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DIVERSIFY PROJECT - Marine ingredients as a foundation for global fed aquaculture production - Aquafeeds - Natural alternatives to enhance production - Key factors in the successful production of rainbow trout - The World Nutrition Forum - review

November | December 2016

Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700


Publisher Roger Gilbert Editor Prof Simon Davies Associate Editor Dr Albert Tacon International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Colin Mair • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Rhiannon White Peter Parker Andrew Wilkinson International Marketing Team Darren Parris Tom Blacker Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 India Marketing Team Ritu Kala




44 Expert Topic - Tilapia

58 Industry Events

Design Manager James Taylor

64 The Market Place

66 The Aquafeed Interview

Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan


Industry Faces

18 DIVERSIFY project

24 New aquaculture species

28 Marine ingredients as a foundation for global fed aquaculture production

32 Aquafeeds - Natural alternatives to enhance production

34 Key factors in the successful production of rainbow trout 36 The Biomin World Nutrition Forum

38 WNF - Examining the potential of aquaculture to meet food demands in 2050 40 WNF - Driving the protein economy


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©Copyright 2016 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale. com Perendale Publishers Ltd also publish ‘The International Milling Directory’ and ‘The Global Miller’ news service

Industry News

17 Aquaculture Training

Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu

Development Manager Antoine Tanguy



Roger Gilbert

Ioannis Zabetakis

Clifford Spencer

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 52 How is an emerging renewable energy helping moor fish farms sustainably?

54 500 Hours with the yanmar net cleaner 56 Vaki Technology – a new approach

Professor Simon Davies

Croeso - welcome

Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! I have had quite a busy 2 months here at Harper Adams University in my new role as Professor of Animal Nutrition and Aquaculture with so many exciting responsibilities and commitments to fulfill. It’s always a pleasure to lecture to new students and provide new courses and programmes including our prestigious Masters’ Degree in Aquaculture with a strong focus on fish nutrition. A recent task was to visit the University of Cambridge as a guest speaker to final year students of veterinary medicine and introduce fish health and aquaculture as a special topic, these students were so engaging and keen to know more. I also paid a visit to Bristol University Vet School where I had the opportunity to address a much bigger audience of second year students and as an Honorary Professor at Nottingham, I must also speak to clinical students at all levels. These students do not have fish biology modules on their curriculum and are quite unfamiliar with the potential for employment and scope for involvement in aquaculture and especially with regard to health management in the industry. They ask some of the most challenging questions and I have to be on my best performance. I am so pleased to be recognised by such world leading universities in the UK with Cambridge still ranking No1. Whilst in Scotland earlier this year, I had the pleasure of chairing an examination committee for a doctoral candidate working on the feasibility for using insect meal protein in diets for both tilapia and salmon with good success on a small scale. This was a nice thesis and the student passed her

Doctorate without problems. This is one of the nicest aspects of my job and highly rewarding to end 3 hours of interrogation with happy news and a congratulatory handshake. I have similar duty to perform but this time in public for a German student at The University of Bergen, Norway in December, investigating the effects of triploidy in salmon in production at different phases from fresh water to sea transfer and grow-out. This project addresses the potential increased stress and abiotic effects in such fish compared to diploids and there is a significant nutritional focus on the risk of developing lenticular cataracts due to deficiencies of the essential amino acid histidine in lower diet specifications. Environmental interactions compounded by elevated temperature effects and osmotic stress as well as hypoxia add to the issues. It makes for an interesting story indeed! On the news front, I see that the USDA is investing some US$1.2 million into specific aquaculture programmes for research and development. It is accepted that the US spends US$96 billion on seafood but only generates a fraction of this with imports dominating. Someone must remind incoming President Trump about this problem and whether aquaculture can benefit from even more US investment. Maybe a fish/seafood trade war with tariffs etc. may be a distant prospect but perhaps aquaculture can help make ‘America great again!’ It is encouraging that the President –Elect really enjoys ‘fillet o Fish’ burger so there’s much hope! I was also intrigued by the new developments at the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology. There they have constructed a ‘double recirculation’ system for aquaponics to grow both tilapia and tomatoes in an integrated unit for primary experimental purposes with a concept for home based modular arrangements and also for larger facilities. The whole idea of low ‘carbon foot print’ farming of fish in one’s own backyard and in urban markets and metropolis locations including in office complexes, sky scrapers may be a future for a niche type of fish farming activity. There are indeed many opportunities for aquaculture to expand even on land. Returning to the present, in this issue of International Aquafeed, as well as our usual in-depth news coverage and cutting-edge relevant articles, this month’s species focus is Tilapia – with a typically insightful article from my esteemed colleague in aquaculture Dr Laxmappa, that examines Tilapia farming in India. We also take a look at the progress made so far by Diversify, the EU five-year scheme into the discovery of new species of fish. Staying even closer to home, we have a very welcome contribution from Martin Smith from the Bibury trout farm – in fact located not far from International Aquafeed’s Cheltenham headquarters! Our burgeoning Fish-Farming Technology section is also becoming yet another of this publication’s useful resources, featuring contributions from VAKI, Yanmar and Sustainable Marine Energy Ltd. International Aquafeed’s year is then wrapped up very nicely with a fantastic interview with former EAS President Patrick Lavens from INVE. This is the last issue for 2016 as we head into Christmas and the New Year. As I turn 60 in January, it is a major milestone in my life having now served over 35 years in aquaculture nutrition research and as an academic. Now, all that is left for me to do for this year is to thank you all for your invaluable contributions, and to wish you a Merry Christmas Season and a very Happy New Year for 2017.Thank you!

Meet the team at up-coming international events

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A word from our Publisher

20 percent of all GSI member farms now ASC certified

Big changes for International Aquafeed magazine in 2017


The Global Salmon Initiative announces 100th farm achieves Aquaculture Stewardship Council certification as group makes progress towards ambitious sustainability goals

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For our regular readers, who have followed us over many years and value the content that we gather from experts and others throughout the aqua industry on a bi-monthly basis, you might like to celebrate with us when we announce that we will be going to 12 editions in 2017. Every month in 2017 we will publish – and print – our magazine. We will not change our subscription prices but will deliver you a more frequent read and keep you more fully informed of developments not only in aquatic nutrition but also in fish farming technology. Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food protein providers on the planet and while it faces many challenges, particularly around its environmental positioning, its use of fishmeal and likely replacement protein sources in feeds, and its disease control – several of these issues we report on via the World Nutrition Conference held in Vancouver, Canada in mid-October 2016 and which hosted nine aqua-presentations alongside terrestrial livestock sessions – it cannot be denied that our industry will change out of all recognition over the next five to 10 years. That’s why we feel it is timely to take up our own challenge of moving to a monthly format so that we can help industry development by providing a more frequent source of top-quality information and views from leaders and experts in the industry along with a sound news service. Our media plans for 2017 are extensive and we will be seeking contributors from around the world to help us achieve our objective in covering the topics we have identified as critical to the success of modern, intensive fish farming. It is through the use of advanced nutritional products, adoption of feed technology, a greater understanding of the species being farmed and the latest fish farming technology that makes the most out of valuable feeds in terms of feed conversions, maintaining water quality and producing fish that is profitable and in demand by consumers. We also aim to bring the needs of the industry, no matter where we are producing fish feeds or farmed fish, to the attention of governments and planners so that we can get the best deal for our industry. We will also engage with aquaculture detractors to ensure that they have the facts about aquaculture to make it more difficult for them to campaign against our industry. We are the original aquafeed magazine and there is a clear job of work to be done as the leading magazine in the aquaculture sector. International Aquafeed is determined to take up and meet this challenge. I would like to take this opportunity to also wish all of our readers, advertisers and supporters a happy festive period and a heatlhy and prosperous New Year. Roger Gilbert, Publisher

he Global Salmon Initiative (GSI) today announced that its members have achieved Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification for 100 farms, the equivalent of almost 20 percent of all GSI member farms. This is an important milestone as GSI ultimately strives to achieve 100 percent certification across all member farms, and demonstrates GSI members’ commitment to reaching the ASC standard’s challenging environmental and social indicators across all of their farming operations. “The ASC standard is the world’s leading certification and labeling program for responsibly farmed seafood. Its challenging criteria are designed to promote the highest level of responsible aquaculture,” said Chris Ninnes, CEO of ASC. “The GSI members are leading the way with certifications, and today’s announcement sends a significant signal that they are committed on their journey towards improved sustainability.” The first GSI farm was awarded ASC certification in 2014, and since then huge progress has been made, with 10 farms certified in 2014, 45 farms in 2015, and now a further 45 farms certified so far in 2016. GSI members now have ASC certified farms across 6 farming regions, including 48 farms in Norway, 33 in Chile, 12 in Canada, 3 in Ireland, 2 in Scotland and 2 in the Faroe Islands, with a further 29 currently under assessment. “With more and more farms becoming ASC certified, we now have a growing supply of responsibly sourced salmon on the market. We trust that this will trigger more retailers to offer ASC labeled salmon products, enabling consumers to make a sustainable seafood choice,” said Piers Hart, Global Lead for Aquaculture at WWF. “Considering the increasing demand for seafood and dwindling marine fish stocks, ASC certification is a key component of ensuring a sustainable food system for the future. The GSI is demonstrating that significant change can happen at scale when an industry works together towards a common sustainability goal.” In order to achieve ASC certification, farms must meet the standard’s 152 criteria, which support responsible aquaculture practices that minimize environmental and social impact. Through achieving the ASC standard, certified farms deliver a cleaner seabed, cleaner water and healthier fish, while also ensuring social responsibility. “When we signed up to GSI and made our commitment to ASC certification, we knew it was going to be a very tough challenge, and we weren’t exactly sure how we were going to get there. However, through collective knowledge and shared problem solving, we are starting to see progress with more and more farms achieving certification,” said Alf-Helge Aarskog, CEO Marine Harvest ASA. “We have made good progress so far, but bigger challenges lie ahead of us as we look at regions where it will be tougher to achieve certification. But within GSI we support each other by sharing experience and advice, and now that we have the ball rolling we feel confident that the certifications will continue.” In line with the ASC standard, the GSI publishes an annual Sustainability Report online, which allows the public to transparently review all member company data across key sustainability and environmental indicators. The Report also tracks GSI’s progress towards ASC certification, showing the latest number of ASC certified farms, as well as farms currently under ASC assessment.

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BioMar’s joint venture in China acquires fish feed company Haiwei


ioMar Group’s joint venture in China, BioMarTongwei Biotech (Wuxi) Ltd has acquired 100 percent of the shares in the fish feed company Haiwei, which is situated in the south of China. Carlos Diaz, CEO of the BioMar Group, stated that the acquisition fits perfectly with BioMar’s strategic focus on the top end of the Chinese aquaculture market. “We are very pleased to have concluded this agreement on behalf of BioMar-Tongwei. “Haiwei has a very good reputation among fish farmers and we will continue to build on the Haiwei brand and carry on with the company setup. “We are confident that BioMar can contribute to the further development of Haiwei and continue its success through process knowledge, R&D methodology and continuous improvement of feed recipes”, says Mr Diaz. Over the past three years Haiwei has been owned by Tongwei Co Ltd, BioMar’s joint venture partner in China. Tongwei has concluded a successful turnaround of Haiwei and today the company is a leading supplier of feed to high-value fish species such as Japanese sea bass in southern China. Mr Diaz underlined the acquisition is in line with BioMar’s global strategy of ‘shaping the future.’ “The acquisition is an important initiative, consistent with our growth strategy in core markets as well as

within new species and geographies. In this regard, this is also an important step for our Emerging Markets Division, which plays a significant role supporting the strategy, securing growth for BioMar and building up new markets, integrating acquisitions and servicing new species.” Geographically the acquisition of Haiwei is in line with BioMar’s ambitions for the joint venture in China due to its location in the south of the country, near Macau, in an important aquaculture region. The acquisition will add more than 60,000 tonnes of volume to BioMar’s Chinese joint venture company. “Since the announcement of the joint venture between BioMar Group and Tongwei Co Ltd to establish a feed company in China, the shared project has had a very positive development. There is continuous collaboration with our partner and we are working to bring high performance feeds to the Chinese market. “BioMar fish feed is already being produced in Chengdu in south-central China and a new factory is being built in Wuxi area, nearby Shanghai, with an initial capacity of 50,000 tonnes with a possibility for expansion to 100,000 tonnes in the future”, explained Mr Diaz. The construction of the BioMar-Tongwei plant in Wuxi is in progress according to schedule and is expected to start operations in the second half of 2017.

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Met-Met production started in Antwerp


t its site in Antwerp (Belgium), Evonik has inaugurated the world’s first plant for the production of a new source of methionine specifically designed for shrimp and other crustaceans. The product, sold under the name AQUAVI® Met-Met, is an aquaculture feed additive to make shrimp farming more efficient and sustainable. The plant’s modular design allows for increasing production capacity in order to meet customer demand.

“With AQUAVI® Met-Met, we are launching another product for healthy and sustainable animal nutrition. Based on our scientific and technological expertise, we have developed a product innovation that we can now offer to our customers worldwide,” said Dr. Reiner Beste, Chairman of the Board of Management of Evonik Nutrition & Care GmbH, at the inauguration ceremony. Since shrimp farming is concentrated in warmer seas close to the equator, the main markets for AQUAVI® MetMet are located in Asia as well as in South and Central America.

Neptune and Aker BioMarine reach important patent agreement, recognising the patents’ strength and ending all litigation


eptune Technologies & Bioressources Inc. (“Neptune”) (NASDAQ. NEPT - TSX.NTB) and Aker BioMarine (“Aker”) are pleased to jointly announce that they have entered into a broad patent crosslicensing agreement, thus ending all outstanding litigation between both

Evonik is already beginning to supply customers from these regions with the new product as the plant is ramped up to capacity. “We are pleased that Evonik built the first production facility for AQUAVI® Met-Met in Antwerp,” said Frank Daman, Evonik site manager in Antwerp. “The new plant affirms our site’s key position in Evonik’s global production network for methionine.” AQUAVI® Met-Met is produced in conjunction with an existing methionine plant in a fully backward-integrated process. The environmentally friendly production process is water-based and uses no organic solvents. The Antwerp site with its harbour is an ideal hub for shipping the product to customers worldwide. AQUAVI® Met-Met, a dipeptide made up of two DLmethionine molecules, achieves the same weight increase in shrimp and crustaceans as conventional methionine sources, but uses only half the active substance. This is mainly due to the fact that the dipeptide must be enzymatically broken down in the digestive system of the shrimp and is therefore available for protein synthesis at the right time. That in turn means that a higher share can be processed. In addition, AQUAVI® Met-Met is considerably less water-soluble than other methionine sources and therefore does not leach out of feed as quickly. This relieves the burden on the water. Evonik has over 60 years of experience in the manufacture of essential amino acids and their derivatives and provides solutions for efficient and sustainable animal nutrition to customers in over one hundred countries. Evonik wants to make an even greater contribution to the efficiency of animal feed by adding innovative feed additives beyond amino acids to its portfolio in order to create additional value for its customers. Evonik’s products and services in the area of animal nutrition play a key role worldwide in the production of healthy and affordable food, while preserving natural resources and reducing the ecological footprint.

companies. Key elements of the settlement and licensing agreement include: Agreement ends all outstanding litigation, with continued access for Aker to Neptune’s composition patents, in consideration of a royalty payment of US$10 million payable over a period of 15 months. Neptune acquires rights to use Aker’s select krill oil-related patent portfolio in consideration of a royalty payment of $US4 million payable over the same 15-month period. “We are pleased that through this agreement the integrity of each company’s Intellectual Property (IP) is recognised and puts an end to all legal challenges. Our collective focus

can now be even more directed to the growth and development of the omega-3 krill oil market,” stated Jim Hamilton, President & CEO of Neptune. “Recognition and protection of intellectual property is critical to continue to invest in innovation and R&D, which is key to driving growth in the krill oil industry. This joint patent agreement signifies the importance of respecting IP, further strengthening our position as the leading innovators in the global krill oil market,” Matts Johansen, CEO, Aker BioMarine commented. This agreement should create a lasting patent peace, allowing both companies to focus on growth and business value creation.

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argill and its EWOS brand marked a significant milestone in addressing fish health and disease prevention through the inauguration of one of the world’s largest and most significant research centres of its kind. Located in the Pacific coastal-town of Colaco, Chile, the Cargill Innovation Centre is geared specifically to improve health and wellbeing for salmon. The innovation centre will serve as a research hub of internationallyrenowned experts from EWOS and Cargill, who will focus on developing functional fish diets and studying diseases that affect farmed salmon in Chile and other countries focused on aquaculture. Through the Cargill investment and the support of Corfo, a Chilean developmental agency, the innovation centre will have more than 30 scientists and aquaculture experts. As part of their research, they will create tools and additional controls to fight the two major health challenges in the salmon industry. The first one is SRS, caused by a bacterium responsible for 79 percent of the mortality of salmon and the main reason for antibiotics use in Chile. The second one is Caligidosis, caused by Caligus or “sea lice,” a parasite that attaches to salmon skin, affecting its health. These diseases have contributed to significant fish industry sector losses. With this investment, the Cargill Innovation Centre in Chile will be able to conduct 4-5 times more studies than before, increasing the global capacity for fish health research by 30 percent. “Having our own fish health center will accelerate our product development programs, allowing us to quickly develop new customer solutions,” said Einar Wathne, president, Cargill Aqua Nutrition. “We will be able to dig much deeper into the primary diseases and combat the risks they create for salmon producers, and also apply our learnings across multiple species of fish.” “Proper fish nutrition is an excellent tool to help control disease,” said Simon Wadsworth, global fish health manager for Cargill Aqua Nutrition “A fish consumes some 30,000 pellets in its lifetime and that means there are the same number of opportunities to manage the specimens – with no manipulation – to help the sustainability of the industry.”

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US$10.5 million Cargill Innovation Centre focuses on nutrition, studying disease prevention

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Cargill and EWOS inaugurate landmark fish health centre in Chile

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Ioannis Zabetakis The role of aqua industry towards healthier eating


n my previous column, I made some references to our diet and our food choices and how these choices affect people’s awareness about food and diet. Let’s continue on this theme and have a look on some straightforward ways how aquaculture industry could contribute to healthier eating patterns. To start with, let’s think from our customers’ point of view. A mother or a father struggling to persuade their kids to eat fish; how can we help them? The answer should be straightforward! Providing them easy access to healthy recipes and secrets to heathier family eating could ease their problem. A dedicated section of our company’s website should focus to these issues. Does it though? A company’s website should be a great tool for fish producing companies to demonstrate their willingness to help people to improve their diets. The following are just a few of the secrets to healthier family eating that could be communicated via the Internet: The family who eats together is healthier. According to the latest guidelines of the Mediterranean diet pyramid, children who eat with their families consume fewer high calorie drinks and more fruit and vegetables. They also learn a lot from watching other children and older children. Adults, also, benefit from family meals; they eat less and better. The social aspects of sharing meals are huge. So, why do people eat on their own or in isolation in front of a monitor without talking to each other? Fish is tasty and easy to cook. How many fish producing companies around the globe provide simple fish recipes on their website, and just how up to date are these recipes? Providing information about the nutritional value of fish and suggesting easy ways how to cook it are important ways of promoting healthy eating habits and… promoting our products. Today, two very serious worldwide trends exist: obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are on the rise. CVDs are the leading global causes of death, accounting for more than 17.3 million deaths per year, a number that is expected to grow to more than 23.6 million by 2030. Obesity now affects 20-25 percent of young people. If we do not teach young people on how to develop healthy eating habits, the burden of obesity and CVDs to health system (e.g. cost of treatments, medication etc) would be tremendous. The aquaculture companies can and should become much more proactive in undertaking an important role here: fish is one of the most healthy food choices and it is available worldwide. These facts and easy ways to enjoy fish and seafood should be communicated in a more effective and attractive way. Related ideas and tips are posted on my blog, http://funfood16. . Your tips and ideas are most welcome! @yanzabet

After an Academic career spanning 12 years in the Univ. of Athens, Ioannis joined University of Limerick (UL) as a Lecturer on Food Lipids where the ongoing focus of his work will be towards the cardioprotective properties of food lipids with particular emphasis on dairy and aquaculture products.

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BioMar establishes aquaculture research initiative in Chile, South America


ioMar, the leading Danish aquaculture feed company has signed an agreement to purchase and utilize 30 percent of the Lenca research center from Aquainnovo, Chile, broadening its network of excellence research centers around the world. Aquaculture Technology Center Patagonia (ATC Patagonia) The Chilean contract-research center will be renamed Aquaculture Technology Center Patagonia (ATC Patagonia). Its current design and flexibility allows for running a broad range of trials on different species and nutritional projects for developing high performance feeds, testing of new raw materials as well as exploring new nutritional solutions and sustainable diets. This facility will allow for increasing the throughput of BioMar R&D efforts and focus on the development on functional feeds and fish welfare. In 2015 the technology center was further improved and optimized, making it the most complete and modern aquaculture research center in the Southern Hemisphere. Existing capacity also allows research based on genetic resistance challenges and pathogen and parasites trials for therapeutic and preventive treatments. The center allows for gaining new knowledge on recirculation technology systems, assessment of chemical products, development of vaccines and product registration studies in general. Recirculation technology systems Matias Del Campo, General Manager of Aquainnovo, comments, “Aquainnovo has a stateof-the-art infrastructure and proven record of applied trials. Our team of specialists is permanently supporting our customers by being effective in developing solutions to the main technological challenges in the industry.” He adds, “This initiative will strengthen the technological development thanks to the synergy of knowledge that is being brought in from both companies.” “Our research center is strongly specialized on trials for product development and validation. I am convinced

that this will enhance our current offer of contract research services, which will remain open for the Global Aquaculture Industry producers and suppliers”, Matias Del Campo concludes. Havard Jorgensen, Global Director of R&D of BioMar, agreed on this, “We are proud to have reached an agreement on an initiative of this level and importance in Chile. BioMar is constantly making efforts to improve our innovation capacity. We are incorporating this center to other facilities that we already utilise and it is a perfect match to our already existing feed trial units in Central America and Europe. Undoubtedly ATC Patagonia will create a positive impact on global feed development. Our highly qualified team of researchers and scientists look very much forward to use this center for their trials.” ATC Patagonia will help to accelerate the exchange of knowledge in BioMar´s Salmon Division and thus provide solutions in every area of development to their global customers, in order to satisfy their needs in a quick and flexible way. Inside ATC Patagonia The ATC Patagonia covers 2.5 hectares of surface, with more than 2,000 square meters of construction. It is located 33 kilometres from Puerto Montt, on the banks of the river Lenca. Built in 2011, targeting the highest world-class standards with regard to quality, monitoring, control and biosecurity this aquaculture contractresearch center of excellence permits more than 16 simultaneous trials, given the fact that it disposes of reception, quarantine and special areas for small or big scale trials, nutrition and feeding, parasites, pathogens and other multi-used areas. Everything is monitored and controlled in a recirculation system for trials in fresh water and seawater. By simulating the complete cycle of fish farming production such as controlling the temperature between 3 ºC and 28 ºC, trials can be carried out. The environmental impact and fish welfare are being taken care of by applying high biosecurity standards, water treatment systems and a series of standardized management practices.

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iomin has announced the 25th anniversary of the launch of Mycofix®, the leading mycotoxin deactivating feed additive, initially introduced in 1991. “It’s amazing to think that some customers have been using Mycofix® for 25 years. Clients in more than 100 countries recognize Mycofix® as the most effective and innovative product of its kind. It speaks to longstanding client relationships built on science, service and speed,” remarked Erich Erber, BIOMIN Founder and President of the Supervisory Board of Erber Group, of which BIOMIN is a part. “Mycofix® represents decades of scientific research on mycotoxin deactivation and combines the most cutting-edge mycotoxin mitigation strategies available anywhere,” said Ursula Hofstetter, Director

Competence Center Mycotoxins at Biomin. Science first “Robust R&D efforts have always been a core component of the Mycofix®product line,” she explained. In 1998, the firm signed its first research agreement on mycotoxin deactivation with the University of Veterinary Medicine in Vienna. Over time, further improvements and innovative ingredients that demobilise or degrade mycotoxins have been added. These efforts have cumulated in the development of technologies that biotransform mycotoxins into non-toxic substances, starting with Biomin®BBSH 797 to counteract trichothecenes. FUMzyme® —an ingredient in Mycofix® that detoxifies fumonisins— represents the most recent example of such strategies. The future of

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Biomin marks 25 years of Mycofix® and leading mycotoxin risk

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mycotoxin risk management Mycofix® now addresses a much broader range of mycotoxins than ever, making it an important tool for livestock and aquaculture producers throughout the world. Biotransformation will continue to play a key role in protecting animals. “Three decades of research and academic cooperation tells us that biotransformation is clearly the future of mycotoxin risk management. It’s targeted, irreversible and has a clear mode of action,” outlined Ms Hofstetter. “Also, it doesn’t take up much room in feed formulation. Unlike other methods, it directly addresses the root cause of health and performance issues —mycotoxins— and it’s the only way to successfully handle severe contamination levels.” Proven effectiveness Mycofix® contains the only EU authorised feed additives proven to adsorb harmful mycotoxins and to biotransform mycotoxins into nontoxic metabolites. Each ingredient has been evaluated in scientific and practical relevant field trials to assure effectiveness.

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EAS Student group opening the door from studies to the aquaculture world


he European Aquaculture Society’s lesser-known, yet well-established younger sibling, the EAS-Student Group (EAS-SG) held this year’s annual workshop during the Aquaculture Europe 2016 event in Edinburgh, with the theme of ‘Setting a knowledge transfer scene in aquaculture’. With the help of main sponsor SPAROS, the group has grown from strength to strength, successfully organizing annual student workshops during the Aquaculture Europe conference events as well as student receptions, travel grants and prizegivings for posters. Their aim is to encourage students’ participation in the EAS’s activities and to bridge the communication gap between new-emerging and

experienced personas within the Aquaculture scene. The workshop commenced with the industry’s perspective on both the success stories and challenges of knowledge transfer, with three keynote speakers from SPAROS, Biomar and the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation (SSPO). Three EAS-SG student travel award winners succeeded the floor by presenting their work and careers in aquaculture so far. Then, for the first time, they held a section of snap presentations that gave the opportunity to students to present their results within the restricted time frame of 3 minutes. This challenge was met by six students, who effortlessly captivated the audience’s attention and very clearly conveyed their message.

Lastly, the ground was set for a panel discussion with the SPAROS Managing Director, Jorge Dias, Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) CEO Heather Jones, and the past three EAS presidents, Alan Jones, Laszlo Varadi and Michael New who shared their expert advice and answered students’ questions. A plethora of productive ideas was exchanged this way, encouraging the new generation to move forward with a positive and clearer perspective. The workshop was followed by a student reception in the AKVA bar, sponsored by the Marine Alliance for Science and Technology for Scotland (MASTS), SAIC and Institute of Aquaculture at the University of Stirling. Both students and several senior members joined this event for an evening of networking in a friendly and relaxed atmosphere. On the last day of the conference, the EAS-SG board announced the winner of the Ibrahim Okumus poster award, sponsored by MASTS, within the formal setting of the presidential dinner. The night of networking ended with traditional Scottish Cèilidh dancing. The committee consists of five board members from diverse backgrounds and encourages the participation of undergraduate and postgraduate positions alike. For the academic year 2015-2016, the board members were: Antonios Chalaris (UK) – President Gala Podgornik (UK) – Vice President Sinem Zeytin (Germany) – Secretary Anna K.S. Rongved (Norway) Treasurer Kathrin Steinberg (Germany) – Social Media Coordinator The EAS SG Board’s goals for next year, led by Gala Podgornik, will be oriented more towards an active online student community, with scheduled webinars by experts and a forum for members where ideas can be discussed and job vacancies, academic positions and events will be posted. They would like to encourage active participation from all members and they warmly welcome new ideas. They hope you will join the society and to see you at the Aquaculture Europe 17 conference in Dubrovnik! /eas-student-group

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be completed in May 2017. “The creation of a major headquarters at Saint-Hyacinthe only underscores the city’s identity as a tech hub — an exclusive meeting place of various actors associated with the food biotechnology sector,” explains Emilie Fontaine, Jefo’s Marketing and Regulatory Affairs Director. Investing in knowledge “Our goal is for the training centre to become a world leader in animal nutrition,” adds Jean Fontaine with a note of pride. Indeed, the Jefo Group is committed to the transfer of knowledge, drawing upon 60 trained experts in animal nutrition as well as its major commercial partners. For example, Jefo recently brought together more than

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gronomist Jean Fontaine, the President and founder of Jefo, has announced a US$12M investment in the construction of a new prestige building that will serve as both a head office and a training centre. The avant-garde five-storey facility (100,000 square feet) will join the company’s numerous commercial and private buildings located north of Highway 20. “A seamless addition to its surroundings near the Château Fontaine Vineyard, the new building will incorporate cutting-edge technology and state-of-the-art architecture,” states Jean-François Fontaine, Vice-President at Jefo. In addition to conference and meeting rooms for technical and practical training related to the animal feed industry, the new building will house a cafeteria, a gym, lounges, and more than 150 offices. Construction is already underway, and the project will

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Jefo announce major investment in Saint-Hyacinthe, France

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200 stakeholders from 18 countries to discuss the primary challenges facing the livestock industry. Jefo, who markets highperformance livestock feed additives, were founded in Saint-Hyacinthe in 1982 by agronomist Jean Fontaine. Over the years, Jefo has experienced exponential growth; with all o ftheir prodcuts manufactured to meet the needs and strict standards of both domestic and international agricultural producers. At present, Jefo’s animal feed products are sold in 60 countries all over the world. The company comprises more than 250 employees, including several high-level scientists. Seasoned speakers had the opportunity to share their knowledge and exchange ideas about how to maintain healthy, profitable production methods while satisfying the evergrowing demands of consumers. For Mr Fontaine, knowledge, training, innovation, and growth are the keys to a future of prosperity for our agricultural industry and our farmers. Jefo’s President and founder is firm in his beliefs: “We have to take pride in the work we are doing to feed the planet.”

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 11

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Clifford Spencer

Aquaculture Without Frontiers: Creating new platforms for our beneficiaries he proposed AwF visits to Vietnam and Ethiopia I mentioned in my last report have now taken place and the resultant journey threw up a variety of interesting scenarios for aquaculture. As a sign of this charity’s commitment to its objectives a full five members of the six strong board of AwF visited both countries.

In Vietnam there is already a strongly developed system of aquaculture where the business of farming shrimps and fish is part of life and is strongly embedded in the social fabric of the country. This contrasts greatly with aquaculture in Europe where it sits within a setting of knowledge and industry ‘silos’ that often compete for public and thus governmental support and acceptance, and in so doing often prevent much needed development. e.g. water management, environmental regulation, recreational needs in coastal areas, food culture and the advent of fast food and external catering activity to public demand and the supplier requirements for these outlets. I gave a talk in Vietnam at their annual Vietstock event in Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) on the growth, decline and shifts in fish markets in the EU, US, Japan and China and my research for that provided some alarming figures for in particular changing eating habits, resultant food demand and as a consequence food supply and human health. The switch to Western diets in Japan for instance has significantly reduced its per capita intake of fish due to the influx and growth of western styled red and white meats being promoted in fast food in the market place. This has also resulted in cardiac health decline, obesity and associated negative health effects. Similarly even in China, an aquaculture global powerhouse, heart health which was of the highest standard due to the consumption of oily fish that was previously predominant in the diet is declining due to increasing demand for the less feed efficient production of red meat and poultry. This emphasises a further need for organisations like AwF to get their story across in developing countries to promote aquaculture for nutrition, livelihoods and health. Pleasingly the trade sponsorship for the Vietnam talk and involvement in the event of International Aqua Feed magazine will provide valuable monies to fund the transport, accommodation and training (together with sponsorship from participating organisations) of a to-be-selected young Vietnamese fish producer to train in Thailand on an intensive week’s aquaculture course. We then travelled to Ethiopia and arrived whilst a declared ‘state of emergency’ was in progress although the capital Addis Ababa revealed little of the situation other than internet restrictions being imposed. We held meetings with the Ethiopian Millers association to discuss the processing of Faba beans (the same type as grown in the UK) for aqua feed use and also visited an industry event to discuss bean

production in the favourable climate of the region. The beans are produced in the uplands where the significant height above sea level provides the cooler conditions whilst still enjoying levels of sunshine that the proximity to the equator provides. Ethiopia is the world’s second largest exporter of Faba beans, running only behind China in the global picture, thus giving an indication of high quality protein aqua feed potential for not only Ethiopia but neighbouring African countries around Lake Victoria. A recent UNIDO project had revealed that Ethiopia itself has rich water resources well suited to aquaculture development and this is coupled with the country currently being one of the lowest per capita consumers of fish on the African continent. It is a land-locked country but has the benefit of the River Nile and numerous lakes and reservoirs where only basic artisanal fishing is currently practised. Technological development and benefits for the farming population are extremely restricted in this one of the poorest countries of the African continent. However with a population of over 100 million of which half are below 18 and many with young families the food security situation is one that has merited concerted effort and sometimes global attention over a long period of time. This food security requirement further emphasises the potential role of high quality fish protein in the diet for particularly the benefit of expectant or young mothers and their children. Couple this to the intrinsic feed efficiency of aquaculture compared to other forms of land based animal protein production of lower quality and the potential for aquaculture becomes obvious. Aquaculture has the potential of producing large quantities of lower-cost, protein rich food and at the same time contributing to the livelihoods of the rural poor whilst it generates food of high nutritional value. Aquaculture therefore is the most important potential source of growth in fish supply for human consumption. However in Ethiopia fish protein accounts for 0.1 percent of protein in the diet, and nearly all is sourced from fisheries as opposed to aquaculture, which is a nascent industry in Ethiopia. During both our visits we enjoyed meetings with everyone from commercial industry players to government Ministers. The time spent provided an excellent global industry insight to supplement the European information already gleaned. We now have a good platform to develop ideas for promoting AwF global activity, so it can to be more effective for its beneficiaries. Some of these ideas when further developed will be described in future reports.

Currently Mr Spencer leads the Global Biotechnology Transfer Foundation (GBTF), which is dedicated to promoting the potential for biotechnology to support sustainable, long-term, socio-economic development.

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t the opening session of its Aquaculture Europe 2016 event in Edinburgh on October 21st, the European Aquaculture Society (EAS ) gave its Distinguished Service Award to Selina Stead, Professor of Marine Governance and Environmental Science at Newcastle University for her long-term commitment and contributions to the objectives and activities of the Society. AE2016 was attended by 1700 participants from 65 countries, making it the biggest Aquaculture Europe event to date.EAS has an award for Distinguished Services that is destined for individuals that have devoted very significant effort and time to the development of EAS and its objectives. The Award for Distinguished Services has only been presented three times in the 40-year history of EAS. The first time was to Prof Guido Persoone, who was one of the “founding fathers” of EAS, its President from 1980 to 1982 and it’s Treasurer for 6 years. The second awardee was Prof Niels de Pauw, EAS secretary for four years and the award was made recently to Yves Harache, who played a major role in the governance of EAS with a total of 16 years on its Board of Directors and as its President from 2010 to 2012. At its annual Aquaculture Europe event, EAS gives several Poster Awards and one

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Selina Stead receives EAS Distinguished Service Award

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of these is the Lindsay Laird Award presented by AquaTT and the Aqualex Multimedia Consortium. Lindsay worked with the expanding Scottish aquaculture industry on different aspects of salmon farming and in 1998, she became the first Chairman of the Organic Fish Producers’ association. She served as Vice-Chairman of the Scottish Fisheries Executive Committee and on the EAS Board of Directors from 1994 to 2000, when she was obliged to retire for health reasons – and she ultimately passed away in 2001. But she found a young, motivated and brilliant PhD student to take on her role in EAS - not wanting to lose contact with the society and to make sure that the UK and in particular Scotland - was represented in EAS core activities. This young student was Selina Stead and she became an EAS National Representative from 1998 to 2000 and was subsequently elected to the Board in 2000. Selina too had a passion for the objectives of EAS and was a Board member from 2000-2012 so a full twelve years! Within this period, she was EAS Secretary 2002-2004 and became EAS President in 2008. That passion remains and she has even gone beyond it, being part of or leading the Organising Committees of several Aquaculture Europe events and the Steering Committee chair of AE2016. It was therefore fitting to honour Selina, and also remember Lindsay, at the first EAS event in Scotland.

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Mussel spawning trials now underway at pilot hatchery


rials to get mussels to spawn in a hatchery environment are now underway at the NAFC Marine Centre at the University of the Highlands and Islands (UHI). The trials are part of a two-year research and innovation project to test the commercial viability of a Scottish mussel hatchery; a multi-partner collaboration consisting of the Scottish Shellfish Marketing Group (SSMG), UHI, and Highlands and Islands Enterprise, with co-funding from the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre (SAIC) and, most recently, the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund. This latest milestone comes after several months of custom-design, engineering and installation of the core infrastructure which includes algal culture and water treatment facilities along with tank room resources for spawning, larvae incubation and grow-out. Says Chairman of SSMG and mussel farmer Michael Tait: “It’s both empowering and daunting to reach this stage of our journey. We will be working with methodologies that have proven successful in Tasmania and New Zealand as our starting point, and exploring how and where they can be adapted to the specific mussel species and marine conditions found here in Scotland in order to produce spat on a commercial scale.” Aquaculture Manager at NAFC UHI Gregg Arthur, who will be providing an overview of the project at the forthcoming ASSG annual conference, adds: “We are hugely grateful for the level of interest and support we have received both from our industry partners

and our funders, and are very much looking forward to seeing our first batch of hatchery-reared spat heading out to farm sea sites.” If the pilot project is successful, the insights gleaned will help build the business case for a national hatchery or series of regional hatcheries – a development that would help producers achieve the Scottish Government’s targets of 13,000 tonnes annually by 2020, and the shellfish sector’s own ambitions of 21,000 tonnes annually by 2030. “Currently, Scotland produces over 7,000 tonnes of mussels each year, with Shetland accounting for almost 80 percent of production. Explains SAIC CEO Heather Jones A commercial-scale hatchery or hatcheries would lead to higher and more reliable yields; a more balanced distribution of sites; and with it, more jobs within the sector. Not only that, but there is also the potential for the same hatchery technologies and techniques to be applied to other shellfish species such as oysters, delivering further benefit to the sector.” Amongst those involved in the design and construction of the pilot hatchery were local firms Ocean Kinetics and Shetland Composites. Says Ocean Kinetics Managing Director John Henderson: “We were delighted to contribute to a project that stands to benefit not just Shetland and the surrounding area but also Scotland as a whole, and worked closely with the project team to design and manufacture key components of the hatchery equipment to their exact specification.”

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Gael Force Group sign contract with The Scottish Salmon Company


ael Force Group are pleased to announce that they have signed a contract with The Scottish Salmon Company, Scotland’s leading independent producer of salmon, as the preferred supplier of consumables to both farms and processing sites. For several years now, the Inverness based firm have had in place a strong supply chain system that already services a number of fish farm sites across Scotland with consumables. With a current, dedicated supply chain team that consists of nine full-time staff covering purchasing, sales, administration, warehouse and delivery personnel; Gael Force will further enhance the existing service creating additional jobs to meet the needs of the South West farm sites. To achieve this Gael Force have also increased the workforce in their Glasgow premises with additional staff and a new delivery route to cover the Southern area sites. Increasing their consumable supply chain service strengthens Gael Force’s commitment to the Aquaculture market and is part of the Highland based firms strategy for growth. Stewart Graham, Gael Force Group`s managing director said, “The added consumables contract fits well with our current development plan within the Group’s focus on the

aquaculture business. It’s another step forward for Gael Force becoming an end to end supplier of equipment and technology to the Scottish aquaculture markets”. The Scottish Salmon Company is a leading Scottishbased producer of the finest sea loch fresh Scottish salmon with 60 sites in the West Coast of Scotland and Hebrides. Commenting on the contract, Craig Anderson, Managing Director at The Scottish Salmon Company said, “We are committed to using local suppliers wherever possible – it is a core part of our strategy for long-term sustainable growth. Our new arrangement with Gael Force demonstrates this and will assist in driving efficiencies throughout the business.”

Pioneering Animal Nutrition: Discover our innovative feed additives – worldwide!

Visit the Future

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n October this year, Darren Parris and I had the pleasure of visiting Business Unit Director of Animal Nutrition, Nikolaus Jungbluth and Key Account Manager of Aquaculture, Holger Kuhlwein at Leiber’s head offices overlooking the Mittellandkanal in Bramsche, Germany.

Pioneers in sustainability For over 60 years, Leiber GmbH has been processing the by-products from breweries, brewers’ yeast and spent grains to produce a range of high-quality products used in animal nutrition for species such as ruminants, poultry and fish, to name but a few. Producing one of the world’s most natural and healthy raw materials in Poland, Russia and Germany, Leiber GmbH caters for a diverse customer base in more than 40 countries and is on its way to doubling its production with the new development of a multi-million pound plant in Engter, Germany. Nikolaus and Holger kindly offered us a private tour of Leiber’s spray-drying plant at their site in Engter, arguably one of the most modern, clean and energy efficient plants for the production of specialty yeasts on the planet. Indeed, with their own biogas plant and two turbines, Leiber is able to sustainably generate an impressive 35% of electricity and 10% of thermal energy that they use. With these admirable statistics in mind, we were suitably kitted out in white coats, glasses and hats, and our tour of the world-class facility began. In order to form powders using the latest technology, we learnt that yeast extracts that are produced in the extraction plant in Bramsche are additionally refined and dried here at the spraydrying plant, situated just 5km down the road in Engter. Immediately striking were the two spray towers, one of which, Nikolaus explained to us “is used for food, the other for feed, and they are connected to three hermetically sealed tanks each, so three for food and three for feed.” Adjacent to the 30-metre high spray-drying plant, we were shown inside of Leiber’s semi-automated high-bay racking warehouse that has more than doubled its capacity since our first visit in 2012, to holding some 4000 pallets. It is from this meticulously managed warehouse that all yeast extract products are loaded from for their customers, which arrive “within a maximum of two to three days.” Such products that can be derived from the yeast cell include Leiber’s aquafeed Biolex® MB40 that is characterized by its high levels of 1.3-1.6 beta-D-

glucan and mannan-oligosaccharides. It enhances the fish’s immune system, whilst deactivating pathogens in the intestinal lumen and has prebiotic effects on the microflora in the intestine. Leiber also has three other aquafeed-specific products which are CeFi® PRO, Beta-S and Beta-S PLUS, which all have unique benefits. For example, Beta-S and Beta-S PLUS supports immunological competence in larval and juvenile stages and improves the cellular and humoral defense mechanisms whereas CeFi® PRO increases growth due to the high bio-availability of nucleic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides. Multi-million pound new plant Leiber’s value chain is set to double its potential in 2017, with the opening of its new plant at the same location in Engter. By doubling its production and research capacity, Leiber’s global presence is set to fiercely accelerate. It almost goes without saying that the sustainable use of yeast extracts in aquafeed are only scratching at the surface of their potential applications, which presented to us an extremely promising future for both Leiber, its customers and the future of our planet.

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AQUACULTURE TRAINING The American Soybean Association’s World Initiative for Soy in Human Health program (ASA/WISHH) recently hosted a three day seminar in Pakistan on “Aquaculture and Fish Feed Management”. Organised by The WISHH program, who focus on, “technical transfer and behavior change efforts on weak links in agricultural value chains, delivering growth to local economies and improved nutrition to people and animals.” To date, WISHH’s work is already believed to have paved ever-expanding complementary trade in-roads into U.S. soy markets. Participants in ASA/WISHH’s seminar on Aquaculture and Fish Feed Management visit a fish farm outside of Lahore to see first-hand the results of feeding soy-based fish feed to tilapia.

ASA/WISHH hosts aquaculture course in Pakistan

Part of the USDA-funded FEEDing Pakistan aquaculture project, the course was specifically developed for women studying Fisheries and Aquaculture at the Lahore College for Women University (LCWU). The seminar, attended by 24 students and university faculty, included visits to feed mills in the country as well as a visit to a local fish farm. Led by ASA/WISHH Country Representative, R.S.N. Janjua, this study tour marked the first time a group of female Pakistani students were allowed to visit large scale feed mills in the country. As many as 96 percent of survey respondents reported learning new information about soy and its functional properties in fish feed during the seminar. This activity was organised with the collaboration of the Zoology Department of LCWU, Zoological Society of LCWU, Society for Promotion of Science and Technology of LCWU, the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Authority (SMEDA), and the Ministry of Industries, Government of Pakistan.



VIV MEA 2018








*May 23: invitation only

WWW.VIV.NET International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 17




We take a look at the EU project exploring the biological and socio-economic potential of new/ emerging candidate finfish species for the expansion of the European aquaculture industry


IVERSIFY began in December 2013 to acquire the necessary knowledge for the diversification of the European Aquaculture production based on new/emerging finfish species. The project has a total budget of €11.8 million for its 5 year duration (20132018), making it one of the largest research projects in the area of aquaculture funded by the European Commission. DIVERSIFY has identified a number of new/emerging finfish species, with great potential for the expansion of the EU aquaculture industry. These fishes are fast growing and/or large species marketed at a large size and can be processed into a range of value-added products in order to provide the consumer with a greater diversity of fish species and products. The fish species included are meagre (Argyrosomus regius), greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili); wreckfish (Polyprion americanus) and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). In addition, the omnivorous and euryhaline grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is also included, as it can be produced in a wide variety of environments and using low cost feed with small amounts or no fish meal/oils, and the pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) as a good freshwater species for recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Each of the species selected for DIVERSIFY has the potential to grow in the market and to produce value-added products. Their biological and economical potential are expected to stimulate the growth of the European aquaculture sector.

by Rocio Robles, Dissemination leader, Aquaculture Technological Center of Andalusia (CTAQUA), Muelle Commercial s/n, 11510 El Puerto de Santa María, Cádiz, Spain and Constantinos C. Mylonas, Project Coordinator, Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR), Iraklion, Crete, Greece Reproduction & Genetics

Great success has been achieved in the control of reproduction of greater amberjack. Spontaneous natural spawns have been obtained in tanks in the Canary Islands (Spain), while in the Mediterranean Sea stocks the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) implants (Fig. 1) has resulted in the production of large numbers of good quality eggs. In the 2016 reproductive season, >50 kg eggs have been produced from three stocks maintained in sea cages in Greece (Fig. 2), and have resulted in the production of ~150,000 juveniles by the HCMR larval rearing department (Fig. 3). These juveniles have then been supplied to five commercial rearing sites in Greece, for what is the first ever, large-scale commercial grow out trial of this species in the Mediterranean region (Fig. 4). With regards to work with Atlantic halibut, experiments have demonstrated that F1 fish could be induced with GnRHa implants to spawn earlier and produce higher fecundities compared to controls. This work will be scaled up and validated with more breeders from commercial facilities in the coming years.

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Work with wreckfish provided interesting results, with both spontaneous natural and GnRHainduced spawning in tanks and stripped gametes for in vitro fertilization (Fig. 5). Although a small number of fertilized eggs have been obtained so far, larviculture period had reached 27 days providing important results with regard to critical larviculture parameters. Although the success is far from what has been obtained in greater amberjack, this is the first time that a substantial amount of eggs of this deep-sea species have been available, for the implementation of larval rearing experiments. Work with grey mullet resulted in the increase in the percentage of fish maturing and synchronized gonadal development with treatments of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (Fsh) and metoclopramide. Spawning was then successfully induced in most females, with GnRHa and metoclopramide, resulting in the production of millions of eggs and larvae. However, common problems that still need to be addressed are the observed failed ovulation in many females (~42%) and the high variation in fertilization (0-90%). For the meagre and pikeperch, in order to provide tools for genetic improvement, captive broodstocks Figure 2: Greater amberjack breeders were genetically characterized, demonstrating that maintained in sea cages in Greece and induced to spawn using GnRHa delivery they have sufficient variation to be used for breeding systems (photo by HCMR) programs, and strategies were suggested on how the stocks could be improved. Work with meagre also demonstrated that paired (single male and female) spawning was possible to produce known families for a breeding program.


The results obtained so far have improved weaning diets for meagre, demonstrating the importance of raising the essential highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) levels up to 3% and vitamins E and C over 1500 and 1800 mg kg-1. Greater amberjack enrichment products were also improved by defining the adequate levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 1-2%), in order to prevent bone malformations and promote maximum growth and survival. Moreover, an optimum method for the effective enrichment of rotifers for greater amberjack was developed, and specific diets for broodstock of greater amberjack and wreckfish were formulated based both on bibliographical and analytical studies. Studies to develop optimum weaning-diets also started for pikeperch, focusing on the determination of the requirements for essential fatty acids. The trials for producing on-grown Artemia for Atlantic halibut have been completed, but have not produced any improvement in juvenile production so far.

Figure 1: Greater amberjack breeders given GnRHa implants to induce spawning during the reproductive season (photo by HCMR)

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Figure 3: Greater amberjack juveniles produced by the HCMR larval rearing department in 2016 (photo by HCMR)

Larval husbandry

Work on meagre showed that larvae can be weaned to artificial diets as early as 10 days post hatching (dph) without compromising nutritional condition and skeletal deformities. However, growth and survival should be considered. Cannibalism could be controlled by increasing the feeding frequency, removing dominant individuals, regular grading and by keeping the larvae in the dark when food is unavailable or in short supply. In greater amberjack, the larval rearing parameters to be used in the semi-intensive mesocosm method and the intensive method

were established, and large numbers of juveniles have been produced (Figs. 3 and 4) and sent for grow out to selected sea cage sites. Results until now showed that intensive rearing conditions favour amylase, alkaline protease and pepsin activities in 30 (dph) larvae, while in earlier stages (12 dph) amylase activity was also higher, in contrast to alkaline protease and lipase activities. In pikeperch, the effects of selected environmental factors (i.e. light intensity, water renewal rate, water flow direction and tank cleaning timing), individually and in combination on larval

Figure 4: Greater amberjack juveniles from HCMR, sent to a number of commercial sea cage sites for ongrowing trials (photo by HCMR)

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Figure 5: Sampling wreckfish (gonadal biopsy) to evaluate reproductive stage of development (photos by Aquarium A Coruna)

rearing, were examined using a multifactorial design experimental system. In Atlantic halibut, a study is presently running to compare the efficacy of RAS and flow through (FT) for larval rearing. Larval mortality was shown to be higher in the RAS system during the first week after hatching. In wreckfish, the objective was to define optimum conditions for the larval rearing. Although, larval survival was poor, samples of larvae were taken out on days 0, 5 and 10 of life to obtain the fatty acid profile of wreckfish larvae and the first results show that the fatty acid profile has little variation in the first 10 days of life. Moreover, early embryonic and larval development has been documented (Fig. 6). Although the larval rearing still needs further development, these initial larval rearing efforts are very significant in providing information that will enable us to evaluate the potential of this deep-sea species, for commercial larval rearing. Concerning grey mullet studies, results revealed that rotifer consumption and larval survival were dependent on algal turbidity in the rearing tanks, but independent of algal type added. Higher survival resulted in higher levels of smaller fish, which reduced average fish weight. Also, growth compensation was observed after grading at 29 dph.

Grow out Husbandry

Figure 6: (Top) Wreckfish larvae just prior to hatching. (middle) 1 dph and (bottom) 13 dph during the larval rearing trials at the Aquarium A Coruna, Spain (photos by Aquarium A Coruna)

The evaluation of feeding behavior of meagre demonstrated that juvenile fish were able to learn and remember specific stimuli related to feeding (Fig. 7). Small fish of 50-100 g body weight responded very quickly to light stimuli (2 days after the start of the experiment), but responded very slowly to mechanical stimuli (air bubbles). Larger fish (200 g) responded very quickly to both stimuli. The study demonstrated that both air bubbles and light can be used in an industrial setting, as they can be manufactured, implemented and managed easily with existing technologies in sea cages. For pikeperch, the husbandry studies focused on the on-growing requirements, emphasizing on the effects of (a) environmental parameters, (b) farm conditions, and (c) domestication level and geographical origin on growth, immune and physiological status. Finally in grey mullet, the first study that has been completed related to the definition of an optimal weaning diet. It was shown that fishmeal (FM) substitution did not affect any of the performance and condition parameters analyzed and that weaning wild grey mullet fry (which are zooplanktivorous) may be conducted using diets with a high level of FM substitution. In addition, a grow-out study was initiated in Spain and Greece, using wild-caught fry that are reared to harvest size under different environmental conditions and stocking densities, using a common DIVERSIFY formulated grow-out diet.

Fish Health

In meagre, a first experiment has been made to characterize the ontogeny of the immune response in meagre, with samples collected at various times posthatch. Samples of different tissues from juveniles have been also provided for analysis of immune gene expression. First attempts to develop a challenge model International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 21


Figure 7: Feeding behavior experiments with meagre juveniles. The fish were usually distributed randomly throughout the tank (left), but when a light stimulus was given (center) they gathered around the light source and consumed immediately the feed that was provided from an electric feeder in the same area (right) (photos by HCMR).

Figure 8: Diplectanum sciaenae from meagre broodstocks (inset) and an infection of Paradeontacylix spp. on the gills of a greater amberjack broodstock from sea cages (large image) (photos from HCMR)

have been performed with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida in meagre and greater amberjack. Efforts have been made to isolate pathogens from cultured meagre and greater amberjack (Fig 8), and several parasite and bacterial species have been isolated and identified (Epitheliocystis in greater amberjack). The monogenean parasite Zeuxapta seriolae was the most prevalent and important parasitic pathogen. Apart from Zeuxapta seriolae, what has also been identified is the blood fluke Paradeontacylix sp. to be present in greater amberjack reared in Greece (Fig. 8). There is scarce information on the biology of this parasite and almost nothing is known about its life cycle. A passive collector device has been designed and tested as a method to detect and quantify the level of infestation of monogenean parasites in greater amberjack during rearing in tanks. With regard to Atlantic halibut, production of Viral Neural Necrosis (VNN) capsid protein has been progressing well, and successful expression in E. coli, tobacco plants and Leishmania has been achieved. However, bacterial cells do not glycosylate

the expressed protein, as do higher eukaryotes. By expressing the capsid protein of nodavirus recombinant in different systems, it should be possible to find out if posttranslational modifications influence antigenicity, thereby affecting its ability to induce protection when used as an antigen in a vaccine.


The macro-environmental context analysis performed has indicated that most EU countries have a policy to increase fish consumption, whilst seafood consumption is increasing in most of them too. This growth can only be realized at the expense of other protein sources, since the protein market has been stabilized in the last few years. The southern countries eat more fresh whole fish, while northern countries prefer processed fish. Consumer preferences concerning farmed fish seem to converge to convenience and fresh standardized products, such as fish fillets, portioned meals and processed foods. Industrial buyers in

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Figure 9: Ready to eat meal-salad with meagre (left) and fish (meagre) burger shaped as fish (right) (photo from IRTA)

Figure 10: Thin smoked grey mullet fillets (left) and ready-made grey mullet fillets in olive oil (right) (photo from CTAQUA)

northern EU work closely with their trusted suppliers to develop new products, while the southern EU can be determined as seller markets, meaning that suppliers often initiate new product offerings. In approaching industrial buyers, farmers should be able to provide full information on their entire production process. The consumer survey identified three consumer segments: (1) involved traditional consumers (29%): who know relatively more about fish and buy traditional fish products; (2) involved innovators (36%): who know relatively more about fish and who have a more open mind to buy new fish products and (3) ambiguous indifferent (35%): who know relatively less about fish and who are less open to buy new fish products. Based on the first findings, more than one third of the consumers in the five selected countries belong to the segment of ‘Involved innovators’ and could therefore potentially be open to buy new species. A total of twelve products have been selected from a pool of 41 concepts for new value added product from DIVERSIFY species,

based on their different degree of technological complexity and processing and taking into account the appropriateness for each of the species under study: Intrinsic (sensory properties) and extrinsic characteristics (information provided) of the selected products/concepts were assessed by consumers in five countries including France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK (Fig 9 and 10). All the results obtained so far have been presented in scientific conferences, as well as in the annual coordination meetings. The next annual meeting will be held in Barcelona in January 2017 ( DIVERSIFY project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE-2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY).

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 23


NEW AQUACULTURE SPECIES Consumers’ perception of new fish products by L. Guerrero1, O. Lazo1, R. Bou1, R. Robles2 A. Claret1 1 IRTA-Food Technology Centre, Finca Camps i Armet, 17121 Monells (Girona) Spain 2 CTAQUA, Muelle Comercial S/N, 11500 El Puerto de Santa María (Cádiz) Spain


onsumers are the last step in the production chain and those who ultimately decide on the success or failure of a new product launched into the market. It is therefore essential to understand the factors affecting consumer behaviour and the key aspects driving decision-making and product purchasing. Sensory properties have been identified as one of the main determinants of food selection and consumption. However, sensory perception per se might be strongly affected by other aspects such as individual characteristics (e.g. attitudes or expectations) and environmental factors (context, origin, brand name, price, etc.). In the same vein, expected quality seems to be one of the most important factors in consumers’ intention to purchase food. It is evident that quality cues are used to infer expected fish quality attributes at the point of sale. These cues can be grouped into intrinsic (colour, odour, eyes shape, brightness) and extrinsic (price, origin, quality labels), and their role in developing expectations depends on the type of fish or fish products and on the context (circumstances in which the product and individuals will interact) in which the product will be used or consumed. In addition, it is worth making a clear distinction between experiential quality attributes such as convenience, freshness or sensory characteristics that will be experienced and ascertained at the time of consumption, and credence quality attributes, such as healthiness or naturalness, that cannot be experienced directly even after frequent consumption. Both quality attribute types can generate individual expectations, but only quality attributes experienced directly can be assessed, confirmed or disconfirmed. To enhance consumer perception (both expected and experienced) of fish and fish products, additional information provided at the point of purchase through communication (i.e. on the product label/package), may play an important role in reducing uncertainty in the formation of quality expectations. In fact, detailed information seems to be one of the most effective ways to facilitate more appropriate expectations and to improve enjoyment. In the framework of the DIVERSIFY project, twelve products


from new aquaculture fish species have been developed and tested from a technological, physical/chemical, microbiological and sensory perspective: (1) Frozen fish fillets (meagre, Argyrosomus regius) with different recipes, (2) Fish (meagre) burgers shaped as fish, (3) Ready to eat meal - salad with fish (meagre), (4) Fresh fish fillet (pikeperch, Sanders lucioperca) with different “healthy” seasoning and marinades, (5) Ready-made fish (pikeperch) tartar with additional soy sauce, (6) Fish (pikeperch) spreads/pâté, (7) Thin smoked fillets (grey mullet, Mugil cephalus), (8) Ready-made fish fillets (grey mullet) in olive oil, (9) Fresh fish fillet (grey mullet) with different “healthy” seasoning and marinades, (10) Frozen fish fillet (greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili) that is seasoned or marinated, (11) Ready-made fish (greater amberjack) tartar with additional soy sauce (12) Fresh fish steak (greater amberjack) for grilling in the pan. These products were selected from a pool of 41 concepts based on their different degree of technological complexity and processing and taking into account the appropriateness for each of the species under study. Intrinsic (sensory properties) and extrinsic characteristics (information provided) of the selected products/concepts were assessed by consumers in five countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK), thus focusing on both experiential and credence quality attributes. One hundred participants were recruited in each of the five selected countries according to the following criteria: regular fish consumers (farmed and wild), evenly distributed by age and gender and without any food allergy or food intolerance. Purchase probability (willingness to buy) was also evaluated in order to estimate those aspects having a major impact on the individuals’ buying intention. Whilst extrinsic properties were evaluated for the twelve developed new products, for practical reasons intrinsic attributes were only assessed for 6 of them ((2) Fish burgers shaped as fish, (3) Ready to eat meal - salad with fish -, (6) Fish spreads/pâté, (7) Thin smoked fillets, (8) Ready-made fish fillets in olive oil and

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(B) (12) Fresh fish steak for grilling in the pan). Figure 1 shows two of the selected products for tasting. Products with a lower degree of processing were those who generated higher expected acceptance. Consumers involved in the present study were selected based on their regular consumption of fish (wild or farmed). This recruitment procedure could explain the higher preference for those products having the genuine sensory properties of fish, without any interference.

Probably, products having a higher degree of processing would be more appropriate for consumers who do not like fish because of its taste, presence of bones, odour, etc. In these cases, the existence of different processed alternatives could be a good solution for those individuals looking Figure 1: Example of two of for a more convenient the selected products for and less “fishy” tasting: (A) salad with fish product. In general, and (meagre) and (B) fresh fish steak for grilling in the pan despite of the lower (greater amberjack) expected liking for the processed products all of them were perceived positively. Hamburger and fish pâté were the two products that were worst perceived regarding the presence of additives and naturalness. Grilled fillet was in all cases the best-perceived product in agreement with its higher expected acceptance. The most important parameter affecting liking expectations was the expected taste of the product. Health, nutritional and well-being related issues were relevant as well in order to increase individuals’ expectations, but to a lower extent. These findings seem to indicate that, in general,

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 25


Figure 2. Semantic profiles obtained for the pooled data set (5 countries, n=500).

consumers are unwilling to sacrifice taste by an improvement in health or functional properties. In a general sense, the perception of these products was similar across countries. Once the product was blind tested, the most preferred product was the grilled fillet and the least appreciated the fish pâté in agreement with the previously reported expected liking. The same pattern was observed in all the studied countries with the sole exception of Spain, where the least preferred product was the fish salad. The acceptability results obtained confirm those previously reported regarding consumers’ expectations, and also seems to indicate a tendency to prefer the low processed fish products; although, fish hamburgers were the product that most improved their valuation compared to their expected liking. Based on the segmentation analysis carried out, all of the selected fish products assessed in the present study seem to have a specific niche within the European market. Even though the different products were perceived similarly in the different locations regarding the acceptability ratings, they were described in a clearly different way when dealing with the main intangible dimensions that might define them (taste, convenience, environmental impact, etc.) Figure 2 shows the results obtained by means of a semantic differential scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects. In this scale respondents from the five countries were asked to choose where his or her opinion about each product lies between two polar adjectives, for example: 1 being “Safe”, 7 being “Unsafe”. Generally speaking, the sensory dimension seems to have an important contribution to the overall acceptance of the product and to its purchase probability. Importantly, the stimulating character of the product also seems to play an important role. On the contrary, it is worth mentioning the always-irrelevant environmentally friendly characteristic of the products. The most plausible explanation for this finding is that most of the different products assessed included in their description “sustainably produced” or “produced in an environmentally sustainable way”, which could have minimized the perceived differences between products. In any case, noticeable differences between products regarding environmental friendliness were

observed, especially in the UK and Germany. These results open a new framework of research aimed to understand the rationale behind the observed differences between countries and how they can be exploited to better design and commercialize the new products already developed. Such information as this will be essential in order to build different business models that aim to develop launching strategies for the different tested new products in different markets. This 5-year-long project (2013-2018) has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY). The consortium includes 37 partners from 12 European countries –including 9 SMEs, 2 Large Enterprises, 5 professional associations and 1 Consumer NGO- and is coordinated by the Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Greece.

26 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed

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Marine ingredients as a foundation for global fed aquaculture production


by Dr Neil Auchterlonie, Technical Director, IFFO The Marine Ingredients Organisation ed aquaculture developed in the 1960s at a time when the global supply of fishmeal and fish oil had previously been directed towards terrestrial protein production systems, and direct human consumption (e.g. hydrogenated fish oils), as well as other uses such as crop fertilizer (fishmeal), leather dressing and lighting (fish oil). That destination for global annual fishmeal and fish oil supply has since changed, associated with the growth of aquaculture from the late 1960s onwards. This has resulted in aquaculture taking an increasing share of both ingredients over that period, to the point where approximately 70% of fishmeal and 73% of fish oil was directed to aquaculture in 2015 (IFFO estimates). With a “normal” year’s annual production of fishmeal and fish oil around or slightly below 5 million tonnes and 1 million tonnes respectively, the marine ingredients industry is small in comparison to other animal feed ingredients such as soya and wheat. It is, nonetheless, very important in relation to the nutritional qualities that it provides to farmed fish and crustacean species, and remains the base of fed aquaculture to this day. It is also the basis for global pig and poultry production systems, but here our focus is on aquaculture. Despite the current fad for headlines and articles that criticize the inclusion of marine ingredients in aquafeed, it is important to

remember that fishmeal and fish oil are the nutritional foundations upon which the modern aquaculture industry is based. Without the nutritional quality of these ingredients in facilitating the development of fed aquaculture, the reality is that there just wouldn’t be a global aquaculture industry that supports a large and growing proportion of consumed seafood. Fishmeal is nutritionally complete for carnivorous species (although fishmeal itself may not be required) and it is a cost effective package providing the range of macro and micronutrients required by farmed aquatic animals (Tacon & Metian, 2008). For species such as salmon, trout, bass, turbot especially aquafeeds were dominated by these materials in the early days of fed species production, permitting the growth of an important industry. Having a complete nutrition available for the fish allowed efforts on technological development to address issues of production systems design and engineering, physiology, genetics, reproduction and the supply of gametes, and disease control to advance. With finite annual supplies of fishmeal and fish oil available, however, there would come a time when marine ingredient inclusions in aquafeeds would decrease as they were substituted by other ingredients, optimizing the use of aquatic proteins and oils, and thereby facilitating the continued growth of aquaculture. The overall volume used in aquaculture didn’t reduce, but the inclusion level in feeds did, permitting a feed volume increase

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PROTECT YOURSELF FROM THE ELEMENTS PRODUCT CONSISTENCY PROCESS FLEXIBILTY VALIDATED KILL-STEP FOOD SAFETY VERIFIED EXTRUSION CERTIFICATION SANITATION CONTROL that supplied a growing market. The “Fishmeal Trap” that had been highlighted by some authors in the early 2000s as limiting for aquaculture growth was not realized though, as partial substitution of the marine ingredients, notably with ingredients from vegetable sources but also including other animal proteins in some regions occurred (Jackson, 2012). It has also been noted that fishmeal has become more of a strategic ingredient, reflecting a move away from being a commodity in aquafeeds previously (Ibid.).


Why fish-free is not the reality

It is noticeable through 2016 that there are consistent messages in the media about “fish-free” feeds for aquaculture, including in some instances prizes for attaining this goal in commercial volumes, on the basis that this will somehow improve the (aquaculture) industry’s sustainability. Also, some of the major feed companies have provided press releases in recent months emphasizing that they are able to manufacture fish-free aquafeeds suitable for farming carnivorous species (but in some instances also stating that they will not be doing this even though the technology is available). In academia it seems that it is now trendy to work on the subject and there are similar examples e.g. Sarker et al., 2016, describing the apparent benefits of “complete substitution” of marine ingredients. It has become fashionable to take this stance, even though a major proportion of the marine ingredients that are produced globally originate from raw material derived from well managed fisheries, or increasingly from byproduct from the seafood

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processing industry, so the viewpoint that the substitution of marine ingredients is somehow addressing sustainability issues in fishmeal and fish oil supply is largely unsubstantiated. Clearly, some parties have vested interests in such statements, as well as having something to gain from those positions, but the reality is that fishmeal and fish oil remain very much part of global aquaculture. The nutritional profile of these marine ingredients is just too valuable to lose. It seems that at least some of the problem is a misinterpretation of the message that annual marine ingredient supply is finite (which implies partial substitution to achieve consistent growth in volumes), to now become a message about replacement, which is altogether different. An overview of salmon feed ingredients covering 1990 to 2013 (Ytrestøyl, Aas, & Åsgård, 2015) showed a decrease from 90% (c.66% fishmeal and 24% fish oil) marine ingredients to c.30% (18% fishmeal, 11% fish oil), illustrating how this has worked in commercial reality. The macronutrients in fishmeal are important for aquaculture, and the digestibility of fishmeal as an ingredient is very high compared with most other animal feed ingredients. Increasingly the micronutrients, especially the nutritional advantages to be gained through polyunsaturated fatty acids, the amino acid profile, and the vitamin and mineral profile, are becoming recognized not least for the health benefits for the farmed animal as well as the more obvious benefits around growth performance. At the current time, and in practical terms, other feed ingredients do not carry the broader nutritional advantages of marine ingredients. This may change with the advent of some of the new technologies available for producing e.g. proteins from methane, or oil containing omega-3 fatty acids from terrestrial plants, but the question will always be about the volume of supply that can be achieved relative to the demands of an aquaculture industry that continues to grow steadily at close to the rate of 5.8% per annum seen over 2005-2014 ((FAO) Food and Agriculture Organisation, 2016).

Predicting raw material supply

Securing the continued supply of raw materials for fishmeal and fish oil production is high on IFFO’s agenda, and an IFFOsponsored project at the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, U.K., investigated how this may change from the current position over the next 10-year period. Estimates were calculated, based on FAO and IFFO data, for the present position, as well as predictions for 5 years’ and 10 years’ time. Currently around 20 million tonnes of raw material across the world are used for fishmeal and fish oil production annually. Of this total, 14 million tonnes derives from whole fish from reduction fisheries, of which nearly 50% comes from South America. By-product contributes 5.6 million tonnes (3.7 million tonnes from capture fisheries and 1.9 million tonnes from aquaculture) equivalent to about 28% of the total raw material supply. Europe is a major contributor to capture fisheries by-product (1.2 million tonnes) and Asia to aquaculture by-product (0.8 million tonnes). Over the next 10 years, fishmeal production is estimated to grow by 25-30% mainly as a result of increased raw material availability, mostly from processed seafood byproduct. For various reasons, many of which are logistical and relate to the collection and transport of the raw material to fishmeal plants, byproduct utilization in fishmeal and fish oil production has some scope for improvement. Yields in fishmeal and fish oil from byproduct differ in comparison to whole fish. Fish oil production is predicted

"Marine ingredients have played a crucial role in the development of fed aquaculture systems, and will continue to do so in the future" to increase to a lower level (5-10%) over that period as a consequence of increasing proportion of by-products from whitefish fisheries for example, and increasing contributions from freshwater aquaculture species that are often lower in oil content. The most pressing restriction of marine ingredients from the perspective of aquaculture development relates to fish oil availability, and the supply of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). With these compounds there is a very real need for increasing volume of supply. Both fats are essential for the health of farmed salmon, and importantly are retained in the flesh of farmed salmon and provide health benefits to humans. A global finite supply, including in very recent times an additional impact of El Nino events in South America, has impacted the availability of these compounds. The project team calculated that approximately 210,000 tonnes of EPA and DHA is supplied annually from global sources, with South America the major contributor to this total. Hypothetically, if all the available byproduct was processed there could be an additional 170,000 tonnes of EPA and DHA available. Taking into account how wild-caught supply and aquaculture production would change over the period of the next ten years, the team predicted that this could rise to an additional 200,000 tonnes in 2025, assuming that all available byproduct could be collected. There is at least some scope for increasing supply in the future, albeit with some practical concerns around availability and collection of byproduct raw material. This is an important point because we are likely some way off the commercial reality of alternative sources of EPA and DHA in the necessary volumes, and it is only through working together across all ingredients supply that the demands of the growing aquaculture industry can be met.

Sustainable supply and certification

It is interesting to note the perceptions about sustainability in the marine ingredients industry, particularly from the perspective of a comparison with other feed and food materials. From 2009 onwards, IFFO worked on the development of an independent third party certification scheme for marine ingredients, together with the support of the industry, retailers and NGOs, which was adopted by the industry in 2011. Five years on, the IFFO Responsible Supply (IFFO RS) scheme is working through version 2.0, which should be adopted in late 2017. In 2015, the IFFO RS programme

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NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE represented over 40% of global supply of fishmeal and fish oil, something in the region of 2.2 million tonnes of supply of fishmeal. The predictions for the growth of certified material supplied from the industry are for approximately 47% of global production by the end of 2017, with plans to increase this further through the adoption of several Improvers Programmes in different countries around the globe. When this figure, as an overall global production of compliant material, is viewed in comparison with other feed ingredients used in aquafeeds, marine ingredients are very well represented with a percentage of global certified supply well in excess of the figures for ingredients such as, for example, soya and wheat.

Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals


Marine ingredients have played a crucial role in the development of fed aquaculture systems, and will continue to do so in the future. Aquaculture’s need is for continuing growth in feed volume, along with the ability to meet the nutritional and end product quality requirements of farmed aquatic species. Despite a critical representation of marine ingredients in the media, it is clear that the volume of supply required will be driven through a situation where fishmeal and fish oil are important components within the available basket of ingredients, in an “as well as” rather than an “instead of” approach.


(FAO) Food and Agriculture Organisation. (2016). THE STATE OF WORLD FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE. Jackson, A. (2012). Fishmeal and Fish oil and their role in Sustainable Aquaculture. Sarker, P. K., Kapuscinski, A. R., Lanois, A. J., Livesey, E. D., Bernhard, P., & Coley, M. L. (2016). Towards Sustainable Aquafeeds : Complete Substitution of Fish Oil with Marine Microalga Schizochytrium sp . Improves Growth and Fatty Acid Deposition in Juvenile Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ), 1–17. Tacon, A. G. J., & Metian, M. (2008). Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: Trends and future prospects. Aquaculture, 285(1-4), 146–158. Ytrestøyl, T., Aas, T. S., & Åsgård, T. (2015). Utilisation of feed resources in production of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Norway. Aquaculture, 448, 365–374. aquaculture.2015.06.023

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he production of fish, particularly tilapia, is becoming increasingly important in the protein market and in the animal nutrition industry. This production chain has changed the lives of many people and has made fish production an increasingly technologydependent activity. In this context, nutrition and health issues have been the subjects of great interest to the producers. Biorigin, an innovative company that offers natural products, has in its portfolio functional additives that optimize production such as feeding purified beta-glucans and mannan oligosaccharides to tropical fish, thereby increasing the productivity of the fish industry. MacroGard®, consisting of purified beta-glucans, is an immunomodulator that enhances natural defenses and prevents the emergence of diseases. Its mode of action is related to the activation of leukocytes (white blood cells), strengthening the immune system. For this purpose, however, beta-glucans must be purified (concentration ≥ 60%) and highly exposed. As a result, fish supplemented with beta-glucans have greater capacity to fight pathogens that are naturally present in the environment (bacteria, viruses), greater capacity to recover from stress (fish are more sensitive to diseases after handling and transport, similarly to humans during stressful periods), and respond better to vaccination (against Streptococcus, for instance, which has been increasingly applied in commercial settings). All these benefits result in a better overall health status and performance. In a study conducted by Prof. Dr. Fabiana Pilarski, from UNESP Jaboticabal, MacroGard® was included in an extruded feed at 0.1% (1 kg/t), which was fed to tilapia for 30 days. The

results showed that MacroGard® supplementation increased weight gain by 50% and survival rate by 31.50% after fish were challenged with the bacterium Streptococcus agalactiae. The benefits of beta-glucans are known worldwide, and these products are regularly used in major fish-producing countries, such as Norway and Chile, where the use of antibiotics has been increasingly restricted. The fish production in tropical countries is becoming increasingly technology-intensive, and therefore, the use of these compounds plays a key role to obtain maximum returns. Prebiotics also stand out as natural alternatives, and their benefits have been proven in a wide variety of aquaculture species. Prebiotics are non-digestible feed components that promote the growth of beneficial bacteria (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) and inhibit the replication of pathogens in the gut. Considering the products derived from the cell wall of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) have been widely used in animal nutrition, and particularly in aquaculture. Studies demonstrated that ActiveMOS, consisting of MOS, promote beneficial changes in the intestinal microbiota of tilapia, as they reduce digesta pH, and increase the production of mucus and short-chain fatty acids. As a consequence, the gut environment becomes healthier and gut mucosa is provided with a protective barrier. These benefits result in enhanced protein absorption (mainly due to the pH change) and performance (high growth rate and excellent feed conversion ratio). Natural and functional products have been increasingly applied in fish production, contributing to the profitability and sustainability of this industry. Making increasing investments in research and development, and aligned with the market, Biorigin is responsible for offering these natural alternatives to producers.

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Key factors in the successful production of rainbow trout


by Martin Smith, Hatchery Manager, Bibury Trout Farm, UK

uccessful production of rainbow trout relies heavily on high gamete quality and progeny performance. Fecundity, egg size, high egg survival and hatch rates are all attributes considered important when quantifying brood stock performance. To achieve success it is necessary then to provide the brood fish with optimal conditions throughout the maturation period as well as a high quality feed and good husbandry techniques. Failure to provide these essentials will result in poor quality brood fish and subsequently poor quality ova and underperforming fry. Brood stock selection is also an important part of commercial farming but not all farms are looking for the same traits. Restocking farms may be looking for good body shape and patterning and table producers may be more inclined to select for growth rates, fillet yield etc. As an egg producer I have to take into consideration what all my customers require but high fecundity is desirable, not to the extent where egg size is compromised however. It is believed by many farmers that the larger the egg the better the fry, although this is not the case in my personal experience nor in studies

conducted by others. However, higher fecundity does reduce the number of brood required, which in turn will help reduce the food bill, provide better rearing conditions through lower densities and reduce labour due to less stripping time. Ultimately a good quality egg with high survival and hatch rates takes priority and this is achieved by giving the brood fish the best diet, care and environment I can. Now unless we have a purpose built, state of the art production site where all water quality parameters can be closely monitored and optimised appropriately, then this becomes difficult. Those of us on river/ spring fed farms are continually at the mercy of the weather and whatever else mother nature throws at us, therefore providing these ’optimal’ conditions becomes very challenging and sometimes impossible. What we have to do then is give them the best we can given the circumstances. A well trained, conscientious farmer will understand the importance of good husbandry technique, keeping handling to a minimum is highly important as well as implementing effective bio-security measures, this will significantly help to limit stress by minimising disease/ parasite challenges and the requirement for expensive treatments and the use of antibiotics. Stress in brood fish at different stages of egg development has

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been proven to effect spawning time, egg quality and fecundity. Reduction in stress through good husbandry is therefore advantageous and every effort must be made to alleviate stress particularly at key stages of maturation. During vitellogenesis female brood commit vast amounts of energy to gamete growth, if she also has to deal with a stressor vital energy maybe diverted away from this. To supply the required energy needed to produce viable eggs, brood fish must be given a high quality feed. Brood fish diets are especially formulated to take into consideration the specific nutritional requirements of the fish. Using quality food will result in better fecundity and egg quality than using a standard grower feed, my personal preference being Skretting’s Vitalis RT. Trout start to build gonads up to one year before spawning so it is very important to get them onto a good diet up to a year prior to the planned spawning event. In doing so you maximise the benefit of the feed through vitellogenesis and oocyte maturation, both important stages in the cycle where fecundity and egg quality can be affected. Although brood fish will thrive and produce the best quality eggs if dietary requirements are met, the environment in which they‘re kept is potentially more important. If brood fish are kept in sub-optimal conditions, appetite will most likely be reduced and therefore the intake of essential vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids from the food is reduced. However as discussed, ensuring the environment is as good as it can be requires regular monitoring of water quality, on a river system this may only involve checking dissolved oxygen and flow rate as there may be no control over other parameters.



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Biomin opened it’s World Nutrition Forum in Vancouver, Canada, in mid-October 2016 with a press conference aimed at getting the message across to the feed industry that it is serious about driving the protein economy and meeting the livestock industry’s dual challenges of sustainability while ensuring farming, including aquaculture, remains profitable. It has a clear goal and is focusing significant effort on becoming the recognised leader in the market of phytogenic feed additives based on its globally-recognised researching development platform that not only includes its own research centres in Austria (and Vietnam for aquaculture), but its seven CAN or ‘centres for applied nutrition’ and 200 independent research partner institutions.

Technical support for livestock and aquaculture

The company’s extended capacity for innovation are not only relying on the its CAN facilities in Tulin, Austria but has strong research links with Kasetsart University in Thailand and Nong Lam University in Vietnam. It’s intriguing to learn that Biomin is now developing a global network of technical sales managers to bring industry up-to-date on the benefits of using more natural phytogenic additives. It backs up this shift in product delivery with client conferences, industry events and through it’s in-house magazine. It projects the market for phytogenic additives will grow from its current level of US£500 million to almost US$1 billion by

2020 and to US$2 billion by 2030 and it has clearly stated it wants to be the world leader in the sector by 2020. However, what is making Biomin more prominent in the marketplace is its work on combining single substances taken from essential oils and extracts with herbal and plant products to provide specialised products that can deliver pre-determined outcomes in terms of disease avoidance or suppression through to boosting the immune system and ensuring an internal digestive system in both animals and fish that function efficiently and effectively. Optimising feed costs and achieving more with less while reducing or eliminating antibiotic use is a key goal, it says.

The three S’s

The market for phytogenic feed additives is currently fragmented with lots of small to medium-sized companies but, as Biomin believes, “there is enough space for a company like ours to take the market leader position,” the press conference was told. The company’s CEO, Erich Erber, has introduced a ‘value proposition’ for the feed industry that is based on three S’s: Service, Science and Speed. “We used that to become market leader in management of mycotoxins and we are using the same proposition for phytogenic feed additives,” he said. Today, the company wants to provide all customers with technical support and services backed by a sound science

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The World Nutrition Forum moderators were Franz Waxenecker and Eva Maria Binder

platform. That platform has seen its budget double in recent years with an objective for it to be spending six percent of turnover on R&D by 2018 and supported by a strong patent library. “Just improving the product is not sufficient. Customers need to see what we do,” says Dr Michael Noonan, Global Product Line Manager Phytogenics at Biomin. “This is not only a fine art but is a scientific and complex field that Biomin has dedicated research teams to working in this area and we Dr Michael Noonan, Global Product Line Manager also have a strong track record. Phytogenics at Biomin “The company needs technical sales managers to help farmers to solve problems and to drive their success and profitability.“

“We have seen 24 percent annual growth since 2012 in this area and we have always focused on improved feed conversion,” he adds. And that’s not all, the company plans a major product launch of the ‘next generation Digestarom’ to coincide with VIV Asia in March 2017. “A patent has been submitted along with documents for EU registration,” Dr Noonan added. From left: Biomin’s managing director Hannes Binder, CEO, Erich Erber and Dr Michael Noonan, line manager Phytogenics

Major product launch

Biomin was founded in 1983 while Microplus began a year later in 1984. Biomin acquired Microplus and its Digestarom product in 2012 and together with the work it had been doing since 2000, when it launched its first phytogenic product, Biomin has since been improving the Digestarom product into an effective feed conversion product. International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 37



eafood demand is increasing rapidly due to the changes in the habits of middle class people in developing countries. Awareness of the health benefits of eating seafood is also going momentum; with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, fish play an important role in healthy nutrition across the globe. Additionally, high levels of micronutrients and vitamins highlight the importance of seafood not only as an important protein source, but as a healthy protein that satisfies the requirements of a health-conscious society. These were the three leading points made by Goncalo Santos when he opened the aquaculture session at the World Nutrition Forum in Vancouver in mid-October 2016, which carried the theme ‘Driving the protein economy’. His session looked at how aquaculture can play its role in providing the protein the world’s growing population is demanding. At present global seafood consumption is around 20kg per capita. By 2050 the production of seafood will have to double to meet the demand expected. With 80 percent of traditional wild-caught fish stocks overexploited, it makes it difficult to try and meet the global demand from capture fisheries. Therefore aquaculture must play a more dominant role in meeting that demand, he adds. “Aquaculture has been the fastest animal production sector in the last decade with growth rates around seven percent per year. In 2011 it surpassed beef production in volume.”

Terrestrial constraints

An expansive presentation by Barry Costa-Pierce of the department of marine sciences at the Marine Science Centre of the University of New England in the USA, looked at ocean food ecosystems for planetary survival in the anthropocene - or the current geological age where mankind has been the dominant influence on environment and climate. He concluded that the future terrestrial animal protein production has serious resource and environmental constraints that will limit its ability to provide an increased 470 million tonnnes of protein food by 2050. In contrast, aquatic protein production systems of both fisheries and aquaculture are far superior choices for global investment to 2050 and beyond.

“Most importantly, nutrient-rich and dense, omega-3 rich aquatic foods are better food choices from a human health perspective than land-based protein foods,” he told his audience. Inland aquaculture accounts for 65 percent of the increase in aquculture production in the 10 years leading up to 2014. “Most of global aquaculture production until 2050 will continue to be freshwater aquaculture in Asia,” he says. Asian societies have deep social, ecological and historical aquatic farming systems and traditions with strong institutions in aquaculture that will rapidly take up new areas in aquaculture.

Searching for a fishmeal replacement

In the drive to replace fishmeal in aquatic feeds, it was pointed out to delegates that between 30-50 percent of animal food products are not consumed by humans. That equates to between 50-100 million tonnes annually. Most is rendered into meatand-bone meal and poultry feather meals, blood meal and other products. Animal by-products are a huge protein source with variable lipid or melting point quality and highly suitable for use in aquafeeds but are being largely wasted, says Professor Ashild Krogdahl, professor of animal nutrition at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences in her presentation of the sihmeal dilemma. She looked at the alternatives. However, in Europe there is a general ban on the use of rendered products in any food production process including aquaculture, with the exception for certain blood meals with traceability documentation. While the ban has been lifted for aquaculture use it has not been implemented. Therefore the use of plant ingredients are currently the best option for use but have less suitable amino acid and fatty acid profiles. Plant protein crops include soy, sunflower, pea, lupine, horse beans and rape along with whole grains and gluten by-products from starch production and bioethanol and biodiesel production. “On the longer term these resources are not sufficient or sustainable,” she says. She reviewed the nutritional make-up of several organic materials from wood, to seaweed to insects and earthworms before explaining that the ‘great resources of available carbon, oxygen and nitrogen’ are unused and together with energy and minerals can provide the most critical nutrient for food production – H3PO4 or phosphoric acid.

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From left: The nine presenters to the World Nutrition Forum’s Aquaculture Session. Daniel Merrifield, Matthew Briggs, Goncalo Santos, Barry Costa-Pierce, Ashild Krogdahl, Rui Goncalves, Simon MacKenzie, Tzachi Samocha, Alberto Nunes. IAF will carry followup reports from these speakers in subsequent issues in 2017


Make Materials

Waste Products

However, not only natural gas and fermentation plants are needed but also great technological developments if we are to achieve economical production systems for new protein sources, she adds. Professor Krogdahl warns that these new proteins will deviate significantly from that of fishmeal and will require tailor-made mixes of feed additives. She also pointed out that markets will have to expand greatly for feed additives aiming to overcome low palatability, make their nutrients more available, rectify nutrient imbalances, reduce the impact of anti-nutritional factors, regulate gut microbiota, improve immune function and improve gut health. The world is running short of certain nutrient resources in addition to pollution threatening life on both land and in the seas. “Oilseeds, grains, microorganisms and insects are valuable foods also for humans. Aquaculture feed production should not compete with humans for food. “As with the by-products of animal origin, improvements in nutritional value of plant-based products also make these products more suitable for human consumption, enforcing the discussion regarding the competition between animal and humans for food. “An added disadvantage of using terrestrial plant and animal nutrient sources to supply aquaculture is the continuous and largely irretrievable loss of valuable nutrients from land to sea,” says Professor Krogdahl. “Aquaculture feed production should be based on the principles of ‘circular economy’ and help push development in this direction,” she adds.

Understanding the needs of shrimp

Dr Alberto Nunes, of the Universidade Federal de Ceara, Brazil, told delegates that in 2013 the global production of farm-raised marine shrimp generated a direct revenue of

almost US$23 billion and accounted for 4.46 million tonnes in production. More than two-thirds of this production concentrated on the White-leg Pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Today, the bulk of far-raised shrimp production is dependent on the supply of industrially produced compounded feeds. However, despite this there is little documented information regarding the species nutrient requirements. Dr Nunes' presentation looked at some of the challenges facing shrimp nutrition as experienced by farmers and the feed industry and will be the subject of a feature in a following edition of International Aquafeed.


Understanding the source and impact of mycotoxins in aquaculture and the use of probiotics enhancing gut performance were two presnetations made by host organiser Biomin. Rui Goncalves who holds the position of Scientist – Aquaculture in the Research & Development at Biomin in Austria, dealt with the subject of mycotoxins in aquatic feeds and reported in detail on the findings of the company’s annual, global survey. One of the most comprehensive available. He reviewed the effects of mycotoxines on aquatic species and reported on Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisins, Zearalenone, Aflatoxins and Ochratoxin A. There was limited research associated with each type of mycotoin, however it is clear that fish species are susceptible and that their growth rates can be curtailed and their reproductive systems impacted. He also looked at the occurrence of mycotoxins in plant ingredients and concluded that all eight plant meals analysed from Asia (93 percent) and Europe (78 percent) revealed incidences of mycotoxin contamination. The study analysed soybean meal, wheat, wheat bran, corn, corn gluten meal, rapeseed mel, cottonseed meal and rice bran. Of the 41 finished aquafeeds collected in Asia and Europe, DON was the most prevalent mycotoxin with 68 percnet of sames testing psotiive, followed closely by AF and ZEN at 59 percnet positive and OTA and FB with 57 and 51 percent respectively. FB was found to be in the highest concentration in samples analysed. Two-thirds of all samples had more than one contaminating mycotoxin present. “Mycotoxins were found in most of the commodities and fishished feeds analysed, showing that mycotoxins might represent a risk for the development of the sector – if plant materials would be an option to replace less sustainable nutrient sources. “It will be important to increase the knowledge on the effects of mycotoxins on aquaculture species in order to define acceptance levels of mycotoxins in the finished feeds; as we have today in the livestock production sector,” he added. Mr Goncalves outlined several take-home messages for delegates. The key ones being: 1) The mycotoxin (MTX) levels in finished feeds depends on the type of plant materials used and the accumulation of MTX in by-products such as plant meals; 2) There should be greater awareness of the co-occurance of MTX when plant materials are combined which can lead to a synergistic effect and finally, 3) Most MTX found in plant meals are produced by Fusarium sp. under field conditions and before harvest. “There is no way of controlling their production,” he says and industry “needs to find a solution to reduce the impact of MTX in feeds.”

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DRIVING THE PROTEIN ECONOMY UNPRECEDENTED CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES by David Hughes, Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

David Hughes is Emeritus Professor of Food Marketing at the Imperial College London and also a visiting professor at the Royal Agricultural University in the UK. He is a much sought after speaker addressing international conferences and seminars on global food industry issues and particularly consumer and retail trends. He was the plenary speaker at this year’s World Nutrition Forum held in Vancouver, Canada from October 12-15. IAF reproduces here an abbreviated report of his opening presentation


he global population is inexorably moving from its current 7.2 billion towards nine billion plus with the lion’s share of the additional two billion expected over the next 30 years coming from emerging countries. The combination of more people with higher incomes will bring changes in diet with demand continuing to burgeon for animal products - meat, eggs and dairy - albeit at a reduced level from the frenetic rates experienced between 1980-2010. Poultry, pork and eggs will see the fastest growth to 2030 with farmed fish and seafood expansion more than compensating for the decline in wild caught aquatic species and the premium minority meats of beef and lamb advancing but more sedately! So, for those in meat, eggs and dairy business, should they sit back and enjoy the ride? Not exactly, as recent evidence form the global dairy industry has shown, the longer-term demand picture may be rosy but, in the short-term, prices can be extraordinarily volatile. For example, in second quarter 2016 global milk prices plummeted to close to half those experienced in halcyon 2013. A toxic coincidence of farmers expanding milk production in response to higher prices, changes in the EU dairy policy environment, shortening demand occasioned by slower economic growth in many emerging countries and previous over-purchasing resulted in a collapse in global mill prices And who’s to say that the American mid-West drought which

induced a spike in food and feed grain prices in 2011 and 2012 will not be repeated because of further unforeseen and unpredictable climate events with consequential damage to profitability in the intensive livestock sector? In short, businesses should be positive about the future but ensure that they have the resilience to cope with increasing volatility in the international commodity prices.

A polarized picture

The demand picture for meat across the globe is distinctly polarised: strong growth in most emerging countries contrasts starkly with static or declining per capita consumption, particularly for beef and pork, in developed countries such as the USA, UK and France, although chicken seems to buck this trend. This ‘peak meat’ status can be explained by high absolute levels of meat consumption in some developed countries; that is over 100kg per capita in the USA. But also, contemporary research from the UK shows that some consumers are reducing meat consumption because of health concerns (58 percent), to save money in difficult financial times (21 percent), because of concerns about animal welfare (20 percent) and food safety and worries about the environmental impact of livestock production (11 percent). These reductions are more likely to be made by female and or older consumers. Food trend watchers in high-income countries note the growing interest in ‘flexitarian’ diets where consumers elect to eat an increasing number of meals and snacks that are fruit- and vegetable-based rather than meat-based.

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In effect they become part-time vegetarians and this is reflected in the huge growth in interest in plant-based protein foods and drinks.

Year of the Pulses

This year is the UN-sponsored International Year of the Pulses and their protein content and sustainability and nutrition credentials are presented front and center in the strap line ‘nutritious seeds for a sustainable future.’ In the ‘flower power’ years of the 1970s, vegetarian fare was dire; gritty soy burgers and dull nut roasts. Now there are ample tasty main meals and snacks that are meat free. This should be no surprise as the core diet of the Indian sub-continent is meat-free and has been serving up delicious vegetarian meals for millennia.

Pressure from non-meats

In mature developed markets, the mayor meats from animals will face increasing pressure from non-meat proteins which will be capable of competing on taste, price and their ‘green’ credentials’ such as environmental impact and sustainability. Factors driving food-purchasing behaviour are becoming more complex. Price, taste and convenience have been overwhelmingly the principal drivers, but now shoppers increasingly want ‘values’ in addition to ‘value’. Products attributes might now include: • Place and method of production • Provenance and the background story of the product • Care for the local economy • Animal welfare • Worker welfare • Environmental impact and overall sustainability

Skeptic producers

Producers and processors often express skepticism about the genuine interest of consumers in some of these more esoteric attributes and whether they are willing to pay more for them. Survey results suggest a willingness to pay for products that have strong environmental credentials. But the reality is that consumers increasingly expect food producers to respond to their emerging social concerns about the growing, processing and selling of food in a socially-responsible manner. There is no premium to be earned for doing so but there is certainly a discount if consumer wishes are ignored. In short, the ‘green bar’ is going up and the challenge for the food industry is to meet, indeed, exceed consumer expectations and thereby earn their longer-term loyalty. The burgeoning concerns about social values associated with food production are not exclusive to elite Western consumers. For example, Nielsen research in 2016 identifies that Asian consumers look for and reward with their customer companies that are environmentally-friendly (on packaging, waste and recyclability), are concerned about social values such as health of the local community and are critically health aware on behalf of their customers. The ability to pay is key and income level is an important factor determining food choice. Anywhere in the world low income consumers will seek the lowest cost products if they are adequately to feed their families but irrespective, they can aspire to higher quality products and more treats. For those that can afford to pay a premium, there is clear market evidence that consumers in developed countries are electing to eat less meat overall, but when they do eat meat they want to eat


Consumers want food free

Coining the phrase ‘consumers want their food free’ and that there is a distinct preference for ‘adjectives’ to be added to their food and not ‘additives’ is clear in the list of what they specifically want: • Antibiotic free • Hormone free • Additive free • Campylobacter free • Salmonella free • GMO free • Gluten free • Free range For most of the above the expectation is that these will be provided as a matter of course and without a price premium.


The routine use of antibiotics in animal feed to improve growing efficiency is under particular attack at present. The fast food market leaders are currently responding to shareholder and special interest group pressure to remove routine usage. It is indicative of the global interest in this issue when the leading article in the prestigious current affairs magazine ‘The Economist’ carries the heading ‘When the drugs don’t work’ and the global livestock and meat industry is identified as a particular culprit in the overuse of antibiotics.

Where fish fits in

One of the enigmas of the global meat protein industry is that fish and seafood producers rarely consider that they compete with land-based meats and vice versa! Yet, from a consumer perspective, meat, fish, eggs and plantbased proteins are all substitutes for each other. Globally, fish and seafood are in prime position with pork and poultry sharing second place. Take out the dominant China from the overall meat equation and fish and seafood share primacy with poultry. Within much of Asia and Africa, fish are a highly important source of protein for consumers. The big global battle for affordable meat protein is emerging markets is between ‘industrially-produced’ chicken and fish. Farmed fish such as tilapia and pangasius are highly efficient in converting fish feed into fish meat, with chicken the next most efficient converters.

The others

The challenge for pork and particularly beef and lamb producers and processors is to distance themselves from the intense commodity batter between the white meats. In the future all meats will have to keep a keen eye on the emerging meat analogues – faux meats – that seem to be establishing a toehold in, particularly, developed markets. Their much-improved taste and ‘mouth feel’ similar to meat plus perceived environmental credentials may well portend to bring future and a serious competitor to real meal.

In conclusion

The future looks bright for the global meat industry. Its biggest challenge is to move at pace from being production-orientated and supply-driven to a consumer-facing and friendly meal and snack solution provider.

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It is estimated that the UK could supply between 15 and 20 percent of its electricity demand from tidal energy. What relevance does that have to aquaculture you may ask? The answer lies in the common need for technologies to allow access to environmentally energetic marine sites; as there is potential for an anchoring product developed in tidal energy to allow placement of fish farms in sites previously out of reach - see more on page 52

TILAPIA Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.

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1 Tilapia is the common name given to nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe. Tilapia are most commonly freshwater fish which inhabit ponds, shallow streams, rivers and lakes; whilst they are also less commonly found living in brackish water. The name Tilapia is also often applied to various cichlids from three distinct genera: Oreochromis, Sarotherodon and Tilapia. The members of the other two genera used to belong to the genus Tilapia but have since been split off into their own genera. However, particular species within are still commonly called "tilapia" regardless of the change in their actual taxonomic nomenclature.

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n this article, the research of Dr Yaw B. Ansah and Dr Emmanuel A. Frimpong on the effectiveness of BMPs on the aquaculture industry, specifically the production of tilapia in Ghana will be shared. Dr Ansah received his PhD from the Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation as well as an MSc in Agricultural and Applied Economics, both from Virginia Tech (USA). Dr Frimpong is an associate professor at Virginia Tech, he studies fish biology and aquaculture and supervised Dr Ansah’s dissertation.

Classified by the World Bank in 2014 as a ‘lower middle income’ country, Ghana has an economy largely dependent on agriculture. The agricultural sector contributes 23 per cent of the country’s gross domestic product (GDP) annually, whereas 42 per cent of the population was employed in the agricultural sector in 2013. Ghana’s 2.3 per cent annual population growth rate requires a sustained increase in food production. The country has increased food production per capita by more than 80 percent since the early 1980s, and is largely self-sufficient in staple crops such as maize, cassava, plantain, and yam. In 2011 the Overseas Development Institute forecasted that Ghana would meet the United Nation (UN)’s Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1 of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger by 2015. With 2017 fast approaching however, it is important to go beyond meeting goals of ‘food quantity’ to also target ‘food quality’, both of which are components of food security. Ghana is one of the countries in the sub-Saharan Africa region with the potential to dramatically increase its fish production

through aquaculture. This is the result of a high fish demand, and the combination of a stable political environment and the commissioning of the only commercial fish feed mill in West Africa. The country derives a majority of its dietary protein from fish, with an estimated per capita fish consumption of 20–30 kg per annum in 2009, higher than the global estimate of about 18 kg. The global aquaculture industry has been blamed widely for its negative impacts on natural aquatic ecosystems. Pond effluents are relatively dilute, and as such not amenable to conventional treatment technologies. Aquaculture management practices affect the volume of water, nutrient, solids, and oxygen demand loading rates from ponds to effluent-receiving water bodies. Generally, these practices are grouped into nutrient management and effluent management. In 2014 Frimpong et al showed the effect of two best management practices (BMPs) on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and their effectiveness at preventing the transport of nutrients and solids from fishponds to water bodies in Ghana. Specifically, these two BMPs were the use of commercial floating feeds and pond water reuse. That study showed that reused pond water resulted in the same growth rates as the usual practice of draining and refilling pond with new water before stocking. This result was in contrast to the widely held belief among pond fish farmers in the sub-Saharan Africa region that reusing water from a previous cycle could harm cultured fish. Two main types of fish feed are used by fish farmers in Ghana. The recommended commercial feed type is pelleted, smooth, and mostly floating, unlike the farm-made type, which is coarse,

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powdery, and sinking. In a previous study Frimpong et al showed that the commercial floating feed type resulted in up to a 100 percent increase in fish growth compared to the farm-made sinking feed. Analysis of revenues and costs on a typical tilapia farm in Ghana also indicated that using commercial floating feed resulted in a higher probability of profitability (45%) than using the farm-made alternative (25%). Demonstrating profitability of better management practices will encourage the adoption by fish farmers, which will both protect the environment and further increase farm profits. Widespread adoption of profitable innovations is expected to have an impact not only at the farm–household level, but also on the welfare of the society as a whole, including both producers and consumers. Positive outcomes of adopting BMPs such as commercial floating feeds include achievement of an “environmentally-friendly” image by the aquaculture industry, increased tilapia production, and lower fish costs. This study conducted by Dr Ansah and Dr Frimpong sought to quantify the economic impact of the adoption of floating feeds in pond culture of tilapia in a developing country on social welfare. Specifically, they were interested in the net present value (NPV) of BMP adoption, with Ghana as a case country. Also, it was of interest to determine factors that had the greatest influence on NPV from adoption of the BMP.

Research details, methodology and data collection

Generally, according to economic theory, an innovation (a new technology) shifts the supply function for a commodity downward, resulting in a larger equilibrium quantity at a lower price. This development may have a significant bearing on the level of poverty or welfare of a particular community where a new agricultural technology is diffused. The conventional

framework for applied welfare economics is provided by a threepart assumption: the demander’s perceived value of a unit of a good or service is indicated by the competitive demand price of that unit; the supplier’s perceived value of a unit of a good or service is indicated by the competitive supply price of that unit; and the net benefits and costs of a given action to a group of people is the total of the benefits and costs to each member. Dr Ansah and Dr Frimpong employed the economic surplus method, which is the most common method for analysing the welfare impacts of agricultural research in a partial equilibrium framework. The popularity of this method stems from the fact that it requires the least data, can be applied to the broadest ranges of situations, is easy to grasp, and can be used both ex ante and ex post. To effectively run the economic surplus model, both physical and market data must be collected on the following: • The proportion of farmers who adopt the innovation overtime • The price of the commodity • The change in yield of the commodity with the new technology • The nature of the market, as products that are traded may not experience price declines if production increases • The time it takes to develop the innovation, and the number of years for maximum adoption to be reached • The discount rate for future benefits compared to current benefits The researchers raised Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) on five demonstration earthen-pond farms in central Ghana. Stocking, feeding, and other management practices employed for the production of tilapia on these demonstrations were consistent with those used on typical tilapia farms in Ghana. These demonstrations provided both physical data on the effects of

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Figure 1: Summary of results of Monte Carlo simulation to determine NPV in US$ for adopting commercial floating fish feed in Ghana, showing a 90% confidence interval

Figure 2: NPVs at different percentiles for adopting commercial floating fish feed in Ghana

refilling emptied ponds. The vast majority of pond farmers in Ghana obtain water at no direct cost from diverted streams or groundwater seepage. Cost savings to the farmer are therefore not readily apparent. The unit cost of the recommended feed type is almost eight times that of the farm-made alternative, and the cost of fish feed makes up over 50 per cent of total costs on a typical fish farm. The implication is that the adoption of the new feed technology will result in a 350 percent increase in total annual farm costs. The rate of adoption of each BMP was tracked over three years though a comprehensive survey that was administered from 2011 to 2013, to 363 fish farmers in Ghana. Respondents came from the central and southwestern parts of Ghana, specifically in the Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, and Western Regions. Pond farms in Ghana are located mostly within these regions, due to conducive biophysical factors. Average adoption rates over this period were 58.2 percent for commercial floating feed and 27.4 percent for pond water reuse. It is worth noting that most farmers who claim to use the former technology presently do not use it exclusively, but the trial of the technology is an indication of their desire to fully adopt it if it proves superior and affordable. Dr Ansah and Dr Frimpong assumed 70 percent as the maximum adoption rate, which they believe to be a realistic figure for an aquaculture innovation. Aquaculture production in Ghana occurs in two main systems, floating cages in the Volta Lake and dugout earthen ponds. Floating cage systems are intensive operations that rely solely on commercial floating feed through the production cycle, and these systems account for about 90 percent of the country’s aquaculture production. Total production from cages alone was 24,250 metric tons (mt) in 2013. Current BMP dissemination efforts are targeted at the less-intensive earthen-pond systems that rely more on the farm-made sinking feed type. Effectively, the adoption of the new feed technology will likely impact the production from earthen ponds, since the innovation is already being used widely in the cage systems.

Research findings

Figure 3: Relative impacts of key variables on the mean NPV for adopting commercial floating fish feed in Ghana across the range of key variables

two BMPs on the growth of Nile tilapia and budgeting data for profitability analysis. The two BMPs were use of commercial floating feed (as opposed to farm-made feed prepared on site from food and agro-industrial wastes), and reused water (as opposed to draining and refilling ponds with new water before each production cycle). In the Frimpong et al 2014 study, it was concluded that of the two BMPs, only feed type significantly influenced fish growth and yield. Using floating feed resulted in average yields 100 percent higher than using sinking feed. Since there was no significant difference in fish growth with water type (reused or fresh water), the researchers analysed only the welfare impacts of the adoption of floating feed as a new technology. Reusing pond water for multiple production cycles is clearly environmentally beneficial. However, there were no significant differences detected in fish yields or farm costs from this BMP. The quantification of the environmental impacts of reusing pond water is the subject of a separate study. Without resulting in differences in growth, the only potential source of economic benefits of water reuse is saving input cost from

The estimated average NPV of adopting commercial floating tilapia feed for tilapia farming in earthen ponds in Ghana over 20 years was almost US$ 11 million (Figure 1). The probability that the NPV is a positive value was about 70 per cent (Figure 2). Additionally, there was a probability of about 48 percent that the NPV is greater than the estimated mean value of 11 million (Figure 2). Sensitivity analysis showed that the variables (and direction of correlation) with the greatest impacts on mean NPV were the change in yield of tilapia (+) and the change in production costs (−), resulting from the adoption of commercial floating fish feed (Figure 3). To a less significant extent, mean NPV also was sensitive to the 2013 tilapia earthen-pond production level (+), the chosen discount rate (−), the level of peak adoption rate (+), and the specific amount of recurrent costs (+), in that order. A plus sign indicates that an increase in that variable will increase NPV, while a decrease in a variable with a minus sign will increase NPV. Final thoughts From the results of this study, it emerges that Ghana’s economy has a high probability of profiting significantly from adoption of BMPs, such as use of floating fish feed in earthen-pond farms. The GDP for the country in 2013 was US$48 billion. Ghana’s agriculture sector contributes about 22 percent of the country’s GDP. Extrapolations based on figures from Ghana’s National

48 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed

Aquaculture Development Plan indicate that the current value of commercially farmed fish in the country to be approximately US$40 million. This implies that the study’s calculated average benefit (US$11 million over 20 years) will annually add > 25 percent of the current value of commercially farmed fish. Clearly, Ghana stands to benefit substantially from the increased fish yield, which will result from adoption of the recommended, floating fish feed. A previous study conducted by Ansah et al in 2014 identified possible key socioeconomic benefits or impacts of higher fish yields to include increased employment within the improved aquaculture industry, higher incomes, reduced poverty, possible foreign exchange, lower fish cost, better nutritional diet (more protein), improved health and welfare. Additionally, women in Ghana’s fisheries sector are involved more in processing and marketing of fish, and as such, they too will benefit from the increased fish yields from the adoption of the recommended feed type. The recommended commercial floating feed type is known to cost almost eight times as much as the alternative feed type produced on farms from a mixture of byproducts of local agrofood industry. It is also not unusual for the cost of fish feed to make up > 50 percent of variable or total costs of a fish farm, therefore, it is expected that adoption of the recommended feed type will be accompanied by a substantial investment of capital, and principles of innovation adoption predict that the higher cost implications could discourage rapid diffusion of this feed innovation among pond farmers in Ghana. However, considering the significant positive social welfare implications of adopting this feed type in earthen pond farming, both governmental and nongovernmental agencies could invest

in reducing feed cost in order to facilitate diffusion. Our results indicate that the marginal benefit from any investments made to reduce feed costs and facilitate farmers’ use of the new feed type is high. Also, adoption rates of the recommended feed type had a nonsignificant but positive effect on mean NPV. However, adoption rate links indirectly to change in yield. Change in yield is the physical change in the average weight of fish fed the new feed type, but the more farmers that adopt the technology the higher the chances of increasing production in order to realise the calculated NPV. This study projected that adoption of yield-enhancing aquaculture BMPs and innovations in a developing country such as Ghana would result in significant social welfare benefits. Considering the high marginal benefits of investments in floating feed, it is recommended that affordable credit programs and other financial packages be created to help farmers meet the current price of fish feed. Dr Ansah and Dr Frimpong also recommend investment into research and development projects to reduce the amount of feed wasted from overfeeding. The focusing of extension effort on production technologies will lead to the realisation of benefits and reduction in risk. These efforts will result in the country reaping high social benefits from the increased yield. Also, active dissemination of this and other BMPs will create the awareness required for rapid diffusion of these innovations. This feature has been altered from the original open access article for formatting reasons. The original open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license. Published by Cogent Food & Agriculture (ISSN: 23311932), Cogent OA, part of Taylor & Francis Group.

ANIMAL PROTEINS • Hemoglobin • Plasma • FEED ADDITIVES • INGREDIENTS • RAW MATERIALS Tel: +1-201-224-3700 • Email: International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 49





ilapia belongs to the family Cichlidae under order Perciformes. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus is a relatively large cichlid fish, which is introduced to several countries where its populations exist outside its natural range e.g. Brazil, Australia, Bangladesh, Srilanka and India. Tilapia is now the World’s second most popular group of farmed fish after carp. Worldwide production exceeded 3.9 million tonnes in 2012 according to FAO and demand continues at a steady pace. Geographically tilapias are the most wide spread species for aquaculture production in the world.

Cultivated tilapias are typically hybrids between the O.niloticus and other closely related species native to Africa. O. niloticus are one of the easiest and profitable fish to farm, in part because they are omnivorous and can be fed a diet derived exclusively from plants. O.niloticus and other fish that feed on vegetable materials offer a much more ecologically sound and environmentally friendly means of providing humankind with an abundance of nutritious and delicious fish. Escapement of tilapia from aquaculture facilities due to recurring floods or inadvertent releases have happened frequently. Tilapia now forms a part of fish fauna in the Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery, Yamuna and Ganga Rivers.

Present status

India is a vast country in terms of natural resources and considered one of the mega-biodiversity countries in the world. The Indian mainland is served by 15 major, 45 medium and over 120 minor rivers; besides numerous ephemeral streams. The diverse river system in India harbour one of the richest fish germplasm resources in the world. Official records show that O. mossambicus was first introduced to India from Srilanka in 1952 and thereafter stocked in several reservoirs of southern India for production enhancement. The O. niloticus was introduced to India during late 1987. The aquaculture of O. niloticus expanded in the southern region of the country, a phenomena that owes much to private entrepreneurs. Culture of O.niloticus, particularly in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal is now gearing up and the fish is now distributed to many states particularly the coastal areas. 50 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed


Tilapia catch trends

Recently, tilapia catches have increased with local species declining significantly in wild waters. Presently in many rivers, particularly the Ganga River and Krishna River system, the proportion of tilapia production is about 10-48 percent of the total fish species. In river fed tanks and ponds, reservoirs/lakes wild tilapia contribution ranged from 15-65 percent. However, the tilapia population is now considered to be an infestation in most of the water bodies in India, and now pose a major threat to the indigenous species and biodiversity in India. There is a great deal of unpublished data about the availability of tilapia in tanks, reservoirs and rivers of many states of India.


Tilapia is currently enjoying good local demand and market value because of its availability and taste. This fish is available all year round, unlike the other fish species. Moreover, the consumer prefers this fish due to cheaper rate and fewer muscular spines. In some reservoir sites, fishermen catch the tilapia, mostly O.niloticus variety with cast nets; then keeping them in specially made rectangular cages at the shore waters. The fish are then sold in live condition to consumers. These live tilapia fish fetch a higher price compared to the stored tilapia fish.

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India has enormous potential for aquaculture of tilapia. For species diversity, the tilapia is one of the most suitable alternative species for Indian aquaculture. But culture should be in strict guided management practices and not allow them to escape and enter into wild waters. As the tilapia is a hardy species and prolific breeder, it dominates the local species in the existing environment. In future this tilapia species will be the cheapest protein food source in India for the people even below poverty line.

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 51 Produktanzeige Biolex 90 x 270 International Aquafeed 06/16.indd 1

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HOW IS AN EMERGING RENEWABLE ENERGY HELPING MOOR FISH FARMS SUSTAINABLY? It is estimated that the UK could supply between 15 and 20 percent of its electricity demand from tidal energy. What relevance does that have to aquaculture you may ask? The answer lies in the common need for technologies to allow access to environmentally energetic marine sites; as there is potential for an anchoring product developed in tidal energy to allow placement of fish farms in sites previously out of reach by David Stoddart-Scott, Head of Project Development, Sustainable Marine Energy Ltd

key obstacle to the delivery of commercially viable tidal energy is the capital cost associated with installing the infrastructure of a project whilst keeping it in the same place and connected to the seabed for the duration of its 25 year life. Whilst considerably more benign, the same essential challenge can be found in aquaculture.

Reaping the benefits of higher current flow

The benefits of siting fish farms in areas with higher current flow are clear and have been noted in a number of studies. They range from a lower incidence of sea lice to greater water exchange supplying fresh water and removing excess feed and waste. However higher current and increasingly exposed sites bring dual challenges of greater mooring loads combined with rocky seabeds; which are not suited to current anchoring technologies. How do we more securely anchor cages and feed barges, and at the same time potentially open up the options for using sites with higher current flow and rocky seabeds? Rock anchors are an enabling technology for sites with solid geology. As an established technology, drilled and grouted rock anchors, or micro-piles as they are sometimes referred to, have been trialled previously in aquaculture with limited success. A drilled-only rock anchor with a mechanical connection to the rock is a new concept in the marine environment; which has however had extensive use at smaller scale as rock bolts in the construction industry.

The new RAPTOR rock anchor

Sustainable Marine Energy, a tidal energy company, has developed the new RAPTOR rock anchor in order to satisfy its requirement for anchoring a subsea platform in tidal conditions of up to 10 knots. The RAPTOR 150 anchor was recently displayed at Aquaculture Europe conference in Edinburgh to launch the product into the fish farming market. There was a lot of interest from the industry, and International Aquafeed Magazine spoke to Jason Hayman, Managing Director of SME. “Once on the seabed, the anchor is drilled into the substrate using high torque hydraulic motors, thereby eliminating the need for loud percussive drilling. During this process the anchor expands to provide that mechanical connection to the rock, much like putting a rawl plug into your wall at home to hang a shelf. The anchor is then tensioned and the anchoring Remotely Operated Vehicle is retrieved. The full procedure for the drilling of one rock anchor and tensioning takes approximately 50 minutes.” “We are really excited to be bringing this new product to the aquaculture market.” he continued “We have been really impressed by the response we have got here in Edinburgh. Everyone is interested in what our anchors can do, and agree with us that there is great potential for it to open up new possibilities in aquaculture, not only in Scottish salmon farming but also globally and with other species. We have an exclusive distributorship agreement in place with AquaMoor to explore these options and find demonstration projects.” The RAPTOR anchors have undergone development over a period of 3 years including numerous cycles of on land testing to ensure performance before being deployed at subsea. Sustainable Marine Energy

52 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY successfully installed the first anchors at sea in the Orkney Islands in May 2016 at the European Marine Energy Centre. The anchors themselves are manufactured from high strength and corrosion resistant steels with a number of cutting faces in addition to the tri-cone bit, which does the actual drilling, something you’d usually associate with oil and gas. The anchors are available in different sizes for varying applications, with the largest raptor currently having a holding power of up to 175t in Orkney rock. Raptor 150 anchor: can be deployed in tidal conditions of up to 10 knots. “Obviously the strength and type of rock the anchor is installed into has an impact on its holding capacity” said Jason “but our reference rock is Rousey Flagstone from Orkney which will have common characteristics with most fish farming locations in Scotland. In fact the harder rocks found in the Western Isles will allow our anchors to perform much better. When you couple this with the fact that we originally designed the anchors for a site with up to 10 knots of tide, we don’t think we will have any issues accommodating the loads that are required to moor a fish farm or feed barge” Lawrie Stove is the Managing Director of AquaMoor Ltd. With a background in the marine industry, as well as in salmon farming, and as a member of the steering group that devised the Scottish Technical Standard, he understands the demands of the aquaculture market. “Farming companies are naturally seeking larger biomass consent at higher energy locations as they are looking to produce more premium quality salmon. As the site infrastructure gets bigger, so the larger nets on these sites create more drag and the mooring loads generated are significantly higher. To counteract this, suppliers have been specifying heavier weight of chain and a lot more of it,” said Stove. “There are potential new sites available that have greater tide and wind driven currents as well as larger significant wave heights. An altogether more challenging environment” AquaMoor’s aim is to introduce and develop short scope tension mooring systems that have higher performance anchors, synthetic fibre mooring ropes and peak load absorbing devices such as tfi Marine tethers, eliminating the need for excessive amounts of chain lying on the seabed. “It’s possible to not use chain and move to high performance synthetic fibre ropes, but when you do that you still need two things; a reactive force on the seabed and a replacement for the spring self-weight of chain. In this instance the Raptor rock anchor is the enabling technology. It can have a mooring line coming off it at 22 degrees so you don’t need anything on the seabed.” “One of the key drivers is to try to make moorings more sustainable and environmentally friendly because at the moment, at a big farm site, there can be huge quantities of chain on the seabed – seven to eight kilometres – and the

seabed footprint to accommodate all this ground chain could be as much as 50 hectares.” “That is all interacting with the seabed so it is damaging the benthic environment. That is not necessary if you use high performing mooring systems. We can reduce direct environmental impact on the seabed whilst also indirectly reducing the carbon footprint of aquaculture moorings, by using smaller amounts of materials in far more efficient ways than they have been previously.” “The Scottish salmon industry is continually looking to improve its sustainability and this new type of mooring system presents a real opportunity to do just that.” New technologies are emerging that have the potential to disrupt the long standing status quo in the mooring and structure of fish farming, with knock on benefits in fish health and seabed footprint and the ability to place farms in hither to inaccessible locations. Coupled with the considerably lessened environmental impacts and carbon footprint of these innovative technologies the benefits cannot be ignored, so don’t be surprised if in the future high performance sustainable mooring systems become industry norm rather than the exception.

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 53

Raptor 150 Anchor: can withstand tidal conditions of up to 10 knots

Left: SME Anchoring ROV overboarding at the Falls of Warness, European Marine Energy Centre, Orkney Middle: SME Anchoring ROV, Hatston, Orkney Right: Raptor 150 Anchor on display at Aquaculture Europe 2016 in Edinburgh

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY #2 CASE STUDY - 500 HOURS WITH THE YANMAR NET CLEANER It is a well-known fact that fish farming nets need to be cleaned periodically to maintain water quality and protect the fish against disease and here at International Aquafeed we are always seeking to champion success stories within the industry. One such story comes from net cleaning company Yatek

Below: Øyvind Høie

In collaboration with the Norwegian distributor Østerbø, net cleaning supplier Yanmar has been lauded by its customer Yatek. Newly established Norwegian company Yatek, which specializes in cleaning the nets used for fish farming in the majestic surroundings of the Sognefjord, invested in their first Yanmar Net Cleaner in 2015. By the summer of 2016, it had worked approximately 500 hours. With Yanmar’s submergible cleaner for fish farming nets, only one person is needed to clean the net and they don’t even have to get into the water. Yatek’s General manager, Øyvind Høie, who has many years’ experience working in the fish farming industry, knew exactly what he wanted his net cleaner to achieve. He comments, ‘’Reliability was very important for us. This product needs little maintenance and the distributor in Norway -Østerbø Maskin ASresponds quickly in case service is required.” He continued to say “The Yanmar Net Cleaner’s best quality is that it withstands currents well so we can fulfill our job even in bad conditions. It also cleans very gently and doesn’t remove the impregnation on the nets. This keeps our customers happy.” ‘’Compared to other solutions on the market we find the Yanmars Net Cleaner to have a very good cleaning result, and due to low pressure it is not compromising with the gentleness’’, Høie concluded. USP’s Yanmar NXL-LX Net Cleaner - Low on maintenance - By having crawlers on each side of the robot and two wheels on the front and 2 in the back, it has a lot of grip on the net. - Easy to maneuver due to having two joysticks, 1 for the left and 1 for the rights crawlers. - The Yanmar is equipped with three propellers generating thrust and pushing the robot to the net, this makes it nearly impossible for the robot to tip over, which is a common problem of net cleaners using thrusters. - Wide angle camera view on the front and the back, from crawler to crawler. - The Yanmar’s low cleaning pressure (when compared to competitors) prevents damage on the net, and blowing of the anti-fouling. The high flow ensures a clean net in 1 run. - Having a low cleaning pressure (when compared to competitors) results in a low fuel consumption of the pump set. - The Net Cleaner is electronically powered, when compared to hydraulically powered net cleaners; this gives a more direct control. - Yanmar is well known for its robust and reliable products and worldwide service network.

Left: The Yanmar Net Cleaner NXL-LX with hose drum

54 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed


“Innovative Aquaculture under Environmental Challenges”

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International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 55

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY #2 VAKI TECHNOLOGY – A NEW APPROACH Vaki has recently announced the introduction of a new Channel Counter designed to accommodate much larger loads. The high capacity and accuracy is achievable by up scaling the same technology that Vaki has been using for more than 15 years

The technique used by the new machine is in fact based on Vaki’s previous Smolt Counters that count juveniles; which has already been delivered to many companies around the world. The Accuracy of their existing counter is 99 percent, and is currently being used to count both smolts at deliveries and larger fish when graded. The new Vaki Channel Counter is specially made to count effectively and accurately large amount of big fish (from 300g to 12kg), with the operating capacity now much larger than previously afforded by earlier models. The counting process is also video recorded, with images saved of every fish counted, so that the farmer can verify the numbers and get a thorough report on the whole counting process.

The counting software

Much of this improvement is afforded by the improved software package, which is used to count the fish as they pass through the counting area. The screenshot to the right shows one second of smolt counting, which has a capacity of up to 100 fish per second. This system works by taking a silhouette image of ever fish that passes over a light source using a linescanning camera. The silhouettes are then analyzed and used for counting and size estimation.

Automatic report function

Once the data has been recorded and automatic count report is then produced. The automatically generated set of statistics report provides both valuable and detailed information yielded from the counting process. The report can be supplied to the receiver of fish along with the counting file containing the images of all the fish. As well as the Automatic Count Report, the software can provides a “throughput chart” which displays the rate of fish passing through the counter. With this information, the farmer can assess the quality of the count, whilst also being

56 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed




entair Aquatic Eco-Systems, Inc. announced today that it has acquired Vaki Aquaculture Systems Ltd., a leading aquaculture equipment manufacturer based in Kópavogur, Iceland. The addition of Vaki is expected to strengthen Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems’ business by broadening its range of systems, products and services in the growing aquaculture market space. Vaki is focused on the design and manufacture of fish handling, counting and grading solutions for a variety of aquaculture applications. Vaki also develops and offers cutting-edge technology for biomass estimation in aquaculture systems; providing users with accurate information to maximise operational efficiencies, facilitate resource planning and optimise decision-making. Vaki products have widespread global adoption, with utilisation in more than 50 countries. “As the aquaculture industry continues to experience rapid growth, the addition of Vaki Aquaculture Systems complements our ability to meet the increasing market demand for advanced solutions, technology and equipment. Vaki also helps to strengthen our position as a comprehensive single source provider.” said Karl Frykman, President of Pentair’s Aquatic Systems Business Unit.

able to checking for occasions when the counter may have been overloaded. The automatic report can also display the average size and weight distribution of the counted fish. This data is then shown on a graph along with information regarding the total biomass of the fish.

Macro app

Among previously mentioned features, the Macro app provides the user with the option to run the counter, view the results and email the count report remotely from a smart phone or tablet.

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Industry Events Events listing n 08-10 November 2016

The Micronutrient Forum - Mexico

n 09-11 November 2016

Taiwan International Fisheries and Seafood Show

n 15-18 November 2016 EuroTier

n 28 November 2016

Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2016

n 13-15 December 2016 Algae Europe 2016

n 27 January 2017

Aquafarm 2017

n 19-22 February 2017

Italian and Mediterranean aquaculture According to a European Union research, in 2030 the aquaculture production in Europe will grow 41 percent for freshwater species and 112 percent for Mediterranean species, compared to 2010 levels. The new Aquafarm Conference and Exhibition, organised by Pordenone Exhibition Centre and scheduled on 26-27 January 2017, aims to become a meeting point for researchers, industry leaders, public institutions, policy makers and investors, operating in sustainable aquaculture and related fields of algae-culture, aquaponics, hydroponics and aeroponics. The conference agenda will be structured on fourteen thematic sessions, plus main and closing sessions, covering all aspects of aquaculture and related fields. Examples include tailoring production characteristics for food industry needs, new low-oceanic resources use feeds, genetics and genomics, Zero-Drugs fish farming and many others. Conference sessions will balance speeches and presentations by researchers, fish farmers, suppliers and user communities, such as food industry, packagers, logistics operators, retailers and consumers. A supervising committee will assure the quality of content of the individual speeches. For junior researchers and very early stage projects a poster area will be provided on the exhibition floor. The exhibition area will host booths of fish farmer, suppliers, associations, public institutions, universities and investors. Moreover, the closing session will be fully devoted to experience exchange and policy coordination roundtables involving the European Commission and representatives of governments, industry associations, research bodies and investors coming from the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

Aquaculture America 2017

For more industry event information - visit our events register

n 23-25 February 2017

Feed Tech Expo

n 24-26 May 2017

Livestock Philippines 2017

n 26-30 June 2017

World Aquaculture 2017

n 15-18 August 2017 Aqua Nor 2017

n 18-20 November 2017

Ildex Indonesia 2017

Kemin to present findings at popular gut health symposium Participants at the annual Gut Health in Production of Food Animals Symposium will have three days focused on the role of gut health in animal production and the dynamic and essential role gut health plays, with the results of poultry studies to be shared in a poster session. Among the insights shared will be an abstract by Dr Chan Poh Soon and Dr Tihn Nguygen of Kemin, who respectively serve as the Product Manager for Antibiotic Alternative platforms and the Technical Service Manager for the animal nutrition and health division of Kemin, located in Asia. The presentation will include results obtained from two commercial trials conducted by Kemin in Vietnam this year.

26-27 JANUARY 2017 ConferenCe & exhibition for the sustainable aquaCulture and fishing industry in the Mediterranean sea.

Pordenone exhibition Center - (VeniCe AreA - itAly)




MediA PARtNeRS: pesceinrete la piazza virtuale del settore ittico

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58 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed

07/11/16 15.19


SEAFEX MENA 2016 Middle East and North Africa’s first professional seafood show ran at the Dubai World Trade Centre (DWTC) from November 7-9, 2016. SEAFEX 2016 featured over 145 brands from more than 25 countries. This year’s show spanned 4,500 square meters, up 12.5 per cent on last year, with new exhibitors from the UK, Norway, the USA, UAE and Vietnam helping to grow year-on-year exhibitor figures by 11 per cent. Andrew Pert, Show Director, Exhibitions & Events Management, of SEAFEX says that, “The UN’s Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) has identified consumer interest in sustainability as an emerging trend within the Middle East and this is reflected throughout the SEAFEX exhibitor profile.” He continues, “With organized information campaigns such as the WWF’s ‘Choose Wisely’ campaign in the UAE, lessons have been taken up by restaurateurs and retailers. In this instance, SEAFEX is a window to the future of an industry which has the consumer firmly at its core.” Sustainability and health conscious consumers Seafood consumers throughout the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are increasingly turning to sustainable sources as the need to conserve stocks internationally begins to hit home and is being highlighted at SEAFEX. Among the 145 plus exhibitors from more than 25 nations taking part in the show are sustainability leaders from Europe, the Levant and Mauritius, who all say regional diners are becoming more socially conscious and demand products for changing lifestyle preferences. “People right now are more driven towards fresh seafood than ever,” says Abbas Muntaser, Marketing Executive at European Seafood, which specializes in live seafood and live aquaculture raised fish. “This is not just because of its many beneficial effects on human health, but also as a source of sustainable food that can last for generations to come and provide for better lifestyles.” Mauritius at SEAFEX In its first official SEAFEX appearance, Enterprise Mauritius (EM), the national trade promotion organization of the Republic of Mauritius, promoted sustainability as it moves to gain a foothold into the MENA seafood market now valued at US $272 million, according to a recent report by the FAO. Mauritius mounted one of 13 national and industry pavilions at SEAFEX, which also sees first-time official participation from the Philippines. Seafood processing is now the second most important manufacturing sector in Mauritius, employing 12,000 people and contributing 1.5 per cent to overall gross domestic product. Last year the country exported US€337 million worth of seafood which represented 16 percent of its overall domestic exports, according to Arvind Radhakrishna, CEO, Enterprise Mauritius. “As a specialised sub-sector of the seafood industry, sustainable aquaculture ranks high on the Mauritian Government’s agenda and around 22 sites have been earmarked around the island for

the setting-up of in-lagoon fish breeding. Farming of high-value and niche products such as cobia, sea cucumber, oyster and oyster pearls, crabs, sea-urchins and other shellfish are being encouraged,” says Mr Radhakrishna, CEO, Enterprise Mauritius. He continues, “Red Drum and European Seabass are currently cultivated under aquaculture within the sheltered lagoon on the Eastern coast of Mauritius. As well as being an approved and certified Sustainable Aquaculture facility by the organisation Friend of the Sea. The hatchery and farm production is designed following the principles of sustainable farming practices. All precautions are undertaken to ensure that the farms and their conditions mimic those found naturally. The farm aims to increase its annual production from 800 tons in 2015 to 3,000 tons by 2018 with the main export destinations including the USA, Italy, South Africa, Spain and the United Arab Emirates.” Three heavyweight Mauritian producers shared the pavilion – Prince Tuna (Mauritius), SAPMER Premium Seaproducts and Ferme Marine de Mahebourg. The trio promoted their preserved and frozen tuna, farmed fresh red drum and seabass, rock lobster and live fish exports. SAPMER says it has detected increasing demand from importers of premium, 100 percent natural products, as well as sustainable and certified products. Ferme Marine de Mahebourg also leveraged SEAFEX to explore Middle East demand for fresh fish imports. “Internationally, demand is rising for fresh, sustainable, GMO free and farmed fish products fed without land based animal fat. Our farm is certified sustainable by Friend of the Sea and we have pursued further certifications and will soon achieve Global Gap and Halal certifications,” said Tommy P. Sawmy, Sales Manager at Ferme Marine de Mahebourg. “Our fresh fish can be delivered to this region within 24 hours of harvest and our fish grow in pure waters free from environmental pollution in a warm, year tropical climate without stress. We are interested to gauge Middle East reaction to this proposition.” Meanwhile, Siblou, a Middle Eastern sector heavyweight headquartered in Lebanon, says consumers are not only more socially conscious, they are increasingly health conscious – factors pushing up demand for seafood. “Over the past year we are seeing that consumers are seeking healthy, clean, and a diversified diet; food with real ingredients. The modern consumers want food that is natural and convenient at the same time. Additionally, they want food that contains a healthy dose of nutritional fat - consumers are now aware that they need to know where their food is coming from, where it is sourced and produced, and the need to trust what they are consuming” said Camil Ishak, Managing Director, Siblou. “All of this is contributing to a massive increase in seafood demand.” Consumer-driven-demands are shaping the future of the MENA’s seafood market, according to Andrew Pert, Show Director, Exhibitions & Events Management, DWTC, the SEAFEX organiser. SEAFEX is among a trio of conveniently segmented food events which also include the gourmet Specialty Food Festival and Yummex Middle East, the region’s leading international trade fair for the confectionery and snacks market. The trio was co-located alongside Gulfood Manufacturing - the Middle East’s biggest food manufacturing, processing, packaging, logistics and materials handling exhibition - which attracts more than 30,000 attendees looking to allocate their annual, back-end food & beverage budgets.


VietStock 2017 ventures into aquaculture with positive outcome ‘Aquaculture Vietnam 2016’ was a one-day conference event that drew in more than 500 Vietnamese fish farmers and aquaculturists to the first day of the VietStock 2016 exhibition Saigon, Vietnam in late October. The event had the support of the Ministry of Fisheries and was also supported by Aquaculture without Frontiers among others which included the magazine International Aquafeed, Oxfam and the European Union. Sponsors included Phileo, Yara and the Cotton Seed Corporation. While the three-day exhibition itself attracted much related to feed production for terrestrial livestock, there was a healthy display of fish farming technologies, including water quality control in addition to fish feed processing, raw materials and ingredients, around the show. But it was in the conference hall that all the action took place on the first day relating to aquaculture. The first of four sessions looked at feed and technology and was chaired by the chairman of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO, Cliff Spenser. The session included a report by International Aquafeed on trends and feed demand for aquafeeds, while Dr Benedict Standen of Biomin reviewed advancements in research and technology in feed formulation for aquatic species. Finally, Mr Tony Tuan of Viet-UC Group looked at advancing technologies used in intensification of fish farming. Ms Tran Thi Thu Ha, vice president of VINAFIS chaired both the second and last sessions of the conference. Of the two sessions it was Mr Herve Lucien Brun of JEFCO’s presentation that delivered the biggest impact by outlining a learning experience and lessons for Vietnam based on the development of shrimp farming in Ecuador. The last session included a controversial update from Dr Le Thanh Luu, director of ICAFIS on options to reshape and improve the value production chain for Vietnam’s aqua industry. His presentation brought out some key points in a heated debate that followed at the end of the conference.


Other presentations in session three included traceability, standards and certification by Mr Vu Doc Thang, the deputy general director of SGS Vietnam and financing for investment by Mr Pham Xuan Hoe, deputy directory of Banking Strategy Institute. One of the key presentations to stand out in this session was by Mr Tom Wedegaertner of Cotton Inc, USA, when he described how anti-nutritional factories in cotton, which currently limit the use of cotton seed meal in cattle feed only, can have its seeds modified to allow the meal to be included in aqua rations without altering the plant’s physical structure. This would release up to 18 million tonnes of high-quality proteins onto the market for inclusion in fish feeds annually, he says. A presentation from Yara’s research and development manager, Dr Alessandro Mereu, spoke about the effect of different inorganic phosphorus sources on growth performance, digestibility, retention efficiency and excretion of nutrients in fish. Two other presentations delivered on the day included an Outlook for Pangasius by Mr Vo Hung Dung, vice president of the Pangasius Association, where he dealt with mortality, the ice-graze debate, exports, new markets and added value products. The other was by Mr Le Van Quang, chairman of Minh Phu Corp, who spoke on the outlook for Vietnam shrimp and focused on disease control, trends in production and pricing. VietStock’s 2016 venture into aquaculture was a great success and the delegation visiting from the Philippines, to take part in the conference, expressed their desire to host a similar event at its Feed Expo Philippines from May 24-26, 2017.




Photos © Fotolia. Depositephotos

14 MARCH 2017





Jointly organised by VIV and International Aquafeed / Progresses AgriSchool The conference is supported by Aquaculture without Frontiers

The International Ocean Business Forum to Advance Responsible Use of the Seas

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 61

EuroTier 2016: Supporting aquaculture in Europe

Once again EuroTier had a keen focus on aquaculture with this year’s centre piece being a program called ‘International Fishtalk’ and featured Hans Erik Bylling, the CEO/ President of Aller Aqua Group in Denmark as its keynote speaker and the regular four-day Aquaculture Forum 2016 program. Mr Bylling addressed, “A view on international aquaculture development – obstacles and challenges for the European fish farmer.” Within the Aquaculture Forum 2016 visitors to EuroTier had access to six hours of presentations on each of the four days followed by discussions with speakers. Sessions ranged from: Classical Fish Farming and Fishing; Innovative Systems and Concepts; Algae and Prawns; Feed and Raw Materials to Recirculation Aquaculture Systems. Fish and seafood producers from Germany, Denmark, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and Greece along with certifying organisations such as Global Gap and Naturland delivered a range of valuable messages to attendees at the forum which was co-chaired by Dr Birgit Schmidt-Puckhaber of DLG eV and Dr Stefan Meyer of GMA Büsum.

Focus on water

For the first time EuroTier presented an AQUAculture InfoCentre which combined a neutral advisory service with its Experience in Aquaculture and Growth in Water exhibition stands. Water is a resource and must be conserved. That was the message the aquaculture section of EuroTier was attempting to get across to the industry.

62 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed


It says that both fish breeders and fish farmers across Europe are now subject to strict rules and regulations on maintaining the quality of bodies of water. It was using the exposition to offer fish farming visitors the chance to collect information about professional water conditioning. effective filtering, aeration and conditioning systems that help to lower costs while meeting stringent requirements. Over 25 companies exhibited products aimed specifically at aquaculture and fish farming attendees – and those were the ones located in Hall 24 which centred on aquaculture. But not all companies were located in Hall 24, and there were many promoting products for industry use while offering a range of other feed ingredients and additives for terrestrial animals. Those attracting our attention included companies promoting protein feed ingredients for inclusion in fish diets. While there is growing pressure for aquaculture to help reduce over-fishing and yet continue to meet the growing demand for fish and shellfish from consumers, there is a fundamental requirement for aquaculture to shift its protein sources for fish feeds away from captured fish and fishmeal and towards land-based protein sources. Fish by-products from the processing industry are making a significant contribution to reliving the pressure on fishmeal, while a number of companies processing animal by-products are helping to provide specialist products into the aqua marketplace; although they are still restricted by EU legislation, that controls the use of mammalian meat and bone meal for example, and restricts the maximisation of this potential source of high-quality proteins and energy. EuroTier 2016 shows ingredient companies such as GePro Geflügel-Protein Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH and Co of Germany, Sonac a Darling Ingredients company from the USA and K-Pro GmbH of Munich-Pullach in Germany promoting these valuable ingredients suitable for inclusion in fishfeeds. Sonac told us its DAR Pro Ingredients are specially designed for inclusion in aquafeeds. “The fatty acid profile of poultry oil for example is very interesting for application in aquafeeds. Various trials recently performed by Sonac have reconfirmed the suitability of poultry oil in aqua feed. In addition animal fats are the most sustainable fat source available,” the company told us when we visited. Most companies had samples of their poultry meal, feather meal, PAP and blood meals on display and broken down by specific species to comply with strict compliance requirements. There was insufficient time, even over four days, to find and take in the full offering of interest to aquaculturists. With that in mind our advice is to plan and book accommodation early to attend the next EuroTier which will be held in Hanover in November 13-16, 2018. With the ground swell continuing to rise in support for aquaculture across Europe and the unabating increase in per capita consumption of fish, it might not be many years before EuroTier might have to expand its name to to EuroTier-Fisch!

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 63

Elevator buckets Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191

Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry - with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Additives

Symaga +34 91 726 43 04

Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 Evonik +49 618 1596785 Liptosa +34 902 157711

Elevator & Conveyor Components

Westeel +1 204 233 7133

4B Braime +44 113 246 1800

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650

GMP+ International +31703074120

Analysis Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41

JEFO +1 450 799 2000

Equipment for sale

Colour sorters

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310

BĂźhler AG +41 71 955 11 11

Amino acids

ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153

Event organisers VIV +31 30 295 2772

Satake +81 82 420 8560

Evonik +49 618 1596785

Computer software

Animal Health & Nutrition


Adifo NV +32 50 303 211

Cenzone +1 760 736 9901

Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Almex +31 575 572666 Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710

Colour sorters SEA S.r.l. +39 054 2361423

Bin dischargers Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11

Coolers & driers

Bulk storage

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207

Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0

Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119

Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165

VAV +31 71 4023701

TSC Silos +31 543 473979


Sonac +31 499 364800

Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128

STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80

Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 Muyang Group +86 514 87848880 Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133

Andritz +45 72 160300 Brabender +49 203 7788 0 Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21

64 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed

Ugur Makina +90 (364) 235 00 26

Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133


Zheng Chang +86 21 64188282

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40

Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10

Muyang +86 514 87848880

Pellet binders Symaga +34 91 726 43 04

Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00


Borregaard LignoTech +47 69 11 80 00

SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699

PellTech +47 69 11 80 00

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276

Tornum AB +46 512 29100

Sensors Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30

Pest control Rentokil Pest Control +44 0800 917 1987

Hatchery products

Agromatic +41 55 2562100

Pipe systems Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580

Laboratory equipment

Dol Sensors +45 721 755 55

Used around

Bastak +90 312 395 67 87

all industrial Plants sectors.

Shrimp feed additives

Andritz +45 72 160300 Visit us!

Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www.

Level measurement

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102

FAMSUN +86 514 87848880

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789

Dishman +31 318 545 754

Training Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008



Vega +44 1444 870055

Biomin +43 2782 803 0 Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition. com

Moisture analyzers CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045

Rolls Leonhard Breitenbach +49 271 3758 0

Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770

OJ Hojtryk +45 7514 2255

Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516

Vacuum Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729

Yeast products

Safety equipment

ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753

Rembe +49 2961 740 50

Seedburo +1 312 738 3700

NIR systems

MYSILO +90 382 266 2245

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411


Hydronix +44 1483 468900

Obial +90 382 2662120

Lallemand + 33 562 745 555

Second hand equipment

Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030

Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054

NIR-Online +49 6227 732668

Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00


Packaging CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917

Kepler Weber Group +55 11 4873-0300

To include your company in the International Aquafeed market place in print, and a company page on our website contact Tom Blacker. +44 1242 267700 โ€ข

International Aquafeed - November | December 2016 | 65

the interview Patrick Lavens, New Business Development & Innovations Director Patrick LAVENS joined Inve Aquaculture in 1999 as technical-commercial manager for the European-African sector. In 2001 he was appointed Business Unit Manager of the new Health Division and became part of the Management Team of INVE. In 2010 he has been appointed Innovations Director of INVE Aquaculture, a division that takes care of R&D and product development, and combines this function with New Business Development. Before 1999, Mr Lavens was a Guest Professor in Aquaculture at the university of Gent, Belgium, Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Centre where he coordinated the research activities, (including international projects), on live feeds, fish & shrimp hatchery nutrition and broodstock nutrition. He is (co-)author of more than 150 publications in international journals, and (co-)editor of several books. Mr Lavens was the President of the European Aquaculture Society from 1986 to 1988 and during his tenure he focused specifically on bridging the gap between scientists and producers and established close links with FEAP and EU-DG Fisheries.

Can you tell us briefly about the background of INVE?

First of all, INVE always had the goal to be a leader in specialty products, be it in larval nutrition, health and environment. I believe that we have global recognition for our innovative role because we bring out performing and cost-effective products that bring a better production performance to our customers and new solutions to existing bottlenecks. Stimulating and caring for healthy growth and performance in aquaculture has always been and will remain INVE’s main driver. In Europe and Latin America, we control our distribution. In Asia, particularly we are either controlling distribution ourselves towards bigger clients as a key account approach, or through distributors with whom we have built up long-term business relationships with. For Thailand, Vietnam, India, China and Indonesia, which are key producer countries in Asia, we also have local entities in place to assist local sales.

How does INVE operate given that you are primarily under Benchmark but you are also independent?

Prior to the takeover, INVE had put together a ‘Strategy Plan’ for further growth in order to cement our role as a strategic partner in a fast evolving sector. We were a perfect match for Benchmark because together we have a wide-ranging toolbox enabling us to serve our clients globally with a plethora of solutions. For example, we have uniquely and successfully combined INVE’s advanced nutrition knowhow with Benchmark’s in-depth expertise in disease control, diagnostics, breeding and genetics. Benchmark’s Animal Health Division has a large product pipeline and the biggest aquaculture veterinary team in the world, the two are growing to help every aspect of disease control. In the Breeding and Genetics Division, consisting of salmon units in Norway and Iceland, tilapia-breeding centers in the USA and South America and the very recent acquisition of Ceniacua, a shrimp-breeding project in Colombia, we have some of the best genetics in the world. In the Sustainability Science Division, a team of scientists look at environmental control and non-biological methods of tackling disease. Together we cover all the essential tools needed to shape the future of aquaculture - breeding, health, environment and nutrition. Of course none of these factors work in isolation and we must now take advantage of the unique synergies between these units and become a global knowledge and solutions platform – supporting sustainable growth and longterm success of the industry.

What projects and developments has INVE been working on for the food ingredient and nutrition side of aquaculture?

Firstly, in our health section, we are aiming for a holistic approach on the disease prevention side. Therefore, we are working now on functional ingredients for feed such as novel probiotics, natural antimicrobials and novel components that can increase the robustness of animals. This goes via new

pathways of heat shock protein interference that is a normal process occurring in animals. We can demonstrate right now how you can improve on robustness in combination with managing the microbial ecosystem so that you ultimately improve upon the total status of an animal during production, including at gut level. So for example up to 20 percent of mortality can occur when post-larvae are transported from controlled hatchery conditions and exposed to a pond environment, but through increasing robustness, we should be able to reduce this kind of mortality. We are now also running trials on fish to see if we can increase their robustness if we transfer them to cages. And, together with Benchmark Animal Health, we are developing tools for oral vaccination, which could be a major breakthrough for disease control. As the leader in larval diets for marine fish and shrimp, we are constantly making sure that we reflect upon the needs of these markets. For example, there is a limit on Artemia availability for hatcheries. We are the biggest Artemia supplier in the world, but nevertheless invest in projects to develop novel products where we can minimize or even eliminate the Artemia from the hatchery protocol, but crucially without affecting the actual fry output AND quality in the hatchery. At the same time two novel types of Artemia will soon be introduced to the market.

Since you were the President of the European Aquaculture Society from 1996-1998, how would you say the industry has progressed?

Firstly, I would say that with over 1500 people present and with a great scientific program, Aquaculture Europe 2016 reflects the organization’s professionalism and how it has evolved to the position of serving aquaculture activity within Europe. Indeed, when I was president, I specifically aimed to bridge industry and academia together and what I see right now is that EAS has evolved in that way. Together with FEAP, EAS has put together a strategic research agenda for Europe, with the focus of the industry - not the scientists - and as a result of that, we have a European Commission that is using it as a core for their developmental strategy. It is my personal belief that Aquaculture is at a stage of transformation: not only is now being considered as a fastgrowing and important bluegreen economy for the future as a logical necessity for the future of fish consumption, and recognition of this is reflected in the number of investment companies and big conglomerates investing in it today. At the same time, it is moving from an empirical approach towards a knowledge-based and sustainable bio-industry with full understanding of the fundamental biology of animals and their environment. Further integration will play an important role here, however, especially in Asia smaller producers will also apply this knowledge to safeguard their business and income for the future and for their future generations. Having said this, we still have work to do towards shaping a positive public perception of the industry.

66 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed



Bühler Aeroglide Appoints Paul Branson Director of Product Management

Paul Branson


n this role, Mr Branson will keep Bühler Aeroglide’s product portfolio competitive with an emphasis on increasing quality, reducing production cycles, and developing advanced products and solutions. Most recently, Branson served as Product Manager for Aeroglide’s global industrial markets.

The new Solis dryer is one developing innovation within a portfolio of targets that answers a critical need for pet food and aqua feed manufacturers. Working closely with food safety teams, Branson will oversee the completion of this unprecedented high-hygiene, dry clean solution that reflects innovations from food safety advances. Following the Ceres RTE design multi-national food manufacturers called revolutionary, the Solis will be uniquely engineered to help pet food and aqua feed processors with the same needs.

Devry Boughner Vorwerk to lead corporate affairs for Cargill


argill’s former Vice President of Corporate Affairs Devry Boughner Vorwerk has been named to lead the company’s global Corporate Affairs function.

In her new role as Corporate Vice President, Ms Vorwerk will oversee Cargill’s global branding, communications, corporate responsibility and government relations


Debbie Le Gette

Devry Boughner Vorwerk has been named to lead Cargill’s global Corporate Affairs function “Devry is a leader in global food, agriculture and nutrition, with a great mix of education in agriculture, work experience in government, leadership in non-profits, and management experience at Cargill. Not only is Devry highly qualified to lead Corporate Affairs, she is passionate about advancing the company’s vision and purpose to be the leader in nourishing the world in a safe, responsible and sustainable way,” said Cargill Chairman and CEO David MacLennan.

Anpario Inc. grows local sales team in the USA


npario plc’s US subsidiary, Anpario Inc. have made recent investments to strengthen their sales team in the USA, with the aim of supporting and growing sales across the region.

Colin Brennan has recently joined Anpario Inc. as a Regional Sales Specialist. Colin will cover the southern region of the USA.

Colin Brennan

Colin is a graduate of Texas A&M (Agricultural and Mechanical) University with a Bachelor’s Degree in Poultry Science. Upon completing his degree in 2009, he took a job with a local poultry producer in his hometown.

In 2013 Colin became the Technical Sales and Marketing Manager for Special Nutrients Inc. who are a global leader in the development and sales of mycotoxin binders. With Anpario looking to grow their toxin binder sales in the US market, Colin will be a great asset. Debbie Le Gette has recently joined the US Sales Team as Territory Sales Manager. She will be covering Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Virginia and West Virginia.

Debbie graduated from Clemson University in 2006. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Animal & Veterinary Sciences with a major in Poultry Business.

Debbie Le Gette

Debbie worked for Cal-Maine Foods in Bethune, South Carolina for 10 weeks as an intern. She then began working for Jones-Hamilton Co. in January 2007 and during her 9+ year tenure she was promoted from a Technical Sales Representative to a Territory Sales Manager within the Agricultural Division and covered a four state territory of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

68 | November | December 2016 - International Aquafeed


Af-TIL-AP-16.05-EN • Avalone The information provided in this document is at the best of our knowledge, true and accurate. However, products must only be used in compliance with local laws and regulations and we cannot guarantee freedom of use for every intended application or country.

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NOV | DEC 2016 - International Aquafeed magazine  
NOV | DEC 2016 - International Aquafeed magazine