MAR 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine

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Alternative aquafeeds Improve fishery performance

International Aquafeed - Volume 21 - Issue 03 - March 2018

- Phytogenic feed supplements: Natural breeding is the goal - Diving deeper for a sea lice solution - Sustainability in aquaculture: Water conservation - Aquaculture with floating and submersible nets - Expert topic - Lobster Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

March 2018

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Bienvenido - welcome

This is just one of many topics; I could go into several others, but it had the opportunity to be would be pointless to write a somber with several groups of column. Those who know me and / or producers and academics read me know that with me it is about in past meetings and after how I do, never about why not. I touch intense dialogues with many the point, because in order to take that of them the subject of this column arose. great step, the one we are all looking for, where Latin America becomes a First of all, I would like, as leading actor in world aquaculture, we always, to express that I am not have to open our minds, and not only the owner of the absolute truth, but Antonio Garza de Yta to the local, but to the whole world. I believe that there are concepts International Aquafeed Internationalisation will be one of the that are indispensable for the - Spanish Language Editor keys for us to increase our efficiency, aquaculture development of the reduce the incidence of diseases, optimise resources and country and the region; and one of them is humility. consolidate value chains; among many other aspects. In principle, we have to accept that Mexico is not a giant of Personally, life has taken me to many parts of the world, and I aquaculture, that we only produce around 200 thousand tons have seen first-hand how some problems that seem impossible in controlled systems and that not everything we do is the to solve, and are only anecdotes in another part of the world. So right thing to do. We have to admit that we do not know many let’s accept our reality. We still have a long way to go on this things, that not everything is done, that there is a world full of long road to greatness. Let us admit our weaknesses, recognise possibilities and that, although we have been in this business our shortcomings and accept our mistakes, only this way we for many decades, we still have a lot to learn. can strengthen ourselves to take care of them, and remedy them. This I say after listening to the reports of many Government I have to admit that getting to this University has been a Institutions and Research Centers, of several countries of the great life experience for me. From daily contact with my region, that report actions and achievements that are simply students and colleagues, I have learned much more than I have incongruent with the reality that is lived every day. been able to give back for sure. Seeing them striving day by A simple example: All the countries of the region report activities of extension in aquaculture that would lead us to think that we have day makes your server fill with energy and look every day to be better and at the same time remember that we can always the subject covered, when in fact most of this is done by people learn something from anyone regardless of their origins, who are not qualified to do their work and in Very few occasions studies, preparation or social status. are performed by people truly specialised in our area. Today, we are starting a long journey of openness and It is not about sending hundreds of people to the field, internationalisation in this house of studies. We invite anyone but about sending the key people to transform the activity, who wants to join us to do so. Let’s analyse our options, they to promote new technologies, to open the minds of the are many, and above all we are humble; the road is very long producers. An extensionist is much more than a technician and we still have a lot to learn. who raises surveys; an extensionist is a generator of change.



NETS: Aquaculture with floating and submersible nets - page 38

AQUAFEED: Alternative aquafeeds to improve fishery performance - page 24

SHOWCASE: Technology Showcase page 44

PHYTOGENIC: Phytogenic feed supplements - page 28



EXPERT TOPIC: Lobster - page 34

WATER: Sustainability in aquaculture - Water conservation may be the key - page 30

International Aquafeed attended Oceanology International 2018, at which Jamie Luxemoore, Research Fellow at the University of Exeter gave a presentation on an innovative mooring design and assessment for an aquaculture system as part of the “Lobster Grower 2 project”.

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies

March 2018 Volume 21 Issue 03



Associate Editor Dr Albert Tacon International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson Vaughn Entwistle Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tom Blacker Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 New Zealand Marketing Team Peter Parker Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Design Manager James Taylor Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Development Manager Antoine Tanguy ©Copyright 2017 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service


Industry News

32 Expert Topic - Lobster 48 Industry Events

56 The Market Place

58 The Aquafeed Interview 60

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 6 Ioannis Zabetakis 11 Dr Neil Auchterlonie 12 Clifford Spencer

FEATURES 20 Diving deeper for a sea lice solution 24 Alternative aquafeeds to improve fishery performance 28 Phytogenic feed supplements: Natural breeding is the goal 30 Sustainability in aquaculture: Water conservation may be the key

THE BIG PICTURE Bibury Trout Farm is one of Britains oldest trout farms having been founded in 1902, by the naturalist Arthur Severn, to stock the local rivers and streams with the native Brown Trout, it now covers 15 acres in a beautiful vally in the Cotswolds, the Coln Valley. The valley is home of course to the River Coln, and perhaps a lesser known fact, runs very close to the iconic cottages that we brits so often overlook at the beginning of our passports. See more on page 6

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 38 Aquaculture with floating and submersible nets 44 technology showcase

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Aquafeed extrusion and drying courses again in Europe 2018


he annual three-day short course on “Aquafeed Extrusion Technology” will be held again at FôrTek (Centre for Feed Technology) in Norway from April 23-25, 2018. A programme on Food & Feed Drying Technology is also being presenting immediately following, on April 26-27, 2018. The courses are organised and presented by Australians Dennis Forte and Gordon Young. The two have been presenting extrusion and related training programs in Australia and the surrounding region, including Thailand, for 20 years. Since 2015, courses on Aquafeed Extrusion, and later Petfood Extrusion and Drying Technology, have been offered in Europe (Norway). A major strength of the program is the practical experience of the presenters. One past participant commented, “The Extrusion Course is unique in that it is able to present the blend of the fundamental principles of extrusion technology with its practical applications. The speakers transcend the hurdles of mathematical and engineering concepts by using appropriate learning and citing their vast production experiences.” The extrusion program is relevant to both single- and twinscrew extruders. “We take the approach of presenting the theory behind extrusion – which applies to all types – and then showing how to apply that theory to practical processes and products.” Sessions cover the design of extrusion processes, and how the formulation affects the extrusion process, with examples demonstrating application of the theory. Principles learned will be applied during the practical demonstration in the FôrTek pilot plant.

MSD Animal Health calls for tilapia science award submissions


SD Animal Health (known as Merck Animal Health in the United States and Canada) is proud to announce its sponsorship of the 2018 High Quality Tilapia Science Award in support of research in tilapia health, production and welfare. The company will award one recent graduate in veterinary or animal science with the opportunity to present their research to an impressive number of industry specialists at an upcoming MSD Animal Health High Quality Tilapia meeting to be held in June 2018 in São Paulo, Brazil. Chris Beattie, Ph.D., Head of Aquaculture, MSD Animal Health commented, “We are proud to invest in the future of young researchers. With growing demand for safe, affordable protein, the tilapia industry is working hard to ensure the health and welfare of

The drying programme is relevant to all types of feed and food products. Drying is one of the most common operations in food and feed production, being used across virtually every sector/commodity. It is critical to the quality and/or functionality of many products, and it is one of our most energy-intensive process operations. Yet it is often poorly understood and inefficient. This short course in Drying Technology combines the practical perspective of experienced industry professionals with the in-depth technical knowledge of drying processes. The course presenters have also published two text books which support the training. “Food & Feed Extrusion Technology: An Applied Approach to Extrusion Theory” contains similar – but expanded – information as the extrusion courses. A specialised text “The Design of Food Extrusion Dies” is unique in describing, with worked examples, this complex and important – but often poorly understood – topic. the stocks they are rearing. It is our hope to establish lasting relationships with recent graduates who are leading the way in important research and innovation that will benefit tilapia health, production, and welfare.” To apply, candidates must submit a 300-word summary of their research project, resume and a brief letter describing why their work contributes to the improvement of the tilapia industry to Applications must be submitted by April 20, 2018. Eligible graduates must have completed, at minimum, a Bachelor’s degree in the past 12 months and have completed research for an applied project in either veterinary or animal science with an emphasis on tilapia. Topics of interest include antibiotic reduction, welfare, precision medicine, innovations in aquaculture, infectious diseases, and parasite challenges and solutions. The winner will be notified no later than May 25, 2018, and must be available to present their research at the 2018 High Quality Tilapia congress in São Paulo, Brazil on June 19-21, 2018. The company will assume responsibility for travel expenses incurred.

4 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Hybrid vehicle sales at Oceanology International


quabotix have announced the sale of a Hybrid vehicle to the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). The government-supported geological marine institute will utilise the Hybrid and its technology for on-going geoscience and energy research in the Korean waters. The organisations jointly announced the sale at the Oceanology International 2018 conference in London, taking place March 13-15. David Batista, CEO, Aquabotix commented, “We are excited to provide KIGAM with the means to achieve its research goals and uncover vital energy resources hidden under the sea, particularly given the organisation’s deep history and dedication to protecting the earth. We are eager to see how the functionality and brain power of our Hybrid vehicle benefits KIGAM in their quest to create a brighter future for both the Korean peninsula and the world.” The Company’s Hybrid vehicle can search wide areas using AUV mode (untethered) while conducting detailed inspections using ROV mode (tethered). Users can easily switch from AUV mode to ROV mode by attaching the tether to remotely control the vehicle’s six degrees of freedom of motion. When running the vehicle in autonomous operation, all mission

planning is completed in an intuitive Windows-based application. The Company’s Hybrid vehicle is designed for use across several sectors, including research, environmental assessment and infrastructure. Jung Kyun Shin, Senior Researcher, KIGAM explained, “The lightweight feel and ease-of-use of Aquabotix’s Hybrid vehicle will be instrumental in helping us fulfil our research and tasks over multiple missions, Having the capacity to operate this vehicle in both untethered and tethered modes also allows us to properly explore underwater areas that have previously proved difficult to navigate. We look forward to leveraging the power of hybrid as we work to promote Korea’s sustainable future.” Founded in 1918, KIGAM pursues this mission by conducting geological surveys inside and outside of Korea and disseminating research outcomes in fields such as mineral resources, geo-hazards and climate change. They also work to explore innovation and the convergence of pioneering technology to achieve world-class research and create new technologies.


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Trout farm cultures tourism he team at International Aquafeed magazine visited the local Bibury Trout Farm based in Bibury, Gloucestershire, a half an hour drive from the Perendale offices in Cheltenham. Bibury Trout Farm is one of Britains oldest trout farms having been founded in 1902, by the naturalist Arthur Severn, to stock the local rivers and streams with the native Brown Trout, it now covers 15 acres in a beautiful vally in the Cotswolds, the Coln Valley. The valley is home of course to the River Coln, and perhaps a lesser known fact, runs very close to the iconic cottages that we brits so often overlook at the beginning of our passports. During the visit the team was accompanied by Dr Holger Kühlwein, Key Account Manager Aquaculture at Leiber GmbH, who was visiting the offices after a guest lecture he gave at the University of Plymouth, from which he is an alumni. Interestingly, before his current role at Leiber, Dr Kühlwein spent some time as a trout farmer himself. The tour was performed by Mr Martin Smith, who has worked at the farm for five years, although he is this week moving onto a new role in the Water development industry and will be passing his role as Farm Manager over to Mr Robert Waker. With a wealth of knowledge the tour started at the very beginning of the trout life cycle at the farm in the tanks used to house the fertilised eggs before seeing the young fry in their rearing tanks. The tour was moved onto a small room where a cement mixer had been used as a makeshift feed holder, where the tanks where the eggs were fertilised. Although the farm sells the fish commercially, a lot of the

fish are being raised as broodstock, and these were housed in a hatchery that held four pools for the fish, two of which were full and brimming with colourful life. The farm raises only female trout and the fish that go on to be sold commercially at supermarkets, markets, or the farms own self-run shops are housed outside in large fish raceways and stock ponds. The fish that are used for commercial purposes are raised so as not to have a reproductive system, leaving more room in the fish for a fuller meatier flavour. Martin Smith explained that, “There are 800,000 trout on the farm on average at any one time, this includes the fry and broodstock. Of that about 90 percent are used for restocking and about 10 percent are sold commercially.” As well as the trout farm being open for business in the seafood sector, it is used as a local attraction that is great for families and tourists to the area. Coming in the picturesque bridge takes you over the River Coln and an old watermill on the left. Immediately the centre shows off an impressive gift store with country themed souvenirs, and of course inside there is a fresh fish table filled with ice and delicious fresh fish for purchase. With a small children’s play area, the possibility to feed the fish and a café serving hot drinks and local produce it really was such a lovely hidden treasure in the Cotswold countryside for both the aquaculture industry and general visitors to the area. Admission prices to the farm are £4.50 for an adult £3.25 for children, £3.75 for senior citizens as well as discounts for families and yearly season tickets.

L-R: Roger Gilbert, Tuti Tan, James Taylor, Martin Smith, Martyna Nobis, Zasha WhitewayWilkinson, Holger Kühlwein and Darren Parris

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International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 7

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Online training portal for fish farmers



Ioannis Zabetakis Fish and Inflammation

e are what we eat. Our food is also what it eats. In other words, if fish are fed better aquafeeds, then we can improve the nutritional value of the final fish product, maximise the added value of the final produce and expand nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications of fish, fish products and marine oils. Working towards the improvement of the nutritional value of aquafeeds and fish, we would need to focus on the bioactivities of fish components against inflammation. Fish have a great positive impact on all chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Linking fish consumption to CVDs was first established through the seven-country study and today we know that fish components have strong cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. The Journal Fishes published by MDPI is going to publish a special issue titled “Fish and Inflammation”. In this Special Issue, we would like to present the latest research on fish consumption and its impact on inflammation-related chronic diseases in humans, e.g., CVDs. In vitro and ex vivo studies are equally welcome. We would be pleased to solicit manuscripts pertaining to original research, mini and full reviews, short communications, as well as perspectives, which address any aspect of fish, CVDs and inflammation. Submissions are invited that include, but are not limited to: Fish diet and its impact on the nutritional value of fish; Fish intake and development of CVDs; Specific fish components (e.g., polar lipids, omega-3 fatty acids) and their anti-inflammatory properties; Bioactive compounds from the seafood chain. The Guest Editors are Professor Jana Pickova and Dr Ioannis Zabetakis. Further research on the topic of “Fish and Inflammation” would provide the aquaculture industry with the necessary data and tools to formulate novel health claims of fish against CVDs. Fish deserves a better place in the food pyramids around the world; not only because it is a nutritional food but it can a medicine for life! Moderate fish consumption (2-3 portions per week), as part of a balanced diet and lifestyle, can provide an anti-inflammatory shield. In this way, fish can protect us from developing CVDs without the need to consume any medicines at all (e.g. statins). Further reading Special Issue “Fish and Inflammation” Inflammation Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2018.



Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier.

arm Africa has launched a one-of-akind online training platform focused on fish farming. The training website, which was developed as part of Farm Africa’s Dutch-funded Kenya Marketled Aquaculture Programme (KMAP), helps fish farmers, traders, fingerling producers, feed manufacturers and other stakeholders across the aquaculture value chain develop the technical and business skills needed to setting up a successful fish farming business. The website includes four training modules that offer detailed guidance on four subjects: pond construction, pond stocking, fish health management, and fish harvesting and transportation to market. The site offers a multiple-choice exam in each module. Upon successful completion of all four exams, participants will be able to print certificates of completion and also have the training material at their disposal for future reference. Arnoud Meijberg, the KMAP Team Leader commented, “By equipping key aquaculture players with skills and providing market linkages with private sector markets, KMAP is ensuring sustainable growth of their businesses. We have so far witnessed an increase in production and productivity of medium- to large-scale fish farmers, hatcheries and fish feed producers. By introducing the online training portal, Farm Africa will ensure a wider reach of our training material to farmers across the geographical divide in Kenya and beyond.” Launched two years ago, KMAP has so far recruited over 1000 farmers, 400 of whom have undergone training on good aquaculture practices. Noteworthy change has been observed with the trained farmers adopting the skills and technologies disseminated by KMAP, understanding their production costs and calculating the returns on their investment. Evans Nyabuto, a farmer in Nyamira County remarked, “I have shifted from subsistence to commercial fish farming since undergoing training. I was getting meagre profits from my venture before but since KMAP came on board, I learnt about proper feeding using quality feeds and I’m certain that I will be in for a bountiful harvest and improved sales.” Farm Africa tackles poverty in rural Africa head on by working with small-scale farmers, government and the private sector across eastern Africa to boost food production, helping farmers grow more, sell more and sell for more, while protecting the environment for years to come.

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International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 9

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10 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed


fter international market assessments and land site searches, Nordic Aquafarms (NAF) has entered into agreements for a large property in Maine, USA, to develop one of the largest land-based salmon farms internationally The agreements are for 40 acres of property in the outskirts of the town of Belfast. The area has abundant access to sea- and freshwater resources that provide a good match with land-based aquaculture requirements. Erik Heim, CEO, Nordic Aquafarms commented, “Finding an ideal site in Maine has been a six-month project.” Nordic Aquafarms plans to construct a land-based salmon farm with 33,000 tons (66 million pounds) annual production capacity, in several phases. This equals approximately eight percent of US consumption of salmon. The project will involve all-inn total capital investments between 450 to 500 Million USD by the time it is complete. The first phase will involve investments of up to 150 Million USD. The facility will be an end-to-end operation, including hatcheries and fish processing. US Senator Angus King, Congressman Bruce Poliquin and the Governor of Maine Paul LePage have all met with Nordic Aquafarms. Positive and constructive dialogues regarding transatlantic business relationships were pursued. US Senator Angus King remarked, “Aquaculture is a growing force in Maine’s economy, bringing new jobs and opportunities to our state’s fishing industry. Nordic Aquafarm's facility will build on our state’s rich fishing traditions and promote innovation and sustainability that can help Belfast and the surrounding community thrive. This is an investment in Maine people, Maine jobs, and the future of our economy.” Final planning and permitting for the facility will now proceed. Phase 1 for some 13,000 tons production capacity, will be the largest land-based facility project ever raised in one construction phase. It will house the largest aquaculture tanks in the world. Construction is planned for 2019.

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Major land-based aquaculture facility for Atlantic Salmon in Maine

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From left: Elizabeth Ransom (Ransom Consulting), LarsHenrik Røren (Chairman of NAF), US Senator Angus King, Erik Heim (NAF CEO), Congressman Bruce Poliquin Peter DelGreco and Ashley Pringle (Maine & Co)

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Dr Neil Auchterlonie Fishmeal will stay current in global food chain

t is towards the end of the northern hemisphere winter, and a look out the window at swirling clouds of snow confirms we are in the middle of an unusual weather event. The media in the UK have done much to make this as dramatic a story as possible, and in amongst all the stories about people being snowbound in vehicles and trains, and the shutting of airports, there are stories emerging about a lack of some foods in UK shops. This is a reminder about how fragile food supply chains are, and how quickly they can be affected by a set of extraordinary circumstances. For me, it brings to mind the importance of the fishmeal and fish oil industry, and where it rests in relation to protein systems and global food security. The fishmeal sector is itself the foundation of a significant proportion of the global protein supply chain. Fishmeal is an essential component for feeds in fed aquaculture, for pig weaning diets and poultry starter diets. In aquaculture the list of fed species is growing, and the FAO cites more than 200 fed species, which is enormous in comparison to terrestrial farming. Fishmeal remains essential to the farming of the immediately recognisable aquaculture species such as Atlantic salmon and shrimps, and it is also an important constituent in diets of many of the minor species where the exact nutritional requirements may not yet be fully understood. Providing diets manufactured with a high fishmeal inclusion allows the production of these new and lesser-known species with an incomplete nutritional knowledge base, as the energy dense nature of fishmeal and the rich micronutrient profile are adequate to provide nutritious feeds in the absence of scientific data. In many ways it is testimony to the generally good management of stocks as well as the efficient recovery of processed by-product as raw material, that the global annual production of this important material is consistently around five million tonnes volume. Although that volume is comparatively small in relation to some of the other animal feed ingredients, its importance far exceeds any volume comparison. Clearly there are fluctuations over time, with the most obvious being the impact of El Niňo events, but largely that annual supply remains available for animal feed production year in, year out. There is a clear multiplier effect of the fishmeal that enters these global supply chains, in that five million tonnes of material actually produces a volume of protein many times in excess of that figure. In fed aquaculture alone, the FAO quotes a production volume of approximately 51 million tonnes per annum. Although we cannot say that in pig and poultry production fishmeal is essential, we do know that as a material it does improve the efficiency of production through improved feed intake, FCRs, and survival, and so its contribution is obviously very important. In aquafeeds we can say that fishmeal is essential, certainly for some, even a majority of, species when looked at from a whole production cycle perspective. As I mentioned last month the novel ingredients that are needed to provide the additional volume of aquafeed that is required, are some distance from achieving realistic commercial quantities at this stage. Fishmeal will remain a key component of these global protein supply chains for many years to come – irrespective of the weather.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University.

11 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed


Clifford Spencer The National Aquaculture Centre

quaculture without Frontiers co-ownership of the National Aquaculture Centre will start to come into its own as the latter’s operations now get underway. In this respect the National Aquaculture is a lead exhibitor and sponsor of the Young Coastal Scientists and Engineers event being held this week in the UK, and AwF representatives will be on hand to talk to aspiring young scientists and engineers about their hopes and aspirations at the start of their careers. The conference is aimed at early career scientists and engineers concerned with any aspect of physical coastal science or engineering and includes post-graduate students and post-doctoral researchers in universities. The organisation also encourages junior engineers, scientists and researchers in private companies and government agencies to attend. Research on coastal physical processes in the UK occurs under various disciplinary labels, including oceanography, geography, geology and engineering. This results in a fragmented coastal research community with limited interaction and collaboration between different disciplines. The lack of integration is felt most by young coastal researchers (post-docs and PhDs), who should be open to multi and interdisciplinary interaction. To assist with developing an integrated UK coastal research community, the first Young Coastal Scientists and Engineers Conference (YCSEC) was held in Nottingham in 2005. It is now an annual event travelling the UK and has been replicated in North America. Our attending and exhibiting at this event will help the build-up of essential new involvement and interest of the young (and their associated open minds and enthusiasm) to support valuable and meaningful AwF charitable activity, with these volunteers also being then able to further benefit from the input of the most experienced AwF volunteers in their charitable work. The older volunteers will no doubt welcome and in turn benefit from the unshakeable confidence and energy of their younger AwF compatriots. Also, of great value will be the close working relationship of the NAC with the dominant UK fish processing cluster at the NAC’s geographically adjacent Grimsby base. The town and surrounding region hosts some 75 fish processing businesses ranging in size from the giants like Youngs to small family owned businesses that survive on speciality knowledge and products. Indeed nearly 80 percent of fish processing for the UK domestic demand takes place in the town of Grimsby and its surrounding region. Think of the opportunities for technology transfer for AwF, in supporting nascent aquaculture smallholder businesses for developing and transition countries and their hard working local staff that will come from these relationships! Also, the University of Hull, the NAC’s official academic partner

has a wide variety of academic sectors and institutes that will be linked to and working with the National Aquaculture Centre (NAC). These include: Environmental Sciences, Biological Sciences, the Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, Hull International Fisheries Institute, Institute of Energy and Environment, Logistics Institute, Business School and Project AURA. These Institutes and Science Schools at the University are developing aquaculture related research and development projects; and National and International industry engagement opportunities with the NAC and its partners from which AwF will fully benefit. Finally, the library that is currently being installed in the NAC headquarters based at the Humber Seafood Institute at Grimsby’s Europarc will be named in honour of AwF’s founder and our patron Michael New O.B.E. This will ensure an enduring and lively connection between the charity and its co-owned NAC facility as visiting researchers go through the library doors and see the dedicated plaque to be installed explaining the background and connection between the NAC and AwF organisations. This library facility will be available to all the AwF organisations in order to support the global growth and development of our charity and its valuable work. Also coming up and of great interest to future AwF activities is the forthcoming visit to the UK in Easter week of the African Union’s NEPAD agency’s Head of Programme Coordination and Implementation. This visit is prompted by a high level and developing R&D tie up between the African Union/NEPAD and leading UK research universities across a large section of subjects. A feature of this visit will be the exchange with Hull University, the NAC’s partner, which has attracted so much interest that the BBC is planning to film the visit. The Vice Chancellor of Hull University will be prominent in the welcome of this AU/ NEPAD high level interest and delegation and from this again AwF benefits from the surrounding activity. AwF is currently constructing a number of African based projects and is actively looking to work with other AwF’s in this work and with other African interested organisations. Meanwhile trustees are currently busy in China investigating potential donors and support as well as worthwhile charitable projects to follow up. As a result, our next AwF trustee's meeting will take place on a trans-continental basis which always presents a timing challenge with the substantial difference of the respective time zones of the trustees say in Sweden, the UK, Africa and other world regions. However, this global approach will be a very necessary part of the future effectiveness and success of AwF led operations and projects. Such is the necessary organisation and infrastructure requirements of modern day charitable activity.

Currently Mr Spencer leads the Global Biotechnology Transfer Foundation (GBTF), which is dedicated to promoting the potential for biotechnology to support sustainable, long-term, socio-economic development. He is also Chairman of Trustees for Aquaculture without Frontiers UK. 12 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Danish solutions help Scotland’s aquaculture ambitions


cotland’s plan to double its aquaculture sector by 2030 requires efficient and sustainable growth. Representatives from the Scottish industry were invited to Denmark to share their ambitions and to give an insight into how their industry is working together to unlock future growth. The Danish suppliers will explore the Scottish aquaculture industry even further at Aquaculture UK in Aviemore, Scotland on May 23-24, 2018. Elaine Jamieson, Head of Food & Drink at Scotland Highlands & Islands Enterprise, a Scottish government agency that supported the strategy plan commented, “The global population is growing and the demand for sustainable protein is only going to increase significantly. Thus, there are huge opportunities in this sector and for businesses across the breadth of the supply chain.” She explained, “Denmark is an innovative country with a number of key strengths within aquaculture, for example recirculation systems. Accordingly, we were pleased to accept the invitation to share our story with the Danish companies and in return to learn about the Danish supply chain and their approach to exporting, and explore international opportunities which could be to our mutual benefit.” One of the initiators of the industry-led plan to double the economic value and production of Scotland’s aquaculture sector is Stewart Graham, CEO at the Scottish engineer and equipment supplier Gael Force. He remarked, “Our key recommendations are to address the biological challenges like sea lice, to rationalise the

regulations we are working within and thirdly, to innovate the supply chain with new product technologies.” He continued, “In Scotland, we have massively underexploited the supply chain. Thus, we are interested in how networks of suppliers like Danish Fish Tech Group and their member companies works, what we can learn from them to help the Scottish supply chain and how we continue to form partnerships that can lead to benefits in export or investments.” With a national Pavilion of Denmark at Aquaculture UK 2018, Danish Fish Tech Group aims to show how the Danish competences and expertise could support the Scottish aquaculture industry in their ambitions to create supply chain excellence for the industry. Martin Winkle, Head of Danish Fish Tech Group, the largest Danish export network for suppliers to the global fishing, aquaculture and seafood processing industries summarised, “The Danish suppliers to the aquaculture industry covers the entire value chain, from solutions, services and equipment for the fish farms, land-based or off-shore, as well as efficient, cost-reducing, highly hygienic and sustainable solutions and machinery for processing of the fish and seafood. Furthermore, research and consulting services to the aquaculture industry.”

The perfect partner for process automation We deliver: Design and engineering Build and installation MCC and PLC panels Software engineering PLC/SDADA MES application Batch Explorer Integration to other software packages Turn Key installations incl. training, service & support

International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 13

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Dr Thomas Zeigler of Zeigler Brothers in the US, winner of the coveted ‘Distinguished Life-time Achievement Award’ of the US Aquaculture Society at this year’s Aquaculture America


A lifetime committed to aquatic feeds recognised here are two reasons for my success,” says Dr Thomas Zeigler of Zeigler Brothers in the US, on winning the coveted ‘Distinguished Life-time Achievement Award’ of the US Aquaculture Society at this year’s Aquaculture America, which took place in Las Vegas in mid-February, “The first is the number of birthdays and the second is good nutrition.” He followed up this humorous take on why he won the award by adding, “If you love what you do you never have to work a day in your life.” This was the introduction International Aquafeed received when asking Dr Zeigler why he thought he had been the successful recipient. From sport fisheries to shrimp Dr Zeigler was just a few months old when his father and uncle establish Zeigler Brothers in 1935. The company moved into feed production from the music industry to produce medicated feeds for game animals in Michigan. “I started in the mill in the 1950s. By the mid- to late1960s aquaculture seemed to make sense and was a developing industry that showed opportunity. “Trout were being raised for sport and feeding fish was developing around springs and good water sources. As a result of sport fishing, trout farming started here in the USA,” he adds. As these farms developed they started to demand better feeds and more equipment, he recalls. Every feed company was using cotton seeds in their feeds

yet didn’t understand how stored seed should be processed to avoid moulds and mycotoxins. “No one would buy cotton seed unless it had been tested and could be protected for a year. We entered this business doing research and formulation.” The company Zeigler worked with at the time was Raegen Incorporated. “That got us moving in terms of supply. And then the shrimp business came along and we were the first to produce water stable pellets that were not extruded. By the 1980s Dr Zeigler was making regular presentations on aquatic technology and working to develop industry co-operation from the New England Aquaculture Research Centre. “Marketing your products is a type of extension process. We were the first to build high-energy feeds and with higher-quality feeds you needed to educate your customers correctly on how to use them. “For example, you need to have the best ingredients to produce the best feeds in order to have the best husbandry. Fish farming is based on a three-legged stool; nutrition; technology and correct feeding practice. And the latter is extremely important,” he adds. International sales Today half of Zeigler’s production is sold into the export market serving between 20-30 countries. Its success is based on its strength in marketing technology and like Coca Cola it provides an essential ingredient in a five percent premix that makes all .the difference when matched with local feed ingredients.

14 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

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From commodities to specialty aquatic nutrition Dr Zeigler, is a Senior Technical Advisor, a Past President and Chairman of the company which he joined in 1961 as its Director of Nutrition. In 1967, Dr Zeigler became President and began to shift the company’s emphasis from commodity feeds to specialty aquatic and animal nutrition. In the mid-1970s Dr Zeigler assisted in the development of laboratory research diets for use at the National Institutes of Health. The fixed formulation concept used for these diets continues to serve as a sound framework for successful research being conducted today. In 1981, he was named the Managing Partner of the International Aquaculture Research Center where he assisted in the evaluation of feed ingredients and additives, assessed nutrition and disease interactions, and developed advanced new diets for aquaculture. Dr Zeigler was also co-founder of Vitamin Technologies Inc, a company that created and led the research effort for a new-patented stable form of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) known as Ascorbyl-tripolyphosphate. The technology was sold to a large pharmaceutical company in 1991. During his tenure with the company, he has pioneered the development of over 70 unique nutritional technologies and products. He has led the company into global markets and has been an advocate for the continuing development of aquaculture worldwide. He holds a PhD and MS in Animal Nutrition from Cornell University and a BS in Poultry Husbandry from Penn State University, with minors in Veterinary Pathology, Chemistry and Biochemistry.

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Fish and human salvation Nutrition through innovation is a motto of this company which is science based today. “We have had some major successes in the past, such as developing stable Vitamin C. Science is there to help us keep ahead of the competition and keeps us moving forward. He says science will be the primary factor that allows man to colonise space and will be the salvation of civilization on earth. He adds that water is more important than food and aquaculture does not consume water but only uses it. Space travel and colonisation will depend on fish as the primary food source of the future, he adds. “The question was asked in the early 1970s - why aquaculture? We still haven’t answered that well enough but the obvious facts are aquaculture does not consume water it uses water, energetics is another and aquaculture can be carried out next to population centres. Finally, fish is the best nutritional and health-giving food there is. “We need an independent think tank to take these concepts and run with them. This think tank needs to be outside of politics, be science based and credible,” he concluded.

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“We find partners to make aquatic feeds in countries where we can help build mills or retro-fit existing plants and where our knowledge makes a difference and achieves the efficiency needed. “We are developing local industries in these countries to provide raw materials that feed manufacturers need. As a result we are bringing science to the whole business of manufacturing aquatic feeds.”

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Biolex® MB40 – effective MOS for: Active support and relief of the immune system High bonding power & inactivation of pathogens/toxins in the intestinal lumen Prebiotic effects on the microflora in the intestine

International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 15

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Targeting the Indian aquaculture market qua India started with a full day session on Key topics in Aquaculture Nutrition. This Nutrition session was attended by aquaculture nutritionists, feed formulators and technical service providers working in feed companies together with researchers and academia in aquaculture nutrition and feed technology. Topics presented included progress in aquaculture nutrition research and practice, ingredient knowledge and feed formulation, the use of feed additives including organic selenium, enzymes and amino acids, and the need for education in Aquaculture Nutrition. Nutriad showed its commitment to the Indian Aquaculture Industry through a Sponsorship for the event and was represented with Mr Allen Wu, Regional Manager – Aquaculture, Asia Pacific, Business unit Director Aquaculture Dr Peter Coutteau and Country manager Gnanamani Thangairulappan. Alexander van Halteren, Business Development Manager Aquaculture Nutrition, presented, “Balancing nutrient levels in commercial shrimp feeds” in which he commented on a 2016 Feed Survey organised. The survey investigated the different nutritional strategies in commercial shrimp feeds during 2016, when the number of shrimp feed suppliers increased sharply. The study analysed representative feed samples of eight major brands that were collected in the market. Analysis included proximate composition as well as a number of essential nutrients (amino acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids). Some of the nutrient levels detected during the survey, revealed the potential for functional feed additives to optimise nutrient utilisation in shrimp feeds in India.

Sunderland Marine confirms the sale of Knighthood Corporate Assurance Services


underland Marine Insurance Company the specialist in marine and aquaculture insurance, today confirmed the sale of Knighthood Corporate Assurance Services Limited to Broker Network. Sunderland Marine has had a business association with Knighthood since 1994. The sale is seen as a further step in North’s plans to improve Sunderland Marine’s operational efficiency and strengthen its global business, following its acquisition in 2014. Tom Rutter, Chief Executive Office, Sunderland Marine commented, “The sale of Knighthood to Broker Network supports the on-going transformation of Sunderland Marine, and an increased focus on its core businesses around the world. I wish the directors and staff of Knighthood and Broker Network every success in the future.” Ed Davies, North’s Global Director (Finance) noted, “This sale is an ideal commercial match for Sunderland Marine, Knighthood and Broker Network. It will further streamline the Sunderland Marine business as we continue to sharpen our focus on those lines of business where we have a clear strategic and competitive advantage.”

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MOBILE International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 16

Latest aquaculture probiotic targets vibrio and ammonia in hatcheries


eeton Industries announced the launch of their latest product Hatchery Prime Smart Pellets, a stress reducing probiotic specifically formulated for shrimp and fish hatcheries. They were developed to reduce vibrio and other pathogenic bacteria while eliminating ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. As a result hatcheries using Hatchery Prime have experienced increased growth and survival, improved feed conversion rates and greater yields. Other reported benefits include advanced harvest, more consistent growth, improved water quality, and cleaner tank bottoms. Another key benefit is ease of use. Hatchery Prime comes in pellet form, so application is extremely fast and easy. Simply toss the pellets into the tank and the need for mixing, measuring, weighing, activating or incubating is eliminated. Mike Moore, Keeton Industries Aquaculture Sales Director commented, “We’re really excited about Hatchery Prime. This is a big advancement for hatcheries. Hatchery Prime is extremely easy to use and highly effective at reducing vibrio and eliminating ammonia. Better production was never this easy.” Ravi Sangha of Acuabiomar stated, “This is exactly what we’ve been looking for. This is exactly what we need.”

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AQUACULTURE WITHOUT FRONTIERS (UK) Aquaculture Without Frontiers (AwF) is a Charitable Incorporated Organisation (CIO) that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture and the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries.

Temperature Adapted FeedsTM

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The Spring Edition contains an extra dosage of Vitamin C to support and strengthen fish during the challenging transition period.

VITAMIN C: - supports formation of red blood cells which improve the oxygen uptake - boosts production of collagen in fish and thus promotes skin repair and wound healing

Aller Aqua A/S · Allervej 130 · DK-6070 Christiansfeld · Denmark · Tlf. +45 70 22 19 10 · WWW.ALLER-AQUA.COM International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 17

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BioMar growth exceeds expectations n 2017, BioMar Group delivered on their growth aspirations. The financial results for the year reveal a significant increase in revenue as well as solid EBIT exceeding expectations. Driving factors have been expansions into new markets and an increased focus on innovation and sustainability. During the year 2017, BioMar delivered increased revenue of 12 percent compared to 2016, mainly boosted by a significant capacity expansion in Norway and the acquisition of the shrimp feed producer Alimentsa in Ecuador. Carlos Diaz, CEO, BioMar Group

commented, “I believe that our strategic decision to safeguard local agility has proven to be a strong competitive advantage across our markets. Together with the customers, we keep improving growth performance and animal health, at the same time moving even beyond, embracing important trends within the consumer markets.” He continued, “In parallel, we have continued our meticulous focus expanding and optimising global innovation capacity. It has been a busy, but encouraging year. We accomplished our first full year with operations in Turkey and China,

Carlos Diaz CEO of BioMar Group

and we completed the acquisition of Alimentsa in Ecuador to complement our presence in the shrimp segment, together with our factory in Costa Rica. On top of this we initiated our factory project in Australia, started the biggest fish feed line in the world and began operations of our new LNG vessel in Norway, reinforcing our state-of-the-art technology and fleet. Finally we started the construction of our trial facility in Ecuador to supplement the ATC network together with lots of interesting product concepts launched in our different markets. Everywhere I have seen an amazing dedication to innovating aquaculture.” In total volumes sold did go up by 20 percent compared to 2016. The salmon markets counted for the largest increase in volumes, supported by expanded production capacity, increased global biomass and favourable biological conditions. The other markets followed the upward trend in volumes and revenue with the newly established business in Turkey proving solid foothold in the market. BioMar Group closed the year with an EBITDA of DKK 712 million and an EBIT of DKK 559 million slight decreasing from 2016. However the results from the main activities increased slightly and exceeded the recent guidance in Q3. Mr Diaz concluded, “We expect another busy year, with increased competition in some markets, but we are confident in our strengths and the good base we have built.”

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Diving deeper for a sea lice solution


by Keith Filer, Ph.D. Research Project Manager for Aquaculture, Alltech, USA

he small crustacean Lepeophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice, has a major impact on the production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo sala). Sea lice feed on fish skin, mucus and blood, with severe damage caused during high infestations. Large rates of infestation lead to severe damage and possibly mortality due to the exposure of subcutaneous tissues, bacterial infections and stress. Various treatment options are available to reduce the impact of sea lice, but the treatments do result in increased mortality and reduced growth, as well as higher production costs. The estimated costs to the aquaculture industry due to sea lice are as high as US$1 billion annually. A combination of treatment and management strategies are commonly used to combat the impact of sea lice on salmon farms.

Conventional treatments

The treatments for sea lice control generally involve medicine administered through the feed, chemical baths and cleaner fish. Maintaining low numbers of sea lice throughout a production cycle after transfer to sea can require all three treatments to be utilised. Medicated feed treatments are used for fish up to about two kilograms, with the cost being the prohibitive reason to not use it in larger fish. Bath treatments can be incorporated into grading and transition periods with fish larger than two kilograms, but baths tend to be avoided with smaller fish because of the increased risk of mortality. Cleaner fish such as wrasse are typically added to the pens with the smolt and remain in the pens throughout the entire production cycle. Treatments lose effectiveness as the salmon become larger than two kilograms. Management strategies are also utilised to reduce the impact of sea lice and ensure that other treatment strategies are as effective as possible. An integrated pest management approach has been

Lepophtheirus salmonis, commonly referred to as sea lice

proposed in production areas with high incidence of sea lice. Such an approach could include stocking of single year classes, rotating production sites and coordinated treatment among farms in the same region. The industry in Norway has turned to mandatory and synchronised control efforts to reduce the impact of sea lice as much as possible.

A new approach

The active ingredients in the oral medications used to control sea lice move through the fish to the skin and into the sea lice once it has attached. With the skin and the associated mucus layer being the contact point for the sea lice, another approach is reducing the ability of the sea lice to attach to the skin. Critical to this approach is the innate immune response, which is an important component of fish health, and the epithelial and mucosal barrier, which are important because of the constant exposure to the environment. The mucus contains lectins, lysozymes, complement proteins, antimicrobial proteins and immunoglobulin M. Information has been generated to suggest that a nutritional approach to the manipulation of the mucus layer, as well as the

Relative gene expression patterns of Mucin gene in rainbow trout

20 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed


innate immune system in general, can reduce the incidence of ectoparasites on fish. These nutritional approaches have been used to increase the mucus layer in fish and supports additional innate immune responses. Alltech has used nutritional approaches with Bio-MosÂŽ to support the innate immune response in a variety of fish species. Bio-Mos consists of the complex carbohydrate mannan oligosaccharide that is derived from the yeast cell wall of a

“The work with rainbow trout indicated that genes involved in a component of the innate immune system was upregulated upon exposure to the mannan-rich fraction" selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bio-Mos stimulates the natural defences of fish by optimisation of the immune function. Years of work with Bio-Mos led to the production of a soluble mannan-rich fraction (MRF). The soluble MRF can be used in very small quantities to maintain innate immunity responses of very young animals, even during development. The concept for the MRF was initially demonstrated in chicken eggs. Injection into the egg indicated that early life exposure optimised the innate immunity of the chicken throughout its growing period. Nutrigenomics was also used to identify changes in gene expression patterns when eggs were treated with the MRF.

Understanding changes on a molecular level

Nutrigenomics is the utilisation of nutrition to influence the expression of the genome of an animal. Alltech utilises nutrigenomics techniques to understand the molecular changes that are occurring that generate changes in innate immunity. Alltech has recently developed tools to understand what changes occur at a gene level when trying to enhance a response against an ectoparasite such as sea lice. The genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is transcribed to ribonucleic acid (RNA) and translated into proteins that provide a response to a nutritional change. DNA microarray technology can be used to measure the change in expression of genes. The microarray technology used to evaluate the gene expression patterns in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon contains 30,000 genes. The function of many of the genes is not known, and to generate useful information from the microarray, the function of each gene needs to be identified or annotated. Alltech developed a proprietary process to annotate the genes of the microarray.

Testing in practice

The application of the MRF in fish has also been tested. The application in fish was an intraperitoneal injection. The injection could also occur when fish are vaccinated, with the expectation that the innate immune response will be improved. The MRF was injected into rainbow trout at varying dosages, and International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 21


An Alltech laboratory technician prepares a procedure for microscopic examination in the Center for Animal Nutrigenomics and Applied Animal Nutrition in Nicholasville, Kentucky

the work identified six genes that could be used as biological markers to indicate that the MRF was having an impact on the expression patterns of the fish. A mucin gene showed increased gene expression levels when the fish were treated with the MRF. This gene codes for a protein associated with the mucous layer on the skin. The work with rainbow trout indicated that genes involved in a component of the innate immune system was upregulated upon exposure to the MRF. The innate immune response is important for the health of fish, and improvements in that response can help fight against stress and disease.

NOFIMA, the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture, injected about 350 fish with MRF, and samples were collected to evaluate gene expression patterns of the marker genes. The gene expression patterns in the Atlantic salmon are very close to patterns found in rainbow trout that help us better understand how we can anticipate the challenge of sea lice. The objective of the study is to reduce the impact of the sea lice on fish that were injected with the MRF. Alltech continues to explore novel techniques for utilising the unique properties of the MRF to impact the innate immune response in fish, and initial work has been promising.

22 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

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by Ben Pinniger, Founder, BP Milling, UK


BP Milling produce fish feed supplements for the stillwater sport fishery market, producing an affordable fishmeal-free food source aimed to improve fish health and improve fishery performance. Unlike most conventional fish feeds which are developed for maximum feed conversion, our feeds are designed as an affordable food source to function as a tool for healthy fishery development.

he carp angling market has grown enormously in the past 40 years, with social media fuelling opportunities for big companies to showcase new tackle innovations and technology, transforming the old traditional pastime into a trendy modern day fashion enjoyed by millions. The growth has attracted new fishery developments and fish suppliers, all in a race to profit from this new demand. Unfortunately with this demand comes competition and desperation from fishery owners who arrive new to livestock management. Inexperienced fishery owners immediately look to re-stocking new fish as the only solution to improve fishery performance and attract new business; this lack of livestock understanding is a costly learning curve for many! We work closely with these still-water sport fisheries all over the UK to introduce them to management techniques that improve performance, save money and develop the business safely. Educating fisheries that there’s no ‘quick-fix’ to creating a profitable and sustainable fishery business. It can be a frustrating battle for us, but unfortunately healthy development takes time. Feeding is the most obvious tool for healthy stock development, supplementing the fishes natural diet is a relatively new prospect to most of our clients, so the results are quick to materialise when they begin. Unlike conventional fishmeal feeds, our feed supplements are not purposely designed to achieve the best growth response achievable, instead we encourage clients to feed for fish welfare and improved fishery performance, the growth comes as a result of this.

Capitalise on free sources of nutrition

Although our feeds are ‘nutritionally incomplete’, we do also use them successfully for fish production by sensibly managing our ponds to create a fertile environment where all that is needed is a simple feed supplement. Unlike a filtered tank system an earth-pond has its own ecosystem, with nutritional value to the substrate, weed/algae and invertebrate life. This natural food chain provides an abundance of free nutrition to our fish, we optimise these sources of nutrition with: Manure – Establish an algal bloom encouraging plankton and the following food chain. Chalk - Regular calcium carbonate treatment will neutralise pH and allow bacterial action deeper in the silt, this breakdown of organic matter converts acidic silt layers into healthy forms of nitrate that fertilise the pond. Light and air - Maximising light and air exposure is key to pond productivity, not only for oxygen transfer but also for healthy algal blooms which are the vital trigger for a thriving food chain.

24 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed


Fishery management before fish nutrition

The FCR of a diet is irrelevant if the fishes digestion system can’t working at full efficiency, so we work closely with our clients during the winter to troubleshoot any limiting factors, to capitalise on the opportunity to yield good growth in the summer. Once we have corrected stocking densities we can look deeper into fish nutrition, to supplement the natural diet within the pond. Less stress is placed on feed formulation, with more focus on fish welfare which is the key to optimising the feed cost efficiency in our application, with so many variable and stressing factors effecting the performance of fish in outdoor earth ponds: • Water temperature • Predation • Overcrowding • Oxygen All of which you have the luxury of being able to control in an indoor system.

Pressed pellet

The coarse fishery market is a very small ‘niche’ industry that we are involved with, our annual production is a fraction of most aquafeed mills, so using a pellet press rather than an extruding system keeps our cost of production down, so that we can supply our clients at an affordable price. Our products offer a far more digestible and nutritious alternative to cereal grains that are more affordable than extruded options, combined with the sustainably sourced ingredients used that have proven to have minimal impact on water quality in comparison oily fishmeal diets. Although the breakdown of pressed pellet once submerged is much faster than extruded types, this is an advantage in our application. It keeps the Carp grazing and disturbing the substrate more aggressively, which helps to keep on top of silt and prevents weed-beds from establishing. This also encourages the fish to forage for food when they’re released into clients waters, so they continue to thrive when they leave the farm.

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International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 25


Water quality

Some earth ponds have a very low turnover of water during the peak of the growing season so water quality is an important consideration for us to make in our formulation. By keeping a sensible level of protein and oil, we can feed our fish to appetite with minimal impact on water quality. A lab test independently verified by Scientific Analysis Laboratories (SAL) in 2016 showed that the ammonia (NH3) contribution of industry standard fishmeal pellets were consistently higher than our cereal pellet samples, with some samples reading over five times the ammonia recorded. Our other samples on trial were baits commonly used in angling, which also gave an eye opening NH3 contribution in comparison.

Fishmeal free

We source as much cereal locally when we can, using a blend

of cereals and vegetable proteins to achieve a sensible level of protein and keep our feeds affordable for our target market. We’re often criticised for missing out on the undeniable digestibility properties of fishmeal, however our argument is that in our application, we have a very small window where the environment allows efficient digestion anyway, so the values of this expensive source of unsustainable protein can't be synthesised by the fish effectively. The results on our farm back this up as we have achieved outstanding yields from our ponds since feeding cereals, and our cost of production is a fraction of what it used to be when we once fed extruded fishmeal diets. Rather than trying to market a feed with the best FCR, our business is all about being realistic and getting involved with our clients to; create a healthy growing environment, maximise the availability of natural sources of nutrition and then supplement with our affordable and digestible bulk food source.

26 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

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Pure, natural oregano from controlled production forms the basis for the feed supplements and aroma premixes from Dostofarm (photo: Dostofarm)

Phytogenic feed supplements: Natural breeding is the goal

by Fabián Alberto Jijón Tinoco, Species Manager Aquaculture, Dostofarm, Germany


Classic livestock owners are counting on phytogenic feed supplements made of oregano, and the aquaculture sector is also showing increasing interest. Fabián Alberto Jijón Tinoco, “Species Manager Aquaculture” with the market leader Dostofarm, explains the area of application.

n shrimp or fish farming, the topic of sustainability is omnipresent. Antibiotics and growth promoters can no longer be an option for optimal health management with regards to animal nutrition. Natural phytogenic feed supplements such as oregano are a viable alternative. We concentrate solely on aroma premixes and feed supplements made of pure natural oregano oil and are known as the market leader in this sector. Shrimp and fish farming are gaining in importance, since the demand for seafood from aquaculture is rising. Challenges in this sector not only include new production technologies and special animal nutrition, but also optimal health management. The latter is particularly relevant in view of the occurrence of new viral diseases in shrimp farming, such as the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or bacterial diseases like acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPND).

Phytogenic feed supplements

Phytogenic feed supplements are used with all livestock species and domestic animals to stabilise the gastrointestinal tract and to promote the immune status. Oregano’s antibacterial mode of action is also interesting for the aquaculture industry. The phytogenic additive can be mixed in directly at the compound feed factory or added directly to the feed at the farm. Our goal is to achieve health-stabilising and performanceenhancing effects. Using the example of shrimp breeding, Dostooregano can naturally increase the survival rate and growth of the animals, as shown by current trials in Ecuador. Feed supplements and their use in aquaculture operations is a huge topic worldwide. Through regulation of the use of antibiotics and growth promoters in the animal feed, alternatives must be found for the farms. Natural breeding with high profitability is the goal, both in the organic sector and for conventional breeding. Strengthening of the animal’s immune system is the central factor of testing. Thanks to the improved gastrointestinal health of the animals, they are more resistant to bacterial diseases and

are able to overcome them better. We did not observe any side effects. Based on our positive experiences, the same can be expected for other animal species.

Can you use kitchen oregano?

Using kitchen oregano would not deliver the desired results. The same can be assumed for nature-identical oregano. Dostofarm stands for consistent high quality of our products, which we guarantee thanks to exclusive contract farming and a continuously controlled process chain, from seeding to processing. The constituents of the essential oil are standardised, so we can always ensure constant quality. Moreover, we are extensively certified. This is the requirement for success with livestock owners. High quality: Phytogenic feed supplements are enjoying increased popularity in fish and shrimp farming (photo: Dostofarm)

28 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed


Is it economical?

Feedstuffs are the most important parameter in livestock farming, since they represent up to 70 percent of the production costs. It can be worthwhile to start here. We can tell you about farms that were able to achieve a higher gross margin per breeding cycle thanks to improved feed efficiency and increased health. Since feed supplements are not subject to pharmaceutical regulations, they can be used continuously up until the fish are caught or the animals are slaughtered.

About Dostofarm

Formed in 1999 as a “Mittelstand� company from North Germany, we supply customers in more than 40 countries all over the world innovative solutions based on natural active ingredients. We are experts in natural active ingredients, through rigorous product development, production and worldwide distribution of innovative products for animal and human nutrition. We strive to continuously improve our product development by maintaining close relationships with our customers, research centres and strategic suppliers. The safety, efficiency and quality of our product is important: We ensure a reliable product through scientifically supervised experiments in universities, colleges and privately. A large part of the company philosophy is to ensure consistent high quality improvement. This is achieved by the team through a process- oriented quality management system. By consulting with our customers we support the reasonable and effective use of our products. Overall, we strive to contribute to modern, healthy and sustainable animal and human nutrition.

International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 29


SUSTAINABILITY IN AQUACULTURE Water conservation may be the key


by Paul B. Brown, Purdue University, Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA

ustainability is a term increasingly used to describe innovation in food production systems in general and aquaculture systems specifically. The more sustainability is discussed, the more we realise how complex this goal can be. One of the more interesting aspects of the environmental component of sustainability is water, which, by definition, is an important consideration for aquaculture. However, the goal of sustainability demands a broader consideration of water resources than simply providing a medium for fish and shellfish culture. Population increases and changing food habits are placing significant demand on food production systems. Between now and 2050, increases of 60-100 percent over current food production levels have been projected. The limiting resource in food production will be freshwater. Currently, food production, harvesting, processing, distribution, storage and presentation to consumer demands approximately 70 percent of the total global supply of freshwater. Using current approaches, there is not enough freshwater to

Table 1: Interpolated water footprints for aquaculture feeds (m3/t)

realise increases in food production of 60-100 percent above current levels. Future food production systems will need to consider the demand for freshwater as a critical component of sustainable food production. At first glance, water and nutrition may not appear related. However, demand for water has been related to the water required to produce feed ingredients. Thus, the dietary formulation and associated water required to produce each ingredient contribute to the water footprint. The more carnivorous species in aquaculture have the lowest water footprint because dietary formulations contain a high percentage of fishmeal and fishmeal requires relatively little water to produce, process and distribute. Species using high concentrations of fishmeal have water footprints lower than other species. Overall water footprints for mandarin fish and gilthead seabream are 88 and 500 m3/ton of fish produced, respectively (Pahlow et al. 2015, Table 1). For more omnivorous species, water footprints can be over 2000 m3/t. Commodity feed ingredients (soybean, corn, wheat, canola, groundnut, lupin, cassava, etc.) require significant water resources during their production, processing and distribution cycles and use of those ingredients in diets increases the water footprint of that species. There is significant variability in the water footprint of common feed ingredients. Data in Table 2 are the total global average water footprints for several commonly used ingredients in aquaculture feeds, and not reflective of

Table 2. Total water footprint of selected feed ingredients (global average, m3/t) Ingredient

Species Grass carp




Common carp


Canola meal


Indian major carps


Cassava meal


Nile tilapia




Channel catfish


Corn gluten meal



Cottonseed meal


Atlantic salmon


Groundnut meal


Rainbow trout


Lupin kernel meal




Rice bran




Soybean meal


Atlantic cod


Soy protein concentrate


Gilthead seabream


Sunflower meal


Red drum




Whiteg shrimp


Wheat bran


Mandarin fish

From Pahlow et al. (2015)

From Pahlow et al (2015)

30 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

Table 3. Total water footprint for production of various animal products (m3/t) Product Beef












From Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012)


regional rainfall patterns, irrigation, etc. However, these data indicate significant changes in water footprint as a function of ingredient usage. Data presented in Table 1 reflect only the dietary water footprint; complete freshwater demands for various species and production systems have not been developed. The calculation of water footprint includes consideration of the feed conversion ratio (FCR) for the target species. While overall water footprints for aquaculture species/system combinations have not been determined, the efficient conversion of ingested food to body mass in aquatic organisms might place aquaculture production in the more efficient category of water footprints for animal production. Table 3 shows values for all phases of beef, sheep, goat, pig, chicken and egg production, from birth/hatching to market. These values are not comparable to the aquaculture data in Table 1. However, these values have a similar pattern to other a comparative animal production figures, particularly those comparing feed conversion ratios for various animal species. Once the overall water footprint has been calculated for various aquaculture production scenarios, seafood production might enjoy designation as one of the more water conserving food production systems. Aquaculture struggles with ongoing issues that can be characterised as “truly wicked problems”, a phrase coined by Professor Otto Doering, Purdue University, Department of Agriculture Economics. He used this phrase to describe the challenge of achieving sustainable food production “because it is not amenable to the traditional scientific method of problem solving”. Further, truly wicked problems have “no single solution,

and there is no stopping point. There is also a higher degree of outcome uncertainty with wicked problems” (Doering 2014). The first truly wicked problem in aquaculture nutrition was fishmeal; A great ingredient, but finite supply with increasing demand, resulting in increasing price. Research on alternative ingredients to fishmeal began over 30 years ago and continues today. A wide range of ingredients have been evaluated in response to the fish meal dilemma and substitutions vary across the globe. This seems to fit Professor Doering’s definition of a truly wicked problem (i.e., no single solution, no stopping point, and high degree of outcome uncertainty). Attempting to solve the initial wicked problem in aquaculture nutrition may be driving us toward the next wicked problem, water conservation. Water footprint is a bit broader issue than the focused fishmeal issue, but one that deserves consideration in the short term. Research in this area will most likely conclude there is no one solution and the research may continue for many years into the future. The outcome of this line of research is uncertain.


Doering, O. 2014. A truly wicked problem. Resource Magazine, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), November/December:23. Mekonnen, M.M. and A.Y. Hoekstra. 2012. A global assessment of the water footprint of farm animal products. Ecosystems 15:401-415. Pahlow, M., P.R. van Oel, M.M. Mekonnen and A.Y. Hoekstra. 2015. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production. Science of the Total Environment 536:847-857.

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Specialist in Pelleting Equipment - International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 31



Food Security and Land Research Alliance- “University of Exeter joins consortium in major research grant for Cornwall and South West”: This project was initially awarded funding in 2015, when experts from the University of Exeter who were part of a consortium awarded funding for a £3m research project from Innovate UK and BBSRC. This will make a series of breakthroughs in the science and technology associated with lobster culture, which will help Europe catch up with the rest of the world in terms of growing its own sea food. Led by the National Lobster Hatchery, based in Padstow, and including partners from the Westcountry Mussels of Fowey, The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS) and, Falmouth University, the three-year project, known as Lobster Grower 2, focuses on the European lobster by developing the technology and science for growing lobsters at sea. It is thought that long term an industry will develop, providing a new product, with a separate market from that supplied by the fishery and therefore creating market diversification and generating additional jobs and wealth in coastal communities. Professor Lars Johanning, Associate Professor in Ocean Energy and academic lead of the University of Exeter’s Renewable Energy Department, based at the Penryn Campus in Cornwall explained, “This pivotal project unlocks the potential for industry specialists and scientists to work together to address global food security in a sustainable and environmentally-friendly way. He continued, “Crucially, it could pave the way not just to providing nutritious food to many millions more people worldwide, but also bring new and exciting employment opportunities as well. The University of Exeter is implementing field studies to study the well-being of the lobsters, potential environmental impacts and leads on engineering developments.”

by Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson Lead researcher for the National Lobster Hatchery, Dr Carly Daniels developed, “This is the biggest lobster aquaculture research project taking place in Europe at the moment and it’s fantastic that it’s happening here in Cornwall, where it will generate scientific jobs and intellectual capital.” “Europe is rapidly falling behind the rest of the world when it comes to growing its own seafood and this project is vital in addressing that imbalance. A key component is that lobsters will be grown in systems with no artificial feed inputs. This means that some of the broader sustainability issues sometimes associated with aquaculture (i.e. feeding farmed fish on wild caught fish) do not apply. In a nutshell we are assessing whether it is possible to grow one of the most valuable species (by weight) of seafood in the UK, using similar approaches to those used to grow low value species (such as mussels), in passive, environmentally friendly systems.” The project will use a sea-based container culture approach (SBCC) specifically developed for the species, in an early stage project, to assess performance and develop holistic application of the systems. The project will run a pilot scale lobster culture site to gather practical, operational, environmental, biological, engineering and economic data, that can be used to develop an essential tool to encourage and inform future investment. In terms of environmental credentials, farmed fish and seafood has received its fair share of bad press. This project specifically seeks to address these issues from the outset, undertaking a thorough environmental evaluation of operations. Keith Jeffery, Programme Director in Food Security and Aquaculture with CEFAS, remarked, “This project is an excellent example of what can be achieved when industry, government agencies, engineers and the research sector pull together to address the needs of a specific aquaculture sector. CEFAS will bring its depth of experience in aquatic animal health and pathology and will help to clarify regulatory aspects - thereby contributing to the development of a roadmap for this exciting and high value aquaculture sector.”

32 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed



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EXPERT TOPIC Field monitoring for offshore lobster aquaculture

As reported by Dr Jamie Luxmoore, Research Fellow, University of Exeter

International Aquafeed attended Oceanology International 2018, at which Jamie Luxemoore, Research Fellow at the University of Exeter gave a presentation on an innovative mooring design and assessment for an aquaculture system as part of the “Lobster Grower 2 project”. The project is a three-year consortium led project aiming to establish a pilot scale lobster farm, field testing a novel sea-based container culture and developing an innovative anchoring/ mooring system. The project will also develop an aqua-economic model and road map and aims to de-risk farming operations through environmental impact assessment. His previous work at Exeter involved investigating the performance and reliability of a novel design of mooring system for use with floating Wave Energy Converters. Jamie’s PhD was at Lancaster University studying wave loading on offshore wind turbine support structures with a particular interest in the effects of rogue waves and rogue wave development in bi-directional seas. Prior to his PhD Jamie’s background was in high speed aerodynamics and the associated structural resonance in military aircraft at BAE SYSTEMS. He has also worked in white goods test and development and his undergraduate degree was in Aeronautical Engineering.

I’m going to talk about the field monitoring on our Lobster Grower 2 project. A brief introduction into the project itself and then an overview of the whole field monitoring programme. Then I’m going to dive into the deep end of what we’re monitoring: Site and Environment Monitoring including; Wave buoys, Acoustic Doppler current profilers, Bio-chemical water quality arrays, Spot-point sampling for bio-chemical water quality and micro-constituents. Finally, we will discuss Container Based Monitoring; Internal environment monitoring and Container motion monitoring. Lobster Grower 2 is a three-year project funded by Innovate UK and BBSCRC to establish a pilot scale lobster farm. The lobster grower 1 study developed a no-feed input system for rearing European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) at sea. The techniques developed should be suitable for either stock enhancement or for aquaculture. At the moment, lobster farming isn’t really something that happens, certainly not on any scale, for a number of reasons. They take a long to grow for one and they tend to eat each other so they need to be kept in separate containers. But the Lobster Grower 1 study developed a no-feed input system for rearing European Lobster (Homarus gammarus) at sea. We’re

34 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

EXPERT TOPIC looking to continue that project and prove it can happen at a bigger scale, as the techniques developed should be suitable for either stock enhancement or for aquaculture (if we can get around some of the regulatory problems).

Slide 5

Aims of the project:

• Field test the sea-based container culture systems previously developed; • Develop novel anchoring/ mooring systems for the containers; • Develop an aquaeconomic model and road map to de-risk future farming operations. We’re about a year and a half in to the project and so far over 25,000 lobsters have been deployed into St Austell Bay, Cornwall on the south coast, to mid-year two. Survival rate is variable, the main die-off is very soon after you put them out at sea, survival also depends on how old they are when you put them out at sea, whether they’re in post larval stage or malting stage. The idea is to get them to stage 6 where the survival rates are a lot better.

Slide 6

Three main methods of holding the containers in place have been trialled – hanging from mussel lines, floating above a weighted ground line and a novel integrated seabedbased system, with the aim to be a bit more stable than the rope-based system to see if that makes any difference. The project is being managed from an already existing mussel farm and using mussel farm boats for the servicing.

Field monitoring programme overview

Basically, we’re looking at the oceanographic conditions, we’re looking at the motion of containers and looking at the water quality. For the water quality we’re looking and continuous quality and spot point sampling. In terms of the wave environment we’ve got two wave buoys which have been deployed throughout the project, one to the south west of the site in the bay and one in the entrance of St Austall Bay. They’ve been monitoring fairly continuously throughout the project. We’ve also got some ADCP’s (Teledyne RDI Workhouse

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Sentinel Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers) which as well as wave data are also giving us some current data. The static ADCP is deployed at the southeast corner of the site and the roaming ADCP moves around the bay every 1-2 months, the roaming one is to give an idea of how the currents are flowing around the bay. Samples at 1 Hz or averaged over 10 minutes at 1m bins up the water column. (Slide 7) In terms of the analysis of the data of those we’ve developed a SWAN model of the waves across the site by using the wave buoy data as the input conditions, and the ADCP’s as validation. We’ve also got a PhD student working on developing a DELFT3D model of the currents around the bay also using the ADCP data. The picture on the right (Slide 8) give you an idea on the conditions around the site, it is relatively sheltered, certainly sheltered from the prevailing South West at least. Waves are usually from the “south south west” to the south east, averaging at about 2.6 metres, although I expect we may have exceeded that in the last few weeks. In terms of the currents, they are fairly low in the bay except at the surface where there is wave and wind inputs affecting the currents.

Slide 7

Slide 8

Water quality (Slide 9)

We’ve got four water quality streams through the middle of the site. One of them is at three different depths. They’re monitoring; • Light • Temperature • G-force • Dissolved Oxygen • Depth • Conductivity Looking at the slide, they’re not actually recording at those frequencies that are on there because they’re out there continuously. We’re also doing spot point sampling for the water quality. This involves spot point sampling for bio-chemical water quality and micro-constituents, this is held at two locations in Austell Bay at three depths each, monthly in summer and every two months in winter (weather dependent). There is analysis for temperature, conductivity/salinity, dissolved oxygen, salt-adjusted DO and Alkalinity (pH). Samples are also analysed for Ammonia (NH3), Nitrate (NO3, Orthophosphate (PO4) and turbidity. And finally, for offshore analysis for microconstituents – metals and organics (trace legacy pollutants). We’re also doing CTD profiles (Conductivity Temperature Depth), which have been collected at the same locations as the spot-point water quality samples. (Slide 11) Looking at the graphs you can see that in June there is some temperature stratification, which is fairly consistent, by autumn it looks like the temperature has mixed out a fair bit and again the salinity is relatively constant. In winter it’s slightly colder at surface but salinity is slightly lower, presumably due to fresh water or rain input, which means that the temperature would be fairly consistent across the depth I would have thought. We’re also monitoring inside the containers (the internal environment). We’re looking at here; Measurements of temperature (T), light intensity (LI), dissolved oxygen (DO) and G-force/motion(G); Using onset HOBO sensor arrays; • Positioned inside the uppermost, centremost and lowermost tiers of the rearing containers; • Measuring every 30 minutes. Looking at the graph (Slide 12 Graph), the green line is one of the water quality strings outside the containers, the blue line is for internal monitoring, the results show that there is a reduction of oxygen within the containers which can be expected at this time of year. But it is something we continue monitoring throughout 36 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

Slide 9

Slide 11

Slide 12

EXPERT TOPIC the projects because the lobsters get bigger and the containers get more fouled and of course this may change. The unadjusted levels of environment dissolved oxygen, compared to DO levels recorded within the lobster rearing compartments through Slide 13


Autumn and Winter. Next, we’re looking at the motion of the containers this involves (Slide 13 images); • Two pulse INTEGRIpod-S accelerometers measure translational acceleration in three axes; • The accelerometers are set up to measure at 10 Hz for 10 minutes in every 30 minutes; Four custom made Inertial Monitoring Units use an Aduino – compatible SparkFun Razor IMU board with three axis sensors – an accelerometer, a gyroscope and a magnetometer; Finally, the IMUs are set up to measure continuously at 10 Hz. Looking at the slide which is a very simplified model, (Slide 14) we’re using the data on those to build up an idea of how the containers are moving. You can see on the right that as wave increases the motion of the contained increases.


Slide 14

That’s just a brief overview of the project, we’ve developed a pilot scale lobster farm in St Austall Bay, where over 25,000 lobsters have been deployed to date. We’re planning on deploying another 20,000 lobsters over the course of the project. A comprehensive field monitoring programme is in place including; • Oceanographic parameters – wave buoys and ADCPs; • Bio-chemical arrays; • Spot point sampling for water quality and micro constituents; • Internal environment monitoring; • And container motion monitoring. Analysis is ongoing.

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Aquaculture with floating and submersible nets by Gianluigi Negroni and Massimo Barzanti , Maccaferri, Italy

On March 13, 2018, International Aquafeed attended Oceanology International 2018, where Marco Montagnoli, Business Development Manager, Maccaferri gave an in-depth talk on the net technology making waves in aquaculture, the “Kikkonet”. The talk titled, “Kikkonet in Fish Farming with Floating and Submersible Nets” went into great detail about the product and the technology as shown in the slides shown in this article, which accompany a comprehensive view of the nets as written by Gianluigi Negroni and Massimo Barzanti.

The caged aquaculture industry has grown rapidly in the last 20 years and is evolving in response to globalisation pressures and the growing demand for aquatic products. Rapid population growth, increasing wealth and urbanisation in developing countries are leading to major changes in the supply and demand for animal protein - both land and fish. There was an orientation towards the integration of cage farms horizontally and vertically with hatcheries and feed mills, and towards the development and use of more modern cage systems. In particular, the need for suitable sites has allowed access and expansion of aquaculture cages in new areas not yet used, such as lakes, water retention reservoirs, rivers and brackish marine waters, coastal marine and offshore. We will consider the HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) cages that are currently very wide spread. Although the origins of the use of cages for the containment and transport of fish for short periods were used almost two centuries ago in the Asian region, we can think of an earlier use in the indigenous practices of nomadic fishermen who live on boats on the Mekong Delta and Tonle Sap in Vietnam and Cambodia. The marine cage culture was pioneered in the 1970s, with the development of salmonid breeding in Northern Europe and particularly in Norway. The farming systems where cages are used are very diversified, like the number of species bred. Rearing operations in traditional cages (typical of most Southeast Asian countries) consist of small cages and are in contrast to modern production operations of industrial cages for salmon and trout on a large scale in Northern Europe and the Americas (more than 50 metres diameter and 20 meters deep). The type and uses of different cages adapt to the environment and the economic objectives of the various environmental areas must adapt to the cages and related mooring equipment. The rapid growth and success of the salmonids farming industry is due to a combination of interrelated factors, including the development and use of easily replicable and cost-effective technology (including the production of the hatchery), access to large areas of suitable water, a good selection of species and market acceptability, possibility of large corporate investments and good national regulation of the aquaculture sector in cages. It is important to understand the challenges for cage culture development and in particular the need to minimise the rapidly growing potential environmental and ecosystem impacts.

38 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed


Challenges of using aquaculture cages

We have a number of general issues to consider when approaching the challenges of using aquaculture cages. It is important to consider the breeding system and the consequent real and/or perceived effects of this system for the aquatic environment, the social and economic system and the ecosystem: • Nutrient water dispersion originating from dietary waste, from faecal waste from caged fish and the possible impacts (negative and/or positive) on water quality on the water surrounding the environment that affects the health of ecosystems. • A risk of disease occurring within cage-fed fish and of the potential risk of disease transfer to wild fish. • The dependence of carnivorous fish species reared in cages on fishery resources such as fishoils and fishmeal. Note that this dependence is not unique to cage systems, and also applies to carnivorous and crustacean fish species. • An increase in the dependence of some cage breeding systems on the capture of wild fry and larvae currently not sufficient to satisfy the demand. • The risk of fish escaping from cages and consequent potential impact on wild fish populations, including potential genetic, ecological and social impacts;

• Potential impact of cage activities on other animal species, including predatory birds and mammals attracted to fish inside cages; • Community concerns regarding the use of internal public and coastal water bodies for caging (due to the possible displacement of fishermen and others and/or perceived visual pollution); consequent need for greater consultation with all interested parties; • A greater need to establish and implement appropriate government controls on the development of the sector, including environmental planning and monitoring, as well as the implementation of good management practices in the cage company; • Greater public concern (in some developed countries and markets) regarding the environmental and ecological sustainability of intensive farming systems and in particular regarding the long-term ecological sustainability of breeding of carnivorous fish species. It is important to consider how aquaculture (including the use of cage systems) has brought important social, economic and environmental benefits. We can consider other benefits such as: increasing food security and impacts for poverty reduction, the opportunity for employment within rural communities, increasing

The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to offer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city. International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 39

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the availability of fish products, improving food and wellbeing human resources, the increase in foreign currency revenues, the improvement of waste water treatment/reuse, the possibility of crop irrigation, the improvement of nutrient recycling. The above must be considered important for a balance of world food production systems. Ultimately aquaculture is supplying large quantities of fish products to the world’s population and allows a reduction in pressure on world fish stocks suffering from overfishing.

(can be more than one ring, can be filled with a floating material like polyurethane). • Bracelets that fix the collar and the walking area. • Networks (including cables, nets and ligatures) connected to the collar. • Deaths of various enamored form to keep the nets in shape.

Image 1

The cage system

Cage culture systems can evolve further, moving into deeper waters and more extreme operating conditions. In certain environmental conditions (offshore) they minimise environmental impacts through a greater dilution of effluents, produce less visual pollution and through integration with low trophic species such as algae, molluscs and other benthic invertebrates (holothurians, annelids or echinoderms) can recycle part of the effluent in the immediate vicinity. The technical specifications and design options must be calculated for the key elements of the floating cage system, to meet the needs of the operator. Cage systems must be suitable and resist the forces of the environment in which they will be placed. The calculation of ropes, net and other stressed structures are very important for the resistance to marine energy forces and the finalisation of the system. The final design of the cage system must be calculated with an appropriate sizing for the quantity of fish to be raised per cycle. The above must be developed by specialists with extensive experience in the field. The specialists will provide operators with specific practical information on the construction of the system, its transport and assembly on the site in charge. Furthermore, the cage system must have an appropriate standardised management system for offshore operations, maintenance and inspection techniques. Nets are the most solicited part of the system.

Floating cage system components

Ditching lines (“Mooring lines”) and grid system for cages (“Grid system”) below typical composition, (Image 1): Ancore (typical on 800 Kg); grills of various kinds with bolts and pins to connect the chains between them and the grid cages (yellow and red points in the following drawing) and corner plates; • Bottom chains for the ditching system. • Signalling buoys for anchors and cages. • Polyester ropes to connect the grid to the cages. • HAPD cage components. • The collar made of polypropylene pipes with a circular shape

Competition of the cage industry and tourism

The industry must also compete with other interests in the use of coastal maritime areas; in fact in many countries the competition between cages and tourist sites is very strong. There are numerous cases in which permits are not issued to install cage farms in order not to damage tourism and others in which cage farms have been forced to change areas due to numerous other problems. An example of this last case is Turkey, where in some areas there has been a strong development of cage breeding, in the same areas that then had a strong tourist development. Specific legislation has forced the cages to be removed from the coast, creating considerable problems especially for small farmers. There is a great deal of interest in further developing this sector by providing essential substitute activities to support communities living on the edge of the coasts, if there are no other especially tourist activities. The development of the cowshed breeding industry must respect the environment by guaranteeing a high quality product and being sufficiently efficient to compete with on-the-ground farms. The fish breeding cages, “use” the aquatic space and their environmental impact must be considered appropriately. Considering the Environmental Impact Assessment, an

40 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY obligatory step in the development of cage farms, some of the main considerations in the context of an EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment); Modification of natural currents; Available historical data and the assessment of the potential risks associated with the location; Chemical pollution; Soluble wastes; the use of copper and zinc based antifouling on the network and moorings; Discharge of organic substances - this can represent a danger for the benthic population under and around the cages; Visual modification of scenic places; Farmed fish and interaction with local species - escapes pose a risk to the environment as fish may behave predatorily. In the case of a large number of fleeing individuals, the prey / predation ratio in surrounding ecosystems can be critically altered. More over, fugitives can induce “genetic pollution”, i.e. “interbreeding” with wildlife.

The migration of industrial cages in the “Offshore” areas

Protected sites have always been preferred for the installation of a cage. These are the easiest places to practice aquaculture in cages, both for the lower initial cost of investment and for the management of the farm. A protected place allows the use of less expensive cages that require a simple mooring system. The farms are generally close to the coast, no powerful and fast boats are needed and the routine activities of the breeding can be carried out with an easy logistics and without much difficulty. A protected site is usually in shallow water with little current and with a low capacity to transport waste, obliging to consider lower fish density per cubic meter of cage. These aspects and cage technologies are constantly evolving; the situation is driving producers, the authorities of the sector towards a further movement of fish farms, especially large ones

towards offshore sites (far from the coast).

Offshore disadvantages

Cages, mooring systems and nets must be more robust and suitable for exposed sites and are therefore more expensive. There is also a more complex and high cost logistics for the divers who perform the checks and a difficulty in approaching the cages in difficult climatic conditions. There are a reduced number of days of feeding when there are adverse sea conditions in the absence of an automatic feeding system, as well as strong currents increasing the dispersion of feeds. Finally, there is a greater risk of fish leaks and the creation of bio fouling on the net that will require periodic cleaning.

Offshore advantages

The constraints listed above certainly contribute to an increase in capital and operating costs, however they are largely offset by a number of advantages such as; The cages moored in deeper water (> 35 m) and exposed to stronger currents will reduce sedimentation and accumulation of organic matter on the bottom, thus promoting waste dispersion and minimising the risk of pollution. The best water quality and faster renewal imply better breeding conditions and animal welfare including a lesser risk of epidemic and use of chemicals. There can be better animal welfare with greater functional gymnastics that approaches natural conditions on top of a potential greater density of animals per cubic meter. A higher oxygen saturation, consequently better growth and lower feed conversion rate. Finally, minor visual impacts and reduction of conflicts with other users of resources and an excellent quality of

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fish with a lower fat/meat ratio. The direct consequences of the lists listed above lead to ask for an excellent knowledge for the choice of the site to refine all the available parameters with respect to the design of the plant. In fact, the breeding structure is designed with respect to the oceanographic parameters available. The correct placement of a cage farm is of fundamental importance as regards the overall technical and economic success of the commercial operation and the reduction of the ecological footprint of the farm. Moving to Offshore sites, the structures must be more resistant than the sheltered sites near the shores. The cages and the structures that keep the breeding on site (in English mooring) must be appropriately sized to the environmental forces involved. In particular, nets containing fish must be particularly resistant. The nets of the cages are considered the weakest part both for their large surface exposed to the energies of the sea, and for the generally less resistant materials (there are steel cages but at very high costs) of the other elements and can be easily damaged. As with other elements of the cage system, the nets are exposed to intense static and dynamic forces. They can also suffer more than other elements of the bio fouling cage system. The nets can be damaged both by the fish that they contain and by the surrounding marine fauna; the nets can be subjected to mechanical accidents, thefts or vandalism, they can eventually be damaged with consequent flight of fish. The classification of sites can be evaluated with different objective observations, but this classification can vary according to the applied method. In the end, the exposure (and therefore the current and the height of the waves) is certainly the most relevant factor to consider in the classification of offshore sites regardless of the actual distance from the coast.



MARICULTURE Conference In association with:

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Environmental criteria for organisms reared in cages

The sites chosen for cage breeding must have good water quality. Not only must water be free from pollution, but must also meet the biological requirements of the species bred. These criteria include the appropriate temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen (DO) necessary for the cultivated species. The water must be free of excessive suspended solids, without the limiting events of algal blooms and presence of pathogenic organisms. An adequate current is necessary to guarantee an appropriate water exchange inside the cages, on the contrary too much increases the stress to the organisms and to the equipment.

Environmental factors to be considerd in fish cage project

In addition to the factors mentioned above that affect the breeding of various species of aquatic organisms raised, in selecting the site responsible for breeding in cages, we must consider all those factors that can affect the installation of cages, such as obstacles and other activities that they are carried out in the body of surrounding water. It is therefore essential that in the design and construction of a farm, to consider a specific model of cage, the system of “mooring” (ditching) and the service/support vessels to the system suitable for the following factors: • Bathymetry or site depth (ie sea area and depth profiles); • Current speed and direction; • Wind; • Height and period of the wave; • Type of backdrop; • Incidence of storms and hurricanes. These parameters must be considered during significant periods to consider the minimum and maximum intervals of the intensity of the aforementioned natural phenomena.

The Kikkonet

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The industry has responded with various innovations to these problems, one of the most appreciated by large breeding worldwide is the “Kikkonet” a patent of an Emilian industry that is sold all over the world and is much appreciated in practical use. The characteristics of the network adapt to sites with a lot of marine energy and with the possibility of breakages. The type of network, its assembly and the used materials (patented), are the result of a happy intuition of an engineer of the Maccaferri Group. The new product has been built with a special monofilament and has been through numerous field tests with clients and detailed studies, with specialised research centres worldwide. The result is a network with excellent physical characteristics of robustness suitable for the most exposed aquaculture sites. After 2011, Maccaferri became the industry leader for the production of net for exposed sites with appropriate products that solve the problems of farmers for the more energetic sites characteristic of offshore installations. Currently the Kikkonet is used in various countries of the world with different species of farmed fish. The salmon industry uses Kikkonet in Norway, Chile, Scotland and Australia (in these markets called Econet). For predator problems, especially marine

42 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY mammals, special nets have been produced for Chile. Seastation cages mount Kikkonet nets for their submarine cages.


High durability of the construction materials of the network that is certified NS 9415: 2009 (as EcoNet) to stay in water up to 14 years, simplifying the operations of maintenance and management of the networks during treatments, the handling of fish and collection; Excellent prevention of accidental escape of fish, reducing the risk of leakage; Avoids expensive changes of networks; Less dead weights are used for the semi-rigid form of the Kikkonet network; Maximisation of the circulation of the current inside the cages, due to the smooth surface of the monofilament in PET (polyethylene terephthalate or commonly polyester). The polyester has less resistance to water, the semi-rigid structure allows the meshes to remain open and maintain their shape without collapsing due to current problems. The industrial breeders of salmon greatly appreciate these characteristics that allow them to optimise the growth parameters of their animals in cages such as growth speed, the Food Conversion Index, lower mortality and greater animal welfare. No anti-fouling products are used because Kikkonet is a single monofilament, robust and smooth without pores, on the contrary traditional networks are produced by multi filaments that allow a better surface to attack parasites and fouling that develop better. The Kikkonet allows an environmental solution for aquaculture and mariculture in general, thanks to the UV stabilised UV material (ultraviolet rays) that is woven with a hexagonal mesh double with unique and specific characteristics. The Kikkonet therefore has better durability characteristics compared to traditional networks, reducing operational costs and increasing the durability and productivity of the farm. The nets are built completely and pre-assembled according to customer specifications and are customised to the needs so that they are easily integrated into the cage system: the ditching system and the age of cables that connect it to the cages. The networks are built with recyclable material, reducing disposal costs and respecting the environment. A new net is available on the market to protect the large cages from marine mammals; several orders are ready to be executed with this new net.







The use of cages for the containment of fish farms and other marine organisms has reached a very common use for sites with low exposure. In recent years, however, some competition has been on the sites near the coast and protected by the great increase in activities and the increase in the coastal population. It is well known that aquaculture cannot compete with large coastal industries such as tourism, transport and the new stringent environmental laws that are gradually intensified. The solution to the problem lies in the forced removal of farms from the coasts and their location in sites located in the open sea and even in the ocean. The weakest parts that require more control and maintenance in the structure of an offshore farm are without a doubt the fish containment networks. With the new Kikkonet technology there is a new tool to solve the problem of networks in exposed sites. The growing demand for aquaculture fish products will make it mandatory to develop industrial-scale ocean farms that will accommodate these types of high-energy resistant networks that come into play on those sites.

P.O. Box 8 100 Airport Road Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143

International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 43 ET-275C.indd 1

12/22/15 3:33 PM

TECHNOLOGY SHO Top aquaculture technology

WATER FILTRATION, MOVEMENT AND CLEANSING With a specific focus this edition on water and how the aquaculture industry can efficiently and economically process and handle it before, during and after their operations, we take a look at a number of technologies from the World Aquaculture Society hosted event, Aquaculture America 2018.

Atlantis: Aquatic tanks and accessories large size washer No need for manual scrubbing or pre-treatment thanks to Atlantis, effective algae and biofilm removal. Perfect results are ensured through an engineered cycle composed by pressure, accurate coverage, detergents mix and multiple rinses. With a high loading capacity of up to 184 tanks/per (1.1L), the machine also has maximum flexibility with presentation racks and crates specifically designed to process all aquatic items. Full process control and automatic detergent management via three on-board dosage pumps and validated pre-set cycles.

HydroBurst IT CC960 & HydroSteam IT HH 223 HydroStream and HydroBurst, the patented airlift devices developed and manufactured by Aqua Hill Aeration Inc., have revolutionised airlift technology for use in RAS systems, ponds, hydroponics, aquaponics, and waste water treatment. We offer five different units to meet your various need: both in-tank, dry land and floating. Without the use of pumps or impellers, Aqua Hill Aeration’s devices allow for the movement of water with high volume lift and aeration at a low cost. With no moving parts, these devices are non-clogging and require virtually no maintenance. Forward from the trickling filter for both wastewater management and aquaculture, the Modular RBC improves almost every functional facet of the filtration process.

Modular Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) By Advanced Aquacultural Technologies, a new spin on filtration, the Modular Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) is flexible enough to adapt to the size of an instillation, yet at the same time, more energy efficient—all this while providing more contact time between the bacteria and water, producing cleaner more oxygenated water. The next natural step forward from the trickling filter for both wastewater management and aquaculture, the Modular RBC improves almost every functional facet of the filtration process.

44 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed



Kasco Robust-Aire Kasco Robust-Aire™ Systems are available as complete packages from one to six diffuser heads. These highly efficient and effective diffused aeration systems are designed and sized to meet most typical aeration applications and come complete with everything you need including all connectors and adapter fittings. Installation is quick and easy with Kasco’s exclusive SureSink™ weighted air lines by simply sinking in place without separate weighting or anchoring, alypso and Atlantis washing solutions – a turn-key process that eliminates algae and biofilm without the need of any pre-treatment.

SentrOXY WQM SentrOXY WQM, optical oxygen sensor, is the smart optical solution to a host of water management challenges. Its robustness and versatility make it suitable for diverse applications ranging from aquaculture to water and waste water, to environmental monitoring projects. SentrOXY WQM leverages the very latest technology, incorporating two sensors – each with its own dedicated channel. This means it can measure oxygen levels at two points simultaneously. This patented dual-measurement functionality enables real-time referencing of the results, significantly improving the accuracy of the reading.

45 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

Twin screw extruder for fish feed The WAS show marked Brabender’s first appearance at Aquaculture America. Pictured are three representatives from Brabender CWS Instruments of South Hackensack, New Jersey. Brabender brought one of its stand-alone twin screw extruders. C.W. Brabender Instruments, Inc. for over 88 years has manufactured testing equipment designed for measuring and recording rheology, viscosity, processing development, laboratory scale compounding, extrusion, mixing applications and moisture of various polymers and for testing the physical properties and quality of various materials and food systems used in the food and animal/fish feed industries.

Above: (L-R) Sal Laquez Vice President Sales and Marketing, President Richard F. Thomas, and Stephen Lange

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Industry Events Events listing APRIL 08-09 – Monaco Blue Initiative Scotland 09 – 13/04/18 - 122nd IAOM Annual Conference& Expo USA 19 – 21/04/18 - Livestock Asia 2018 Malaysia 23 – 26/04/18 - Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2018 Taiwan 24 – 26/04/18 – Seafood Processing Global Belgium 25 – 26/04/18 - 8th European Algae Industry Summit Austria european-algae-industry-summit/


02 – 04/05/18 - Food Ingredients Istanbul 2018 Turkey 07 – 09/05/18 - Agro-Food Oman Oman 15 – 17/05/18 – Offshore Mariculture Asia Singapore 16 – 18/05/18 – FI Vietnam 2018 Vietnam 23 – 24/05/18 - Aquaculture UK 2018 Scotland 24 – 25/05/18 - 11th Global Summit on Aquaculture & Fisheries Japan

Focus on shrimp aquaculture in Asia - TARS 2018 Asia is the leading supplier of farmed shrimp to global markets. However, its production has dropped since 2010. Today, growth of the shrimp aquaculture is moving at different speeds. This has not benefitted the entire value chain, as gross margins remain thin due to low survival rates and disease outbreaks. The situation has since regressed, resulting in reduced productivity with massive increases in production cost. Zuridah Merican, Editor of Aqua Culture Asia Pacific, and chairperson of TARS 2018, commented, “Today the industry is being sustained by high prices which is not expected to continue. Living with diseases, inconsistent harvest volumes and crop losses may be the new normal, but what the industry needs now is a revolutionary change. This requires a muchneeded shift in production paradigms if Asia is to reach the global production levels prior to the EMS crisis.” TARS 2018, to be held at the Shangri-la Hotel, Chiang Mai, Thailand from August 15-16, 2018 will focus on shrimp aquaculture in Asia, making it the fourth time the meeting will address this sector. The two-day meeting, with the theme “Need for Change” features a vibrant programme with the participation of international experts and key stakeholders from the industry and academia, who will share new knowledge, exchange insights and experiences at the plenary, interactive breakout sessions, and panel discussions that have become hallmarks of this critical series. Also included in the programme is “Hard Talk with Young Shrimp Farmers.” This dialogue session presents the opportunity for delegates to learn first-hand about new business and farming models, as well as challenges and successes. Among the topics to be addressed are the current state of Asia’s shrimp aquaculture industry, new approaches for improving shrimp production, higher level of control, productivity and cost efficiency, and transformation to ensure the future of the industry. The plenary will comprise of 15 presentations. A signature presentation on the State of the Industry & Challenges in Asia by a prominent stakeholder will review current industry developments and where the industry is heading. Mr Merican explained, “For country reviews, we have selected India, where the speed of development is fast and furious; Vietnam which is fast evolving to cope with diseases and production efficiency in post-EMS Thailand.” Other presentations include Productivity in the Supply Chain – field information on current disease threats in Asia; different culture systems, and environment, nursery and grow-out in controlled environments; Nutritional and Health Interventions – mitigating disease through gut health; assessment of vannamei shrimp nutrition in Asia versus Central and South America; nutrition for robust shrimp, and new feeding concepts. Two sessions will be dedicated to the Revival of BT Shrimp and Attracting Investments. The latter will focus on production efficiency to improve profitability and reduce risks to meet investors’ requirements at farm level. The tentative programme is available at

For more industry event information - visit our events register 48 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events

AquaFarm 2018, a great success The second edition has just finished, which saw great satisfaction among participants, companies, exhibitors, associations and institutions. Visitors are on the rise with more than 55 percent of attendees internationally. More than 55 percent visitors compared to the 2017 edition, 20 percent of which come from 32 foreign countries. A highly flattering final result for the event, which could also count on an increase of 80 percent of the exhibition space and of 50 percent of the brands presented directly or represented (respectively 110 and 4, 30 percent of which come from abroad), and a doubling of the conference rooms. Great satisfaction was expressed by all the protagonists of the event. In only two editions Aquafarm has become the reference point in the Southern-East Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin regarding aquaculture and the fishing industry. The event is now a must also for all operators of vertical farms and offground crops sectors, as well as the industrial and environmental algae applications. Many topics were discussed in the 21 international conference sessions with

130 speakers, 30 percent of which were international. The most interesting topics presented at Aquafarm are related to aquaponics, that is the integration in a single system of fish breeding and cultivation of plants. In the aquaculture sessions, the focus had been on the new generation of genetic researches and on the importance of the processing, distribution and commercialisation of products and information to consumers along with the “traditional� issues regarding the regulatory frameworks, feed, health and technology. A transversal topic had been the certification in aquaculture, vertical farming and off-ground crops. Standards are and will be available in order to increase the guarantees for consumers in terms of sustainability and quality. This issue is particularly important also considering the tendency to create vertical farms in urban areas, enhancing the wide unused building heritage in Italian and European cities, another popular topic. Organisers and partners of AquaFarm are ready for the 2019 edition. This will be held between February 14-15, 2019 at Pordenone Fiere Exhibition Center (Venice area). If you missed something of this edition, you can find the presentations, pictures and videos on the official website:

Brackish aquaculture 2019 The Society of Coastal Aquaculture and Fisheries (SCAFi), Chennai in association with ICAR-Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (ICAR-CIBA), Chennai are organising an International Conference on Brackishwater Aquaculture (BRAQCON 2019), at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India during January 23-25, 2019. BRAQCON 2019 is envisaged to provide a platform for high-level intellectual deliberations by scientific fraternity from India and overseas for the benefit of academics, researchers and other stakeholders. The conference is also expected to contribute technological inputs towards blue revolution initiatives in the country, with a focus on sustainable brackishwater aquaculture and wellbeing of the coastal ecosystems. The event will bring together stakeholders and facilitate fruitful interaction among them to resolve emerging issues in the sector and take the sector forward.

International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 49

23 & 24 May 2018 Aviemore, Scotland No other UK event provides aquaculture professionals with direct access to suppliers from all over the globe representing all aspects of the aquaculture industry. Over two days Aquaculture UK offers a valuable opportunity to network, discover new products and meet decision makers. The atmosphere is dynamic and exciting with open and friendly interaction between exhibitors and visitors.


Visit to register as a visitor or contact to find out more about exhibiting.

Asia’s largest aquafeed technology and aquafeed ingredients event Visit VICTAM Asia 2018 to learn the latest on aquafeed technology and ingredients and additives. Meet over 200 exhibitors and make the most of your time by using our business match-making program. What’s on show at VICTAM Asia 2018? • Feed production technology • Packaging • Energy efficiency • Auxiliary equipment • Ingredients • Additives • Formulation • Laboratory equipment • Quality control Visitor profiles • CEO’s • Nutritionists • Feed formulators • Buyers • Mill managers • Directors From which companies? • Aquafeed producers • Animal feed compounders • Integrators • Co-operatives • Hatcheries • Fish farms, etc. Industry related conferences • Aquafeed Horizons Asia 2018 Conference • GMP+ Feed Safety Seminar

Supported by • The Feedstuff Users Promotion Association • Thai Feed Mill Association • The Animal Husbandry Association of Thailand • Animal Health Products Association • Department of Fisheries • Ministry of Industry • The Thai Chamber of Commerce • Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau Organized by Victam International BV, PO Box 197, 3860 AD Nijkerk, The Netherlands T: +31 (0)33 246 4404 F: +31 (0)33 246 4706 E: Visit our website: See Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, Google+ or scan QR code

Industry Events

OCEANOLOGY INTE by Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson. Production Editor, International Aquafeed Oceanology International 2018 proved an absolute hi-tech hotspot for aquacultural technology at the ExCel Centre, March 13-15, 2018. This report highlights just some of the impressive array of products at the shows 49th demonstration. A notable feature was of course the ROV's on display. Head over to page 54 for a few key models, somewhat futuristically reminiscent. The key part of our day at the show though was the packed schedule of aquaculture technical talks. Focusing on environmental sustainability, offshore aquaculture and equipment and technology, they gave a real insight into the current issues and possible solutions facing the industry over the coming years. Not only a hive of economically fruitful tech, this show will prove to supply a complete nest of technical articles for the magazine over the coming months. Looking at the talks in individual detail we hope to give a more complete idea of what's out there, and make aquaculture both on a small and industrial scale, a bit less strenuous and a bit more provident. Starting this month, a talk given on "Field Monitoring for Offshore Lobster Aquaculture" as this editions Species Focus. page 34. Oceanology International is a biennial show and will next be held March 17-19, 2020 - If this year is anything to go by, the aquacultural spectrum portrayed will only have gotten even better. A full day of "Aquaculture Technical Track" conferences drew a consistently full crowd throughout the day

Ben Johnson, Technical Sales, Xylem Analytics

Above: XCTD Probes The TSK XCTD probe is an expendable probe capable of reaching up to 1,850m of depth when dropped from a vessel travelling up to 20 knots. An accurate profile of oceanographic conditions is obtained in real-time from a fastmoving ship. The hydro-dynamically designed probe contains a temperature sensor, conductivity sensor, battery, electronics, and communication wire. Conductivity is measured with an inductive cell that detects an induced EMF in a toroid due to seawater conditions.

52 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

EXO2 multiparameter sonde Ben Johnson shows off YSI’s impressive water monitoring product. The EXO advanced water quality monitoring platform includes the versatile multiparameter EXO2 sonde for oceanographic, estuarine, or surface water applications. Key Benefits High-accuracy sensors with on-board memory Wireless communications Seamless integration into marine, estuarine, freshwater and ground water monitoring systems.

Industry Events

ERNATIONAL 2018 Below: Understanding marine climate change Cefas’ Marine Climate Change Centre provides unique leadership in understanding the challenges presented by climate change to aquatic environments and ecosystems. They work closely with government and industry, as well as other internationally recognised science organisations, to provide support in identifying marine climate change impacts and associated options for mitigation and adaptation. Kyle Briggs, Marketing Communications Coordinator, Cefas Above: Integrally straked cables A smooth, circular cable that is either towed behind a vessel or deployed in an underwater environment is often prone to Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) causing the cable to oscillate at high speed. They developed a system of applying polymer strakes integral with the cable jacket. Through computer control, the pitch, direction and frequency can be carefully controlled to give optimum VIV suppression for specific cables and hydrodynamic environments.

53 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events Below: Buccaneer Marine Electronics – Advice and technology suppliers Based in Aberdeenshire in the heart of the oil industry and a worldwide maritime centre of excellence, we aim to stock supply and support a wide range of products and services for companies and individuals either working in the marine industry. As specialist marine electronics suppliers they offer unbiased opinions and advice on the leading products in the marine industry. UK Suppliers and factory authorised service/repair of the class leading ROV ranges from Outland and SeaMor. UK Distributor for SubC Imaging and their phenomenal range of Underwater camera’s, topside equipment and support equipment.

Below: Mission specialist ROV systems The VideoRay Mission Specialist Series ROV (MSS ROV) utilises a system of interchangeable, modular components residing on a single intelligent network. This topology provides an extremely flexible and customisable platform which can be easily adapted to target specific missions. It is this flexibility which sets apart the Mission Specialist ROV series from current technology in the Remotely Operated Vehicle Industry.

Outland 2000 ROV -

Above: Electric ROV range Forum Energy Technologies has launched its new electric remotely operated vehicle (EROV) range. Designed and manufactured in-house at Forum’s Kirkbymoorside Yorkshire facility, the XLe Spirit is the company’s first of a new generation of electric ROVs. The vehicle is the smallest in the new range, but is powerful enough to perform subsea maintenance and repair work with the use of its optional electric or hydraulic five function manipulator arm. It uses Forum Integrated Control Engine (ICE++) found in larger work-class and trencher vehicles in the Forum product range.

DeepTrekker ROV with SONAR - SONAR systems for ROV in aquaculture. Tom Blacker, International Aquafeed went to a first-hand demonstration from Deep Trekker for their latest technology. A new hardware and software integration system has been developed by Deep Trekker with TriTech to be fitted and retrofitted to the Deep Trekker DTG2. Featuring Gemini 720i Sonar for navigation with the visual camera images creates a new concept and more advanced solutions for aquaculture users. The system is about to be launched commercially by April. 24 factor ROV and SONAR with Ultra-short baseline (USBL) systems for recognizing and seeing relative position and objects and even to then use tools to remotely pick up the object. Sam MacDonald, presenting at the Thames riverside location of Oceanology International 2018 Exhibition said that these enhanced capabilities are good for salvage jobs and monitoring jobs in dark or murky water. The ROV is able to pick up objects on SONAR and act on that object in the way that is best. Aquaculture is applicable to the Deep Trekker DTG2 for monitoring buoys, harbours or fish farms’ hardware below the water. Keep your eyes open for more on this product and more from Deep Trekker in the next editions of International Aquafeed magazine.

54 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

You invest, they digest.

FORMULATE MORE WITH LESS Nutriad’s aqua team designed a unique range of functional feed additives to enhance digestive and metabolic processes. Species-specific solutions such as AQUAGEST® as well as a complete range of natural emulsifiers like LIPOGEST and AQUALYSO. They offer more options on ingredient choice, improving protein efficiency and creating a more sustainable aquafeed with less environmental impact. We would like to share our in-depth knowledge and hands-on experience with you. It’s good for you, and great for your fish and shrimp.

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Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Additives

VAV +31 71 4023701

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800

Certification Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711 Nutriad +32 52 409596 Sonac +31 499 364800

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00

Bulk storage

GMP+ International +31703074120

Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41

Colour sorters Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Satake +81 82 420 8560

Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66

Coolers & driers Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0

Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944

Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315

Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119

Muyang Group +86 514 87848880

Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 Symaga +34 91 726 43 04

Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650


Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828

Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128


JEFO +1 450 799 2000

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 Andritz +45 72 160300 Brabender +49 203 7788 0 Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 IDAH +866 39 902701 Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

Elevator buckets

TSC Silos +31 543 473979

Alapala +90 212 465 60 40

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191

56 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 APC +34 938 615 060 Jefo +1 450 799 2000 SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website:

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International Aquafeed - March 2018 | 57

Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63

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the interview Mr Jean Fontaine BSc (Agr), President, Jefo Group

Mr Jean Fontaine Agr, serves as the President of Jefo Nutrition, Inc. He oversees all company activities in order to increase the performance of research, manufacturing of innovative products and the service to Jefo Nutrition offers invaluable and trusting customers. He graduated from Laval University in Animal Nutrition (Zootechny) in 1981 and trained in Foreign Trade and Export Techniques in 1982.

How did Jefo develop and with what vision?

Jefo was founded in 1982, when I was a young bachelor in animal science, and I saw an opportunity to benefit local producers. Starting out as a distributor for commodity products, the company grew and soon offered its own nutrition product line, backed by its own expertise and vision. The vision was to reduce antibiotic use and improve animal performances, with more natural and healthy solutions. In due course, laborious beginnings paved the way for exponential growth. Today, Jefo is part of the big leagues in the feed additives industry. We continue to build on the foundations that have led to its success: strong relationships, risk-taking, hard work, and knowledge. Originating with one man, the Jefo spirit is now carried forward by all our employees, distributors and customers. Jefo is not only a quality brand, it is also an extended community. After more than 35 years in agribusiness, Jefo proposes various solutions such as essential oils, acidifiers, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and bypass fats, which are divided in three programmes: Jefo Care – Prevention & Health, Jefo Peak – Performance & Production, and Jefo Cycle – Reproduction. Some product lines use the Jefo Matrix Technology, which takes into account the digestive transit time of each species to enable a targeted release of nutrients in the intestines.

What are the most significant changes that have occurred since the beginning?

The most significant change has been to witness the organic growth of Jefo, from a small provincial company, to a Global company now servicing the world. The company now has a global presence in close to 60 countries and our reach is now global. We have partners and employees on all continents, allowing us to witness global and regional challenges, and addressing them with specific solutions to improve animal health and performances This is a very exciting challenge. The pace has more than doubled in the last five years, with the increased pressure on antibiotic reduction and the raising prices of ingredients. Our solutions are getting increasingly popular! We experienced a radical change from an educational context (20 years ago) to delivering practical solutions to our customers that are now requesting them!

Why do you feel the agri-business is important?

The agri-business is one of the most important segment if our lives! We have the responsibility to feed the world with performance, health and sustainability in mind (both socially and environmentally). Animal welfare is also becoming an increasing issue, with consumer’s level of education rising and the rise of social media. Jefo is addressing this, as a part of our global positioning: Life, made easier.

Why are innovative feed additive solutions important in aquaculture today?

Being the youngest among industrialised animal production systems, aquaculture has been going through a revolution in recent years -- from land based small stake holders to large integrated farming operations. These operations also include open ocean aquaculture or Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS). Issues such as the release of nutritional wastes to the environment, poor management and inadequate nutrition causing eutrophication, frequent disease outbreaks, subsequently resulting in significant economic sufferings in the industry. Innovative solutions such as enzymes, organic acids and other phytogenic compounds, for example, can help improve the utilisation of nutrients to reduce organic wastes, manage gut microbes, optimise gut health, and improve immune response in aquatic animals. The enzymes are specifically more important for RAS systems, where reducing nutrient load is a key component to improving efficiency. Jefo, with its innovative solutions, including, for example, enzymes, microencapsulated organic acids and essential oils, is at the forefront of this revolution. Providing solutions that help not only the industry but also the environment, and thus saving Mother Nature for generations to come has been our goal since the beginning.

How important is aquaculture to meet the protein needs for a growing global population?

World population is expected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050. Growing population as well as the rising incomes in developing countries, are driving up the global food demand, specifically the demand for animal protein. The United Nations projected that, by 2050, food and feed production will need to increase by as much as 70 percent. As the fastest growing animal production industry and being the most efficient in converting nutrients to protein, aquaculture will be the key driving force to meet this global protein need to feed the growing population.

Where do you see aquaculture as a major source of food production in 20-30 years from now?

Today, we are confined by very limited land and freshwater resources. There is fierce competition for arable land among all the farming systems, not to mention the competition for industrial and urban development. Moreover, terrestrial farming, industrialisation and urbanisation are consistently blamed for water pollution. 70 percent of our earth is covered with water, 97 percent of which are seas and oceans. To protect this beautiful planet, we have to move our food production systems from land to ocean. In doing so, we can produce as much aquatic plants and animals as we produce today but using only one percent of the oceanic surface. Most of the technologies needed for ocean based faming systems are available today. We just need to use our vision and will to take the necessary steps to make it happen.

58 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed

THE INDUSTRY FACES Lead Scientist Aquaculture appointed for Nutriad


r Waldo Nuez Ortin has been appointed Lead Scientist Aquaculture in Nutriad.

With more than a decade of academic and industry experience in aquaculture research and project management, he graduated a veterinarian at the University of Zaragoza (Spain) and obtained his MSc in Animal Nutrition from the University of Saskatchewan (Canada), before completeing a PhD o fish nutrition at the University of Tasmania and CSIRO (Australia).

Waldo Nuez Ortin

In between his MSc and PhD studies, he worked as an aquaculture technical manager in the feed additive industry. After his PhD, he continued as lecturer/researcher at James Cook University (Australia), where he actively collaborated with industry and academic partners in the evaluation and development of novel feed ingredients and additives. He commented on his new role, “I am excited to join the Nutriad team and hope to contribute to with my academic and practical knowledge of aquaculture research, biotechnological tools and experimental design to support the high need for innovation in aquaculture specialty additives.”

GAA Executive Director


ndrew Mallison is joining The Global Aquaculture Alliance as Executive Director.

Since 2011, Mr Mallison has been director general of IFFO – The Marine Ingredients Organisation, an international trade organisation with offices in the UK, Peru and China, representing and promoting the marine ingredients sector.

Andrew Mallison

He has a lifetime career in seafood. Before joining IFFO’s leadership team in 2011, he was director of standards and licensing for the Marine Stewardship Council from 2009 to 2011 and global sourcing manager for seafood at UK retailer Marks & Spencer from 1996 to 2009, working with suppliers from Madagascar to Alaska, including establishing an award-winning salmon-farming program in Scotland. He has also worked as technical manager for Maple Leaf Foods and as technical director for Premier Foods (UK) Ltd. Mr Mallison has a B.Sc. in fisheries science, commercial fishing, fish farming, marine law, fisheries economics and marine biology from the University of the South West (formerly Plymouth School of Maritime Studies) in the UK and completed an executive development program at Henley Business School.

New Technical Services Manager for the Mediterranean


arry Tziouvas has been appointed to a newly created position of Technical Services Manager (Mediterranean) as part of a wider strategy to strengthen Benchmark’s presence in the region. Harry will be based in Athens and his role will focus on supporting producers in the field as well as providing them with advice and knowledge on Benchmark’s unique approach to health management in aquaculture.

Harry Tziouvas

Harry brings to Benchmark years of both scientific and farm-based aquaculture experience. Prior to joining he worked as a Senior Biologist (North Region) for the Scottish Salmon Company, where he managed the fish health management of marine and freshwater sites. He holds a MSc in Aquatic Pathobiology from the University of Stirling and a BSc in Aquaculture and Fisheries Management from the Technological Educational Institute of Western Greece. He is fluent in Greek and English.

60 | March 2018 - International Aquafeed













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