SEP 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine

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A fish farming technology special focussing on the underwater life robotic

International Aquafeed - Volume 21 - Issue 09 - September 2018

- Black soldier fly - A future for Tilapia feed? - Effective control of Salmonella in feed - Replacing meat with farmed salmon reduces pressure on farmland and protects the planet - Expert topic - Black spotted frog Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

September 2018

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Croeso - welcome

member, and the European Aquaculture aving just attended Society (EAS) handled the meeting the AQUA2018 event with usual professionalism and perfect showcase in Montpellier, integration of each aspect. I also France, I can report on a attended the WAS business meeting and most interesting meeting, the inauguration of their new president. with one of the largest I would strongly impress on readers number of attendees and trading stands to ensure joining WAS, EAS or their concerning aquaculture, around the world. The Professor Simon Davies own specific chapters in each region, scientific lectures associated with the event Editor, International Aquafeed as this indeed opens many doors of were really inspirational, covering so many opportunities for future networking aspects of the aquaculture disciplines, with a potential. This is a very good thing for a good selection of nutritional topics ranging student or young researcher and to be strongly encouraged. Indeed, from fundamental fish and crustacean nutrition (not forgetting other any industry established or developing into aquaculture would species such as molluscs, as well) and the feed technology areas and benefit from these society memberships with significant discount on applied technology. conference registration fees as a bonus. I was keen to attend as many as possible and was struck about Turning back to the magazine, we are again keeping you updated the openness of questions, frank discussions and scientific debate with the latest news and current topical issues, as well as several accepting the outcome of experiments whether positive, neutral or timely features and topics. Aquafeed International September sees even, on occasion, negative results with confidence. The conference the beginning of our special ROV technology showcase, which epitomised such robust scientific principles and informed opinions will be running for several months, exploring the different ROV in a world of commercial pressures and changing socio-economic technology that has burst onto the aquaculture scene. Other articles conditions. Global demands for fast track sustainable solutions to this month include a exploration of The Seaweed Standard, and the many issues must be balanced pragmatically. Aquaculture, like our effective control of salmonella in feed. counterparts in ruminant, swine and poultry production, is rising to I hope you all had a pleasant summer, please have a good start to meet this challenge to feed a rapidly growing human population, autumn and we have much to plan ahead in the aquaculture domain where it can learn from other disciplines and is becoming a maturing for sure. Finally, I wish the many people who came up to me in applied science for seafood production. Montpellier with their greetings and compliments regarding our The conference was well organised and the social events included magazine and its contribution to the industry. It was a very kind a number of sponsored dinners and the official presidents’ dinner. tribute from a wide spectrum of stakeholders ranging from students, Typically, the French cuisine was excellent and deserves praise. This government agencies, commercial companies and the private sector. was accompanied with the very finest wines and it was so nice to Thank you all for your endorsements and goodwill. Keep up with our dine in the open warm Mediterranean climate. magazine online and our subscription copies. The World Aquaculture Society, (WAS), of which I am a life



DIET: A new start for fish larvae and fry - page 18

ROV SPECIAL: Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) were once an exotic newcomer to aquaculture, but nowadays they are an essential tool for fish farm operations. - page 39

DIET: Black soldier fly - A future for Tilapia feed? - page 20



EXPERT TOPIC: Black-spotted Frog - page 32

AQUA FEEDS: Effective control of Salmonella in feed - page 24

The black-spotted frog is an Eastern variety of frog, native to Japan, Korea and China, alongside parts of Russia. It has been noted by scientists that tadpoles of the black-spotted frog were first introduced into the Chinese ecosystem in 1959 – 1961 in the Hubei province, an area which they now densely populate.

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies

September 2018 Volume 21 Issue 09



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson Vaughn Entwistle Matt Holmes Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris William Dowds Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 New Zealand Marketing Team Peter Parker Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy ©Copyright 2018 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service


Industry News

32 Expert Topic - Black-spotted frog 52 Technology showcase 54 Industry Events 60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 6 Ioannis Zabetakis 10 Dr Neil Auchterlonie 12 Sven-Olof Malmqvist 14 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 18 A new start for fish larvae and fry 20 Black soldier fly - A future for Tilapia feed? 24 Effective control of Salmonella in feed 26 The Seaweed Standard 30 Replacing meat with farmed salmon


THE BIG PICTURE Biofouling is the major reason why nets require periodic cleaning. With older technology this was achieved by removing and replacing the nets from the cage for onshore cleaning, which is a cost incurring and labour-intensive process. These setbacks have been overcome by the introduction of newer technology developed by Yanmar: the submergible, remote net cleaner. See more on page 48

40 Maturing ROV technology the new micro rov standard 44 AKVA’s flying net cleaner 46 The Boss - Autonomous net-cleaning 48 Robotic net cleaning to replace traditional onshore cleaning

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William Dowds joins the International Aquafeed and Fish Farming Technology team


nternational Aquafeed is proud to announced that William Dowds, formerly of the UK’s Fish Farmer magazine, has joined as its international Commercial Manager. He will continue to be based in Glasgow, Scotland and will work with feed and technology companies supporting the aquaculture industry. William Dowds is a legendary figure in the aquaculture industry, following a impressive career as the commercial manager of the Edinburgh-based international monthly Fish Farmer magazine and its website, Fish Update. He has travelled extensively, making connections between producers, suppliers, processors and buyers, and has operated at every level, from farm sites to factory floors to boardrooms. A familiar and popular presence at international exhibitions and conferences, he has built long-lasting and loyal relationships with a host of leading industry names. His expertise in the sector has enabled him to develop market opportunities for his many clients and he has a well-deserved reputation for being able to spot new trends and promote business to business success. For over 25 years working closely with such companies as British Aerospace, Coca-Cola and Guinness, and within the last 12 years the worldwide aquaculture industry including the University of Stirling. “We are very proud to welcome William onto our international team,” says IAF publisher Roger Gilbert. “International Aquafeed recognises the importance and interest of Fish Farming Technology to its readers, and whilst feed is often as much as 70% of a farmers costs most readers are keen to stay apprised of the latest in technology and innovation across the whole of the aquaculture industry and Mr Dowds will help the magazine reflect that approach” Yemmak imaj ilanı (Global Experience)-baskı AQUAFEED.pdf

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ioMar Group’s AUS$56 million investment in to a new aquaculture feed production facility in Tasmania, Australia has received the final tick of approval from the local Latrobe Council. Now the 14-month construction phase can begin. In December 2017, BioMar announced plans to develop a world-class state of the art aquaculture feed production facility in Tasmania, Australia in response to the growth seen in the sector. BioMar Australia Technical Customer Account Manager Alasdair Bradley said he was delighted to receive the Latrobe Council’s DA approval, allowing the project to take the all-important next step, “As part of the DA approval process, the Environment Protection Authority approved the Development Proposal and Environmental Management Plan, ensuring BioMar’s production facility meets all required environmental responsibilities and practices,” Mr Bradley said. The site once housed a particle board manufacturing mill and the redundant facilities have been dismantled and it is now ready for work to start on the new production building. BioMar Australia will be having an open day this weekend at the new site with a traditional Aussie BBQ as they wish to continue to keep the local community informed and involved. “Now that we have all the final approvals we look forward to getting construction underway and soon we will be producing locally made, highperformance aquaculture feed not only for the Australian market but for New Zealand and in the near future other export markets”, concluded Carlos Diaz, CEO of BioMar Group.

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BioMar’s new production facility in Australia gets final approvals

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Antonio Garza de Yta The aquaculture with more future than ever at a global level

had the opportunity to attend the FAO Committee on Fisheries (COFI) in Rome in July of this year, representing the World Aquaculture Society and it was very gratifying to see how little by little aquaculture has been positioning itself as the main theme in the dialogue tables. For many years now, I attended my first COFI and as an aquaculturist it was a little frustrating to see that despite the fact that we were talking about the future, our topics were taken care of in just four hours within the endless four or more days of debate - they were fishing. To be honest, attending COFI for an aquaculturist was a pain in the ass. Today, most of the time is still devoted to fishing, there are major problems that must continue to be addressed, such as the fight against illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, overexploitation of more than 33 percent of the species commercial and, as always, the search of the improvement of the quality of life of the fishermen. But in each one of the subjects the general consensus is that aquaculture can support to solve the problems, or as this one already begins to interact positively. Recall that in 2014 was the year in which aquaculture production exceeded the fishery in product intended for human consumption, a trend that will continue irreversibly, which was confirmed by highlighting that in 2016 the aquaculture: fishing ratio is already 53:47. There is no going back, and everyone is aware. Even the most passionate advocates of fisheries know that we are living in periods of transition, and although the fishing of many species is still possible in a sustainable manner, aquaculture will be the engine that drives both production and economic development in the years to come. It is expected that we will contribute to 60 percent by 2030. Also, remember that the production of algae is not considered in these figures! One of the central issues that was discussed with respect to aquaculture was undoubtedly that corresponding to genetic resources. This issue has double importance since aquaculture has to be carried out in a responsible manner so as not to affect the natural populations in any way, but it is also vital that efforts are coordinated at the national and international level for the selection and improvement of the species that are produced commercially. In many countries, National Breeding Centers are implemented whose function is to ensure that the reproducers used by the industry comply with specific standards regarding health and production issues. Several countries control the quality of their broodstock and this avoids the use of organisms with negative characteristics, such as slow growth or low resistance to certain diseases. Models were also discussed where these centers were not controlled by the government, but by the same industry who could manage different families in different facilities and in this way carry out practical research led by the producers themselves, lower the risks and distribute the cost. For today I can only highlight a very important concept that I think is not yet clear to many decision makers: aquaculture is not the cure of all the evils for overfishing and mismanagement of it for generations. Aquaculture represents only one option, and although the growth in volume will come exclusively from it, opportunities and options for today’s fishermen have to be found in case fishing activities are no longer profitable. Although in the future there will be more aquaculturists in the world than the number of fishermen that exists today, due to the nature of the activity, not all fishermen will be able or willing to adapt to this new form of productive option; for the greatest impact we will have to focus on the generations of tomorrow. In short and very few words: aquaculture is here to stay, our future has no limits. Antonio Garza de Yta, Ph.D in Aquaculture from Auburn University, President of Aquaculture Global Consulting, Director World Aquaculture Society and creator of the Certification for Aquaculture Professional (CAP) Program. He is currently Rector, Universidad Tecnológica del Mar de Tamaulipas Bicentenario.

International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 5

Traceability and real time inventory systems for shellfish processors

Ioannis Zabetakis Food Security: a clear need for a round approach


he current world population of 7.6 billion is expected to reach 8.6 billion in 2030, 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100, according to the latest United Nations report. With roughly 83 million people being added to the world’s population every year, the upward trend in population size is expected to continue, even assuming that fertility levels will continue to decline.

These GM feeds are rich in omega-3 fatty acids in order to enrich the omega-3 levels in the salmon. A gene from a type of marine algae has been added to a camelina plant to produce the omega-3 enriched fish oil. Lab tests show that fish fed on this oil have boosted levels of omega-3. The question that the researchers are now trying to answer is whether the same happens on a real fish farm.

Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food sector, surpassing the global capture fisheries production in 2014. It provides more than 50 percent of the food supply to humans, however, it poses several environmental concerns. Aquaculture feed draws on 70 percent of the world’s fishmeal and fish oil, which is obtained from small, ocean-caught fish such as anchovies, sardines, herring, menhaden, and mackerel, that are essential to the lower end of the marine food chain. Analysts project that by 2040, the demand for fishmeal and fish oil will exceed supply. Aquafeeds also draw on large amounts of soy and corn from industrial farms, which pose other environmental concerns due to the use of fertilizers and potential runoff into rivers, lakes and coastal waters. In addition, aquafeeds may trigger nutrient pollution in aquaculture effluent, as fish are unable to fully digest soy and corn, which are major feed ingredients.

Rounding up

The adjective “round” means a shape like a circle or cylinder or having a curved shape like part of the circumference of a circle. In the context of this current op-ed column, I would like to use the word “round” implicating that a more holistic approach is needed. Firstly, using prime agricultural land to grow a crop that is then fed to fish, is not a holistic solution to the food security problems that we have to address. People want a short food chain and they want to be connected with their food. With the recent news on glyphosate and its carcinogenic impact, we need to re-address our approach to GM technology and use of herbicides. Are GM plants, that are used to produce omega-3 rich oil, being treated with glyphosate? Using plant extracts to feed fish means that emerging hazards in the agriculture sector, like the presence of glyphosate in a wide number of crops and foods, are becoming a problem for the aquaculture sector. In other words, by using plants to produce aquafeeds, we may export food hazards from the land to the sea. Is this a wise and a sustainable approach?

GM plants

In order to address these problems, current research focuses on feeding farmed salmon feeds made from genetically modified (GM) crops with the aim to increase the nutritional value of the fish. e:


Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier. 6 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


ynamic Systems, Inc., the leader in Seafood Traceability Systems, has announced SIMBA for Shellfish processors. This product records receiving and production data in realtime, labels and tracks shellfish and provides full traceability from the source to shipping faster and more accurately than traditional shellfish production systems. It uses a tablet to initiate lots at the beach during harvest. This information is taken to the plant and entered automatically, where it then tracks production from receiving to packing in real-time using touchscreen computers. The unique ability of SIMBA to modify weight as the product moves down the production line helps shellfish companies know true weights received and packed. What makes it unique is that it tracks lots by the container, including any mixed or commingled lots. What this means is full backward and forward traceability for all products, and cost savings in the case of recall, an important feature for shellfish processors. At the time of shipping, the Logistics feature tracks each carton or pallet onto a specific truck. A Manifest and Bill of Lading is then produced automatically. This feature not only saves time in the shipping process, it eliminates disputes with the customer regarding what was shipped. Key results from implementing the SIMBA software include increased production speed, the ability to get same day accurate production reports, the ability to fulfil traceability requirements automatically, accurate inventory and professional looking carton and pallet labels.

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A NA045-00

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Salmon producers are ordered to reveal amount of antibiotics used he Council for Transparency ruled in favour of Oceana, ordering salmon producers to reveal information on the amount of antibiotics used by salmon farms during 2015, 2016 and 2017. This rule comes into place after 18 of 24 companies refused to provide the information requested in February this year by marine conservation organisation Oceana, arguing that the dissemination of this data “would put them at risk in the competitive, economic and commercial perspective.” This represents a change of criteria in the CPT, since it has historically denied the provision of information and it was only made available through court proceedings. On this occasion, according to the organisation’s decision, the companies that were against providing the information did not prove that its disclosure “affects the commercial and economic rights of the companies”, adding that R

Hong Kong / 14 - 16 November 2018

Crédit photo : Woc, fotolia

The International Ocean Business Forum To Advance Responsible Use Of The Seas

“there is public interest related to the knowledge of such information because it is linked to a matter that can compromise public health”. However, with regard to the biomass produced between 2015 and 2017, information that was also requested by Oceana, the CPT only ordered the voluntary disclosure of such data. “At the national level we know that Chilean salmon farms use 1,400 times the amount of antibiotics per ton produced in Norway, the world’s primary producer,’’ said Liesbeth van de Meer, Executive Director of Oceana, ‘’but for consumers in Chile as well as the world, this data is not enough to identify which companies are irresponsible producers. We also need consumers abroad to start pressuring to reduce the use of antibiotics in Chile”, she added. In this year’s information request, among the companies that refused to provide it are Chile’s primary salmon producers, such as AquaChile, Marine Harvest, Cermaq and Salmones Multiexport; the latter is the company that has historically refused to disclose its data. “We demand that this information be easily available to all consumers and not according to the judgement of companies. It’s not possible that when facing opposition from a number of companies we have to engage in court proceedings that take years, to obtain the information” said Ms van der Meer. Other companies that refused to disclose information are Australis Mar, Salmones Humboldt, Cultivos Yadrán, Exportadora Los Fiordos, Granja Marina Tornagaleones, Holding and Trading, Invermar, Salmones Austral (Salmones Pacific Star and Trusal), Salmones Aysén, Salmones Frío Sur, Salmones Magallanes, Productos del Mar Ventisqueros and Cooke Aquaculture Chile. Of the total number of companies that were asked for information, the only ones that were willing to provide it were Aquagen SA, Nova Austral SA, Salmones Antártica SA, Salmones Iceval Ltda, Salmones Blumar SA, and Salmones Camanchaca SA Salmones Caleta Bay SA was willing to provide only the amount of antibiotics used, not the biomass produced. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), the excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics in animal production, as well as in medicine, is contributing to what is known as bacterial resistance, a public health problem of the highest global concern. The international organisation has stated that if no immediate measures are taken, procedures such as organ transplant, caesarean-sections, chemotherapies and the treatment for diabetes will become high-risk procedures.

8 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


Dr Neil Auchterlonie New beginnings

o coin an expression, it is the end of an era at IFFO, and the start of a new one. Andrew Mallison, who has been leading IFFO as an organisation in the position of Director General for the last seven years, left the organisation at the end of July to take on a new role with Global Aquaculture Alliance.

Andrew leaves a superb legacy of his work, with IFFO in great shape as an organisation and possessing a strong strategic vision and mission. We at IFFO all wish Andrew well in his new endeavour and we are convinced he will be a great success leading the GAA as another global seafood organisation. He will be missed by us all, but a new era is about to commence. The new Director General, Petter Martin Johannessen will be joining the IFFO team from early September, and he is an extremely able successor in the role. Petter brings a range of different skills to the role of DG, not least of which is substantial experience working in the feed industry with Cargill Aqua Nutrition and Ewos and having an impressive array of experience across management consultancy, procurement, sourcing and improvement project design. He will certainly have an in-depth understanding of the business from the customer’s perspective. We welcome Petter to the team and look forward to working with him as he leads the organisation through a very interesting period of time for aquaculture and aquafeed development as it consistent growth continues to be supported by the marine ingredients industry. One of Petter’s first jobs is linked to probably the most important event in the IFFO calendar. The IFFO team is in the process of organising our IFFO Annual Conference, which this year is going to be held in Rome. The Director General’s role is important in welcoming and closing the conference, and although Petter is already widely known in the community it will be a great opportunity for many others to meet him for the first time. The Technical Session on day two of the event is one where we have the opportunity to focus on the science relating to fishmeal and fish oil. It is a good opportunity to provide a summary of IFFO’s technical work to the membership. This year, as well as a general summary of our project work which includes the usual coverage of our work on antioxidants, regulations and current issues, we also have a couple of invited speakers to make presentations on IFFO-funded projects. Professor Brett Glencross of the Institute of Aquaculture will be presenting on the quality parameters in fishmeal, and the reasons why it is such an effective aquafeed (and animal feed) ingredient. Duncan Leadbitter of FishMatter Pty., will be presenting on the work that IFFO together with GAA has funded looking at raw material supply for fishmeal in Thailand and Vietnam. Additionally, we have Kristine Hartmann of Aker Biomarine AS talking about the krill fishery in the Antarctic and the focus on sustainability issues. There will also be a panel discussion on the importance of Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) in providing material for feed certification, as we have previously found panel discussions to be a good mechanism to engage some stimulating debate and interesting questions across the audience. We look forward to a good exchange of technical information at the event as it is the one great opportunity we have every year to engage directly with the IFFO members and discuss the science in one room.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 10 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

HRH The Crown Prince opens Nor-Fishing 2018


is Royal Highness Crown Prince Haakon officially opened this year’s NorFishing. The annual meeting concerning the fishery and technological industries took place this year at Trondheim, Norway between August 21-24, 2018. As well as officially opening the exhibition and giving a speech during the opening, the Crown Prince also visited exhibitors. In this way, the Crown Prince familiarised himself

further with the industry present at this important meeting place. The visits occured both in the Nidarø main area, and at the outdoor area at Skansen. It is expected that more than 20,000 visitors from 70 countries were present for this years Nor-Fishing, the various exhibitors showcasing just why fishing is Norway’s second-biggest export industry.

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Monitoring the red tides hile is the fourth-largest producer of mussels in the world and the health of these mussels is of paramount importance to the economy. Leading environmental consultants at Plancton Andino SpAo are using a CTG FastAct Laboratory FRRf System to monitor red tides as part of the Bivalve Molluscs Health Program. These “red tides”, or Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs), are natural events occurring around the world. Since first being reported in Chile in 1972, in the Strait of Magellan, these HAB have increased in both frequency and geographic coverage. Because HABs are highly toxic, they have come to create a serious problem for human health and the local economy. HABs are caused by the cell division of certain toxic microalgae, which are regular constituents of the planktonic microflora found in aquatic ecosystems. Their harmful effects can be caused by the presence of toxins, as occurs with the dinoflagellates responsible for paralytic shellfish poison and lipophilic toxins, and the diatoms responsible for amnesic shellfish poison. Some of the marine organisms that filter microalgae, such as bivalve shellfish, concentrate these toxins. Consumption of these organisms may seriously harm human health and may even be lethal. The CTG FastAct and the new Act2 FRRf systems consist of a multi-wavelength fluorometer that excites a sample with blue, green and orange light. This makes it well-suited for the application of monitoring HABs, as many of these organisms will absorb light more strongly at green/orange wavelengths. Coupled with fluorometer’s broad detection range and the ability to monitor at high spatial and temporal resolutions, this makes it the product of choice for tracking the onset-, peakand post-bloom events of red algal tides.













International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 11

Sven-Olof Malmqvist


The future of Aquaculture

hroughout my three decades of time working in the global feed business I have visited numerous countries and met many people of varying genders, colours, religions, languages, habits and so forth. But, in the end, we are so similar, and all have the same basic needs. I often hear from potential customers who say, “You must understand that within our market we have special demands and circumstances.” In my opinion, that is complete nonsense! If I visit a feed plant in Thailand, Egypt, Germany or Brazil, everything is largely similar, whether it be the steam, the smell, the noise, the additives or the feed material used. Of course, you can find that price may differ on single feedstuffs, due to local rules and restrictions and location, but most features remain largely identical. Individuals in the agriculture community are all in the same circumstances and we have to deal with it. Going to Montpellier this week I met many companies related to the aquaculture sector. This specific sector is very scattered throughout the globe, due to where and what they are producing. I recently read an article about the ten biggest companies in aquaculture production, in terms of tons, and, perhaps unsurprisingly, China are in the lead with 60 million tonnes, the second-place spot belonging to Indonesia and the third to India. Being a Swede, one gained the impression that Norway are big in this sector, but they are just seventh place globally, purely from their salmon production. I heard about an ocean-based salmon breeding station, like an oil rig, which could be placed far away from the land. That could change the production of salmon drastically within the next decade. Imagine if you could produce close to the market like Russia, China and Japan etc. Talk about sustainable production! Some argue that one should place the salmon production facilities on land, in order to remove drawbacks such as environmental pressure, and the extinction of sea lice. I do believe that the initial face of the salmon production will evolve to become more land-based. The future of salmon production is looking very bright indeed!

Investment in rural jobs and skills earns salmon farmer Platinum status


ustained investment in jobs and skills within remote and rural communities has helped earn one of Scotland’s leading salmon farmers, Scottish Sea Farms, Investors in People (IIP) Platinum accreditation, the highest possible IIP status. Combined, the investment has resulted in staff undertaking 3755 training days in the last 12 months, staff retention reaching an all-time high of over 92 percent, and abstenteeism falling to an all-time low at 1.5 percent. The company have also received awards, such as Aquaculture Learner of the Year, Finfish Farm Manager of the Year and Rising Star in the first half of 2018 alone. A key driver behind the company’s investment has been to help the remote communities in which it farms retain their younger generations and encourage those that have left to study or work to return home. In addition, the company has introduced a Staff Learning Journey for every employee, mapping out a clear path of career progression, and revised the way it recognises and rewards its people, paying an average salary above that for both Scotland and the UK – another determining factor in whether people choose to live in remote communities. Local training providers such as the NAFC Marine Centre on Shetland and Orkney, Fife and Inverness Colleges have also felt the benefits of the company’s investment, thanks to Scottish Sea Farms’ commitment to train locally wherever possible. Stuart Fitzsimmons, Section Leader for Aquaculture at the NAFC Marine Centre said, “Scottish Sea Farms work hard to ensure their staff are qualified in their area of expertise to recognised national industry standards, with more than double the number of employees currently undergoing Modern Apprenticeships than anyone else in the sector. The NAFC Marine Centre is proud to play a key part in this, delivering Levels 2 to 4, as well as aquaculture and maritime certificated short courses.”

Sven Olof is an experienced export manager with a demonstrated history of working in the chemicals industry. He is skilled in marketing management, market planning, business planning, international business and sales management. He is a strong sales profession who graduated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Malmoe. 12 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

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S P E C I A L I S T I N S Q U A R E S I L O S www.ts c -s i l os .c om

International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 13

Moreover, having organisms able to accumulate P is becoming increasingly attractive when considering that, in the not too distant future, the next P peak will not be that of petroleum, but that of phosphorus. The recognition and implementation of NTCs would give a fair price to seaweeds and other extractive aquaculture species. They could be used as financial incentive tools to encourage monoaquaculturists to contemplate IMTA as a viable aquanomic option to their current practices.

Dr Thierry Chopin Seaweeds provide many ecosystem services beneficial to nature and humans


eaweed cultivation is well established in Asia and needs little explanation or justification. In the western world, a renewed interest in seaweed mariculture has been triggered by their cultivation in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems, the emerging understanding of the ecosystem services they provide, and the development of novel uses and applications.

Seaweeds are excellent nutrient scrubbers

An often forgotten function of seaweeds is that they are excellent nutrient scrubbers (especially of dissolved nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon). We should take advantage of the benefits of nutrients, which, in moderation (i.e. within the assimilative capacity of the ecosystem) are not waste or by-products, but co-products and food. It is all about recycling, which we have no problem with on land (in your house, office, hotel room, garden, farm, etc.), but for which we experience a mental block when translated to the aquatic and marine environments. We should allocate a value to recapturing feed and energy, otherwise lost, and their conversion into other commercial crops. Much has been said about carbon sequestration and the development of carbon trading taxes. In coastal environments, mechanisms for the recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus should also be highlighted and accounted for in the form of nutrient trading credits (NTCs, a much more positive approach than taxing). If the composition of seaweeds can be averaged at around 0.35 percent nitrogen (N), 0.04 percent phosphorus (P) and 3 percent carbon (C), and the NTCs valued at US$10-30/kg, US$4/kg and US$25/tonne for N, P and C, respectively, the ecosystem services for nutrient biomitigation provided by worldwide seaweed aquaculture (30.1 million tonnes) can be valued at between US$1.124 billion and US$3.231 billion, i.e. as much as 27.6 percent of their present commercial value (US$11.7 billion). The value of this important service to the environment and, consequently, society has, however, never been accounted for in any budget sheets or business plans of seaweed farms and companies, as seaweeds are being valued only for their biomass and food trading values. The above calculations are based on costs of recovering nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment facilities and values often cited for carbon tax schemes. It is interesting to note that the value for carbon is per tonne, whereas those for nitrogen and phosphorus are per kilogram. Nobody seems to have picked up on that when looking at the sequestration of elements other than C. There is more money to be made with NTC (between US$1,124 and 3.231 billion for N and US$48.16 million for P) than with CTC (only US$22.58 million for C).

Nutrient biomitigation is not the only ecosystem service provided by seaweeds

Seaweeds can be cultivated without the addition of fertilizers and agrochemicals, especially in an IMTA setting, where the fed aquaculture component provides the nutrients. Seaweed cultivation does not require more arable soil or the transformation of land for agricultural activities (and loss of some ecosystem services). If appropriately designed, it can be seen as engineering new habitats, harbouring thriving communities, and can be used for habitat restoration. It may be stating the obvious, but seaweed aquaculture does not need irrigation, which is crucial on a planet where access to water of appropriate quality is becoming more and more an issue. While all other components (fed and organic extractive) are oxygen consumers, seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms, and are the only aquaculture component with a net production of oxygen, therefore they help to avoid coastal hypoxia. While performing photosynthesis, seaweeds also absorb carbon dioxide and participate in carbon sequestration, even if in a transitory manner. Consequently, they could be a significant player in the evolution of climate change, slowing down global warming, especially if their cultivation is increased and more spread throughout the world. By sequestering carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater, seaweeds could also play a significant role in increasing pH in seawater, thereby reducing coastal acidification. The key chemical reaction at work is: CO2 + H2O + CO32- ďƒ¨ 2 HCO3 carbonate bicarbonate The problem is that the increase of dissolved carbon dioxide in seawater shifts the reaction toward the right; unfortunately, shellfish (and other calcifying organisms such as corals), which use carbonates for the calcification of their shell, cannot use bicarbonates and that is why ocean acidification has been associated with mortalities in some shellfish hatcheries and the lack of recruitment in some natural populations. It would be interesting to combine seaweed and shellfish aquaculture operations, wherein seawater would go through seaweed tanks to reduce acidity, before being piped into the shellfish tanks to then help larvae calcify properly. The IMTA multi-crop diversification approach (fish, seaweeds and invertebrates) could be an economic risk mitigation and management option to address pending climate change and coastal acidification impacts. The ecosystem services provided by seaweeds are diverse and of benefit to both nature and humans. Their value needs to be recognized, accounted for, and used as financial and regulatory incentive tools, if we want aquaculture practices to evolve towards a more ecosystem-based and circular management approach.

Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada. He is also the President of Chopin Coastal Health Solutions Inc. since 2016. 14 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 15

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Sydney Rock Oysters shrinking due to coastal acidification


ydney Rock Oysters, found in the waters of Australia and New Zealand, are getting smaller due to coastal acidification, a new report has found. A Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) study carried out by Scottish and Australian scientists at two commercial oyster farms in Wallis Lake and Post Stephens, both in the mid-north coast of New South Wales, confirmed that the oysters’ diminishing size and falling population is due to acidification from land and sea sources. Ocean acidification has been reported globally, while coastal acidification from the land, as freshwater runoff from acid sulfate soils, is driven by rising sea levels and flooding also decreases environmental pH. Dr Susan Fitzer, a NERC Independent Research Fellow at the University of Stirling in Scotland, reported her findings in the journal Ecology and Environment. While the research project focused on Australian aquaculture, Fitzer warns that seafood lovers around the globe could begin to find smaller and smaller oysters on their plates. Fitzer said, “Sydney Rock Oysters are becoming smaller and their population is decreasing as a result of coastal acidification. “A lot of work has been done near to Australia’s oyster fisheries to mitigate the impact of sulphate soils causing acidification, and there has been a marked decline in levels. The run-off from sulfate soils aren’t produced by agricultural activity, they occur as a natural result of climate change-driven increases in rainfall and sea-level rise. “But the trend persists and small changes in pH are having a huge impact on these molluscs. “Acidic water is damaging oysters’ ability to grow their shells. We see lots of disorder in the calcite layers, because there isn’t enough carbonate in the water for the oysters to draw on for optimal shell formation and growth. “This is the first time that the Sydney Rock Oysters’ shell crystallography has been studied, and we now know disruption to this process could have a significant impact on Australian aquaculture.” While the Sydney Rock Oyster is native to Australia and New Zealand, Fitzer has previously linked rising

acidification to weaker shells in mussels in Loch Fyne, Scotland, and sees global ramifications for the study. “The first thing consumers may notice is smaller oysters, mussels and other molluscs on their plates, but if ocean acidification and coastal acidification are exacerbated by future climate change and sea level rise, this could have a huge impact on commercial aquaculture around the world.” Dr Fitzer’s findings are from a five-year NERCfunded project that is investigating biomineralisation in commercially-farmed and wild shellfish to understand how climate change will affect global aquaculture. Mike Webb, NERC’s Head of Research, Oceans, said, “By supporting research projects like Dr Fitzer’s work in Scotland and Australia, NERC is contributing to the understanding of how climate change will affect food production around the world, and lead to collaboration between researchers and industry to solve some of the challenges our society faces.”

16 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Global Salmon Initiative marks five year anniversary WHAT IS THE



ive years ago today, a group of salmon farming CEOs decided to take a risk on a innovative approach to shaping a sustainable future for the INITIATIVE? industry. The Global Salmon Initiative (GSI) was The theGlobal vision of those Salmon Initiative is a leadership initiative CEOs, who decided that the usual models(GSI) of change weren’t established by leading salmon farming CEOs from around working effectively, and something different was needed in the world. order to see significant improvements in sustainability. OUR VISION Betting instead on a model of pre-competitive GSI members have a shared providing a healthy and 15 MEMBERS collaboration and increased transparency,vision theofGSI sustainable source of protein to ACCOUNTING FOR feed a growing population, while members set ambitious targets of achieving the highest minimizing their environmental ~ footprint and continuing environmental and social standards (as set by the to improve their social and OF THE GLOBAL SUPPLY CHAIN economic contribution. Aquaculture Stewardship Council [ASC]), sharing SALMON FARMING INVOLVEMENT THROUGH To reach this vision, industry8 ASSOCIATE MEMBERS INDUSTRY wide change is needed and the expertise and knowledge to promote accelerated change GSI believes collaboration is the key to achieving this at speed at speed and at scale, and – likely the biggest risk of CORE PRINCIPLES: and at scale. SUSTAINABILITY TRANSPARENCY COOPERATION all – sharing their progress via a publicly available and transparent reporting platform. WHY IS THE GSI NEEDED? As GSI Co-Chair and Marine Harvest CEO Alf-Helge 2016, which triggered significant development of nonSeafood is a highly nutritious protein source Aarskog explains, “When we started GSI we weren’t sure marine omega-3 sources, and the continued testing of Demand for protein is set to with a preferential environmental footprint double by 2050. when compared to other protein sectors. if it would work. Different companies, different regions, new non-medicinal approaches to disease management Sustainable aquaculture“Looking is a means of back over the past five years, there have been coming together to focus on environmental improvements Wild fisheries are already heavily meeting increasing demand for seafood while over-exploited. maintaining based on sharing best practices could be a win-win for thehealthy oceans. some difficult times, and some difficult discussions…” said industry and the environment. We quickly realised that we GSI Co-Chair and Blumar CEO Gerardo Balbontin, “…but all had common challenges, and that by bringing together KEY AREAS OF FOCUSas we mark this five-year milestone we can look back and CERTIFICATION: FEED AND BIOSECURITY: the best expertise in the industry and working collectively say that through theNUTRITION: GSI we have proved that collaboration Achieving the Aquaculture Improving sustainability Preventing and managing Stewardship Council (ASC) future of feed resources. disease and maintaining with those CEOs willing to take a risk and focus on the is the way to achieving a sustainable and prosperous standard across 100% of farms. optimal fish health. long-term future of the industry, we could actually start to for the salmon farming sector. However, we are not taking see improvements industry-wide.” our foot off the gas – there is still a lot to be done and the COMMITMENTS The GSI model of pre-competitive collaboration and reporting onGSI continues to stand strong.” Sharing best practices Transparent and working on projects nine environmental and collective thinking has been one of the group’s major together to accelerate five social sustainability We are committed to working progress and support indicators across all pre-competitively in support of successes, and continues to be the backbone of the group’s greater innovation. companies and all regions the United Nations SDG 14. through our annual approach to achieving significant improvementssustainability in report. sustainability. “GSI was a game-changer when it launched, but we Through cooperation and transparency, the GSI is driving significant improvements never anticipated the level of impact it would have, not in the sustainability performance of the aquaculture sector, making farmed salmon only on salmon farming, but on the food sector as a a healthy and sustainable solution to feed a growing population. whole,” said Jason Clay, Senior Vice President, Food & Markets, World Wildlife Fund (WWF). “Creating the GSI was an important move at the time,” added Alf-Helge Aarskog. ‘’we were stepping out and making commitments I’m not sure anyone expected Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) is a @gsi_salmon us to achieve, but five years on we can proudly say the Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) risk paid off, and the fact we are still going proves that that promotes and supports responsible and the continuous work GSI is doing is important for the sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation members.” Over the past five years, the GSI has been shaping the of poverty by improving livelihoods in future of salmon aquaculture through: developing countries. • Collaboration: the first truly industry-wide global group involving salmon farmers, feed companies, and pharmaceutical companies • Accountability: demonstrating measurable progress in environmental, social and economic sustainability via the ASC Salmon Standard - Five years ago no farm had achieved ASC certification; today GSI has over 40 percent of production ASC-certified and continues to work towards 100 percent • Innovation: through sharing of knowledge and expertise, GSI has been able to identify and integrate new innovations and improved approaches to its members’ salmon farming operations Registered charity No. 1165727 - Including both the launch of the GSI feed tender in


International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 17


Image courtesy of © Dr. Bernd Ueberschär, Sea bream larva

A new start for fish larvae and fry


by Dr Robert Tillner, Product Manager, Aller Aqua Research

he reliable production of high quality offspring is paramount for successful aquaculture. This is true for both a shift from quantity to quality in established species as well as for closing the lifecycle of new candidate species. High mortality rates can occur in hatcheries if abiotic and biotic conditions are not within tightly framed optima, which is a consequence of the reproductive strategy of many teleost fish species. The cultivation of many species still relies on the provision of live feed in the early stages. In fact, the discovery and extensive use of rotifers and Artemia may have been the main driving force behind the tremendous growth in aquaculture production so far. Nevertheless, the tremendous efforts in research for manufactured diets in the recent years has substituted live feeds to a large extent. Aller Aqua has increased its efforts to supply fish in the early life-stages with optimal and tailored feeds. Some fish species benefit from more energy-rich feeds such as fry of rainbow trout, whereas other fish species thrive on feeds with less energy. A series of trials at Aller Aqua Research in Buesum, Germany have shown significantly higher growth, lower FCR and improved nutrient retention in fry of rainbow trout when fed a more energyrich feed. Consequently, Aller Aqua relaunches its successful ALLER FUTURA EX GR with a higher fat and energy content, fully dedicated to the nutritional requirements of rainbow trout and other salmonids. At the same time, Aller Aqua launches ALLER THALASSA EX GR with a balanced protein to fat ratio, more

















Trout and other salmonids


Marine species and species with less energy requirments



Freshwater species, cyprinids and cichlids



suited to larvae and fry of marine species as well as species with lesser energy requirements.

New premium starter diet for fish larvae and early fry

For the most delicate early stages Aller Aqua introduces its new premium starter diet for fish larvae and early fry, ALLER INFA EX GR, assembling only premium ingredients, including high levels of krill meal, and the highest standards in production technology. With particle sizes down to 0.1 mm, ALLER INFA EX GR (INFA short for Latin “infant”) acknowledges the immature and delicate stages of fish larvae and early fry in the best possible manner to support healthy development, fast growth and high survival rates. This new diet was launched at AQUA 2018, in Montpellier, France on August 27, 2018.

Hatchery pack – Improved growth and health of larvae and fry

The larvae of many fish species are not fully developed at the time they start feeding, some lack a fully developed stomach with the complete range in digestive enzymes, and the digestion of feed particles as well as the nutrient uptake is of highest importance to match the high potential for growth. To aid the developing fish in their digestive processes and organ development, ALLER FUTURA EX GR, ALLER THALASSA EX GR and ALLER INFA EX GR are naturally enhanced to support organ development and health of the liver and the gallbladder. Consecutively, this leads to an enhanced secretion of digestive enzymes, improved nutrient uptake as well as improved growth and health of larvae and fry.



18 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

©Aller Aqua, Slow sinking granulates allow for high ingestion rates by larvae and fry of varying sizes


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International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 19


BLACK SOLDIER FLY A future for Tilapia feed?

by Maquart P.O., Murray F., Leschen W., Netwon R., Little D.C., Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK Corresponding author: Pierre-Olivier Maquart


ith the increase of the fishmeal and soybean prices over the last decade, insect proteins have become a focus of research into novel alternative livestock feed ingredients. While several insect species have been investigated, the Black Soldier Fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) remains one of the most credible options. BSF, generally considered as a non-pest species, is distributed almost worldwide since the Second World War and is not known to carry any pathogenic agents, unlike the common housefly (Musca domestica). The larvae can grow quickly and have an excellent feed rate. They can consume 25-500 mg of fresh matter/larva/day and feed on a wide range of substrates ranging from manures to food waste. A grow-out cycle takes 15 days to an average larva weight of 0.25g under optimal conditions (30oC) and the substrate/ waste load reduced by up to 70 percent (dry matter basis). The maggots have also been shown to remove pathogenic bacteria, reduce waste odours and to inhibit nuisance housefly oviposition; all valuable secondary sanitation outcomes. The larvae have a high nutritional value; contingent on the substrate they were bred on, with crude protein levels ranging from 28 to 48 percent, and lipid levels from 12 to 42 percent. With the exception of omega-3 fatty acid, the lipid profile is broadly similar to fish meal and potential exists to augment fatty acid through the use of an appropriate feeds e.g. fish-offal. The essential amino acid profile of the insect meal meets the broad requirements of tilapias simplifying dietary formulation requirements. Tilapia are widely cultured in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and constitute the third largest group of farmed finfish after carps and salmonids. To date only four studies

have been published on the evaluation of BSF meal on tilapia growth and production outcomes. Some of the earliest work by Bondari & Sheppard showed disappointing results. In 1981, they demonstrated that the growth rate of Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) in polyculture with catfish, when fed diets containing 50-75% and 100% fresh soldier fly larvae over a 10-week period was comparable with control fish fed with commercial diets. The complex design of the experiment made interpretation of the results problematic however as it was impossible to control for different and possibly competitive feeding behaviours of the two species. A second trial in 1987, found that a monoculture of tilapia fed chopped or whole larvae ad libitum severely depressed fish growth compared to standard diet. Use of fresh (rather than dry) larvae by the authors also raises issues around potential commercialisation. First, fresh larvae reduce the dry matter and protein intake compared to a ‘dry’ diet. Secondly pre-pupae were used, as it is the easiest larval stage to collect because of their wandering and ‘self-harvesting’ behaviour prior to pupation; at this stage they bare insensitive to light. However, they have a highly elevated chitin content; an almostindigestible sugar and the main constituent of insect ‘skin’. Younger white-coloured larvae have negligible chitin content and are correspondingly more digestible, but efficient harvesting from feed-substrates is much more challenging due to light avoiding behaviour. This results in a requirement for mechanical separation of younger larvae from the substrate. Comparisons between these and other studies are complicated by a range of experimental design factors. Ogunji et al. (2008) used a dry, low-protein maggot meal (28.6% DM basis) and reported that the fish growth was significantly lower than the fishmeal fed fish for the treatments containing 150 and 300g/ kg maggot meal. However, the dietary formulation method employed resulted in neither a non-isonitrogenous nor iso-caloric diets, making them hard, if not impossible, to compare. A more recent study on Nile Tilapia (Devic et al. 2017) used

20 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

FEATURE Black Soldier Fly larvae eating a substrate composed of brewery waste

the white larvae dry meal to formulate isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with maggot meal inclusions at 0, 30, 50 and 80 g/kg substituting gradually three conventional expensive feedstuffs: fish meal, fish oil and soybean meal. Results showed no significant difference in growth parameters (final weight; weight gain and SGR), feed utilization efficiency (FCR and PER and feed intake) between treatments. Similarly fish whole body composition (dry matter, crude protein, lipid, ash and fibre) was unaffected by the treatments except the fatty acid compositions which mirrored that of the diets. Thus, the study confirmed the substitution potential of BSF white maggot meal as a potential replacement for other commonly used dietary protein sources with respect to biological (if not economic) performance. The same authors (in 2014) went on to estimate that BSF substitution of 30 percent of the fish meal used in cage-farm producing 6000 MT/pa of tilapia would respectively require1.4

MT, 60.8 MT and 175.5 MT of dry maggot meal to produce the requisite amounts of broodstock, juvenile and food fish respectively. However, while the technology is still in development, scaling up the production remains a major challenge. The main constraints addressed at the moment, beside obvious automatisation technology yet to develop, are the use of a suitable, consistent (quality and availability) low-cost substrate and the harvesting of the white larvae from the substrate. At the moment, the BSFML is not yet commercialised, but considering its potential value, its use should be targeted toward high value stages, such as fry-feed or high value species. Recent trials on poultry demonstrated its efficiency: in a study published this year by Wallace et al. the body weight gain significantly increased in guinea fowl fed with incremental Black Soldier Fly substitution diets, compared to the control group fed with a fishmeal based-diet. Their health was significantly improved by this substitution, opening the door to a potential immunomodulatory-feed, yet to be demonstrated in fish, or other livestock species. While this technology is still in its infancy, there is a real potential market in low income countries, where organic waste remediation and lack of reliable and cheap proteins sources are often issues to overcome. In that optic, if a proper separation process of the waste is taking place, and if the technology takes the move forward, the BSF larvae could be effective agents to convert these into a sustainable and local source of high value protein, creating at the same time employment, and reducing the environmental hazard posed by organic waste disposal. However, in Europe –or even the Western world- the situation is different. Beside a change of legislation recently (EU

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2018-08-14, Adv. Aqua feed Mill 190x132 .indd 1

International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 21

3-9-2018 9:59:20


Regulation2017/893–1st of July 2017) insect meal can only be produced on vegetable substrates and unprocessed former food, restraining the potential substrates to wastes already valorised by the livestock feed sector. In addition, at the moment, insect protein can only be used for pet food and aquaculture, but not poultry nor piggeries. The extension of the authorisation is currently in discussion, and might extend next year to other livestock feed, and allow a wider range of substrates, potentially making it cost-effective. The production of insect meal, even if there are no additional effects such as probiotic or other functional effects, could only be sustainable and logical if the bugs are produced on low value substrates which currently incur cost for disposal. Their role is therefore best viewed as a component of a circular economy through upcycling waste. In the meantime, further research is required to unlock the potential of Black Soldier Fly meal, as a local and cheap feed ingredient for aquaculture.

Further reading

Devic E., Leschen W., Murray F.J., Little D.C., 2017. Growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of advanced nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal. Aquaculture nutrition. DOI 10.1111/anu.12573 Barroso F.G., De Haro C., Sanchez-Muros M.J., Venegas E., Martinez-Sanchez A., Perez-Banon C., 2014. The potential of various insect species for use as food for fish. Aquaculture. 422423:193-201p. Bondari, K. and Sheppard, D.C., 1987. Soldier fly Hermetia illucens L., as feed for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), and blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus

(Steindachner). Aquaculture and Fisheries Management. 18: 209-220. Maquart P.O., Murray F.J., Newton R.W., Leschen W.A., Little D.C. Potential for commercial scale insect-based transformation of organic waste for aquafeed and crop production in Ghana. PhD conference. University of Stirling, Scotland. 22 February 2015. Poster

Want to know more about insects as feed?

Makkar H.P.S., Tran G., Heuzé V., Ankers P., 2014. State of the art on use of insects as animal feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 197:1-33. Wang Y-S. & Shelomi M., 2017. Review of Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) as animal feed and human food. Foods. 6(10): doi:10.3390/foods6100091 Kenis M., Koné N., Chrysostome C.A.A.M., Devic E., Koko G.K.D., Clottey V.A., Nacambo S., Mensah G.A., 2014. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa. Entomologia. 218(2): 107114.

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Effective control of Salmonella in feed


by Karen De Ridder, Business Development Manager Preservation & Functional Ingredients, Nutriad, Belgium

measures to kill bacteria in feed but may not completely eliminate Salmonella (re)contamination. In many cases, a combination of heat treatment and chemical treatment is used to kill bacteria.

Control of Salmonella in feed

he control of Salmonella in the animal industry is one of the major challenges. Salmonella is found everywhere and can survive, even at low moisture levels, for a long time. Due to the complexity to control Salmonella, several measurements need to be taken to reduce contamination, growth and survival of Salmonella in feed.

Salmonella is very difficult to control, and every possible tool needs to be used in the prevention programme. Therefore, in general three different strategies are combined to eliminate Salmonella presence in animal feeds. At first, it is important to minimise contamination of ingredients and/or feeds. Secondly, measures should be taken to prevent bacteria from propagating in the feed. A third approach should focus on trying to kill off pathogens as much as possible.

Prevent contamination

Feed ingredients, arriving at the feed mill, are regarded as the predominant source for Salmonella contamination. During each of the subsequent processing steps, additional contamination A ubiquitous threat can occur. Some ingredients have more than 10 processing Salmonella is found everywhere and can survive, even at low steps before it arrives at the feed mill. Therefore, a selection moisture levels, for a long time. Due to the complexity to control of suppliers which are able to provide Salmonella, several measurements need to a specification that their products are be taken to reduce contamination, growth Salmonella negative is essential. At and survival of Salmonella in feed. Nutriad offers a multi-level approach in the prevention of arrival, care should be taken that the Salmonella are one of the leading Salmonella: ingredients don’t contaminate the rest pathogens associated with reduced animal SALMO-NIL of the feed mill. Dust has hereby been performance and food-borne illness in • Decontamination of Salmonella considered as a key risk factor in the consumers. Contaminated feeds and critical raw materials and feedstuffs mill. In addition, maximal eradication critical feed materials such as oil seed • Residual protection against reof rodents, birds and insects inside meals and animal derived protein meals and cross-contamination the feed mill, is a must, as they all can are among the major pathways through • Broad spectrum activity against other foodborne pathogens and be carriers of Salmonella. Likewise, which Salmonella enter the animal food mould and yeast growth people who work in the plant are an production. The link between animal EVACIDE important factor in spreading Salmonella. feeds and both human and animal • Improves drinking water hygiene • Supports feed intake and Special clothing and shoes can help to salmonellosis was already established digestion reduce contamination risk. Needless to many years ago. However, as Salmonella • Reduces horizontal transmission emphasise that, within the whole hygiene are ubiquitous and persistent in a wide of feed-borne pathogens protocol of the feed mill, working with range of materials, they are difficult to ADMIX PRECISION • Gut empowerment clean trucks that transport the final feed tackle with only a single control measure. • Improved animal performance to the customers is of critical importance Thermal processing is one of the important • Reduction of Salmonella colonisation

24 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


as well. Sanitation protocols should be implemented both for trucks that deliver the final feed as well as those that deliver the feed ingredients.

Prevent growth

The most important criterium for growth of bacteria is moisture. In general, the environment of the feed mill contains not enough moisture for allowing bacteria to grow. However, there are some sources of moisture that are very difficult to avoid such as condensation or high environmental humidity. In addition, during manufacturing process, moisture is sometimes used as a “hygiene� measure, e.g. in the conditioner to increase temperature. This moisture can enable Salmonella to survive and grow, particularly when Salmonella is present in niches in the spots somewhere in the production system. Finding those spots is an important task of the mill personnel. A good sampling method and risk assessment can help to identify those growth niches.

Killing of Salmonella

In principle there are two measures to kill bacteria in the feed mill process; heat treatment, particularly via pelleting, and/or chemical treatment. Chemical treatments are generally done via the addition of acids to the diet. Formic and propionic acids are the most common used acids and numerous tests have proven their ability to kill Salmonella in animal diets. The efficacy of acids varies a lot and depends on numerous factors such as diet composition, moisture level in the diet, physical form of the diet, inclusion level of the acid blend, the composition of the acid blend, the chemical form of the acid product (e.g. pure acids or salts of acids). Organic acids, like formic and propionic acids, have multilevel effects:

In the feed

Organic acids have the ability to disturb the intracellular pH regulation and metabolic process of different bacteria. Besides their bacteriostatic properties, they also have direct toxic effects against various potential intestinal foodborne pathogens.

In the plant

Organic acids have residual, long-term protective effects in feed, which reduce recontamination and cross-contamination from milling and feeding equipment.

In the animal

The antimicrobial action of organic acids is not restricted to the feed matrix but also related to the proximal parts of the digestive tract. However, organic acids also trigger additional effects beyond antimicrobial activity: balanced commensal intestinal flora, improved activity of digestive enzyme, increased pancreatic secretion and empowered gastrointestinal mucosa.


It has been demonstrated long time ago that there is a clear link between animal feed and the presence of Salmonella in animals and even in humans. Because Salmonella can be found anywhere and is able to survive easily for a long time, a thorough control strategy needs to be implemented. At the feed mill, three different strategies should be considered: preventing multiplication, avoid growth and killing bacteria. Heat and chemical treatment of feed are efficient in killing bacteria like Salmonella, whereas the chemical treatment has not only benefits for the feed, but also for the plant and animal. Moreover, acidification is an essential part of a multifunctional approach for optimal Salmonella control in feed production. International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 25


The Ensuring Seaweed sustainability Standard for years to come


by Rebecca Sherratt, International Aquafeed, UK

eaweed is the foundation of the ocean and marine food chain, critical to ocean habitats and often serving as nursery areas for many aquatic species around the globe. Over the past few decades the use of seaweed by humans has also drastically increased. 82 percent of farmed seaweed being used for human consumption. 12.2 percent of seaweed farmed is used in cosmetics, whilst 2.9 percent is used for animal feed, and the final 2.6 percent in agriculture. Due to this intense increase in demand for seaweed, most natural seaweed growing in the oceans, free from human activity, has now been replaced by monitored farms. The past sixty years have seen a shift, wherein 96 percent of seaweed we now use is gathered from farming operations, whilst only four percent comes from wild harvests. Seaweed concentration is spread throughout 33 countries, China being its main producer (harvesting 54% of all seaweed), alongside Canada and North America. The seaweed industry is certainly an immense one, bringing in US $5.65 billion and over 25 million tonnes of seaweed annually. The main importers of seaweed include Brazil, Russia and India, while the primary exporters include Finland, Sweden and Russia. With such a vast quantity of seaweed being processed and harvested per year, seaweed farmers are feeling the pressure to produce even more of the popular algae. But such a rapid turnover means that the seaweed we harvest isn’t always of the best quality, nor produced in the correct manner.

Saving the Seaweed

To safeguard seaweed, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) are here. These two non-profit organisations have begun a certification scheme, named The Seaweed Standard, to transform the seaweed market into a sustainable one. These two companies collaborated to ensure the protection of marine life and the responsible production of seaweed. The MSC specifically specialises in marine life, with the aim to keep the oceans teeming and

populated. The ASC’s primary goal is to minimise the negative impacts aquaculture has on the environment. Both also aim to contribute to the health of the world’s aquatic ecosystems by promoting, recognising and rewarding environmentally sustainable and socially responsible use of seaweed resources through certification. Focussing on all seaweeds, marine and freshwater algae, alongside macroalgae and microalgae, the standard applies globally to all locations and all scales of operations.

Launching The Seaweed Standard

The Seaweed Standard was initially launched on November 22, 2017, and became effective March 1, 2018, ensuring that seaweed farmers follow specific rules and regulations to ensure that their produce is sustainable and responsibly sourced. At least one

The Assessment Process

The process for certification can time up to 12 months to complete, and follows a precise set of investigations and examinations as follows: Step 1- Checklist and pre-assessment Step 2- Invite stakeholders to examine the site Step 3- Info gathering, site visits and scanning. Meeting and interview with stakeholders, clients and employees Step 4- Opportunities for improvements. If critical conditions raised, clients have three months to rectify these. If not solved, assessment cannot continue Step 5- Critical review composed. Site must prepare action to solve critical conditions Step 6- Public comment draft report: Report open for stakeholders’ comment Step 7- Final report and determination. Step 8- Public certification report: Stakeholders that were involved in the assessment can object within 10 working days of publication of the FR.

26 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


member of each harvesting team who applies for the certification must have completed the environmental and social training; however, over time MSC and ASC have made training available online, so all members of harvesting teams can access training resources. The ASC website has all the relevant scheme documents available and a get-certified guide, so those who are interested in applying for the certification can discover exactly what is required to become officially-credited sustainable seaweed farmers. Two training facilities became available for farmers to take part in, based in Beijing and London, from October 2017 onwards. In this first test 50 potential auditors participated, 77 percent passing the environmental training, whilst 65 percent passed the social training part of the test. The Seaweed Standard is currently working on establishing training locations in Japan, China, Korea, Canada, Europe, US, Chile and Peru, and online training is now also

“Focussing on all seaweeds, marine and freshwater algae, alongside macroalgae and microalgae, the standard applies globally to all locations and all scales of operations" available. Companies who wish to become certified must have been in operation for a minimum of 12 months, or the equivalent of one harvest cycle. Harvesting activities that use mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic pesticides, alongside other toxic chemicals, in the marine environment are ineligible for certification. The Seaweed Standard rate organisations based upon a wide variety of factors, which can all be viewed on the ASC website. With criteria ranging from sustainability, effective management, social responsibility, community relations and interactions, the rating aims to cover every aspect of the farming process: communicating with the local public, farmers, local fishermen and managers to get the most accurate representation of how each farming plant runs. These are split

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International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 27


into 68 different scoring issues, alongside 31 performance indicators. Companies are also split into three different categories, depending on how they harvest their seaweed; ‘Wild stock only’, ‘Land stock only’ and ‘cultivation at sea’, which also separates groups into those who use wild seed and those where wild seed is negligible. How each application fares depends on the seaweed production category considered and on the characteristics of the activity.

Rules to go by

Five principles make up the core of The Seaweed Standard, and marking criteria is based heavily upon these five issues.

Principle One: Sustainable wild populations

The harvesting and farming of seaweed is conducted in a manner that maintains the productive capacity of the wild seaweed populations and their sustainable use

Principle Two: Environmental Impacts

Structure, productivity, function and diversity of the ecosystem, including the habitats and associated dependant and ecologically related species, are maintained and undamaged by said harvesting and farming activities

Principle Three: Effective Management

Harvesting and farming activities are subject to an effective management system that respects local, national and international laws and standards. They must also incorporate institutional and operational frameworks that require use of resources to be responsible and sustainable

Principle Four: Social Impacts

Labour standards must be based upon the core International Labour Organisation (ILO) standards and SA 8000. Wages and working hours for employees must be set in accordance with national regulations

Principle Five: Community relations and interaction

The farm must have minimal negative impacts on the local community, whether this be homes and surrounding villages, fishermen, local resources such as forests, water and wildlife. There must be suitable conflict resolutions.


One central issue The Seaweed Standard also deal with is the transport and distribution of seaweed after it has left the designated sites. The certification scheme aims to avoid the mixing and substitution of certified and non-certified seaweed. Any threats of mixing seaweed are termed as ‘risks’ and must be documented, which will be taken into consideration regarding site certification. Many threats come from companies owning several seaweed production plants or companies, wherein one could be certified, and the second one isn’t. This drastically increases the risk of both site batches being contaminated and mixed in any of the distribution stages. If risks are not mitigated, the organisation cannot be certified. The Seaweed Standard emphasise that at the first point of sale there must be no risks of contamination.

A busy future ahead

Currently The Seaweed Standard has auditers carrying out site visits throughout Japan, focussing on the sustainable production of the seaweed Euglena (E. viridis/ E. sanguinea). Site visits took place August 17-18, 2018 and reports are being composed until Sept 12, 2018. Similar certifications are also taking place with various other marine life, which have been proven to be hugely successful, protecting produce such as abalone, bivalve molluscs, freshwater trout, pangasius, salmon, seroila and cobia, shrimp and tilapia. The Seaweed Standard also recently exhibited at Vietfish 2018 and are due to showcase at the High Energy Mariculture Conference in Corfu, Greece on October 17-19 2018.

28 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


Ottevanger Milling Engineers is a leading global supplier of production equipment and processing lines for the grain processing and compound feed industry. Our expertise lies in engineering, manufacturing, project management, and cereal processing. We plan, design and manage the construction of complete production facilities or individual lines for processes such as:

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ithout meat and dairy consumption, global farmland use could be reduced by more than 75 percent. What about farmed salmon, where a large part of feed comes from agriculture, e.g. soy. Should we all become vegans? Two interesting recent reports address this question. One is a comprehensive study by Poore and Nemecek published in Science. Another is a study (in Norwegian) by the NGO Future in Our Hands (FIOH). What we eat really has an impact, not only on our health, but on the health of our planet. In an article in the Guardian Joseph Poore of the University of Oxford, UK explained that ‘a vegan diet is probably the single biggest way to reduce your impact on planet Earth, not just greenhouse gases, but global acidification, eutrophication, land use and water use”. “It is far bigger than cutting down on your flights or buying an electric car,” he continued, as the latter changes only cut greenhouse gas emissions. So how would such a change look on your dinner plate? FIOH has calculated how many square meters of farm land are needed to produce one portion of dinner (see figure 1): The reasons why salmon is at the same level as a vegan meal, is that part of the fish feed is from marine resources, and that fish, being cold blooded and living in water, are very efficient feed converters, with 68 percent edible yield. Many would argue that the livestock production uses local feed, whereas salmon production uses feed that has been transported a long distance. There is a point here, but it is not the full story, at least not as FIOH reveals. FIOH looked at where the arable land is located. This study is from Norway, and the findings are not necessarily the same in other geographies, but the result is amazing; a portion of chicken, pork, or beef all take up more farmed land abroad than farmed salmon does, and additionally they take up farmed land locally. Pasture land is not included: pasture land adds another 1.9 square meter to the beef meal. The comprehensive study by Poore and Nemecek underlines that there is no one size fits all solution. Within each category of crops or livestock production there is great variety. The upside for all is that by understanding this variety, we can improve our food production system. Still, the direction towards reducing consumption of meat and dairy seems evident. International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 30

Figure 1

About Cermaq

Figure 2

We want to provide the world with a clean, pure source of healthy sustainable food. We will work in partnership with nature to minimise our impact on the world’s resources and with our customers to be their preferred supplier. To follow our vision, we must be industry leaders in four key business areas: operations, customers, people and sustainability. We are committed to continuously developing and improving on our established leadership in fish health and sustainability to meet customer demands for healthy, high quality food, today and into the future. This means investment in sustainability research, commitment to innovation, transparency through meeting the ighest standards, and strong partnerships with the people who share our goals and values. From our customers and partners to our workers around the world, our business is about people. Our commitment to openness and transparency is at the heart of everything we do. It is on this foundation that we build strong partnerships, invest in a sustainable future, and stay conscious of our responsibility to society. We will never sacrifice long term goals for short term gains. International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 31





The black-spotted frog is an Eastern variety of frog, native to Japan, Korea and China, alongside parts of Russia. It has been noted by scientists that tadpoles of the black-spotted frog were first introduced into the Chinese ecosystem in 1959 – 1961 in the Hubei province, an area which they now densely populate. These amphibians can often be distinguished by their lime green and grey-brown colouration, with a unique pattern of black spots down the flanks of their bodies. Male black-spotted frogs can grow to around 70-mm long, whilst the females are slightly larger at approximately 77mm. The habitats which the black-spotted frog inhabits can vary greatly. These amphibians can reside in water bodies in areas as varied as meadows, bushlands and even deserts (this is mainly in Turkmenia.) Black-spotted frogs prosper in rivers, lakes, channels, swamps and rice fields, proving to be willing to accommodate almost any body of water as a potential home. These frogs do, however, often live alone, away from other species of frogs, such as its close relative the marsh frog (rana ridibunda). Despite being considered a rather common species of frog, in China especially, their distribution is rather patchy. Black-

by Rebecca Sherratt, Production editor, International Aquafeed spotted frogs tend to occur in very dense, large groups. These frogs hibernate for a rather large portion of their lives in stagnant water; from late September through to November, and again from February to May. Alongside eating extruded feed, black-spotted frogs like to indulge in eating spiders, terrestrial insects and a variety of invertebrates. On rare occasions they will also eat fish fry and perhaps other amphibians, being opportunistic hunters who are willing to eat whatever prey they may encounter. Their sticky tongues help them keep a grip on struggling prey, such as crickets and grasshoppers. Black-spotted tadpoles consume mainly plants, such as algae. Black-spotted frog feeding does not cease during the breeding season. Black-spotted frogs skin has anti-microbial properties, containing peptides that give it a barrier of protection against a wide variety of potential attacks and diseases. This also means that bacteria, yeast and other microorganisms that may settle on the black-spotted frog can’t grow and cause health problems for them. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and their red list of threatened species classes the black-spotted frog as ‘near threatened’, recommending that the harvesting and farming of black-spotted frogs should be placed under restrictions and strictly monitored to ensure that they do not drop into the category of ‘vulnerable’.

32 |September2018-InternationalAquafeed


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EXPERT TOPIC Commercial farming in China

by Liu Fenglei, He Zhuliu, Dong Qiufen and Zhang Song, Guangzhou Nutriera Biotechnology Co., Ltd, China


he black-spotted frog (Pelophylax nigromaculatus) is an amphibious animal of the species Ranidae and the genus Pelophylax. It is a beneficial species with economic and scientific research values, and it has been listed in the IUCN red list of Threatened Species since 2004. Therefore, it is not allowed to catch wild black-spotted frogs in China. Black-spotted frogs have been studied in China for a long time, and it is recorded in the Compendium of Materia Medical. As the meat has high protein and low fat, the southerners even depict it as delicious as chicken’s meat and it has been a popular dish for the people. In addition to its nutritional value, it has some medicinal effects such as improving liver and kidney functions, promoting body immunity, anti-aging properties, beneficial lung functions and eyesight etc. In addition, extracted frog oil can be used as a regulator of human body metabolism and beauty. The black-spotted frog is mainly distributed in China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea and Russia. It can adapt to wide geographical environments, and can be found in different habitats including meadows, leafy, mixed pine, broadleaved forests, bush land, and even deserts. Furthermore, the species is also present in suitable modified habitats. Within these, its inhabits are various types of stagnant water bodies, including river pools, channels, lakes, reservoirs, ponds, swamps, ditches and paddy fields. Chinese scientists have achieved full-scale artificial farming and have formulated feed technology for this species. The black-spotted frog industry has been developing rapidly. It’s widely farmed in more than 10 provinces of China, and it has become a common aquaculture product.

34 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed



Black spotted frog farm

Industry overview

With commercial farming technology, the black-spotted frog has developed very rapidly and is booming in China. In 2015, the commercial farming area of the ​​ black-spotted frog was about 1,647 acres. But it grew sharply in 2016 and 2017 with farming areas about 6,590 acres and 13,180 acres respectively and is becoming an increasing trend in 2018. Central China is the main black-spotted frog farming area, in which Hubei province accounts for the largest breading area of nearly 4,942 acres, followed by Hunan province (3,945 acres), Sichuan province (1,647 acres) and other provinces (3,945 acres). At present, the average yield of black-spotted frog is

150~330kg/ acres. The annual production of the black-spotted frog is about 70,000 tonnes, and the commercial feed demand is 100,000 tonnes in China.

Breeding technology

The fry of the black-spotted frog are obtained by means of natural reproduction in an artificial nursery. The area of a frog pond is approximately 200m2 with a ditch surrounding the middle resting area; it is for frog farming and also laying eggs. The stocking density of the broodstock is three to four pairs/m2. The body weight of broodstock is normally more than 50g, and each female can lay 1,000-1,500 eggs. When the spring comes


Progress Pellet Mill

Nanjing, China September 18, 2018

Presenting a one-day conference program featuring international experts in fish-farming nutrition and technology addressing quality safety, the environment and new technologies’ VIV China will be held in Nanjing, China, from September 17-19, 2018.

‘A future for aquaculture’ Session 2 Aquaculture Solutions - Nutrition Session 3 Aquaculture Solutions - Technology A Triott Company

Session 1



Specialist in Pelleting Equipment - 35 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed




with stable and suitable temperatures, the farmers fill the ditch with water and the black spotted frog naturally breeds and lays eggs in the ring-shaped ditch where eggs develop into tadpoles. To prevent cannibalism, the farmers collect the frog eggs and hatch them together, and then transfer the tadpoles to the nursery ponds.


Black-spotted frog is farmed alongside the Yangtze River basin because it is suitable to survive with the subtropical monsoon climate that has warm and humid temperature, rainfall and four distinct seasons. The black-spotted frog has a hibernation habit, and the suitable temperature for growth is 20-30 °C. The black-spotted frog lays eggs from March to April, and the tadpole growth period is from March to May, the metamorphosis period is from May to June, the growth period of the frog is from May to October, and the hibernation period is from October to February of the following year. For commercial farming, the black- spotted frog hatching for five-10 days, the tadpole growth period is about 45-55 days, the metamorphic period is about 30 days, and the froglet to the frog farming period is about 60-120 days. According to the conditions of the pond, three farming methods can be used. Firstly, black-spotted frog eggs can directly move to the pond with a density of 120-200 eggs/m2 for hatchery production. The farmers also can stock about Breeding grounds 60-100 tadpoles/m2 or 50-80 froglets/m2. Artificial farming can greatly shorten the black-spotted frog growth cycle. With better nutrient conditions, a froglet (size of 1.5-1.7g/ pcs) can only take 50 days to an adult frog, which can reach the market size of 30g/pcs.

Extruded feed

It has been more than a decade of exploring the artificial farming technology of the black-spotted frog, Experts from Guangdong Nutriera Group and several enterprises successfully achieved the highly efficient black-spotted frog artificial farming technology in Yiyang City of Hunan Province and

introduced it to different locations. Actually it’s believed that the black-spotted frog doesn’t consume static feed. Farmers only feed the frogs with living Tenebrio molitor and maggots. But by the way of mixing the living Tenebrio molitor with the commercial diet to feed the frog dynamically, the black-spotted frog can’t distinguish the Tenebrio molitor and commercial feed. According to this characteristic, a special elastic feeding tray was developed and designed for black-spotted frog feeding. When the black-spotted frog jumps onto the feeding tray, the gauze vibrates, and the feed vibrates as living feed movements thereby stimulating the frogs to eat. With some improvements, the bait tray is no longer restricted to the elastic gauze, and the plastic plate can also be used as a feeding tray. With this feeding tray, the farmers started to use extruded feed for their frogs since 2015. Thanks to the extruded feed, black-spotted frog farming is

developing rapidly. Many aquafeed mills in Hunan, Hubei and locations nearby are trying to produce frog feed, but with different feed quality and performance. The current black-spotted frog feeds on the market can be divided into two types: mashed feed, which is specially used for feeding tadpoles in the early stage, and extruded feed, which is for the frog growth. The feed protein ranges from 36 percent to 42 percent, with prices 0.480.60 USD/kg, and the farmers always prefer feed with 40 percent protein for their frogs. Experts of Guangdong Nutriera Group have already introduced the advanced feed formulation technology with quality premix

36 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed



& additives to the aqua feed mills according to the black-spotted frog nutritional requirements, and many aqua feed mills have got good development from this new technology as well as the integrated technical services from Nutriera Group. Zhangjiajie Xinrui Biological Feed Co., Ltd. is a cooperative partner of Nutriera Group, it has already become a flag brand for blackspotted frog feed in Hunan Province.


Black-spotted frog dishes are popular in central and southern China, but Chinese laws protect the wild frogs. Farmers there also have a positive respect for the black-spotted frog, because the wild black-spotted frog has a strong ability to catch pests and protect crops from pests. People only consume the farmed black-spotted frog, but the annual production 70,000 tonnes can’t meet the increasing remand, which will promote more artificial farming in the area. Farmers can get a good return from frog farming. Normally the harvest season is from August to October with relative low prices such as 3.62 USD/kg, but farmers still can get good profits. In the first half of a year, the prices are much higher due to limited supply. Currently, green house farming technology is under research, so consumption requirements will be met for the whole year.

Authors’ information:


Liu Fenglei, He Zhuliu, Dong Qiufen and Zhang Song are experts in aqua nutrition and aquaculture from Guangzhou Nutriera Group. As the biggest aquafeed premix supplier in China, Nutriera mainly delivers a whole practical solutions for aquafeed mills to help them produce high quality aquafeed and create more values for the farmers. Email: (Dong Qiufen)."

Artificial farming of the black-spotted frog is now booming with a huge development potential. Scientists and experts are doing research on the hatchery part to improve productivity, and frog healthcare probiotics will be combined with extruded feed nutrition. Production procedures and management standards will be made for a long-term green and sustainable development.

VIV China 2018 September 17-19, 2018 | Nanjing, China

International trade show from Feed to Food for China WWW.VIV.NET 37 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed



in aquaculture

c i t o b o r e f i l r e t a w the under

Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) were once an exotic newcomer to aquaculture, but nowadays they are an essential tool for fish farm operations. ROVs are used to supplement, and even replace, the use of specialist divers at a much-reduced cost and increased safety, allowing the performance of many hazardous tasks even in the most dangerous of weather situations. ROVs come in a range of sizes, ranging from lightweight hand-carriable models (frequently used for observation), to heavier units equipped with attachments that can carry out specialised tasks such as net repair. Surveillance: ROVs provide a set of underwater eyes that function 24/7 to enhance an operator’s knowledge of underwater cage conditions and allow fast and efficient monitoring of fish health and net damage. As well as gathering data, many are equipped with both video cameras and sonar systems, which allow navigation in murky and dark waters.

Maintenance: Many modern ROVs are equipped with grappling devices and cutters, that act like underwater hands and are capable of effecting repairs to nets and other system. Mort removal: This tricky but essential task is now being undertaken by ROVs specially equipped to safeguard the health of fish stocks by quickly and efficiently removing morts from cages. Net Cleaning: More recently the industry has spawned a new generation of autonomous and semi-autonomous net-cleaning ROVs. A variety of ingenious ROVs are now capable of thoroughly cleaning nets in-situ, avoiding the need to bring nets ashore. Every year, the industry sees the introduction of ROVs with increasing levels of sophistication. In fact, many envision an aquaculture of the near-future with remote deepocean farms operated without human crews by a system of ROVs remotely controlled or autonomously guided. In this ROV special focus, we highlight some cutting-edge ROVs.

International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 39


MATURING ROV TECHNOLOGY The new Micro ROV standard Offshore aquaculture is considered a very dangerous and strenuous occupation. Subsea inspections are currently one of the most frequent aquaculture operations. A tear in a net can cause a farm to lose its fish stock which directly affects its bottom line.

By Eduardo Moreno, CEO Seadrone, Palo Alto, USA


arms are sanctioned by regulatory agencies and insurance companies for fish escapes. Farms are also mandated to inspect their structures to minimise fish escapes, which threaten the wild fish ecosystem. The primary consequence is farmed fish transferring diseases and pathogens like sea lice, genetic impact because of interbreeding, and also competition for food. To help solve this issue, remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can be utilised. ROV operations can help reduce human risk in offshore aquaculture operations and consequently lower an operator’s liability. ROV and diving operations will be

compared addressing the main strengths and weaknesses of each.

A huge opportunity to make fish farming safer

Humans are not biologically engineered to spend long hours underwater, and ROV technology has been used for many years, but this technology is still in an early adoption phase, similar to where aerial drones were a decade ago. There is a huge opportunity to make fish farming safer and more efficient all at once. SeaDrone believes that mature hardware and connected software will begin to disrupt this industry. SeaDrone can help farm operators gather more holistic inspection data and pair it with intuitive analytics, which in turn will allow them to drive actionable results and lower their insurance costs. Today, inspections are highly dependent on manual labour. A three-to-four man dive group with highly specialised diving

40 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


equipment can be contracted by farms for up to £23,000 a day. On average they can cover eight fish pens per day. Dive groups need to have a professional diving licence and receive specialised training to comply with regulations given by the authorities. Hired commercial divers are often inexperienced in fish farming and often do not report critical information to farm managers, an issue ROV’s do not have.

Tools to replace divers

An advantage of using a diver is the degree of physical interaction that they can have with the environment. They can repair a net or mooring right away. Inspection ROVs are beginning to close the gap with some of these tasks. Small vehicles can be fitted with mort retrieval shovels to remove dead fish from farm nets and other specialised tools. ROV systems are also typically easier to deploy and can stay underwater for longer than a diver, but in the past they have required significant skill to operate and were expensive to maintain. SeaDrone Inspector is a powerful and affordable subsea robot, which simplifies underwater inspections. It has industrial grade

construction, smooth manoeuvrability, and powerful lumen lights. Everything centres around a unified main electronic board meaning SeaDrone designed a vehicle that is leaner, more reliable and efficient, but also easier to maintain.


Reliable & efficient compressed air & blower solutions

Aquaculture applications: • Cages

• Feeding systems

• Fish processing

• Barges

• Wellboats

• Feed manufacturing


• Aeration

• Fish packing

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International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 41

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Some of the benefits of SeaDrone:

• Ease of use - Everyone can use SeaDrone, from beginners to pros. Patrol your facility with effortless and intuitive piloting • Ultimate Control - Premium vectored thrusters keep you in control • Deeper Dives - Hold your ground in two knot currents and dive deeper • Robust Footage - Capture stable full HD footage with actuated camera stabilization • Compact power - Highest thrust to drag and weight ratio of any vectored ROV in the market • All-day operation - Exchangeable FAA approved batteries • Symmetric drag profile - Hold you ground in crosscurrents • Capture stable full HD footage - Actuated camera stabilization, Vehicle auto-heading and auto-depth • Organised digital records - Photos and videos are stored directly on your tablet.

Seadrone puts the power of a better inspection experience back into customer’s hands. With tablet-controlled easy deploy and piloting, the commercial quality underwater drone makes collecting and storing HD inspection footage affordable and effortless for beginners to pros. In conclusion, ROVs create a positive chain reaction against reduced risk and increased efficiency. They mitigate the human risk by taking over several diving operations. Operational efficiencies are also believed to increase, as an ROV is able to move faster than a diver in the water and can dive much deeper. ROVs are therefore a lower cost to operate, provide more data in minimal time, reduce human risk, and have unlimited diving time. SeaDrone has worked with farm managers and inspection companies to understand their needs and built an easy-to-use subsea inspection system specifically designed for the aquaculture industry.

42 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


AKVA’S FLYING NET CLEANER The FNC8 is AKVA’s dedicated net cleaning ROV. The remotely operated net cleaning rig came about as the result of a strategic partnership between Norwegian aquaculture powerhouse AKVA and Sperre AS, a leading player in the ROV industry.

by Vaughn Entwistle, Features Editor, International Aquafeed


he unique feature of the new cleaning rig is that it “swims” along the net line in the pen and cleans using high-pressure seawater. Nothing takes hold of the net that can damage and tear holes in it. This greatly reduces the risk of fish escape. The Flying Net Cleaner is based on a patent pending principle that ensures that the rig is in balance regardless of whether it cleans horizontally, vertically or upside down. This makes it easier for the operator to select the cleaning direction that is most appropriate, regardless of which type of net one is dealing with.

High efficiency is the key

The speed of the cleaning rig is important for those performing the job. The FNC8Flying Net Cleaner can achieve a cleaning efficiency far greater than many of its competitors. The Flying Net Cleaner is built using standard ROV components that are easy to clean and disinfect. The FNC8’s ease of use is also assisted by several built-in automated features, sensors that monitor cleaning and advanced camera systems. The FNC8 is also ready for the collection of dislodged organisms

Customised high pressure generator

AKVA group supplies and offers service for high pressure generators customised for the new Flying Net Cleaner. The pumps supplied are from Kamat or Hammelmann. Both pumps are quality products that are specially adapted to the environment one encounters during pen cleaning.

“An Incredibly reliable net cleaning system”

Using ROV based FNC8 net cleaners, the leading Australian fish farming company Huon Aquaculture has managed to clean about three times the number of square metres as before. With a downtime of only two percent, Business Development Executive, James Bender, describes the technology as the most reliable net cleaning system the company has ever had in operation. “The FNC8 net cleaners have been very good compared to the other cleaning systems we’ve used. High water temperatures make marine fouling a big challenge for us in Tasmania. We clean our inner nets every five days and our predator nets once a month,” he explains. “Our predator nets are prone to fouling with scallops and mussels, which are difficult to remove without force. With an increased capacity, we’ll be able to prevent the issue by increasing the cleaning intervals,” he points out. Thus, efficient net cleaning operations is a critical success factor for Huon Aquaculture. When the company received its two first FNC8 cleaners, they were used during two shifts, around the clock, for three months. Today, the company has four units divided between two service boats, which are operated 12 hours a day, seven days a week. They have also decided to invest in an additional four FNC8 cleaners.

Service is key

Although Sperre AS’s products are renowned for reliability, the partnership between Sperre and AKVA group will give customers peace of mind that access to spare parts and expertise is not far off. AKVA group’s service bases and staff will also be available for Sperre AS’s ROV customers so that they have access to local and thus faster service for products. Uptime is essential for users of equipment for services, and this partnership ensures that both companies will contribute to customers experiencing better service for their products.



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45 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


THEAutonomous BOSS

Trimara Services UK is looking forward to introducing the AutoBoss net cleaner to customers in Scotland this month. Commissioning and training have taken place for the machine, recently arrived in the Highlands.

net-cleaning by Kerry Hawthorn, Trimara Services UK Ltd


he AutoBoss is a New Zealand-manufactured robotic net washer that delivers reliable, automated, low-cost net washing options for fish farmers around the world. After more than four years of research and field development, AutoBoss units are active in New Zealand and across North America. “Following very successful inroads into the Canadian and US markets we are now excited to be launching in Europe”, says Stewart Hawthorn, Director, Trimara Services. The ‘Boss’ concept stands apart from current net washing approaches by its focus on efficiency and automation. Completely self-contained and weighing just 990kg, everything needed for optimum cleaning power is enclosed within the pontoon. Hydraulically-driven thrusters hold the unit onto the nets, so the only job of the high-pressure water pump is to deliver the cleaning power of a much larger machine. The small diesel engine uses just 12 litres of fuel per hour – a huge saving for farmers. Unlike ROV technologies the AutoBoss does not require an operator to guide the net washing activity. The Boss takes care of that activity herself, leaving the operator free to focus on net set-up, machine care and performance monitoring. This approach reduces labour and ensures a consistent result every time. Trimara Services opened its Canadian operations in 2016 to support its North American customers and then opened in Scotland a year later, building on the success in British Columbia, Washington, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Maine. With companies moving away from coating and off-site washing, and with an increased understanding of the effects of net biofouling, a cost-effective, consistent net washer is a must for aquaculture companies. “Net washing can be a boring business, and very challenging. High-pressure water systems and the marine environment itself can complicate an essential farm job,” Stewart explains. “The AutoBoss has been designed to address these issues. She is a simple-to-operate, reliable machine that gets this crucial job done.”

Wholly independent

The Boss is not an ROV and virtually anyone can operate her after some basic training. After all, the farmer’s job is not to run the machine, the Boss runs herself. The whole unit travels to the pen. No dedicated vessel is needed as the Boss is a compact, fully self-contained robot. Once dropped in the pen, she walks herself along the net surface with specially designed fingers as her washing head moves up and down the net below. An on-board programmable PLC offers different washing modes chosen by the farmer to ensure that cleaning power is focused where it is most needed. “Trimara calls this ‘right-

sized cleaning,’” says Stewart. The objective of Trimara Services is to ensure that there is tremendous pre- and post-sale support. “We offer a comprehensive commissioning and training process for operators and local mechanics and this approach has been a proven success. All our companies are repeat customers”, says Stewart. “We find when a company buys one unit, they end up buying more, and they find operating a tandem Boss solution engenders further cost savings.”

Ensuring customer satisfaction

Trimara has recently hired Jamie Clark, a Scottish-based Product Support Engineer, for its European operations. He joins Trimara’s existing product support rep for North America. “Our goal is to bring any new operator or mechanic from novice to expert. We travel to the customer whenever needed and are on call 24/7 to answer any questions operators or local mechanics might have,” says Jamie. Training on the machine takes place in the workshop, in the classroom, and on the water. Once farming staff have completed their initial training week, Trimara will certify them as competent AutoBoss operators and mechanics. Trimara also offers a dedicated service package and holds a substantial local inventory of spare parts ensuring that the Boss is always ready to work. The Trimara backing does not end there. Also included in the post-sales support package are follow-up site visits, a performance-monitoring programme and the 24/7 advice service. “After 30 years in the aquaculture industry my personal goal is to deliver a machine that never ends up in the mechanical graveyard at the back of the workshop,” says Stewart. “I want to offer a support package that surprises the customer, anticipates their needs and exceeds their expectations. Reliable, automated low-cost solutions – every time.

46 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed



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47 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


By 2050, the global population is expected to reach 9.7 billion, posing a tremendous challenge on adequate nutrition and food security and safety for all inhabitants.

Fish farms opt for robotic net cleaning to replace traditional onshore cleaning by Monique van Deursen, Yanmar, Japan


ish has become a most important source of nutrition and is increasingly supplied by aquaculture. The success and breeding quality in cage farming is highly influenced by the rearing conditions. So how does robotic net cleaning contribute to fresh clean water, the production of tonnes of healthy fish, and an easy operation? Growth of aquaculture needed in order to keep up with increasing global fish consumption Fisheries and aquaculture remain vital sources of food, nutrition, income and livelihoods for hundreds of millions of people around the world. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 50 percent of fish production will be from aquaculture in 2021, which makes aquaculture the fastest growing food sector right now. An indispensable factor for the quality and success of bred fish species as opposed to wild caught fish is the condition of the cage nets used in captive breeding. Nets submerged in seawater easily acquire a coating of algae, molluscs, fish food, fish secretions, and other biofoulings. The results of fouling can be disastrous for the production of fish. First of all, there is an increasing risk of disease or even death of fish because fresh seawater and oxygen cannot flow freely in and out of the nets. Fouled nets are also more prone to damage and tearing, causing fish to escape and expensive repairs to the nets. Furthermore, due to biofouling the nets become heavy, causing an extra load to the service vessel and its anchoring system.

weight to the nets and prevent damage and sinking of farming nets to the ocean floor.

In-situ or onshore net cleaning?

Biofouling is the major reason why nets require periodic cleaning. With older technology this was achieved by removing and replacing the nets from the cage for onshore cleaning, which is a cost incurring and labour-intensive process. These setbacks have been overcome by the introduction of newer technology developed by Yanmar: the submergible, remote net cleaner. This cleaner is a net cleaning robot that cleans fish farming

Clean nets for healthy fish

Healthy fish breeding is inextricably linked to clean nets. The cleaner the nets, the better the condition and yields of fish. Efficient net cleaning removes biofouling organisms and prevents the proliferation of parasites on the nets, so that the use of antifouling chemicals and medicinal products for fish can be reduced. This means healthier fish, ensuring healthier nutrition. Similarly, the cages require less cleaning agents. Net cleaning also removes adhering shellfish, a common cause of harm to farmed fish. Another problem related to aquaculture is that not enough clean seawater is allowed to flow through the nets, causing a drop in oxygen levels inside the cages, which can halt fish growth, increase diseases and mortality rates. Clean nets allow fresh seawater to flow abundantly through the cages. Finally, efficient cleaning prevents biofouling to add excess

nets underwater in situ, and is operated by only one person, who does not have to go into the water, but remains on the vessel. This unique technology is environmentally friendly, saves cleaning and labour costs, promotes farmed fish growth, and contributes to quality improvements in cultured aquatic products. Cleaning can be performed whenever it is needed without much effort or costs.

Yanmar’s NCL-LX in-situ net cleaning robot

The Yanmar NCL-LX is an underwater net cleaner with an independent power supply. The guidance mechanism includes a

48 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


high-pressure pump unit and is located on the service vessel, while the robot itself is placed in the water. The robot is guided and operated by operating the joysticks on the remotecontrol box. The NCLX has a wide cleaning width of 1910mm for use in large cages and travels fast, thus ensuring a top cleaning speed which is approximately four times higher than that of conventional models. With a maximum travel speed of 21m/min and a cleaning speed of 2,200m2/h, large fish farming nets are cleaned in a shorter period of time. Crawler belts work in combination with wheels, thus riding over both vertical and horizontal lines and other irregularities of the aquaculture net with ease. Furthermore, the net cleaner is equipped with a propeller drive system that utilises nozzle reaction force and generates strong thrust, thus running stably at high speeds. The cleaning robot sticks to the net by neutral buoyancy; the reaction against the water jet pressure rotates the propeller and keeps the submergible cleaner on the net. Two CCD cameras with super-wide-angle lenses are mounted on the front and rear sides (one on each side), thus making it possible to confirm the cleaning range on a 24-inch monitor screen and ensuring ease of use with excellent visibility.


Customer satisfaction

The Yanmar net cleaner is earning its spurs out in the waters, for example at Leco Marine Ltd, a service company providing commercial diving and net cleaning services to the aquaculture industry. Leco Marine is using the Yanmar NCL-LX and has reached a very special milestone: they have operated the Yanmar net cleaner for one full year without unintended maintenance stops. This offers them a huge advantage in the market. “Our customers expect 100% clean nets delivered fast and securely. They are very pleased with our work and have confidence in us being able to carry out their net cleaning schedule as planned with minimal (none so far) downtime”, says David Skea, owner and managing director of Leco Marine Ltd. “1,400 operating hours under rough conditions without interruptions says it all, really!”

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Robotic net cleaning with the Yanmar NCL-LX

A number of notable features on this product can be seen below: Excellent current handling. A good location has good throughput of water and nutrients. The Yanmar net cleaner handles current well and will cause little or no downtime to finish the job as scheduled, even under tough conditions;

49 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed


Many net cleaners can work in tight nets, but only the toughest tackle difficult slack nets properly. Large contact surface with the net and a simple but genius concept for pressure against the net ensures great results; The Yanmar NCL-LX’s fuel consumption can be as low as 14 litres per hour (14 to 18 l/h in normal use), providing large annual savings. The average consumption of other cleaners is around 50-100 l/h; A very low cleaning pressure of 90-150 bar (150 only in cases of extreme fouling) due to a high-water flow, ensures large contact surface with the net, and a soft rubber belt without sharp edges safeguards the net from wear and tear; The net cleaner makes its way all around the net ensuring completely clean nets. It removes mussels, heavy fouling and cleans even the top of the net; The Yanmar NCL-LX has a proven track record and optimised technology. Minimal need for maintenance provides low operating costs and little or no downtime.

Yanmar net cleaner at Leco Marine

Based in Scotland, Leco Marine Ltd is a service company providing commercial diving and underwater maintenance services to the aquaculture industry. Leco Marine has been using the Yanmar NCL-LX for one year in the breeding farm cages of Grieg Seafood Shetlands, which operates in Shetland and the Isle of Skye. The operation in Shetland has an estimated annual production capacity of around 22,000 tonnes gutted weight. Leco Marine managing director David Skea was already working with a competitor’s net cleaner, but had close contacts with Østerbø, Yanmar’s net cleaner distributor for Norway, Scotland and the Shetlands, who was very enthusiastic about its performance. They agreed that Østerbø would perform a demo with the Yanmar Net Cleaner NCLLX so that David could experience the net cleaning robot himself. When the unit arrived, David was a bit surprised. “It is quite a large unit when compared to my other net cleaner and I was not sure if it would even stick to the net, let alone drive around the cage and clean it.” Once the Yanmar Net Cleaner was under water and started cleaning, David’s doubts quickly dissipated. “The cleaning robot comes with rollers on both the front and back and copes well with difficult or slack nets. It cleans very well in troublesome situations and also has a lower fuel consumption rate than many of the alternative cleaners. We have trialled the cleaner for a whole month and were very impressed with its performance. We decided to purchase a unit. And although it is quite an investment for a relatively small company like Leco Marine, we are convinced the Yanmar NCL-LX will increase our cleaning potential and be a valuable addition to the service we offer to our customers,” says David Skea.

50 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

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TECHNOLOGY SHO Top aquaculture technology AQUA 2018 TECHNOLOGY At AQUA 2018 in Montpellier, France, our team managed to have a nosy at the latest technological innovations and machinery in the aquaculture industry. From drumfilters to bioreactors, the latest in aquaculture technology is here. Clewer’s latest in rotating bed biofilm reactor technology (RBBR) was revealed, alongside the latest in Trome filtration technology. With these new and improved models, the future of the industry is looking especially bright, as you can wave goodbye to manual, invasive machinery and say hello to the latest in automated, innovative software that does all the work for you.

PBR-1250L Industry Reactor Industrial Plankton Inc recently launched a turnkey algae production reactor. This automated algae production unit automatically stirs and adds nutrients and water to algae started culture, as well as controlling the pH and temperature as it automatically scales up over the course of 7-10 days. The PBR-1250L Industry reactor is small, at only 5’x5’x7’, so is easy to fit into buildings through a standard doubledoor and can be set up in four hours. The unit can also be operated to harvest in three modes; continuous, semi-continuous or batch mode.

Clewer Bioreactor Clewer’s patented rotating bed biofilm reactor (RBBR) technology is the foundation of their bioreactors, as shown here. The bioreactors operating principle is the utilisation of centrifugal forces in biofilm growing. With an innovative system of wastewater treatment, the innovative rotation technology ensures an effective biological treatment process. The blending of Clewer special bacteria and nutrient technology for bacteria forms a highly efficient treatment system. This low-maintenance machine has a great oxygen transfer efficiency and a treatment area of up to 90 percent fill.

Taiwan Soon Strong Extruder A popular commercial machine in Indonesia and Vietnam, the Taiwan Soon Strong Extruder produces small feed, ideal for various small fish and shrimp larvae. With 0.5mm-0.8mm dies, this extruder can produce feed without blockages in a minimal time frame. The Taiwan Soon Strong Extruder is suitable for various products, ranging from pet food, poultry feeds and aqua feed. The extrusion parts are precision cast with hard-wearing alloy steel, ensuring durability, as well as being compatible with most other mainstream products.



Faivre 80 Series Filter This Faivre drum filter has a flow rate of up to 485 3/h at 100 microns, ensuring optimal circulation with an 80 centimeter diameter drum. The filtration settings can range from 26 to 500 microns, with the filter frames being made of AISI 304L, 316L and Duplex stainless steel. The simple design and robust construction also come with an optional pipe inlet, or a version is available with a PEHD tank, specialised for warm sea water.

Trome Drumfilter TM1 The Trome drumfilter TM1 is specialised for smaller recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and serves as an efficient drumfilter that can be used in both freshwater and seawater environments. Made up of HDPE casing, filter drum, water tray and polypropylene spray nozzles, alongside nylon mesh, the TM1 is a cost-effective and professional way of ensuring your water is free of solids and undesirables. With a 238 mm diameter drum, the standard flow rate of water is a steady 5-7.5 m3/h. A 0.18kW motor ensures that the Trome works quickly and efficiently.

9.30 AM

A one day short course for aquafeed processing professionals 11th of September 2018 - Taking part as part of SPACE, Rennes, France

10.00 AM

Introduction and Principles of Extrusion Technology Dr. Mian Riaz, Texas A&M University, USA

11.00 AM

Current up‐Date on Aqua Feed Globally Roger Gilbert Editor International Aqua Feed Magazine, UK

11.30 AM

Coffee Break

11.45 AM

Raw Material Properties for Aqua Feed Extrusion Dr. Mian Riaz, Texas A&M University, USA

12.30 PM

Grinding of Raw Material for the Aqua Feed Arthur vom Hofe CPM‐Europe B.V.

1:30 PM

Lunch Break

2.30 PM

Optimization of Aqua Feed Quality Nicola Tallarico Kemin, Belgium

3.15 PM

4.00 PM

4.15 PM

For more information visit:

Extruded Aqua feed quality management; Relations between technology and extruded aqua feed quality Thomas Ellegaard Mohr, ANDRITZ Feed & Biofuel‐ Europe Coffee Break Making floating and Sinking Feed with Twin Screw Extrusion Technology Alain Brisset, Clextral‐ France

5.00 PM

NIR analyzer for ingredient and raw material Per Lidén Perten Instruments Ab ‐Sweedon

5.45. PM

Q/A session and Certificate Distribution

Sponsored by

In association with:

Registration and Welcome Tuti Tan – International Aqua Feed Magazine


Industry Events Events listing SEPTEMBER

11 – 12/09/18 - Aquaculture Innovation Summit 2018 UK WEB: http://aquaculture-innovation. com 11 – 14/09/18 - SPACE France WEB: welcome.aspx 17 – 19/09/18 - VIV China 2018 China WEB: 19-20/09/18 - Algae Tech Conference Germany WEB: www.algaetech-conference. com 26 – 27/09/18 - New Zealand Aquaculture Conference New Zealand WEB: conference 30/09/18 – 2/10/18 - IAOM SEA Philippines WEB:


1 – 4/10/18 - Aqua’SG 18 Singapore WEB: 3 – 5/10/18 - Biomin Nutrition Forum South Africa WEB: 3 – 5/10/18 - Food Ingredients Asia Indonesia WEB: 17 – 18/10/18 - 34th National Shellfish and Marine Culture Show France WEB: 17 – 19/10/18 - Offshore Mariculture Europe Greece WEB: 17 – 19/10/18 - Vietstock 2018 Vietnam WEB: 23 – 26/10/18 - Latin America & Caribbean Aquaculture 2018 Colombia WEB:


6 – 8/11/18 - Seawork Asia 2018 China WEB: 7 – 9/11/18 - AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conference USA WEB: 13 – 16/11/18 - Eurotier Germany WEB: 21/11/18 - Sturgeon International Conference Poland WEB: http://sturgeoninternational. com/o-konferencji

Vietstock 2018 is coming back bigger, better and busier Vietstock 2018 Expo & Forum, and its co-located events Vietfeed, Vietmeat and Aquaculture Vietnam, are returning to Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, from October 17-19 2018, bringing the whole value chains, from production, processing and packaging, livestock, aquaculture and meat industries together. Since its debut in 2004, the biennial expo continues to advance to meet the needs of its attendees and exhibitors. In 2018, the show will cover two halls and main lobby areas of the Saigon Exhibition and Convention Centre to accommodate the increased number of exhibitors, up to 350 local and international companies, as well as to take in more networking opportunities and engaging events on the show floor. Ms Rungphech Chitanuwat, Business Director of UBM Asia, the event organiser said, “in an increasingly digital world people still want face-to-face interaction, and exhibitions are the best way to communicate and deliver clear messages, expand networks and develop business partnerships. You can talk to the people that really matter, contact new clients and cement the loyalty of your existing customers in a relaxed, but professional, business environment. It’s a two-way communication with right decision-makers, and that’s why it’s so effective.” The current Vietnam poultry and pig industries are suffering severely, due to small-scale production, high feed cost and the pork price decrease. The whole industry is therefore putting increased effort into streamlining production and distribution, establishing effective supply systems, alongside increasing value for livestock and meat products for new exporting markets. These initiatives have led to positive results for pig production recently with pork prices rebounded from VND 20,000kg in December 2017 to around VND 48,000kg in August 2018. According to CP Vietnam, the largest pig producer in the country, it is expected that pig prices continues to increase and the pig-farming industry is going to recover in the remainder of the year. In light of these facts, Vietstock 2018 has been designed to be not only an exhibition showcasing innovative products and equipment but also a professional forum for bringing the industry together and discussing solutions to help the livestock farmers overcome their obstacles.

For more industry event information - visit our events register

High energy focus for Offshore Mariculture Conference The High Energy Mariculture Europe (HEM), the European edition of the long running Offshore Mariculture Conference, has released the 2018 programme which will focus on all aspects of operating in high energy waters. Dr Beyhan de Jong, Associate Analyst of Animal Protein at RaboResearch Food & Agribusiness, will welcome delegates to the conference during the first keynote address which will cover the factors of change in the global aquaculture industry. Langley Gace, CEO of InnovaSea Systems Inc and Aquaculture veteran will follow to discuss the history and future of High Energy Open Ocean Aquaculture. Day one conference sessions will give insight into ‘technology for high energy operations’, ‘improving product value through marketing, certification and awards’, and ‘taking an in-depth look at successful High Energy operations’ via case studies and discussions. Expert speakers include Kostas Sefereis, Business Development Manager of AquaManager, who will discuss the future of aquaculture production management, and Mike Berthet, Market Development Manager EU, who will discuss the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) Certification. Marianne Rasmussen-Coulling, the events director of Mercator Media, organiser of HEM 2018 added, “We are pleased to have so many expert speakers at this year’s conference. Our speakers are industry-leading experts and will provide delegates with detailed, in-depth analyses and explanations of topics.” This three-day international technical conference consists of two days of presentations with a technical visit to an operating farm on day three. 54 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 18

Aquaculture for Peace October 23 - 26, 2018 Bogotรก, Colombia ร gora Bogotรก Convention center

For more info on the CONFERENCE: For info on TRADESHOW & SPONSORSHIP:

The annual meeting of Hosted by

Industry Events


by Vaughn Entwistle, Features Editor, International Aquafeed

he 2018 Aqua show took place on August 25-28, 2018 in Montpellier, France. Organized by the World Aquaculture Society (WAS) and the European Aquaculture Society (EAS), this world-class conference is held only every six years. Past events were held in Nice (2000) and Prague (2012). Hosting exhibitors from over 60 countries, 2018 Aqua was one of the largest aquaculture conferences in the world. Moreover, this year’s conference proved to be one of the most successful, with record attendance! Although the show officially opened at 9:00 am, most days saw attendees thronging the booths as early at 8:00 am— before anyone had even had a chance to bolt down a chocolate croissant and a coffee. And even though the show ran until 6:00 pm on Sunday and 5:00 pm on Monday, each evening people were still doing business long after the show’s official closing time. Our Perendale booth was besieged with visitors (both old friends and new friends) for all four days from opening until close. Perendale editors were likewise fully engaged, visiting dozens of exhibitor booths and giving away hundreds of copies of the latest issues of International Aquafeed. The event was held in Le Corum conference centre and Berlioz Opera House, a vast complex located at the heart of Montpellier. The actual show was spread over three levels of the building, so visitors spent a lot of time riding up and down the escalators to visit a total of 180 booths. 2018 Aqua was 56 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

predominantly a feed show, with the big names such as BioMar, Skretting, Biomin, Aller Aqua, Alltech Coppens as well as many smaller companies. But there were also plenty of technology on display, with impressive booths hosted by Brabender, Faivre, Fox RAS systems, Fish Feeder Technology, and a large cadre of fish health and fish genetics companies. A popular theme seemed to be UV water disinfection systems. You could see these stands from a distance by the eerie blue glow of their lighting tubes. But people didn’t just come to gawp, the folks we talked to manning the stands reported doing terrific business. Many claimed that it was one of the best shows they’d attended in a long while. Perhaps this is not surprising given the increasingly optimistic growth projections for aquaculture. And of course, because the show took place in France, this meant plenty of opportunities for gourmandizing. The French aquaculture equipment manufacturer Faivre, renowned for its high quality products, celebrated its 60th birthday by throwing a birthday bash complete with jazz band. Meanwhile, the hot ticket of the night belonged to BioMar, who outdid everyone by bussing employees and their guests to the Château de la Mogère. Here, guests mingled in the formal gardens while sipping champagne and grazing on hors d’oeuvres. When the sun finally sank behind the cypresses and a covey of bats flitted overhead, everyone took their places at the dining tables arranged on the terrace for a sumptuous three-


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International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 57

Industry Events

course meal beneath the starry French skies. I was there. It was amazing. Merci beaucoup, BioMar. The final day of the conference was equally impressive. In contrast to most trade shows, where many people pack up their booths and make an early escape to drive and catch planes for home, Wednesday was just as busy as any other day. The one difference, however, was that the show finished on time as attendees were bussed to the nearby Château de Flaugergues/ Incredibly, this giant event was attended by many of the exhibitors and attendees alike, a whopping 2,800 people, who milled about the Chateau’s formal gardens, vinyards, and courtyards, while sipping the winery’s own red and white vino and munching on an amazing variety of fine French foods from cheese to desserts.. Thank you WAS (World Aquaculture Society) and European Aquaculture Society (EAS) for a night to remember and an aquaculture show that was one-of-a-kind. At the final reckoning, Aqua 2018 broke the records with 3003 participants from 109 countries, making it a truly global event! The next Aquaculture Europe show is scheduled for Berlin, October 7-10, 2019.






Trade show booths


Oral Sessions Oral presentations Poster sections Poster presentations Industry sessions

Pre and post event tour participants

81 800 17 317 10 126

58 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800


Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355

VAV +31 71 4023701

GMP+ International +31703074120

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41

JEFO +1 450 799 2000

Colour sorters A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Satake +81 82 420 8560

Computer software

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666

Adifo NV +32 50 303 211

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081

Andritz +45 72 160300

Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Brabender +49 203 7788 0

Coolers & driers Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 Muyang Group +86 514 87848880 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40

60 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 IDAH +866 39 902701 Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 APC +34 938 615 060 Jefo +1 450 799 2000 SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website:

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Used around all industrial sectors.

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580

Visit us!

Andritz +45 72 160300 Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880

Moisture analysers

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699

Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 Seedburo +1 312 738 3700

Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21

Biomin +43 2782 803 0


Agromatic +41 55 2562100

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550

Probiotics NIR-Online +49 6227 732668

Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102




Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www.

Level measurement

Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Pipe systems

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Tornum AB +46 512 29100

Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00

Hatchery products

CB Packaging +44 7805 092067

Muyang +86 514 87848880

Pellet binders

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550

NIR systems

Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40

Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555


Lallemand + 33 562 745 555

Research Imaqua +32 92 64 73 38

Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50

Second hand equipment Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054

International Aquafeed - September 2018 | 61

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00

the interview Christophe Pelletier, Food Strategist/Consultant BC Christophe Pelletier is a global food & agriculture strategist and futurist whose consulting company helps organisations anticipate, adapt, and thrive. He is the author of two books: Future Harvests and We Will Reap What We Sow. Both tackle the major issues impacting the future of food and farming. In addition, Pelletier also writes a popular blog: The Food Futurist -

Water is a vital resource which is increasingly threatened. How should governments respond?

There are huge differences between regions. For instance, China and Canada have about the same amount of available water, but China has 1.5 billion inhabitants and Canada 35 million. However, Mother Nature seems to try to reconcile us all by causing similar problems everywhere. It is the second year in a row that wildfires burn not far from my home and with plenty of smoke to breath, and with this dry climate my garden and vineyard suffer. It is an interesting way to experience nature first hand. In my opinion, the first response is to tackle waste. Just like food, a huge amount of water is wasted and a part of it is wasted through the waste of water-rich produced in the fields or post-harvest. In We Will Reap What We Sow, I mention that before the Great Depression of 10 years ago, in the USA lawns received more water than corn or a yearly basis. If water gets scarce, where would we use it: for food or for vanity? Since money talks, my second response should be to make non-essential water quite expensive. People may not like it but it is a matter of time before it happens. There are other ways to landscape a front yard than with lawn. There are also better ways to reduce water usage in bathrooms. This is a big problem and difficult to solve. It will require a global approach and considering the current state of affairs on climate change agreements and in the global relationships, future prospects do not make me burst of optimism.

Can you tell us a bit about your time as the Director of a Canadian salmon farm? It was in a bit of trouble before you came on board, how did you fix it up?

I guess the quick answer is: by changing everything. The harvesting planning was adverse, as about three quarters of the volumes were harvested at a traditionally depressed market timing, as the Pacific Northwest market would be more focused on buying wild salmon at that particular period of summer. By shifting the harvesting planning in times where there is no fresh wild salmon on the market, we changed from (poor) market takers to market makers. Another important part of our new marketing strategy was to focus on Pacific Salmon instead of Atlantic salmon to have a specialty very much appreciated on the West Coast, and to grow it with our customers, according to their needs. We managed a 180 degree turn from production driven (painfully selling at distressed prices what had been produced) to market driven (producing what was already sold or sellable at positive margins). Margin was more important than volume. Our fish became an exclusive product that buyers were willing to pay at a very good price, because it was helping

their business to grow, thanks to all of the above. Next to that, I added and implemented a professional sales organization, quality control and processing cost reduction. I also shifted performance objectives to a margin-driven decision making. It was not about costs or prices alone or the one versus the other. It was about moving margin up, all together. When change deliver better results, there is better support within the organization. To put it simply, if a new product or a change in production systems generated more margin, it was good change. If it hurt the margin, it was a bad change and we forgot about it. Not only was success quick to materialize, but the Canadian salmon farming unit that were last in class ended up generating the highest margin per kg of all units worldwide. I had had similar experiences and activities previously in the pig and poultry businesses before, as well as with our Chilean salmon farming unit. I kind of knew what I was doing.

Should governments be legislating changes in food production, or is it better left to the marketplace/ producers?

Earlier, I mentioned that I hoped for more collaboration and altruism. This is an example of it. Governments should govern. Some do. Some a bit less. Sometimes, governments seem more preoccupied with ongoing campaigning than governing, and that is not good. Opposite to that, businesses should run their businesses, but in a number of occurrences they seem as much preoccupied with being involved in governing. My opinion is that producing better food and, at least as importantly, better nutrition is everybody’s responsibility: governments, businesses, non-profits, producers, consumers, children, parents, teachers, you name it. Why is it important? For a simple reason: a society of unhealthy people will inevitably decline, and the social cost to society is a heavy financial burden that weakens society and its members. A prosperous society that wants a future takes good care of its members.

Do you believe that some leaders are perhaps not focussing on issues threatening the food supply? What can the industry do to combat this?

I don’t think that for many it is a deliberate choice. I think that they probably do not even realise what they neglect. A few governments and businesses do indeed choose to do nothing, but they are a minority et we know who they are as they boast about it. Most just take a prudent (probably too prudent) approach and we lose precious time. Then there is the third group of those who are ahead and deliberately choose to change their ways, but unfortunately, they are a minority and do not have enough traction yet.

62 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES New Production Editor at International Aquafeed


ebecca Sherratt has joined the team here at International Aquafeed, as a graduate in English Literature from the University of Sheffield.

‘’I am thrilled to be joining the Perendale team, and to help contribute towards the future success of Aquafeed magazine. I have always had a passion for all things nautical, spending my summers crabbing and exploring the rockpools at Lyme Regis for all manner of aquatic wonders.

Rebecca Sherratt

I eagerly await putting my graduate skills to the test, to help raise awareness of an industry that is so crucial for maintaining our planet and ecosystem.’’

François Cellier and Khuong Duy Nguyen join Lallemand French and Vietnamese nutrition teams François Cellier

F François Cellier

rançois Cellier, who will be joining the French branch of Lallemand, holds a MEA in aquaculture from Intechmer in Montpellier. He has also previously obtained a professional license in aquaculture technics and farm management. He has extensive experience in testing technologies and aquaculture production across species including shrimps, fish and shellfish in Asia, Europe and Oceania. He will provide marketing and technical support on global tropical aquaculture.

Khuong Duy Nguyen

Khuong Duy Nguyen

Khuong Duy Nguyen, who will take up the parallel role in Vietnam, holds a master’s degree in aquaculture majoring in aquaculture health management from the Laboratory for Aquaculture and Artemia Reference Center at Ghent University, having also studied aquatic pathobiology at Can Tho University in Vietnam. He will oversee shrimp development trials and research and contribute to developing the Lallemand Animal Nutrition aquaculture business in Vietnam.

Europharma team boosted by new Key Account Manager


ampbell Morrison has been appointed as key account manager for UK based Europharma.

His role will see him build customer engagement and showcase fish health solutions.

Campbell Morrison

He commented, “I’m delighted to join the Europharma team, to continue my close working relationship with Scotland’s aquaculture industry. The high esteem that Scotland’s food and drink sector, particularly salmon, is held in, highlights that it is as important than ever that companies such as Europharma continue to push the boundaries in terms of providing proactive fish health and welfare services.

KnipBio Welcomes Russ Heissner as Senior VicePresident of Business Development & Operations


nipBio Inc, a biotechnology company developing sustainable aquafeed ingredients, announced that Russ Heissner has joined the company’s management team as Senior Vice-President of Business Development & Operations.

Russ Heissner

Russ has a distinguished career in industrial fermentation technologies and products. In 2004, he joined an industrial biotechnology company which became Verenium Corporation, where he played a key role in the development of the company’s cellulosic ethanol transportation fuel technology. Russ Heissner stated, “I am joining the KnipBio team at an exciting time. With our recent production successes, we are entering a new phase of our commercialisation plan that focuses on strategic partnerships. I look forward to working with world-class aquaculture companies to make KnipBio a success.”

64 | September 2018 - International Aquafeed













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