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International Aquafeed - Volume 20 - Issue 6 - June 2017

- Aqua feeds and the management of parasitic diseases - Aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa - Alternative to Fishmeal - Supplementing a scarce resource - PIT tagging: monitoring and management Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

June 2017

CONTENTS June 2017 Volume 20 Issue 6

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies Associate Editor Dr Albert Tacon International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Rhiannon White Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tom Blacker Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 New Zealand Marketing Team Peter Parker

Expanding aquaculture

Aquaculture is expanding almost everywhere. While high-quality and balanced feed rations are an essential component in the successful growing of fish in captivity, there are other aspects of fish farming that need to be considered if we are to provide consumers with a product they value and wish to buy. Therefore, IAF has, over recent months, expanded its editorial coverage to embrace more activities involved in fish farming. As a result we have updated our cover this month to reflect that development and introduced a ‘reference panel’ on the Editor’s page to identify the four areas our magazine now covers: aquafeeds, feed equipment, fish farming technology and species.


Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu



42 Industry Events

50 The Market Place

52 The Aquafeed Interview

Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan




10 ©Copyright 2017 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service

Industry News

30 Expert Topic - Murrel

Design Manager James Taylor

Development Manager Antoine Tanguy


14 Aqua feeds and the management of parasitic diseases

20 UK trade and investment in aquaculture technology 22 Aquaculture in Sub-Saharan Africa

24 Alternative to Fishmeal: Supplementing a scarce resource

Industry Faces

Ioannis Zabetakis

Clifford Spencer

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 36 Why we need recyclable brass nets in offshore aquaculture 38 PIT tagging: monitoring and management for brood stock and genetic research progammes

Croeso - welcome

We are now in meteorological summer in the Northern Hemisphere and it’s a great relief from the depths of winter especially in the UK. The warmer months will obviously be reflected in increased production of fish in temperate conditions and changes International Aquafeed Editor in feeding rate and feed Professor Simon Davies composition as water temperature levels increase and daylight lengthens. The concern regarding climate change has obvious implications on the response of specific sensitive fish to thermal challenges. For trout and salmon these may require new understanding of acclimation conditions, as well as the effects on metabolism and immune responses, not forgetting the increasing risks of pathogens in the aqueous environment leading to various viral and bacterial infections and mortality. There is also the associated reduction in oxygen loading levels and potential hypoxic conditions further exacerbating the problems. Indeed I am involved in a funded project that will address how wild native brown trout may adjust to temperature rises and how their metabolic systems may be adversely affected at a cellular, tissue and organ and systemic level causing physiological impairment. This would interfere with appetite, growth and development and reproduction performance within the ecosystem and disruption. As a biochemist and specialist in fish nutrition we can learn so much from fundamental biology and these can be later applied to other areas such as aquaculture. So many ‘expert’ fish nutritionists are well meaning and have obtained their knowledge subsequent to graduation in zoology, aquatic and marine biology, microbiology, or veterinary medicine but often lack a sound grasp of basic nutritional grounding to fully appreciate fish and shrimp nutrition and the details of the subject from an animal and even human level. A research PhD in fish nutrition or related discipline does

not make one a leading authority overnight. It will take years of experience and thoughtful contemplation of a very complicated field to appreciate the bigger picture. I am alarmed at the trending output of commercial backed studies and their lack of a comprehensive rationale for specific types of investigations that steer away form a ‘hypothesis’ and clear aims and objectives. This is regularly noticeable in the rash of peer-reviewed papers in scientific journals that are increasingly technique driven with ‘bolt-on’ molecular biology to include nutri-genomics, proteomics and metabolomics ‘snapshots’ of events such as the gut microbiome, gut and integument, mucosal immunity and linked to changes in diet formulations or other factors as examples. I have no problem with the inclusion of new technologies that can allow better understanding of how feed ingredient and additives may function, but question whether these have a basis and strategy within the context of many new studies. In many papers I review, there is no real sound hypothesis advocating such as why certain genes are selected and their role or collective function in fish and crustaceans are not properly discussed. Discussion sections may focus on the results found but often do not integrate with other investigators or critically analyse the findings to form a cohesive account and are relatively weak in format and content with a ‘light touch’ and hardly any concrete conclusions. In our current issue we have a show report written by our own Peter Parker, New Zealand on his recent visit to the IndoLivestock 2017, in the Phillipines. It is really lovely and provides such a unique insight for us when we get to do these trips and report back to you the latest advancements and moves forward of our industry. Our special fish topic is “Murrels: Living jewels of India”, with a very interesting piece by Dr B. Laxmappa, District Fisheries Officer, Jogulamba Gadwal. Our regular features include a plethora of interesting developments in Aquafeed and nutrition and fish framing technology. We of course also have our news- letters and reports of upcoming meetings and conferences in our global industry. I hope to see many of you in South Africa later in the month and we will report on the WAS meeting in our next edition.


AQUAFEED DISEASE: Connecting the dots between aqua feeds and the management of parasitic diseases in aquaculture - page 14

CAGE SYSTEMS: Why we need recyclable brass nets in offshore aquaculture - page 36

PROTEIN: Alternative to Fishmeal - Supplementing a scarce resource - page 24

PIT TAGGING: Monitoring and management for brood stock and genetic research progammes - page 38



AQUAFEED PLANT: Zambian factory project moving quickly - page 4

EXPERT TOPIC: Murrel - page 30 The murrel is a flat-tailed bottom-dwelling fish endemic to South Asia and belonging to the Channidae family. Cultivated primarily in India, but also in the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, the fish is also known as the snakehead fish, because of their snake like appearance.

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Aller Aqua wins AgraME awards in Dubai


ller Aqua Egypt wins with Aller Parvo EX the prize for “Best New Product for the Middle East Market – Aquaculture” at the recent AgraME awards celebrated in Dubai. This price goes to Aller Aqua for the second year in a row; last year Aller Aqua Egypt won the same award with ‘Aller Tilapia Anti-stress feed’. Aller Parvo EX enables the farmer to achieve bigger fry in a shorter period of time and thus increase hatchery capacity. The product helps achieve an improved income for each hatchery by improving the survival rate. Aller Parvo EX is a granulate, and the shape helps avoid sludge in the hatchery. This in turn leads to less cleaning and waste in the environment. The growth rates of the fry allow the farmers to diversify their crop age and size, and thus improving management in the production cycle. Mr Hussien Mansour, CEO, Aller Aqua Egypt, Dr Hanno Slawski, Group R&D Director and Mr Henrik Halken, Group CPO/CCO received the prize at the award ceremony on April 10, 2017.


NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals

Gambia to host Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture for Africa


he Gambian Government in partnership with FAO will host a three-day regional session aimed at the development and management of inland fisheries and aquaculture in Africa. The 17th Session of the Committee on Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture for Africa (CIFAA) will be held in Banjul, The Gambia, from May 9-11, 2017. The opening ceremony is scheduled for Tuesday May 9, May 2017 at 0930 at the Kairaba Beach Hotel. The FAO Council established CIFAA in 1971 under Article VI-2 of the FAO Constitution. It represents a continent-wide Inland Fisheries and Aquaculture Body working to foster and promote international cooperation in the development, management, utilisation, and conservation of inland fisheries resources and sustainable development of aquaculture in African Member Countries. During the session, the committee will review its activities since the previous meeting and the efforts made by FAO in serving the member countries. The meeting will also reflect the necessary actions to address the many issues that limit the committee`s effectiveness, impede its delivery, and ‘threaten’ its very existence. It will discuss ways and means for the development of aquaculture in Sub-Sahara Africa. The committee will also be updated on the status of inland fisheries based on the latest information from the member states.

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Aller Aqua Zambia visualisation [4] KE Sub Sahara

Zambian factory project moving quickly


n Zambia the Aller Aqua factory is now under construction, and staff members have started filtering through. The company has also reported entering the African market from several strategic positions. Whilst the new factory is under construction in Siavonga, Aller Aqua Zambia has made the first sales agreement with one of the largest Tilapia producers in the World – Yalelo Limited. Yalelo has plans to grow the production of Tilapia to 30,000 tonnes in Zambia within the next few years. This rapid expansion will help secure the company’s success in the African country. The new factory will have a production capacity of 50,000 tonnes of fish feed per year and will be the most technically advanced fish feed factory in Southern Africa. Clear and expansive strategy Henrik Halken, Chairman of Aller Aqua Egypt explains, “Aller Aqua Group is in rapid expansion. Since the company began producing fish feed for aquaculture more than 50 years ago it has achieved constant growth. In addition to the factory in Denmark, the company has built factories in Poland in 2001, Germany in 2007 and Egypt in 2015. Currently, the company is building in both Zambia and China, and has just extended the capacity in Egypt with a third production line. This has increased the capacity in Egypt substantially. Both of the new factories are expected to be inaugurated in 2017. In Zambia we are investing a total of US $10 million, as well as a significant amount in Egypt.” He continues, “With the investment

Group R&D Director Dr Hanno Slawski, a customer, Commercial Director of Africa Niels Lundgaard and Country Manager for Nigeria, Lasisi Nurudeen talk aquaculture - © Aller Aqua Group A/S

in Zambia, we will be the market leaders in Africa in terms of modern and environmentally friendly fish feeds for aquaculture. This will enable us to expand our sales not only in Zambia but also the surrounding countries.” He goes on to say that, “The African market will, without a doubt, grow significantly in the coming years. The number of inhabitants is rising quickly and the population will need healthy food which is high in protein. Fish farming and locally produced fish is part of the solution for this, and fish farming can further help people get a livelihood and get out of poverty. In Zambia, approximately 95 percent of the raw materials we will use comes from the local market, which is a great advantage. The build of the factory is Zambia is ongoing and on schedule. Obviously, there are many challenges when building in Zambia compared to Denmark. But we have a fantastic team and management whom will ensure that we succeed and overcome these challenges.” In January 2016 Aller Aqua took the consequence of the increased activity in the African countries and appointed Niels Lundgaard Commercial Director of Africa. Niels focuses entirely on expanding the business in the SubSaharan countries, and have during recent years helped Aller Aqua Group start sales companies in both Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. “With the subsidiaries in Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya we have strong bases for the rest of the region. Recently a distributor agreement was signed in Rwanda, and there are Aller Aqua agents in both Benin, Tanzania, Cameroon and Senegal. To countries such as Uganda and Madagascar, Aller Aqua sells feed directly from its 4 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

The Zambian factory under construction, May 2017 © Aller Aqua Group A/S

German factory. This gives us a wide reach in the area. We have highly skilled teams in place, and enter the markets with our usual approach; We want to grow with the customers and help them increase the output on their fish farms. We do this by providing extruded fish feed, advice and training. We further hold seminars and participate in local events and exhibitions.” Niels explains. As a result of Aller Aqua’s growth in the markets in Sub-Sahara, the company will participate in the World Aquaculture 2017 event as Gold Sponsors. Hans Erik Bylling, CEO and owner of Aller Aqua points out, “We have a solid set-up in Europe, whereas we in Sub-Saharan Africa see that we have big impact now. The rising incomes and developing economies in countries like Nigeria, Kenya and Ghana support this potential, and has had the effect that we have opened subsidiaries in all three countries. This, combined with our operations in Egypt and Zambia, made it an obvious choice to support the World Aquaculture 2017 event, which takes place for the first time in Africa.”

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Ioannis Zabetakis

Diet, Nutrition and Politics

et’s remind ourselves some common sense things that the politicians tend to forget: We work towards the design, development and production of functional and nutritious food following as much as possible sustainable practices. We care for the health of our family and the future of our kids. In a wider and more, ideological context, we (should) care for the well being of Society and the Planet. The public health is a matter of concern. Healthy diet (with lots of fish!) should be promoted more openly. Now, let’s see some recent news coming from US [1]. According to this report, “Michelle Obama has made her strongest political intervention since leaving the White House, stating bluntly at a health conference: “Think about why someone is OK with your kids eating crap.” So, why did she need to state this? Because, earlier in May, Donald Trump’s administration froze regulations that would cut sodium and increase whole grains served in school meals [2]. So, the story goes like that: Michelle Obama’s legacy on promoting healthy eating is in real danger by the current administration in US under Donald Trump. This is the administration that denies climate change and the fact that the Planet gets warmer due to anthropogenic activities! It is quite clear from these stories, that when we work towards the 5 points mentioned at the start of this op-ed article, we are not alone! We have to face politicians that are sometimes misinformed, probably a bit ignorant, somehow with their own agenda and ignoring the wider good! However, there is a dead clear way forward that could boost our companies and products: to communicate to nutritional authorities and politicians the benefits of a healthy diet, the pros of eating fish and seafood and how these foods can promote health and inhibit obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The world is complex and in order to be successful as professionals, as parents, as members of the wider public promoting the public interests we need to ask ourselves: Michelle or Donald?

Further reading

Michelle Obama savages Trump administration for gutting her legacy - Trump administration may scrap Michelle Obama’s health and education programs - may/01/michelle-obama-school-lunch-let-girls-learn-scrapped-trump @yanzabet

After an Academic career spanning 12 years in the University of Athens, Ioannis joined University of Limerick (UL) as a Lecturer on Food Lipids where the ongoing focus of his work will be towards the cardioprotective properties of food lipids with particular emphasis on dairy and aquaculture products.

ASC certified farmed salmon upgraded in the Monterey Bay Aquarium sustainable seafood ranking


onterey Bay Aquarium has announced that farmed salmon, certified by the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC), have advanced in their sustainable seafood ranking to a ‘Good Alternative’. The updated recommendation recognises that ASCcertified farmed salmon aligns with many of the Seafood Watch’s guiding principles for sustainable seafood production, and moves ASC-certified farmed salmon onto the program’s recommended list of seafood for consumers to buy. This updated recommendation will significantly increase the availability of sustainablefarmed salmon in retail stores and restaurants, making it much easier for consumers to make an informed decision over the seafood they purchase. Chris Ninnes, CEO of ASC commented, “Producers that have met the ASC Salmon Standard have been comprehensively and independently audited to ensure they meet the highest assurance levels for responsible production and have demonstrated they care for their workers and communities. The Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch recommendation that consumers buy ASC-certified salmon further demonstrates the growing collaboration and synergy between the programs to promote the purchasing of responsibly farmed seafood.” Gerardo Balbontin, Co-Chair of the GSI and CEO of Blumar Seafoods explained, “Farmed salmon has long been an excellent protein choice for consumers. It is healthy, nutritious and packed full of protein. But now, following the comprehensive ASC standard certification process, we are also able to document the sustainability, and environmental and social performance of our industry.” Avrim Lazar, Convenor of the GSI remarked, “The members of the GSI are making excellent progress towards their ASC commitment. And through this harmonisation of the two highest environmental standards, coupled with rapidly increasing supply, we hope to see even more commitment to ASC products from the market place.”

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Adding value to African aquaculture production


ioMar Group has an increasing presence in Africa and is now launching a complete high performing range for tilapia and African catfish for African markets. Ole Christensen, Vice President for BioMar’s EMEA division belives, Africa is a continent with huge demands for more food, produced in a responsible and sustainable way. “We believe that aquaculture is one of the answers to this demand, we have ambitious targets and initiatives for shaping an efficient and sustainable global aquaculture in collaboration with the entire aquaculture value chain.” In recent years, the growth of African catfish and tilapia farming has increased particularly in the African markets. For many years, BioMar has served the African markets from France by offering high performing starter and grower diets for these species. As farms become increasingly intensive, the need for a diet targeted for broodstock has grown. To meet this demand, BioMar France now expands its product range to cover all nutritional needs of these species at all stages of their life cycle by introducing broodstock feed type EFICO Genio 838F, available for all tilapia and African catfish farmers in Africa and other markets served by BioMar’s EMEA division. As in Africa, tilapia is also a popular aquaculture species in Central America. Cross-utilising knowledge and expertise in aquafeed across borders and continents is one of BioMar’s proclaimed strengths, and it was central in developing the company’s feed range for tilapia. Global R&D at BioMar is in close collaboration with their unit in Costa Rica and has carried out research on this species and developed high value feed types, which have been fine-

tuned by working in close collaboration with an intensive tilapia farm. Michel Autin, Technical Director of BioMar EMEA comments, “The vitamin mix and levels are fine-tuned to promote an increase in the number of females actively spawning.” Their newly developed broodstock feed has a formulation that includes the necessary protein and vitamin balances, which contributes to increased spawning frequency, hatchability, and survival of fry. The EFICO Genio 838F includes the probiotic Bactocell® and immune modulating ingredients similar to BioMar’s EFICO Genio broodstock feeds for trout, sea bass and sea bream to improve survival and boost the immune system. Mr Autin continues, “These efforts have been of great value to the development of the feeds offered by BioMar for warm freshwater fish like tilapia and African catfish. We can now, for the first time, provide a broodstock diet that is specialised for warm freshwater fish whose natural diet is largely plant based.” African aquaculture production is expanding in various ways and into various species, whilst BioMar’s presence in Africa is also steadily growing. The markets served by BioMar are not limited to tilapia and catfish. Ole Christensen concludes, “We have for many years also supplied feed to a growing number of sea bass and sea bream farms based in Northern African countries. We aim to add value to African aquaculture production. We listen to and react based on the needs of our customers as we want to act as a locally responsive, agile, and specialised aquaculture feed provider, building our efforts on the four fundamental pillars: Innovation, Performance, Sustainability, and Cooperation.”

8 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

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Aquaculture threatened in Kangaroo Island over deep-sea port plan outh Australia’s Kangaroo Island is split by plans to build a deep-sea port on its north coast to ship woodchips directly to China and Japan. At stake is the island’s rising fame as an international high-end wilderness and eco-tourism destination, its clean-green food and wine reputation and the survival of a AUS$40 million abalone farm next door to the proposed woodchip stack and wharf. Opponents fear the death of thousands of native animals as semi-trailers carrying woodchips and logs thunder down its sleepy dirt back roads to the proposed new Smith Bay port. There are also concerns for the safety of tourists as well as for the welfare of dolphins, humpback whales and sea eagles that live and breed at the planned port site.  Smith Bay, northwest of the island’s main town Kingscote, is protected as a coastal conservation zone, with the proposed 200m-long rock wharf where bulk carriers will be loaded with woodchips bought by Japan’s Mitsui corporation described as a “non-complying” development.  The deep-sea port proposal by listed timber company Kangaroo Island Plantation Timber has been handed major project status by the SA Labor government, removing it from the local council’s hands.  It was a move that devastated David Connell, manager of adjacent Yumbah Aquaculture.  Yumbah’s greenlip abalone breeding facility, where 15 million young abalone in covered tanks rely on constantly circulated pristine seawater to survive and grow, generates AUS$7m of frozen and fresh abalone exports annually. 

Mr Connell remarked, “It’s so frustrating; we’ve been selling Kangaroo Island’s clean-green reputation to the world for 22 years with our abalone; this is an industry that has the potential to be enormous.” He continues “But just as demand for our sustainably farmed abalone is taking off in Asia, the government seems to expect us to farm here and still be clean and green, with a huge stack of woodchips next door and a super-Panamax parked 200m from my water intake.” South Australian Premier Jay Wetherill has visited the proposed site while on Kangaroo Island for a country cabinet meeting. He went on to announce the start of direct flights from Melbourne to Kangaroo Island by Qantas, as tourism interest in the wild island with fewer than 4500 residents but teeming with native wildlife grows, especially from luxury European travellers.  KIPT managing director John Sergeant is confident the company’s proposed deep-sea port — which it is also promoting as a cruise ship wharf — will receive independent environmental approval and the political green light before next year’s state election. Mr Sergeant remarked, “We welcome the support but we are not looking for government money; we just want the project assessed scientifically, independently and on time, so we can get on with it. This is a good project and ensuring the highest water quality is critical to us; we are talking about a new sustainable industry that will transform Kangaroo Island. Tourism and agriculture are highly seasonal but our jobs will be year-round.”

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Clifford Spencer An African chapter


une sees a very significant event in global aquaculture. For the first time ever the World Aquaculture Society is holding its conference on the continent of Africa. Thus establishing an African chapter with the aim of all 55 African countries being represented in its visiting audience. World Aquaculture 2017 will be held in Cape Town with involvement from countries throughout the African continent as well as that of many countries from around the world. Aquaculture is rapidly growing in Africa and increasingly being integrated into the continent’s food systems and therefore this is an excellent time for the world aquaculture community to focus on Africa. The event will be attended by the current serving President of the African Union (AU), President Alpha Conde. The President of Guinea and who was recently designated “Political Champion” for Africa’s Fisheries and Aquaculture in Africa’s Natural Resources Governance and Food Security programme will also attend. The African Union is globally by far the largest of the existing continental unions in terms of both land mass and population and includes all African countries and is made up of both political and administrative bodies. It’s landmass can contain the entirety of the USA, all of China, India, as well as Japan and pretty much all of Europe as well — all combined and its surface area is similar to the surface area of the moon!!! The highest decision-making organ of the African Union is the Assembly, made up of all the Heads of State or government of member states of the AU. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan-African Parliament, which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. Other political institutions of the AU include the Executive Council, made up of foreign ministers, the Permanent Representatives Committee, made up of the ambassadors to the AU Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia of AU member states and the Economic, Social, and Cultural Council, a civil society consultative body. AwF based in the UK will be exhibiting at the event and for anyone attending please call in at Booth 61, a corner booth near the Abstracts section for a warm welcome and a discussion on the charities budding African projects and general aims and objectives on the African continent. At the same time the National Aquaculture Centre based at the Humber Seafood Institute on Grimsby’s Europarc, and which is co-owned by AwF in the UK, is producing a review of African aquaculture planned to be made available to conference goers. This review has been commissioned by New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), an agency of the African Union. I also have just gratefully received the message below from Michael New OBE the AwF Founder and who is Patron of AwF our UK Charitable Incorporated Organisation: “Within my final column in the World Aquaculture Society Magazine in 1998 as the Society’s President I stated that one

of my ambitions for the Society was to see it organise its first international meeting in Africa. This dream comes true this year at the end of June in Cape Town. An additional pleasure for me is to hear that the charity that I founded in 2003-2004 (Aquaculture without Frontiers - AwF) is exhibiting at the Cape Town conference and intends to play a significant role in helping to alleviate poverty and increase the supply of nutritious high protein food through small-scale aquaculture in Africa. Because of my background in Asia, most of our early AwF work was carried out in that region. However, we were also able to conduct some initial activities in Africa, including: Through the generosity of Nutreco and the European Aquaculture Society, providing a student volunteer from Wageningen University to examine the potential of aquaculture in the area of Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Assisting the Holy Women Group to scale up fish farming to mitigate poverty among smallholders in Homa Bay County, Kenya. In cooperation with the WorldFish Center, sustaining famine mitigation through integrated aquaculture-agriculture in Traditional Authority Mavwere in Michinji District, Malawi. Conducting a number of farmer-to-farmer training programmes with the University of Arizona in Kenya and South Africa. I am delighted to hear from the Chairman of AwF (UK) that “AwF activities in Africa are expected to expand in future. As a Past President of WAS and the Patron of AwF (UK) I hope to meet you in South Africa next month.” Indeed in relation to Michael’s comments we are now embarking on a series of new projects. These range from plans to offer micro finance to existing Nigerian smallholder catfish producers to developing Ethiopian and Eritrean aquaculture from a zero base. We are very excited to be involved in these prospects, which will be considerably strengthened, by my position of Goodwill Ambassador of the African Union with special responsibility for New Partnership for Africa’s Development. We very much look forward to meetings in Cape town and also hearing from volunteers interested to assist in our various charitable activities. Whether you are a Cape Town visitor or not please feel free to contact us on; We can use all the enthusiasm and help that work of this kind deserves.

Currently Mr Spencer leads the Global Biotechnology Transfer Foundation (GBTF), which is dedicated to promoting the potential for biotechnology to support sustainable, long-term, socio-economic development. He is also Chairman of Trustees for Aquaculture without Frontiers UK.

10 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

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BioMar acquires high-end shrimp feed producer


s part of the company’s expansion strategy BioMar Group has taken a solid step into the shrimp feed market by acquiring 70 percent of the Ecuadorian shrimp feed producer Alimentsa. The acquisition will position BioMar among the leading shrimp feed producers in Latin America creating synergies toward existing business.  Since 2016 BioMar has been servicing Latin American shrimp farmers from the factory in Costa Rica with focus on sustainability and feed efficiency. With the acquisition of Alimentsa, BioMar will create a solid foothold into Ecuador, which is one of the world’s leading shrimp producing countries with a volume of more than 450,000 tonnes of shrimp. The country is generally recognised for shrimp products with emphasis on high quality and sustainability by both end-consumers and retailers. The acquisition is subject to approval by competition authorities in Ecuador.  Carlos Diaz, CEO, BioMar Group explains, “It is our ambition to become a major player within highend shrimp feed. With the acquisition Alimentsa we can immediately deliver an attractive value proposition to the shrimp farmers in Latin America and we believe that we in the future - together with Alimentsa and the customers - can develop new product solutions based upon shared interest in innovation, cooperation, sustainability and performance. During our due-diligence process

we have been confirmed that the acquisition will enable us to build a strong relationship towards the Latin America shrimp farmers. Alimentsa is recognised for high-end feed and a professional technical service. That is very much in line with our focus in BioMar.” 

company with recognised products and deep insights into the market together with a global company with the size and innovation muscle as we have in BioMar Group will enable us to meet with the future requirements of the market as well as the end-consumers. We are very confident in the local

The acquisition represents an investment of US$119 million. BioMar estimates that the market will prove to be very attractive with growth rates if eight - 12 percent. Shrimp production in Ecuador is characterised by optimal conditions that allows up to three production cycles per year. Furthermore the farming densities in Ecuador are quite low compared to other markets allowing much better and sustainable sanitary conditions. Alimentsa holds a market share around 12-15 percent.  Mr Diaz continues, “We foresee solid business potential in Ecuador, but first and foremost we believe that the combination of a strong local

management and the organisation.” He summarises, “We have during the last few years expanded the business significantly. In 2016 we established in production in Turkey. In 2017 we are forming a solid footprint with two factories in the Chinese market and in 2018 we have planned and announced the construction of a green field factory in Australia. Now we are taking a leap into the world of shrimp. All of those initiatives are part of our growth strategy: Shaping the Future. We believe in being 100 percent devoted to aquaculture and we have clearly stated that we strive to be innovators dedicated to an efficient and sustainable global aquaculture.”

12 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed


Connecting the dots between aqua feeds and the management of parasitic diseases in aquaculture


Background image: Thelohanelus sp. ©Csaba Szekely (The Hungarian Academy of Sciences)

arasitic diseases affecting fish can significantly impact aquaculture production and economic performance, so in 2016 International Aquafeed published a feature discussing the aims of the European Union Horizon 2020 funded research project ParaFishControl. The project is addressing the challenges of parasitic disease prevention and management, aimed at assuring the sustainability and competitiveness of the European aquaculture industry. Here, we catch up with the project’s latest developments.

Managing fish parasites

One of the key goals of the strategic agenda of the European Aquaculture Technology and Innovation Platform (EATiP) is to improve fish health and welfare by increasing the understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and to provide access to effective vaccines and immune-modulators. Aligned with this ambition, ParaFishControl’s tasks are to improve understanding of fishparasite interactions and to develop effective management tools. Such tools include diagnostic tests, vaccines, innovative treatments, aquafeed solutions, risk maps, best practice handbooks, and management manuals for the prevention, control, and mitigation of the most harmful parasitic species affecting key European farmed

Expected outcomes from ParaFishControl ©ParaFishControl (designed and developed by AquaTT)

Right: Saprolegnia infected salmon eggs ©Irene de Bruijn (Royal Dutch Academy of Arts & Sciences)

fish species. There are nine different groups of these parasites, which vary in size from tiny unicellular organisms through fungi to worms.

Research discoveries

Partners in ParaFishControl have made a number of key discoveries since the start of the project in 2015, including the potential effects of nematode worms on fish and consumer health, the role of fungal communities as suppressors of other fungi, and the discovery of a peculiar “dance-like” movement of a parasitic cnidarian. ParaFishControl researchers have also described Thelohanellus kitauei in Europe for the first time and elucidated the fourth two-host life cycle recorded in a Thelohanellus species, that is, a parasitic myxozoan (multicellular, eukaryotic parasites). One team of ParaFishControl researchers has comprehensively reviewed the “macrophages first” hypothesis for polarised or differential immune responses. Macrophages are part of innate (inborn/non-specific) immunity, whereas T and B lymphocytes (special types of white blood cells) are part of adaptive (acquired/ specific) immunity. The “macrophages first” hypothesis builds on the idea that initial triggers for macrophage polarisation could rely on early sensing of parasites by the innate immune system, not necessarily requiring adaptive immunity. This means that the different types of macrophages can be activated independently to fulfill their roles in causing inflammation and killing pathogens, or healing and restoring damaged tissue, which allows for a much faster reaction of the host’s immune response. This research was led by the ParaFishControl partner University of Wageningen in the Netherlands and was published in Molecular Immunology (Wiegertjes et al. 2016; DOI: 10.1016/j.molimm.2015.09.026).

Project aims

Over the course of its five years, ParaFishControl aims to generate new formulations for functional feeds that target parasitic diseases, and to increase knowledge of the mechanisms by which a range of compounds can serve to improve fish immunity. This knowledge can then inform the development of functional feeds. All these innovations will improve productivity, sustainability and animal welfare. Aquafeeds represent five percent of the total world production of animal feeds, comprising almost three million tonnes of formulated 14 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed


feeds, and are the main production cost for aquaculture. This high cost is considered to be a major constraint to aquaculture development. From this perspective, it is essential to understand how the digestive system of a fish responds to alternative feeds, and to tackle the role of nutrition, diet and feed additives in gastrointestinal and systemic immune response, and in disease susceptibility. There is an increasing market for feeds that improve fish immunity or otherwise serve to reduce the impact of fish diseases. However, there are few existing products that target the reduction or mitigation of the impacts of parasitic diseases in farmed fish.


Recent developments

In the March 2016 issue of International Aquafeed, ParaFishControl partners described one of their approaches, which employs extensive screening of antiparasitic products already available in the pharmaceutical industry for other veterinarian and human uses, as well as searching for prebiotics, probiotics and bioactive compounds from bacteria, plants and other natural sources. They also stated that ParaFishControl sought to generate new feed formulations targeting parasitic disease, with their choices of functional ingredients being guided by improved knowledge of the mechanisms involved in stimulating fish immunity. Since then, several functional feeds containing immunostimulatory ingredients have been tested in preliminary studies within ParaFishControl and have been shown to provide a promising reduction in parasite infection and improvement in the growth of parasitised fish. Key tools have also been developed that will allow researchers to better monitor and understand fish host immune state, before and after vaccination, or following boosting of immunity using functional feeds. Oligosaccharides are carbohydrates whose molecules are composed of a relatively small number of monosaccharide units. A combination of an oligosaccharide immuno-stimulant with caprylic acid and iron has been tested in on-growing gilthead sea bream through a functional feed looking to combat the monogenean gill fluke parasite Sparicotyle chrysophrii, an ectoparasitic flatworm. The combination significantly limited the development of the gill fluke infection in the fish, although the growth parameters of the treated vs untreated fish unfortunately remained the same. The number of parasites (juvenile and adult) per fish significantly decreased after the trial feeding, although the percentage of infected fish was unchanged. The reduction of the monogenean infection load on the gills of infected fish is a very important result, since such improved control can decrease or even remove the need to use chemical treatments during a production cycle. Continuous application of such a feed may therefore have benefits in decreasing the toxic chemical residues in the environment. This research was conducted by two ParaFishControl partners, the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR) in Greece and the Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries (IOR) in Croatia and the findings were published in Folia Parasitologica (Rigos et al. 2016; DOI: 10.14411/fp.2016.027).

BiolexŽ MB40 – effective MOS for: Active support and relief of the immune system High bonding power & inactivation of pathogens/toxins in the intestinal lumen Prebiotic effects on the microflora in the intestine

The impact of immunoglobulins

Another team of ParaFishControl researchers investigated the immune system of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and recently published the first full sequences of the soluble and membranebound forms of immunoglobulins (IgM and IgT) for this species.

International Aquafeed - June 2017 | 15


Three different immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes can be found in teleost fish, IgM, IgD, and the teleost-specific IgT. It is widely accepted that IgM expression is dominant in absolute terms in all organs and is essential for immune protection against different pathogens upon different routes of infection. IgT, despite being generally less abundant than IgM in terms of number of transcripts and cells, nevertheless plays a crucial role in mucosal immune responses. That being said, the role of IgT in systemic responses and conversely the role of IgM in mucosal responses, should not be underestimated. The team studied gilthead sea bream, the main farmed fish species in the Mediterranean basin, representing an important resource for this area. Several diseases negatively impact farm production of this species, and therefore any advancement in the knowledge of its immune response will help to combat disease. ParaFishControl researchers have demonstrated for the first time in a fish model the differential expression of the two different types of immunoglobulin, IgM and IgT, in different tissues, upon challenge with different pathogens and infection routes. Specifically, the researchers showed that these differences depend on the types of pathogen or stimulation, immunisation, challenge (intramuscular, anal, bath), tissues, and time elapsed after challenge. The research team revealed that the constitutive expression of the soluble IgM (that is, the continual transcription of the respective gene) was the highest overall in all tissues, whereas the expression of the membrane-bound IgT was highest in mucosal tissues, such as gills and intestine, and that IgM and IgT were differentially regulated upon infection. Further, they showed that plant-based diets might inhibit IgT upregulation upon intestinal parasitic challenge, which was related to a worse disease outcome. This is important knowledge as plant-based fish food is seen as more sustainable than those containing fish derivatives, and is the subject of numerous multi-national efforts and intense research initiatives. The authors of this study are from three different Spanish institutes, namely the Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC; a ParaFishControl partner), in collaboration with the University of Murcia and the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA; a ParaFishControl partner). Their findings were published in Frontiers in Immunology (Piazzon et al. 2016; DOI: 10.3389/ fimmu.2016.00637). These authors propose Enteromyxum leei infection of fish coupled with different dietary interventions as future models for the further study of different Ig isotype functions in teleost fish.

Immunofluorescence detection by confocal microscopy of H+pyrophosphatases (enzymes) in Philasterides dicentrarchi ©Jesús Lamas Fernández (USC)

Saprolegnia sp. ©Kurt Buchmann (University of Copenhagen)

against parasites. A subset of these compounds has been distributed to several project partners who are in the process of testing them. One of the partners, the University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) in Spain, has been working on turbot scuticociliatosis, a disease caused by the ciliate protozoan pathogen Philasterides dicentrachi, which is recognised as an emerging problem. Scuticociliatosis inflicts significant economic losses upon the global aquaculture industry through its effects on a number of different cultured fish species. Effects on the fish include, amongst others, anaemia, weight loss, inflammation of the intestine, excessive body mucus, loss of scales, bleeding spots on the skin, and necrotic skin lesions that finally destroy tissues leading to high mortalities. In relation to metabolic pathways and the specific enzymes involved, the phylogenetic distance (that is, changes in the respective genomes reflecting the time that two species have evolved independently of one another) between P. dicentrachi and its host is enormous. Researchers at USC took advantage of this difference to search for chemotherapeutant targets such as specific enzymes that are not produced by the fish host. For example, P. dicentrarchi possesses so-called H+-inorganic Compounds pyrophosphatases (enzymes). Searching for innovative treatments to battle parasitic Those enzymes seem to play a role in maintaining the infections, another team within ParaFishControl compiled a list of approximately 200 compounds that are cheap and may have effects intracellular pH homeostasis (that is, a relatively stable equilibrium in pH) necessary for survival of ciliates and their adaptation to salt stress, which is potentially ParaFishControl expert consultation important during the endoparasitic phase of the parasite, on Mediterranean fish where salinity levels are lower than in their natural parasites, Barcelona 10-11 Nov 2016 ©AQUARK environment. The new research from ParaFishControl has now shown that the enzymes are inhibited by the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and artemisinin, leading to the inhibition of the parasite’s growth in vitro. These findings were published in a series of three scientific publications (Mallo et al. 2016 a, b, c; DOI: 10.1016/j.exppara.2016.07.012; DOI: 10.1017/ S0031182015001997; DOI: 10.1111/jeu.12294). The researchers further showed that the chemical 16 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed


substance curcumin, which is produced by some plants, has a potent cytotoxic effect (toxic to livings cells) on P. dicentrarchi and inhibits Vaccinating the activity of virulencerainbow trout associated proteases; ŠKurt Buchmann (University of published in the Journal Copenhagen) of Fish Diseases (Mallo et al. 2016 d; DOI: 10.1111/ jfd.12503). In addition, USC has tested 80 new compounds, with some of them showing very high antiparasite activity in vitro, while not being toxic for vertebrate cells. The capacity of these compounds to control scuticociliatosis is now going to be tested in vivo by feeding experimentally infected fish with diets containing those drugs. Effective control of infectious diseases in general is one of the most critical challenges facing the aquaculture industry. Parasites and related infections can cause significant damage to farmed fish resulting in poor growth performance, impaired welfare and high mortality rates, which can significantly impede aquaculture production and can have severe economic impacts. Improved disease prevention and management are therefore essential for the sustainability of the aquaculture industry. For example, some drugs previously used in fish farming to combat parasites contained substances that, though effective in managing the parasitic invasion, contained toxins considered harmful to the environment, creating a clear dilemma. Therefore, the ParaFishControl discovery of potentially antiparasitic compounds that have minimal adverse effects on the host or environment represents significant progress with respect to the potential for treating parasites in aquaculture. There is a high interest from the aquaculture industry to investigate feed ingredients that could be used as natural therapeutants against parasites, which would be of benefit not only from a production point of view, but also in terms of marketing. When we consider consumer perception, the use of natural ingredients in feed, as a response to parasites, would be far more acceptable than the common and often misguided perception that aquaculture farmers routinely discharge large amounts of chemicals into the environment as a solution to the problem. Ultimately, ParaFishControl aims to develop cost effective feed ingredients that provide a defence against parasitic infection without any adverse side effects on the individual fish, other fish and/or the environment. To tackle this challenge, ParaFishControl’s objectives can be categorised as follows: 1) to conduct fundamental science 2) to develop new technological and industrial applications 3) to improve aquaculture perceptions and contributions at the consumer/societal level One interesting ParaFishControl discovery described above has already shown that treatment with a compound consisting of natural components leads to a reduction of infection load on the gills of fish infected with a monogenean gill fluke parasite, which can decrease or even remove the need to use chemical treatments in the future. When considering farm-wide application of feed supplemented with this compound (caprylic acid, iron and mannan oligosaccharide), more fine-tuning of the mixture recipe (that is,

the ratios and inclusion levels of protectants) is fundamental if we want to achieve multiple positive effects for the fish such as protection against the blood-feeding flatworms, stimulation of the innate immunity, and better growth performance. For the moment, the first two challenges have been achieved. The last challenge, the provision of better growth performance, has yet to be solved. Another ParaFishControl research outcome has revealed that the growth of a ciliate protozoan was inhibited through the inhibition of a critical enzyme by antimalarial drugs. Now, the in vitro experiments should be followed up with the demonstration that those antiparasitic drugs are also effective in vivo.

Achieving the final goal

This can be done by including these antiparasitic compounds in fish diets, which is the easiest way to deliver the treatments when talking about hundreds of thousands of animals. Another ParaFishControl discovery regarding the immune system of the fish, and the modulation of expression of some immunoglobulins by plant-based diets opens new questions about particular plant compounds and the specific pathways involved. These results could help to decide whether some plant ingredients should be avoided when tailoring aquafeeds. To ensure a measurable impact of these and other ParaFishControl research findings on the aquaculture sector, the effective transfer of new knowledge to different end-users (academia, industry and policy makers) is required, resulting in uptake and application. ParaFishControl has planned and already undertaken activities that will ensure that research findings are shared with a variety of stakeholders such as fish farmers/ growers, fish health professionals, agricultural advisors, breeders, scientists working in academia or industry, consumers and policy makers as well as the general public. For example, ParaFishControl parasite experts prepared literature reviews on the impact of four of the most important parasites in the Mediterranean mariculture industry, namely S. chrysophrii, E. leei, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Amyloodinium ocellatum. The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas) with CSIC, AQUARK and the ParaFishControl parasite specialists developed questionnaires to consult industry experts on factors that may increase the risk or protect against infection and disease caused by these parasites. The areas covered by the questionnaire included disease characteristics, incidence and prevalence; impact of farm characteristics and environmental factors; pathways for parasite introduction; impact of management practices; treatment strategies; and mixed infections. Experts, including Mediterranean industry fish health managers, veterinarians, fish farmers and research scientists with specialization in these parasites, were then invited to take part in a two-stage consultation process: participation in an online consultation (using the questionnaires mentioned above), followed by a workshop in which the outcomes from the online questionnaire were reviewed and discussed. This meeting provided an excellent opportunity for the ParaFishControl project to share information with the industry and the partnership continues to work towards results that will benefit all those connected with aquaculture as producers or consumers. The literature reviews and outcomes from the expert consultation are now forming the basis for the design of field studies and will feed into the development of cost effective biosecurity and integrated parasite management strategies. This important collaboration with industry will be maintained throughout the ParaFishControl project as researchers continue to interact with key stakeholders through epidemiological studies, fish

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farm visits and economic impact assessments, to develop guidelines for integrated pest management practices to manage parasitic diseases better in Mediterranean mariculture. Industry stakeholders can join the ParaFishControl LinkedIn Group to follow the progress of this work -

The road ahead

The future for ParaFishControl is challenging and exciting. For example, more novel compounds and feed additives are being tested against different parasites, both in vivo and in vitro, even as you are reading this article. The goal is to ensure that this applied research is validated in the field, tested in real conditions, and scaled up in line with industry standards. It is hoped that the consortium will be able to find sustainable solutions to parasite management, and/or mitigation of disease outcomes that result from parasite infection, for some of the most important parasitic diseases that threaten European farmed fish. To ensure successful uptake and application, ParaFishControl will continue to focus on dialogue with industry, encouraging a two-way conversation so that stakeholders will be kept upto-date on the key outcomes from the project. You have an opportunity in September 2017 to interact with the project, when the ParaFishControl Industry Forum will meet a broader audience of industry stakeholders and fish pathologists as part of a special session during the 18th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish, organised by the European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) in Belfast, Northern Ireland. This is an open session and any interested conference participant is very welcome to join! The session will be announced in the official programme ( and on the project website ( shortly.

The ParaFishControl consortium

The ParaFishControl consortium comprises 29 partners from academia, research and industry, based in 13 European countries, who are considered leaders in their respective domains of expertise. The ParaFishControl project will run from 2015 to 2020, with a total budget of €8.1 million, of which €7.8 million is funded by the European Union. The project is coordinated by the Agencia Estatal Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Spain. Dr Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, ParaFishControl project coordinator, is the head of the fish pathology group at the Institute of Aquaculture Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC). CSIC is the largest public research institution in Spain and the thirdlargest in Europe. Its main objective is to develop and promote research that will help bring about scientific and technological progress. CSIC covers all fields of knowledge from basic to applied research. The project management is supported by Dr Enric Belles-Boix from INRA Transfert (France). AquaTT (Ireland) is the project dissemination partner. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 634429. This output reflects the views only of the author(s), and the European Union cannot be held responsible for any use, which may be made of the information contained therein.


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UK trade and investment in aquaculture technology


Where will the UK stand on the international aquacultural chessboard after Brexit? by Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson, International Aquafeed owadays, it seems that politics is forever at the tip of everyone’s tongue, whether it be the recent French presidential race, which saw Emmanuel Macron defeat far-right runner-up Marine Le Pen, although only after a second vote; or the on-going controversy surrounding Donald Trump’s presidency of the United States; or Britain’s narrowly decided vote to leave the European Union in June last year and Prime Minister Theresa May’s unexpected call for a general election only a few weeks’ ago. Whilst we wait for Great Britain’s representatives to lock down with those in Brussels upon the exact terms of the Brexit deal, it

covering plant sciences, precision agriculture, animal sciences and aquaculture. The organisation provides a range of services to overseas companies considering an investment in the UK, as well as to UK-based companies considering an expansion into new markets abroad. Ultimately it’s about job and wealth creation for the UK economy. Attracting world-class companies with cutting edge technology not only creates jobs and wealth but it also adds great intellectual capital to the excellence that already exists in the UK. The economy needs a strong export performance and I’m also working with UK-based companies - many of them existing investors – to help their development and growth in overseas markets, matching their excellence and expertise to opportunities and needs around the world.” Expanding, he explains that, “DIT has a global network

is important to consider directly how it may affect the structure of Britsh politics including our aquaculture industry. Dr Simon Doherty BVMS CertAqV MRCVS MRQA CBiol FRSB is the Animal Sciences & Aquaculture specialist for the HM Government’s Department for International Trade (DIT). In this article he describes his role in supporting trade and investment into the UK livestock industry and his interests in the global aquaculture sector. His insight provides an interesting and vital perspective on the outlook and opportunities of the United Kingdom’s aquaculture industry. As Simon explains, “My job at DIT is to sell the UK as the great location it is for investment and to promote UK company excellence and capability in overseas markets. I work within the Agri-Tech Organisation in DIT which is made up of a core team of civil servants working alongside contracted industry specialists

with a presence in over 100 countries, and strong partnerships throughout the UK delivering our services. In-house capability services the requirements of investors in areas such as tax guidance, identifying suitable locations planning applications. Support through financial modelling tools provides independent comparisons on profitability between the UK and competitor countries. Making connections for companies who need access to other parts of Government, academia, business or professional bodies is an essential component of the job. In aquaculture, my portfolio covers everything from pharmaceuticals and vaccines to instruments and machinery for fish farms, so the requests for support from companies can be quite diverse. This often means facilitating connections for client companies with non-governmental organisations such as UK universities, research institutes and innovation centres – including the

20 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed


Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre – helping to drive innovation and sustainability in the sector, both of which underpin trade and inward investment potential. Continued investment in appropriate novel technologies is precisely what will keep the UK aquaculture sector resilient and competitive in the global market.” Simon’s interest in aquaculture started during his time at AFBI, which was already building a global reputation for its work on salmon pancreas disease (PD). Such was his interest he was appointed as reporting veterinarian and manager of the Fish Diseases Unit. He sits on the local organising committee for the 18th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish. “I was really inspired by the innovation and the pace of research and development being demonstrated throughout the sector,” explains Simon. “Our team at AFBI was small and resources were fairly limited. Yet we were supporting vaccine development with a global pharmaceutical company, collaborating with colleagues in Chile on developing rapid diagnostics for fish viruses, and working with commercial companies in Ireland, UK and Europe; testing and validating fish feed additives and disinfectants for use in aquaculture.” He continues, “At the same time, our feet were kept well and truly on the ground – delivering statutory government and commercial diagnostic services to the finfish and shellfish industries in Northern Ireland. I could understand, first-hand, the impact of amoebic gill disease in Atlantic salmon and the devastation caused to local shellfish farms by OsHV-µvar. These direct links with the heart of the industry continue to give the AFBI team a ‘real world’ focus as they deliver world-class molecular, virological, bacteriological and histo-pathological diagnostics to the marketplace.” Looking to the future Simon is confident that and the aquaculture sector will continue to grow and compete globally. He points out, “We have world class leaders in nutrition, diagnostics, disease surveillance, immunology, epidemiology, pharma & vaccines, chemicals, genetics, genomics, and monitoring & sensor technologies. Continued investment in appropriate novel technologies is precisely what will keep the UK aquaculture sector resilient and competitive in the global market. I am confident that overseas investors will continue to find our capability, assets and dynamic business environment attractive and that our UK-based companies will internationalise more in developed and emerging markets.” Before concluding, “Within the DIT Agri-Tech team, we are always on the look-out for ‘game-changing technologies’ – innovations in other sectors such as robotics, global positioning systems and advanced materials that might make an important impact on productivity and sustainability in livestock or aquaculture production systems.”

the Northern Ireland Branch of the British Veterinary Association (BVA NI). Simon is an advocate of career development and lifelong learning, and helped to highlight the place of ‘alternative’ career paths – including opportunities in aquaculture – during the BVA / Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) VetFutures initiative. For nearly two years, Simon has provided consultancy services to UK Trade and Investment (UKTI), now the Department for International Trade (DIT), as well as many private companies and academic clients.

More information:

For further detail on HM Government’s programmes of support for trade and foreign direct investment, please refer to For further information on HM Government’s UK Strategy for Agricultural Technologies or to down load a copy of the strategy document follow publications/uk-agricultural-technologies-strategy The 18th International Conference on Diseases of Fish and Shellfish is organised by the European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP) – this year, the conference will be held between September 4-8, 2017 at the Waterfront Hall, Belfast. For further information on the services provided by the AFBI Fish Diseases Unit, contact Further background on the WAVMA CertAqV programme can be found at Information on the BVA / RCVS VetFutures initiative can be found at


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Simon is a graduate of the University of Glasgow Veterinary School. He worked for several years in general veterinary practice in the West of Scotland and at home in Northern Ireland before taking up a senior position at the Agri-Food & Biosciences Institute (AFBI) Veterinary Sciences Division laboratory in Belfast. Simon left AFBI in 2014 to become Business Development Director of an innovative biotechnology company and, with an interest established, he became registered as a Certified Aquatic Veterinarian with the World Aquaculture Veterinary Medical Association (WAVMA) during 2015. Simon is an Honorary Lecturer at Queen’s University Belfast and a Past-President of

versatility in feed processing


Aquaculture production has almost doubled in five years but new legislation, VAT reduction and training services are needed


by Professor Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed, Oceanography Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Egypt

quaculture in Africa has been marginalised, with limited contribution to national economies and to global aquaculture output as well. In 2015, total African aquaculture production mounted to 1,969,261 tonnes, representing only 1.9 percent of global aquaculture production. Egypt is by far the most important producer, with a contribution of 60 percent to total African production. Egypt, Nigeria, Zanzibar and Uganda produced 90 percent, while the remaining 60 African countries contributed 10 percent to total aquaculture production in 2015. Tilapia carps and African catfish are the major cultured species in Africa. Aquaculture in Africa is hampered by many limitations and difficulties, including unavailability of raw materials and quality feeds, limited quality seed supply, lack of culture inputs, lack of technical and management skills, lack of funds and lack of legal and regulatory frameworks. Despite this grim picture, encouraging signs of significant take-up of the aquaculture sector in Africa have emerged in recent years, particularly in the Sub-Saharan (SSA) region. The aquaculture production of SSA has almost doubled over the past five years. The WAS’17 meeting in South Africa, for the first time in Africa, is probably a recognition of this reality. This would also pinpoint that the potential of aquaculture in Africa is great. Despite this, feed represents over 60 percent of the total production cost of fish farms and the aquafeed industry remains one of the least developed subsectors of aquaculture in Africa, especially in SSA region. The vast majority of fish farms in Africa rely on farm-made feeds, fed in moist or sun-dried form. This is mainly because small-scale commercial farmers cannot afford manufactured pelleted feeds. Farm-made feed formulations range from single feed ingredients such as wheat bran, rice bran or ground corn, to formulated mixes, moist feed cakes and processed, dry pellets. Estimates suggest that over 100,000 tonnes of farm-made aqua feeds are currently produced annually in SSA alone. Farm-made feed production varies by country and season, depending on availability and price of ingredients and the culture system adopted. Farm-made feeds in Africa are generally of poor quality, high content of fines, high price and inconsistent production rate. They lead to considerable reduction in storage time and the acceleration of spoilage and overall low fish performance.

Commercial aquafeed industry

Except in Egypt (which produces over one million tonnes of commercial fish feed annually), the commercial aquafeed industry in Africa lags behind market demand, while importation of aquafeeds is growing. Commercially produced aquafeeds are often of poor/inconsistent quality. The high demand and lack of local competition also lead to over-pricing of aquafeeds. As a result, this industry has become one of the least developed subsectors of aquaculture in Africa. Most of African countries rely mainly on imported feed ingredients and processed fish feeds, which makes fish farming expensive and not cost effective. Only a few African countries produce formulated, commercial aquafeeds (i.e. Egypt, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe). Having said

Figure 1: Aquaculture production in Africa 2000-2015

that, international aquafeed producers (such as Aller Aqua and Skretting) have started installing aquafeed mills in some countries (Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Zambia), with distribution offices in certain countries throughout the continent. Some animal feed producers also added fish feed production lines to their production facilities, or modified the existing animal feed mills to produce aquafeeds. However, commercial aqua feed production in most of African countries is still limited, and the number of commercial aquafeed mills is still low, presumably due to: • The exceptionally high cost of raw materials and other production inputs. • The demand for commercial fish feed is too low to justify industrial, large-scale production. • The high production and transportation costs. I was told by

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• Promote the adoption of appropriate feed manufacturing guidelines and standards and develop appropriate low-cost machinery for milling, mixing and manufacture of feeds. • Improve capacity building for the aquafeed industry and provide the necessary extension and training services for the stakeholders throughout the whole value chain.

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International Aquafeed - June 2017 | 23 -

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some colleagues in Tanzania that feed transportation from Lusaka (Zambia) to Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) costs around US$200 per tonne; which is over 25 percent of total feed price. • Another crucial issue that limits aquafeed production in many African countries is the value-added tax (VAT) on feeds. The VAT and duty policies towards fish feed differ significantly across the continent, and can be as high as 18 percent. There are also several problems associated with the consistency of supply and quality of aquafeed in Africa. Quality control over aquafeed mills, feed ingredients, and produced feeds, is almost lacking in most African countries. The quality of feed ingredients and processed feeds may also be subjected to sharp deterioration during handling, storage and distribution through the supply chain. As a result, farmers very often receive poor quality feeds at very high prices. These feeds lead to very poor feed conversion and growth rates. I was recently reviewing a report written by an African colleague, evaluating locally produced commercial feed with imported feeds, through a feeding trial. I figured out that the price of the local feed was extremely high (1340 USD/tonne (35% cp)), while fish performance was much lower than feeds imported from Zambia (1340 USD/tonne; but contained 45% cp). Thus, fish farmers are forced to rely on farm-made feeds and to a lesser extent on imported pelleted feeds, which are not always available or affordable. The legal and regulatory frameworks for aquafeed production and management in many African countries are also lacking. No regulatory standards exist on feed composition, storage, transportation, performance, use, etc., in SSA region. This simply means that no codes of conduct or best management practices (BMPs) are adopted. Therefore, fish feed certification is lacking, and there is no assurance that fish farmers receive quality feeds. In order for the commercial aquafeed industry in Africa and particularly in SSA region, to be sustainable, cost-effective, and more attractive to investors, African governments should: • Enact the necessary legislation, regulations, inspections and certification procedures to guarantee the proper management, quality standards and safety of aquafeeds. • Remove (or at least reduce) taxes and duties on imported feed milling machinery and basic feed ingredients. VAT on imported and locally produced feeds should also be reconsidered.


Alternative to Fishmeal Supplementing a scarce resource


by Allan LeBlanc and Josh Silverman Calysta, USA

ishmeal continues to be the gold standard protein ingredient in aquaculture diets1. As a proxy for the diet of fish in the wild, it has been extraordinarily successful. However, fishmeal supply is finite and dependent upon wild fish populations2. To date, the aquaculture industry has done an excellent job of growing despite this constraint. The market has effectively allocated this scarce resource, and financial pressures have driven significant reductions in marine ingredient inclusions across many applications3. Despite past success, the rapid continuing growth of the aquaculture industry is outpacing technical capabilities for fishmeal reduction4. The highest growth subsectors within aquaculture are carnivorous species requiring higher inclusion levels of fishmeal in order to achieve optimal growth5, 6. Rising standards of living in Asia will continue to drive a shift from extensive to intensive aquaculture, and from low to high trophic level species7. Both of these shifts are correlated with an increased fishmeal content in the aquaculture feeds employed8. As an example, under a business-as-usual projection, Indonesia will require over 7.8 million metric tons of marine fish as feed ingredients annually by 2030. If Indonesia pursues an exportoriented strategy with a focus on fishmeal-intensive shrimp and grouper, Indonesia will more than double its marine fish ingredient consumption, requiring up to 16.4 million metric tonnes of marine fish in the same time period9. Given the finite supply of fishmeal, growth in aquaculture cannot continue on this trajectory without the development of new alternatives to fishmeal. One such alternative to fishmeal is FeedKind protein, which can provide a potential solution to the increased demand for high-quality feed ingredients. FeedKind protein is comprised of single cell protein produced by fermentation of methane10. FeedKind protein has a proximal composition similar to fishmeal (Table 1) and has been shown to be well tolerated in a number of livestock species11. Calysta and Cargill have partnered to produce FeedKind protein in North America, with the first plant under construction in Memphis, TN planned to produce up to 200,000 metric tons per year12. In May 2017, Calysta announced the

successful operation of a market introduction facility in Teesside, England13. As of the announcement, the facility had produced over four metric tonnes of material. This material is destined for use in customer trials in feed formulations, regulatory review in new countries, and R&D trials across a wide variety of species including the trial reported here.

The trial

Using material from initial production of its UK facility, Calysta completed a trial in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performed with Pontus Research, Ltd. in the UK. The trial included a reference diet with 45 percent super prime fishmeal, and three treatments with 10 percent, 20 percent, and 35 percent FeedKind protein with corresponding reductions in fishmeal Figure 1

Figure 2

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FEATURE Table 1: FeedKind (Table 2). All feeds were formulated proximate analysis (dry by Pontus and manufactured by weight basis) Sparos as extruded floating 2.5mm Crude Protein 71% pellets. All diets had variations in Crude Fat 9% proximate analysis and minerals Ash 7% that were statistically insignificant Crude Fibre 1% with the exception of a gradual Nitrogen free 12% increase in calcium associated extract with increasing levels of FeedKind protein. Juvenile fish with an average weight of 62 grams +/- 4.0 grams were randomly assigned to groups of 30 individuals each in 200-liter indoor tanks maintained at 14 degrees Celsius. All treatments were performed in triplicate for a total of 12 groups. Each group was acclimatized for one week on the control diet and then grown to a final weight of 187 grams on the control or test diet, tripling the starting weight in 49 days. Fish were fed to satiation five times daily and feed intake was monitored.


All groups had comparable specific growth rates ranging from 2.2 to 2.3 percent of body weight per day. No statistically significant difference was found between treatments. Additionally, the distribution of individual growth rates was relatively narrow across all treatments and the margin of error ranged from 0.05 to 0.08 percent across all four treatments. The control diet yielded a feed conversion ratio (FCR) of 1.09, which fell to 1.01, 1.00, and 0.99 in the 10 percent, 20 percent, and 35 percent treatments, respectively. All treatment groups were statistically significant from the control and improved FCR by eight to nine percent.

Table 2: Ingredient (g/kg)


10% FeedKind

20% FeedKind

35% FeedKind









Wheat gluten





Wheat meal





Fish oil










Super prime fishmeal FeedKind protein






Vitamin C















Monocalcium Phosphate









The steady improvements in FCR are remarkable given the fact that growth rate is unchanged among the groups. The results may indicate that FeedKind protein has significantly improved digestibility relative to the fishmeal being replaced in the diet. While apparent digestibility coefficients for single cell protein were previously shown to be reduced relative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon, apparent nitrogen retention in fish fed diets containing single cell protein was improved compared to fish fed a control diet. This may point to a reallocation of nitrogen excretion from the gills and urine in the control diet to relatively higher nitrogen excretion in the faeces of fish fed a single cell protein diet14. However, single cell protein has also been shown to prevent

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enteritis in Atlantic salmon fed a diet containing defatted soymeal15, 16. The results here, as well as the previously observed improvements in nitrogen retention, are consistent with an improvement in gut health of the fish, potentially improving the function of an otherwise healthy digestive tract to increase overall nutrient retention and uptake. Additional data collection measuring digestibility and gut histology are underway to further elucidate the mechanisms supporting the observed improvement in FCR. Regardless of the mechanism, the observed improvements to FCR are highly significant to commercial diets. Feed is the largest driver of cost in intensive aquaculture, representing almost 50 percent of total production costs. A reduction of eight to nine percent in feed requirements could deliver significant cost savings to the farmer and improve the profitability of farming operations by up to 20 percent17.

FAO State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2016.


FAO Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2013.


Demand and supply of feed ingredients for farmed fish and crustaceans, FAO 2011.


Exploring Indonesian aquaculture futures, WorldFish 2015.

9 CalystaProteinManufacturingProcess.pdf


Overland, Margareth. “Evaluation of Methane-utilising Bacteria Products as Feed Ingredients for Monogastric Animals.” Archives of Animal Nutrition 64.3 (2010): 171-89. Web.




Next steps

These results confirm that FeedKind protein can be a valuable alternative to fishmeal in aquaculture diets and drive savings on feed through improved feed conversion ratios. In addition to its strong validation in salmonid species, FeedKind protein is currently being tested in shrimp, yellowtail, and other carnivorous finfish species. These studies will provide the basis to expand the use of FeedKind protein globally.


IFFO The Marine Ingredients Organization


The Appeal of Fishmeal, Gorjan Nikolik Rabobank, June 2015.


Marine Harvest Industry Handbook, 2017. Page 55.


The Appeal of Fishmeal, Gorjan Nikolik Rabobank, June 2015.


Tacon, Albert G.j. “Global Overview on the Use of Fish Meal


and Fish Oil in Industrially Compounded Aquafeeds: Trends and Future Prospects.” Aquaculture 285.1-4 (2008): 146-58.

Aas, Turid Synnave. “Improved Growth and Nutrient Utilisation in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) Fed Diets Containing a Bacterial Protein Meal.” Aquaculture 259.1-4 (2006): 365-76.


Romarheim, O. H., and M. Overland et al. “Bacteria Grown on Natural Gas Prevent Soybean Meal-Induced Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon.” Journal of Nutrition 141.1 (2010): 124-30.


Romarheim, Odd H, et al. “Prevention of Soya-induced Enteritis in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) by Bacteria Grown on Natural Gas Is Dose Dependent and Related to Epithelial MHC II Reactivity and CD8α Intraepithelial Lymphocytes.” British Journal of Nutrition 109.06 (2012): 1062-070.


The Salmon Farming Industry in Norway 2016, Kontali Analyse.


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This image of Salmon cages in Tazmania was entered into the International Aquafeed photo competition in 2014. For detials about the 2017 competition please visit: ŠLiam Goodrick



Introduction by Alex Whitebrook



The murrel is a flat-tailed bottomdwelling fish endemic to South Asia and belonging to the Channidae family. Cultivated primarily in India, but also in the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, the fish is also known as the snakehead fish, because of their snake like appearance. Commercial murrel breeding is hampered in many countries by the lack of access to seed for culture. Most commercial production relies heavily on the wild-caught fish fingerlings readily available in rivers, reservoirs, perennial tanks and other water bodies. Once caught, murrel can be stocked in high density thanks to their ability to breath oxygen directly from the atmosphere. An average stocking of murrel fingerlings can be from 20,000 to 25,000 fish per hectare, and the fish will grow fast to reach a size of over five kilograms. In India, murrel culture is about four decades old, chiefly being managed by state fisheries. Unfortunately, it has not taken off despite great capacity for intensive culture due to the limited availability of fingerlings and the onset of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome. However, it has been reported to be taking off a little too freely in other parts of the world. Nearly 15 years ago, the snakehead fish were introduced into the Washington region. And now, more than 20,000 are in the Potomac River. Native to parts of Asia and Africa, US scientists

have found four species of the fish in California, Florida, Maine, Hawaii, Massachusetts, Maryland and Rhode Island. The invasive and seeming unstoppable species has caused local governments to offer money incentives to put a stop to the spread. In 2015, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources sponsored a contest for fisherman who kill snakeheads in any of the ways the state suggests: rod and reel, bow and arrow, spear and more. State officials emphasised in a news release that the murrel could be legally caught in any season and at any size, unlike some other fish. To qualify for the contest, anglers must have agreed to not catch and release the fish – but to kill it. Scientists at the time believed that the fish were likely introduced in 2002 because of live fish markets importing them from Asia. Federal laws now prohibit possession of the live fish. The cultivation of Giant Murrel has been relatively more successful, but once again development of the market has been slow due to lack of familiarity with brood fish nutrition, fingerling production, larval rearing and grow-out culture. Despite issues, much work is being done within India to research murrel production and improve it for future benefit.

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Living jewels of India by Dr B. Laxmappa, District Fisheries Officer, Jogulamba Gadwal – 509 125, Telangana, India

urrels are the third most important group of freshwater fishes after Carps and Catfishes in India. These fishes belong to the order Channiformes, family Channidae (Ophiocephalidae) that constitute the most common and dominant group of air breathing freshwater fishes and are highly regarded fish for human consumption in India. There are several species of murrels belonging to the genus Channa (syn. Ophiocephalus), but only six types of murrel species are available in India (Table: 1). Among murrels, Channa striatus, Channa marulius and Channa punctatus, enjoy a good deal of popularity as food fish in many parts of India. Besides the high quality of their flesh in terms of taste and texture, they also have good market value due to the low fat, fewer intramuscular spines, their medicinal qualities and availability in a live condition. Murrels are also known as “Snake-heads” from the shape and appearance of the head, which resembles that of a snake. They are also noted for their air-breathing habit. On the roof of its pharynx, the fish has a pair of cavities, which have folded linings, richly supplied with blood vessels for taking in air. These organs enable these fishes to survive out of water for a few hours or migrate from one pool to another. They are therefore called “live fishes”. Being typical “live fishes”, murrels have soft flesh, are devoid

of fat and are considered to have medicinal value, providing nutritious food, particularly to the sick. Since many years ago, murrel fingerlings have been given as medicine every year in the month of June on the eve of Mrigasirakarthi day for dispensation

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Common Name


Scientific Name


Giant Murrel

Channa marulius


Striped Murrel

Channa striatus


Spotted Murrel

Channa punctatus


Mud Murrel


Malabar Murrel

Channa micropeltes


Assmese Murrel

Channa stewartii

Channa gachua



to asthma patients (Fish Medicine) that gather from all over the country in Hyderabad City in Telangana State. In addition to its food value, they are highly significant in biological control of mosquito’s larvae and aquatic insect’s population in stagnant water pools, which are harmful to human beings. Murrels are popular amongst consumers in India but they’re also the most well known game fishes because they attract the lures easily and are caught by the fish by anglers. This not only provides entertainment to the public, it also gives a source of income to the organisers.

Cultivable species

However, their high demand and market value alongside their capacity to withstand in adverse water conditions, makes them a suitable candidate species for aquaculture. Out of the six different species of murrels found in India, Channa marulius (Hamilton), C. striatus (Bloch) and C. punctatus (Bloch) are important from a cultural and economic point of view. These are also cultured by most of the farmers along with major carps in the state including India.



Farming practices

Murrels are known to tolerate a wide range of water parameters particularly in low dissolved oxygen and derelict waters. Hence, they are more suitable for culture in derelict/vegetation infested ponds and tanks. Murrels are the alternative species in aquaculture besides carps and catfishes in India. Murrels are predatory in habit and feed on a variety of fauna present in the water.



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Seed availability

The murrel breeds all year round from rain-fed ditches and shallow water bodies with rich aquatic weed vegetation. Parental care is common in murrels and juveniles of these species move in shoals in search of food along the marginal areas of the breeding environment. While on the move, they make characteristic ripples at the water surface, which can be easily noticed from a distance. The entire shoal can be collected easily when it is moving till the marginal weed-free areas using a fine meshed net. The fingerlings of murrels are available in rivers, reservoirs, perennial tanks and other derelict water bodies. The present demand for murrel seed is, by and large, met from wild collections. Maximum seed availability is from May to August. The commercial culture of murrels is still not common in India due to inadequate seed availability.

Seed Stocking

Murrels permit high stocking density, as they are hardly fishes and tolerate overcrowding due to the additional support of air breathing organs. The stocking density is 20,000 to 30,000 fingerlings/ha. Fishermen usually collect the murrel seed from the available natural sources and sell to the culturists. Fish farmers stock these murrel seed along with carp seed in their culture tanks and allow them to grow for six to nine months or even more. In exclusive carp culture ponds, farmers stock 300-500 murrel fingerlings per hector area to control the weed fishes, particularly tilapia fish. This gives additional income to the farmers in India.

EUS infection

Murrels are easily susceptible to the Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS), resulting in large-scale mortalities. Murrels of all sizes are affected. However, the incidence of infection is more in the younger ones. Affected murrels with mild lesions may not show any clinical sign, whereas those with marked ulcerative lesions exhibit distinct abnormal swimming behaviour with frequent surfacing.


Although murrels are caught in gill nets, drag nets and cast nets; the gear that is mainly intended to catch murrels, are long line and come in various types of traps. It is also a common practice to pump out total water from pools and ditches where murrels are known to live, for hand picking them.


Murrels contribute about five percent to the total inland fish production from rivers and reservoirs and from 10 to 15 percent from the canals, tanks, pools, ponds etc. Production of murrels under traditional composite culture systems ranges from 50 to 150kg/ha in eight to 10 months. On average, marketable sizes of murrels can be obtained in eight to nine months. The yield is slightly more under semi-intensive culture along with carps. Murrels are quite popular among the fish consumers in the country. But although it has scope for development in the country as an alternative species, non-availability of adequate seed remains to be the main constraint.


Murrels fetch a high price ranging from INR 400-500 (US$ 6-8) per kg in different markets. In general, the prices of murrels are much more than those of carps and catfishes. Heavy demand exists for murrels in many states of India. Some like them for their delicious taste, while others prefer them because of their nutritional and medicinal value. The demand also arises because they are sold alive in the market, and can be purchased in a fresh condition.

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Against the availability of vast fresh water resources, only a limited area is used for murrel farming in different states in India. Many huge water storage projects constructed on the rivers and its tributaries in India are leaving many hectares of land waterlogged in the vicinity of the canals of the projects and thus unfit for agriculture. As such, there is still ample scope for the growth of inland fisheries activities including murrel farming in India. The various State Governments in India are fully aware of the potential of murrel farming; although the technology is a constraint for breeding and feeding of murrel farming in a commercial way.


There is a good domestic market available for murrels. With the proper utilisation of the available resource and the technology, the States can augment the murrel production, and the fish farming community can reap better returns for their products. In tropical countries like India, where availability of waterlogged areas, derelict water bodies in which dissolved oxygen concentration is low, air-breathing fishes like murrels may have a significant advantage for aquaculture as they can very well thrive in this environment. More studies need to be initiated in murrel breeding, seed rearing, and feeding to undergo a commercial large-scale production in the country.

International Aquafeed - June 2017 | 35

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY by Martin Heidenreich, Wieland-Werke AG, Germany

The use of brass nets in marine aquaculture is an innovative and “green” solution to many problems. The brass nets provide considerable improvement over traditional cages. Bluesea is a brass wire produced by Wieland that has been especially developed for the needs of maritime fish farming

WHY WE NEED RECYCLABLE BRASS NETS IN OFFSHORE AQUACULTURE Whereas the demand for fish is increasing worldwide from year to year, fish stocks are overfished. For this reason, marine aquaculture today is becoming more important and is facing tremendous challenges. This implies, in particular, that the requirements for cage systems are growing significantly. The main reasons include environmental compatibility, low contaminant levels in fish and better growth, recyclability of materials, service life of systems, algal growth/biofouling, control of parasites (sea lice) as well as increasing cost pressure in the fish production.

So, how can such complex problems be tackled?

The use of brass nets in marine aquaculture is an innovative and “green” solution to many problems. The brass nets provide considerable improvement over traditional cages. Bluesea is a brass wire produced by Wieland that has been especially developed for the needs of maritime fish farming. In addition to its excellent corrosion resistance also in seawater environments, the copper content of this alloy is sufficient to inhibit biofouling in a natural way. Especially for large cages, high mechanical strength and good abrasion resistance are of decisive advantage. Lower susceptibility to biofouling due to the copper content improves the water exchange and the oxygen level inside the cages. As a result, growth of parasites (sea lice) and other pathogens is inhibited and the infection risk in fish is significantly reduced. Thus it is not necessary to use antibiotics and antifouling coatings. The nets are practically free from biofouling and therefore the cleaning and inspection intervals of the nets Wieland Bluesea net installed for customer InnovaSea in Panama

Image courtesy of ©InnovaSea Systems, Inc

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY are much longer than those of synthetic netting materials. This will dramatically reduce maintenance costs. Due to the high stability of the copper alloy nets, the cages retain their form even with strong currents and high waves. In addition, brass is completely recyclable and thus it is a sustainable material in aquaculture.

Naturally clean: Release of copper ions prevents biofouling

Biofouling presents an enormous challenge for fish farmers. Conventional methods to prevent biofouling are expensive and harmful to the environment. The antimicrobial properties of the Bluesea nets have a positive effect on the growth: no biofouling, no time-consuming cleaning of the nets and, therefore, significantly lower maintenance costs. Since fish farming is sited more and more away from the coast under open sea conditions, preventing biofouling is an essential factor for the stability of the nets, for avoiding fish escapes and also for the safety of the workers. The resistance of copper is achieved by the gradual release of copper ions so Bluesea does not release increased copper concentrations into the environment. The Wieland Bluesea net is naturally free from biofouling, which reduces sea lice levels and prevents sea lice larvae from settling on cages. Settlement of mussels and small crustaceans is also limited because they cannot find food (algae). Bluesea nets meet the essential requirements of “Green Licenses” for aquaculture and provide, therefore, a sustainable solution for the development of aquaculture.

Fish health

Improving the habitat of fishes will have positive effects on their growth. This contributes to increasing the profits of fish farmers, since infections of fish caused by biofouling organisms can be avoided. In Australia fish farmers can abstain from antibiotics or chemical treatments in salmon farming by using Bluesea nets. Numerous tests show a decrease in the mortality rate of fish when using brass nets.

Higher profits for fish farms, better results for the environment

The recycling of Bluesea nets is very interesting for fish farmers. The nets are already produced from recycled brass and, therefore, they have a very little impact on the consumption of natural resources. The main difference between brass nets and conventional nets is that brass material is 100 percent recyclable. Wieland guarantees its customers the return of Bluesea nets after their use. The residual value of the raw material value will then be refunded. Wieland produces the Bluesea wire and the mesh in Germany. The alloy was especially developed at Wieland to meet the requirements of marine aquaculture. The use of Bluesea nets is particularly suited for offshore systems. Reduced maintenance and stability of Bluesea cages are the most important advantages that ensure offshore aquaculture operations. The Wieland Group, with headquarters in Ulm, is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of semi-finished products in copper and copper alloys, such as strip, sheet, tubes, rods, wires and sections. Wieland also manufactures finned tubes and heat exchangers, slide bearings and system components.

Image courtesy of ©InnovaSea Systems, Inc

International Aquafeed - June 2017 | 37

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY #2 by Kirstyn McKay, Biomark Inc., US

Biomark Inc., a US based company, has been selling passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) for over 28 years to permanently identify individual animals. Beginning with fisheries conservation studies, the use of PIT tags has expanded to include mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds and many other animals and objects. More recently, the aquaculture industry has embraced this technology realising the value of PIT tag use as a reliable and effective method of research, monitoring, and management of individual animals. As a result, Biomark has expanded their sales and customer service staffing to include representation worldwide.

PIT tagging: monitoring and management for brood stock and genetic research programmes PIT tags, also known as ‘microchips’ or electronic identification (EID), allow researchers to safely mark most species internally without altering external appearance. In almost all cases, the tag will stay with the animal for its entire life cycle. The small size of PIT tags virtually eliminates any negative impact on animals with little or no influence on growth-rate, behavior or health when tagged using best practices and methods. PIT tags do not have a battery so the microchip remains inactive until read with a scanner (reader). The reader sends a low frequency signal to the microchip within the PIT tag providing the power needed by the tag to send its unique identification code back to the reader and positively identify the animal. Figure 3: Tagging juvenile tilapia with the pre-load The distance from which a tag can be read needle system is referred to as read range. Many factors contribute to the read range of passive tags including tag construction, quality of components, manufacturing standards, operation frequency, antenna power and size, tag orientation and electromagnetic interference (EMI) from other devices. PIT tags are detected in milliseconds at close range - from a few centimeters up to about one meter or more in distance. Tags can be read through materials such as soil, wood and water. Ferrous metals and noisy (EMI) environments can cause interference between the electromagnetic communication of the reader and tag, and adversely affect tag reading.

“Not all created equal”

Not all PIT tags are created equal. At visual inspection, there is no way to tell a quality tag from a low cost, low performing tag. There are a few things to keep in mind to ensure that the quality of construction, durability, tag code integrity and performance are not compromised. There is an ISO standard for PIT tags (ISO 11784/11785). Using tags and reader that comply with these standards will ensure frequency and reading compatibility. PIT tags should also be approved and certified by the International Committee for Animal Recording (ICAR) for quality, reliability and, more importantly, the guarantee that the tags will all have a unique ID code with no duplications. Using tags that are specifically made for animal use is important along with selecting a manufacturer that specialises in aquaculture and conservation PIT tags and related equipment.

Left - Figure 1: Representation of different tag sizes available. Photo courtesy of Biomark. Right - Figure 2: This diagram demonstrates the antenna field created by the reader and the tag ‘reply’ in the form of transmitting the tag code back to the reader. Diagram courtesy of Biomark

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Figure 4: Products: MK25 implanter and 12mm PLT. Photos courtesy of Biomark

Biomark engineers, manufactures and distributes PIT tags and readers that are designed specifically for the aquaculture and conservation market. As a result of conducting their own manufacturing they are able to ensure their tags and readers provide the highest quality and performance options available in PIT tag technology for aquaculture use. PIT tags are typically injected subcutaneously using a hypodermic needle. Implant location varies depending on the species being tagged, size (age) and in some cases the behavior of the animal. Tags are available in many packaging formats including a unique pre-loaded tagging system. The pre-load system (PLT) consists of a tray of 100 tags loaded into single use needles and a double push-rod design eliminating the need for hand loading tags or sterilising needles between uses. This method not only saves significant time and money but also results in tag shed and mortality reduction.

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Above - Figure 5: Atlantic salmon pass through a PIT tag detection antenna at a fish processing plant. Photo courtesy of Biomark

Below - Figure 6: The unique Tissue Sampling Unit provides the ability to visually see the presence of a quality tissue sample in a vial with customisable 2D bar code. Photo courtesy of Biomark

PIT tags are being used extensively in the development and management of brood stock and genetic research and selection programs. The tags allow site managers to quickly identify each individual fish. This allows them to accurately manage and maximise the effectiveness of their brood stock and genetics programs. Most brood stock companies use some type of PIT tagging in their programs to match the unique ID to the genetic data or general family information. Ken Overturf, Research Geneticist for the USDA has commented, “After trying several methods we have found PIT tags to be the most reliable method for long-term identification of individual fish. You can genotype specific groups of fish that are co-reared to identify pedigrees of individuals but even with this, a subset of the group would still need to be marked by some method to obtain the correct individuals after genotyping. Some groups still use branding or fin clipping to mark and identify specific fish, but PIT tagging works better and is more humane.” Feed and vaccine companies are using PIT tags to retrieve unique identification for each individual animal as they conduct trials on feeds, additives, probiotics and vaccines. It is a widely accepted tool for gaining individual identification for assessments and more accurate data analysis for quick decision-making. Brian Gause, Brood Replacement Manager at Clear Springs Foods has also remarked, “PIT tagging has been vital to our program. Other methods of tagging including elastomer tags, and clipping and branding have been used but these do not allow us to track fish as well and are not as reliable.

An elastomer tag can fall out, or become no longer visible. A clip and/or a brand could be misidentified especially if there is other fin erosion. PIT tagging has greatly increased our data set that we can evaluate to better determine the gains we are really making in our selection program.” PIT tag use can range from the most common application known as mark-recapture, to complex, customised, autodetection systems. Mark-recapture simply refers to the individual being tagged and at a later date recaptured, and the tag being read at close proximity and manually with a handheld reader. Customised PIT tag monitoring systems consist of specific size/shape antennas, readers, electronics enclosures, special power supplies for the system and data collection software programs to meet the user’s unique needs. These systems can be set up with automatic data transmission, system alerts to ensure efficiency, and operation and commands to perform such tasks as sorting. Data collection software is available for PIT tag code recording along with other data fields such as length, weight, family group and many other customisable data fields. Tag code downloading from readers is simple using various software options that include look-up functions, memory erasing and modifying reader settings.


Biomark, in partnership with SalMar, has installed a PIT tag detection system at the Innovamar salmon processing facility in Norway. This was designed to detect and sort the PIT tagged fish that pass through the detectors prior to processing the fish. The system has two antennas, two readers and a programmable logic controller that scans approximately 128 fish per minute. When a PIT tagged fish is detected the system removes the fish from the processing line for further evaluation. This system allows for automatic detection with very little operational support on site. Metal detectors can additionally be deployed to ensure that 100 percent of the PIT tagged fish are diverted and do not enter the food chain supply. With the increase in PIT tag use and other technological improvements, PIT tags are being incorporated into new aquaculture methods and efficiencies. Early development of PIT Tag detection integrated into transport, sorting and biomass estimators is underway paving an interesting and bright future in advancements in individual identification. PIT tag data is being paired with genetic samples for efficient individual identification. An efficient and effective sampling device is being used to take a fin ‘clip’ depositing it directly into a sealed vial containing a preservation liquid. The genetic information along with the unique PIT tag code takes any guesswork out of parentage verification, genetic selection and pathogen diagnostics.

40 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events Events listing nn 31/05 - 04/06/17 - SEAFOOD SUMMIT USA WEB: nn 14/06/17 - 10TH AQUAFEED HORIZONS TECHNICAL CONFERENCE Germany WEB: n 26 - 30/06/17 - WORLD AQUACULTURE 2017 South Africa WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture nn 26/06/17 - AFRICAN EXTRUSION SEMINAR USA WEB: n 25 – 27/07/17 - ASIA PACIFIC AQUACULTURE 2017 Malaysia WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture n 02 - 04/08/17 - AQUA FISHERIES CAMBODIA 2017 Cambodia WEB: n 15 - 18/08/17 - AQUA NOR 2017 Norway WEB: AquaNorExhibition n 11 -13/09/17 - CICFO China WEB: n 19 - 21/09/17 - LIVESTOCK ASIA 2017 EXPO & FORUM Malaysia WEB: livestockasia15 n 17 - 20/10/17 - AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2017 Croatia WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture n 18 - 20/10/17 - ILDEX INDONESIA 2017 Indonesia WEB: ILDEXEXHIBITIONS ildexexhibition n 07 - 10/11/17 - LACQUA Mexico WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture n 08 - 10/11/17 - EXPO PESCA & ACUIPERU 2017 Peru WEB: n 09 - 11/11/17 - TAIWAN INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES & SEAFOOD SHOW Taiwan WEB: n 07 – 08/12/17 - FOI 2017, FATS & OILS ISTANBUL / FGI 2017 Turkey WEB:

Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2017 APA17 is an aquaculture platform for all societies to organise their annual project meetings. To be held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 24-27, 2017, they have since confirmed their first plenary speaker. Mr Herve Lucien-Brun from Aquaculture and Qualite in France. The organisers, Asian-Pacific Chapter World Aquaculture Society and Malaysia Fisheries Society, have also announced the second plenary speaker, Dr Mazuki Bin Hashim, Senior Director of Fisheries Biosecurity Division for the Department of Fisheries Malaysia. He will be presenting about the topic “What can Malaysia offer to expand aquaculture?” which is directly linked to the theme of APA 17, ‘Transforming for Market Needs’. Sessions at the APA17 will cover all aspects of aquaculture within Malaysia and the region. The Malaysian Farmers sessions, July 25, 2017 will be organised by the Department of Fisheries and Malaysian Fisheries Society. It will be attended by shrimp and finfish farmers, it will be sponsored by the Department of Fisheries. Presentations will be July 26, 2017, with five outstanding experts from Asia Pacific having been invited to present their advance research developments on Shrimp and treatment on the special Farmer’s day programme, “The Advanced Research Developments on Shrimp Culture” organiser by Sheng Long Bio-Tech International Co, at the Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Thaifex-World food Asia 2017 Thaifex-World of Food Asia is Asia’s number one international food and beverage show, with three specialised trade events across nine mega halls spanning a gross floor area of 93,500 sqm. The renowned event was held between May 31- June 4, 2017 at the IMPACT Exhibition and Convention Center, Bangkok in Thailand. The show was co-organised by the Department of International Trade Promotion, The Thai Chamber of Commerce and Koelnmesse Pte Ltd, the event drew together top international food and beverage brands and provided visitors with access to over 45,000 industry professionals. The show culminated in a total of 55,111 visitors from 130 countries – a huge 30 percent increase from 2016. This impactful show showcased the synergistic partnership between the government and private sector to address growing food and beverage demands and concerns in Asia, this show was the 14th edition of the conference. Visitors to the show were treated to a wide array of food products and technologies, but also access to insights that could help extend their businesses throughout Asean and beyond. Committed to providing a global experience for everyone, the trade show saw the number of international exhibitors grow by 14 percent. This is the first time the absolute number of international exhibitors matched that of Thai exhibitors, indicative of a powerful show for the region and beyond. Mathias Kuepper, Managing Director, Koelnmesse, organiser for Thaifex- World of Food Asia 2017 commented, “The record-breaking number of visitors is testament to the fact that the food and beverage industry continues to see the trade show as the place to be. This year’s show proved to be more than just a platform for networking between buyers and exhibitors, but also an avenue for everyone to collaborate, share thoughts and exchange knowledge about issues facing the industry.” Acknowledging the huge potential in Asia for Western products, Scottish Development International’s Head of Southeast Asia, Neil Mcinnes remarked, “We have been seeing an increase in demand from Thailand and Asia as a whole for Scottish products, ranging from Scottish smoked salmon and seafood to shortbread, biscuits, cheese and craft beer. ThaifexWorld of Food Asia has given us the opportunity to showcase these and other innovative Scottish products and capitalise on the demand for high quality, premium products in Thailand and beyond.”

For more industry event information - visit our events register 42 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

Industry Events


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The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to offer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city. International Aquafeed - June 2017 | 43

We have the largest work placement programme of any university in Ireland, with a network of over 1700 employers Amazing academic and sporting facilities on a stunning campus Graduate employment rates that are 18% above the Irish average

by Peter Parker, International Aquafeed magazine From Wednesday – Friday, May 17-19 2017, Indonesia’s leading livestock, feed, dairy and fisheries event was held at the Grand City Convex in Surabaya, Indonesia. Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesia, located in East Java, it is one of the main business hubs of the country. Damien Chapelier, the Managing Director of Bühler Indonesia, made the following comment regarding the state of the Indonesian feed industry, “As the economy of Indonesia improves, so too do the needs of the people. Here in Indonesia people are eating more meat, more fish, and they need to grow. For Bühler Indonesia is not currently our biggest market for feed in South East Asia, but I believe it is going to be. It is this way because of the population.” A key issue at the show was that of antibiotic use, with new legislative restrictions looming, whether at an exhibitors stand or in a conference room, the risks of and solutions for antibiotic use

were being discussed. K-Pro is a company headquartered in Germany, trading feed ingredients globally. In a discussion with exhibitor, Anika Jelita, Office Manager of K-Pro Indonesia she shared an insight into feed market in Indonesia and touched on the state of antibiotics. She commented, “We have had an increase in chicken biproduct trading, this is due to fishmeal’s ever increasing price and the difficulty of sourcing high-quality fishmeal”, She continued to say that they have observed the most growth in the Indonesian petfood industry, believed to be a result of the nation’s economic growth on the whole leading to more families taking on pets. This was the first year K-Pro had been actively importing in Indonesia, and occasionally customers would ask for a certification that the products they were purchasing were antibiotic-free.”

Performers of the Kuda Kepang, a traditional Javanese dance depicting a group of horsemen

Dr Glenn Alfred S. Ferriol, Nutriad Area Manager for Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and BK Chew - Nutriad IndoLivestock 2017 was a successful event that was used by Nutriad to showcase its programs for the replacement of antibiotic and the complete range of mycotoxin management products. Dr Glenn Alfred S. Ferriol, Area Manager for Indonesia, Malaysia & Philippines stated, “There has been an overwhelming interest from the farmers, feed mills and integrators to know more about Nutriad’s alternative to antibiotics. Two years ago, Nutriad had the approval of the target-release precisely delivered butyrate –Adimix Precision in Indonesia, giving way for an effective alternative to AGPs’ in the market.” BK Chew, APAC Director, Nutriad’s Director for APAC concluded, “Indonesia has enjoyed a growth of 300 percent in feed production over the last 15 years. Feedback from industry at the IndoLivestock showed how our collaborative approach to the market is appreciated and valued. With the implementation of the strict regulation in AGP use by end of the year, Nutriad is well positioned to work alongside producers to define solutions for challenges on the pressure of AGP use.”

Peter Parker (left) and Tuti Tan (right) of Perendale Publishers with event organiser, Napindo’s Managing DIrector, Arya Seta Wiriadipura (centre)

44 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

Holgar and Praneesh - Leiber “Exhibition has gone well, there have not been many visitors to the stand but those we have had have been high quality. The majority of visitors to our stand have been curious feed millers and farmers who are local, many of which unaware of the benefits of brewer’s yeast. Massive growth in the pet food industry has meant benefits to the pre-mix industry. From July this year Leiber has plans to run a widespread trial in Indonesia to receive feedback on our products from end users.”

Franz Peter Rebafka and Ashish Kulkrestha - Ge-Pro “Our main target group is the aquaculture industry, we have products specifically designed for shrimp and fish. Currently there is European legislation which does not allow that our products are fed to poultry, there are now changes in regulation which allow poultry proteins to be given to pork, and pork protein we can give to poultry, this should come into fruition in the next one or two years. In Indonesia and the rest of Asia this is completely different but we still have to follow in the first place, European regulation. Therefore we cannot promote poultry being fed to poultry. This situation exists in almost every country, therefore we focus our trials and studies are focused on seafood and pet food as well. Even though these animal proteins have the best value in terms of amino acid composition and availability when compared to plant protein, there is still more customer demand for plant based proteins, this is more of an emotional argument than a scientifically based motive. At the moment we are working as part of a European team building up a scientific background for using proteins in both poultry and pork feed, because the current recommendations are from, let’s say, the past 20 years. Europe is now building up more data for recommendations when it comes to the purpose of feed.”

Koen and Jip - Geelen Counterflow “This was the first time Geelen Counterflow has attended an IndoLivestock event, we have not made many new customers, it has enabled us to solidify previously existing relationships. We were was the first company to produce a vertical dryer back in 1986, people appreciate this.”

Dr Kabir Chowdhury - Jefo “The Indonesian market is very important for us, we have good products to serve the market here, enzymes are fine yes, but the market is moving AGP-free next year. We have the products to replace antibiotic growth promoters, we need to expose ourselves more in this market and so this is the first show that we have ever attended in Indonesia. Here in Indonesia it is primarily going to be poultry but also swine that will be affected by these changes.”

Adams Lu - Zheng Chang “Indonesia is an important market for the world, it has a big population. It is also an important market for China as Indonesia is on the silk route; just last week there was a major gathering of country’s officials to hold a seminar for business and the construction in all of the countries on the way of the silk route.”

See the interview with Arya Seta Wiriadipoera, Managing Director, PT Napindo Media Ashatama - organisers of Indo Livestock, that appeared in our sister publication Milling and Grain at: Doyle Nauman - Darling Ingredient “Poultrymeal is beginning to increase in popularity as an ingredient in aquaculture feed, because fishmeal becoming increasingly expensive. Another feed ingredient that Darling Ingredients has been involved in is black soldier fly larvae, it is a great product as it is naturally occurring in the animal’s diets and it be grown in highceiling facilities, utilising less valuable land as a result.”

See more images from this years Indo Livestock on the Milling an Grain Facebook page See more at

International Aquafeed - June 2017 | 45

Second National Aquaculture Summit and the first National Aquaculture event both succeed in The Philippines The National Aquaculture Summit 2017, a sub-section of the ‘Livestock Philippines 2017’ exposition held in Manila, The Philippines at the end of May 2017, proved to be a popular two-day event and formed part of the first outing for ‘Aquaculture Philippines 2017’, which ran over a full three days and alongside ‘Feeds Expo Philippines 2017’ and ‘Philmeat 2017 Expo and Forum’ all hosted by the UBM Malaysia. Not only was the National Aquaculture Summit 2017 the central part of the country’s famous ‘Livestock Philippines’, being located in the exhibition hall itself and attracting over 650 attendees, it was one that everyone attending the show, both visitors and exhibitors alike, would have been proud of as it became a solid contributor to the overall success of this year’s multi-faceted event.

A wider reach

The Summit was The Philippines’ International Aquaculture, Fisheries and Seafood Industry event and a highly anticipated part of the livestock sector’s event calendar, particularly throughout this country’s diverse aquaculture sector, within Asia itself and offering a key networking point for aquaculturists and agriculturists worldwide. The show was held from Wednesday to Friday, May 24-26, 2017 at the SMX Convention Centre, Pasay City, Metro Manila, The Philippines. When a show is as influential as this, it is important that it has not only the backing and promotion that it deserves, but it also needs space. With a total exhibition area of 9,130 square metres, this exhibition pushed the boundaries of this facility. Of course, this was for the whole event and not just the aquaculture. Over 250 exhibitors were present representing companies from around 30 countries, and included aquaculture engineers, fish farmers, fish processing industrialists, fish and seafood processors, nutritionists, veterinarians and many more. International Aquafeed magazine was honoured to have its publisher Roger Gilbert invited to give the keynote address for the conference on Trends in the Global Aquaculture Industry’. Besides the 650 attending the Summit, a head count recorded over 10,440 attendees on the exhibition floor over the three days. Compared to the 2015 show, this represents 46 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

an increased 35 percent. International visitors were up by 42 percent. The event offered exhibitors a valuable opportunity to launch new products, meet decision makers and promote their products and services. It is a rare thing to find an event that so definitively provides aquaculture professionals with such direct access to qualified suppliers from all over the globe, representing all aspects of the aquaculture industry and at the centre of a livestock event.

Bigger and better to come

‘Aquaculture Philippines 2017’ was the first time on show this year; this was simultaneous to the ‘Second National Aquaculture Summit’ by the Philippine Association of Fish Producers Inc. (PAFPI). PAFPI President, Joseph Martin Borromeo was thrilled at the turnout of the industry at the event and the summit, declaring of course that the show will only get bigger in coming years. “The summit was surprisingly very well attended. “We were surprised by the turnout of the people. The objective of the summit is to open up the minds of the industry as to its great potential. So if they see

a great potential, there is now motivation for investor confidence to increase. “Once it happens, then we will probably see more people participating, hence more unification that can happen. That will lead to greater productivity and a greater utilisation of our natural resources. “So that is the step in order for us to be globally competitive. “I think the summit is a good starting point in making that happen with the partnership of UBM – a good partnership – which makes the people aware of the possibilities in aquaculture. And with the interventions we are taking right now, we expect a bigger show in the future,” he added. The show was organised by UBM Malaysia, which is a part of UBM Asia. The company is considered a leading organiser or exhibitions in Asia. Owned by UBM Plc, which is listed on the London Stock Exchange, UBM Asia operates in 19 market sectors and has its headquarters located in Hong Kong. The company boasts over 240 products, including; trade fairs, conferences, trade publications, B2B/B2C portals and virtual event services. Conferences such as Aquaculture Philippines (Livestock 2017) really seem to thrive under the organisation of such renowned companies, who in this case has a track record of over 25 years operating large-scale international exhibitions.

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the interview Alpha Condé, President of Guinea, President of the African Union

President Alpha Condê, born March 4, 1938, has been President of Guinea since December 2010, and on January 30, 2017, President Condé succeeded Chad’s Irdiss Deby as the President of the African Union. President Condé was born in Boké in Lower Guinea, where he left when he was 15 to go to France. Whilst he was in France he was active in parallel within the National Union of Higher Education and combined the functions of the Association of Guinean students in France and the Federation of Black African Students in France, in which he was the Executive Coordinator of African National Groups from 1967-75. He wrote a master’s thesis in Political Science entitled, ‘Le P.D.G. et le people de Guinée’ in 1965. Regarding his appointment as the African Union chairperson, he was elected during the ongoing 28th Ordinary Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia following the end of Deby’s term in January 2017.

What are the projections of the increase in the population of Guinea and how is the Government making progress in supplying its population with healthy and affordable food?

The growth rate of the Guinean population is 2.9 percent per year. With this growth rate, the Guinean population could exceed 15 million inhabitants by 2040. The proportion of the working-age population (15-64), increased from 49.9 percent in 1996 to 51.3 percent in 2014. The growth rate of the economic support ratio, which had been negative since the 1950s, has become positive (0.2%) since 2007. This indicates the opening of the window of the first demographic dividend of Guinea. This demographic dividend could reach its maximum level from 2035 if adequate population policies are implemented, this according to the National Plan for Economic and Social Development 2016-2020 (PNDES), Volume 1. The National Plan for Economic and Social Development 2016-2020 is an integrating plan for the different strategic or programmatic development frameworks that are in progress or planned for future implementation. The PNDES takes the main regional and international agendas into account in particular, the ECOWAS Vision 2020, the African Union Vision 2063 for a structural transformation of the continent and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

Does your Government recognise the importance of scientific production of genetically modified organisms as a means of improving the production of animal protein?

In general, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are considered to be of great value to production. The introduction of GMOs into aquaculture makes it possible to increase the production of animal proteins that developing countries need. GMOs can also improve the quality of aquatic products, reduce production costs, improve micronutrients and improve the nutritional composition of products, increase disease resistance and contribute to food security. There are, however, many controversies surrounding the introduction of GMOs into aquaculture production systems. Of these, we can note that transgenic aquatic species can change their metabolism and that of other species. They can also spread rapidly to the point of threatening non-transgenic species,

thus disrupting the environments in which they are allowed to evolve. Some research has shown that crossbreeding between transgenic and unmodified species has produced less viable species. In view of these problems and threats, it becomes clear that the use of GMOs requires, in addition to the technical aspect, very clear legal and regulatory provisions and strong monitoring and control. The role of research and technicians is very important in guiding policies on GMOs, which will have to be assessed on a case-by-case basis.

What is the place of aquaculture in the food structure offered to its population?

The economic, social and cultural development of aquaculture is considered in the Republic of Guinea, a water tower in West Africa, as a strong alternative to the regular supply of the proteins of animal origin. Aquaculture development is considered as an opportunity to contribute to food security, job creation and the fight against poverty. In order to improve the fisheries and aquaculture in Guinea, we organised a comprehensive assessment of the sector to critically evaluate past policies. As a logical follow-up to this assessment, corrective measures have been proposed and are likely to help improve the situation of aquaculture development. Among these measures, the assessment results stressed the need to initiate institutional and regulatory reform. This resulted in the creation of a National Aquaculture Agency to coordinate and monitor all the activities, programs and projects affecting this sector. We wish to establish fruitful partnerships with other countries that have succeeded in the rational management of this activity in order to prepare the future in the longer term by laying the foundations for sound and sustainable management of aquaculture by motivated, competent, honest and responsible operators, which will enable Guinea to derive all the benefits it can hope for. That is to increase national aquaculture production in order to contribute to economic growth, food security, poverty alleviation, job creation and income enhancement while preserving the environment. Some activities currently carried out in this sector, include: Fish farming in Guinea “Forestiere”. We plan to develop this operation into a semi-intensive fish farm that is integrated

52 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

the interview continued into agricultural activities (fish farming associated with rice cultivation, poultry, swine, or small ruminant production). We expect to be able to produce low-cost fish that will be available to low-income families, to diversify farmers’ production and to improve their incomes, shrimp farming, oyster farming, and marine fish farming in Lower Guinea. Continental fish farming in ponds and water reservoirs in Upper Guinea, fish farming in the floodplains in Middle Guinea and the operation of reservoirs of hydro-agricultural and hydro-electric dams.

As a newly elected President of the African Union (AU), do you see production and food processing as a priority to address the needs of Africans across the continent?

Autonomy and food independence are one of the primary objectives assigned to the AU. In 2014, in Equatorial Guinea, the Heads of State of the continent adopted the Malabo Declaration on accelerated growth and transformation of agriculture in Africa for shared prosperity and better living conditions. Through this Declaration, we have made a commitment to eliminate hunger in Africa by 2025. We have also committed to improving the nutritional status of our populations, in particular to eliminate malnutrition, to reduce stunting by 10 percent and those that are underweight by 5 percent by 2025. These priorities will be achieved by: (i) doubling agricultural productivity; (Ii) halving the current levels of post-harvest losses; and (iii) integrating measures to increase agricultural productivity with social protection initiatives that are directed at vulnerable social groups by committing budget lines in our national budgets. In the case of Guinea, these commitments made by my Government at the continental level coincided with the revision of the national agricultural development policy, which ended in 2015. In the development of our new agricultural policy, these provisions are being included in a strategic plan that is accompanied by a targeted roadmap for my country. In Malabo in 2014 we also adopted the Policy Framework and Reform Strategy for fisheries and aquaculture in Africa, which focuses on accelerating the growth of aquaculture at the continental level in Africa. As the newly elected President of the AU, I am working with my colleagues to support the implementation of Malabo’s commitments and in this regard, the AU Summit of Heads of State and Government to be held in January 2018 is dedicated to monitoring the implementation of the commitments to demonstrate mutual accountability in the actions and outcomes of the implementation of the Malabo Declaration.

Does aquaculture and seafood play a role in meeting the food needs of the growing African population?

At the continental level, we are promoting aquaculture development by addressing three main factors: (i) increasing the demand for fish by our populations, (ii) improving the environment for investment; and (iii) reducing production risk. The growing middle-class population and the increase in the peri-urban population, combined with the economic development of the continent, have led to an increasing demand for fish. As most of our marine resources are overexploited, this increase in fish supply can be attributed to the emerging development of aquaculture. This situation confirms that the rational and judicious exploitation of aquaculture potential is the most appropriate way of supplying

animal protein to populations. The density of the hydrographic network, water reservoirs (lakes, agricultural Hydro) offers immense prospects for aquaculture development.

What are your priorities in addition to developing healthy, abundant and affordable food production?

To maintain good economic growth in the years to come, we have identified eight priorities that have a direct impact on the well being of our people, the lives and livelihoods of our citizens in all areas of life. These priorities are: 1. The development of human capital by giving priority to health, education, science, research, technology and innovation. 2. Development of agriculture and processing of agricultural products 3. Promoting inclusive economic development through industrialisation, infrastructure development, agriculture, trade and investment. 4. Peace, stability and good governance. 5. The integration of women and youth in all activities of the African Union. 6. Mobilisation of resources. 7. The building of a union of peoples through active communication and promotion of the Union’s image. 8. Strengthening the institutional capacity of all decisionmaking bodies, because in the areas of aquaculture, we have the Policy Framework and Reform Strategy of the Africa Union that sets the goal of the continent to Jumpstart market-led sustainable aquaculture through a variety of strategies. Where appropriate, we support interventionist development approaches in aquaculture by strong strategic and implementation plans. This will require: (i) Creating an enabling environment; (ii) Creating an African Centre of Excellence for Aquaculture (iii) Mainstreaming strategies and plans into national development plans especially the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP).

The theme of the African Union this year is: “Reaping demographic dividends by investing in youth”. What are your other priorities and why?

The development of the agricultural sector is the main lever of African development. The main lever of the development of Guinea is agro-industry. The mines can certainly be one of the levers, but not leverage. We are not in control of commodity prices whose prices are set in London, Washington or Montreal. Africa needs to be more innovative, more productive and more competitive to succeed in its ‘emergence’. That is why we have initiated reforms at the level of the African Union (AU) to improve its functioning and to promote its evolution. Africa advances and is heard when it is united and speaks with one voice. Thus, each of the major challenges it faces, agriculture, energy, conflicts, immigration, trade, etc. was entrusted to one of our heads of state. Similarly, in order to be in line with our legitimate ambitions of independence in recent months, an institutional reform project of the AU led by Rwandan President Paul Kagame plans to use 0.2 percent of imports to finance the pan-African body.

54 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed

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Elise Kaiser joins Aker BioMarine

E Elise Kaiser

lise Kaiser has joined the US Sales team to help drive Superba Krill Oil sales in the United States. She has been in the natural products industry for nearly 14 years, with experience including retail and product sales for a variety of companies.

With a bachelor’s degree in holistic nutrition, she believes in the healing power of nature and maintains a passion for natural products and their ability to make consumers’ lives better.

Her most recent experience was with Suan Farma, a NJ-based raw ingredient distributor, with a sales territory that included the entire southern US. She commented, “I am excited to start a new challenge within Aker BioMarine and look forward to working with the Superba team to deepen the brand’s presence in North America. I am fortunate to be joining such a respected company that prides itself on top quality and is committed to sustainability.”

Todd Norton, EVP, Superba Sales, Aker BioMarine remarked, “We are fortunate to bring in Elise, who is exceptionally talented. She brings a wealth of sales experience to our team and will help us expand our footprint in the US in a big way.”

Kate Pastor joins Aker BioMarine as Senior Vice President of Sales


ate Pastor has been brought in by Aker BioMarine to expand their US sales team and boost sales with her wealth of experience. She will join the company bringing with her nearly 25 years of experience in the natural products industry.

Kate Pastor

Todd Norton, EVP, Superba Sales, Aker Biomarine reflected on her new position, “We are very lucky to bring in Kate, she is exceptionally talented. Bringing with her a wealth of sales experience to our tem and will help us expand our footprint in the US in a big way.”

Most recently she was President of Twinlab Health and Natural and EVP of TCC where she managed sales across al channels including, health and natural food, specialty, mass market and e-commerce. She commented on her appointment, “For me, Aker BioMarine is a great fit. From my earliest experience working in my mother’s health food store, I have grown up in the natural products marketplace.” She continued, “My deep passion for the industry and my experience in all channels of distribution, coupled with Aker BioMarine’s drive to represent the very best in ingredient suppliers make our association as natural as the industry we serve.

Todd Norton, EVP, Superba Sales, Aker Biomarine reflected on her new position, “We are very lucky to bring in Kate, she is exceptionally talented. Bringing with her a wealth of sales experience to our tem and will help us expand our footprint in the US in a big way.”

Nick Egger promoted to fisheries manager


ick Egger of Plymouth Fisheries, the English fresh fish market, has been promoted to new management positions as part of a reorganisation aimed at improving the way the business operates.

The fisheries complex, which is operated and owned by Sutton Harbour Holdings plc, has appointed him to the role of fisheries manager.

Nick Egger

Nick comments, “Our main priority is to work with the fishermen and with Plymouth Trawler Agents to get the catch off the boats as quickly and as efficiently as possible. The new staffing system will help this to happen, ensuring Plymouth Fisheries is the best place in the country to land and sell your catch.” These two appointments are a result of a reorganisation of company management following the departure of Bob Read, deputy harbour master, earlier this year.

The Plymouth Fisheries complex was built at Fish Quay 22 years ago in 1995. It sustains 565 direct and indirect jobs and contributes £22.6 million a year to the city’s economy, selling more than 6,000 tonnes of fish every year.

56 | June 2017 - International Aquafeed













Absolute Protection Mycotoxins decrease performance and interfere with the health status of your animals. Mycofix is the solution for mycotoxin risk management. ®

Naturally ahead

Jun 2017 - International Aquafeed magazine  
Jun 2017 - International Aquafeed magazine