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EXPERT TOPIC: CATFISH - The current mycotoxin threat in Southeast Asia

International Aquafeed - Volume 20 - Issue 4 - April 2017

- Managing mycotoxin risks in aquaculture - DIVERSIFY: European aquaculture in safe hands - Designing yeast derivative 2.0 - Feather meal to replace fishmeal by half in Nile Tilapia diet Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK

April 2017

CONTENTS April 2017 Volume 20 Issue 4

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies Associate Editor Dr Albert Tacon International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Rhiannon White Peter Parker Matt Muller Zasha Whiteway-Wilkinson Alex Whitebrook International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tom Blacker Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376

Expanding aquaculture

Aquaculture is expanding almost everywhere. While high-quality and balanced feed rations are an essential component in the successful growing of fish in captivity, there are other aspects of fish farming that need to be considered if we are to provide consumers with a product they value and wish to buy. Therefore, IAF has, over recent months, expanded its editorial coverage to embrace more activities involved in fish farming. As a result we have updated our cover this month to reflect that development and introduced a ‘reference panel’ on the Editor’s page to identify the four areas our magazine now covers: aquafeeds, feed equipment, fish farming technology and species.




Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu


42 Industry Events

52 The Market Place

54 The Aquafeed Interview 56

Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan

©Copyright 2016 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service


32 Expert Topic - Catfish

Design Manager James Taylor

Development Manager Antoine Tanguy

Industry News

Industry Faces

12 DIVERSIFY: European aquaculture in safe hands 16 The current mycotoxin threat in Southeast Asia

18 Managing mycotoxin risks in aquaculture

22 Designing yeast derivative 2.0

26 Feather meal to replace fishmeal by half in Nile Tilapia diet 30



Ioannis Zabetakis

Michael New, OBE


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 38 The influence of an automatic feeding device for frozen zooplankton 40 Vónin case study: Tough environment calls for tough cages

Croeso - welcome The increasing importance of nutrition and fish feed technology

I have just returned from Norway to attend an important government meeting concerning aquaculture strategy over the next five years. The Norwegian government is wisely investing its International Aquafeed Editor oil revenue in various Professor Simon Davies assets and aquaculture is a major target with special emphasis on salmon, of course. This iconic species is of considerable value to the Norwegian economy; so much progress has been made in recent years to improve fish growth performance. As well as feed utilisation efficiency and salmon health through superior nutrition and feed technology - as well as advances in vaccination, disease prevention and novel treatments. However there is still much to be done to further reduce the considerable losses of fish at critical stages of production, especially at smoltification and seawater transfer. Overall some nearly 20 percent mortality can arise in the sea phase grow-out due to many causes. It is therefore a priority to address smolt robustness and provide a more secure pathway for salmon to face their many challenges, from husbandry procedures to their ability to resist infection. Nutrition will play an increasing role and therefore research directives concerning the use of functional feed ingredients; bioactive supplements and additives will be high on the agenda. Any expansion in RAS technology for smolt production will necessitate re-thinking diet formulations in such closed systems as well as the effects of such stressors as lighting and elevated temperature on smolt performance and health status. Advances in our understanding of the very complex relationship of the immune system and the gut micro biome, in association with gut integrity, will attract more attention in the future when salmon are fed diets with much reduced or even no fish meal. Especially those based on a matrix of alternative ingredients ranging from vegetable, animal, microbial and other SCP derived protein concentrates and oil sources.

There can be no doubt regarding the dependency on industry for invaluable support, but industry alone will not suffice to undertake the initial steps and provide a stimulus for change. We clearly need a mixed support and this can be found in Norway but also in the UK with new networks being established such as the BBSRC ARCH- UK and similar approaches in many other countries. After a very mild few days in Norway it snowed heavily in Oslo on departure and my plane had to be de-iced adding an hour delay. I had much time to reflect on how aquaculture may play out in the Nordic countries. It was with much delight that on my return to the UK, I was informed that I had been much honoured as having being elected to become a Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology. As far as I am aware only Michael New OBE and I are representing aquaculture in this prestigious London based society and I hope soon to have dinner with learned colleagues at the aptly named Darwin House. My Fellowship will enable me to inspire and influence government circles and leading university academics and teachers. Indeed so many positive things have happened to me since May of 2015 and sometimes unexpected events may redirect you towards more positive environments and forging reliable and long term trusted friendships. My meetings in America last month in San Antonio and those to come in Europe give me much to appreciate about the rapid developments in this dynamic industry. In keeping with my enthusiasm, this current edition includes a double mycotoxin special as well as an exclusive insight into the EU funded DIVERSIFY project’s annual meeting with two of its distinguished leaders. Turning our attention to aquaculture technology, Vónin, which is headquartered in the Faroe Islands, discusses its sturdy aquaculture cages whilst Austrian-based company AquaTech, showcases their unique automatic feeder for frozen zooplankton. Not to mention, our interview this month is with Tom Wedegaertner, Director of Cottonseed Research at Cotton Incorporated who presents the immense potential that cottonseed meal has for modern day aquaculture. Finally, I wish you a very good spring and hope during these longer evenings you will find time to read our magazine and also consider your contributions of articles, feature and news that keep us in the forefront of knowledge and dissemination. Enjoy!


AQUAFEED MYCOTOXIN: The current mycotoxin threat in Southeast Asia - page 16

ZOOPLANKTON: The influence of an automatic feeding device for frozen zooplankton - page 38

YEAST: Designing yeast derivative 2.0 - to sustain aquaculture development - page 22

CASE STUDY: Tough environment calls for tough cages - page 40

FEATHER MEAL: Feather meal to replace FIshmeal by half in Nile tilapia diet - page 26



EXTRUSION: The Arican Extrusion Seminar - page 44

EXPERT TOPIC: Catfish - page 32

PLANT: New aquafeed factory in Eastern Africa - page 5

The versatility and robustness of African catfish allow the species to thrive in challenging environments. Especially in Africa, catfish farming has been increasing over the last few years and is about to increase further. Some constraints, however, limit the production increase. Among them are feed quality and availability.

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he Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) has given evidence to the House of Lords Science and Technology Select Committee as one of a panel of expert witnesses consulted on the recently published Green Paper, Building our Industrial Strategy. The Green Paper sets out the UK Government’s ambition to improve living standards and economic growth by increasing productivity throughout the UK, along with how it proposes to achieve it. It is by no means a finished framework however, with input being sought from innovators, investors, employers, employees and the general public alike across every corner of the UK. Providing oral evidence to the Select Committee on behalf of the Scottish aquaculture industry was SAIC CEO Heather Jones, “It was an honour to represent the industry – and, at the same time, Scotland’s wider Innovation Centre programme itself – and help lay the foundations for more balanced growth across the UK.” “Aquaculture is a sector that is standing on its own two feet. It is globally profitable and is already harnessing innovation in robotics and other technologies. The industry is investing tens of millions of capex in the UK economy, and is driving up productivity through management leadership and training”. “Yet within the proposed Industrial Strategy there is little mention of niche sectors or sectors with particular regional importance. That is why I welcomed the aspiration for balanced growth across all four home countries, but also urged the Select Committee to reflect the contribution of industries vital to rural and coastal communities within the advice it gives to the Secretary of State for Business, Energy and the Industrial Strategy.” Helping shape the evidence provided, Heather Jones consulted with a cross-section of Scottish stakeholders prior to attending the Select Committee meeting. These included leading farmed fish and shellfish producers and suppliers; key bodies such as the Scottish Funding Council, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, Scottish Enterprise and Universities Scotland; and Scotland’s other seven Innovation Centres. Speaking on behalf of the Scottish Innovation Centres after her appearance, Heather Jones said, “Many of our own sector strategies in Scotland directly mirror the ideas in the Green Paper. They are formed by Industry Leadership Groups and tackle key barriers to growth; ensuring a strong skills-base; boosting business investment in research and development; and directly supporting deeper industryacademic collaboration.” Jones concluded, “The real measure of whether the Industrial Strategy is successful or not will be whether it manages to close the productivity gap between the UK’s best performing companies and places, and between its urban powerhouses and rural peripheries.”

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SAIC champions importance of regional growth sectors to UK industrial strategy

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Ne�ng of all Fibers

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International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 3

New feed-premix plant in China


Ioannis Zabetakis

Do we need books?

n the era of Internet, of virtual resources, of distance learning, of twitter and Facebook, do we really read? Are we really reading an article from the first to the last word? Or do we just flip through the lines? These are a few questions that come to my mind every time students use their phones during (!) a lecture. I guess the fundamental issues here are about resourcing information. Do we Google or do we go to a library? Or perhaps both? I have to confess that I am rather traditional guy when it comes down to sourcing scientific information. I very much prefer spending quality research time in front of a pc and among the shelves in a library rather than just surfing the Internet. Stemming from this, I have a belief that books are invaluable sources of information. But books are something more than mere information sources. Writing a book constitutes a political praxis. An author has the chance to critically evaluate information, to provide a novel insight but also promote their views on how we can improve our practices. Having this in mind, I think that writing a book is a unique opportunity to expose a novel idea to the world. With this is mind; I am glad that I have started writing a book for Elsevier on the value of nutrition in relation to cardiovascular diseases. In this book, we are going to have a chance to address the side effects of statins and make a scientific statement on the unique value of a balanced diet. We plan to take a critical stance on how things are run now. In the process of acquiring material for this book, I have started studying papers on medical practices, pharmacology and how drugs and foods affect our immune system; material that is rather enlightening on how short-sighted our current practices are today. After all, as mentioned above, writing a book is an opportunity to promote a novel idea. The idea that we are going to promote is that human diet is the valid medicine against cardiovascular diseases. Drugs cause inflammation and therefore promote CVDs. If you would like to share some information with us during the process of writing this book, please drop me a line. I would be happy to hear from you. @yanzabet

Further reading

Statins stimulate atherosclerosis and heart failure: pharmacological mechanisms abs/10.1586/17512433.2015.1011125?journalCode=ierj20 Marine Oils (From Sea to Pharmaceuticals) id=53103&osCsid=

After an Academic career spanning 12 years in the Univ. of Athens, Ioannis joined University of Limerick (UL) as a Lecturer on Food Lipids where the ongoing focus of his work will be towards the cardioprotective properties of food lipids with particular emphasis on dairy and aquaculture products.


DM will expand their animal nutrition capabilities when they open their new feed premix plants. The plants based in Xiangtan and Nanjing, China, will be the fifth in the country and are a response to the increase of demand in aqua feed. The construction in the Hunan Province will come alongside the addition of aquaculture feed production lines at the existing Nanjing complex in Jiangsu Province eastern China. The new additions to the network of animal nutrition facilities in China will join the premix facilities in Dalian and Tianjin in the northern part of the country, as well as the Nanjing facility in eastern China and the company’s new plant in Zhangzhou, in southern China, which is expected to be complete by summer 2017. Brent Fenton, President of ADM Animal Nutrition, explains, “One of the main pillars of our strategy to increase shareholder value is enhancing our footprint in areas of growing demand.” He continues, “Population growth and higher disposable incomes are continuing to support increased animal protein, and thus animal feed, demand in China. Our new Xiangtan feed-premix facility, our fifth animal feed plant in the country, will position us to continue meeting this increased demand in the central part of the county, and the addition of four aquaculture feed lines at our Nanjing plant will offer us entry into the growing Chinese high value speciality aqua feed market.” The Xiangtan plant will have the capacity to produce 120,000 metric tonnes annually of premix, concentrate, animal-complete and fish complete feeds. In order to complete this level of produce the facility will employ approximately 120 people. It will be strategically located to supply products to customers in three provinces in central China: Hunan, Hubei and Guangxi.

Nutriad participates in Aquaculture Seminar Malaysia


ultinational aqua additives specialist Nutriad participated in the yearly aquaculture seminar organised by its Vietnamese distribution partner Tan Sao. This year’s seminar was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The event addressed challenges for farmers on health and nutrition, providing them practical solutions with a proven track record across the region. Alexander Van Halteren, Business Development Manager Aquaculture Nutrition, presented a talk on Functional Feed Additives Improving Disease Resistance and Growth Performances in Shrimp. Shrimp farmers showed great interest in the proposed strategies to improve disease management in shrimp nursery systems and grow-out ponds. White feces syndrome (WFS) continues to be a main threat in SE Asia, particularly Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand and India.

4 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

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International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 5

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n March 16, 2017, Kenyan Cabinet secretary of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Mr Willy K. Bett and Dutch Ambassador Mr Frans Makken officially opened the new Aqua feed factory of Unga Holdings Ltd in Nairobi, Kenya. The new feed plant is designed to produce 5,000 tonnes per year of high quality floating fish feed for the East African Market. It is the first establishment of this size in East Africa that will respond to the high demand for fish feed. With the new plant Unga Farms Ltd. creates the opportunity for local fish farmers to increase their output and lower their productions costs per kg. Unga Holdings Limited Board Chair, Ms Isabella Ochola Wilson says, “In line with our Vision of “Nutrition for Life”, Unga has taken a bold step – investing, with the support of funding from the Dutch Government – Kshs. 225,000,000 in a state-of-the-art fish feed production facility to serve an aquaculture industry still in its infancy.” For the design of the plant Unga Holdings ltd. cooperated intensively with the dutch companies Ottevanger Milling Engineers, Almex – Extrusion, Nutreco/Skretting and Larive International. The companies work together in the Dutch Public-Private partnership program, FoodTechAfrica(FTA).

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Unga Holdings opens new aquafeed factory in Eastern Africa

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Norwegian fish farm in a fjord near Trondheim, Norway. © shutterstock / Evannovostro

Atlantic salmon (salmo salar) in aquafarm. © DSM

Omega-3 fatty acids to come from natural marine algae


oyal DSM and Evonik announced their intention to establish a joint venture for omega-3 fatty acid products from natural marine algae for animal nutrition. This breakthrough innovation will, for the first time, enable the production of omega-3 fatty acids for animal nutrition without using fish oil from wild caught fish, a finite resource. Evonik and DSM’s alternative omega-3 source is the first to offer both EPA and DHA and will be aimed at initial applications in salmon aquaculture and pet food. The companies will together build a commercial-scale production facility in the United States. DSM Nutritional Products and Evonik Nutrition & Care will each hold a 50 percent share in the joint venture and co-own the production facility, which will be built at an existing site of Evonik and is expected to come on stream in 2019. The joint venture plans to invest around US$ 200 million in the facility (USD 100 million by each party over circa two years). The initial annual production capacity will meet roughly 15 percent of the total current annual demand for EPA and DHA by the salmon aquaculture industry. The set-up of the joint venture, to be named Veramaris and headquartered in The Netherlands, will be finalised subject to regulatory approvals and other customary closing conditions. Evonik’s and DSM’s highly concentrated algal oil is a high value and pure source that will enable the animal nutrition industry to keep up with the increasing demand for these two essential omega-3 fatty acids without endangering fish stocks, contributing to healthy animal nutrition as well as to the ecological balance and biodiversity of the oceans. Joint development between DSM and Evonik The joint venture follows the joint development agreement, signed in July 2015. Under this agreement, Evonik and DSM have jointly worked on the development of products and the manufacturing process and explored opportunities for commercialisation. Both companies achieved positive results in the development of the product while extensively working with the entire value chain, including fish feed producers, fish farmers and retailers. Under the joint development agreement, DSM and Evonik have successfully produced pilot-scale quantities of the algal oil at DSM’s production facility in Kingstree, South Carolina (United States). Customers will be able to receive sizeable quantities of the product for market development while the construction of the new manufacturing plant is underway. The successful product and process development was only possible thanks to the complementary competencies that Evonik and DSM bring to the collaboration: DSM has expertise in the cultivation of marine organisms including

algae and long-established biotechnology capabilities in development and operations, whilst Evonik’s focus has been on developing industrial biotechnology processes and operating competitively large-scale manufacturing sites for fermentative amino acids. Innovation breakthrough for aquaculture, pet food and beyond The algal oil from DSM and Evonik means that the vision of salmon farming without using fish-based resources is for the first time becoming realistic. By replacing fish oil in salmon feed with this EPA and DHA rich alternative, the fish-in-fishout ratio could be reduced significantly. This alternative will enable the aquaculture industry to continue to grow sustainably. Worldwide fish oil production is approximately one million metric tonnes per year. Most of the fish oil is used in aquaculture, mainly for fat-rich fish species, such as salmon. The limited wild fish stocks restrict the amount of fish oil available and thus the growth of the aquaculture industry. Currently, the industry uses about 75 percent of the annual production of fish oil. Evonik and DSM’s algal oil will offer a sustainable non-fish alternative. Just like humans, animals also need their daily intake of essential, long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in their diet to ensure healthy growth. Until now, these fatty acids have been added to aquaculture feed and pet food almost exclusively from marine sources such as fish oil and fishmeal. As the new algal oil can be applied in feed production in the same way as fish oil, it can easily be introduced by feed and pet food producers. DSM and Evonik are also pursuing applications of their algal oil for other aquatic and terrestrial animal species. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fats, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). As a result of them not being produced naturally by the body, omega-3s must be obtained from the diet or through supplementation. A large and growing body of evidence shows that sufficient levels of omega-3 EPA and DHA support brain, eye and heart health in multiple species, including humans. Research suggests that omega-3 EPA and DHA may lower triglyceride levels (lipids) in the blood and may have positive effects on arterial function. Eating seafood twice a week is recommended by multiple health authorities. In a study evaluating the risks and benefits of fish intake published in the Journal of the American Medical Association JAMA, researchers found that 1-2 servings of fish per week, especially fish high in omega-3 EPA and DHA, reduced the risk of coronary death by 36 percent and total mortality by 17 percent.

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WiseFeed project enters next phase


iomin have entered the next phase in their WiseFeed project for higher performing and more sustainable aqua feeds. They have announced the start of its experiment work in the WiseFeed project, a collaborative industry and academic network with support from European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program to improve the sustainability and performance of aqua feeds. Edward Manchester, Global Head of Aquaculture at Biomin, comments. “Performance, profitability and the environment are themes that we encounter on a regular basis in our discussion with clients across the world.”

He continues, “Our robust research and development capabilities allow us to advance scientific knowledge and deliver leading products to customers.” Mycotoxins in focus have been at the forefront of research on the impacts of in aquaculture species in recent years. Rui Gonçalves, Scientist, Biomin, explains, “Scientific research continues to document the negative impact of mycotoxins on various fish and shrimp species.” He continues, “The objective of our participation is to better understand how mycotoxins impact the digestibility of plant-based diets in aquaculture and how to counteract any negative effects and therefore boost performance.”

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UP TO 10 T/H Contrary to conventional extruders, the KAHL extruder OEE is equiped with a hydraulically adjustable die.

International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 7

Michael New, OBE AwF: Small-scale fish farming and technical expertise to alleviate poverty further As founder and patron of AwF between 2003-2015, Michael New, OBE, elaborates in this one-off column upon some of the charity’s most significant achievements in some of the world’s developing countries. By the end of 2010, AwF had raised over US$ 180,000 directly from friends, family, colleagues, the aquaculture industry and the public. In addition, AwF had obtained access to nearly US$ 264,000 of other funds, which were used for tsunami relief work in Aceh, Indonesia and in USAID Farmer to Farmer Programmes in conjunction with the University of Arizona. By 2012 AwF had established poverty relief projects in Bangladesh, India, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Nepal and Thailand and conducted minor activities in many other Asian, African and Latin American countries. Two of our most successful projects, while Nandeesha, and myself were leading AwF were in India and Nepal. The four-year Nepalese project was in two phases; in both cases AwF worked in collaboration with the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT). In the first phase, women’s groups were formed and shown how to dig and stock fishponds. Many showed exceptional enthusiasm; 40 fishponds were constructed within three to four months after a demonstration trip followed by a one-day training course. Although ponds constructed were quite small and total production of fish was not great, the large proportion consumed by the families concerned (80 percent) indicated that it played a significant role in family nutrition. Many new farmers joined in year two, clearly showing the scope of fish farming by women in this village. This intervention was considered very successful and served as a model for the whole mid-hills of the country. The District Agriculture Development Office took up this innovative idea and committed to support the AwF groups as well as other groups. Similarly, other organisations also showed interest to collaborate in its expansion in Lamjung and nearby other districts. The project expanded in its second phase and trained 90 families. The overall average size of the ponds was 49 m2. Total fish production per family ranged from 7.6 - 126kg with the overall average of 37kg. From this over half was sold. Among the five groups, the group in Gorkha showed excellent results. Total production of this group reached to 1.9 tons in 2010 which increased to 2.8 tons in 2011 - a productivity of 14.6 and 21.2 tons/ ha respectively; this demonstrated the possibility of gaining income (up to US$3.38/capita/day) sufficient to cross the poverty bench mark set by the World Bank. In India, our main activity was in Bishramganj, in the remote North West of the country, where AwF worked with a religious 40-acre vocational training centre. This centre had been established to train school dropouts and unemployed youths by providing them with skills that could help them to earn their

livelihood. The outreach activities of this centre were specifically assisted by AwF fund-raising in the British town of Marlow, where supporting street parties were held. This enabled the creation of a fish hatchery, which the recipients named after the street involved, in a touching tribute from the recipients of AwF aid. With the support received the Centre was able to help 75 farmers with fish ponds to improve their productivity by effective utilisation of the resources. The knowledge centric approach used by the centre, instead of the material support approach was appreciated by the farmers. Farmers were confronted with poor quality fish seed and as a result, productivity enhancement efforts often failed. Recognising this problem, the Centre expressed its desire to build a hatchery to provide quality seed to the farmers. This dream was fulfilled with the additional support received from AwF. I withdrew from the AwF Board in 2011 to allow the NGO to grow under younger leadership, but I retained the status of Founder. I am currently delighted to be providing minor advice to the recently re-formed AwF (UK) and I am hoping that all the branches of AwF will soon unite to fulfill the original purposes of this global charity, namely to assist in the alleviation of poverty through the promotion of small-scale aquaculture. To conclude, FAO remains a vital source of technical and statistical information about aquaculture and has the ability to influence governments on regulatory and quality issues. However, its ability to conduct large-scale development programmes (as it did in my days) is limited by lack of funding. My particular interest, of course, remains with small-scale aquaculture. Generally, industrial aquaculture can be taken care of by commercial investment but the poor in so many countries need help to establish fish farms. Several charitable organisations, including AwF, have demonstrated the benefit of introducing small-scale fish farming as a means of providing family food and income through local sales. However, the major global charities often lack the technical expertise in this field and need assistance. My hope is that AwF can continue and expand its work with international and local NGOs in their efforts to alleviate poverty.

Michael New entered the aquaculture industry in 1969 after extensive experience in the animal feedstuff industry. He is a Past-President of WAS and of EAS and an Honorary Life Member of both societies. Mr New is intermittently working as a consultant to the European Commission and in 1999 was appointed as an OBE in recognition of his services to aquaculture in developing countries.

8 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

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Strong results for BioMar Group


ioMar Group has delivered financial results above expectations. The careful focus balancing growth and product innovation with sustainability and efficiency has delivered a strong bottom line. In 2016 BioMar Group delivered a significantly improved EBIT compared to 2015, from DKK 447 million in 2015 to 581 million in 2016. At the same time working capital was reduced from DKK 752 million to DKK 414 million, leading to a strong cash flow from operations. Revenue ended up slightly lower than last year with a modest increase in volumes. Carlos Diaz, CEO BioMar Group explains, “We are very happy to deliver the best results ever in BioMar Group and strong numbers for some years in a row, despite the fact that we have faced difficulties and lack volumes in some of our important markets, especially Chile due to the algae bloom and strikes. These results have been achieved by dedicated employees being customer centric, working externally as well as internally to deliver high level of innovation, cooperation, sustainability and performance living our purpose statement which is stating that.” He summarises, “We are innovators dedicated to an efficient and sustainable global aquaculture”. He explains further, “It is clear that our new strategy “Shaping the future” is leading to tangible results. We

decided to continue as the only focused global aquaculture feed company enhancing local agility and global excellence. I firmly believe that we start to see how we are differentiating ourselves from our main competitors being close to the customers in the markets and delivering customer focused global innovation with short time to market.” He continues, “We are optimistic about the future even though we will be facing highly competitive markets. We have in 2016 planted various seeds to ensure our future growth and profitability. First of all we opened our factory in Turkey, now being directly present in the second largest market in Europe. Secondly we planted a solid footprint in China. We started the construction of a new factory in Wuxi and acquired another in Haiwei in the south of China. Thirdly we are progressing as planned with the construction of a new line in Karmøy as well as additional logistic investments including our new gas-driven ship in order to increase flexibility – bringing the Norwegian capacity up to 600,000 tons. On top of these expansions we fortified our organisation making us ready for the challenges of tomorrow. One example is building a global R&D Centre with a strong link to the business and with own high-end trial facilities in Europe as well as America, where we started the ATC Patagonia Centre, a state of the art facility in Chile.”

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FISA to launch Supra HDPE netting at Seafood Expo North America

customers had turned to FISA to jointly develop new polyethylene netting for their fish farms after seeing the product at Aquasur and thus has kept to its promise and is now ready to present the product to additional customers. FISA is one of the largest multi-filament fishing net eruvian manufacturer Fibras Industriales S.A. (FISA) factory in the western hemisphere with over 70 years in will be presenting its newly developed Supra HDPE the market and over the past years has extended its line of netting during the Seafood Expo North America to products to include monofilament netting for aquaculture, take place in Boston between March 19th to 21st, 2017. trawl nets and sports netting. This product is the fruit of years of in-house research The company manufactures a full range of netting for and development based on feedback received from FISAs purse seine fishing, trawling, long line fishing and fish customers, that have used its PE netting for predator farming cages. protection and fish cages since its introduction at the FISA is a sister company of the Peruvian scallop farmer Aquasur trade show in Puerto Montt, Chile, in October Sea Protein S.A., which will be presenting jointly with 2014. FISA in the Peruvian pavilion, Booth Customers have been impressed with 2515. the quality of the netting presented in Sea Protein harvested over 200 tonnes 2014 and have continuously been giving of scallops during 2016 and expects to feedback in order to make the netting harvest a similar volume during 2017 best satisfy their needs. despite the heavy mortality in all its “The new product is a 3rd Generation PE netting providing superior breaking farming areas (Sechura, Samanco and strengths, while maintaining compact Pisco) as a result of red tides and low culture | 2017 Zooplankton Weeksays Ad Yoni | Theme: The Plankton People | Design: Asalinity | Version: 2 from heavy rain that design and light weight”, resulting led to extremely elevated flow of sweet InternationalRadzinski, AquafeedCommercial | Size: HalfDirector Page | of Dimensions: 190mm X 132mm water from rivers. FISA. All these events will lead Peru to reduce exports of Since 2013 the company has invested heavily in new Scallops to record low numbers probably below 3,000 machinery. The investment included growth in extrusion capacity, new netting machines, depth stretching equipment tonnes commented by Elihai Radzinski, director of Sea Protein. The original plans for 2017 were to export above and a brand new 25,000m2 net loft. 300 tonnes. During November 2014 the group said some




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DIVERSIFY European aquaculture in safe hands by Rhiannon White, International Aquafeed

Three years since the European Commissionfunded project DIVERSIFY began its endeavor to acquire the necessary knowledge for the diversification of European Aquaculture production based on new/emerging finfish species, its annual meeting for 2017 was held in January. International Aquafeed magazine was invited to catch up on its progress.


he jam-packed two-day conference was held at the majestic Palau Macaya in the heart of Barcelona. The Palau Macaya was created in the midst of the Modernism Movement as a result of the meticulous collaboration between architects and artisans. Fittingly, over a hundred years later, more than 60 leading researchers from around Europe came together there to collaborate and present their latest advancements for the six species under intense exploration for the diversification of European aquaculture production. The conference was followed by a third day workshop, held at the University Pompeu Fabra, Campus del Mar near Porto Olimpico, in order to coordinate the work to be implemented in 2017. The species studied in DIVERSIFY are greater amberjack

(Seriola dumerili), meagre (Argyrosomus regius), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca) and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus). Opening discussion on the status of sustainable aquaculture, the Director of Fisheries, Cataluña, Dr Sergei Tudela Casanovas addressed the notion “We all know we’re facing lots of challenges – an important crisis in terms of overfishing in the Mediterranean, the need to have proper business plans and finally the task of connecting this to new consumption patterns”. Recognizing that we are consuming seafood in very different ways to even 20 years ago and giving the example of the once popular and now diminished consumption of trout in Cataluña, Dr. Tudela Casanovas highlighted the imminent need to adapt to climate change. He concluded “We need new ideas, a fresh look into aquaculture and I hope that we are able to apply our new results into the field”. On that note, tackling bottlenecks in the production of each species began. Presentations included ‘Wreck fish ontogeny of the major organs related to feeding and digestion’ by Dr. Ioannis Papadakis, from HCMR (Greece) and approaches to improve the nutrition and husbandry of DIVERSIFY’s target species were addressed by Dr. Covadonga Rodriquez, from University of La Laguna (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), within the context of consumer demands for healthy and environmentally friendly aquaculture products. Important aspects of meagre culture were also investigated upon in relation to the effect of different stimuli parameters on feeding behavior such as cage depth, light conditions and water temperature. These aspects were addressed by Dr A. Tsalafouta from HCMR (Greece). Also, the role of ‘Epigenetics in aquaculture’ was addressed by Dr. Francesc

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Piferrer, from ICM-CSIC (Spain) who reinforced that “Timing is everything” particularly so in relation to the environmental and nutritional nuances experienced by wild and farmed fish, at different stages in their life. He stated that ‘What happens to fish during early life has long-lasting effects’ elaborating upon Senegalese Sole born in captivity responding differently depending upon how long they remain in the wild for, prior to farming. Dr Piferrer attended the meeting as an invited speaker, as well as Dr. Panos Christofilogiannis from the COLUMBUS project and Dr. Ignacio Jiménez from the biotechnology company Rara Avis, who specialised in the production of recombinant hormones. The first two days of the meeting were open to companies and institutions directly or indirectly related to the project’s objectives. Turning attention to consumer market research, Drs Rocio Robles and Ricard Bou (CTAQUA and IRTA, Spain) gave a presentation on ‘New product development from DIVERSIFY species’ whilst Dr. Lluis Guerrero (IRTA, Spain) filled everyone in on the ‘Consumer sensory perceptions of the selected new products’ (published in IAF Nov/Dec 2016). The market research results proved generally very positive, highlighting the importance to consumers across the board of mentioning the country of origin on the product label. Moreover the younger generations, deemed the innovators, are reported as those to be more open to aquaculture itself. We spoke directly to Dr. Constantinos C. Mylonas, Project Coordinator (HCMR, Greece) and Rocio Robles, DIVERSIFY Dissemination leader (CTAQUA, Spain) in order to summarize the achievements of the project so far, what its aims are for 20178 and finally, the respective roles of governments, consumers and producers in the future production and consumption of sustainable aquaculture.


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IAF: What are the greatest achievements that the Diversify project has made so far?

Constantinos: We have been working on six different species so I will summarize the achievements we’ve made for each of them so far. I will begin with greater amberjack, which is a new fish for aquaculture. This year we have managed to produce 100,000 juveniles at HCMR, and another 150,000 were produced in commercial hatcheries with eggs provided by our reproduction experiments. These production numbers are higher than ever before. This is a huge breakthrough because now we actually have the capacity to produce the number of juveniles required to stock cages. So now for amberjack, industrial trials can begin. For meagre, the breakthrough is with reproduction. This requires hormonal therapies because the fish do not complete their reproductive maturation in captivity so we have developed methods to reliably control and produce high quality spawns and to control the pairing of specific individuals. For any industry production, this is very important if you want to start breeding selection, because obviously you have to consider specific morphology, efficiency, flesh quality, and resistance to environmental parameters. So these tools are now enabling us to implement breeding selection programs in meagre. Atlantic halibut is a species that has been cultured for quite some time, but at a low intensity with low numbers of juveniles. The breakthrough with halibut surrounds the pathology work we are doing in terms of developing a vaccine for the viral nervous necrosis (VNN). Once we do this, I would say that we have a breakthrough. So far, we have improved the efficiency of production and we are learning more about the importance of using on-grown Artemia (older, larger individuals) in larval rearing. Next we have grey mullet and this is the first time that

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they are tiny larvae until they are fully adult. Aquafeeds are facing challenging times, incorporating less marine animal protein and more vegetable proteins and fats from marine and terrestrial origin. Besides, there is also a significant portion of the population that is aware of the need for sustainable aquafeed because it is intertwined with sustainable fish production and they like to know that progress is being made with lowering the ratio ‘fish in fish out’, which is the reduction of fish being included in the diets of aquaculture fish. Of course, the main reason we need to promote aquaculture is simply because we cannot continue exploiting the fisheries the way that we are at the moment.

IAF: What effect might Brexit impose upon the European fish farming industry?

a European Union project has put any kind of emphasis into the culture of an herbivorous or omnivorous fish. So far everything we know is about carnivorous fish, so it is important to look into the potential of this species particularly now more than ever as fishmeal and fish oil are becoming more and more limited. There was a very significant breakthrough in controlling the reproduction of this very problematic species in captivity, done by our group in Israel (IOLR-NCM). They succeeded in producing large numbers of juveniles and we’re at the same stage that we are at with greater amberjack because we are now able to go into more production-oriented research. Alternatively, pikeperch is the only freshwater species that we have in the consortium and the culture is done in recirculation systems, so the environment can be entirely controlled as opposed to the cage environment. As a result, our aim here is to design the exact optimal parameters – what salinity, what light, what temperature as well as when to do the syphoning and when to do the feeding. If we can control these things and develop a detailed protocol of all the parameters, it will be extremely useful because they can be replicated everywhere. Then we come to wreck fish, which is still the most risky species. It’s a species that is not cultured anywhere and it’s a species that only two institutes even have brood stock of. This project has led to the first time that we have succeeded in producing eggs and having larval rearing. Having said that, we have only succeeded to take the larvae to 23 days and were not feeding too well. The larval rearing of this species is again probably going to be more difficult because of the biology of this species that of course lives in very deep water (800 to 2000 meters). So you can imagine that an egg that is laid at 1000 meters, probably takes some days to climb up and is exposed to a different environment to what we have in aquaculture production, such as no light, constant low temperature, and perhaps staying at some salinity gradient for some time. So it is going to take some more time to learn about these things before we can understand if the conditions can be replicated.

IAF: So whose responsibility is it to promote the consumption of aquaculture fish?

Rocio: It’s important that national governments take responsibility for the role of promoting the consumption of aquaculture products. Aquaculture fish are very healthy, fully traceable and with steady supply year around. We know what aquaculture fish are eating since the time

Rocio: It could be a problem for exporting fish that has been grown in the UK for example and vice versa, for producers who need to get their feed ingredients into the UK, and/or equipment, etc… . Overall it will depend upon the agreement that UK and EU will finally reach.

IAF: What do you hope to have achieved by 2018?

Constantinos: We expect that for some of the species that we are working with such as grey mullet and greater amberjack, neither of which are on the market today as aquaculture products, but only as fishery products, we will have developed both their reproduction and larval rearing methods to allow companies to produce fingerlings and then put them through their regular grow-out process and then eventually put them on the market. In pikeperch, halibut, and meagre which are already existing on the market, we hope to improve their rearing protocols, particularly learning more about and developing methods to prevent and treat diseases in order to make the aquaculture of these species more efficient, more productive and therefore more cost effective for the farmers. Finally, for wreck fish, whilst we do not expect it to be on the market in a year’s time, we strive to learn enough about its reproduction so that we can reliably continue with researching the larval rearing parameters to develop juveniles. We could then study how fast they would grow when produced entirely in captivity, how fast they adapt to compound and commercial diets, and what sort of diseases may occur when you start having a lot of fish close together.


As one of the largest research projects for Aquaculture today, it was not only a privilege, but also an exciting experience bearing witness to the refining of knowledge and continuous progress being made by all involved with the project in their endeavor to diversify the fish that we will be consuming throughout Europe. It projects great promise for the larger quest to relieve the oceans from over-fishing and to enable sustainable aquaculture to flourish on a scale great enough to meet the demands of an estimated population of 9.5 billion by 2050. Keep an eye out for further updates and scientific reports from the DIVERSIFY researchers themselves in upcoming editions of International Aquafeed. This 5-year-long project (2013-2018) has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE-2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY). The consortium includes 37 partners from 12 European countries –including 9 SMEs, 2 Large Enterprises, 5 professional associations and 1 Consumer NGO- and is coordinated by the Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Greece. Further information may be obtained from the project site at “www.”.

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by Rui Gonçalves, Scientist Aquaculture and Michele Muccio, Product Manager Mycotoxins at Biomin

he global aquaculture industry’s rapid growth has been accompanied by a tandem rise in aquafeed production. In 2016, 39.9 million tons were produced (Reus, 2017). The future growth and sustainability of the industry depends on the ability of the sector to identify economically viable and environmentally friendly alternatives to marine derived ingredients, such as fishmeal and fish oil. A higher inclusion level of plant-based meals has been successfully achieved in several farmed species. Recently, Gonçalves et al. (2016) reported that mycotoxin levels in aquaculture-finished feeds, sampled in 2014, were high enough to present a danger to several important aquaculture species. The same was observed for samples sourced in Southeast Asia in 2015, even though contamination levels were lower compared to 2014. From 2014 to 2015, the number of detected mycotoxins per sample increased. This co-occurrence can be problematic, since certain combinations of mycotoxins can magnify the harm caused to animals.

Aflatoxins are not the only threat

A deeply entrenched belief across the aquaculture industry is that majority of mycotoxin issues are the result of poor on-farm storage conditions leading to aflatoxin contamination. While it remains true that the poor storage conditions can lead to the growth of Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp., which ultimately can lead to the production of aflatoxins (Afla) and ochratoxin A (OTA), the reality is that most of the mycotoxins found in finished feeds occur before storage (Figure 1). The main source of mycotoxin contamination is the raw materials used to produce aquafeeds. This was exactly what was shown by Gonçalves et al., (2017), which reported that in Asian samples, soybean meal, wheat, wheat bran, corn, corn gluten meal, rapeseed/canola meal and rice bran were mostly contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FUM). The only exception was cottonseed meal, which was mainly contaminated

by aflatoxins together with Fusarium toxins (ZEN and DON) in considerable amounts. These results are extremely important and confirm that mycotoxin contamination found in finished feeds is related to the plant-based raw materials used to formulate these compound feeds.

2016 Mycotoxin Survey Results

Awareness of mycotoxin-related issues in the aquaculture industry has grown as feed manufacturers and producers realize the importance of mycotoxins other than aflatoxin and their potential to impact production. Over a period of one year (January 2016–December 2016), 14 samples of finished aquaculture feeds were analyzed within the scope of the BIOMIN Mycotoxin Survey program. Each sample was tested for 18 different mycotoxins. All finished feed samples were contaminated by mycotoxins. Fish feed samples (n=12) had in average five mycotoxins per sample and were mainly contaminated by FUM (averages of: FB1=249.11 μg/kg; FB2=96.86 μg/kg and FB3=38.29 μg/ kg); ZEN (75.67 μg/kg) and DON (110.50 μg/kg). These are considerably high average contamination levels (Figure 2). In addition, maximum occurrence levels reached 139 μg/kg for 15 AcDON, 396 μg/kg for DON and 708 μg/kg for fumonisin B1. Shrimp feeds (n=6) showed alarming high levels of DON with average values of 881.67 μg/kg and maximum occurrence of 2287 μg/kg of DON (Figure 3). These values are within the reported sensitivity levels of white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, according to Trigo-Stockli et al., 2000—meaning that deoxynivalenol could pose a real threat to shrimp production.

How to fight Fusarium?

Fusarium mycotoxins are a broad class of compounds with different chemical structures, physical and toxicological proprieties. Due to this great diversity, different detoxification strategies are required to deal with this complex group of compounds. Adsorption is the most common approach to deal with mycotoxins and many products using this strategy are available on the market. However, as proved by several studies (Veikiru et al. 2015; Hahn et al. 2015; Fruhauf et al.

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Figure 1: Aquafeeds were mainly contaminated by Fusarium mycotoxins

Figure 2: Mycotoxin occurrence in fish finished feeds

Leiber® Beta-S – β-glucans for: Figure 3: Mycotoxin occurrence in shrimp finished feeds

2011), adsorption is not a feasible strategy to tackle fusarium mycotoxins, as it is only effective towards aflatoxins and, to a lesser extent, ochratoxins. The reason relates to these mycotoxins’ flat chemical structure that allows them to be captured between the layers of bentonite—a popular binder material. Once the mycotoxin enters the binder layers, the electric force generated by the atoms of both compounds tightens the bond. The less flat chemical structure of other mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol (DON) or zearalenone (ZEN) results in less effective adsorption. Some governmental authorities –particularly the EU Commission– have recognized this issue, which is why only aflatoxin binding claims are allowed in Europe. The state-ofthe-art technology for mycotoxin deactivation uses enzymatic deactivation –or biotransformation– that provides a specific, effective and irreversible degradation of mycotoxins. BIOMIN is the only company to date that has feed additives legally recognized and registered in the EU for their ability to safely and effectively counteract mycotoxins.

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by Radka Borutova, DVM, PhD and Peter Coutteau, PhD Nutriad International, Belgium

eed represents over 60 percent of operating costs in aquaculture (FAO, 2014). Efforts to reduce the cost of feed have led to a reduction in the level of costly fishmeal and increased levels of plant ingredients in the feed of most fish species (Tacon et al., 2009). As a result, all herbivorous and omnivorous fish have a high risk of exposure to feed that might contain significant levels of mycotoxins and this may potentially lead to significant economic losses (Pietsch et al., 2013). Mycotoxins are secondary toxic metabolites, produced by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium fungi. Several mycotoxins commonly occur in feed and feedstuffs and some of the toxins such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), draw the most scientific attention due to their toxic potentially adverse impacts on animal health (Placinta et al., 1999).

Discovery of trichothecenes

One of the most important groups of mycotoxins are the trichothecenes. This group (A type e.g. T2 toxin and B type e.g. deoxynivalenol [DON]) of structurally related mycotoxins has a strong impact on the health of animals and humans. Trichothecenes are powerful inhibitors of protein synthesis. More than a century ago, plant pathologists in Europe and the United States associated wheat head blight with infections by Fusarium graminearum (F. graminearum), which produces DON and Nivalenol (NIV). F. graminearum is a plant pathogen which causes fusarium head blight, a devastating disease on wheat and barley responsible for worldwide economic losses worth billions of dollars each year. F. graminearum infection causes shifts in the amino acid composition of wheat which results in shriveled kernels. In addition, the remaining grain is contaminated with mycotoxins, mainly DON, which inhibits protein biosynthesis, and ZEN. Consumption of over-wintered grain contaminated by F. sporotrichioides and related species during world war II caused alimentary toxic aleukia and the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people in the former Soviet Union. F. graminearum caused severe epidemics of akakabi-byo (red mold disease) on green wheat and other grains during the 1970s in Japan. People

who ate products containing the contaminated grains typically developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hemorrhageg, anemia and other symptoms of trichothecene toxicosis. Japanese scientists were successful in identifying DON and NIV in grain infected with F. graminearum in 1972 (Desjardins, 2003). The Japanese researchers named it “Rd-toxin� (Moorooka et al., 1972). Shortly afterwards, the same mycotoxin was isolated from maize associated with emesis in pigs and given the name vomitoxin (Vesonder et al., 1973).

Effects of trichothecenes in aquaculture

Data showing the negative effects of trichothecenes in aquatic species is very limited. It is known that the effects of DON on animals vary depending on the nutritional and health status of the animals prior to exposure. Environmental factors, forms of DON, as well as its dose and duration of exposure also affect animals (Hooft et al., 2011). Swine are considered a sensitive animal species to DON with concentrations as low as 1 to 2 mg/ kg following oral exposure reducing feed intake and growth. Feed refusal and vomiting are typical clinical signs in swine fed on diets containing 12 and 20 mg/kg DON, respectively (Young et al., 1983). The sensitivity to DON contaminated feed appears speciesspecific in fish. Only a few studies have reported adverse impacts of dietary DON on aquatic species; e.g., rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) (Hooft et al., 2011; Woodward et al, 1983). Rainbow trout are extremely sensitive. Feed intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency were observed to decrease significantly with increasing levels of DON in diets with starting levels of 0.5 mg/kg (Hooft et al., 2010). Significant decreases in weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, recovered energy, energy retention efficiency and nitrogen retention efficiency of rainbow trout fed diets containing low levels of DON ranging from 0.3 to 2.6 mg/kg from naturally contaminated corn were observed in a follow-up study (Hooft et al., 2011). Moreover, livers of rainbow trout fed dietary DON showed fat infiltration. Furthermore, pyknosis and karyolysis was observed in hepatocytes (Hooft et al., 2011). Significant reduction in growth, feed efficiency and feed intake was observed in rainbow trout fed diets containing corn artificially contaminated with graded levels of DON ranging from 1 to 12.9 mg/kg for eight weeks (Woodward et al., 1983). In contrast, channel catfish

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appeared to be more resistant, as diets with high levels of dietary DON (10 mg/kg) did not affect performance (Manning et al., 2013). However, disease resistance and survival of channel catfish challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri (E. ictaluri) was reduced when the fish were fed with contaminated feed containing 1 and 2 mg/kg T-2 toxin (Manning et al., 2005). Also, channel catfish fed diets with levels of T2-toxin ranging from 0.625-5.0 mg/kg had significantly reduced growth rate and increased mortality with levels above 2.5 mg/kg (Manning et al., 2003). Significant histopathological changes in the liver and intestines with increasing dietary levels of DON were also reported. Atlantic salmon fed diets with 3.7 mg/kg of DON were shown to have 20 percent reduced feed intake, 18 percent increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) and a 31 percent reduction specific growth rate (Doll et al., 2010). Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) have shown to be sensitive to DON. The feeding of up to 1 mg/kg DON in the form of contaminated hard red winter wheat resulted in reduced body weights and growth rate, whereas FCR and survival rates were not affected in shrimp (Trigo-Stockli et al., 2000).

Application of effective mycotoxin management in practice

The ideal way to prevent mycotoxin risks in aquafeed is to avoid the use of contaminated raw materials in feed production. Particularly when premium raw materials are used in feeds for high value species such as salmon and marine fish, it is less likely to suffer from mycotoxin risks. However, crops of corn, cereal grains, oil seeds, and rice by-products are at times suffering from a certain degree of mycotoxin contamination. Therefore, it is important that aquafeed manufacturers using these ingredients

monitor the contaminant levels and adopt the adequate risk management strategy. The best practical way to control mycotoxin levels is to use rapid test kit systems for analysis of mycotoxins in raw ingredients that are not yet in silos. Different rapid test kit systems are validated for different mycotoxins and commodities and offer a very quick and effective way of raw material screening before they enter the feed mill. Once the levels are known, every feed mill can estimate quality of its raw ingredients in terms of mycotoxin contamination and can effectively and more precisely (dosage adjustment) apply mycotoxin deactivator during production of feeds.

Finished aquafeed contains mixture of mycotoxins

Another strategy of mycotoxin risk management, especially applicable at farm level, is to test mycotoxins presence in finished feeds. This method has some advantages and disadvantages. The most important advantage is that as every raw ingredient

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brings its own mycotoxins into the finished feed, the presence of raw materials with a low inclusion rate (5-10%) which can still cause significant contamination of the finished feed but can be inadvertently overlooked if not tested can be identified by testing the finished feed. The most important disadvantage is that analysis of finished feed takes quite a long time such that the tested feed is likely to have been fed to the animals by the time the results from the analysis are known. Since the 1960’s, many analytical methods have been developed for testing mycotoxins in food for human consumption and animal feeds due to the concern of likely toxicity in human health. Among them, the methods of thin-layer-chromatography (TLC), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunosensor-based methods have been widely used for rapid screening, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FD) and mass spectrometry detection (MS) have been used as confirmatory and reference tests. Accredited laboratory service is required for this step.

How effective are mould inhibitors?

Storage mycotoxin contamination (ochratoxins, aflatoxins) can be prevented by keeping the temperature and moisture content in silos low whilst regularly aerating the grain. In cases where perfect storage conditions cannot be guaranteed, using a mold inhibitor is highly recommended.

Mycotoxin deactivation in vivo

The final possible step in mycotoxin management is the application of a mycotoxin deactivator. These products work strictly in vivo and will not counteract or mask mycotoxin in stored feed or raw ingredients. These products deactivate the toxins directly in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal, based either on adsorption or biological degradation (bio-inactivation) of mycotoxins. Nutriad developed specific feed additives to protect animals including aquatic species from mycotoxicoses by different modes of action including adsorption, bio-inactivation, and support to the animal’s organs, immune and antioxidant systems. This synergistic approach represents an optimal solution for mycotoxin management in farm animals and aquaculture. It is highly recommended to apply an effective mycotoxin deactivator, which can significantly improve animal health, performance, productivity and profit in case of mycotoxin contamination. Depending on the target performance, different mycotoxins can be more or less problematic. Therefore, optimizing the dosage and product choice for different animal groups is essential for an effective strategy.

Recently, Nutriad launched its web application Mycoman® which informs the user about mycotoxin challenges and enables, based on the challenge levels encountered, to calculate the effective dosage of NUTRIAD’s mycotoxin deactivators. Mycoman is currently available for free online from Android Play Store (Google) and iOS (App store).


1. Desjardins A.E., Trichothecenes: from Yellow Rain to Green Wheat. ASM News / Volume 69, Number 4, 2003. 2. Döll, S., Baardsen, G., Möller, P., Koppe, W., Stubhaug, I., Dänicke S. 2010. Effects of increasing concentrations of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or ochratoxin A in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) on growth performance and health. Book of abstracts, International Symposium of Fish Nutrition and Feeding, Qingdao, China. 120. 3. FAO. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy, 2014; p. 223. 4. Hooft, J.M., Elmor, H., Encarnação, P., and Bureau, D.P. 2010. Effects of low levels of naturally occurring fusarium mycotoxins on the performance and health of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Book of abstracts of the World Aquaculture 2010, San Diego, USA. 5. Hooft, J.M.; Elmor, A.E.H.I.; Encarnação, P.; Bureau, D.P. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is extremely sensitive to the feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Aquaculture 2011, 311, 224–232. 6. Manning, B.B., Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H., Gaunt, P.S., Camus, A.C., Rottinghaus, G.E., (2003). Response of catfish to diets containing T-2 toxin. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 15(3), 229-238. 7. Manning, B.B., Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H., (2005), Aflatoxins from moldy corn cause no reductions in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) performance. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 36(1), 59-67. 8. Manning, B.B.; Abbas, H.K.; Wise, D.J.; Greenway, T. The effect of feeding diets containing deoxynivalenol contaminated corn on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) challenged with Edwardsiella ictaluri. Aquac. Res. 2013, 1–5. 9. Moorooka, N., Uratsuji, N., Yoshizawa, T., Yamamoto, H., 1972. Studies on the toxic substances in barley infected with Fusarium spp. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Jpn. 13, 368–375. 10. Pietsch, C.; Kersten, S.; Burkhardt-Holm, P.; Valenta, H.; Dänicke, S. Occurrence of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in commercial fish feed: An initial study. Toxins 2013, 5, 184–192. 11. Placina C.M., D’Mello J.P.F., Macdonald A.M.C. (1999): A review of worldwide contamination of cereal grains and animal feed with Fusarium 12. mycotoxins. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 78, 2137. 13. Vesonder, R.F., Ciegler, A., Jensen, A.H., 1973. Isolation of the emetic principle from Fusarium-infected corn. Appl. Microbiol. 26, 1008–1010. 14. Tacon, A.G.J.; Metian, M.; Hasan, M.R. Feed Ingredients and Fertilizers for Farmed Aquatic Animals: Sources and Composition; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO): Rome, Italy, 2009. 15. Trigo-Stockli, D.M. Obaldo, L.G., Gominy, W.G., Behnke, K. C., (2000). Utilization of deoxynivalenol-contaminated hard red winter wheat for shrimp feeds. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 31, 247-254. 16. Young, L.G.; McGirr, L.; Valli, V.E.; Lumsden, J.H.; Lun, A. Vomitoxin in corn fed to young pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 1983, 57, 655–664. 17. Woodward, B.; Young, L.G.; Lun, A.K. Vomitoxin in diets for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Aquaculture 1983, 35, 93–101.

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Designing yeast derivative 2.0 to sustain aquaculture development


by Stephane Ralite, Eric Leclercq, Sylvie Roquefeuil and Bruno Bertaud, Lallemand Animal Nutrition, France

east derivatives (inactivated whole yeasts, yeast extracts, yeast cell walls, etc…) are well known for their benefits in animal and human nutrition. They are particularly used to help balance the intestinal microflora and help stimulate the host natural defenses. Most yeast derivatives on the market today are by-products of the fermentation industry, such as biofuel production. They are usually characterised according to their biochemical composition: level of mannan-oligosaccharides

“Thanks to innovative yeast screening

strategy, a new generation of formulated yeast derivatives could be developed that shows promising results in helping aquatic species face stresses such as pathogen pressure, dietary challenge, or handling in a context of lower antibiotic usage "

(MOS), yeast β-glucans or protein contents. If such an approach is interesting to evaluate product purity, it does not totally reflect the functionality of the ingredients. As expert in yeast production, Lallemand Animal Nutrition has conducted a collaborative R&D program in partnership with renowned research institutes aiming at a better understanding of yeast fractions, in particular the relationship between composition and function. This research lead to the formulation of a new generation of yeast fractions with optimal characteristics in terms of pathogen binding, modulation of the immune system, as well as mucus production in fish. Such solutions are particularly

well adapted to answer the issues of aquaculture at a time of intensification and growing concern regarding the use of antibiotics. First trials conducted in fish and shrimp indicate very promising outcomes, in terms of animal performances and economic benefits for the producer.

Looking at yeast fraction at the molecular-level

Cutting-edge techniques such as atomic-force microscopy (AFM) and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) were used to study yeast fractions under a totally new light. These techniques represent powerful tools to investigate the forces associated with single molecules. The principle is to use a force sensor to measure the tension associated with a biopolymer immobilised on a surface (in this case, the yeast outer cell wall polysaccharides). The sensor is able to “read” through the surface of the sample (yeast fraction) and draw the topography of the binding forces (Figure 1, middle images).

Not all yeasts are equal

For the first time, we were able to “visualise” the yeast surface topography in terms of binding potential. It was shown that binding molecules were arranged differently depending on the yeast sample. For certain yeast strains, they are arranged as “sticky patches.” While in others, they are scattered along the surface. In terms of functionality, the sticky patches show higher adhesive properties. This finding clearly shows that, while biochemical parameters are important, they are not sufficient to account for the functionality of a given yeast fraction. The distribution of these molecules along the cell wall is also very important. These studies demonstrate that all yeast strains do not share the same biophysical structure, or topography. It was also shown that, for a given strain, binding properties can differ according to the production and inactivation process involved. Hence, for a given strain, it is essential to determine the optimal production conditions: fermentation, but also the

22 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed


Figure 1: Different yeast strains exhibit different adhesive capacity. Three steps of AFM analysis, from left to right: microscopic topography of the yeast cell. Middle: representation of adhesion forces along the yeast cell (Unit=pNewton). Right: analysis of binding capacity. Strain 2 shows higher adhesion properties.

treatment of the live yeast to obtain the yeast fractions: the inactivation technique. Clearly, this cannot be controlled when yeast cell walls are the by-product of fermentation processes, whereby the industrial processes are designed according to the primary production. When producing custom yeast cells,

however, the production process for each strain can be adapted to achieve the desired characteristics of the yeast derivative.

Optimal pathogen-binding

Based on this knowledge, the technologies were applied to

ANIMAL PROTEINS • Hemoglobin • Plasma • FEED ADDITIVES • INGREDIENTS • RAW MATERIALS Tel: +1-201-224-3700 • Email: International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 23


Figure 2: Example of yeast fractions pathogen binding properties (agglutination proportion measured 1 hour after incubation in vitro). The yeast fractions 1, 2 and 3 showing different levels of agglutination, were selected and formulated together (YANG).

screen different yeast strains and select the best candidates for optimal pathogen binding potential. Strains from two different yeast species (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Cyberlindnera jadinii ) were selected for their complementary properties (Figure 2). For each strain, optimal production process was developed. Once an optimal formulation combining different yeast derivatives had been designed based on in vitro studies, it was further validated in vivo. This formula is marketed as YANG (for Yeast Association New Generation). Moreover, mechanistic studies indicated that the different yeast fractions exert a synergistic activity on the immune system. A patent has been filed concerning this immune effect.

Addressing shrimp challenges

Figure 3: Effect of yeast derivative formula in juvenile shrimp feed on survival rate following a vibrio parahaemolyticus challenge (Vietnam, 2015).

Fig 4: Effect of YANG supplementation on skin mucus quantity in rainbow trout (Plymouth University, UK, 2014).

Figure 5: Effect of YANG on interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene expression showing modulation of the immune system (Seabass trial, Plymouth University, UK, 2014).

The new formula was tested at farm-scale. A trial was conducted in Vietnam in 2015 on juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to a pathogen challenge. YANG supplementation for three weeks prior to a controlled Vibrio parahaemolyticus (EMS/AHPND) challenge was associated with a 4.6 fold improvement in survival (12.0 % survival in Control, vs. 56.3 % survival with YANG â&#x20AC;&#x201C; p<0.05) (Figure 3). In 2016, in a separate shrimp trial conducted under similar conditions, dietary YANG supplementation was associated with a significant higher end-point survival reaching 49.6 Âą 18.5 % compared to 16.5 Âą 9.8 % for control. These in vivo results confirm the in vitro agglutination results (Figure 2). They illustrate the potential of YANG as an efficient tool to maintain shrimp good health status and well-being in presence of the most damaging pathogen in shrimp farming.

Supporting fish defenses

Fish have several natural lines of defenses against external threats: firstly, the gut, skin and gill mucosal surfaces (mucus and epithelial cell layer), secondly, their associated microflora and finally, the immune system. In vivo and farm trials indicate that YANG has the ability to support these natural lines of defenses at various levels. As shown in vitro, YANG has the ability to agglutinate pathogens (Figure 2). YANG has shown the ability to strengthen mucus protection in fish. An eight-week trial was conducted in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in 2014 (Plymouth University, UK) to evaluate the effect of the yeast derivative formulation on skin mucus production. In this trial, skin mucus secretion increases with time in both groups (Figure 4) following handling challenge (transfer into the rearing system), indicating on-going recovery toward normal mucus level following the challenge.

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However, with YANG-supplementation, an improvement is observed within four weeks with a 65 percent higher level of skin mucus level compared to the control. After eight weeks, skin mucus level was 27 percent higher in the YANG-fed group compared to the control group. By supporting a rapid recovery (under four weeks) and high levels of skin mucus, YANG supports a lower risk of secondary infection and physiological disruption following challenging condition. Results on skin mucus level were in agreement with the up-regulation of a molecular skin biomarker indicative of the immune function and regenerative capacity (wound healing) of the skin mucosal layer. Similar results have been observed in several other species in different commercial farming conditions. By supporting the skin mucosal barrier, YANG contributes to the resilience against and recovery from challenging conditions including parasitic challenges, chemical treatments and mechanical disruptions from handling and transfers. In the same trout trial (Plymouth University, UK, 2014), YANG was shown to enhance the microvilli density of intestinal epithelial cells, another line of defense. A higher surface area of the intestinal brush-border is associated with enhanced gut health, protective barrier function and nutrient absorption. Similar outcomes were also observed in juvenile seabass (Plymouth University, UK, 2014) in conditions of dietary stress (high level of plant-based material in the diet: 40 percent soybean meal). Following 10 weeks of YANG supplementation, the density of microvilli of the intestinal cells of the treatment group was significantly higher than in the non-supplemented group (p<0.01). Significant differences in the length of the villi and gut perimeter ratio were also observed. Those differences were associated with improved feed utilisation and growth performance. Weight gain (21.6 vs. 18.5 g/ fish in control), daily growth rate (1.39% vs. 1.25% in control) and feed conversion ratio (1.45 vs. 1.66 in control) were indeed all significantly improved in the YANG supplemented group. Finally, a strong correlation between dietary YANG supplementation and the intestinal expression of genes involved in the immune response was also demonstrated (Figure 5) indicating a positive modulation of the immune system, the last line of defense. In conclusion, the use of state-of-the-art techniques to select yeast strains associated to specific productions processes has led to the development of a new generation of a yeast derivative product. It leads to promising applications to help aquatic species facing stressful and challenging conditions such as high pathogen pressure, challenging dietary conditions, and handling. International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 25


Feather meal to replace FIshmeal by half in Nile tilapia diet


by Franz-Peter Rebafka, GePro Gefluegel-Protein Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG

ydrolysed feather meal is widely used in fish feeds. The material is rich in crude protein but its amino acid profile is not balanced, its digestibility is poor very often and some of its amino acids are destroyed during the drying process of the meal. Gepro, Germany, has developed a drying process at low temperature that decreases the destruction rate of the amino acids in the feather meal. The improved product is called Goldmehl® FM. Trials done on shrimps and some fish species, demonstrated that it can successfully replace some of the fishmeal in aqua-feed, without any detrimental effect on the performance. This article explains the trial that was carried out by Nam Sai Farms Co. Ltd., Thailand for Gepro Gefluegel-Protein Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG to test whether GoldMehl®FM can replace fishmeal in practical diets for Nile tilapia reared in hapas in earthen ponds.

Materials and Methods

In a previously drained and disinfected earth pond of 1 rai (pond 10, Nam Sai Farm, Tambon Ban Grabow, Ban Sang, Prachinburi, Thailand), 15 x 5 m2 hapas (1 mm mesh) were installed and stocked with 300 1” Nile tilapia fry of 0.2 g initial body mass (total 4,500 fish). The fish were initially fed on powdered feed with a crude protein content of 30 percent at a rate of 5-10 percent body weight per day divided into three feeds.

The amount fed was calculated subsequent to biweekly sampling and fed at a set rate for the whole period. After a period of four weeks, small pellets, consisting of the same ingredients as the powdered test diets, were added in increasing amounts until the fish were fed entirely on pellets only (Table 1). The weaning period took one week. Five isonitrogenous test diets, in which Goldmehl® FM (supplied by GePro) is used to replace 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent of fish meal, was compared in triplicate to test their effect on growth and health performance of stocked juvenile tilapia (Tables 2 & 3). An inclusion rate of 3:7 fishmeal:soybean meal was used in supplying protein to the control diet, as this is typical of most commercial tilapia diets. The total culture period was 12 weeks. Hapa change was carried out after six weeks of culture, and the fine-meshed 5m2 hapas were all replaced with 10m2 4mm meshed hapas, which allow for better water exchange.

Diet preparation

All five diets, consisting both of powder and first feeder pellets, were formulated and prepared by Nam Sai Farms Co. Ltd. All five diets were designed to be equal in terms of crude protein (30%) and crude fat (8%). Dr. Orapin and Kasetsart University allowed use of their extruder for producing floating pelleted feed (Table 3). Note that lysine was limiting. It was not added to the diets, as it is a powder and it is not possible to impregnate the lysine into the feedstuffs so that consumption is even by all fish.

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FEATURE Table 1: Feeding schedule Week

Type of feed

Feeding rate (% bw/ day)














Powder + Pellet























Table 3: Feed formulation

Table 2: Experimental design Proportion of fishmeal to Goldmehl (%)

Type of feedstuff

% Goldmehl in diet
























Soybean meal (solvent) (kg) Corn (kg)

















Fine rice bran (full fat) (kg)






Dicalcium phosphate (kg)






Cassava meal (kg) Vegetable oil (kg) Vitamin premix Goldmehl (kg) Total (kg)





100.0 0%




100.0 25%





100.0 50%








Crude Fibre (%)





Ash (%)








29.99 8.01



30.00 8.00



Crude Protein (%) Fat (%)



30.00 8.02



NFE (%)






Phosphorus (%)






Calcium (%)












Arginine (%)






Histidine (%)

Survival was not significantly different between treatments. There was a large difference between replicates suggesting that survival was related to luck rather than the amount of Goldmehl in the feed. Survival had a large bearing on other parameters, as high mortality leads to reduced density and leads to higher growth rate. Statistically there was an effect of treatment on individual growth. Survival affected growth, but in the 75 percent treatment, survival was lower than in 0, 25 and 50 percent Goldmehl treatments. As such, one would expect the fish to grow more, as the density of fish was lower, but in actual fact they grew less. This suggests Goldmehl was reducing growth rate in the 75 percent and 100 percent treatments. Statistically there was no significant difference in total weight of fish per hapa, as there was large difference between reps due to the large difference in survival. However, survival was highest in the 100 percent Goldmehl treatment and one would expect there to be the highest biomass in this hapa. Results suggest that as Goldmehl inclusion increased, feed consumption decreased, although statistically there was no significant difference. This was due to the large effect of survival. Growth parameters, including weight gain and specific growth rate show a significant difference between treatments, 75 percent and 100 percent Goldmehl being lower. This is no doubt true, as in the 75 percent Goldmehl treatment, survival was lowest, but SGR was still lower than treatments 0, 50 and 75 percent Goldmehl when it should have been higher due to the reduced density. There was no significant difference between food conversion ratio, feed efficiency rate and protein efficiency rate (data not presented). It appears that survival had little effect on these parameter and they are quite similar for all treatments.




Tuna fish meal (kg)


Results and Discussion



Threonine (%) Valine (%)

Methionine (%) Lysine (%)

Isoleucine (%) Leucine (%)

Phenylalanine (%) Tryptophan(%)


Goldmehl can replace fishmeal up to 50 percent in commercial tilapia diets without having any significant effect on growth and feed efficiency parameters.

International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 27






















0.51 1.11
























This image was entered into the International Aquafeed photo competition in 2014. The photograph taken by amateur photographer Andres Moren, who had worked for several years in the American catfish industry. Please turn over to find out more about this year's photo competition! Š Andres Moren


International Aquafeed’s ‘Aquaculture digital photography competition


Photographers everywhere are invited to submit digital photographic work on the theme of ‘Create, Nurture and Grow Aquaculture’. Submissions are being accepted from April 1, 2017 – June 1, 2017. International Aquafeed is holding it’s second ‘Aquaculture digital photography competition’ to promote and support the charity Aquaculture without Frontiers CIO UK. Roger Gilbert, publisher of International Aquafeed explains, “Aquaculture is becoming an increasingly important food source for our rapidly growing world population.” He continues, “Our magazine aims to reflect the best image of our industry and what better way to do that than through photography. Funds raised through the 2017 competition will go to the charity we support, Aquaculture without Frontiers CIO UK, to support small-scale aquaculture production in communities in developing countries.”

Terms and Conditions

Entry: Free of charge Eligibility: Open to all photographers, amateur to professionals worldwide Submissions: Your entries must be sent by email to:

Submission specifications, format and reproduction

• All entries must be submitted online to the email address: by midnight on June 1, 2017 UK time. • Each artist may submit a maximum of two photos

• Work may be in colour or black & white, in portrait or landscape format • Your photos should be of a 2 x 3 ratio, 300dpi RGB JPG or JPEG file

(Note: Photos outside these specifications will be accepted, but may be cropped and adjusted to comply with these specifications)

Works will be enlarged and reproduced to the scale of approximately 20” x 30”. Therefore, the submitted work must be of sufficiently high quality (eg. sharp, clear, good contrast, well-exposed) for reproduction and printing process. Acceptance notice: Everyone who submits an entry will receive an email notification of receipt. Following the judging process a second email will be sent notifying you of the outcome.

Judging and selection process

An industry panel will carry out an initial judging. The final 20 works will be viewed by a ‘Judges Panel’ comprised of three judges who will be looking for images that illustrate the aquaculture theme in interesting ways that engage the viewer; originality and creativity, image quality and overall artistic merit. If your entry is judged in the top three by the Selection and Judges Panel you will be awarded one of three prizes.


1st Prize – iPad Pro 12.9-inch (128GB) 2nd Prize – US$500 3rd Prize – US$300 Winning photographs will be printed as posters and showcased at the European Aquaculture Society’s Dubrovnik 2017 Conference to be held in Croatia on October 17-19, 2017.


Please note: Each artist retains all copyright to their own images BUT it is a condition of entry that the contestants grant Perendale Publishers Limited the full rights to use their images for the purpose of promoting aquaculture in published articles and in social media and web sites. With any use of images Perendale Publishers Limited will acknowledge the artists, however this will be without further contact or compensation. Winning photographs will be on display at the EAS17 Conference venue in Croatia.

30 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

Predictable performance

May the force be with you! SMn-A-AP-15.07-EN • Avalone The information provided in this document is at the best of our knowledge, true and accurate. However, products must only be used in compliance with local laws and regulations and we cannot guarantee freedom of use for every intended application or country.

Safmannan® is an exclusive premium yeast fraction rich in natural active ingredients such as mannans and betaglucans. Manufactured using a unique approach in our state of the art factory, Safmannan® delivers outstanding consistency and quality, for performance you can rely on every time. Based on published research and field investigation Safmannan® helps to: • Support natural defences • Reduce pathogen pressure • Promote gut function




Introduction by Alex Whitebrook


The North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), despite its name, is common across much of Africa, the Middle East and Eastern Europe. This impressively diverse distribution gives this species the widest latitudinal range of any freshwater fish in the world. Beyond its natural environment, the fish has been used extensively for aquaculture purposes across the world. The species is an opportunistic and omnivorous predator, having the ability to efficiently switch between food sources depending on availability. Reflecting its eating habits, the catfish is equipped with a wide, sub terminal and transverse mouth capable of eating a variety of food organisms ranging from phytoplankton to fish. Of course, the ability of the North African catfish to digest most feed ingredients used in aquaculture, in turn favours a high rate of translocation. To date, the fish has been translocated to 23 African countries, four European countries, 10 in Asia and one in South America, where it is or was used for aquaculture purposes; however, catfish production is primarily focused within three countries: Nigeria (79%), the Netherlands (9%), and Hungary (4%). Depending on the location, the species is produced using different farming systems, with no uniform or best-practice methodology yet established. Thanks to its euryphagic nature and environmental flexibility, the feed formulation used to grow the species utilises a wide

variety of ingredients, and in some cases is used to manage farm biowaste. Feeds used to produce this fish include dry feeds ranging from single ingredient dry feeds such as maize bran, to farm-made feeds, to formulated floating or slow-sinking, extruded feeds, as well as single ingredient or mixed moist, farm-made feeds. In many African countries, the North African catfish is an important foodfish, but the high cost of formulated commercial fish feeds is a major constraint to the expansion and growth of the aquaculture sector. In this monthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edition of expert topic, it is precisely this issue that our author addresses. The catfish industry has had great success in recent years, producing upwards of 48, 000 tonnes, but the industry is constrained by the lack of affordable, high quality feeds. In the search to find alternative, cheaper methods and tackle the sporadic supply of good feeds to Nigerian farmers, Aller Aqua has approached the market with care and attention to local requirements. The article follows the story and methods of Aller Aqua in its attempt to sufficiently supply the largest North African catfish market in the world.

32 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

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The African catfish is of increasing popularity as fish for aquaculture production by Dr Hanno Slawski, Group R&D Director, Aller Aqua, Denmark

he versatility and robustness of African catfish allow the species to thrive in challenging environments. Especially in Africa, catfish farming has been increasing over the last few years and is about to increase further. Some constraints, however, limit the production increase. Among them are feed quality and availability.

They visit the fish farms before going to the market. Thus, fish are harvested daily, keeping the supply chain for fresh fish intact. On bigger farms, several size classes of fish are standing stock, so that continuous supply of fish to the market is possible.

Feed quality

Challenges with power supply and water quality can occur, setting high demands on farm management and fish care. If the fish

Farming and marketing of catfish

In Africa, Nigeria is the biggest producer of African catfish. In hatcheries, catfish hypophysation for induced spawning is a common practice. Catfish fry are obtained continuously, thus, stocking material is available all year. In small on-land tanks, fish are grown to 2-5g, and are afterwards stocked into earthen ponds or tanks. Due to water shortage and energy cost, fresh pond water is a limitation. Most tanks are filled with a certain amount of fresh water in the morning, replacing used water. That means rapid changes in water quality after the water exchange. Often, the water exchange is followed by the first daily feeding. Multiple feedings or demand feeders are seldom principles. Instead, a meal in the morning hours and one in the late afternoon are common practice. The typical market size of African catfish in Nigeria is around 1kg. It is said, that the fish should reach this size in approximately four months after stocking fingerlings into ponds or tanks. The preferred fish in the market is relatively short and round. Catfish farmers therefore aim to produce catfish with a relatively high condition factor, letting the fish grow fast. The last period before selling the fish is called “fattening period”. Fish are fed to obtain the shape desired by the market. Fish are mostly sold from the farm to small retailers, especially market women.

Fish farm in Nigeria © Aller Aqua

34 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed








Stocked warehouse © Aller Aqua

do not grow as fast as expected, feed quality is quickly questioned, since water parameters are difficult to monitor and less seen as a potential variable determining fish growth. Thus, stable feed quality becomes an important tool to steer farming success. When approaching the Nigerian catfish feed market, Aller Aqua aimed at delivering high performance feeds that were different to available products. For this, feeds were collected from the market and tested in feeding trials with African catfish in Aller Aqua Research in Germany. The trial results delivered important information about composition and quality of catfish feeds and potential for improvements included in the newly created catfish feed range.


P.O. Box 8 100 Airport Road Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 Fax: 785-284-3143

International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 35 ET-275C.indd 1

12/22/15 3:33 PM



Nutritional feed quality

Raw material selection and quality are paramount factors for producing catfish feed of high quality. The feed must be highly palatable to allow high feed intake. And the relation of digestible protein to digestible energy must reflect fish requirements. One could take this as a given, but a look at the feed types locally available reveals, that this is not always the case. Imbalances in nutrient composition affect the water quality of the pond or tank. For example, feeds giving high feed conversion ratios will result in high amount of faeces. The Market day © Aller Aqua faeces of African catfish are not African catfish ©Aller Aqua Research as compact as for example from salmonids and difficult to separate from the water. Given relatively low water exchange and high fish biomass per cubic meter, faeces disintegrate into many small particles and pollute the whole water body. Although African catfish can gulp air from the surface, a filled digestive tract and high biomass together with inappropriate environmental conditions can cause high and sudden mortalities on the farm. Because many catfish farmers own only few ponds, some only one or two, mortalities can mean a complete disaster for their business. Catfish farmers have become increasingly aware of the importance of high feed quality and that feed with an imbalanced nutrient composition products can become highly requested. At this stage, feed will delay fish growth and create problems on the farm. availability becomes the important factor to benefit from positive Therefore, feeds allowing low FCRs are sought after. word-of mouth. When Aller Aqua entered the Nigerian market, attention was paid to securing availability in different farming districts. The company opened a local office and put together a Physical quality local management team. This has enabled Aller Aqua Nigeria While in more sophisticated markets, farmers may send to follow the supply situation closely and offer a high level of feeds for analysis in laboratories, fish farmers in many service. African countries consider physical quality an important measurement. It is therefore required to guarantee stable physical quality, and deliver cost optimised feeds with the The potential for RAS same physical characteristics every time. Feeds need to be of Due to the fast-growing nature of catfish, it could quickly be the same size, same shape, same surface and same colour all demonstrated, that a high-performance feed of stable quality the time to be accepted by the fish farmer. enables faster fish growth and gives fish ready for the market earlier than commonly observed. The feeds now gaining popularity in Nigeria and other catfish producing countries Availability could also be used for indoor RAS farming. Such a quality level Nigerian farmers are not used to constant availability of good would not be everyone’s first thought when considering the ideal feeds. Then products disappear from the market for various product for the Nigerian catfish feed market. However, given reasons. This spoils the farmers’ trust in the product and the the popularity of catfish and its local price, farmers are adapting supplying company. Once feed is unavailable, farmers may to better feed to keep this a constant in an otherwise often quickly turn to another supplier they find more comfort in. challenging environment. Information spreads fast in Nigeria and within a short time, 36 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY by Martin Hochleithner, AquaTech, Austria

Wild-caught zooplankton, mainly copepods and phyllopods, which make up over 90 percent of total zooplankton biomass in lakes and seas, is the optimal food for fry and fingerlings up to a size of 3-5cm. It serves as initial feed for the production of sensitive and valuable fish stocks of species such as char, grayling, whitefish, eel, sturgeon, bass, bream, and numerous others

THE INFLUENCE OF AN AUTOMATIC FEEDING DEVICE FOR FROZEN ZOOPLANKTON AquaTech (Aquaculture Technology) is the name of an Austrian company that produces and supplies innovative and efficient technology for use in aquaculture. Products developed initially in Austria are well known and used worldwide, like the older clockwork-belt feeder or the newer solar-feeders. At the vanguard of aquaculture development, Austria has a long tradition in the successful use of live zooplankton caught from natural waters as starter feed for various fish larvae raised in tanks (Einsele, 1949). Less known are the recent Austrian developments for harvesting and grading of zooplankton, for example a multi-sieve plankton-net (Steiner & Hochleithner, 2016). Another such innovative and unique product is an automatic feeder for the professional controlled administration of frozen zooplankton in hatcheries or nurseries. This patented “Planktonfeeder”, developed at the “Institute for Fish Research” in Austria, is available in its third generation. It has dimensions (L x W x H) of about 79 x 49 x 73 cm and can accommodate in two compartments up to 20kg of frozen zooplankton. The feeding technique is based on an electronic controlled process, which “washes” the plankton layers off larger-sized frozen pieces and distributes the rations evenly via two specially designed, self-cleaning systems of up to 16 outlet valves. If Y-shaped adapters are used, the unit can even supply up to 32 tanks with plankton. The “washing” and defrosting of the plankton layers achieved by spraying or flooding with water, and the remaining plankton is then re-frozen. In order to avoid the crushing or damaging of the defrosted fragile plankton organisms, distribution to the nursery tanks is carried out along with water current in flexible tubes. Wild-caught zooplankton, mainly copepods and phyllopods, which make up over 90 percent of total zooplankton biomass in lakes and seas, is the optimal food for fry and fingerlings up to a size of 3-5cm (Hochleithner, 2001). It serves as initial feed for the production of sensitive and valuable fish stocks of species such as char, grayling, whitefish, eel, sturgeon, bass, bream, and numerous others (Steiner, 1989).


The “Planktonfeeder” has been tested and approved with various fresh and seawater species, including fish and shrimp (Steiner, 1989). The following results are from case studies made in two different Austrian fish farms in rectangular and circular tanks with spring and well water (Steiner & Hochleithner, 2016). 38 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Results show that frozen zooplankton is consumed and digested by the fish larvae already at an early stage (about 1/3 yolk sack still present). Compared to crumbled, dry food, the growth of the fish larvae with zooplankton is relatively homogenous and the survival rates after about 50 days are much higher (94-96 vs. 56-64%). Compared to freeze-dried zooplankton, the growth of the fish larvae with frozen zooplankton is also faster and the survival rates after 50 days are higher (94-96 vs. 80-81%). The growth under a rhythmic feeding regime is faster than that under a continuous feeding regime. The results (growth and survival) with frozen zooplankton supplied by the “Planktonfeeder” are very similar to that of live zooplankton. Fish that feed on zooplankton have also a higher vitality and a more intense colouration. Fingerlings with a size of 3-5cm are relatively easy to wean onto modern dry-foods and can grow with commercial available feeds to table-sized fish. The unique “Planktonfeeder” is therefore the optimal device for start-feeding of sensible larvae in farms that have no access to live zooplankton, or want to avoid the infection of their stock with parasites (Hochleithner, 2014). More information about the larviculture of fishes with zooplankton can be found in a new book that is available and written in German (Steiner & Hochleithner, 2016).


Einsele W., 1949: Planktonproduktion, Fischernten und Setzlingsaufzucht am Mondsee. Österreichs Fischerei, 2 (3): 46-50. Hochleithner M., 2001: Wild-caught plankton - A convenient food for fry and fingerlings. Hatchery International, 2 (3): 32-34. Hochleithner M., 2014: Karpfenfische (Cyprinidae) - Biologie und Aquakultur. AquaTech Publications, Kitzbühel, Austria. 348 pp. Hochleithner M., 2014: Lachsfische (Salmoniformes) Biologie und Aquakultur. AquaTech Publications, Kitzbühel, Austria. 384 pp. Steiner V., 1989: Utilization of crustacean plankton from natural water in fish culture. In: DePauw N., Jaspers E., Ackefors H., Wilkins N. (Eds.): Aquaculture - A biotechnology in progress. EAS, Bredene, Belgium. pp. 777-784. Steiner V., Hochleithner M., 2016: Die Jungfischaufzucht mit Zooplankton - Entwicklungen und Erkenntnisse. AquaTech Publications, Kitzbühel, Austria. 140 pp. Early growth of Norwegian Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) fed different diets at a water temperature of 9-10 °C: Early growth of Austrian Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus) under different feeding regimes at a water temperature of 9-10 °C: Early growth of German Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) fed different diets at a water temperature of 9-11 °C: Early growth of Austrian Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) under different feeding regimes and water temperatures

Centre picture: A thawed Cyclops

Below: AquaTech Planktonfeeder

International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 39

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY #2 Vónin case study: Tough environment calls for tough cages If they work in the Faroes, then they’ll stand up to practically anything. That’s the thinking behind Vónin’s aquaculture cages.

The Faroe Islands are a fantastic place to rear salmon, with perfect water temperatures and fast-flowing currents of crystal-clear water – but it’s still one of the toughest environments in the world to anchor cages and the advantages come as part of the north Atlantic weather that brings a string of storms that batter the islands every winter. In fact, producing its own cages is a relatively new venture for Vónin. Adding its own cages to its product range means that Vónin is now able to supply complete salmon cage packages.

The plastic brackets

The brackets that hold the tubes of the cage rings together presented a few challenges and Vónin used computeraided design to identify weak points and achieve the optimum strength in the HDPE100 injection moulded brackets. “These had to be as strong as possible, with no compromises,” Vónin’s Bogi Nón commented. “The neck of the bracket tends to be the weak point where failures can occur, so it was important to get these right.”

Bakkafrost orders cages with distance bars

The first of the new Vónin cages, which were supplied to Faroese salmon producer Bakkafrost have had a full year in the firing line of those winter storms and passed that particular test with flying colours after a process of making some minor adjustments to ensure optimum performance. Bakkafrost ordered eight cages, but also specified a design using steel distance bars between the brackets, allowing the cage tube itself to move freely inside the brackets – making the cages effectively self-cleaning, but with the downside of a

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY more complex construction and requiring the distance bars to be extremely strong. “There were some problems to overcome and Bakkafrost got its cages in two deliveries. There were a few challenges to start with to get the details right, but these were all dealt with and there were no problems at all with the second part of the delivery,” he said. “Now they have been using the distance bars for more than a year with no problems other than a few teething troubles while we were getting things right at the outset.” “Those cages have now been out for a whole year, with a full Faroese winter’s use behind them in a demanding location.”

Cages for Iceland with fixed brackets

Since then, Icelandic company Dýrfiskur, based in the Westfjords of Iceland, has also come to Vónin for cages, but ordered the more basic variant without distance bars and with the brackets fixed direct to the rings. The four cages and six sinker tubes supplied to Dýrfiskur for their rainbow trout farming operation have performed very well, with no complaints from the users. The cages are anchored in a location on the southern side of Dýrafjörður in the northwest of Iceland where they are required to cope with heavy swells and strong currents.

Sinker tubes

The design includes steel wire filled sinker tubes weighing up to 70kg/m that help maintain the shape of the net in the water, even in heavy weather or with a strong current flowing. This holds the meshes open, allowing a better water flow through the cage, with the result of producing fish in better health and with less stress. Cages are made in 2x450mm (100160m circumference) or 3x450mm (120-200m circumference) sizes, with mooring.

International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 41

Bakkafrost orders cages with distance bars ©VONIN

Industry Events Events listing n 19 - 21/04/17 - SEAFOOD EXPO NORTH AMERICA USA WEB: n 25 - 27/04/17 - SEAFOOD EXPO GLOBAL Belgium WEB: n 26 - 27/04/17 - 7TH EUROPEAN ALGAE INDUSTRY SUMMIT France WEB: european-algae-industry-summit nn 25 - 27/05/17 - 6TH GLOBAL SUMMIT ON AQUACULTURE & FISHERIES Japan WEB: nn 31/05 - 04/06/17 - SEAFOOD SUMMIT USA WEB: nn 14/06/17 - 10TH AQUAFEED HORIZONS TECHNICAL CONFERENCE Germany WEB: n 26 - 30/06/17 - WORLD AQUACULTURE 2017 South Africa WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture n 25 – 27/07/17 - ASIA PACIFIC AQUACULTURE 2017 Malaysia WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture n 02 - 04/08/17 - AQUA FISHERIES CAMBODIA 2017 Cambodia WEB: n 15 - 18/08/17 - AQUA NOR 2017 Norway WEB: AquaNorExhibition n 17 - 20/10/17 - AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2017 Croatia WEB: WorldAquacultureSociety wrldaquaculture

Aquaculture Seminar Malaysia The annual seminar was organised by the Vietnamese distribution partner Tan Sao and took place in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. The event is arranged yearly to address challenges for farmers on health and nutrition, in order to provide them with practical solutions with a proven track record across the region. Multinational aqua additives specialist Nutriad participated in the conference after having recently obtained promising results via the application of its health range of specialty additives in farms affected by White Feces Syndrome (WFS). Alan Wu, Regional Manager Aquaculture APAC remarks, “Nutriad has been working with shrimp farm customers in Vietnam for many years achieving excellent results and performances. We are committed to continue

to innovate our product portfolio to adapt to the new challenges and emerging diseases.” Alexander Van Halteren, Business Development Manager Aquaculture Nutrition, presented a talk on ‘Functional Feed Additives Improving Disease Resistance and Growth Performances in Shrimp’. The attending shrimp farmers showed great interest in the proposed strategies to improve disease management in shrimp nursery systems and grow out ponds. Ho Gim Chong, Commercial and Technical manager Aquaculture, South-East Asia, shared farm trial results on the management of White Feces Syndrome of Shrimp in Malaysia and Indonesia at the conference. The affliction remains a large threat in SE Asian, particularly in Vietnam, Indonesia, Thailand and India. The exact cause of the disease remains unclear although pathogenic bacteria and microsporidians are often associated with its symptoms.

For more industry event information - visit our events register

6th Global Summit on Aquaculture & Fisheries 2017 Conference Series LLC welcomes you to Osaka, Japan for the Prestigious 6th Global Summit on Aquaculture & Fisheries. Aquaculture Summit 2017 will focus on “To Create and Disseminate the Knowledge of Aquatic Resources” and will be held on May 25-26. The Aquaculture Summit 2017 take a step to educates consumers about the future prospective of aquaculture and fishing and risk management and we aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results. 12 Sessions/Tracks - Track 1: Aquaculture Technology and Engineering Applications:

Fish and other seafood represent an abundant and increasingly important source of healthy food for a growing world population. Observing and understanding the dynamics of the oceans as well as managing, harvesting and culturing its resources in sustainable ways require knowledge and smart technological solutions. Now a days research on fisheries and aquaculture systems focuses on how engineering cybernetics and its accompanying enabling technologies such as automatic control, smart sensors and monitoring systems, can be applied to better understand the processes of the sea and enhance the design and operation of marine biological production and harvesting systems. Important topics include systems biology, mathematical modelling of biological processes and production systems, aquaculture process control, underwater robotics, marine instrumentation and aquatic telemetry.

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Industry Events

WAS-APC Awards Announcement for APA17 Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia, 24th -27th July 2017 WAS-APC has announced the Awards for this year’s major conference in Malaysia. The theme for this year’s Asia Pacific Aquaculture (APA17) is ‘Transforming for Market Needs’. The student award structure has partly been brought into line with the WAS globally, to ensure consistency. Additionally, WAS-APC will continue financing and awarding exceptional women within the field of aquaculture. The three categories for Awards are: • Pre-conference Student Travel Awards (judged on abstract) - Abstract/travel award 1st - US$400 Abstract/travel award 2nd US$400 Abstract/travel award 3rd - US$400. The selection will be done based on the submitted abstract against the following criteria: format for submission, abstract title, abstract content, scientific and research value, application potential, scope, clarity. • Presentation/poster awards for Students (judged during the conference) - Presentation 1st - US$600, Presentation 2nd - US$400. Poster 1st - US$600, Poster 2nd - US$400. The selection will be done against the following criteria: Scientific and research value, management value and application potential, scope, verbal/audio-visual presentation, clarity and conciseness, stimulated intelligent discussion, abstract and title. • Travel Award for Women’s Participation: There are two

grants available worth US$600 which are aimed to assist with accommodation and travel. The criteria and application process for the selection of the women awardees has been developed by Aquaculture without Frontiers and is communicated on another announcement specifically for this award. The Student Awards proposed by WAS-APC are important matters to the whole aquaculture community because students are building not only the future of our organisation but also the future of our industry globally. The number of WAS-APC members is increasing every year at a fast rate and therefore the Award Committee of the WASAPC is taking this task of picking up young talents with great enthusiasm. All students submitting an abstract and presenting a poster or an oral presentation will be evaluated. This year again, for the APA17, WAS-APC has arranged for Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) to facilitate the Travel Award for Women’s Participation in return for a donation of US$500. Here again WAS-APC is putting emphasis on supporting the development of the roles of women in transforming the aquaculture industry. Any general enquiries and questions about the Student Awards should be referred to Dr Guillaume Drillet, PresidentElect of the WAS-APC and Chair of the Award committee, email - gdr@ PWTC in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia July 24-27, 2017 is organised by the Asian Pacific Chapter of the World Aquaculture Society and hosted by the Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture & Agro-Based Industry, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.



VIV MEA 2018








*May 23: invitation only

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Industry Events

AFRICAN EXTRUSION SEMINAR Aquatic Feeds and Related Extrusion Products The African Extrusion Seminar Aquaculture without Frontiers CIO UK is supporting a one-day extrusion seminar hosted by Wenger Manufacturing of Sabetha, Kansas in the USA and International Aquafeed magazine and which will be held during the up-coming World Aquaculture 2017 Conference in Cape Town, South Africa. The venue is the Cape Town International Convention Centre, Cape

Town, South Africa from 12:00-18:00 on Monday June 26, 2017. Joe Kearns, Wenger Manufacturing explains, “This is a unique opportunity for African fish feed producers to gain additional indepth knowledge while attending the Cape Town Conference.” Discussions on African aquaculture, extrusion cooking, drying, coating and related functions for production for all types of aquatic feeds centered firmly around improved profitability, he says. He continues to say that, “Feed ingredient selection, grinding, methods of producing floating, sinking and slow-sinking feeds will be included on the program. In addition, related products including petfoods, ingredient creation, breadcrumbs for fish coating before frying, will provide a full review of extrusion possibilities.” Before adding finally, “Places will be limited.” If you’re interested in attending, please register on the following link: “The Wenger company and IAF are making their contributions in organising and running this event free-of charge to attendees, however a donation towards AwF CIO’s work in Africa, which is aimed at assisting small fish farmers adopt more modern practices that support fish heath and productivity while reducing environmental impact would be much appreciated,” says Roger Gilbert, publisher of International Aquafeed magazine.


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8/8/12 12:01 PM

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Industry Events

VIV Asia 2017 The biggest intensive livestock show under one roof


by Alex Whitebrook and Roger Gilbert, CEO

IV Asia 2017, held from March 15-17, will be recorded as the world’s most important and comprehensive trade exhibitions ever for the feed-to-food industry hosted in Asia. This year the Bangkok International Trade and Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Thailand, opened its new halls to the VIV Asia 2017 trade expo, which now combines several of its halls into one massive single air-conditioned event space. Measuring more than 800m long and almost 220m wide, this was an enormous event by anyone’s estimation. Booth space was limited to accommodate the 1000 or more trade exhibitors who wanted to exhibit; the corridors were almost too narrow although wide enough to accommodate the full influx of attendees. Massive screens at key points throughout the floor space kept everyone connected via social media. This was the most comprehensive of exhibitions, covering all sectors of livestock and aquatic production from breeding and hatching, farm production, animal health through to feed processing and handling and feed ingredients and additives as well as well as colocated exhibitions for Agri-Technica Asia 2017 and Horti Asia 2017 on the same site. The first day of VIV went without a hitch, as Perendale, publisher of both the Milling and Grain and International Aqua Feed magazines, welcomed new and old customers to its stand. Roger Gilbert, CEO, Perendale Publishers LTD explains, “We spent the first day networking with company representatives we have long had positive relationships with, whilst simultaneously using one of the world’s largest food and feed industry exhibitions to reach out to potential new customers and build new relationships.” The Milling and Grain and International Aquafeed team spent the day moving from standto-stand, introducing themselves to people from all sides of food and feed production. Together with Ms Tuti Tan, Roger successfully reconnected with industry leaders though Perendale is often present at international trade shows around the globe, so it hadn’t been long between greetings! This personal and respectful approach to publishing is characteristic of Perendale’s first-class stance in the milling and aquaculture industry.

A conference for aquaculture

This year International Aquafeed magazine, in cooperation with VIV, organised a conference focusing on aquaculture called Aquatic Asia 2017. The line-up of speakers included a wide range of representatives from both academic and commercial backgrounds in biosecurity, feed security and water quality. The event kicked off on the morning of March 14, the day before the exhibition proper opened.

Aquatic Asia 2017 – Biosecurity

The aquatic conference began with some excellent presentations detailing the latest

46 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

Roman Inauen from Buhler Philippe Tacon and Justine Cau

developments in aquacultural biosecurity. Algae, antibiotics and everything in between were discussed by academics and representatives from leading biosecurity organisations from around the world. A particularly good presentation was given by Dr Varin Tansomwang, who has recently been appointed Fisheries Management Expert at the Department of Fisheries in Thailand, outlining the way in which biosecurity is changing Thai aquaculture. The impressive and thorough nature of Thai biosecurity measures on shrimp farms were the focus of her presentation. Every possible measure of biosecurity has been considered, from disinfecting vehicle tyres, right down to the eating utensils farm workers are using. Dr Tanasomwang made it clear that Thai fish farms are at the forefront of aqua cultural biosecurity, though she emphasised the need for further research and development to continue the trend toward best-practice techniques. Dr Tanasomwang has had experience in many management and research roles across many private and government research centres. Most recently, Dr Tanasomwang has taken on the role of Fisheries Management Expert at the Thai Department of Fisheries studying the development of coastal aquaculture. Dr Tanasomwang’s academic background began with a BSc in Fisheries, before moving on to an MSc in Fish Pathology and a Doctorate in Aquaculture. She is one of the forefront researchers in these fields today, and provided an informing discussion that clearly demonstrated her expertise.

Aquatic Asia 2017 - Feed quality

INDOFISHERIES17(190x132mm) 1 23/02/2017 09:34:01

The feed quality session began with Dr Chalor Limsuwang, who successfully transformed the gritty details of rearing shrimp into a fascinating and engaging presentation. His speech, entitled “Feed Quality and Feed Management in Shrimp Culture”, balanced the serious topic of maintaining healthy shrimp through good feed with occasional anecdotes involving the day-to-day lives of Thai shrimp farmers, even describing the way in which shrimp farmers enjoy smelling the water of their ponds! Dr Chalor Limsuwan studied a Bachelor of Science in Fisheries before continuing with a Masters degree in Zoology and a PhD in Fish Pathology. He now works at the









International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 47

Industry Events Department of Fishery Biology at Kasetsart University, continuing his research in to Fish Pathology. Over his career, Dr Limsuwan has had ample experience researching shrimp culture and disease prevention, becoming renowned as a forefront authority on the topic. He has regularly been required to speak on his research at conferences around the world. His presentation was extremely enlightening for those interested in growing shrimp in the healthiest conditions. Despite also speaking over time and pushing back an already delayed schedule that we were struggling to keep under tabs, his enthusiastic manner of public speaking and evident expertise in the area were a highlight of the day. Stephane Ralite gave us an excellent follow-up presentation on the protection of Shrimp from harmful bacteria through the fortification of feed. He also included the consideration of water quality to his analysis, blending nicely with the previous session. Dr Hao of Empyreal continued this trend, giving a great presentation on improving the nutritional value of fish feed. His lively performance gave everyone the wake-up they needed after a full day of presentations. The afternoon saw two more speakers deliver their message to an increasingly tired room, before all taking a well-deserved break.

Aquatic Asia 2017 – Water quality

With the final coffee break out of the way, the water quality session began with a presentation by Dr Putth Songsanjinda. His presentation detailed the affects of climate change on shrimp farming and water recirculation. Each slide displayed the incredible attention to detail that this man clearly gives to his work, providing a comprehensive if sometimes confusing explanation of the dynamic between climate change and shrimps. Despite the dense nature of Dr Songsansjinda’s work, the increased interest and attention in the room was tangible, perhaps fuelled by the new topic of discussion and the enticing light at the end of the tunnel symbolised by the second last presentation at the end of a long day. Dr Yambot ended the day with a presentation on water quality and growth performance in Nile Tilapia. Being one of the only presentations of the day to cover the fish, audience attention remained strong throughout as Dr Yambot explained the benefits of using Addiseo’s Rovabio. He found the product to enhance growth and feed intake of cultured Nile Tilapia, when compared to a control group using conventional culture techniques. In all, the VIV Aquatic Asia conference proved to be a rewarding experience for all, with almost 200 attendees and 13 speakers. The remaining days VIV Asia 2017 saw the Perendale team continue their networking with the rest of the attendees. Copies of both magazines were given away to visitors of its stand, facilitating new connections within the industry.

Markus Dedl, CEO of Delacon celebrating with colleagues

Rapid-fire presentations

At the beginning of the second day at VIV, the team were up early for preparations of the long awaited ‘Build my Feedmill’ rapid-fire two-hour conference, hosted on site in the conference room above the exposition. ‘Build my Feedmill’ comprised of 11 short presentations from industry voices, detailing the in’s and out’s of specific stages in the milling process. The innovative seminar programme reflected a unique approach to addressing the latest developments in the milling technology while explaining some of the basic steps in the feed manufacturing process. By displaying a simple flow chart, which followed the steps in milling in sequence, participating company speakers had just eight minutes to explain a process and outline latest updates relating to that step in production. Representatives from 10 companies at the forefront of milling technology used the opportunity that ‘Build my Feedmill’ provided to display the most recent developments in their milling equipment. The informative nature of presentations was emphasised by the fact that each speaker were given short speaking times, ensuring a concise and comprehensive picture being conveyed to the audience across a two-hour time slot. Mr Gilbert explains the base line of the project and what makes the concept such

Jeroen Ju Dr Nguyen Duy Hoa (second from right) with Micheal Klapperich who lead the Empyreal team with colleagues

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Dr Jan-Olaf Barth of Evonik

Joe Kearns of Wenger

an important one, “The objective was not to take important feed industry experts away from their exhibition stands for long periods, nor to take up the valuable time of attendees, but to provide a concise step-by-step explanation of the feed production process and recent developments being made at each stage in the minimum amount of time possible.” He continues, “I’m pleased to report that our first outing for ‘Build my Feedmill’ was met with enthusiasm from presenters and found increased attention from those attending. In addition, I was able to create greater awareness of our magazine’s claim that there are too few feed mills in low-economic and developing countries and that the lack of proper feed manufacturing facilities is creating greater food insecurity in those countries where populations continue to rise.” He concludes, “Before we can bring all the advances being made in animal nutrition to bear on food production, we need sound feed manufacturing machinery in place. And that ‘place’ is in a properly structured and supported feed mill.”


Starting with Christian Jordan from Lambton, the topic of intake and conveying was addressed. Later speakers included Merry Ortberg of Famsun, who spoke on Famsun’s latest drying and cooling machinery, detailing its improved moisture deviation, high energy efficiency and sanitary design that avoids cross contamination and provides safe feed. She also presented a formula for the cost of moisture uniformity, at which point everyone swiftly got out their phones to take a picture of the valuable information.

The University of Limerick (UL) is a rapidly growing, modern university. UL is a young, energetic and enterprising university with a proud record of innovation in education, and excellence in research and scholarship. We take great pride in attracting students who are seeking a supportive learning environment to help nurture and achieve their personal and professional dreams. UL is highly regarded for conducting leading-edge research in key areas such as biological sciences, information and communication technologies, materials and surface science, environment & bioengineering and humanities & social sciences. Limerick is in western Ireland, an ideal starting point to explore the Wild Atlantic Way. Shannon International airport is only 24km away with frequent bus connections. Limerick, with an urban and hinterland population of over 200,000, has something to offer everybody thanks to its many cultural, historical, architectural, sporting, shopping and business activities. With almost 50 per cent of Limerick’s population under the age of 30, it is a vibrant, living, cosmopolitan city. International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 49

We have the largest work placement programme of any university in Ireland, with a network of over 1700 employers Amazing academic and sporting facilities on a stunning campus Graduate employment rates that are 18% above the Irish average


Mr Gilbert, who chaired the conference, commented on how important the small advances, highlighted by Merry, are for allowing big savings in the long run, praising her informative presentation. Yiannis Christodoulou, of Agentis Innovations finished off the programme by tying together all of the topics that had been covered during the seminar, in a presentation on feed automation. He proclaimed, “Today, feed milling needs to move towards becoming a more automated and efficient industry” and proceeded to outline the importance of cost, process and performance optimisation through the use of automation software. Agentis Innovations were the recipients of the 2016 GRAPAS Innovation award, and this was clearly evident in the benefits of automation, which Yiannis detailed for the audience. Roger closed the seminar by highlighting the important aspects of each speaker’s presentation. “Our first speaker, who spoke on avoiding contamination and carryover through the use of chain conveyers, showed us right from the beginning that there is not a simple solution to issues in milling, we need experts to keep us informed.” He spoke highly of KSE’s Christian Jansen, whom displayed the complex and advanced nature of weighing, and of Hans van der Weijden of Van Aarsen, who displayed the “sophistication going on inside of a grinder in use today, which provide great improvements in time and efficiency enabled by better technology.” Du Bin of ZCME followed up with a presentation that clearly demonstrated the advances that are being made within China in the areas of pelleting and grinding, whilst Olaf Naerig of Amandus Kahl showed the audience that expanders are very much used in some countries, but not in others and left unanswered the question why? Drawing near to the end of his summary, Mr Gilbert noted Adifo’s presentation on extrusion that told us “it is not just about formulation and

David Bal, Justin Tan and Benedict Standen of Biomin

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Olaf Naehrig of Amandus Kahl a speaker on 'Build myFeedmill' Erik Visser and Peter Couteau of Nutriad


CEO Bernd Grosse Holthaus (right) is leading the GePro Geflügel-Protein GmbH Stephan Ralite (centre), our speaker at Aquatic Asia 2017 Conference with colleagues from Lalemand

software control, but how our software is integrating with the equipment we use, and how every machinery stage is now linked by software,” and he linked nicely into addressing the similar concerns Yiannis of Agentis presented in his presentation. His closing words emphasised the need not only for better feed milling, but for more feed mills as well - something that ‘Build my Feedmill’ aims to achieve. Ultimately, the ‘Build my Feedmill’ conference proved to be an important resource for knowledge sharing in the milling industry. Perhaps, in future, it could have applications to education for companies developing their milling technology and capabilities.

Fantastic feedback

One member of our team explored the exhibition hall interviewing both companies that were involved in the Aquatic Conference and the ‘Build my Feedmill’ conference. Those who were involved were extremely impressed with the organisation and the high levels of attendance that each conference achieved, whilst representatives of companies that attended reported they were impressed by the quality of the speakers and fascinated by the content of the presentations. We will continue to actively promote and facilitate the sharing of knowledge within the aquaculture and milling industries respectively. The positive feedback received after another year of hard work from our team has only encouraged us to persist with our efforts in to the future. Any recommendations for improvements on the services we provide at exhibitions, such as VIV Asia are used constructively to increase the quality and inherent value of our magazines and conferences. A fitting and closing comment made by CEO Roger Gilbert, “Following this process, we will build on our success and bring back bigger and better conferences for the industry in the years to come. Thank you to everyone who attended VIV Asia 2017, we look forward to cooperating with all our partner organisations to continue being a leading voice for both the aquaculture and milling industries.”

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Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133

Elevator buckets Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Additives

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785

Animal health & nutrition Cenzone +1 760 736 9901

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Bin dischargers Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800

Certification GMP+ International +31703074120


R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924

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52 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed

Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 IDAH +866 39 902701

Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260

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Second hand equipment Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054

International Aquafeed - April 2017 | 53

To include your company in the International Aquafeed market place in print, and a company page on our website contact Tom Blacker. +44 1242 267700 โ€ข

the interview Tom Wedegaertner, Director of Cottonseed Research at Cotton Incorporated For the past 25 years, Tom Wedegaertner has been the Director of Cottonseed Research at Cotton Incorporated. Prior to that, he worked for a trade association representing the cottonseed processing industry. His career now spans 37 years of cottonseed industry involvement. At Cotton Incorporated, he manages a research program designed to discover innovative ways to increase the utilisation and value of cottonseed, the number one byproduct of cotton production. The cotton plant actually produces more seed than it does fibre. The seed is an important source of revenue for cotton farmers, since it represents about 20 percent of the value of the crop. The biggest barrier to increasing the utilisation and value of cottonseed protein has always been the presence of a naturally occurring chemical defense mechanism that evolved in cotton and is distributed throughout the cotton plant. This toxin is known as “gossypol” and it is toxic at some level to all animals and some insects. Tom has devoted much of his career to searching for a technology that would mitigate the toxic effects of gossypol. The genetic elimination of this toxin from cottonseed protein is now possible. This breakthrough technology has the potential to be a total game changer for both the cotton and aquaculture industries. Growing up on a small livestock and rice farm, and having a butcher for a father, is what stimulated Tom’s passion for animal agriculture, whilst animals have always been a large part of his life. He holds graduate degrees in animal nutrition and marketing from Colorado State University and the University of Memphis.

What is your background and when did you decide that agriculture/aquaculture was a field you wanted to work in?

Having grown up on a small farm and being around animals all my life, I have developed a passion for animal agriculture. Becoming an animal scientist just seemed like my destiny. Several years ago I became fascinated with saltwater reef aquariums and have maintained two tanks in my living room for more than 10 years. I also have a couple of boats and spend most of my free time boating, fishing or scuba diving. My transition from being an Animal Nutritionist to being an advocate for using cottonseed protein to extend fishmeal supplies in aquaculture feeds has been a natural progression of my career.

Was your education an important stepping-stone to the work you have ended up doing for Cotton Incorporated?

Absolutely! I had a Master of Science degree in animal nutrition and an MBA in marketing with 12 years of experience in the cottonseed industry 25 years ago when Cotton Incorporated went looking for a cottonseed expert to manage their cottonseed research and marketing program. I was a natural fit since the program I manage has both a research and marketing component. It is almost as though my educational background and experience were designed to prepare me for this job.

Do you believe GMOs are a safe and practical solution to feeding an ever-increasing population and improving living standards around the world?

Modern molecular biology (“GMO’s”) is an essential component to feeding more and more people on the planet. Food shortages in the future will also be the result of an improved standard of living in Third World countries. As people become more prosperous they want to add animal protein to their diet. Most land animals are very inefficient at converting plant protein to high-quality animal protein. Aquaculture species are very efficient at this conversion and can be grown just about anywhere in tanks, ponds and raceways. Aquaculture will be extremely important in our quest to eliminate hunger and malnutrition. Using biotechnology to eliminate toxins, produce higher yields, extend shelf life and

enhance the nutritional value of foods and feeds is quite simply the most important component of modern agriculture. Over the past two decades, GMO’s have demonstrated their utility, safety and value to society. I expect that we will soon see an explosion of GMO technologies that will have a direct positive effect on human health and nutrition.

How should we explain the benefits of science to consumers who are increasingly suspicious of advancements in food production, especially those that involve genetic engineering?

I usually start out by reminding people that biotechnology and molecular biology (“GMO’s”) are already widely used throughout the medical world to diagnose, treat and cure diseases. If a person can acknowledge that the use of GMO technology to treat and cure a disease is acceptable, then the exact same technology deserves some level of acceptance when it is used in modern agriculture to enhance the quality and availability of food. Even though the average person isn’t familiar with the science of modern agriculture, they should be willing to consider the use of modern scientific techniques to improve both medical tools and food products.

What impact do you believe a protein rich and readily digestible cottonseed meal will make to our food supply over the coming years?

The cotton crop on the planet produces 11 million metric tonnes (mmt) of protein every year. To give you a feel for the magnitude of this massive protein reserve consider this; if cottonseed didn’t contain gossypol, this is enough protein to provide the daily protein needs of 600 million people. This is also an equivalent amount of protein to 16mmt of fishmeal; about four times the amount of fishmeal currently produced. Cottonseed protein is somewhat unique in that most aquaculture species find it to be very palatable, especially compared to other vegetable proteins. It appears that cottonseed protein might even contain an unidentified feeding stimulant, and with added Lysine it has been shown to effectively replace fishmeal in feeds for several aquaculture species. Unfortunately, at the moment, the presence of gossypol relegates all this protein to cattle feed, since ruminants are the only animals that can tolerate the toxin. All of this is about to change!

54 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed



Vortex announces management changes

V Laurence Millington

ortex announces the appointment of Laurence Millington as Managing Director of the company’s operations in Darlington, United Kingdom Mr Millington will take over the role from Travis Young, who has overseen Vortex’s international operations since 2008.

After nine years of managing the company’s business development in the EMEA and Asian markets, Mr Young has accepted the position of Executive Vice President of Marketing and Global Strategy at Vortex’s corporate headquarters in Kansas, USA. “The appointment of Laurence was a straightforward decision. He understands how our business works, the markets we serve, and the core values Vortex upholds”, commented Mr Young.

“Under his leadership Vortex will continue to create winning relationships with our clients and distribution channels for many years to come.” Mr Millington has been employed with the company since 2009 and was promoted to his most recent role of Sales Director, EMEA and Asia, in 2015. Mr Young has been with the company since 2004. Travis Young

Founded in 1977, Vortex designs and manufactures valves and dustless loading equipment for handling dry bulk material in the food, chemical, and mineral industries.

Alex Whitebrook joins Perendale Publishers

A Alex Whitebrook

lex Whitebrook has recently joined Perendale Publishers supporting project management. He plays a key role in organising up to 30 annual conferences and exhibitions that both Milling and Grain magazine and International Aquafeed magazine are involved in worldwide. With international experience in writing and project management for various companies across Australia, China and the UK, Alex has a unique background that will enable Perendale to gain more from international exhibitions and facilitate deeper connections with their customers. Alex studied International Relations and Mandarin at the University of Western Australia, providing a useful set of skills to an international company making tracks in the Asian market.

Aller Aqua strengthens the organisation for growth


ased on the significant growth Aller Aqua has experienced throughout recent years, the company now establishes a dedicated group management team. The team will be based in Christiansfeld, focusing on the company’s global growth. The management in the individual factories will continue to focus on growth on the local markets.

“Aller Aqua has experienced expansive growth in recent years, and 2017 will be no exception” Hans Erik Bylling (Group CEO) explains. “Currently we have four factories, but at the end of the year we will have an additional two, one in China and one in Zambia. Besides we have a row of new sales companies in new markets, not least Africa.” “Growth of this magnitude places large demands on both management and employees” he continues, “and there is no doubt that we have all been under pressure in recent years. Therefore, the owners and management have decided to establish a dedicated group management team as well as strong local management teams in the individual factories.”

The group management team will be dedicated to continuing the development, globalisation and growth in Aller Aqua. Transverse functions such as Purchase, Finance/IT, R&D and Supply Chain will be integrated in the group management. Consisting of Hans Erik Bylling (Group CEO), Carsten Jørgensen (Group CFO), Henrik Halken (Group CPO/CCO) and Dr Hanno Slawski (Group R&D Director). Additionally, the company will initiate the search for a Group Supply Chain Director.

On the individual factories, we have strong management teams in place. In Denmark, Lars Rahbæk will step up as CEO, whilst the other local management teams will stay in place and continue to work dedicated on expanding and strengthening the home markets.

The new management structure will be effective from the April 1, 2017. The group management team will focus 100 percent on strengthening Aller Aqua globally, and implementing the company values of local presence, customer focus, quality, flexibility and knowledge sharing. 56 | April 2017 - International Aquafeed













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Naturally ahead

APR 2017 - International Aquafeed magazine  
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