AUG 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine

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International Aquafeed - Volume 21 - Issue 08 - August 2018

Marrying industry-leading cameras to an innovative aquaculture software

- Aquaculture: Facing up to the challenges from consumers and technology - Committed to vegetable ingredients for the aquafeed industry - Technology: Fish counters - Aqua feeds: Extruded vs. pelleted - Expert topic - Blue mussel Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

August 2018

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Croeso - welcome

continuing impressive growth in the supply of write this editorial from Birmingham, fish for human consumption. It is imperative England, the UK’s second largest city that to meet a growing population we will need and centred in the midlands of England to examine our seafood supply chain carefully as far from the seashore as can be! and fish and shrimp farming will be a major I often commute from the SW in factor in that endeavour. Plymouth to this region and where I Turning to nutrition developments, I am have many invaluable contacts. On my recent pleased to see considerable progression in the travels I have been in Galway, Ireland where I quest for sustainable protein and oil sources am conducting research trials and collaborating Professor Simon Davies for fish with much innovation in the algal with Irish salmon producers. It has been a Editor, International Aquafeed and microbial biomass production arena. fascinating year and I am pleased to say that Major investments are being made to ‘scale I have finally clocked 32 years full time as a up’ such activities and this will be important University based academic with 10 years this if any serious impact can be made to offset the use of traditional feed September as a Professor with a personal chair in aquatic animal nutrition. ingredient sources on land and from the oceans. There is still much With over 35 PhD students directly supervised, over 350 Masters’ fascination with yeasts and derived fractionated products with evidence Students mentored, and I guess well over 20,000 undergraduate students for enhancement of fish health in a number of studies. I have cautioned lectured in various ways, you might expect me to put my tools down! previously regarding the issue of over-stimulation of the teleost immune In fact, one of my most ‘caring’ acquaintances was very keen once system leading to macrophage fatigue of the innate immune mechanism to suggest back in 2014 during a period of turbulence that my major and taxing the delicate balance of the acquired immune response at the gut task should be to edit this magazine as a primary role and accept early and integument/mucosal interface level. retirement at 58? Quite thoughtful of this person who now faces the Careful consideration of ‘pulse dosing’ or intermittent usage may be stressful type of tasks that I once endured at a much younger age, so I better that so called ‘lifestyle’ use of immune-stimulants and constant count myself very lucky to have survived the academic life this far, but presentation of prebiotic and probiotic applications in commercial feeds. now is the time to look ahead with optimism and hope. As the old adage states, ‘too much of a good thing might be bad?’ Too It was a good thing that Harper Adams came along in 2015 and invested many of the studies also fail to confirm whether the gene ‘up or down’ in my capacity to continue and help me reach this impressive milestone regulation actually translates into an effective functional protein that can in my career. Indeed, the late and great ‘father of fish nutrition’ Professor be measured for activity in the complex immune cascade of fish. John Halver passed away at 90 still actively busy with scientific research Another area of interest is the development of mycotoxin inhibitors that and attending conferences with his wit and charm intact to the end. I are a speciality niche market. I am presently interested in the potential of have absolutely no intension of quitting, but instead to evolve into a very much cheaper ‘earth’ derived materials that have considerable properties to different and even more productive working lifestyle with even more mitigate against the deleterious effects of these compounds through their ‘gusto’. unique physico-chemical characteristics now being tested in vitro and in Indeed, 2018 has been one of my best years for scientific papers with vivo. There is great opportunity for applications of such new technologies five netted already and many more to write based on a legacy of research in aquafeeds. and continued supervision of nutrition and feeding trials. Papers in your Many of you will be reading this editorial at the World Aquaculture filing cabinet are like wine in the cellar. They can actually get much better Society meeting in Montpellier at the end of this month and I too will be with age and make a fine impression in the right journal even years later. in attendance so look around and catch me for a chat! Our International I am inspired by the fact aquaculture is a rising industry and ripe for Aquafeed team will be there and our stand exhibit of course as usual, more investment and growth at an unprecedented level. A recent report will be well occupied. The meeting will attract much interest and will shows that global fish production peaked at about 171 million tonnes be a unique opportunity and ideal setting near the Mediterranean for in 2016, with aquaculture representing 47 percent of the total and 53 networking, meetings, workshops, exhibits and scientific talks in this percent, if non-food uses (including reduction to fishmeal and fish oil) are beautiful city in the South of France. Have a great time and enjoy this excluded. Although capture fishery production has remained relatively great occasion! static since the late 1980s, aquaculture has been responsible for the



INGREDIENTS: Committed to vegetable ingredients for the aquafeed industry- page 30

CAMERA SYSTEMS: Marrying industryleading cameras to an innovative aquaculture software - page 44



AQUA FEEDS: : Extruded aqua feeds vs pelleted aqua feeds - page 36

EXPERT TOPIC: Blue mussel- page 38 Mussels are the generic name for bivalve molluscs found in fresh water and salt-water habitats. They can tolerate living in a wide variety of microhabitats, everything from tidal areas to fully submerged zones, and can thrive in a wide range of water temperatures and salinities.

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies

August 2018 Volume 21 Issue 08



International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson Vaughn Entwistle Matt Holmes Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 New Zealand Marketing Team Peter Parker Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy


Industry News

30 Expert Topic - Blue Mussel 52 Technology showcase 54 Industry Events 60 The Market Place 62 The Aquafeed Interview 64

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 6 Ioannis Zabetakis 10 Dr Neil Auchterlonie

©Copyright 2018 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service

12 Sven-Olof Malmqvist 14 Thierry Chopin

FEATURES 18 Aquaculture: Facing up to the challenges from consumers and technology 22 Nutritional values of different feed phosphates in shrimp trials 26 7 insights from Alltech's 7th Global Feed Survey 30 Committed to vegetable ingredients for the aquafeed industry 34 Microalgae for your rotifer cultures 36 Aqua feeds: Extruded vs. pelleted

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 44 The underwater eye: Marrying industry-leading cameras to an innovative aquaculture software

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Expanding R&D capabilities in the hatchery feed sector


ioMar has increased its research capabilities in hatchery with an expansion of its Aquaculture Technology Centre, ATC Hirtshals facility in Denmark. BioMar has now opened a state-ofthe-art marine fish larval trial unit that not only allows for larval rearing but also the production of live feed. BioMar is this year celebrating 15 years of excellence in hatchery feeds as they continue to invest in business growth in new geographical markets and new species. BioMar has recently streamlined their product portfolio and adopted new innovations and functional raw materials in their LARVIVA hatchery range to maximise health and performance. The new research facilities will enable BioMar to continue to drive breakthrough innovation in the hatchery feed segment. The opening of the new hatchery research and development facilities is the second of a three-phased strategic plan for the segment. BioMar announced last year heavy investment in the area including the establishment of a business unit in Nersac, France headed by Chris Dinneweth and the expansion of the fry feed production line in Brande, Denmark expected later in 2019. Ole Christensen, VP of EMEA at BioMar said, “we see significant growth potential in the hatchery feed segment. Our new research facilities will help us continue to evolve our larval feed range while allowing us to respond faster to market and customer needs”. The ATC Hirtshals now houses 24 RAS larval rearing trial units ranging from 50 to100 litres all operating under strict controlled conditions. The new system allows for fine-tuning protocols for larval rearing as well as the production of live feed including Rotifers and Artemia.

BioMar have complete control within the trial units including temperature, salinity, photoperiod and lightintensity allowing for strongly replicated trials and the ability to work on a range of marine species. “The launch of the hatchery trial facility at our ATC Hirtshals is a significant boost to the BioMar Hatchery business unit which will allow us to undertake inhouse marine fish larvae feed trials. We look forward to developing and bringing to the market new and exciting innovations in hatchery feeds”, concluded Ole Christensen.

Geelen Counterflow supplies its 10,000th counterflow system


he company started in 1980 and quickly decided to specialise exclusively in the counterflow cooler as invented by its founder Pierre Geelen. The efficient counterflow heat exchange between product and ambient air proved to be a winner in the feed industry, with more than 30 percent savings in energy consumption, floor-space and investment cost compared to the incumbent horizontal belt coolers. Over the years the company became the global market leader for coolers in feed, petfood, aquafeed and oilseeds, partially by supplying coolers to nearly all of the major producers of pelletmills and extruders worldwide. Since the late 1980’s the company is also building counterflow dryers for food, petfood and aquafeed, using the same superior efficiency provided by the counterflow heat exchange principle. The flagship multideck batch dryer has become the standard for many of the world’s leading producers of extruded petfood and aquafeed, because of its high hygienic standards and fast change-overs between production runs. Dryers typically consume 40-60 percent of an extrusion line’s total energy

consumption, but counterflow dryers consume 20-50 percent less energy than belt dryers. So very significant savings are usually possible. The company produces all of its steel and stainless-steel components in-house, using state-of-the-art laser cutting, bending and welding technology. A workforce of 100 in Haelen, the Netherlands designs and builds coolers and dryers for customers worldwide. A Field Service Team of 15 in Europe, Asia and Latin America supports customers with installation, commissioning, training and service.

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Huvepharma gets European approval for the use of OptiPhos in fish feeds


Ioannis Zabetakis Eat fish and ignore statins!

he regular followers of this op-ed column would remember that there are two school of thoughts in order to fight the Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs). One school of thought believes in the use of statins to reduce plasma cholesterol and the other school of thought, where we belong, puts inflammation rather than cholesterol in the epicentre of our fight against CVDs. Last May, a very interesting paper titled “The Association of Statin Therapy with Incident Diabetes: Evidence, Mechanisms, and Recommendations” was published [1]. The abstract of this paper reads: “Recent studies have demonstrated a higher risk of incident diabetes associated with statin use, causing concern among patients and clinicians. In this review, we will assess the evidence and proposed mechanisms behind statin therapy and its association with incident diabetes. We will then review the current recommendations for statin use in light of this association and suggest next steps for clinicians managing these patients and researchers exploring this phenomenon”. The authors have found that “the annual risk of developing new-onset diabetes with statin treatment is approximately 0.1 percent. In comparison, the absolute risk reduction of major coronary events with statin use is approximately 0.42 percent annually. Statins are associated with the development of incident diabetes, particularly among those with predisposing risk factors for diabetes. However, the benefit of statin use among these patients in preventing major coronary events strongly favours statin use despite its risk of incident diabetes”. Also last May, our group has published a review paper titled “Inflammation, not e:

Cholesterol, Is a Cause of Chronic Disease” where we discuss that since the Seven Countries Study, dietary cholesterol and the levels of serum cholesterol in relation to the development of chronic diseases have been somewhat demonised. However, the principles of the Mediterranean diet and relevant data linked to the examples of people living in the five blue zones demonstrate that the key to longevity and the prevention of chronic disease development is not the reduction of dietary or serum cholesterol but the control of systemic inflammation. In this review, we present all the relevant data that supports the view that it is inflammation induced by several factors, such as platelet-activating factor (PAF), that leads to the onset of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) rather than serum cholesterol. The key to reducing the incidence of CVD is to control the activities of PAF and other inflammatory mediators via diet, exercise, and healthy lifestyle choices [2]. In conclusion, we suggest that regular consumption of food rich in anti-inflammatory compounds, like any fish, should be promoted and the use of statins (with a high risk of on setting diabetes) should be only considered in patients with high cardiovascular risk (that is not necessarily associated with high plasma cholesterol).

Further Reading

The Association of Statin Therapy with Incident Diabetes: Evidence, Mechanisms, and Recommendations article/10.1007%2Fs11886-018-0995-6 Inflammation, not Cholesterol, Is a Cause of Chronic Disease


Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier. 6 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed


ollowing its strategy to be the leading player in the feed enzymes market Huvepharma has now obtained the European registration for use of OptiPhos, the fastest phytase, in fish feeds. Aquaculture and aquafeed are recognised as fastgrowing markets in animal protein production. Together with its growth, different concerns have emerged and discussions over sustainability (reduction of fish meal usage) and environmental impact (phosphorus excretion into the water) of intensive fish farming are now in the spotlight. Aware of the concerns around aquaculture business and having OptiPhos as a leading Phytase, Huvepharma brought the first high efficiency phytase to the aquafeed market. OptiPhos has proven its efficacy in promoting better fish growth and feed conversion under diets with reduced fish meal inclusion and in improving phosphorous utilisation with a significant reduction on phosphorous excretion into the water.

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Late entrepreneur and scientist Dr Pearse Lyons awarded the 2018 Kennedy-Lemass Medal


lltech founder, the late Dr Pearse Lyons has been honoured with the KennedyLemass Medal by the American Chamber of Commerce Ireland. During 4th of July celebrations, Barry O’Sullivan, president of the American Chamber of Commerce announced that the late Irish-American entrepreneur and scientist, Dr Lyons was this year’s recipient of the Kennedy-Lemass Medal. The award honours US leaders of Irish heritage who have helped to strengthen the Irish-US relationship. Speaking about his achievements, Barry O’Sullivan described Dr Lyons as someone who “truly lived the American Dream,” and that, “we will continue to be inspired by the legacy of individuals such as Dr Lyons who had the courage and skills to turn a vision into a reality.” In the late 1970s Dundalk-born Dr Lyons emigrated to the United States, where in his Kentucky garage, he established Alltech with an initial investment of $10,000. Focused on improving animal, crop and human health and performance, Alltech today has a global team of more than 6,000 people. In Ireland, Alltech has its European Bioscience Centre in Dunboyne, Co. Meath, the Pearse Lyons Distillery in the Liberties, Co. Dublin and Stations Works Brewery in Dr Lyons’ hometown of Dundalk, Co. Louth. “My father was passionate about Ireland and the United States and spent his life promoting both countries around the world,” said Dr Mark Lyons, president of Alltech. “He had an extraordinary ability to bring people from all walks of life together to make a difference in the world, this was especially true when it came to cultivating and supporting scientific, ag tech and agricultural endeavours between the US and Ireland.” During his lifetime Dr Lyons was awarded many honours,

Irish-American entrepreneur and scientist the late Dr Pearse Lyons was this year’s recipient of the Kennedy-Lemass Medal. The award honours US leaders of Irish heritage who have helped to strengthen the Irish-US relationship. Pictured with the KennedyLemass Medal was Minister Paschal Donohoe TD; the wife and son of the late Dr Pearse Lyons: Deirdre Lyons and Dr Mark Lyons and Mark Redmond, CEO, American Chamber of Commerce Ireland. Image courtesy of: Conor McCabe Photography

including the Ireland-US Council Award for Outstanding Achievement and the 2017 St. Patrick’s Day Science Medal in recognition of the creation of a global business based on scientific research. Dr Lyons also received the RDS Gold Medal Award for Enterprise for his contribution to Irish business. “Pearse was passionate about his heritage and making a difference in the world,” ,” said Mrs Deirdre Lyons, Alltech co-founder and head of corporate design. He used his boundless philanthropic spirit to inspire those around him. For Pearse and me, making a difference in the world by empowering others has been an everyday reality of our personal and professional lives.”


Marking 32 years in academia rofessor Simon Davies, Editor of International Aquafeed, has marked 32 years in full time higher education. In this time, he has supervised over 35 PhD students, chaired over 30 PhD student examination committees and many masters and undergraduate students gaining a world-wide reputation in fish nutrition and feed technology research. He is now based in Harper Adams University, Shropshire, England having served 29 years previously at Plymouth. He is the author of numerous scientific papers and reports and a member of major international committees and attendance of scientific symposia and meetings globally. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology in 2016 and has been editor- in- chief of International Aquafeed for nearly 10 years. The team at International Aquafeed hope you join them in sending your congratulations and well wishes. 8 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

Centre for Aquaculture Technologies applies for fish sterility patent


Dr Neil Auchterlonie Working hard to secure the quality of feed

n the process of our work IFFO engages with numerous governments and intergovernmental organisations (IGOs). IFFO is fortunate to hold observer status with several of those IGOs, such as the United Nations bodies and networking within these fora provides excellent assistance and support for our work across the many administrations around the globe. At the time of writing, this week saw the 33rd Committee on Fisheries Meeting at the UN Food and Agriculture (FAO) in Rome, and we attended the meeting. The biennial COFI meetings align with the release of the updated State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) reports, and this meeting was no exception. SOFIA 2018 is described as the product of an 18-month period of work and it is easy to see why. It is packed with information outlining the importance of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors in relation to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It will take some time to digest the content of SOFIA 2018 and there will be much to discuss in relation to the outcomes of the report, but that is for another time. The COFI meeting itself ran over five days of the week commencing July 9, 2018, reflecting the wide-ranging work of the Committee, and it is an opportunity for all the member states to report on the progress that has been made against many of the COFI’s Sub-Committees’ workstreams. A highlight for IFFO was the co-hosting and sponsoring of a side-event with the Global aquaculture Alliance (GAA) on the Wednesday lunchtime in the FAO offices. This side-event addressed the importance of sustainable aquaculture development, but with a strong focus on feed. Presentations were provided by Melanie Siggs of the GAA, Dr Niels Alsted (representing FEFAC), Dr Trygve Berg Lea (Skretting), John Connelly (National Fisheries Institute in the US), Rodrigo Roubach of the FAO, and myself representing IFFO. The event was also streamed as a live webinar, and we were fortunate to find the room well-attended. Numerous diverse and interesting questions on sustainable aquaculture were asked from the floor, making for a truly engaging Q&A session. To the fore in the discussion were questions regarding what the supplementation of marine ingredients such as fishmeal and fish oil means in relation to the health, growth and quality of farmed fish. These are important questions of course, and with nutrition being so closely linked to health and physiology in general they are very important to ask. It is clear that the feed companies are working very hard to secure the quality of feed, and thus aquaculture product, for the future, but it is also clear that supplementation of fishmeal and fish oil is not straightforward. What is known is that the micronutrients found in fishmeal, including amino acids, long chain fatty acids, vitamins and minerals are not readily substituted from within other ingredient sources. Substitution itself adds both costs, and also in some instances may precipitate additional regulatory requirements. The constant murmur of “fish-free” in the media is a misrepresentation of the true situation and does not reflect reality where progress shall be made by the supplementation of fishmeal and fish oil rather than its replacement


n July 19, 2018, the Centre for Aquaculture Technologies (CAT), a leading aquaculture R&D company focused on improving productivity, efficiency and sustainability in the aquaculture industry, filed a patent application regarding a method of generating sterile fish, shrimp, or mollusks. This application is the first in a planned family of patents covering tools and methods for making aquatic organisms sterile. Dr John Buchanan, CEO of CAT, commented, “This technology has broad applicability for aquaculture, with the ability to significantly improve productivity in grow-out while providing environmental protection for the industry. Thanks to our dedicated research team led by Dr Xavier Lauth, we plan to soon offer this efficient technology to achieve 100 percent sterility in the animals in an aquaculture production system.” CAT operates in two laboratories, its research hub in San Diego, California, and the world’s only Level 3 certified pathogen containment, private aquaculture wet lab located on Prince Edward Island in Canada. Thanks to the expertise of its team and the unique versatility of its labs, CAT is enabling the aquaculture industry to achieve efficient production growth without endangering the natural environment. CAT is now in active discussions with several potential investors to further develop its current R&D portfolio, with an opportunity to capitalise on the new biotechnologies that bring changes to the growing aquaculture sector. The sole shareholder of CAT is currently Linnaeus Capital Partners B.V., based in Amsterdam.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 10 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

New and improved

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Greenhouse gas as a raw material for an important feed additive rofessor Arne Skerra of the Technical University in which nature also biocatalytically incorporates CO2 into of Munich (TUM) has succeeded for the first biomolecules as a building block, our process is highly time in using gaseous CO2 as a basic material for elegant and simple,” reports Arne Skerra. the production of a chemical mass product in a “Photosynthesis uses 14 enzymes and has a yield of only biotechnical reaction. 20 percent, while our method requires just two enzymes.” The product is methionine, which is used as an essential In the future, the basic principle of this novel biocatalytic amino acid, particularly in animal feed, on a large scale. reaction can serve as a model for the industrial production This newly developed enzymatic process could replace its of other valuable amino acids or precursors for current petrochemical production. The results have now pharmaceuticals. Meanwhile, Professor Skerra’s team will been published in the journal Nature Catalysis. refine the process, which has been patented, using protein The industrial production of methionine from engineering so that it will become suitable for large-scale petrochemical source materials is currently done via a sixapplication. step chemical process that requires highly toxic hydrogen This could be the first time that there is a cyanide, among other substrates. In 2013, Evonik Industries, biotechnological manufacturing process using gaseous CO2 one of the world’s largest manufacturers of methionine, as an immediate chemical precursor. Up to now, attempts invited university researchers to propose new processes for to recycle the greenhouse gas, which is a major contributor making the substance safer to produce. Methional, which to climate change, have failed due to the extremely high occurs in nature as a degradation product of methionine, is energy required to do so. formed as a facile intermediate during the conventional process. “Based on the idea that methionine in microorganisms is degraded by enzymes to methional with the release of CO2, we tried to reverse this process,” explains Professor Arne Skerra from the Department of Biological Chemistry at TUM, “because every chemical reaction is in principle reversible, while often only with the extensive use of energy and pressure.” Dr Skerra participated in the call for proposals with this idea, and Evonik awarded the concept and supported the project. Supported by postdoctoral researcher Lukas Eisoldt, Dr Skerra began to determine the parameters for the manufacturing process and for producing the necessary biocatalysts (enzymes). The scientists conducted initial experiments and determined the CO2 pressure which would be needed to produce methionine from methional in a biocatalytic process. Surprisingly, an unexpectedly high yield resulted even at a relatively low pressure – approximately corresponding to the one in a car tire of approximately two bars. Based upon the achievements after just one year, Evonik extended the funding, and now the team, reinforced by the PhD student Julia Martin, investigated the biochemical background of the reaction and optimised the enzymes involved using protein 240+ 37+ 60+ 50+ 9+ engineering. After several years of work, not only was it possible to improve the reaction on a DELEGATES COUNTRIES SPEAKERS POSTERS SESSIONS laboratory scale to a yield of 40 percent, but also to elucidate the theoretical background of the biochemical processes. “Compared to the complex photosynthesis,



International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 11

Krill fishing companies back call to protect Antarctic Ocean


Sven-Olof Malmqvist Circular economy in aqua production-a challenge and a must?


n my early career actually right after the university I worked with quite interesting projects. In hindsight we were really ahead our time. At this time all the municipal waste water treatment plants were using mechanical and biological and to some extent chemical treatments. In particular for the phosphate removal. But using more tailored made flocculants one could reduce the biological phase which also were energy demanding and costly. Suddenly there were lot of empty basins which should be utilised and someone came with the bright idea to farm fish in them. It could be profitable and of course kind of PR for having such a clean environment and water that you could farm fishes! When cleaning waste water you get a solid part sludge which could be used as a fertiliser if the content of undesirables like heavy metals were low and if it was of the hygiene level one could expect, even today it is used partly as fertiliser. Organic waste like sludge and manure from farming is a resource but also a problem if it’s not managed and distributed in a professional way. And now we are coming to the brilliant idea to reduce the organic waste in sludge by letting earth worms treat the pile for a while. The obstacle was that we needed a special breed coming from the Philippines if I remember correctly, (eisenia fetida) these guys were not used the Swedish climate and during the winter they could die, anyway apart from that they were very speedy in their reproduction so if you started with a few you suddenly got a “farm”. The idea was after they had minimised the volume of the sludge they were harvested and magically you had an amazing protein source to feed the fish with. For commercial purposes you probably needed to make a meal of it. But in this case, they were fed as is. I believe that both big and small scale aqua production must look into what they can do in this respect in order to have a sustainable production in the future. I am not saying the all of us shall start to produce earth worms, but we must think in a more circular way and that goes for every stage in your process.

Sven Olof is an experienced export manager with a demonstrated history of working in the chemicals industry. He is skilled in marketing management, market planning, business planning, international business and sales management. He is a strong sales profession who graduated from the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Malmoe.

Greenpeace campaign to protect the Antarctic Ocean, backed by 1.7 million people globally, has received the unprecedented support of the vast majority of krill fishing companies operating in Antarctic waters. The move was announced at Greenpeace’s Antarctic 360° event in Cambridge, UK, attended by scientists and Oscarwinning actor Javier Bardem, who joined Greenpeace’s expedition to the Antarctic in January 2018. This major announcement from a group of the largest krill fishing companies will see nearly all krill companies operating in the Antarctic voluntarily stop fishing in huge areas around the Antarctic Peninsula, including ‘buffer zones’ around breeding colonies of penguins, to protect Antarctic wildlife. The companies have also pledged to support the scientific and political process for the creation of a network of largescale marine protected areas in the Antarctic, including areas in which they currently operate. The companies are all members of the Association of Responsible Krill harvesting companies (ARK), and represent 85 percent of the krill fishing industry in the Antarctic. “The momentum for protection of the Antarctic’s waters and wildlife is snowballing,’ said Frida Bengtsson, of Greenpeace’s Protect the Antarctic campaign. "This is a bold and progressive move from these krill fishing companies, and we hope to see the remainder of the krill industry follow suit.” Kristine Hartmann, EVP at Aker BioMarine, the largest krill fishing company in the world, said, “Safeguarding the Antarctic ecosystem in which we operate is part of who we are. Our ongoing dialogue with ARK members, scientists and the community of environmental NGOs, including Greenpeace, is what makes additional efforts like this possible. We are positive that ARK’s commitment will help ensure krill as a sustainable and stable source of healthy Omega-3s for the future.” In dialogue with Greenpeace, the world’s leading krill companies have committed to stop fishing in some of the identified ecologically sensitive areas recommended for protection. From 2020, these krill companies will observe a permanent closure of these areas, whilst continuing to support the process to create a vast protected area in the region. Dr Phil Trathan OBE, Head of Conservation Biology at the British Antarctic Survey and Lead Ecological Adviser for the UK Delegation to CCAMLR said, “Many animals, including penguins, seals and whales, depend upon krill in the Antarctic. For over 20 years the Conservation Biology group at BAS, has worked alongside the international community, tracking key species to identify favoured feeding areas at different times of year. This work underpinned the UK call, from 2016, for the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources to prohibit krill fishing in coastal zones adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula, especially during the summer breeding season. CCAMLR has yet to take such a step, so it is to be welcomed that the majority of krill companies have decided to take these voluntary steps. Ongoing work is still required to assess the risks associated with krill fishing practices, so I hope that these companies will be equally responsive as the science continues to develop.” The final decision will be taken by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) in October 2018, when it convenes in Hobart, Tasmania.

12 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

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S P E C I A L I S T I N S Q U A R E S I L O S www.ts c -s i l os .c om

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 13

Seaweed aquaculture represents 96.5 percent of the world’s seaweed supply. Seaweeds were the first group of organisms to pass the 50 percent farmed/wild harvest threshold in 1971. This occurred in 1986 for freshwater fishes, 1994 for molluscs, 1997 for diadromous fishes and 2010 for crustaceans. In 2016, fish aquaculture represented 47 percent of total global fish production (i.e. considering food plus non-food uses) and 53 percent of total food fish production. Over two decades (1995-2004; 2005-2014), the average annual production growth rate for fish declined from 7.2 percent to 5.8 percent, while that for seaweeds increased from 6.2 percent to 8.0 percent.

Dr Thierry Chopin

Seaweed aquaculture: mostly an Asian affair

Seaweeds: The world’s largest mariculture crop


ith an annual world production of 30.1 million tonnes, worth US$11.7 billion, seaweeds have represented the largest group of marine and coastal aquaculture (mariculture) organisms since 2004, reaching 51.2 percent in 2016 (see Table 1), according to the FAO’s 2018 State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture, which uses data collected up to 2016. Molluscs, which were the largest group of organisms until 2000, when they represented 46.2 percent of the world mariculture production, is now the second group, having decreased to 28.7 percent. Finfish, which are so much the focus in the western world, represent only around 11 percent worldwide since 2012 (11.2% in 2016). So, aquaculture is not synonymous with fish aquaculture, or salmon aquaculture, everywhere; there are other models in the world and we should learn from them. Crustacean production increased to 12 percent in 2014, but reduced to 8.2 percent in 2016, similar to the 2012 production. Other aquatic animals (turtles, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, frogs, alligators, crocodiles, jellyfish, etc.) remain a very small fraction of the overall world production (0.7% in 2016). When considering freshwater aquaculture production, seaweeds represent 27.3 percent of the world total (marine, coastal and freshwater) aquaculture production, as the inclusion of massive Chinese carp production has a significant impact on statistics.

There are approximately 10,500 known species of seaweeds. Around 500 species have been used for centuries for human food and medicinal purposes, directly as food (mostly in Asia) or indirectly for the compounds that can be extracted from them (e.g. phycocolloids such as agars and carrageenans extracted from red seaweeds and alginates extracted from brown seaweeds). There are, however, only approximately 220 species of seaweeds cultivated worldwide. Nine genera (six groups) provide 96.1 percent of the aquaculture production: Kappaphycus/Eucheuma (40.7%), Saccharina/Laminaria (27.3%), Gracilaria (13.8%), Undaria (6.9%), Porphyra/Pyropia (6.8%) and Sargassum (0.6%; see Figure 1). Not surprisingly, not many of the above statistics are known in the western world, because 99.4% of the seaweed aquaculture activities are concentrated in 7 Asian countries: China (47.9%), Indonesia (38.7%), the Philippines (4.7%), the Republic of Korea (4.5%), the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1.6%), Japan (1.3%) and Malaysia (0.7%). However, we should not be surprised that we cultivate only a few groups of seaweeds. After all, we mostly eat and grow four marine fish (salmon, sea bass, cod and tuna) and five terrestrial animals (chicken, pig, turkey, sheep and cow). Humans usually cultivate what is easy to grow and with low juvenile mortality. Moreover, as explained in my July column, seaweeds do not have much in common and are an unnatural grouping. Because they have very different life histories, their culture techniques vary widely. If Saccharina, Laminaria and Undaria are cultivated in a similar fashion, the cultivation techniques of the four other groups are completely different from these three kelps and among themselves. It would not be a far stretch to say that farming brown, red and green seaweeds is as different as farming alligators, kangaroos and chickens!

Table 1: Distribution of worldwide mariculture production among the main types of cultivated organisms (based on FAO data between 1998 and 2018) Production (%)





















































Other aquatic animals

14 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

Table 2: Distribution of the world total aquaculture production between extractive and fed organisms (based on 2018 FAO data) Extractive aquaculture Seaweeds + aquatic plants




Non-fed finfish



Fed aquaculture Fed finfish




Other aquatic animals



Need to spread extractive aquaculture more evenly

Seaweeds (and a small fraction of aquatic plants) constitute the bulk of what is called extractive aquaculture (organisms that do not need to be fed, and, in contrast, absorb dissolved inorganic nutrients and particulate organic matter; see Table 2. Extractive aquaculture represented 50.8 percent of the world total aquaculture production in 2016. This appears to be a pretty close matching with the organisms composing what is called fed aquaculture (49.2%); however, as mentioned above, 99.4 percent of seaweed aquaculture is taking place in only seven Asian countries. Figure 1: The nine genera (6 groups) of seaweeds providing 96.1% of the aquaculture production Extractive aquaculture would need to be more evenly distributed bioremediation, while providing economic diversification with worldwide to balance fed aquaculture through the development more efficient practices within a circular economy approach. of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA). In these systems, This is one of the ecosystem services rendered by seaweeds. In the waste materials from fed species become co-products to the next issue of International Aquafeed, I will elaborate on these grow extractive species, considered as additional crops reducing different services. the nutrient load, hence benefitting the environment through Dr. Thierry Chopin is Professor of Marine Biology, and Director of the Seaweed and Integrated MultiTrophic Aquaculture Research Laboratory, at the University of New Brunswick in Canada.

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 15

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Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre the driving force behind new women in aquaculture initiative


he Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) is asking the industry to come together in support of a new working group which aims to encourage more women into aquaculture, and support those already working in the sector.

to be dominated by males who accounted for over half of entries in 2016, 90 percent of enrolments on Fish Production/Fisheries FE course in 2015/16 and the vast majority of people starting an aquaculture Modern Apprenticeship. It is statistics like these that promoted SAIC to organise this survey which has clearly demonstrated strong unmet demand for cross-industry, cross-sector support for women in UK aquaculture. Heather Jones, CEO of SAIC, said, “As well as there being women leaders at the Scottish Salmon Producers’ Organisation and trout company Dawnfresh, there are

UK Aquaculture Group, with over 40 percent willing to offer mentoring to another woman, and another 40 percent happy to provide advice or guidance to others in the group. It’s because of this level of support that we are now in the process of bringing interested parties together to get a A recent survey conducted by group up and running, with a view the Innovation Centre revealed to the industry taking it on to drive overwhelming support for such a it forward. While the situation won’t group with nearly three quarters (73%) change overnight, we are hopeful that of respondents saying they would in five or 10 years’ time this initiative join it if set up. When asked what will have had a real and positive the purpose of the group should be, impact.” nearly nine in 10 respondents said Tracy Bryant-Shaw, HR Director at that it should provide networking Scottish Sea Farms, added, “Attracting support to others more women into already working, or our company is considering a career, something we’ve Left to right: Evelyn Chan, Polly Douglas and Lynsey Muir in UK aquaculture. been working hard on Two thirds of in recent years, with respondents agreed great results. Already that it should raise this year, two of our awareness of women female employees working in UK have been named aquaculture through, Finfish Farm Manager for example, social of the Year and Rising media and case Star – accolades we studies. hope will inspire The SAIC survey others to consider a comes hot on career with us. So we the heels of the are fully supportive publication of the of this new initiative Left to right: Heather Jones, Lynsey Muir, Caroline Griffin and Sam Houston Skills Review for to encourage, support the Aquaculture and develop women Sector in Scotland at sector-level.” report which was And Joyce commissioned by Campbell, a hill sheep Highlands and farmer in Sutherland Islands Enterprise who chairs an already on behalf of the existing group with a Aquaculture similar purpose – the Industry Leadership Women in Agriculture Group. The report Group, which was revealed that the founded by the shellfish industry is Scottish Government dominated by male in June 2017 – has employees at 87 offered this advice to percent compared to just 13 percent of increasing numbers of brilliant and the potential Women in Aquaculture females. talented younger women working group, “There’s so much grass roots However, it’s not just in the in aquaculture. But we need to enthusiasm to support mentoring and workforce that women are currently showcase and highlight their progress training for women in agriculture. The out-numbered by men. This disparity in scientific, technical and academic Women in Agriculture Task Force has starts in education. According to the roles, for the encouragement of others. to date focused on empowering and Skills Review, aquaculture related As many women will recognise, there up-skilling women in our industry. subjects at school such as biology, is a real willingness to support and I am sure that with some committed chemistry, environmental science engage with others’ success. Over and enthusiastic champions in the and food technology and in further half of our survey respondents are aquaculture sector, there’s no limit to education (FE) and training continue willing to contribute to a Women in what you can do.” 16 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 17


AQUACULTURE: Facing up to the challenges from consumers and technology by Roger Gilbert, Publisher of International Aquafeed


International Aquafeed publisher, Roger Gilbert was invited to address aquaculturists attending ‘Aquaculture II’ at Aquaculture Taiwan 2018 held in Teipei’s World Trade Center in Taiwan on July 26, 2018

up-to-date information on which to base sounds decision-making for future development. Aquaculture in particular will pay an increasingly important role in the way we feed future generations as the world’s population climbs towards 9.5 billion by 2050.

apture fisheries and aquaculture must work together in order to achieve the goal of greater confidence and trust in seafood that consumers buy both in their retail supermarkets and local markets. Our two industries depend on winning consumer confidence to secure our long term future – and technology will play a role in that process. The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) has been working for over 20 years to develop a robust and sustainable fisheries and aquaculture sector within its organisation and has implemented a Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries for both sectors for all countries. FAO believes both fisheries require standardised, reliable and

How to feed our growing population

Did you know that over 180 million people around the world work directly in the fish capture or fish farming industries and that they support the livelihoods of up to 820 million people – or roughly 12 percent of the global population? FAO’s aim is to end hunger and poverty and it sees aquaculture playing an important role. It also wants to see a greater connection between capture fisheries and aquaculture. In fact, during my 22 years as the Secretary General of the IFIF, I coined the phrase ‘Feeding 9.5 billion people by 2050’ based on research from the US Bureau of Statistics which showed that beyond 2050 the world’s population plateaus and reaches only 10-plus billion by the end of the century. In the early 1990s when I first began talking about this challenge the world’s population was just over 5.6 billion. Today it has already reaching 7.8 billion.

World fish utilization and supply


Aquaculture II Taiwan



18 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture II Taiwan




Aquaculture II Taiwan


There are several countries experiencing rapid population increases and one such country is Indonesia. Its growth is rapid and reached 267 million this year - in 1995 it was 197 million. It’s predicted to reach 321 million by 2050. However, Indonesia is focusing on the development of feed manufacturing for its livestock and aquaculture industries and this was clearly reflected when the President of the country, Joko Widodo, visited the IndoLivestock 2018 exhibition and spent over 90 minutes talking to local and international stand holders. It is encouraging that a country leader is recognising the importance of scientifically-formulated feedstuffs for livestock and aquaculture to meet the food needs of consumers.

More than fish

The most up-to-date information available from FAO, is based on an actual figure for the year 2016. The per-capita supply of fish, in kgs, is growing steadily against population. Of the 163 million tonnes of fish produced in 2016, three percent was used for non-food use. Seafood supplies are split equally between aquaculture and capture fisheries. But aquaculture is more than just fish – such as crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Seaweeds and microalgae show marked increased since 2005, while non-fed freshwater and marine species have not grown much, unlike fed freshwater species. It is surprising fed marine and coastal species has not grown more. In summary, Asia has experienced a dramatic increase in kg of fish consumed per capital of population while Europe has shown little real growth since 1990 while Oceania has increased gradually over the past 30 years. The Americas and Africa have shown good improvement from a very low starting point. In particular: • EUROPE - while aquaculture is just two million tonnes vs 14 million tonnes from capture fisheries, the percentage of aquaculture has grown over the past 30-plus years from eight percent to 18 percent • AFRICA - has experienced a substantial increase, especially since 2000 in its aquaculture production – although capture fisheries are still dominant and continue to grow • ASIA - remains the star of the show. From accounting for 20 percent of all seafood consumed in 1985 it now represents almost 60 percent, representing an explosion in fish farming. And it is here, in this region that we have to gain and maintain consumer confidence with the feedingstuffs – including macro and micro ingredients, by-products, additives and medicines - we are using combined with modern management practices based on Codex and FAO standards with combine with new technologies to ensure we maintain the quality of our operations while producing what the consumers wants and accepts.


Aquaculture II Taiwan


• WORLDWIDE – aquaculture has a more significant role to play in providing our human population with a nutritious and delicious protein foodstuff than ever before. However, we cannot ignore that capture fisheries is fast exploiting the resources that we have as this slide shows. • TOTAL FISH - production in 2016 was 171 million tonnes made up of 63 million tonnes of inland species and 108 million tonnes of marine species. • AQUACULTURE - accounts for 80 million tonnes of that total made up of 51.5 million tonnes of inland fishes and 28.7 million tonnes of marine species – the startling point to me is that ‘developed’ countries only produced 3.7 million tonnes while those in transition (or ‘developing’ as referred to in this report) account for 75.5 million tonnes! My final statistic is to discuss the per capita supply of fish (live weight) by region: on average we have access to 19.8kg

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International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 19



Aquaculture II Taiwan


of fish per person. However, where that fish is consumed is revealing – Africa and Latin America fall far short of that figure, at almost half the international average at 10.1 and 10.2 percent respectively. Meanwhile North America and Europe are just slightly above average at 21.7 and 21.8 kg/capita respectively. It is Oceania and Asia that are proving to be the major consumers of fish at 25.2 and 23.2kg/capita respectively.

The role of feed


Aquaculture II Taiwan


aquaculture feed, with shrimp/prawn and tilapia as the second and third places in total production. Catfish, salmon and trout also ranked, though to lesser degrees.

Local overview

Taiwan, for example, has a population of 23.7 million people, which is stable but considered below the rate needed to sustain population growth. The country is the world 56 largest country based on population. It has 126 feedmills and produces 6.56 million tonnes of feed. Aquatic feeds account for just 440,000 tonnes of that amount. Taiwan has 322,000 fishers and aquaculture operators according to the FAO. It captured some 750,000 tonnes of wild fish in 2016, however, that continues to reflect a steep reduction since 2005. On the aquaculture side, while not one of the region’s major producers Taiwan is none-the-less one of the region’s most advanced aquaculture countries, using modern technologies and developing significant research and development facilities to improve the aquaculture fisheries. Taiwan is playing a leading role within the region –in both research and applied research and is the home of one of the world’s leading aquaculture universities - Ocean University. In fact, Taiwan has a unique and transparent traceability system where consumers can trace back their fish products to the farm the fish was hatched and see what type of feeds it received, etc. It also has equipment manufacturers who are world leaders in the

Aquaculture feeds remained stable overall in 2017. The numbers showed a slight decline in the Asia-Pacific region, while Europe, Latin America and the Middle East regions all increased aqua feed production. African countries mainly increased aquaculture feed production, but one of the larger producers, Egypt, saw a decline according to Alltech's annual feed survey of 2017. The continued weakness of aquaculture in China (-5 percent) reported this year and last, and to a lesser degree in the rest of Asia-Pacific, can be linked to changes in consumption, disease outbreaks and a consolidation of the industry. Additionally, government controls on feeding practices and food safety, particularly the administration of antibiotics, may be having an influence on production levels. Asia feed production representing nearly 70 percent of overall global fish feed production. The decrease in the Asia-Pacific region emanates primarily from China, where aquaculture feed production decreased five percent, significant for a country that is the leader in terms of aquaculture production and produces as much as five times more than the second strongest producer. Vietnam also reported a decrease of about nine percent. Indonesia fell 17 percent as did Taiwan and Japan, each reporting drops of nine percent and three percent respectively. Africa and North America were relatively flat but we saw strong growth in Europe, Latin America and the Middle East. Brazil, Chile and Peru led the increased reported production in Latin America, and Iran stood out from the pack in accounting for almost all of What is interesting about this slide are the small yellow dots that indicate the reported growth in the Middle countries that rely on more than 20 percent of their food protein in fish and 26/07/2018 Aquaculture II Taiwan 20 aquatic products. East. Carp leads the production of 20 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed


production of extrusion equipment to assist in the production of high-quality fish feeds both locally and abroad. I believe Taiwan has a lot to offer the Asian region in terms of technology and training and should be promoting its consumer support and protection methodology to neighbouring countries.


What technologies are we talking about when we face future challenges? I will list a few here but the list is endless: 1) Monitoring fish in cages and ponds to determine when is the best time to feed and how much to feed 2) Cages using copper which minimise the need to clean 3) Optical underwater cameras with software back up that monitor fish growth and count fish 4) Virtual-reality and goggles that allow technicians to assist workers on remote cage sites to fix equipment and advise on problems 5) Improving compressor technology to minimise cost and environmental impact 6) Improving worker safety while on site 7) The development of feed barges and the better utilisation of feeds through sophisticated monitoring systems from futuristic control centres 8) Sea ranching with satellites monitoring their location 9) The various technologies to minimise sea lice in our most valuable marine species 10) Research to understand the nuances of diet in various fish species 11) The production of Omega 3 from the sugar cane industry 12) The use of vegetable proteins in fish diets to replace fishmeal 13) The development of production facilities to produce single cell proteins for inclusion in fish diets 14) Technologies being developed to monitor Omega 3 in live fish so that diets can be changed to ensure levels expected are reached 15) Adopting new ingredients such as phytogenetics additives that improve fish gut health and survivability 16) Water quality controls 17) Recirculation systems and biofilters Where consumers will connect with aquaculture – and “Ocean Sustainable Development – particularly fish farming – is through theAsia purchase of aquatic ” Connecting and the World products in their local markets or supermarkets. Seaweeds and shellfish – those aquatic plants and animals that do not need feeding whether freshwater or marine - are becoming increasingly popular in foodstuffs. Consumers are not only interested in where their food is coming from or how it is produced, but what impact it is having on the environment and whether or not the systems we are using are considered sustainable. The Monaco Blue Initiative held its 9th Edition in Edinburgh this past April and I was fortunate enough to be invited to attend. This is an annual network event for marine and ocean conservationists whose objective is to help protect the world’s oceans from exploitation and damage to its environmental and bio-diversity. The MBI was launched in 2010 by HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco and engages the Monaco Oceanographic Institute of Prince Albert I to provide a platform for debate surrounding ocean conservation. Its members meet annually to discuss the current and anticipate future global challenges of ocean management and conservation. Aquaculture is being recognised as one of the fastest growing marine activities by MBI but is believes there is a risk from our

continued growth, if we do not work together. The MBI sees aquaculture as a partner in this initiative rather than a villain. And in Edinburgh it was stated quite clearly that all stakeholders including the aquaculture sector must work together if the current challenges are to be successfully addressed. The MBI is keen to keep establishing Marine Protected Zones, but is now aware that aquaculture must play a part in their management if they are to be successful. That does not only mean farming non-fed species and seaweeds, but also fish species reared in cages. There is an understanding that the two can work in harmony to the benefit of both parties. It is through initiatives such as this that we will engage most directly with consumers. They will see the responsible role played by our farmers and to learn about the challenges we face and how we are overcoming them with sophisticated feeding regimes and the use of technologies.

In conclusion • • • • • • • •

Aquaculture produces half our seafood It is the fastest growing protein food sector currently Capture fishers and aquaculturisits must work together Not only nutrition for a growing planet but employment for 12 percent of the world’s population Seafood consumption is increasing Consumers are increasingly aware of where their food is coming from and the impact it has on the environment Our seafood production systems must be sustainable Technology can’t be ignored it offers a way to engage with consumers and achieve better production result – lower mortality, greater feed efficiency, lower cost of fish production and safer foods R

Hong Kong / 14 - 16 November 2018

Crédit photo : Woc, fotolia

The International Ocean Business Forum To Advance Responsible Use Of The Seas

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 21


Nutritional values of different feed phosphates in shrimp trials


by J Zwart, Technical Manager Feed Ingredients, Aliphos, Belgium

t is a common trend nowadays to replace more and more fish meal by vegetal protein sources when formulating shrimp feeds. However, phosphorus (P) levels in these vegetal protein sources are low and above all the greater part of the phosphorus is present in the form of phytate. Phytate degradation is slow in practical shrimp diets resulting in a low P-digestibility. Thus, addition of inorganic phosphates to shrimp feeds is nowadays needed to fulfill the shrimp phosphorus requirements. Phosphorus is important in a large number of biological processes. Some examples are: necessary for building the exo-skeleton, key element in energy metabolism (ATP – ADP), acid-base buffering in blood, component of tissue cell walls. An adequate supply is, therefore, a necessity. Not reaching adequate levels of phosphorus will have repercussions in view of reduced performance, increased deformities, excessive mortality, etc. Dietary supplementation of phosphorus above the requirement results in high P-excretion in the surrounding water contributing to environmental pollution eventually resulting in algae bloom and eutrophication of the water reserves. It is, therefore, of the utmost importance to evaluate the digestibility and retention of inorganic P-sources to meet the P-requirements of the shrimp but to avoid excessive supply and phosphorus excretion. Also, there is still little knowledge on the mineral requirements as well the availability/digestibility of minerals in case of shrimp. Therefore, Aliphos commissioned a trial to Wageningen University, The Netherlands, in which the phosphorus digestibility and retention of different inorganic feed phosphates was measured with white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In this trial three widely used inorganic feed phosphates were tested, dicalcium phosphate (DCP1), monocalcium phosphate (MCP2) and Aquaphos (MAP3).

Table 1: Composition of the diet composition





DM, % Crude protein, % Crude fat,% Total P, % Ca, % Energy, KJ/ g DM

91.3 43.8 6.1 5.9 3.8 20.7

91.2 44.0 6.2 10.0 9.8 20.6

90.6 44.0 6.3 9.9 9.8 20.6

91.2 45.1 5.9 9.9 3.6 20.7

Table 2: Performance results





Growth period, d





No. of tanks





No. of shrimp / tank





Survival, %





Body weight start, g





Body weight end, g





Growth, g/d





SGR, %/d





Feed intake, g/d





FCR (g/g)





Table 3: Body composition shrimp






Dry matter, g/kg






Ash, g/kg fresh






Protein, g/kg fresh






Phosphorous, g/kg fresh






Calcium, g/kg fresh






Materials and methods

A trial feed – control- was formulated composed out of ingredients with a low phosphorus and phytate content. Total P-content of the control 5.9g, to this the different feed phosphates were added to arrive on a level of 10g P. Diets were isonitrogenous (crude protein, 44% DM), isolipidic (6.2% DM) and isoenergetic (gross energy, 20.5KJ/g DM) (Table 1). Yttrium oxide was added as an inert marker to enable calculation of

Figure 1: P-retention tested feed phosphates

22 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed


digestibility of the nutrients. The trial consisted out of two successive periods: six weeks to study the performance and mineral retention (Period 1). Followed by a two weeks period for collection of faeces to assess the mineral digestibility (Period 2). In Period 1 a RAS-system, with a salinity of 20ppt, was used with four repetitions per trial group, consisting of 27 shrimps. At the start and end of Period 1 shrimps were weighted to determine growth. All tanks received the same amount of feeding via belt feeders at a level of 70 percent of the maximum feeding level to avoid feed spillage. From this the FCR was calculated. At start and end of the trial shrimp were sampled and analysed for protein, ash, Ca and P. This to enable the calculation of nutrient retention, and ultimately, the P-retention of the different feed phosphates (see box). During Period 2, which lasted for two weeks, the remaining shrimp from Period 1 were used in the same RAS-system in duplo. Shrimp were fed the same feeds two times a day manually. Shrimp were weighed at start and end of the experiment. Collection of faeces was done by means of siphoning during day time in between the two feeding intervals. The nutrient digestibility of nitrogen, P and Ca was calculated based on the ratio of the nutrient and Yttrium in feed and faces. But also the P-digestibility of the three phosphates used in this experiment (see box).

Figure 2: Nutrient digestibility trial feeds

Figure 3: Digestible P-content tested feed phosphates


Shrimp receiving the diet including Aquaphos performed better than the other groups, with significant better FCR of 0.9 against 0.99 and 0.98 for DCP and MCP respectively (Table 2). Body composition at the end of the trial showed differences

Figure 4: Phosphorus balance

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between the diets. Shrimp receiving Aquaphos had a significant higher P-content than the other diets. It also became obvious that smaller shrimp have a relative higher mineral content than larger shrimp (Table 3). Phosphorus retention of DCP was surprisingly low, with only 2.5 percent. MCP showed a higher P-retention, however, with Aquaphos the P-retention reached a level of 44 percent. Which is almost three times higher than in case MCP (Figure 1). Of course, this is of importance not only in view of nutrition, using Aquaphos is a safeguard in view of supplying sufficient levels of available P. But also in view of environment, with Aquaphos less phosphorus ends-up in the surrounding waters. During Period 2 the nutritional digestibility was measured. Protein digestibility was found to average between 92 and 93 percent and did not differ between the different treatments. For calcium (Ca) there were high negative digestibilities found. An indication that shrimp are capable to absorb the required Ca from the surrounding water. Based on these results it can be questioned if addition of Ca is necessary when formulating shrimp diets. Diet phosphorus (P) digestibility was the lowest for DCP (18.6%) and the highest for Aquaphos (46.5%) (see Figure 2). Based on these results the P-digestibility of the feed phosphates added can be calculated. The results are summarised in figure 3. Aquaphos scored a value of 79% P-digestibility which was significant different from DCP (9%) and MCP (39%). These digestibility results confirm the findings on P-retention in Period 1: Aquaphos having the highest value and DCP the lowest.

Figure 5: Nutritional and environmental gain of the use of Aquaphos

Assuming a minimal digestible P-requirement of 0.8 percent for shrimp and that from this 50 percent is supplied by addition of feed phosphates. To supply this level of 0.4 percent dP (=4g) by MCP, 10g P is needed. When using Aquaphos this amount of P can be decreased to 5g only, to reach the same level of dP. This calculation clearly shows the lower inclusion rate (50%) of P from Aquaphos and ultimately the lower excretion of P from Aquaphos into the environment (see Figure 5). Calculating the product inclusion rate based on the differences in P-content (Aquaphos 26% P and MCP 22.7% P) and the difference in digestible P the inclusion of 4.4 percent MCP (in this example) can be decreased to only 1.9 percent of Aquaphos to deliver the same amount of digestible phosphorus.


Phosphorus balance

Nutrients not digested are excreted via de faeces. Nutrients digested (absorbed) but not retained are for the greater part excreted via de urine (metabolic losses). Based on this, a P-balance for shrimp can be calculated4. In this example (see Figure 4) the balance for P-from the added feed phosphates is calculated. Based on the assumption that 5g P is added via feed phosphates to shrimp diets. Shrimp receiving the diet including DCP hardly digest neither retain any phosphorus. Phosphorus is wasted almost totally into the water. With MCP the P-balance improves already a little bit. However, use of Aquaphos largely improves the P-digestion and P-retention. Resulting in higher levels of P in the shrimp and a lower loss of P in the surrounding water (see Figure 4).

In this trial with shrimp it was clearly shown that Aquaphos has a superior level of both digestible- and retainable-P against MCP and even more against DCP. Based on these results, if diets are formulated on available or digestible P, the inclusion level of P from Aquaphos can be halved in relation to P from MCP. But that also, because of the lower inclusion of Aquaphos against MCP, there is a possible major space saving in feed formulations. It was also obvious from this trial that Ca is not needed to be supplemented to shrimp feeds, because, shrimp are capable to absorb sufficient amounts of Ca from the surrounding water. The use of Aquaphos instead of MCP and DCP safes the environment in view of a lower P-excretion via the faeces and urine into the water. In short, Aquaphos has a proven nutritional but also environmental value.


About Aliphos

It’s common practice nowadays to add additional P in the form of inorganic feed phosphates to shrimp feeds. However, notable differences in nutritional value exist between the different feed phosphates in the market. That’s why it is crucial to have correct information on the P-digestibility or -retention of these inorganic feed phosphates. To arrive at the correct level of P (dP) in the feeds, but not wasting unnecessary phosphorus into the environment. Based on the results of this trial the gain of using Aquaphos for both shrimp and environment can be calculated.

Aliphos, part of Ecophos Group, is a major European producer of different types of inorganic feed phosphates. At its site in Vlaardingen, The Netherlands, Aliphos Rotterdam produces special feed phosphates, including Windmill® Aquaphos.


Aliphos® DCP Aliphos® Monocal 3 Windmill® Aquaphos 4 No compensation is made for minerals lost by molting 1 2

24 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed





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insights from Alltech's 7th Global Feed Survey by Aidan Connolly, Chief Innovation Officer and Vice President, Corporate Accounts

Last year's Alltech Global Feed Survey crossed the threshold of one billion metric tonnes of feed produced globally for the first time. This year affirmed that position with an estimate of 1.068 billion metric tonnes.

Aquaculture trends

Aquaculture trends tend to be amongst the most anticipated by the agricultural trade media. This is presumably because of the strong growth of farmed fish over the past 10 years and the degree to which aquaculture is replacing wild fishing as the primary source of fish for human consumption. Aquaculture feeds remained stable overall in 2017. The numbers showed a slight decline in the Asia-Pacific region, while Europe, Latin America and the Middle East regions all increased aqua feed production. African countries mainly increased aquaculture feed production, but one of the larger producers, Egypt, saw a decline. The continued weakness of aquaculture in China (-5%) reported this year and last, and to a lesser degree in the rest of Asia-Pacific, can be linked to changes in consumption, disease outbreaks and a consolidation of the industry. Additionally, government controls on feeding practices and food safety, particularly the administration of antibiotics, may be having an influence on production levels. Brazil, Chile and Peru led the increased reported production in Latin America, and Iran stood out from the pack in accounting for almost all of the reported growth in the Middle East. Carp leads the production of aquaculture feed, with shrimp/prawn and tilapia as the second and third places in total production. Catfish, salmon and trout also ranked, though to lesser degrees.

Global Feed Survey

Now in its seventh year of analysis, the Global Feed Survey continues to serve as a valuable report on the state of the global feed industry. In addition to its insights into the feed industry, it serves as a barometer for agriculture as a whole and demonstrates the economic strength of the countries included in the survey. So what lessons can we draw from the 2018 Alltech Global Feed Survey? I have identified seven highlights representing the key trends for agribusiness leaders – from small dairy farmers in India to the largest pig producers in China.

China - The bull takes a small step back

Since Alltech’s first survey in 2011, China has been identified as the clear leader in the global feed production. This year, a small decline in overall animal feed production was seen in China but registered at less than 0.4 percent of the total. For a country with a growing population such a decline in animal feed production might raise an eyebrow. What does this indicate? China’s dairy and beef feed production both declined by 17 percent. China’s dairy industry is struggling as milk farmers try to balance high priced inputs with poor returns from milk processors. The beef industry’s decline indicates the displacement of local production with both cheaper imports and higher quality imported meats. China’s layer and broiler industries also saw small declines of 11 percent and five percent in feed production, respectively. While the poultry industry as a whole is seeing improved efficiencies due to increased industrialisation, the layer industry has seen relatively rapid consolidation of the world’s largest egg market. Consumption of commercial “white” broilers has stagnated, and prices have been poor. One sector in China that has rebounded is pig feed production, increasing 11 percent this past year, as China’s rationalisation toward larger and more professional farms reaps rewards in costefficient pork production.

Russia leaps upward

The 2018 survey saw large increases in Russia’s overall feed production as the country grows increasingly self-sufficient and less reliant on 26 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed


imported meat, milk and eggs. This focus on food independence has bumped Russia’s in the top 10 from number seven to number four in the feed league, pushing India, Mexico and Spain each down a position, despite the respective feed production increases of each of these countries in 2017. All species saw an increase in feed production in Russia, with the exception of minor poultry species. The primary reported growth was for pig, dairy and beef feeds. Swine feeds, in particular, were higher as more accurate data collection allowed better estimates. To some extent dairy and beef feed production reflect more precise calculations, but also difficulty in importation, particularly regarding the beef industry. The layer and broiler feed production increased also but to a lesser extent, at 12 percent and three percent respectively.

India continues to ignite

Much like China, India has been the country to watch. It’s estimated that in 2017, feed production grew by nine percent, and this growth is expected to continue with its booming population. Unlike China however, cultural and religious affiliations play a bigger part inhibiting the production of livestock such as pork and especially beef. The growth of India’s feed production of livestock will be primarily to support milk, egg and chicken farmers. India’s dairy and layer feed production each increased by five percent in 2017, and its broiler feed production increased by 12 percent. Despite a small decline in overall global aqua production, and particularly in the overall Asia Pacific region, India was one of the few countries that grew by eight percent. Today India produces shrimp, prawn, carp and catfish for both domestic consumption and export.

Africa still on the fast track

For nearly every year of the Alltech Feed Survey, Africa has been one of the fastest growing feed markets. Although 2017 didn’t continue this trend as a regional average, Africa’s growth rate over the last five years was nearly 30 percent, which well exceeds the global average estimated at 13.1 percent. African pig feed production was up over six percent. Dairy, layer and broiler feed production all showed increases this year also. In fact, Africa was the fastest growing region for dairy and broiler feed production. The downward trends were seen in beef and aquaculture. Smaller countries such as Botswana, Uganda and Mozambique led the growth, but the survey showed good growth for pigs, dairy, layer and broiler feeds in larger countries such as Algeria (with the obvious exception of pigs). Beef feed production decreases were reflected in countries such as Zambia and Morocco. While many African nations showed a small increase in aquaculture feed production, the region as a whole was down primarily because of lower reported feed production in Egypt, which has now been surpassed by Nigeria. On average, the region has the most expensive feed costs for pigs, layers and broilers.

Aqua treads water

Aquaculture feed growth was relatively flat, but this number can be deceiving. A growing global population, increased desire to consume fish because of reported health benefits and a need to produce farmed fish more sustainably and economically, should have resulted in strong growth but Asia feed production weighs disproportionately, representing nearly 70 percent of overall global fish feed production. Africa and North America were relatively flat, but we saw strong growth in Europe, Latin International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 27


America and the Middle East. The decrease in the Asia-Pacific region emanates primarily from China, where aquaculture feed production decreased five percent, significant for a country that is the leader in terms of aquaculture production and produces as much as five times more than the second strongest producer. Vietnam also reported a decrease of about nine percent. Indonesia fell 17 percent as did Taiwan and Japan, each reporting drops of nine percent and three percent respectively. These trends have been in progress over several years and reflect disease outbreaks, particularly in shrimp, and a growing consolidation of the industry into fewer larger and more sophisticated farms. Several smaller markets grew significantly including Brazil, Chile and Peru, and the Middle East, led by Iran. Africa could have grown also but the region’s leading country, Egypt, saw a drop-in production.

Equine races ahead

The equine industry has seen a healthy growth in the last year with every region reporting growth. North America and Africa reported the least change at one percent and two percent, respectively, but regions such as Latin America and Asia Pacific both showed healthy growth of 108,000 metric tonnes and 160,000 metric tonnes respectively. Generally, this is the result of incremental growth in many countries in both of these regions including Peru, Brazil and Mexico in Latin America and South Korea, China and Australia in the Asia-Pacific region. The Middle East reported a growth of 22 percent or about 25,000 metric tonnes. Much of the growth stemmed from the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. This region is difficult to obtain information from, and the horse industry is no different; this growth may be a result of better information as well as a clearer

understanding of the industry. Europe saw the largest increase both by percentage (24%) and tonnage (396,000). Several countries contributed to this incrementally, such as The Netherlands, Ireland, France and Russia.

Feed costs reflect food costs

There was no general direction for the feed industry costs this year. They are as variable as any other industry sector has been in the last 12 months. From a pig perspective, costs are about two percent higher globally, and a pig finisher diet is estimated to average around US$363. Pig production is up about 5.54 percent and indicates good growth for this sector. Broiler production costs for finisher diets are down 14 percent globally at US$418, while the industry itself is showing incremental growth of just under three percent. The layer industry has seen very little growth overall (less than 1%) and holds its feed finisher diet costs similarly with a decrease of less than two percent at about US$363. Broiler production costs for finisher diets are down 14 percent globally at US$418, while the industry itself is showing incremental growth of just under three percent. Regionally, several countries in Asia-Pacific have held higher prices for animal feed production including Japan, Taiwan and Indonesia. Africa also has had some high record holders, particularly Cameroon and Nigeria. In general, feed costs are low and for the foreseeable future, will remain that way. This is because farmers and growers have gotten better at combatting disease and drought in plants. Corn, soy and wheat can all be produced at low costs and the harvests are bountiful. This lower input cost is reflected in our own food costs, which are also at an all-time low historically.

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Committed to vegetable ingredients for the aquafeed industry An Interview with Dick van Beek Aminola CEO, and Herjan Bekamp Aminola CIO


minola B.V. was established in 2013 with the main office located in the agricultural heartland of the Netherlands (Barneveld). The goal of our company is to become one of the major drivers in the supply of high-value feed ingredients for the growing aquaculture industry in Europe. We noted the urgency to build on the future sustainability of this relatively young sector, which traditionally relies on marine sources of protein and oils with a finite availability. In the last decade we observed a shift towards inclusion of vegetable raw materials in aquafeed. There is a growing interest in specialty feed ingredients, which helps the aquafeed nutritionist to meet both physical and nutritional product targets. These in turn benefit fish health & growth, reduce faecal waste and contribute to efficient farm economics. Consumer demands also play an ever increasingly important part in this respect. Aminola B.V. is in that way sensitive to consumer demands and trends. We made it our mission to become the innovation partner for aquafeed producers and bring conventional, organic and new functional vegetable feed ingredients, tailored to the specific needs of fish nutritionists and purchasers. This is where we add value.’

What are the anticipated trends in the market?

Herjan: ‘At Aminola B.V. we believe in the added value of vegetable ingredients for aquafeed, but also for pet food

and young farm animals simply because of the sustainable availability, manageability of anti-nutritional factors and consumers requirements for more organically produced food. We have seen a decrease of fishmeal and oil usage in the aquafeed industry in the last 25 years as illustrated in the figure below for fishmeal. At the same time the use of vegetable origin raw materials has increased and currently constitutes over 50 percent of salmon diets as illustrated in the figures below for salmon feeds produced in Norway. Apart from the replacement of marine sourced raw materials there is a tendency towards more organic raw materials and the development of protein concentrates from vegetable sources.’

How does Aminola B.V. anticipate on trends in the market?

Dick: ‘We can illustrate our approach with two examples. We noticed recently an increased interest from European feed producers to use European soy, fuelled largely by consumer concerns regarding GMO’s and a wish for better sustainability and traceability of the food they consume. Aminola B.V. is addressing this trend by offering certified Non-GMO and European produced soy to our aqua feed clients in Europe, among others. Also, the increased consumer demand for organic food products has urged Aminola B.V. to become a certified supplier of organic ingredients. Supplying organic ingredients not only helps our clients to produce organic feeds, it also improves their aquaculture sustainability by lowering their environmental food print and conserving natural resources.’

30 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed


Figure 1: Inclusion of fish meal in aquafeeds globally. After: (Tantikitti, 2014).

Where does Aminola stand out compared with other suppliers of raw materials?

produce. In turn we then discover which solutions we ideally could bring to this client to help them solve these limitations. Once agreed upon the solution with our customer, we source or manufacture the requested product, we organise logistics from door to door, and maintain stocks to be able to deliver ‘just in time’. Besides this, an integrated quality control system is set up for the product within the entire supply chain from the producer to the final user of the ingredient.’

Herjan: ‘firstly, we source only vegetable raw materials directly from manufacturers in compliance with our strictly monitored quality protocols. Additionally, we are always on the lookout for new innovative sources. If unavailable in the market we develop new vegetable ingredients ourselves, such as Lupin Protein Concentrate with 50 to 55 percent crude protein, which is our latest product innovation. We are looking for a long-term customer-oriented relationship to help them with their long terms needs. For instance, clients tell us their limitations in the raw material portfolio and the nutritional and physical requirements of the feed products they want to

Why do your clients work with Aminola and what is important for them?

Dick: ‘Our clients acknowledge that we understand them and speak the same language as their purchaser and formulator. In

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general, feed formulation (not only in aquafeed) is mostly based on least cost method; a computer program helps the formulator to calculate the cheapest combination of raw materials to produce a feed with a given specification. The feed formulator will compose the ideal feed with the available composition of raw materials and additives matching the nutritional requirements in the Figure 2: Proportion of ingredients in salmon feeds by origin over time. Source: (Marine Harvest, 2016). right balance at competitive costs. Thus, the composition of the ingredient i.e. chemical, nutritional, biological, physical, and functional characteristics, vegetable grown mainly in Asia. Guar protein meal is a bytogether with its price are decisive in regard to what level product of the guar gum production. It is rich in protein (55% to (inclusion rate) a raw material is included in an aquafeed 60% on product basis). As the product is heat treated, the amount formula. The value the ingredient has for the feed producer/ of Anti Nutritional Factors decreases, and it increases digestibility formulator, varies depending on the species and other admitted and palatability. raw materials available for the market the company is working As this product is still relatively unknown among aquafeed in. When for example a new (vegetable) ingredient can producers, we are presenting this product currently as a new contribute to the binding properties of the formula (sticking ingredient for their raw material portfolio. We believe that this is of the feed ingredients) and at the same time contributes with a safe product with a sustainable availability. Aminola B.V. has well digestible protein, the feed formulator can lower the direct partnerships with factories in Asia working according to requirement of starch or other binders and thus create space in our strict quality standards and a running rolled-out supply chain the formula and reduce its cost. Vital wheat gluten, for example for immediate deliveries. is added to aquafeed formulas with that purpose however at In order to help our customers get acquainted with new times it is not available or for uncompetitive prices. Aminola products, we feel it is very important that we facilitate small-scale B.V. has tapioca starch available under our GMP+ certification trials by supplying small quantities for testing purposes. Every scheme that is low in protein but has excellent binding customer has its own specific needs and requirements; therefore, properties. it works best when they can test according to their own standards It is now applied by some aquafeed producers but also in pet and processing conditions. We also provide additional research, food and is delivered straight from our European warehouses. By adapt processes, and add critical analysis parameters where and doing this, additional space is created for alternative (less priced) when required.’ protein sources. Therefore, by actually understanding their needs we made a new Is there anything you would like to add to what we ingredient available that solved one of their problems. Needless previously discussed? to say, before even considering a raw material for a formulation, Dick: ‘We hope this article has given some insights into trends long term availability in sufficient quantities needs to be secured within the aquafeed industry and some basic information about which Aminola takes as a guiding principle when looking into Aminola B.V.; who we are and what we do. potentially new ingredients.’ Should you be interested in any further information, or do you want to address any problem, or specific need you have, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us.’ You mentioned that you tailor vegetable ingredients to

specific needs of clients. How does that work?

Dick: ‘We always try to comprehend the problems and limitations our customers are dealing with. It is our challenge to help them in finding a solution. If required we have a nutritionist who helps us to match vegetable ingredients into specific formulations. At present we are looking in the market for novel vegetable protein sources that, as they are, don’t really fit into high-density aquafeeds formulas because of their too low protein content. However, we may produce protein concentrates from these that have a good match in starter feeds or high energy feeds for marine fish, salmon and trout. In this respect you may think of protein meals from crops such as peas, lupin, and extruded rapeseed.’

Can you give an example of a new product which you are developing at this moment?

Herjan: ‘As mentioned earlier, the use of imported soy products is declining not only because there is a decreasing availability of Non GMO soy. In our opinion, one of the alternatives to soy in aquafeed recipes is guar protein meal. Guar is a drought resistant


Marine Harvest. (2016). 2016 salmon industry handbook. Tantikitti, C. (2014). Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Techhnology (SJST) , 36 (1), 51055, Jan-Feb. .

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for your rotifer cultures by Emil Rue, MSc Agro. and Plant Sciences, Aliga Microalgae, Denmark


oday it is common to use rotifers B. plicatilis and B. rotondiformis as live prey for marine fish larvae as they are an important source of nutrition during the larvae’s first few weeks. Even though these zooplankton are rich in protein, as well as linolenic and linoleic acid n-6 PUFA’s, they naturally lack sufficient amounts of essential n-3 HUFA’s. With the larvae’s inability to synthesize the linoleic acid into essential fatty acids, it is required that the live prey is correctly and sufficiently enriched with eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA). It is therefore pivotal that the microalgae fed to rotifers, either directly in its tanks or through Green Water, has the required nutritional and fatty acid values to provide the best enrichment and maximum growth of them. This regardless if you cultivate your own microalgae or purchase concentrated paste from a third party. The most frequent microalgae genera used by hatcheries as feed and enrichment for rotifers are Nannochloropsis, Isochrysis,

Pavlova, Tetraselmis and Chlorella. All these contain proteins and vitamins at different levels and some are rich in DHA, others in EPA and ARA. Due to the different nutritional profiles of these genera, a mixture is normally fed to give the best balance between rotifer growth, egg production and fatty acid enrichment. A rule of thumb for live prey to be used as marine larvae enrichment is that the DHA: EPA ratio shall be above one, with a tad of ARA on top of it. It must, however, be remembered that live prey’s ability to absorb essential fatty acids from different microalgae genera varies widely between prey types. Therefore, the feeding rates of microalgae for different zooplankton must be analysed and adjusted accordingly (Sargent et al. 1999).

Microalgae species

Several microalgae species are capable of producing high amounts of fatty acids, including the essential EPA, DHA and ARA. From our own experience though, we’ve seen that results obtained under small-scale laboratory conditions might not easily

34 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed


be transferrable to a larger scale production of the very same strains. Many scientific studies regarding induction of fatty acid production in microalgae revolves around the adjustments of light, temperature, pH value, water quality, salinity, growth media, or the application of stresses and sudden shifts in culture conditions. Under laboratory conditions, this is feasible owing to the relatively small volumes used in experimental setups. Applying these parameters on a larger on-site production is often more challenging. Having emphasis on strain selection and controlling nutrient composition is fairly straightforward, but to get constant pH levels, optimum temperature levels, and desired water quality as well as inducing shifts and stresses in the culture for it to produce the fatty acid levels described in scientific papers is often more challenging.


The need for precise control of conditions

At our production facility in northern Denmark we have therefore put great attention on getting these parameters under control by using LED lights and a software-controlled temperature and pH sensor system in our proprietary photobioreactor systems. From our experience we’ve also seen that the very same strain of microalgae can behave significantly differently even under slight changes in the salt, mineral and nutrient composition of the growth media. For this reason we always formulate our own artificial sea water in which we can exactly control what’s in our growth media and at the same time eliminate the risk of waterborne pathogens and contaminants being brought in to our cultures via collected seawater. Another important aspect also lies in choosing the right microalgae strains, as some strains even though they are from the same species, will produce higher levels of n-3 HUFA’s than others (Ma et al. 2014). It is also important to remember that inducing fatty acid formation in microalgae via stress will most often be at the cost of growth since the metabolic pathways in the cells will be redirected into energy storage. It must therefore be a balance between achieving the right fatty acid composition and at the same time maintaining acceptable culture growth of the microalgae.

Hatchery practices

To a greater or lesser extent, many hatcheries today cultivate their own microalgae. From what we have seen, the nutritional profile can change, not only when going from the lab into larger scale production, but also when parameters such as light, temperature, and composition within the growth media changes. Therefore, to ensure your microalgae has the fatty acid, protein, and vitamin composition you think it does, a profiling of your microalgae cultures on a regularly basis is advisable. Since without it, it is difficult to determine the nutritional value that your rotifer is providing to your larvae. And as most hatchery managers know, early rearing mistakes can amplify throughout the growth stages of the fish.

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[1] John Sargent, Lesley McEvoy, Alicia Estevez, Gordon Bell, Michael Bell, James Henderson and Douglas Tocher, 1999: Lipid nutrition of marine fish during early development: current status and future directions. Aquaculture 179, pp.217-229 [2] Yubin Ma, Zhiyao Wang, Changjiang Yu, Yehu Yin and Gongke Zhou, 2014: Evaluation of the potential of 9 Nannochloropsis strains for biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology 167, pp.503-509.

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 35



Extruded aqua feeds pelleted aqua feeds


by Joe Kearns, Extrusion specialist, JPKearns Consulting, LLC and Director of Sales at Meridian Ingredients LLC his is a comparison of two different feed preparation processes. A simple comparison and definition would be cooking versus compressing a feed into pellet form with the percentage of cook being at a higher level with the use of extrusion over pelleting.

the accurate inclusion and evenness of the preconditioned mass headed to the extruder. This is required as higher levels of liquids are used in extrusion. It is not unusual to add water to be in the mid 30% moisture range when extruding some types of aquatic feeds. Pelleting has a liquid or percent water limitation and it is in approximately the 17-18 percent moisture range.

Material preparation

In both cased the preconditioner is above the actual pellet forming system, extruder barrel or ring die and compression rollers. The pellet system as shown in Photo 1 assists in the explanation of the pellet mill chamber. In this case the ring die rotates around the rollers, which create the force to push or compact the feed through the die. Knives are mounted to cut pellets to an acceptable length. The actual feed material is never melted but remains in its ground particle form and is compacted into pellets by pressure; this is assisted by die hole design. Extrusion cooking is based on a rotating shaft with screw elements in a confined tube creating pressure, heat and mechanical shear (friction) that melts the feed material into a viscous mass behind the die. This mass is plasticised and is at such a pressure the product expands upon exiting the die, entrapped air due to the development of a cell structure in each pellet creates floating products. Process control modifications allow for this cell structure to be controlled for floating, slow sinking as well as fast sinking pellets.

Let’s review the processes starting with the material preparation before processing. All is the same in terms of batching and weighing until grinding. The possible need for finer grinding exists for the extrusion process. Finer grinding as the possibility to achieve product diameters as low as 0.5mm exist in the extrusion process. Finer grinding is considered important for good pelleting quality also but typically it is not required to get to the 200-micron raw material size. Extruders can make 0.5mm feeds thus finer grinding for extrusion over pelleting. Ground particles should be 1/3 the die opening size for extrusion thus a 0.5mm feed needs very fine grinding.

Processing differences

This brings us to the actual process differences. The feeding system is similar, as both systems need even raw material feeding with volume or weight deliver control. Weight delivery or gravimetric is common on extrusion cooking as it allows for more accurate control of the process additives such as water and steam and other liquids or solids. Why is more accuracy needed with extrusion, simply put the additions by weight give a more accurate pellet characteristic? Exacting diameters, density, expansion rates for oil uptake, sinking rate and others are controlled by the process and additions. Having stated the above the conditioning systems are usually more advanced on extrusion cookers. Rotational speeds, retention times and mixing effects are controllable for

Photo 1

Pelleting systems

Extrusion cookers

Photo 2 shows the screws in typical extrusion cookers. In most extruders the screws are segmented thus the positions and designs can be changed for friction development effects, control of pressure zones and where the actually cooking occurs in the device. Also seen is an extruder barrel stopped and opened up so

Photo 2

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as to see the product along the barrel. On the left the material is simply ground and moistened to a desired level, similar in both devices but higher moistures in extrusion. As the material moves to the right or towards the die the material darkens as seen due to the actual melting of the material into a plastic like state. Upon exiting the die the water flashes off or vaporizes and the cell structure is formed. Extruded pellets are dried and then cooled where pelleted products are cooled upon exit of the system. Both can be coated but coating levels are limited in pelleted feeds due to their dense nature. The cell structure in extrusion can be controlled and there are feeds, salmon sea bass and others, where coating of oils is added in the 20% to 30% range. The cell structure needs to hold the oil in the pellet, so the cell structure or cell sizes developed is important based on oil to be added.

Conclusions and comparisons

The final product range for pelleted feeds are heavy density and generally diameters 1.5 mm and above. Extrusion equipment can produce feeds at a wide range of densities from floating to fast sinking. Many aspects can be controlled as noted for oil level inclusion as well as water durability. Both systems are tools for aquatic feed production and have their place in the industry, the production goals and product ranges need to be defined to select the best tool for the job.

Photo 3

Photo 4

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Mussels are the generic name for bivalve molluscs found in fresh water and salt-water habitats. They can tolerate living in a wide variety of microhabitats, everything from tidal areas to fully submerged zones, and can thrive in a wide range of water temperatures and salinities. Their hard oval shell is divided into two halves, or valves (hence the term “bivalve”) which can split down the middle to reveal a soft orange fleshy body inside. Mussels have two sets of gills, one in each shell half. The shells support the internal structures and form a harddefensive shield against predators. A muscular foot protrudes from between the shell halves which aids the mussel in moving, burrowing, or in anchoring the animal to the substrate. The shells are typically grey to black in colour but can sometimes have a bluish or even purple tint. Most mussels are a maximum of 4-5 cm in length, but they can grow to over 10cm in length. Mussels use their byssal threads (often referred to as their ‘beard’) to attach themselves to rocks or man-made structures such as groynes (a wall or jetty), often located between the high and low water marks. Mussels usually cluster together in large groups (mussel beds), which can consist of hundreds or even thousands of individual mussels. Mussels are filter feeders that draw in seawater and filter it to consume the plankton and other tiny sea creatures floating free in suspension. Breathing also occurs as this water is passed

by Vaughn Entwistle, Features Editor, International Aquafeed across the gills. The common blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is highly fecund and has a life cycle divided into several distinct stages. Mussels reproduce in much the same way as they feed—using the currents of the water around them. Blue mussels, as with all mussels, reproduce sexually. There are separate sexes (male and female), which release gametes (eggs and sperms) directly into the water. In spring, each female mussel ejects about five to 12 million eggs into the water. At the same time, male mussels release sperm. After fertilisation, the fertilised egg begins to develop into a freefloating larval form of the mussel known as a trochophore. These larval mussels float around in the ocean and may be transported several hundred kilometres by sea currents, as their major body parts and systems develop. This free-floating larval form usually exists for a typical duration of three to four weeks, at which point it reaches what is known as the settlement stage Eventually, these floating larvae mature and attach themselves to a suitable growing surface, hopefully near other mussels. This could be a coastal rock, a pier, or as in the aquaculture industry a collector line. It takes a new generation of mussels between two to three years before they reach sexual maturity. The major spawning periods take place during the summer, although a major spawning may take place anytime from late spring to late summer. During their spawning season, the mussels lose about one half of their meat weight. Although it is not fully understood what triggers mussels to begin spawning, we do know that water temperature and salinity plays an important role in determining the best time to spawn.

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The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to offer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city.


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by Vaughn Entwistle, Features Editor, International Aquafeed


lue mussels are shellfish, and like all filter-feeders are extremely well suited to aquaculture. There is little to no risk of pollution or escape, and the effects to surrounding habitat from mussel farms are limited. These filter-feeders actually benefit the surrounding coastal waters by filtering them, and mussels don’t rely on wild fish or fishmeal for food. Diseases are extremely rare, so antibiotics and chemicals aren’t necessary. Because of their ease of cultivation, Mussels have been farmed for hundreds of years. There were reports of mussel cultivation in 13th century France, where mussels were grown on wooden stakes. Today, Europe’s coastal waters are home to the highest level of mussel production in the world. The two major methods of mussel farming are seabed cultivation and suspended cultivation.

Seabed cultivation

Seabed cultivation typically involves locating and fishing seed mussels of roughly 10mm length from offshore mussel beds and they re-laying them in a more productive and protected location. As soon as the mussels have matured, they are scraped from the seabed using a mussel dredging net.

Suspended Cultivation

In suspended culture, the mussels are cultivated on a system of ropes and floats where they grow until harvest 18 to 24 months later. Using this technique, no additional food is added to the water—mussel growth is dictated by the amount of plankton present in the seawater. Suspended cultivation employs three main farming techniques: 40 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed




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Stakes (Bouchot) Culture

Called bouchots in France, where the technique is predominantly used, this method of cultivating mussels takes place on poles or wooden stakes drilled deep into the muddy shoreline. Three to five metres of collecting rope or tubing (sometimes made of coconut fibre) is loaded with mussel spat and wrapped around the stake in a spiral. A netting material is placed over the whole structure to prevent mussels from falling off. Regular maintenance is required in order to remove fouling. Harvesting is either done by hand or by machine. If by hand, workers cut the netting and catch the mussels in bins. Using a machine for collection, it will surround the pole and scrape the mussels off, depositing them on the vessel being used.

Raft Culture

Originating in Spain and popular in other locales around the world, raft culture is a method of growing mussels using a floating platform with rope or socking material hanging from the bottom. These ropes will collect spat and also be used to farm the mussels through the entire growing cycle. As the mussels grow and concentrate, they are thinned out or transferred to socking with a larger mesh size to allow for maximum growth. Rafts can be constructed from wood, HDPE plastic, metal, any other desirable material, or a combination of many materials. Different sizes of rafts are used, yet the functionality of allowing the farmer to walk on top remains the same.

Continuous Socking

Popular in New Zealand, this method entails the use of cotton socking sleeved over ropes. Buoys give the long line its flotation either on the surface. Inside the socking material, a rope provides the mussel seed with a substrate to adhere to. The socking material covers the rope and seed, and acts like a sleeve, allowing the mussels to grow to a marketable size. The socking material is hung from a long line and looped in a continuous fashion. The length of the loops will depend on the depth of the water and preferences of the farmer. The cotton material biodegrades within a matter of months. While the benefit

of continuous socking is an increased yield, consistency in size is a difficulty that many farmers must face. One of the ways they do that is to use extruded plastic socking material.

Single Drop

A variation is the single drop method, which uses socking material hung from a single long line. Mussel spat is loaded into the socking material and each individual length of sock is hung from the long line. The length of each sock is dependent on the depth of the water being farmed. As the mussels grow, they move to the outside of the socking material, causing the material to act with the characteristics of a rope.

Mussel Predation

Humans are not the only ones who like to eat mussels. In the marine environment mussels face predation from seals and sea lions, fish, starfish, numerous species of seabird, and even predatory snails.

Dangers of Mussels

Because they are filter feeders, mussels are at risk of picking up contaminants from seawater. Some algae species contain naturally occurring marine biotoxins from the environment. These biotoxins can accumulate inside the mussels over time, which can pose a risk to consumers. Monitoring is needed to ensure mussels are safe to eat. In a related problem, in some regions of the world, at varying times of the year, fresh mussels must be avoided from certain coastlines. For example, during summer months on the west coast of the US, there is a danger of toxic planktonic organisms, or poisoning related to red tides. The red tides, caused by dinoflagellates, are harmless to mussels but toxic to humans. Consuming exposed mussels can result in serious illness, such as paralytic poisoning.

Health Benefits of Mussels

Mussels are highly nutritious and offer many health benefits: Mussels contain lots of vitamin B12. A single serving provides more than the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of B12! B12 is important because it is needed to make red blood cells, and is a vital part of many body chemicals found in every cell. Manganese is also found in large amounts in mussels. This mineral is used as part of enzymatic functions, bone formation and metabolizing energy from food. Mussels are also a good source of iron and of vitamin C, which helps the body better absorb iron. Iron is an essential part of hemoglobin, and helps support healthy immune function. Mussels are considered a high quality/complete protein, scoring 106 on the Amino Acid protein quality scale.

Worldwide Cultivation of Blue Mussels

Worldwide aquaculture accounts for 95 percent of mussel production. The major production areas in are in China, Spain, Italy, Thailand, France, and New Zealand. The United States is a small producer of mussels, and imports them primarily from Canada and New Zealand. Like oysters they can be cultured on-bottom or by suspension techniques, which account for 85 percent of production. There are very few outbreaks of diseases, and so chemicals and other antibiotics are rarely used. The overall production of mussels in Europe peaked at nearly 750,000 tonnes in the late 1990s and has since declined to about 550, 000 tonnes in the past few years. On a global scale, Europe is a major contributor of mussels, supplying over a third of the total production. 42 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 18

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Marrying industry-leading cameras to an innovative aquaculture software by Tore Laastad and Pål Herstad, Steinsvik, Norway

Steinsvik is a global company specialised in delivering products and solutions to the aquaculture industry and is the market leader in camera systems for monitoring fish behaviour. The feeding cameras have been the core of Steinsvik’s business since 1985.

This success has laid the foundation for the company’s expansion into feeding systems, barges, software and various other products used by fish farmers around the globe every day. The cameras will also be at the forefront of the evolution in fish farming together with software systems and high-speed Internet connections for the individual farms, allowing for the gathering and transfer of data to off site or “cloud” systems.

The underwater eye

The first camera was built in 1985, but the well-known underwater-eye design didn’t see the light of day until 1990. Salmon farming was still in its infancy, with smaller cages, fewer fish, and a more simplistic approach to feeding. Most farmers relied on manual observation of surface activity to gauge the fish’s appetite; few saw the emerging need for a sub-surface eye to observe them. The struggle to gain market share was twofold as the farmers’ needed convincing and the product needed improvement.

Developing momentum

In 1992, the well-known look emerged. The idea behind it was an eye below water. The camera was able to rotate 360 degrees vertically and horizontally, giving the farmer the ability to monitor feeding behaviour over a large area. Customer Feedback showed a substantial potential for optimising the amount of feed to be fed for every meal. More often than not, farmers were

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underfeeding their fish by following a set-feeding schedule. This could manifest itself in a high feed conversion rate, in itself a good indicator of the pellets being consumed, but hid the fact that there was a potential for faster growth and larger fish at harvest.

A focus on cameras

So far, Steinsvik have delivered more than 12,000 cameras. There

are cameras currently in use that were delivered back in 1998! This is an 18-year life span to date for electronic equipment submerged in seawater—and herein lies the key to Steinsvik success. A clear image, and user-friendly controls are not enough— the product has to work, day in and day out, year after year, in ever changing conditions. Salmon farmers rely upon the images to be able to feed the exact amount to ensure maximum growth and reduce waste.

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Looking forward

Camera development is an on-going process, based on experience and feedback from customers. The cameras have developed from a simple underwater eye to a complete monitoring system. Cameras have depth indicators, compasses, and can be fitted with various sensors to give the farmer all the necessary information required to make the right decision—every time. Crystal clear images allow for more than just information on appetite and behaviour. In fact, the images are so sharp that Steinsvik is currently working on projects involving biomass measurement, pellet detection and automated lice counts.

The big picture: integration & remote operations, the future in fish farming

Steinsvik has big plans for the future. At the core of these plans are its cameras and fish feeding systems. The company sees a shift towards more exposed, energetic fish farming sites and a growing need for remote operations.

The integration of Steinsvik’s cameras and feeding systems started years ago with the acquirement of Ocea and their renowned FeedStation feeding system. The newest FeedStation is made for remote operations with no need for third party software or separate solutions for the feeding and camera systems. Images and sensory data from the cameras are displayed within the feeding system, with the ability to control the camera. When looking at the video images, the necessary information system is displayed as a HUD (heads up display) display on the video screen. The camera, software and mechanical systems all tie together to allow fish farmers more control, on site, or from a remote control room. The emerging feed centres allow for specialists—trained operators—to maximize fish growth independent of weather conditions on site. With Steinsvik cameras they can observe the fish as if they were swimming among them and FeedStation ensures that the right amount is feed at the right time every time. A growing number of Steinsvik customers have already started

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Reliable & efficient compressed air & blower solutions

Aquaculture applications: • Cages

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• Aeration

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the centralisation of their feeding operations, with numerous positive effects. Feeding technicians, biologists and veterinarians, have instant access to real time information on fish performance. This makes for a better environment for collaboration and information sharing, and makes the specific site less vulnerable to both weather conditions and enables the feeding technicians to share the workload should an issue occur.

Customer benefits of remote feeding

Alf Arild Jacobsen, operations manager for Salmar’s remote feeding centre in Lysnes explains some of the benefits of remote feeding: “We have had an active remote feeding strategy since 2009 and are currently feeding between 14 and 16 sites from our remote operations centre in Lysnes. The sites are scattered from Harstad to Båtsfjord in the northern part of Norway, and the site furthest away from the feeding centre is about 1000 kilometres. When the technology to do this became available we saw the opportunity to increase the focus on feeding as a skill. Creating an environment where people with an interest for feeding had daily contact gave results. The immediate effect was that we were able to achieve consistent biological results. Since then we have been working on the craftsmanship of feeding fish with our skilled feeding technicians. We are also fully dependent on the collaboration with Steinsvik and other innovative suppliers of technology to perform on biology. “

Gathering data, but how to use it effectively?

Steinsvik have been hosting cloud-based systems since the turn of the millennium. The Mercatus modules monitor live stock performance, plan harvesting and projects, and keep track of production costs and other financial KPI’s through the production cycle. The rapid development of integration possibilities, the increase in available sensor data and the whole aqua industry’s quest for better control and deeper analysis of the biological parameters

have led us to set yet another goal: Not only do we strive to continuously produce the best cameras and feeding systems; we also have a strategy to become the aqua industry’s preferred data and analytics partner. For years there has been a mismatch between the amount of data produced by systems, sensors or staff on the barge, and the actual ability to make efficient use of all the data. There are many reasons for this, but an undergrowth of poorly integrated systems from different vendors, hand written observations on site, questionable quality of sensors and neither time, nor focus nor capability to tie all relevant information together pretty much sums it up. Sound familiar? Steinsvik is on the case, and are well on it’s way to bringing a solution. The barge is the heart of any aquaculture operation, and the barge is also where much of the relevant data is being produced by sensors, feed systems, cameras, and various other devices. That is why we put a powerful server in place, with a smart software component inside, gathering all relevant data from any digital source on the barge. Regardless of the vendor, we can handle the data and pass it on to a cloud-based data warehouse, where it can be integrated with more data from production systems, financial systems or other relevant external sources. The result? The user receives a continuous collection and storage of the information needed to perform automated reporting, internal benchmarking and advanced analytics of environmental parameters versus growth or fish health. The increasing amount of data will also provide the base needed for implementing predictive analysis and machine learning, giving any aquaculture company new insight and providing the basis for better decisions. The last decade has given the industry ingenious new mechanical solutions to several problems. We predict that the next giant leap forward will come from software innovation and better use of data.

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#2 With over 30 years’ experience in the plastic moulding industry, JFC specialise in providing quality rotationally moulded plastic products. They offer a complete range of Mussel Floats, Navigation Buoys, Navigation Beacons, monitoring and control systems to suit all marine applications.

Superior performance mussel floats by Colin Concannon. JFC Marine Sales Manager, Ireland

In 2005, JFC established a new marine division focusing on the development of a range of mussel floats that now deliver mussel farmers the world over many advantages. Since their launch to market, JFC Mussel Floats have helped mussel farmers to substantially increase yields and reduce crop losses. JFC Marine superior performance mussel floats are designed and manufactured for the most demanding conditions. Ideal for inshore and offshore locations, they are proven in the most exposed conditions of the Atlantic Ocean. The polyethylene used in the floats is fortified with UV stabilisers designed especially for marine applications (UV15 rating).

Patented Stability Fin

The JFC float has been specifically designed so that they can withstand the pressures of high waves and sit steadily in the water, even when loaded with a full crop of mussels. The design ensures that the floats have a low profile in the water, causing limited vertical motion, which reduces stress on the mussels. Consequently, this “reduced stress� on the mussels means that they can concentrate on growing, as opposed to expending their energy on trying to remain attached to the rope during turbulent conditions. In addition, the fin design ensures the mussel holding lines do not brush up and down the float, and so prevents the crop from falling back into the sea. The end result is that mussels grown using JFC mussel floats grow larger, have a higher meat quality, and are much less susceptible to losses. All of these factors culminate in significantly increased yields over a shorter time period for the mussel farmer and can significantly improve the profitability of mussel farming enterprises. All of these factors culminate in significantly increased yields over a shorter time period for the mussel farmer. JFC mussel floats have the potential to substantially boost the profitability of the ropemussels industry whilst simultaneously reducing the number of mussel floats required per site. This will assist mussel farmers in successfully applying for licences to produce mussels as the visual impact of using JFC mussel floats on-site is minimised, addressing a key concern of some regulatory bodies.

Proven Results

JFC mussel floats have shown proven results carried out by independent trials. Internationally

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renowned mussel production expert Dr John Bonardelli (a world has also recently announced its latest addition to the Mussel Float range - the MF330 Mussel Float. leading independent shellfish production specialist) evaluated A new blow moulded manufactured mussel float, it is designed and compared the efficiency of JFC mussel floats compared to and manufactured for the most demanding conditions. They are other similar sized floats used in the rope-grown industry. ideal for inshore and offshore locations, and are proven in the A trial involving five experienced mussel growers in three most exposed conditions of the Atlantic Ocean. different coastal counties was conducted across Ireland. From experience and product knowledge gained in serving the According to Dr Bonardelli “JFC Mussel Floats clearly riculture, Inc. | 2018 Advertising Theme:from Thelong Plankton Ad | Design: A we | Version: market expanded 1 our marine focus to provide demonstrate that rope grown| mussels lines usingPeople aquaculture an extensive range of aids to navigation product solutions. JFC JFC mussel floats are more effective in producing higher t: International Aquafeed magazine | Size: Half Page | Dimensions: 190mm X 132mm products are sold in over 40 international markets and it has built commercial yields in a shorter time frame than for mussel a reputation internationally for outstanding quality and innovation stocks with similar histories using other equivalent volume in product design, research and development and production. floats”. JFC Marine supply a range of products to the Aquaculture sector including Abalone Trays, Shrimp Graders and Storage Tanks. Technology updates Adding further to JFC’s product portfolio, the marine division


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TECHNOLOGY SHO Top aquaculture technology AQUACULTURE COUNTING TECHNOLOGY In aquaculture it’s important to have accurate, fast and easy to use machinery to count your stock. Whether it be fry or fully-fledged fish ready for the table, you want to know how many you have and the stocks quality. Using the latest in technology, from infa-red to touch screen software connected to the cloud, there’s never been faster and more precise ways of counting the fish from your farm. With these latest products from around the industry, gone are the days of farmers hand counting and grading their stock, and here are the days of the fastest and best production rates available.

Pescavision Fish Counter Unparalleled ease of use This product created by Faivre, France, covers counting needs extending from 5g to 4.5kg. It is designed to be placed at the outlet of the sorting system, thereby centralising the equipment and reducing the installation time. This system promises, “no more counters at the ends of the pipes”. It boasts a number of species that it can count, including: Trout/ Salmon, Tilapia/Carp, Barramundi, Sea Bream, Sea Bass and Eels. The three main models pictured include; Pescavision10, Pescavison30 and the Pescavision50. These fish counters have the latest technology with infared LED. Tech specifications P10: • 5g-150g (salmonidae) • High flow rate up to 60,000 fish per hour • Accuracy 98-100% • Light and easily handled, made of marine grade aluminium • Easy coupling with Helios fish graders Tech specifications P30: • 40g-1kg (salmonidae) • High flow rate up to 3T/h • Accuracy 98-100% • Light and easily handled, made of marine grade aluminium • Easy coupling with Helios fish graders • Tech specifications P50: • 500g-4.5kg (salmonidae) • High flow rate up to 5T/h • Accuracy 98-100% • Light and easily handled, made of marine grade aluminium • Easy coupling with Helios fish graders

CSE series Dry counters require minimal water The CSE series produced by AquaScan Fishcounters are a range of counters typically used in combination with grading and similar operations. These dry-counters require only a small amount of transport water for the fish passing through. They have a standard DN flange connection which makes the installation very simple, as well as adapters available for pipe connections. The CSE is a very flexible series of counters that are easy to use either as standalone counters, connected to a pipeline system or mounted directly on a grader. The CSE1600, shown in pictures is the company’s best-selling unit worldwide. The machine handles sizes from 1g to 1kg and will therefore cover almost any need for counting fry/smolts. This unit is very compact and lightweight and can easily be moved from one location to another. Each unit can count approximately 20,000 100g fish per hour. Pipe size 150mm inner diameter (6”).

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OWCASE SR-1601 Fish Counter Simultaneously monitor up to 16 tunnels The SR-1601 Fish Counter is a 16-channel counter designed for counting hatchery fry, migrating smolt, fish eggs, emergent shrimp, and other macro organisms. This product by Smith-Root, “Technology for Fisheries Conservations”, simultaneously monitors all 16 tunnels for fish movements, giving individual counts for each tunnel. In order to be counted, macro organisms pass through a counting tunnel and are tallied on a 16-digit display. This system easily tallies 10 counts per second per channel, giving 576,000 counts per hour. Tech specifications: • Type of detection – Potentiometric bridge • Water conductivity range – 20-500 µS/cm • Count sensitivity – 1% tunnel unbalance, minimum • Count rate – 10 per second/channel • Count capacity per channel – 999,999 six-digit LCD • Counting mode – 16 discrete channels • Type of tunnel require – Three element potentiometric • Tunnel length: Diameter – 3:1 minimum • Smallest fish detected - Length equal to tunnel diameter • Power requirement – 120VAC 60Hz • Battery Life – 4 days minimum Size and weight: Height – 9.2 in Width – 21.5 in Depth – 9.5 in Weight – 16.5 lb. (35 lb with battery)

VAKI Nano Counter Fast and reliable The VAKI Nano Counter provides commercial aquaculture operators with highly-accurate counting of fish from as small as 0.05g. The Nano Counter has a very high capacity of 200,000 fish per hour and 1g size, and the fish remain in the water at all times. The Nano provides operators with a detailed counting report and saved digital record of images which are saved for full verification of the count. Suitable fish for this product include: all nontransparent fish. Tech specifications: • Accuracy over 99% • Fish size – 0.05g-30g • Capacity – Up to 200,000 1g fish/hour • Dimensions – 150x70x160cm (LxWxH) • Power supply – 110/220v • Size and weight: • Height – 9.2 in • Width – 21.5 in • Depth – 9.5 in • Weight – 16.5 lb. (35 lb with battery)

XperCount Unique technology at your fingertips This product innovated by xpertSea is a portable smart device for rapid inventory assessment and quality analysis of early stage aquatic populations. The product enables Wi-Fi based session uploads and update downloads, as well as using cameras and sensors that enable analytics specific to each specie. The software engineering brings ‘magic’ through advanced computer vision and artificial intelligence. Quoted technical features include: • Accuracy – 95 percent or higher • Multi-species compatibility – counts and analyses multiple different organism types with a single device • Battery operated – completely portable • Easy to use – touchscreen interface • Rugged and waterproof – built for an aquaculture work environment • Safe materials – Made entirely of FDA- approved materials; 100 percent safe for live animals.

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 53

Industry Events Events listing AUGUST

21 – 24/08/18 - Nor Fishing Norway WEB: 24 - 26/08/18 - China International Fishery and Seafood Exposition 2018 China WEB: 25 - 29/08/18 - Aqua 2018 France WEB:


2 – 6/09/18 - International Symposium on Aquatic Animal Health 2018 Canada WEB:

AquaSG’18 Conference, last chance for early bird registration Organised by Asian Aquaculture Network (AAN) and Temasek Polytechnic, AquaSG’18 is a true industry forum and platform with topical and regionally relevant conference and workshop sessions, tailored to facilitate networking, foster learning and stimulate conversations that matter. The conference is an ideal place to learn, discuss, exchange, and connect. Anyone in the business of aquaculture, from students and researchers to government and environmental agencies, farmers, entrepreneurs, investors and feed manufacturers, will stand to gain from participating in it. Breezing into its third year, AquaSG’18 encompasses conference, workshops, exhibition, poster presentations and farm visits over the course of four days. Topics covered: • Breeding and Hatchery • Nutrition and Health • Farming Systems and Internet of Things • Investment in Aquaculture

4 – 6/09/18 - Seafood Expo Asia 2018 China WEB: 11 – 12/09/18 - Aquaculture Innovation Summit 2018 UK WEB: 11 – 14/09/18 - SPACE France WEB: 17 – 19/09/18 - VIV China 2018 China WEB: 19-20/09/18 - Algae Tech Conference Germany WEB: 26 – 27/09/18 - New Zealand Aquaculture Conference New Zealand WEB: 30/09/18 – 2/10/18 - IAOM SEA Philippines WEB:


Programme Outline Day 1: Farming systems & IoT Day 2: Breeding and hatchery Nutrition and health Day 3: Investment in aquaculture Day 4: Marine Aquaculture Centre; Blue Aqua Broodstock Production Centre; Jurong Frog Farm.

2018 Aquaponics Association Conference The 2018 Aquaponics Association Conference will be held in Hartford, CT at the Hilton Hartford Hotel. Mark your calendars from Friday, September 21, 2018 through Sunday, September 23, 2018 for this exciting three-day conference. Last year in Portland, Oregon the theme was “Putting Down Roots”. This year it crosses to the opposite coast to continue growing together. The conference will feature four learning tracks: • Commercial Aquaponics – What are the barriers to commercial aquaponic growth? How can we overcome them together? • Community Aquaponics – How much can we grow in our own backyards? And how is aquaponics helping to fight hunger and malnutrition. • Aquaponics Research and Food Safety – What is the latest research in aquaponics science? What unified message do we

deliver to food safety regulators and policymakers? • Aquaponics in STEM Education – How are educators across the country teaching STEM through aquaponics? And how can we get aquaponics in more STEM programs? • Aquaponics in STEM Education – How are educators across the country teaching STEM through aquaponics? And how can we get aquaponics in more STEM programs?

3 – 5/10/18 - Biomin Nutrition Forum South Africa WEB:

The conference will run for three days and feature: the top aquaponics experts from around the world; tours of commercial aquaponics operations; a vendor showroom; interactive discussions and social events for aquaponics growers of all stripes to collaborate. We will continue to update you with more information about the topics that will be discussed as well as provide videos from last year’s conference.

3 – 5/10/18 - Food Ingredients Asia Indonesia WEB:


1 – 4/10/18 - Aqua’SG 18 Singapore WEB:

17 – 18/10/18 - 34th National Shellfish and Marine Culture Show France WEB: 17 – 19/10/18 - Offshore Mariculture Europe Greece WEB: 17 – 19/10/18 - Vietstock 2018 Vietnam WEB: 23 – 26/10/18 - Latin America & Caribbean Aquaculture 2018 Colombia WEB:

AQUA2018, Montpellier, France will take place between August 25-29, 2018. The event is due to celebrate the fact that aquaculture is one of the most important food production industries in the world. Taking place in the beautiful French city of Montpellier, it will comprise of scientific conferences, a trade show, industry sessions, workshops, student orientated events and social functions. The AQUA events are co-organised by the European Aquaculture Society (EASS) and the World Aquaculture Society (WAS) and are held every six years in Europe. Notable past events include; AQUA2000 (Nice, France), AQUA2006 (Florence, Italy) and AQUA2012 (Prague, Czech Republic).

For more industry event information - visit our events register 54 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

11-14 SEPT. 2018 RENNES - FRANCE

More than 1.440 exhibitors in 11 halls in 2017 and 250 booths outdoors. An exhibit area of 16 Ha. Free farm visits program.

More than 114.000 trade visitors, including 14.000 international from 128 countries. More than 70 conferences, Espace for the Furture and Innov’Space. > Obtain your free pass on:


@SPACERennes #SPACE2018 +33 2 23 48 28 90 /

Industry Events

IndoLivestock 2018 opens its doors and hearts to the President


by Roger Gilbert, Publisher, International Aquafeed

osted by the Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health of the Indonesia’s Ministry of Agriculture, ‘IndoLivestock’ 2018 Exposition and Forum has become a ‘must attend’ event for decision makers and buyers not only within this wide-ranging country but from across Asia. More than 14,000 trade visitors attended the Exposition and its seminar and technical product presentation held in Jakarta’ city-center Convention Centre from July 4-6, 2018. This year’s show hosted over 500 exhibitors from 40 countries. But this was an event with a difference! When the president of your country puts time aside to visit an exhibition about feed production and livestock farming systems, you know that the eyes of the nation are upon you and the work you are doing. To anybody’s mind, this was a significant development. Word spread as soon as the halls opened on the last day of the show that the president might attend. When all exhibitors and visitors had to exit the building in order for a protection detail to do a security sweep of the four exhibition halls the rumor took on some credibility. Then just after lunch,

with the entrance crammed with visitors, President Joko Widodo’s cavalcade arrived. There was immediate silence and then a spontaneous round of applause as he entered the main hall. President Widodo spent over 90 minutes visiting feed company stands and a selection of equipment suppliers – both local and international – of the feed, poultry, dairy and aquaculture. When attending other conferences and events he normally allocates just 30 minutes. International Aquafeed’s event manager Tuti Tan had the privilege of shaking President Joko Widodo hand and while he passed by our stand. The importance of scientificallyformulated compound feeds cannot be overstated when a country is trying to overcome poverty and malnutrition and the president is an example of the attention that our industry should be receiving

56 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

from the highest level in order to meet the nutritional needs of growing populations.

The feed industry growth

Dr Desianto Budi Utomo, Vice President of PT Chareon Pokphand Indonesia, the country’s largest feed milling company, told International Aquafeed the feed industry in Indonesia is dependent on the poultry industry as it accounts for almost 90 percent of all animal and fish protein consumed by the country’s 267 million people. Poultry represents 65 percent of all protein consumed by Indonesians, he adds. Five years ago, and earlier the country’s feed sector was growing at 10-12 percent per annum, but now for the past few years that growth has fallen back to between five-to-eight percent per annum. While that is a significant decline, it is meeting demand and is sustainable, says Dr Budi Utomo. “Poultry still has a great future in Indonesia as the total consumption per capita is only 12kg per year while in countries in the region, such as Malaysia, per capita production is about three-time that at 40kg per annum. “We are still lagging behind other countries in Asia. Even if we double production we would still be lagging behind other in the region,” he adds. “So, the future remains is huge here for our 260 million people who have to be fed and where over 55 percent of that is coming from poultry.” That extra production says Dr Budi Utomo will come from both a combination of

Industry Events

expansions to existing mills and the construction of new mills with new companies entering the feed production market from Malaysia, Taiwan and China. Some feed companies are intending to expand their mill numbers from three to five over the next decade to meet anticipated increases in demand, he told International Aquafeed.

Raw materials drive prices

Raw materials for the feed industry, which can be produced within Indonesia, are receiving support from the government to. Corn is one example where the government has restricted the importation of maize to assist local farmers. However, the local price of maize has increased significantly over the two years in which this policy has been operating

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 57

and as a result, feed formulators have turned their attention to alternatives such as wheat and wheat by-product imports. There is some pressure on feed millers to continue using locally-produced corn particularly in chicken feeds, but for the past year inclusion levels have fallen from 50 percent to 35 percent. It appears as if local corn usage will increase if prices stabilise, says Dr Budi Utomo.

Industry Events

“The country remains largely dependent on imported soybean meal for its protein in rations.” CP Indonesia presented the President, on his visit to the Exposition, with the mobile corn dryer aptly named the MCD, which has been designed by CP and is being rolled out to help farmers dry their corn correctly before supplying to feed millers. This is particularly important when corn has to be transported some long distances to feedmills for storage and use. Up until now feed mills have been operating the country’s largest corn drying facilities for local farmers. However, moving corn from the new growing areas in the country to the mills where it is to be used, must be done in the correct condition, says Dr Budi Utomo and the new MCDs will help ensure that. “This is the first of its type in Indonesia. We’ve given it to the government to replicate and distribute to farming communities,” he adds. “The president is really interested in growing the welfare of the farmers and not just producing corn.”


Desianto Budi Utomo

Indonesia has over 95 feed mills and produced 19.09 million tonnes of feed in

58 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

2017 and is likely to produce 19.6 million tonnes this year. Almost 12 million tonnes of that production is in layer and broiler feeds with dairy and beef both consuming some 1.6 and 1.5 million tonnes respectively. Surprisingly pig production consumers almost two million tonnes of feed and aquaculture 1.25 million tonnes. If production can be improved in maize, palm kernel meal and cassava production, the president was showing his “The exhibition has a great advantage not just for feedmillers but for the visitors and with the international delegates and companies who can show us new technologies that we should be using,” he adds. This year’s exhibition includes a significant aquaculture sector for the first time. There were numerous international exhibitors especially from the feed milling and feed additive industries. IndoLivestock has become more of a regional event than just national showcase for livestock production. The 13th event for any organization might have inauspicious, but on this occasion quite the opposite - a serendipitous encounter for all those who stayed on to the end of the show!

9.30 AM

A one day short course for aquafeed processing professionals 11th of September 2018 - Taking part as part of SPACE, Rennes, France

10.00 AM

Introduction and Principles of Extrusion Technology Dr. Mian Riaz, Texas A&M University, USA

11.00 AM

Current up‐Date on Aqua Feed Globally Roger Gilbert Editor International Aqua Feed Magazine, UK

11.30 AM

Coffee Break

11.45 AM

Raw Material Properties for Aqua Feed Extrusion Dr. Mian Riaz, Texas A&M University, USA

12.30 PM

Grinding of Raw Material for the Aqua Feed Arthur vom Hofe CPM‐Europe B.V.

1:30 PM

Lunch Break

2.30 PM

Optimization of Aqua Feed Quality Nicola Tallarico Kemin, Belgium

3.15 PM

4.00 PM

4.15 PM

For more information visit:

Extruded Aqua feed quality management; Relations between technology and extruded aqua feed quality Thomas Ellegaard Mohr, ANDRITZ Feed & Biofuel‐ Europe Coffee Break Making floating and Sinking Feed with Twin Screw Extrusion Technology Alain Brisset, Clextral‐ France

5.00 PM

NIR analyzer for ingredient and raw material Per Lidén Perten Instruments Ab ‐Sweedon

5.45. PM

Q/A session and Certificate Distribution

Sponsored by

In association with:

Registration and Welcome Tuti Tan – International Aqua Feed Magazine

Your global technology process supplier for the aqua feed industry ANDRITZ is one of the world’s leading suppliers of techno­ logies, systems, and services relating to advanced indus­ trial equipment for the aqua feed industry. With an in-depth knowledge of each key process, we can supply a compatible and homogeneous solution from raw material intake to finished feed bagging.

ANDRITZ Feed & Biofuel A/S Europe, Asia, and South America: USA and Canada:

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 59

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800


Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355

VAV +31 71 4023701

GMP+ International +31703074120

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41

JEFO +1 450 799 2000

Colour sorters A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Satake +81 82 420 8560

Computer software

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666

Adifo NV +32 50 303 211

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081

Andritz +45 72 160300

Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Brabender +49 203 7788 0

Coolers & driers Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 Muyang Group +86 514 87848880 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40

60 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 IDAH +866 39 902701 Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 APC +34 938 615 060 Jefo +1 450 799 2000 SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website:

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Used around all industrial sectors.

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580

Visit us!

Andritz +45 72 160300 Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880

Moisture analysers

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699

Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 Seedburo +1 312 738 3700

Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21

Biomin +43 2782 803 0


Agromatic +41 55 2562100

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550

Probiotics NIR-Online +49 6227 732668

Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102




Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www.

Level measurement

Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Pipe systems

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Tornum AB +46 512 29100

Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00

Hatchery products

CB Packaging +44 7805 092067

Muyang +86 514 87848880

Pellet binders

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550

NIR systems

Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40

Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555


Lallemand + 33 562 745 555

Research Imaqua +32 92 64 73 38

Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50

Second hand equipment Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054

International Aquafeed - August 2018 | 61

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00

the interview Dr Mian N. Riaz, Director of the Process Engineering R&D Center, Head of Extrusion Technology Programme, and Professor in the Nutrition and Food Science Department at Texas A&M University Dr Mian N. Riaz is the Director of the Process Engineering R&D Center (formally Food Protein R&D Center), Head of Extrusion Technology Programme, and Professor in the Nutrition and Food Science Department at Texas A&M University, USA. He has published five books, 22 chapters and more than 100 papers on extrusion and other related topics. Dr Riaz is a frequent speaker at international and national conferences and meetings and so far, he has delivered more than 300 presentations in 55 countries. Dr Riaz will be heading up a one-day seminar at the upcoming SPACE exhibition in Rennes, France between September 1114. This will be on Aqua feed Extrusion and extrusion technology for aquaculture feed.

As the Head of Extrusion Technology at Texas A&M can you explain why education of extrusion through both higher education and the conferences you put on for professionals is so important?

What conferences and interaction with the industry do you have planned for 2019?

On the other hand, most of the agriculture commodities, like, cereal, grains and pulses are processed using this technology as well. Therefore, it is very important we train personnel through education and training programmes about this technology. Basic extrusion cooking principles are the same, but like any technology, there is always innovation that can be adopted to extrusion technology.

In January PERDC will offer our 29th annual Feeds and Pet Food Extrusion course, in July PERDC will offer their 4th annual Pet Food Extrusion and pet treats and in August, PERDC will offer their 26th annual Aquaculture Feed Extrusion and Feed Management.

Extrusion processing is one of the fastest growing areas in the world. Most aqua feed and pet food are currently extruded to fill the demand of this sector.

Following on from the last question, what kind of long lasting impact does this type and level of education provide?

This education will train and make any personnel better in extrusion technology in their field. We hear numerous comments from past participants that it was worth attending the extrusion training and now have a better understanding on how things work and can better handle their job.

What advice would you give to young feed professionals wanting to specialise in extrusion technology as a career, is there a particular course they should study or work placement they should get?

There are very few universities who offer courses and training in the area of extrusion in Europe and in the USA. There are several week-long courses and other seminars that take place about extrusion. Any basic degree in Food Science and Technology or Feed Technology background will be the best for someone who would want to enter in the area of extrusion technology.

You will be hosting an extrusion course at SPACE in September for Aqua Feed Extrusion – what can attendees look forward to at this conference?

This is a one-day course which basically provides the latest technology on extrusion and more in the area of aqua feed, such as grinding, coating, quality management, making aqua feed and analysing raw and finished product.

What developments do you see happening in extrusion technology over the next five years?

Most extrusion companies look to improve their existing system regarding energy efficiency, automation, safety of extruded products and drying of the finished product. We will see in the next five years several new adds on gadgets for the exiting extruder which can improve the efficiency of the extrude, a better automation system where someone can monitor their extrusion operation anywhere on their phone. These automation systems will provide verification and validation about processing conditions.

The Process Engineering R&D Center at Texas A&M University will offer five courses in the area of extrusion. Three of them will be related to feed and two will be related to food. In these courses, feed industry personnel will be attending and will be discussing the opportunities in extrusion.

How do you think R&D in aqua feed extrusion will contribute to keeping aquaculture as the fastest growing industry in the world? And from that, contribute to creating a sustainable food future for the planet?

We all know that our population is growing rapidly, and we always have a need for more protein to feed this growing population. Therefore, R and D in aqua feed will contribute the latest innovation that can improve the aqua feed extrusion and utilise the novel ingredients, which were not used before, like insect protein and algae biomass. Understanding of these new ingredients will help in future sustainability for this planet.

What has been your biggest challenge throughout your career in the industry and how did you overcome it?

The greatest challenge I faced in my career to date has to be the key role I played in making my extrusion programme one of the best in the nation. After continuous hard work, myself and my staff have been able to bring my extrusion programme to be one of the best in the nation and any US university.

What’s your favorite part about what you do?

I love giving talks at different seminars, conferences, and training programmes. It gives me pleasure that I am doing my civic duty by providing knowledge through these talks.

Is there anything that you’re doing, or a student or bit of technology perhaps the industry should keep an eye on over the coming 12 months – a “one to watch” if you will?

Currently, we are working on texturisation of pulses and legumes using extrusion technology. We have done some basic work and now we are entering in the next phase where we can understand how this texturisation can be improved and applied to the industry needs.

62 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES Delphine Lacombe joins Delacon as customer technical service manager ruminant


elphine Lacombe, MSc has been hired as a Customer Technical Service Manager Ruminant for Delacon. She will support the team of Thierry Aubert, Species Leader Ruminants.

Delphine Lacombe

Delphine Lacombe started in the business as nutritionist and sales manager at a local feed mill in France. Already in her studies of animal science at Agrocampus Ouest in Rennes, she specialised in animal production and animal feeding. Lastly, Lacombe worked at a feed additive company in France as sales manager at a national level.

AFIA welcomes Louise Calderwood


ouise Calderwood has joined the American Feed Industry Association as its director of regulatory affairs, effective July 2, 2018.

She will provide proactive industry and technical leadership on regulatory and state issues related to pet food and equine nutrition and general regulatory issues. She will work with the Association of American Feed Control Officials and lead AFIA’s pet food and equine committees.

Louise Calderwood

Ms Calderwood holds a master’s degree in dairy science from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and a bachelor’s degree in animal science from the University of Vermont.

Seafood industry veteran joins aquaculture sales team


ark Prater has been welcomed as Director of Sales for Australis Aquaculture.

He will be responsible for developing new business opportunities and managing key foodservice and retail accounts from his Southern California base. Mr Prater is well-known in the seafood industry with over 30 years of experience. He spent the last nine years running Mariners Pacific Seafood, which serves as a regional retained sales agent for numerous organisations.

Mark Prater

He has spent over 15 years in senior management on the wholesale side of the seafood industry with Pacific Fish Company in Seattle, WA and American Fish in Los Angeles, CA.

Features editor appointed at International Aquafeed


att Holmes is joining Aquafeed as a Features Editor. He previously worked as a journalist for 25 years and his most recent job was as Editor of the Gloucestershire Echo and, two local publications to the headquarters of International Aquafeed magazine.

Matt Holmes

He previously worked as a Chief reporter and crime reporter before specialising in digital journalism and helping to launch and grow the Gloucestershire websites as Digital Editor. His father was a fishmonger in Manchester and he worked extensively in the industry for many years prior to training as a journalist on northern newspapers before moving to Gloucestershire in 1997 and working for The Citizen newspaper.

64 | August 2018 - International Aquafeed













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