ecuador, Alimentsa. Innovative products integrating high performance, functional feeds and sustainability concepts have shown to be a particularly strong platform for growth in the new markets: “We see a strong performance in Ecuador as well as in our newly established companies in China and Turkey. We are proud that we have been able to integrate the new business units in BioMar Group at the same time enhancing growth,

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Biomar marked by competition in Norway

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Cable solutions he new Idronaut VIP Deep Blue probe has chosen Novacavi’s custom cables for the monitoring of trace metals in the aquatic ecosystems, down to 4000m depth. Produced to address the requirements of environmental scientists fascinated by the monitoring of trace metals in the aquatic ecosystems, this in-situ voltametric probe performs simultaneous measurements in fresh or sea water with a sensitivity not available before, enhanced with specifically designed signal and power custom cables for 4000m depth resistance. “It’s a great satisfaction when our cable solutions support reliable monitoring activity of special survey equipment in any environmental conditions” said Gianluca Ramploud, CEO, Novacavi. Founded in 1975 as a specialist cable manufacturer, Novacavi provides in-house bespoke cables matching customers’ exact requirements, even if small quantities are needed in a variety of high-demanding applications.


Dr Thierry Chopin Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture (IMTA): A responsible approach to farming our waters

n September 1995, I gave a presentation entitled “Mixed, integrated, poly-, or multi-level aquaculture - whatever you call it, it is time to put seaweeds around your cages!” at a conference in St Andrews, New Brunswick. I could see a number of faces in the room saying, “What is this guy talking about?!” The period 1995-2000 was spent “preaching in the desert” for what was just “integrated aquaculture”. We wanted to differentiate our practice from monoculture. The obvious term was polyculture; however, cultivating three species of fish together, while being polyculture, does not address the problems of co-cultivating three fed species together. In March 2004, at a workshop in Saint John, New Brunswick, we gave a name to what we were doing. I came up with “Integrated Aquaculture” and Jack Taylor with “Multi-Trophic Aquaculture”. By combining the two, “Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture” or “IMTA” was born, and in the 14 years since, more than 1,300 publications referring to IMTA have been published worldwide. With IMTA, farmers cultivate species from different trophic levels, with complementary ecosystem functions, in proximity. They combine fed species (e.g. fish) with extractive species (e.g. seaweeds, aquatic plants, shellfish and other invertebrates) to take advantage of synergistic interactions among them, while biomitigation operates within a circular economy approach (nutrients are no longer considered wastes or by-products of one species, but co-products for the others). The aim is to ecologically engineer a new ERA of aquaculture systems (Ecosystem Responsible Aquaculture) for increased environmental sustainability (ecosystem services and green technologies for improved ecosystem health), economic stability (improved output, lower costs, product diversification, risk reduction and job creation in coastal and rural communities), and societal acceptability (better management practices, improved regulatory governance, nutrient trading credit incentives and appreciation of differentiated and safe products).

IMTA is like the music of JS Bach: A central theme with many variations

The scope of the IMTA concept is extremely broad and flexible; moreover, it is ever evolving. IMTA can be applied worldwide to open-water or land-based systems, marine or freshwater systems, and temperate or tropical systems. IMTA was never conceived to be only the cultivation of salmon, kelps and blue mussels, in temperate waters, and within the limits of existing finfish aquaculture sites. That is how we started in Canada, in order to be able to conduct experiments at sea, within

the limitations of the regulations presently in place, rather than extrapolating from small tank experiments in laboratory conditions, which may not reflect what really occurs in the environment. This is only one of the variations and the IMTA concept can be extended to very large ecosystems. Other variations include: integrated agriculture aquaculture (IAA), integrated fisheries aquaculture (IFA), integrated silviculture (mangrove) aquaculture (ISiA), integrated green water aquaculture (IGWA), integrated biofloc aquaculture (IBFA), integrated temporal aquaculture (ITA), integrated sequential aquaculture [ISA, also called partitioned aquaculture (PA), or fractionated aquaculture (FA)], sustainable/sustained ecological aquaculture (SEA), aquaponics or freshwater IMTA (FIMTA), integrated peri-urban aquaculture (IPUA), integrated ocean ranching (IOR), and integrated food and renewable energy parks (IFREP).

Need for an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) strategy

A major rethinking is needed regarding the functioning of an “aquaculture farm” and innovative practices need to be developed. It would be a complete illusion to think that an aquaculture farm only functions within the limits of a few buoys, arbitrarily placed in the water by humans, or a few GPS coordinates on a map. Therefore, its management should be based on an Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) strategy, considering different spatial and temporal recapturing strategies to recover the different types of nutrients. Large particulate organic nutrients should be managed within the farm. Small particulate organic nutrients should be managed within the farm or around its immediate vicinity. Dissolved inorganic nutrients should be managed at the ICAM scale, either when produced directly or after re-mineralization of the organic matter. The “Integrated” in IMTA should be understood as cultivation in proximity, not considering absolute distances, but rather connectivity in terms of ecosystemic functionalities at the ICAM scale (in particular, nutrients and energy hydrodynamics). This means that the different components of an IMTA system do not, necessarily, have to be right at the same location (e.g. within relatively small finfish sites), but that entire bays/coastal areas/regions (including marine protected areas) could be the units of IMTA management. Nothing says that only one company should be in charge, producing all the IMTA components. There may need to be several companies coordinating their activities within the ICAM. “Multi-Trophic” refers to the incorporation of species from different trophic or nutritional levels in the same system. It is not enough to consider multiple species (like in polyculture); they have to be at multiple trophic levels, based on their complementary functions in the ecosystem. Species selection, combinations and proportions will be highly variable depending on the local conditions and biodiversity. The cocultured species should be more than just biofilters; they should also be harvestable crops of economic value or potential. To bestow full value to IMTA, extractive species will need to be valued for not only their biomass and food trading values, but also for the ecosystem services and the increase in consumer trust and societal/political license to operate they provide (again within a circular economy approach).

There is no ultimate IMTA system and that is why IMTA cannot be reduced to a short bureaucratic definition

There is no ultimate IMTA system to feed the world. Different climatic, environmental, biological, physical, chemical, economic, historical, societal, political and governance conditions, prevailing in the parts of the world where they operate, will lead to different choices in the design of the best suited IMTA systems.

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Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc. since 2016.

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The IMTA concept, being highly flexible and ever evolving, cannot, consequently, be reduced to a short bureaucratic definition. After all, nobody is requesting a narrow definition for sustainable aquaculture or offshore/exposed/high energy aquaculture; why would we, then, attempt at a reductionist definition of IMTA, indicating species, type and number of infrastructures, distances, etc. when, in fact, it is its versatility that makes IMTA remarkable. “Ocean Sustainable Development – ” Connecting Asia andIMTA the World The placement of the different components of an system, and the scale at which it will be managed, will certainly trigger changes to regulations, as they were designed without IMTA in mind in most countries. Regulations governing aquaculture are often designed with a single species/group of species in mind, just like fishery regulations, and can inhibit a more holistic approach by not considering species interactions and an ecosystem-based management approach. Dialogue between scientists, aquaculturists, regulators and other coastal stakeholders will be key to addressing regulatory hurdles and establishing enabling regulations and conducive societal conditions for the development and implementation of innovative practices, such as IMTA. It is important to put IMTA in its context of bio-inspired design, biomimicry, law of conservation of mass, circular economy and ICAM, to understand its full long-term relevance.

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www.sustainableoceansummit.org R

Hong Kong / 14 - 16 November 2018

Crédit photo : Woc, fotolia

The International Ocean Business Forum To Advance Responsible Use Of The Seas

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The effects of climate change upon aquaculture by Maurine Toussaint, Gergรถ Gyalog, Courtney Hough, Elizabeth Ytteborg, ClimeFish, Norway

ollowing the summer temperatures in Europe 2018, it becomes clear that European aquaculture needs specific adaptation plans in case of extreme climate change. High mortalities have been reported due to elevated temperatures, water evaporation and algae blooms. ClimeFish is a four-year European project funded by the Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme that aims to create a decision support framework (DSF) to ensure sustainable fish production in Europe under climate change. The project focuses on three different fish supply sectors: marine aquaculture, marine fisheries and lakes and ponds, which are divided into 16 case studies that involve more than 25 species across the continent. The main objective of the ClimeFish project is to ensure that future growth in seafood production occurs in areas and for species with a potential for sustainable growth. The project has been running for more than two years now. The marine aquaculture sector includes six specific case studies describing different aquacultured species and systems. Three fish species includes the most popular marine farmed fish species in Europe, Sea bass (Dichentarius labrax) in Greece and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scotland and Norway, as well as common carp (Cyprinus carpio) pond farming in Hungary, in addition to shellfish farming in Italy, Spain and Scotland. The ClimeFish climate scenarios used to forecast growth in the seafood production were initially based on the three specific climate scenarios from the International Panel of Climate Change, IPPC. These scenarios have already been outdated, bringing new scenarios in the picture. In addition, the local aquaculture farms that ClimeFish is addressing are not covered by the global scale temperature models available. The consequence is that multiple models and temperature data are needed to correct the existing sea water temperatures so that they follow the overlapping timeframes

available and predict the correct temperatures 30 years from now. The climate predictions are used in species specific growth models developed in the project to forecast future growth until 2050.

The impacts of climate change on marine aquaculture

Climate change affecting aquaculture is reflected by temperature changes in both water and air, particularly surface temperatures in marine conditions and other alterations in oceanographic conditions, including currents, wind speed and waves. Feed intake and growth in marine fish are dependent on temperature. Therefore, extreme weather conditions, creating abnormally high temperatures that persists for weeks, will put fish and shellfish under stress that can affect their growth and development. Severe heatwaves may create temperatures above

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the thermal window for the farmed species. For example, it has been shown for Atlantic salmon that four weeks with sea water temperatures above 22 degrees may result in an increase of 20 percent in mortality. For temperatures above 16 degrees, fed intake is reduced and stagnation in growth occur. ClimeFish are currently looking into the highest highs and the lowest lows of the future temperatures and what these will mean for the species concerned. ClimeFish will be able to answer questions such as, how many days will be within the optimal temperature range for growth in 2022? As an example, will the temperature be beyond feeding optima for Atlantic salmon during summer times in South of Norway 2020? These questions are extremely relevant for farmers and farm management, but the data may also be used more politically. The DSS tools developed for the aquacultured species in ClimeFish will simulate and visualise expected changes such as the biological implications of different climate change scenarios, feed and stocking practices, management scenarios and spatial settings. Extreme weather conditions becoming more intense and more frequent, fall of oxygen levels and changes in salinity are important effects gathered from climate change. Changed hydrodynamics and storms causing material damage and flooding of freshwater farms put pressure on the farmed species. Increased stress may reduce fish and shellfish robustness, lowering the susceptibility to diseases and infections. One major concern is related to new and emerging diseases

and parasitic infections, as well as increased occurrence of wellknown parasites and pathogens, following temperatures rise and altered hydrodynamics. For shellfish farmers, occurrence of red tides is an example of one of the many threats increasing with

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climate change. New conditions may affect the way farms are managed, how treatment procedures are carried out, and even the spacial planning of farm locations. Another huge issue that the aquaculture sector is facing is the access to proteins, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, essential nutriment in fish feeds. Climate change could potentially decrease the production of crucial ingredients in the fish feed such as corn and soy. Other sustainable resources and innovative solutions are now needed to support the industry. FAO has indicated that corn and soy production may decrease by 70 percent by 2050 under climate change and the impact may be severe. With growing production and increased feed consumption, ClimeFish results can be used to calculate the future need for protein ingredients in the seafood production sector, thereby helping to evaluate future needs and resource allocation.

Climate change effects on pond farming in central Europe

The ClimeFish project also brings a focus on pond farming through its Hungarian case study. Carp is the number one farmed fish in Hungary and Hungary is the third biggest carp producer in Europe, with more than 10Â 000 tons per year. Obviously, the extremes of flooding and drought are especially important for freshwater farms. As in the marine system, climate change impacts both the fish and the production system in ponds: altered metabolic activity changes the appetite of carps on the one hand and impacts on the pond food web changes the availability of naturally-produced food on the other hand. Initial model-runs in the project show that carp yields can be somewhat higher with increased temperatures; however, there

is still much to understand regarding climate change impacts on welfare and health parameters. For example, it is likely that higher evaporation rates will increase the water costs and, in addition, negatively affect water quality. These effects may increase the production costs in ponds, the price of the marketed product and profitability. One of the goals in the ClimeFish Hungarian case study is to develop a DSS where the farmers may be able to predict the upcoming yield and costs, thereby plan their production accordingly. The DSS developed for Hungary will, for example, let farmers chose between different management options, like different pre-computed stocking and feeding regimes (stocking density and feed capacity), production cycle and harvesting possibilities for each of the climate scenarios and spatial settings (short-term (2020), middle-term (2030) and long-term (2050) forecasts).

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PERFECTION RIGHT DOWN TO THE CORE OF THE PRODUCT The Wynveen vacuumcoater can be used for the addition of extra fats, oils and liquid enzymes to pellets and extrudates. This technology

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Adaptation strategies

More than a billion people worldwide rely on food from the ocean as their primar source of protein. Understanding and anticipating the effects of gradual change as opposed to extreme events is the core challenge of the aquaculture industry. The progress made in innovation and technology can already prevent some effects of climate change such as selective breeding for more robust species, the introduction of insect meal and other sustainable sources in replace of fish meal in feeds, improvement of marine farms infrastructure like development of offshore facilities, closed systems and IMTA farming. The DSS tools developed in ClimeFish will simulate and visualize expected changes like biological implications of

different climate change scenarios, feed and stocking practices, management scenarios and spatial settings. Results are obtained from using intricate food web models for growth, socioeconomic evaluations and risk assessment, all in co-creation with stakeholders’ interest. The DSS developed for Hungary will, for example, let farmers chose between different management options, like different precomputed stocking and feeding regimes, production cycle and harvesting possibilities for each of the climate scenarios and spatial settings (short-term (2020), middle-term (2030) and long-term (2050) forecasts). Development work on climate adaptation strategies, guiding investments, providing guidelines for adaptation and help to decide best management plans is urgent.


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by Eric C Henry, PhD, Research Scientist, Reed Mariculture Inc

or many years Tetraselmis has been one of the microalgae most frequently recommended as a feed for early life stages of shrimp. Fortunately, Tetraselmis is easier to identify by light microscopy, at least to correct genus, than some other flagellates. This is because it is relatively large (8-12 Âľm), and very few other green flagellates bear four equal flagella. Many Tetraselmis strains have proved to be easy to grow under hatchery conditions and are valued as feed because they contain significant levels of the essential Omega-3 fatty acid Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Some strains contain significant levels of taurine, a sulfur amino acid that may have significant nutritional value for larval and juvenile shrimp. Taurine has been only rarely reported in microalgae, but in some Tetraselmis strains it may constitute as much as 10 percent of total amino acids. Several studies have reported that Tetraselmis has value beyond providing essential nutritional components. Addition of Tetraselmis to a formula feed diet was found to lower several measures of oxidative activity and consequent stress in vannamei shrimp. Suppression of Vibrio bacteria by Tetraselmis has been shown in culture of shrimp, as well as Artemia and finfish. The performance of larval and post-larval shrimp what have

been fed Tetraselmis with larvae and fed other algae have been compared, either singly or in combination with Tetraselmis or other algae. By far, the most comprehensive study was by Ronquillo, who cultured Tetraselmis at six different salinities, nine pH levels, and two temperatures, as well as varying culture medium nutrients. Tetraselmis produced under this wide range of conditions was then fed to Metapenaeus ensis, Metapenaeopsis barbata, Trachypenaeus curvirostris, Penaeus chinensis, P. indicus, P. japonicus, P. latisulcatus, P. merguiensis, and P. semisulcatus. Later studies focused on Penaeus monodon or Litopenaeus vannamei. In none of the trials did Tetraselmis serve well as the sole feed; this is not surprising because it lacks the Omega-3 fatty acid DHA, which has been shown to be required by some shrimp. This finding is consistent with the general principle that no single species of algae is likely to provide the truly optimal diet for any animal, and indeed the combination of Tetraselmis with other algae almost always yielded improved performance, even for algae that could support development of shrimp as sole feeds. Nevertheless, in some of the studies the Tetraselmis strain tested appeared to provide considerably more benefit than strains used in other studies. Some of the discrepancies in results could be due to use of different culture conditions in the production of the Tetraselmis used as feed; it has been shown that the performance of Artemia-fed Tetraselmis was significantly impaired when the

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algae was cultured with suboptimal nitrogen or phosphorus. It is also likely that the different strains of Tetraselmis used in different studies possessed intrinsically different nutritional profiles, because it has been shown that different strains grown under the same conditions can have dramatically different biochemical compositions. For example, Tzovenis reported as much as a 3.8-fold differences in EPA content among five Tetraselmis strains isolated from the Ionian Sea, while taurine was no more than one percent of amino acids and was undetectable in three strains. Wikfors analysed the essential fatty acid and sterol content of nine Tetraselmis strains, and they found as much as an eight-fold difference in EPA content among the strains, and a more than 200-fold difference in the content of certain sterols. Sterol content of algae is often overlooked as a significant nutritional component, yet it has been shown that only certain sterols can support growth of Penaeus japonicus. To date, most of the numerous strains of Tetraselmis that have been isolated have not been subjected to detailed biochemical or molecular genetic analysis, but limited studies indicate that the common conception of Tetraselmis based on light microscopy indeed represents a natural group of related organisms. Despite this reassurance that all Tetraselmis strains are in fact probably related, the delimitation of species within the genus remains problematic. Some 36 species have been validly described in the taxonomic literature, yet the NCMA culture collection of 119 Tetraselmis strains assigns species names to only seven strains. Many shrimp feeding studies have used novel or locally isolated Tetraselmis strains, while providing little or no characterisation of strain properties. Although these strains are usually assigned

species names, the authors never state the criteria they used for these species’ designations. Such ambiguity in the identities of algal strains used for feeding studies is a very common and fundamental problem in aquacultural research. No matter how rigorous the experimental protocols of these studies, or how sophisticated the statistical analysis of the results, when algal strains are not unambiguously identified, and preferably made available to other workers, the results of the studies cannot provide definitive guidance. Progress in development of optimized algal diets incorporating Tetraselmis will depend on more rigorous biochemical analyses and explicit identification of the strains that perform best.

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Dry extrusion wet extrusion VS


by Joseph P. Kearns, JPKearns Consulting LLC

hat is the difference between dry extrusion and wet extrusion? To start off, having worked in this industry for over 40 years both dry and wet extrusion has changed as machinery improvements resulted in the evolution

of both styles of production. Historically dry extrusion was a design for use on farms and the power source was the Power Take Off on a tractor. The idea was to process soybeans mainly to eliminate the trypsin inhibitor and increase oil availability so as the full fat soybeans could be used in “on the farm” feeds with no detrimental effect for the animals fed. It worked perfectly for this application as low production rates matched farmer’s needs. As feed mills became more available and advantageous, the system changed to be more appropriate with electrical motors and surrounding support equipment designed for feed production. These early dry extruders were in the high shear range of operation. High shear was critical for rupturing the oil sacs in the soybeans, so the oil was more readily available for its caloric value in animals, predominately chickens. It just so happened that when operating at high shear the temperature was achieved to eliminate or greatly reduce the trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, which is detrimental for chickens. It is noted and can be seen in the photos that dry extrusion has changed over the years. Insta Pro of Iowa, USA is famous for its dry extrusion equipment and two of their extruders are shown, the left without a preconditioner and the right with a preconditioner. The left extruder is designed for ingredient preparation as it has a device at the discharge end of the extruder, which allows for increased pressure development in the extruder barrel but no ability to cut and form an extruded piece. Insta Pro is historically famous for this design and its use in full fat soybean extrusion and ingredient manufacturing. The Insta ProMS3000 shown on the left is designed for processing shaped products such as pet food and fish feed. This model normally includes a 125 HP main drive motor and has an approx. capacity of 600 to 1,500 kg/hr depending on the product produced. In my opinion the addition of a preconditioner has

enhanced the ability of these dry extruders over a dry extruder with no option of adding water and or steam as one might desire. The levels that can be potentially added in this size and design of preconditioner would be limiting but I have no doubt the capabilities have been increased. Also, the addition of a die and knife allows for cutting and shaping at the discharge end of the extruder. Moisture level addition for dry extrusion would be somewhere between zero and approximately 10 percent added, and this would be in the extruder moistures of 10 to 20 percent. This statement is based my understanding of the process and the claim for less drying required as well as the appearance of some products. Lower moisture high shear and thus potentially highly expanded feeds. Wet extrusion technology has also been through tremendous changes and now can be defined as operating an extruder in the 20 percent to well over 50 percent moisture ranges. Historically it was a much lower range of 20 to mid 30 percent moisture, typical ranges for high capacity single screw extruders. Over the years preconditioning developments have greatly changed moisture and steam inputs. Simple single shafted cylinders to double diameter cylinders with differential shaft sizes; rotational directions and speeds change possibilities have greatly improved the moisture penetration and inclusion of high moisture ingredients in the extrusion process. Extruder barrels also changed to match the advancements in the conditioning cylinders. The advancements in conditioning cylinders increased the retention time, moisture input and utilisation of the steam based on these developments. Thus, the feed from the cylinder had a higher level of cook resulting in the extruder barrel modifications to increase throughput, as less cook in the barrel was needed. Capacity

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increases occurred with the elevated moisture levels and it changed the amount of HP needed per ton produced per hour, the result was increase efficiencies. Studies showed that the idea of reducing moisture on these high capacity machines, now up in the 20 metric tonnes per hour range, was actually costly based on all costs associated with the extrusion process. Electrical energy, extruder wear, cost of drying with steam or gas showed a minor moisture reduction can affect product quality and increase total costs. Photo 4 is a part of a test to justify what moisture to utilise. Too low, 11.1 percent M and the feed is an open cell structure, which can result in excess fines. Too much water, 35.0 percent M, and the feed density increases, and the cook goes down based on excessive moisture in this case. In the low 20 percent M range the product is showing some deformity in shape while the sweet spot appears to be in the 25 to 28 percent M range. This is the range that yielded the most efficient operation conditions for quality, durability, energy consumption and maximum capacity etc. The ultimate extruder at this time for high moisture use is the Wenger Thermal Twin Screw; it can handle above 50 percent moisture and above 50 percent fresh meat inclusion in the formula. This highly modified and advanced extruder with advanced preconditioning uses steam for cook as opposed to shear in the extruder barrel for frictional development for heat generation. It should be noted the required main drive motor is about one quarter the size for comparable capacities when shear or friction cook is used. In summary Insta-Pro and Wenger were used as examples for this discussion as they have led the industry in extrusion in their designs or style of extruders. There are many designs, models, sizes and a full range of capabilities on a wide variety of extrusion devices. The requirements of purchasers of equipment have different sets of specifications of operation and thus all of these ranges of machines or tools of the trade have a place in the industry. Good luck with your evaluation of the equipment needed for your operation.

International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 27


The intensification of African aquaculture requires access to affordable formulated feeds


By Ramon Kourie, Chief Technical Officer, SustAqua Fish Farms, South Africa

he challenges aquaculturalists and sea farmers face are numerous; few feed milling operations run successfully, raw materials are expensive due to local shortages and a restrictive fiscal policy environment on imports in most countries, poor quality raw materials, high logistical costs associated with the movement of commodities and scale economies requiring critical mass for viability of the whole value chain. Farmers may elect to produce their own farm-made feeds which requires a careful strategy at the outset. Having gone this route on the Chambo Fisheries fish farm in Blantyre, Malawi, I’m particularly well positioned to contribute an article to cover all considerations, needed additives (mycotoxins absorbent), useful additives, the economics, merits etc. without self-promoting products that we have developed. Most fish farmers use feeding tables or highly subjective visual estimates in satiation feeding in most aquaculture operations. The use of feeding tables may not be reflective of the growth performance of the particular genes in use on a farm nor find applicability in terms of abiotic and biotic factors known to influence appetite and growth. For instance, swimming energetics in tank and recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) farmed fish are most often ignored, where the same feeding rates are applied using standard feeding tables generated by feed milling companies for cage farmed fish. Satiation feeding most often results in overfeeding and consequentially


Ramon M. Kourie* and Bryce Fleming SustAqua Fish Farms (Pty) Ltd. 11 Hamilton Avenue, Craighall Park, Johannesburg, South Africa

28 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

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increases feed conversion ratio’s (FCR’s) beyond that which is possible when using more robust approaches, based upon the use of bioenergetic models feeding the daily weight increment. Practicable bioenergetic feeding rate models, developed for use on commercial fish farms, are simple enough to implement using Excel spreadsheets and could greatly assist farmers towards improved feed use efficiency. We have developed models for the major farmed species based upon the same philosophy introduced in a slide show presentation tuned for tilapias raised under Biofloc Technology (BFT) conditions.

The winning benefits of RAS in systems tailored for the species

Benefits of this technology include minimising energy use in RAS, increasing production capacity ratio’s, capitalizing on improved growth and improved nutrient digestibility due to

swimming energetics, chemical free fish production, no issues with sea lice, filtration of micro-plastics from the source water to ensure safe seafood, low mercury farmed fish from RAS fed terrestrially sourced raw materials etc. all require consideration. A host of positive factors provide design engineers with a set of winning benefits to advance RAS technologies to achieve improved product marketability, reduced input/output ratios and improving energy use per unit fish production, etc. Here is an extract from some of my recent work on a new RAS for Atlantic salmon in South Africa:

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International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 29


“The most important design parameter when raising Atlantic salmon (and many other marine and freshwater fish species) is the ability to regulate highly beneficial water velocities in hydraulically efficient tank systems. Atlantic salmon, a species of renowned locomotory repertoire, need to swim - wild salmon cover distances of 6400km/year on natural feeding migrations, which has a profound effect on the firmness of edible meat. Raising salmon in moving water simulates fish motion, rather like a treadmill effect, which induces muscle hypertrophy (Atlantic salmon is over 65% muscle - muscle hypertrophy involves an increase in size of skeletal muscle through a growth in size of its component cells) which brings fish meat texture closer to wild salmon. Optimum water velocities for post-smolt Atlantic salmon are close to around 1.0-1.2 Body lengths per sec (BL/sec) according to the work of Grisdale-Helland. “The Grisdale-Helland 2013 study recorded a 27.1 percent increase in efficiency of Metabolizable Energy (ME) for energy gain (above maintenance) and a 16.7 percent increase in efficiency of Digestible Protein (DP) for weight gain in Atlantic salmon, indicating the advantages of forced moderate exercise conditions as a rearing strategy to reduce feed conversion ratio’s (FCR’s) and improve growth rates. Although the definitive study using a Brett-type swim-flume is lacking in Atlantic salmon. “Forced moderate exercise under optimum water velocities for the species has been shown to induce muscle hypertrophy, improve growth rates and reduce the energetic costs of protein accretion where fed fish under continuous moderate exercise conditions exhibit a shift in their metabolisms to derive energy for swimming activity and protein accretion largely from carbohydrates and lipids rather than protein (a survival mechanism to spare protein loss from the muscle). “It is not possible to regulate horizontal water velocities under normal cage or net pen conditions in the ocean. As such landbased tank culture offers huge advantages over cage culture in terms of growth rates and feed use efficiency when applying bioenergetic feeding rate models to deliver the right quantities of feed to satisfy daily Digestible Energy (DE) requirements with more pinpoint accuracy under regulated horizontal water velocity and controlled sea water temperature conditions (reduces feed supply-demand error in daily Feed Allotment (dFA) estimates).” New business models to advance sustainable intensification of the aquaculture sector in developing countries focusing on green and inclusive growth, food safety, improved flavor quality and branded products are being developed in South Africa which might find broader applicability in sub-Sahara Africa and Asia. 30 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed


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EXPERT TOPIC The Milkfish (Chanos Chanos) is the national fish of the Philippines, referred to locally as the ibiya. They dwell primarily in the Indian Ocean, but are also present in the Pacific Ocean, from South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, from California to the Galapagos, north to Japan and south to Australia. Milkfish commonly live in tropical offshore marine waters around islands and along continental shelves, at depths of between 1-30m. They also frequently enter estuaries and rivers. They are stenothermic fish, so therefore if you farm them in fish farms, they must be kept within extremely specific temperatures, otherwise they will fall ill and die. The milkfish can grow to 1.80m (5 ft 11in) but are often no more than one metre (39in) in length. They can reach a weight of approximately 14kg and can live up to an impressive 15 years. Milkfish have elongated bodies, with a generally symmetrical and streamlined appearance with one dorsal fin, falcate pectoral fins and a sizable forked caudal fin, which assists the milkfish in steering and swimming.

by Rebecca Sherratt, Production editor, International Aquafeed Their mouth is small and toothless, and their body a pale olive green, with silvery flanks and dark bordered fins. Considered to be iliophagous, (a fish that gains its nutrients from eating decomposing plant and animal parts), milkfish ingest the various micro- and meiofauna found on the ocean floor. They can also be weaned onto artificial feed, provided they are fed this within the first two-to-eight-days of hatching. Milkfish tend to school around coasts and islands amongst coral reefs. The young fry live at sea for two to four weeks before migrating during the juvenile stage, (also called fingerlings), to mangrove swamps, estuaries, and sometimes lakes. The reproductive cycle of the milkfish still remains relatively unknown. Their reproductive cycles have, however, been studied and are believed to be largely influenced by the lunar cycle and can often take place multiple times in a year, usually at night. Milkfish return to the sea to mature sexually and reproduce, when they reach between three and 15 years old. Females spawn at night between 0.5 and six million eggs in saline shallow waters, which take between 20 and 35 hours to hatch. Once born, the larvae are about 3.5mm in length, and rely solely on their yolk for nutrients for their first five days of existence.

32 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed


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www.almex.nl International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 33




EXPERT TOPIC A Philippine tradition By Matthew Holmes, Features editor, International Aquafeed


he milkfish is an important seafood in Southeast Asia and some Pacific Islands. Because milkfish is notorious for being much bonier than other culinary fish, deboned milkfish, also called boneless bangús in the Philippines, has become increasingly more popular in stores and markets. Milkfish aquaculture first occurred around 800 years ago in the Philippines and spread in Indonesia, Taiwan, and into the Pacific. Traditional milkfish aquaculture relied upon restocking ponds by collecting wild fry. This led to a wide range of variability in quality and quantity between seasons and regions. In the late 1970s, farmers first successfully spawned breeding fish. However, these were difficult to obtain and produced unreliable egg viability. In 1980, the first spontaneous spawning happened in sea cages, whose eggs were then found to be sufficient to generate a constant supply for farms. Fry are raised in either sea cages, large saline ponds or concrete tanks. Milkfish reach sexual maturity at 1.5kg (3.3lb), which takes five years in floating sea cages, but eight to ten years in ponds and tanks. Once they reach 6kg (13lb), 3–4 million eggs are produced each breeding cycle. This is mainly done using natural environmental cues. However, attempts have been made using gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-A) to induce spawning. Some still use the traditional wild stock method, which is capturing wild fry using nets. Milkfish hatcheries, like most hatcheries, contain a variety of cultures, for example, rotifers, green algae, and brine shrimp, as well as the target species.

34 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

EXPERT TOPIC They can either be intensive or semi-intensive. Semi-intensive methods are more profitable at £5.20 per thousand fry in 1998, compared with £21.34 for intensive methods. However, the experience required by labour for semi-intensive hatcheries is higher than intensive.

Pond culture, pen culture and cage culture

Milkfish nurseries in Taiwan are highly commercial and have densities of about 2000/L. Indonesia achieves similar densities but has more backyard-type nurseries. The Philippines has integrated nurseries with grow-out facilities and densities of about 1000/L. The three methods of outgrowing are pond culture, pen culture, and cage culture, which all have their own advantages and disadvantages: Shallow ponds are found mainly in Indonesia and the Philippines. These are superficial (30–40 centimetres), brackish ponds ripe with benthic algae which is usually used as feed. These are usually excavated from nipa or mangrove areas and produce about 800 kg/ha/yr. Deep ponds (2–3 m) have more stable environments and their use in milkfish production began in 1970. So far, milkfish farmed in this manner have shown less susceptibility to disease than shallow ponds. In 1979, pen culture was introduced in Laguna de Bay, which had high primary production. This provided an excellent food source. Once this ran out, fertilizer was applied. They are susceptible to disease. Cage culture usually occurs in coastal bays. These consist of large cages suspended in open water. They rely largely on natural sources of food present in the water. In the Phillipines especially, stocking rates via cage culture are very high, from five up to 30/

m3. Due to the milkfish’s sensitivity to temperatures and water conditions, they have sometimes proven difficult to effectively farm and are for. These fish once were caught as fry, and raised into adulthood, but this often came with heavy losses, many of the milkfish dying as fingerlings. The unpredictability of the ocean waters has meant that farmers must now monitor their milkfish exceedingly carefully. The past decade has seen a improvement in the monitoring of milkfish and mortality rate, thanks to the production of private hatcheries, research institutions and government agencies. Many of the milkfish fry used now in farming in the Philippines, China and Indonesia come from specialised hatcheries. Despite these successes though, milkfish survival rate in hatcheries still remains at only a minimal 30 percent.

An impressive future ahead

As milkfish production only continues to gain in popularity, the expected figures of production and sales have increased drastically. In 2005, the supply of milkfish was approximately 79,000 tonnes, which reached an impressive 369,000 tonnes in 2010. These numbers are still only continuing to increase, despite milkfish being largely considered, in the Philippines, as a meal younger generations dislike for its bony texture. As The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) begin to add trade restrictions and quality control standards to the production of milkfish, it has been foreseen that milkfish production will drastically increase in price. Yet, despite this, the future for milkfish still remains positive, as the demand only continues to grow.

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International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 37

This month our technology focus covers a multitude of topics. One might have guessed from the cover that we discuss seals in this issue, and you’d be right! Ace Aquatec, a leading company in acoustic systems for aquaculture, have a thrilling article discussing the latest updates in seal protection whilst fishing. Aquatic sustainability no longer just focusses upon the actual animals harvested, but also on the other forms of marine life that may be affected by harvesting and farming procedures. Injuries dealt to seals whilst humans farm other creatures has been an ongoing issue, but thanks to the Scottish Salmon Watch, these issues may find a solution. By 2020 the organisation is hoping to completely reduce injuries and death to seals and other animals harmed in farming processes. Discussed also is Clewer’s new RBBR technology. What does RBBR mean? You’ll find out in the next few pages… Clewer patented bioreactors are a brilliant innovation for the aquaculture industry, and International Aquafeed have been given a one-of-a-kind insight into what this new technology will mean for the marine industry. Meanwhile, in China, new forms of fish farming are gaining momentum, forms that we will be discussing in another farming technology article in this issue. Intensive pond aquaculture (IPA), introduced to China in 2013, gives fish farming a revolutionary edge and boasts a plethora of advantages for the modern aquatic farmer. As this unique new form of fish farming gains popularity, it could possibly branch out into other countries’ farming techniques.


WORLD’S BIGGEST SEAFOOD IMPORTER TIGHTENS SEAL PROTECTIONS by Vaughn Entwistle, Features Editor, International Aquafeed


These words from animal welfare campaign group Scottish Salmon Watch may be intentionally provocative, but at the core, they’re accurate. New import regulations being implemented by the Trump administration are going to have a big impact on fish farms that export to the United States. From January 1, 2022 America will only import sea food from countries who can demonstrate no marine mammals, including seals, are killed in their farming operations. These changes are understandably causing a stir in many of the world’s biggest fish producing countries. The Scottish salmon industry recently had a petition for exemption from the regulations turned down and like other nations they are now facing a future where the financial cost of shooting a seal has never been higher.

What is the new regulation?

The exact regulation prompting these changes is the Import Provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). Its stated aim is to, “address intentional mortality and serious injury of marine mammals in fisheries that export fish and fish products to the United States.” In short, the US wants all nations they import from to be held to at least the same standards as American fish farmers. The Import Provisions Rule has been in effect since January 1 2017, but with a five-year phased implementation plan. By January 1 2022, any fish-harvesting nation wishing to sell into the US market must have been approved to continue to export fish and fish products.

Global impact

When US international policy shifts direction, even in small ways, the consequences can be substantial and far-reaching – a lesson the global seafood industry will soon experience first-hand. As the world’s largest importer of seafood – the US buys $20.6bn of seafood produce every year – farmers in many countries rely on this market for a significant portion of their sales. With farmed salmon being their second biggest import (shrimp is the first biggest import), global salmon farmers are amongst those with most at risk from the upcoming regulatory crackdown on seal killing. Whether you’re a country like Scotland and 38 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Chile that have the US as their top salmon export destination (32% of Scottish salmon exports in 2017), or more like Norway where the US only accounts for seven percent of their exports (but up 31% versus last year), there’s still hundreds of millions of pounds at risk of disappearing overnight.

Current readiness varies by country

Current approaches to mitigating the impact of marine predators on fish farm livestock varies greatly depending on what country you look at – local differences in what is culturally acceptable play a big part. For example, Scotland already has strict regulations in place, as well as substantial public pressure, to ensure shooting a seal is seen strictly as an undesirable last resort. In Norway, though, it is much more culturally acceptable and common practice to shoot seals. As a consequence of these different cultural norms, non-lethal measures for deterring predators are much less common in Norway than in some other prominent salmon producing nations. Scottish farming companies have been using a combination of acoustic and

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY electric deterrents for years, with some also combining these with reinforced netting. This increased commitment to humane predator control has seen the number of seals killed under licence by Scottish fish farms reduce every year since 2011, and reach an all-time low of 49 in 2017. However, despite some farms leading the way in non-lethal predator control, many sites will still fall short of the new stricter regulations and need to increase their investment in marine predator control systems if they want to continue exporting to the US.

Scottish salmon farmers use the latest technology to adapt

With 32 percent (£193m) of their exported salmon going to the US in 2017, the Scottish farming industry has a lot to lose from stricter US regulations. Thankfully, this is an area they’ve been making big strides forward in over the last few years and local company Ace Aquatec has been at the forefront of this humane approach to predator control. Ace Aquatec are a Scottish aquaculture technology supplier specialising in humane predator control systems and who now provide predator protection to the majority of Scottish farms. Ace Aquatec CEO, Nathan Pyne-Carter, cites the desire of local farms to increase their welfare credentials as a huge catalyst for his own company’s success. He explained, “All of our products are designed with animal welfare at the heart and we love that the farmers we work with across the world also recognise how important this is.” Speaking about their product development history, PyneCarter explained, “Every predator deterrent we’ve created was born out of an unsolved farmer pain point. We developed our mid-frequency US3 deterrent when we heard about habituation issues with other acoustic devices; we then developed our lowfrequency RT1 deterrent when we heard customers were banned from using mid-frequency noises in some areas; we created sonar triggers to mitigate any potential noise pollution concerns; our online portal was for customers who asked for increased visibility of performance; and most recently we invented an electric net and electric decoy fish for customers told us they wanted more tools in their arsenal.” Loch Duart and Scottish Sea Farms are particularly good examples of Scottish companies who foresaw the need for stricter welfare standards and acted early to get ahead of the curve. Both companies have been partnering with Ace Aquatec for years to provide humane predator control systems on their sites across country. Their typical approach is a mix of mid and low frequency deterrents at each site. The low frequency RT1 deterrents have proved particularly useful for sites in protected zones that are banned from using higher frequency acoustic devices that impact the hearing range of cetacean species such as porpoises. Ace Aquatec also provide them with access to electric systems that offer added protection for challenging sites. Pyne-Carter explained they’ve rarely been called on to deploy this backup measure, but it’s been reassuring to know it’s there. “The main reason our electric net gets such little use is that with acoustic deterrents in place it’s just not been necessary in the majority of cases. In all our years protecting fish farms with acoustic deterrents we’ve only been asked to deploy our electric net twice – and in both of those cases the predator problem was resolved quickly and the farm was back to using only acoustic deterrents within a matter of weeks.” Although infrequent, those two electric net deployments

provided a valuable extra level of protection and easily could have resulted in a seal being shot if that escalation option had not been available. Both Loch Duart and Scottish Sea Farms will find it much easier to show compliance with the new US regulations that less well-equipped competitors.

Five things to look for when investing in predator control technology solutions Proven long-term effectiveness - Academic researchers

have shown certain acoustic deterrents to cause a problem known as ‘habituation’. This is when a seal or other predator becomes deaf or accustomed to a particular sound over a period of time, approximately six months. For this reason it’s important to ask about what any potential supplier is doing to mitigate the risk of habituation. Also ask for examples of where their acoustic deterrents have been used continuously over a period of years, not just months.

Low-frequency acoustic options - Many marine areas

have controls in place to protection local cetacean populations. Mid-frequency deterrents are not appropriate for farms in these areas, so it’s important to also have access to low-frequency acoustic deterrents. Look for systems that are limited to sounds below 5kHz, ideally between 1kHz-2kHz. It’s also important to confirm they don’t have any high frequency harmonics above this frequency.

Loud volume - Acoustic deterrents that operate at lower

volume levels can cause a ‘dinner-bell’ effect that just draws seals in rather than deterring them. Any system of 195dB or above should have sufficient power to avoid this problem.

Remote monitoring - Even the most reliable systems in the world can become useless if someone forgets to turn them on, or if extreme weather damages the generator. Having deterrent systems that can be monitored remotely online provides peace of mind that sites are protected at all times and allows for quick resolution of any issues. Variety of tools - Without the fall-back position of being able

to shoot predators, the price of failure is exceptionally high. This means it’s important to have a variety of options. When deployed with full coverage, acoustic deterrents have proved sufficient for most people, but it’s always good to have a plan B. Look at options like electric nets or decoy fish that you can keep a number in reserve ready for quick deployment to any problem sites.

What’s next? - With current objections from non-US industry bodies being rejected, we have to assume that from January 1 2022, seal-friendly operations will be a price of doing business with the US. This means farmers relying on exports to the US need to start preparing now to demonstrate compliance, or run the risk of that market becoming a closed door. The key to future regulatory compliance without risking increased fish mortalities will be having more than one tool at your disposal. Low and mid frequency acoustic deterrents, electrics nets and decoy fish and reinforced predator nets. You should be thinking now about how you get as many of these as possible at your disposal. Change is only scary if you’re not prepared. Unprepared countries and farmers will undoubtedly see this regulatory shift as a threat, but those who prepare in advance will have big opportunities ahead of them.

40 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed



“The main principle in the development work of the RAS system by Clewer has been to design a system as easy to use and as maintenance-free as possible.” The Clewer rotating bed bioreactor (RBBR) is the basis of the Clewer Aquaculture RAS system. It was first developed as wastewater treatment plant for cleaning domestic wastewater fifteen years ago. Later it was used in car wash plants, where water consumption can be reduced by up to 10 percent, compared with conventional car washes. In both wastewater treatment and car wash plants, these reactors have been widely used around the world, from desert to urban environments. In aquaculture these bioreactors have been involved in large-scale testing for seven years. All these three product lines are now part of the Clewer companies, which belong to Salmela Group of companies in Finland. The recycling system for aquaculture has been tested with several species and growing temperatures in our commercial scale RAS-system of our R&D unit. Carefully managed practical culture tests with rainbow trout (temperature 16°C), pikeperch (21°C) and African catfish (26°C) are the basis for sizing the systems. The knowledge for these tests is based on the long history our personnel has in aquaculture. Since the 1980s we have been involved in practical fish farming, consulting and teaching. After seven years of testing, RBBR is now ready and new, efficient and maintenance-free bioreactors will soon be installed for commercial aquaculture use. The main principle in the development work of the RAS system by Clewer has been to design a system as easy to use and as

maintenance-free as possible. Minimising running costs is also a key issue for us. It is possible to make the installation completely on top of the floor. The bioreactor doesn’t need a pressure inside and the head loss is low. We oxygenate the water in the system using a semi-low head oxygenator to optimise the cost of the gas treatment in the system. Effectivity and economy are comparable to the other best comparable ways, and have been used for years in practice. Another practical and cost-effective factor is that transportation of the biofilter by road is possible without the need for any special arrangements. Clewer’s aim is to provide turnkey solutions for aquaculture needs. The systems are planned and designed based on modules that use our bioreactors. These modules are scalable, so the production can be planned to meet different sizing and timing

42 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed


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“Shellfish Diet has allowed us to remotely set our mussel larvae and feed them a healthy and consistent diet. With the hatchery space and diet in demand for oysters, we have been able to continue our mussel sets remotely by using the Shellfish Diet.” — Ian Jefferds, Owner & General Manager, Penn Cove Shellfish, LLC, Puget Sound, Washington, USA

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© 2 0 1 8 R E E D M A R I C U L T U R E , I N C . A L L R I G H T S R E S E R V E D . I N S T A N T A L G A E, E N S U R I N G H A T C H E R Y S U C E S S A N D S H E L L F I S H D I E T A R E T R A D E M A R K S O R R E G I S T E R E D T R A D E M A R K S O F R E E D M A R I C U L T U R E I N C.

43 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed


needs. Risk management is one of our priorities – with modules it is easy to control the processes in different farming conditions. It is very important for us that the customer is thoroughly trained in RAS system basics and the running of the fish farm using our bioreactors. We offer practical training with every purchase. The training is always planned together with the customer according to the needs of each farm and personnel. We have trained fish farmers—both experienced and beginners— giving lectures and organising visits to fish farm sites. Also training periods in fish farms are possible.

Helsinki and Jyväskylä Universities in Finland have already chosen a Clewer system for their laboratory use because of the reliable function and easy set-up possibilities it offers. Scaling up and down in the size of the units has been carefully considered. We can offer also small tailored systems and units for different kinds of purposes. A building project of commercial scale on-growing & juvenile modules salmonids farm (yearly production of 120.000 kg of market size arctic char) is going on at the moment in Latvia. A Clewer Aquaculture bioreactor will be the heart of the water treatment of the RAS of this farm. There will be separate units for juveniles and market size fish close to 1kg average weight. The system will also use equipment from companies experienced in aquaculture. This Latvian project includes also a divided sludge collecting system in the end of a pipe cleaning plant with settling of solids without treatment, and afterwards a chemical treatment to capture the soluble phosphorus nutrient before escaping to a river. Temperature control will be necessary in very cold weather and sometimes during the hottest season. There will be a heat pump/heat exchanger system with the possibility of recycling the heat of the water and the ventilation. The system can take advantage of all the possible energy and the company is prepared to include solar energy later for the system. The construction part is followed by focused training and a close follow-up of the production cycle and even processing the fish to marketable condition. In this case, a two-year maintenance agreement has been set up. Several factors can affect the length of the training and the follow-up programs, like the species in production, experience of the farm workers and the company.

44 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

The cornerstone of Alltech’s global aquaculture business.

Check out the video!



in China

“Intensive Pond Aquaculture (IPA) is a new high-intensive and high-density farming system in China with outstanding advantages and a high construction investment. � Intensive Pond Aquaculture (IPA) is a new highintensive and high-density farming system in China with outstanding advantages and a high construction investment. In this system, water-pushing appliances are put in front of the cell to make static pond water flow through the cell, letting feed waste and fecal matter deposit at the quiescent zone. This is a sustainable farming way which is good for the water recycle, waste clean and aquaculture environment. IPA is mainly composed of the pond, a raceway, water-pushing appliances, wasteremoval devices, aeration devices, and other parts. Mostly the cells are set up at one side of the pond and consist of three parts, including the water-pushing cell, culture cell and wastecollection cell. Generally, the culture cell is 22 metres long, five metres wide and two metres high. The height can be adjusted according to the pond water depth. Micropore oxygen aeration devices are installed at the sides and bottom of this cell to match with the high requirement of

by Feng Ming-Wei, Wu Qiang-Liang, Dong Qiufen, Zhang Song

dissolved oxygen (DO). The water-pushing cell is approximately two metres long and the same height and width as the culture cell. The bottom of water-pushing cell is covered by concrete in order to prevent the bottom soil from being sucked up by strong force of waterpushing appliance. The waste-collection cell is four metres long and constructed at the downstream end of the culture cell with a v-shaped bottom design to slow down the water flow speed and let solid waste to settle down in a so-called quiescent zone. The waste mainly includes feed residual and fecal matter that is sucked up from the bottom, to the pond side and processed after collection. The water-pushing appliance in front of the culture cell must run continuously to keep the pond water flowing properly,

46 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed



while the micropore oxygen aeration devices that are installed at the sides and bottom of the cell working at the same time to maintain a relatively high DO. Depending upon the culture species and feed type fed into the system, after feeding half an hour the suction devices at the bottom of the waste-collection cell will start working to remove the fecal matter, thus to maintain relative clean water conditions.

Revolutionary design

The first IPA system in China was introduced in 2013 by the US Soybean Export Council (USSEC) in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province as a trial base, had positive results in terms of technical advantages and environment protection. With the environmental and friendly characteristics, the system has been rapidly recognized and promoted by some local fishery departments. More trials followed, from 2014 in Jiangsu, Anhui and other Eastern China provinces, and developed fast since 2015 with more than 2,000 cells scale in more than 18 cities of different provinces. The system is being applied in the major common fresh water species and some high-value species culture. The productivity in this system for grass carp and big mouth bass reached 30 tons/cell and 20 tons/cell per year respectively. Currently, there are two types of cells used in China, one is one-piece fiberglass and another is concrete. One-piece fiberglass type has advantages of short construction period, simple construction, nice-looking and easy to use, but construction cost is about CNY 70,000 to CNY 80,000 CNY per

Leiber® Beta-S – β-glucans for: Improvement of the cellular & humoral defence mechanisms Support of immunological competence in larval & juvenile stages Improvement of feed conversion


47 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY unit cell, roughly equating to about UK £7920-9050. The advantages of concrete type are outstanding durability and low cost with 50,000 to 60,000 CNY per unit cell, (UK £5657-6789 approximately), and it is widely accepted by large scale farming organizations. Filtering-feeding fish species, such as the silver carp and bighead carp, are cultured outside the cell to act as water body cleaners. The number of cells set in a pond must be strictly considered according to the pond size. After several years of trial experiments and practical application, it is widely recognized that a pond with 0.65 ha area could support the running of a standard race-way cell. During the past years of development, Internet of Things (IoT) devices are introduced into IPA systems to improve the culture efficiency. Underwater cameras can be used to observe the fish behavior, health conditions and growth performance. In case of any water-pushing appliances or micropore oxygen aeration devices breaking down, DO monitoring equipment will set off an alarm to avoid a low DO emergency. Auto-feeding systems also help to reduce labor costs and feed packaging costs through feed conveying systems. The solid waste is collected from the quiescent zone, and it is usually used as good quality organic fertilizer to benefit vegetable farming. As IPA farming models become better known, more and more culture practices and application modes have been developed.

Water parameters monitoring and pond CCTV

IPA systems have been developed widely due to their advanced benefits, which are significantly different from those of the traditional pond culture and cage culture. Under super-high density and water flowing conditions, IPA feed nutrition level and formulation concepts should be differed from the regular feed used in traditional ponds and cages. Without realizing the differences in fish nutrition requirements and feeding habits, some larger IPA farms have faced some issues of slow growth and high morbidity and high rate of undesired fish body shape.

Authors’ information:

Feng Ming-Wei, Wu Qiang-Liang, Dong Qiufen and Zhang Song are experts in aqua nutrition and aquaculture from the Guangzhou Nutriera Group. As the biggest aquafeed premix supplier in China, Nutriera mainly delivers a whole practical solutions for aquafeed mills to help them produce high quality aquafeed and create more values for the farmers.

48 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Bßhler – gentle processing at its best. From raw material handling, cooking and shaping through extrusion to drying and coating of finished products. With an extensive know-how and a passion for quality we ensure product uniformity, production efficiency, and maximum sanitation and safety.


Complete solutions from a single source. Aquafeed.

Innovations for a better world.

TECHNOLOGY SHO Top aquaculture technology OCTOBER This month we have a unique selection of tech what the International Aquafeed team has discovered in the past month. At the various trade shows and events, we attend we are lucky enough to discover a variety of interesting new machines that are yet unreleased and completely new and exciting. We have a whole variety of tech this month, ranging from fish feed crushers, flow meter monitors, counters and cameras. This technology is newly-designed and up-to-date with the latest innovations and modernisations.

Azeus AZS Specialists in fish feed machinery, Azeus, have developed three models of their fish feed crushers, a specialised grinder that crushes materials down into particles, to then undergo feed mixing processes. The AZS360 rotor has a diameter of 360mm, with a capacity of 150250kg per hour for smaller batches of materials. Larger capacity models, such as the AZS400 is also available, with a 250-500kg per hour capacity and 400mm diameter. For an even more intense crusher, the AZS500 has 24, rather than 16, hammer blades, a capacity of 500-700kg per hour, and a 1115kW engine. www.fish-feed-extruder.com

FC4 fish counter Calitri Technology’s FC4 fish counter is suitable for a variety of fish, ranging from trout, salmon, bass and bream, able to withstand bulk weights of up to 18 kilogrammes. The FC4 has a counting capacity of four tonnes per hour, with four channels for feeding through produce, with a width of 100mm each. This machine also has a counting size of between 50g and 900g, with a calculated accuracy of 97 percent. www.calitri-technology.com

Katronic KATflow 200 With the goal of minimising the use of medicinal chemicals in salmon farming, the Katronic non-invasive, clamp-on KATflow 200 portable flow meter monitors and logs the flow of water through pipes, whilst eradicating pesky lice from salmon. Using an ultrasonic pulse that travels down the walls of piping, the pulse travels both upstream and downstream to measure the flow rate efficiently. The KATflow 200 is clamped onto PVC piping, using a pair of compact transducers, and runs smoothly without any maintenance needed. The cost-effective, portable machine is non-invasive and painlessly helps monitor water flow and remove up to 100 lice from each individual salmon. www.katronic.com

50 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

OWCASE JW Fishers MC-1 Mini Camera JW Fishers MC-1 Mini Camera is an underwater camera which boasts flexibility and adaptability. The Mini Camera can easily be mounted to a diver’s helmet or lowered into a pipe for internal inspections. An internal LED light ring is available for applications where size is critical such as pipe inspection work. An external 100-watt light is available for applications where high-powered lighting is required. The Mini Camera is surface powered allowing unlimited operating time. The base system includes a black & white camera, 500-foot depth rated housing and 150 feet of cable. The camera produces sharp, clear video that is sent topside from the underwater camera and can be viewed on a video monitor, a TV with a video input jack, or a computer equipped with a video capture card. www.jwfishers.com

Orbit 880 Steinsvik’s Orbit 880 offers a thorough, in-depth measurement and analytics for your tank, measuring both oxygen, temperature, salinity, conductivity, depth and sea current, both magnitude and direction. Fish farmers get direct and continuous readings with the Orbit 880. This camera can be fitted with an optional winch, enabling measurements from several depths. The system will automatically and repeatedly position the sensor station on the desired depths. Readings out saturation and mg/l are also available with the Orbit 880. Through our network solutions, a secure access to this information is available through the internet, with username and password, to any standard computer without the need of extra software. www.steinsvik.no

InternationalAquafeed-October2018 | 51

Industry Events Events listing OCTOBER

1 – 4/10/18 - Aqua’SG 18 Singapore WEB: www.aquasg.com 3 – 5/10/18 - Biomin Nutrition Forum South Africa WEB: www.worldnutritionforum.info 3 – 5/10/18 - Food Ingredients Asia Indonesia WEB: www.figlobal.com 17 – 18/10/18 - 34th National Shellfish and Marine Culture Show France WEB: www.salon-ostreiculture.com 17 – 19/10/18 - Offshore Mariculture Europe Greece WEB: www.offshoremariculture.com 17 – 19/10/18 - Vietstock 2018 Vietnam WEB: www.vietstock.org 23 – 26/10/18 - Latin America & Caribbean Aquaculture 2018 Colombia WEB: www.marevent.com


6 – 8/11/18 - Seawork Asia 2018 China WEB: www.seaworkasia.com 7 – 9/11/18 - AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference USA WEB: www.cvent.com 13 – 16/11/18 - Eurotier Germany WEB: www.eurotier.com/en/ 21/11/18 - Sturgeon International Conference Poland WEB: http://sturgeoninternational. com

International Sturgeon Conference Sturgeon farmers, caviar producers, scientists and organisational representatives from around the globe will gather in Warsaw this November, at the ninth bi-annual International Sturgeon Conference. The event will be a forum of knowledge for those in the sturgeon sector to discuss crucial topics and the latest innovations, along with being a brilliant networking opportunity for businesses and employees. Lectures will go on throughout the day, from 10.00 – 18.00, followed by a gala dinner at the hotel Aviator at 19.00, concluding an exciting day of talks. Some of the discussions that have been revealed include the use of genetic markers for the identification of sturgeon species in trade, food additives that could extend the shelf-life of caviar, the sturgeon market in aquaculture and an introduction to the Sturgeon Pilgrimage of the Silk Road. The event will be organised by Aller Aqua, the World Sturgeon Conservation Society (WSCS), and the Inland Fisheries Institute in Olsztyn. The International Sturgeon Conference will be held November 21, 2018 in Warsaw, Poland at the Airport Hotel Okęcie, ul. Komitetu Obrony Robotników 24.

Sixth Sustainable Ocean Summit The Sustainable Ocean Summit (SOS), organized by the World Ocean Council (WOC), is taking place this year, from November 14-16 2018. The unique gathering of ocean business leaders, from across the sectors and around the world, will focus on upcoming action for the oceans sustainable development. The theme for this years’ summit is Ocean Sustainable Development - Connecting Asia and the World. Over three days, SOS 2018 attendees will explore a range of topics including Asian ports and sustainable development, shipbuilding for sustainability, women in ocean industries, ocean and climate, ocean investment platform, Asian shipping and more through plenaries, workshops, and parallel sessions. Ocean business leaders are again stepping forward to be part of the SOS program. Some of the featured speakers for the event include Mike Consable, the CEO of Huawei Marine Networks, Alla Weinstein, the Founder of Trident Winds and John Keeler, the CEO of Blue Star Foods. The event will take place in the New World Millennium Hotel, Kowloon, Hong Kong.


04/12/18 - Algae Europe 2018 The Netherlands WEB: http://algaeurope.org

For more industry event information - visit our events register www.aquafeed.co.uk

ILDEX Vietnam 2020 With the rapid growth of the agriculture and aquaculture industries in Vietnam, IDLEX have announced ILDEX Vietnam 2020, due to run March 18 - 20 2020. Taking place at the Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre in Ho Chi Minh City, ILDEX Vietnam is already due to host over 300 companies from over 30 countries ranging from the US, Netherlands, Thailand, Korea and Taiwan. For the past 14 years, the biennial exhibition has been proud to be a valuable chance for businesses to explore the market, discover new trends, find new partners and expand networks. The expo provides businesses with all they need to stay on top in the agriculture and milling industry. Over fifty percent of booths for ILDEX Expo are already booked, so companies are recommended to secure a booth soon if they want to showcase their business. ILDEX Vietnam 2020 is also offering early bird prices to companies, individuals and organisations who register before February 28 2019. 52 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 18

Aquaculture for Peace October 23 - 26, 2018 Bogotรก, Colombia ร gora Bogotรก Convention center

For more info on the CONFERENCE: www.was.org For info on TRADESHOW & SPONSORSHIP: mario@marevent.com www.marevent.com

The annual meeting of Hosted by


Industry Events


2018 An event to remember


By Matt Holmes, Feature editor, International Aquafeed

housands of visitors attended the 32nd annual SPACE exhibition in Rennes, France, to discover the latest in innovation from the world’s aquaculture sector in 11 specially constructed halls. The exhibition took place between September 11 – 14 and attracted more than 50 foreign journalists as well as plenty from France. The event is organised by Anne Marie Quemener who has a long association with SPACE. Anne Marie succeeded Paul Kerdraon on January 1, 2016 as exhibition manager of SPACE. Marie says, “we can all be proud of this 32nd edition of SPACE. Despite a highly competitive context, the whole world is here in Rennes to be inspired by the Breton farming model recognised for its performance and quality. “A great result. I once again express my thanks to the exhibitors who contribute so much to our success by the enormous quality of their stands and their willingness to make SPACE a major event. The numerous innovations presented allow visitors to get a foretaste of tomorrow’s solutions. “This energy and drive have been reinforced over the four days of the show by its collective nature, the strongest possible demonstration that the different links in the chain of producers, associations, food industry and distributors must work hand in hand to build an ever more competitive agriculture.”

The Aquatic Extrusion Short Course

SPACE 2018 began with a special one-day conference organised by Perendale Publishers about the importance of extrusion. It was attended by over 30 delegates from animal feed producers to Nigerian Tilapia and Catfish farmers. The one-day short course was designed specially for aquafeed processing professionals and began with an introduction by International Aquafeed’s Circulation and Events Manager, Tuti Tan. Tuti gave an impassioned speech about the importance of aquaculture and how fish will

"SPACE welcomed 1,410 exhibitors from 42

different countries and a

total of 108,347 delegates from 121 countries around the world"

54 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

replace meat as the protein of choice for the consumer. She introduced world renowned extrusion expert Dr Mian Riaz from Texas A&M University who gave a fascinating insight into extrusion and how it can be low cost yet still effective. He started by explaining about the differences between single and twin screw extrusion before fielding many questions from the delegation about extrusion in developing countries. Tim Hartter, of Corporate Project Service, a division of Wenger, gave a talk about the benefits of proper planning when it comes to building extrusion plant and the importance of separating functions within the plant – so called hygienic zoning. Mr Hartter has over 43 years of experience in the extrusion industry and was lead designer for Wenger’s twin screw extruder. He is certified Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and has worked with various agencies and universities to validate the extrusion process as a viable preventive control step for pathogens. Alain Brisset, of Clextral, who sponsored the conference, spoke about

International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 55

Industry Events

twin screw extruders which Clextral specialise in, and the fact that 30 to 40 million tonnes of compound feeds is currently necessary for the fish industry. Arthur vom Hofe of CPM Europe spoke about the benefits of hammermills in the extrusion process. Mr vom Hofe has extensive experience in all aspects of pelleting and specialialises in particle size reduction. Nicola Tallarico of Kemin Europa started the afternoon session with a speech about maintaining the quality of aquafeed and spoke about oxidisation. He pointed out that soya is the most oxidated oil in Europe and gave a fascinating insight into the implications of oxidisation in soya oil as well as the importance of moisture levels in fish feed. The Italian expert who now lives in Belgium also gave a great insight into why Italian coffee is better than French coffee. His view was not shared by Perendale’s French subscriptions manager, Antoine Tanguy. Thomas Ellegaard Mohr of Andritz Feed and Biofuel spoke about extruded aquafeed quality management and the relationship between technology and extruded aqua feed. Per Liden of Perten Instruments told the delegation about improved ingredient testing when formulating extruded aqua feed. Mr Liden is global product manager at Perten Instruments which is a leading supplier of analytical equipment. He spoke about NIR (Near Infra Red) technology and how it can benefit production efficiency and product quality in the extrusion process. At the end of the one-day conference delegates were given a certificate to say they had completed the course.

A brilliant event

SPACE did not disappoint, with more than 150 stallholders from around Europe and further afield, exhibiting their wares. They all came together for an exciting evening of entertainment and food in Rennes where the guests enjoyed a sumptuous meal and were treated to a magnificent display of dancing talent. The evening also hosted the annual InnovSPACE awards which recognise innovative products or services. A total of 39 companies won a coveted InnovSPACE award with 30 winning one star and nine companies winning two InnovSPACE awards. Among the two-star winners were Devrand Ets – Chambres d’agriculture de Bretagne for its cover crops seeder. The Maxi Couv makes it possible to sow cover crops or fodder catch crops directly under the main crop (before harvest) and without tillage. French firm Fournier won two stars for its ‘Well Floor’ which is a floor unit that fosters natural animal behaviour such as scraping and burrowing thanks to the edible material in the tank. For swine it is ideal for the welfare of the animal. L’Allemand Animal Nutrition won two stars for their Levucell SB product. Levucell reduces the incidence of campylobacter and salmonella in swine and poultry. The firm is also entering the aquafeed market with Levucell in the pelleting process. The Innov award was given for Levucell’s contribution to food safety. Neotec-Vision, also from France, won two stars

"The world is in perpetual movement and change and SPACE reflects this dynamic in this sector of business." - Anne Marie Quemener, Exhibition Manager

56 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

for its stunning checker which assesses the correct stunning of animals before slaughter. Rabaud, of France, won two stars for its Lavicole high pressure washing robot for cleaning poultry houses. Spanish firm Tatoma won two stars for its hydroshift system a hydraulic control system for augers. Top Elevage, of France, won two stars for its Gold O Racle scraper equipment; Valorex, also of France, won two stars for its Providal which is a feed which allows breeders to review their way of feeding animals and growing plants. German firm Weda won two stars for its PV4 Feeding Valve which

International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 57

Industry Events

is a feeding valve with a transparent cover for dosing liquid feed. The exhibition halls were buzzing with prize winners following the exhibitors’ awards. Phosphates were high the agenda with companies such as Phosfeed and Aliphos displaying their products and feed additives. Mixscience exhibited their natural gut enhancer for swine and aquaculture which is currently being trialled in South America. Phileo with its Lesaffre animal care range was at SPACE. Its Strategy Director Gildas Joalland said it is developing alternative products with plant-based proteins, “we see this as something that can help for the future.” Frank Ruyseveldt of Aliphos was exhibiting phosphate-based feeds. Mattieu Boulez, Global Category Manager of Lallemand Animal Nutrition was celebrating a two-star win at the Innov awards for his Levucell SB product. Its Titan product is a feed coated in live yeast. “Lallemand is the only company to protect it against stress during the pelleting process,” he says. A spokesman for SPACE 2018 said: “The 1,450 exhibitors at SPACE pulled out all the stops to meet their technical expectations with stands where working material could be seen in action and tested. “The future of production and adaptations to existing animal- rearing models are also at the heart of the Show through the many conferences on animal, and human, welfare.” SPACE 2019 is set to take place between September 10-13 next year.

58 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com

Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com

Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com


Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com

VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl

GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com

JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

Colour sorters A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com

Computer software

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl

Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de

Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com

Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com

Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com

Coolers & driers Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com Muyang Group +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com

60 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Used around all industrial sectors.

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu

Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu

Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Moisture analysers

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com

Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com

Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com

Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net


Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Probiotics NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de

Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com




Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu

Level measurement

Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Pipe systems

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com

Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com

Hatchery products

CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com

Muyang +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com

Pellet binders

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NIR systems

Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com

Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl


Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com

Research Imaqua +32 92 64 73 38 www.imaqua.eu

Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com

Second hand equipment Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk

International Aquafeed - October 2018 | 61

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr

the interview Alistair Lane, Executive Director of the European Aquaculture Society Alistair Lane has spent over 18 years working for the European Aquaculture Society, whilst also having experience at aquaculture feed company EWOS France.

How did you get into aquaculture?

I did a master’s degree in Bangor University in North Wales and at that time aquaculture didn’t exist, it was marine biology, and there was a guy working on live feeds for hatcheries in shrimp and fish at the university. I did my master’s with him and he had connections with the Mars group, who set up a company in the mid-80s, a global company called Larval Feeds and I went to work with them. I realised I didn’t want to be a researcher, I wanted to get out and see what was happening, so I started in the mid-80s. I worked in the feeds sector for 15 years and then I came to work with European Aquaculture Society in 2000.

What EAS’s priorities and goals?

We have built up over the last 10 years a good annual event and we are finding that more and more people are coming back, we have some loyalty and it’s a good place to get a multi-disciplinary and helicopter view of what is happening and also to try and continue with the objectives of the EAS, which is to build the bridges between science and industry. That has been going for 40 years and it is still our principal objective, but what we are trying to do now is to try and empower our members to do what they do here, all year round. The whole idea of electronic networking is easy, we all do it every day, and we have the tools to do it, we’ve been late adopting those tools and now we are pushing onto making an EAS community within the European aquaculture community, that sits in the global community.

With this network are you going to have certain schedules at meetings on the network?

We can, we have sub groups within the membership of EAS which we call thematic groups so people with a common interest. For example, we have a good group on persive fish and recirculating systems involving industry, start-ups, scientists etc. We have another one on flat oysters, we have one on eels, on rotifers and other kinds of plankton and cocopods, so these groups are interest groups within the main membership and we ask them now to build a programme of webinars that we can diffuse to our members and pass that information on to the wider community. It’s all about these concentric circles within a group of people so that is what we are focussing on right now.

There is a lot of research going on. Is that going to be part of what you are doing as part of the EAS?

It always has been and we are involved in projects to a certain extent, we are reviewing our strategy about our involvement. If ES goes in as a partner on a European project for example, the competing consortia to get that grant will be ES members and so, in some cases, we are in a difficult position. We want to give the projects a platform at Aquaculture Europe so they can have their own meetings and have their consortia come here and join the events. It’s more about providing a space and a platform for them. We disseminate a lot of their information in our publications and magazines and online. I think webinars would be a good thing for them to use if they

want to get their message across. We are not a federation or a producers’ organisation but we do have contacts in the industry so a lot of these projects are obliged to include industry stakeholders, industry platforms, and they don’t necessarily have the access to that outside of their own countries and so that is something we can provide for them.

What do you see as some of the biggest challenges to European aquaculture in the short term?

Simply growing. We are here in France today and people in Brussels and in French policy discussions have said there’s not been one new licence in France in 10 years, but that has changed now. France is behind the curve in terms of its spatial planning and allocation of zones where aquaculture can develop. We are seeing it in more European countries. The Commission said recently there’s been a two percent growth in volume last year and a four percent growth in value. I think Europe will grow at a much lower rate, generally, in terms of volume, but where Europe has its niche in high-quality product for the high-end market, so the value of the sector will grow more disproportionately to the volume. A lot of European companies are looking outside of Europe because there is simply too many constraints, investors are shy because of lengthy and bureaucratic processes, but what we are seeing in Europe is a plethora of start-ups and Europe has traditionally been strong on research but weak on innovation.

A lot of European countries don’t have coastlines. Do you see aquaculture as being mainly offshore or onshore?

I think the whole question about offshore aquaculture is a little bit false because it’s not how far you go away from the coast, it’s the energy of the water that you use and there’s coastal areas that have high wave action and in these areas and also in central Europe the way forward is recirculating land-based systems. The difficulty we have now is proving the economic viability of these for growing. We use them for hatches, for early stages, the question about fully land based salmon production from smalt to market is one for the time being, we haven’t seen economic feasibility of doing it, but it will play a part in the life cycle and it does already. In European countries that don’t have access to the coastal area, they have no choice. If they want to develop aquaculture, it’s on land. The recirculating systems can have and will have a place for high value species like plankton, of which there is a growing market demand for this kind of fish. The problem is always been the consumer desire to eat fresh water fish, but I think now with high value, better tasting fish that consumers want to buy and that possibly even think are as good as marine fish, those species would be perfect for recycling. Then we have micro-algae and macro-algae on land production as well where they can provide, not a final product, but an input into feeds or other parts of the production cycle so they still have the possibility to develop. For example, Germany has access to the coast, but the development of aquaculture in Germany will be based around re-circulation and better utilisation of water.

62 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES UK Hydrographic Office appoints new Director of Customer Division


athrine Armour has been appointed as the new director for the UK Hydroponics office’s Customer Division. Cathrine joins the UKHO from Catapult’s South West Centre of Excellence in Satellite Applications, a partnership led by the University of Exeter to stimulate the data economy. Cathrine also led the development of the Ordnance Survey’s Geovation Hub and accelerator program. An award-winning initiative, Geovation has helped many UK start-ups find innovative uses for geospatial data.

Cathrine Armour

“I am looking forward to leading the UKHO’s development in this area as we further strengthen our position as the authoritative marine geospatial agency and hydrographic office”, says Cathrine.

Chris Van Anne promoted into new role at Diamond V


iamond V recently welcomed Chris Van Anne back to the company’s Cedar Rapids headquarters as the Director of Knowledge Transfer. In this new role, Mr Van Anne supports the global sales and marketing teams through international sales training and extension of the Life Stage Solutions® programs worldwide.

Chris Van Anne

“Chris comes back to Iowa following six years successfully leading Diamond V’s European operations,” says Mike Johnson, Strategic Marketing and Portfolio Director with Cargill Animal Nutrition. “As Managing Director based in the Netherlands, Chris and his team collaborated with the company’s 15 European Union business partners. They succeeded in doubling Diamond V’s EU business in a few short years.”

Huw Thomas new General Manager of Offshore Shellfish


t the end of August, Huw Thomas joined Offshore Shellfish, one of the UK’s key mussel farms. Huw brings with him significant experience of the seafood production, and processing sectors. He also commands respect from industry for his work on sustainability as senior corporate services manager with a major UK retailer, and as senior officer with the Pew Charitable Trusts working on illegal fishing campaigns.

Huw Thomas

“Shellfish has been a major interest of mine since I started in the seafood industry in the mid-1990’s. Being able to return to that sector of the industry and work in a company that farms some of the most sustainable seafood in the world is a natural progression of my career,” says Huw Thomas.

Sean Strawbridge appointed to the United States Maritime Transportation Committee


ean Strawbridge, Chief Executive Officer for the Port of Corpus Christi, has been appointed to the United States Maritime Transportation System National Advisory Committee (MTSNAC).

Sean Strawbridge

Mr Strawbridge will join over 40 national transportation leaders from commercial firms, port and water stakeholders, as well as federal, state and local public entities. “It’s a privilege to represent the maritime transportation interests of Texas and the United States in this prestigious role,” said Sean Strawbridge. “This is an exciting time for the Port of Corpus Christi’s experience as the Nation’s fourth largest port in total tonnage, and the largest energy export port to MTSNAC delivers an opportunity to highlight the criticality of the energy sector in the national transportation infrastructure conversation.”

64 | October 2018 - International Aquafeed













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