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Nets and cages Recirculating Aquaculture Systems - Benefits and disadvantages of modern basic systems




& A

t Boris Nets all our fish cages are manufactured to the highest standard using drawings and technical information gathered throughout our years of experience in the industry. The company works closely with each customer so that its cages are crafted using a mix of traditional methods and modern technology with great attention to individual specifics and site conditions. The result is a premium quality product with an excellent reputation. Cages are predominantly made using knot-less nylon netting. Good for its strength elastic-

ity and resistance to abrasion with a relatively high uv resistance. Together with the comparatively low cost this makes it an excellent choice for fish cage manufacturing. Nylon netting size ranges from first feeder to larger mesh size higher-grade netting, perfect for offshore heavy weather conditions. There is some shrinkage but this is taken into consid-

The old and the new makes for a premium product eration during our manufacturing process. “We have conducted large scale trials with polyester in comparison to traditional nylon cages. Although it is perceived that the lower elasticity, decreased shrinkage and higher UV resistant properties are advantageous it is not proven that these are significant. Nylon remains the preferred material of the two for most of our customers,” says the company. Dyneema has been widely used in production for several years. Although more expensive than other materials it provides 3-4 times greater strength by weight than traditional nylon netting and retains this strength for a longer period leading to an increase in longevity in the life of the cages. Dyneema is favoured by freshwater clients as it is easy to handle being light and the increased strength offers superior protection from predators such as otters. It is also widely used in cages for sea bream as they have a tendency to chew at the cages. Again the increase in strength provides better resistance to this. “We have used dyneema in the production of seawater cages. “However due to lack of elasticity we would recommend an increase of at least a 25 percent in strength to compensate for this and ensure that the integrity of the cage is left uncompromised.

“These specifications make the dyneema cages approximately half the weight in comparison to a conventional nylon cage. Due to the nature of dyneema it is critical that nets are produced to the correct size with the correct amount of slack added evenly. “In our opinion this makes the need for hand mounted ropes greater to ensure the probity of the product. There is a propensity by many manufacturers due to the raised costs and machine mounted roping to use considerably less than the amount required to make a premium quality cage.” More recently there's been a significant interest in the use of Ultra high tenacity PE. Generally, knotted provides the advantage of being around 20 percent stronger in comparative weight to nylon. It has very good abrasion resistance and is very low stretch. These properties make it excellent in cages where in situ net washers are used. That said it is difficult to obtain in sizes below 18-20mm which could lead to restrictions in its use. “The majority of our ropes are made from polysteel due to its superior abrasion resistance. We use the traditional hand mounting method in preference to machine sewing as it allows for more even strain distribution reducing future repair needs,” says the company. In situ net washing processes have necessitated a change in design of cages. The amount of slack incor-

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porated into the netting for the manufacture of the cages has had to be reduced to allow a firmer surface to allow the washer to operate efficiently. If too little slack is used the integrity is comprised. The ropes will no longer form the framework of the cage and too much strain will be placed on the netting itself leading to potentially catastrophic results. For this reason it is imperative that all ropes are hand mounted to ensure even and consistent distribution of the netting therefore minimising the risk of unnecessary damage.

Working closely with customers

We work closely with our customers to develop anti predator methods with great success. A large number of our customers use predator screens permanently attached to the outside of their cages for extra protection and allowing the net itself to be tighter which is also a good deterrent .Along with weighting systems and in particular the froya ring support system which helps to maintain net shape in strong current reducing the potential loss from seal attacks, excellent results have been achieved and the loss of fish has greatly reduced. “We are currently involved in a research and development program and have successfully trialled a new sewing machine for use in the manufacture of treatment tarps on a larger scale using very heavy duty materials .

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY diamond style on all or part of the net has proven very beneficial in keeping the integrity of our nets in bad conditions around the world, whilst still allowing for good aeration from water flow.” The use of gussets, chaffer panels and double netting on areas of the net that are prone to more abrasion is extremely effective. Together with the hand mounted roping, attention to specifics, excellent design, highly skilled net makers and machinists Boris Nets produces cages often classed as some of the best in the world.

Next generation for Lift Up


aily ‘morts’ removal and handling are part of best practice in fish farming and Lift Up AS has, since 1989, supplied many thousand ‘morts’ collection systems from it factories in Norway and Chile. The systems use the age-old air-lift principle and are simple in construction and efficient in operation. A souser-shaped cone is lowered to the bottom of the floating net-cage and from there a hose allows ‘morts’ to be lifted from the bottom of the cage to the surface by means of compressed air introduced into the cone at the base. Lift Up has a wide range of

models for different species of fish and various sizes of nets, and exports its products to fish farmers worldwide. Its newest generation of collection systems incorporate a full enclosed systems to bring ‘morts’ from the bottom of cages all the way to a central collection point on a service barge or onto shore for dewatering and disposal. This allows for all waste water to be disposed away from the live fish in the cages and minimises contamination. Lift Up AS will again be exhibiting at this years Aqauculture UK 2014 show in Aviemore, Scotland, with special focus on its newest and fifth generation of collection systems.

Star netting introduced to Scotland


&J Knox has been making nets for aquaculture since the inception of the industry in Scotland. Traditionally, knotless nylon netting has been utilized for cage nets; however in the past year, Knox has started to introduce cage nets to

Scotland which have been produced from star netting, a modified HDPE developed by Garware-Wall Ropes of India. Star netting is flexible and easy to handle, weighing approximately 25 percnet less for the same strength as nylon. The key benefits are that there is less algae formation and no antifoulant is required. Both the structure and the raw material make it more suitable than nylon for machine cleaning. Samples of star netting and further details will be on display at Aquaculture UK at the Knox stand

Association of International



eafood – that is fish from both fishing and aquaculture - is the most traded food commodity in the world and it is an essential product for the health of humans globally and critical for many under developed countries for food security. As professionals, we all need to be aware of issues covering everything from food safety to environmental sustainability, trade barriers to fraud, etc, are all important as we move forward. The aim of this association is to network, share, educate, communicate and promote all activities relating to creating a better seafood world. There are no boundaries as this a large and diverse industry but our aim is not to duplicate what others are doing and to work with all dedicated seafood organisations and people. We have created a website, blogs, LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter (see details below) to enable there to be a terrific flow of information and to enable us all to promote the exchange of ideas and information, foster interaction, understanding and professional collaboration among individuals, organisations and governments, disseminate


“This has resulted in a company in Australia ordering and shipping one of our largest ever products over, with great potential for further purchases in the near future. “Our cages have proven a great success in some of the worst storms on record both nationally and internationally offshore. Leaving them intact and uncompromised when other machine sewn cages have been destroyed with devastating fish losses. “Changing the method in which netting is mounted from the usual square hanging form to

knowledge about fish, seafood and associated products and promote advancement of the state-of-the-art in fish research, development, extension and education. Our association does not aim to charge for membership as we believe that it is best to engage as many industry people as we can and we do not want fees getting in the way. We plan to create services and opportunities for all our members and for those services there will be charges. You will get to choose if you want to sign up to the services or not. If the services are not what you want then you will not have to pay for them. The emphasis is on us to ensure the services will be seen as being seen to be worthwhile to you, otherwise you will not sign up. We can all grow and improve ourselves and our industry simply by learning from each other and nature. We use the Canadian Geese as an example - Scientists believe that the characteristic “v-shaped” flock of geese migrating serves two purposes. First, it creates a current of air along the lines of geese that makes it easier for individuals to fly. Second, it allows for better communication and unity of the flock while in the air.

• 7-11 June 2014 Association engaged in many events at World Aquaculture Conference, Adelaide, SA, Australia • 28-29 June 2014: Association assisting with EMS Forum, Thailand • 1-2 July 2014: Association invited to speak at Monaco Blue Initiative, Santiago, Chile • 6-8 August 2014: Association organizing in conjunction with VASEP the Vietfish Conference, HCMC, Vietnam • 21-22 September 2014: Association invited to speak at Aquatic China, Beijing, China • 9-11 November 2014: Association organizing SEAFEX Seafood Summit, Dubai, UAE • 11-13 March 2015: Association assisting Seafood Processing Conference at VIV Cer ti Asia, Bangkok, Thailand fica


Fish farming Technology | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 03





Benefits and disadvantages of modern basic systems


very fish farmer hopes to achieve the same goal of high quality fish to a minimum production cost.

RAS with degassing tanks and fixed bed up flow bio filters In fixed bed up-flow filters with fixed substrate, the water is distributed evenly throughout the bottom of all the bio filters. This is done to secure a low water flow speed up through the bio filter media - in order to also remove the smaller particles. It also reduces the amount of solid material the bio filter has to break down as there is settlement in the bottom of the bio filters prior to entering the bio filter media. The media has an open structure (media is 15% of the volume) which helps to secure a low water speed. This low water speed helps the media and the bacteria that grow on them to effectively catch the microscopic particles. In fixed bed up-flow bio filters the whole surface of the media is used to remove particles and ammonia, and the result is cleaner water. Back flush of the bio filter is a simple operation that doesn’t significantly affect the water quality. The bio filter is separated in sections meaning that one can be cleaned while the other sections are still running. The cleaning intervals are 8-16 weeks depending on the amount of feeding. It is possible to implement a semi-automatic cleaning system to the bio filters which ease the cleaning operation of the bio filters significantly. Efficient removal of micro particles reduces the need for ozone treatment to get clean and clear water. If ozone is used, then only a small doze is needed due to less particles in the water. The degassing system contributes positively to the water temperature in the RAS because the air blowers heat up the air blown into the water and degas the CO2 in the water simultaneously. So in addition to the improved water quality, heating costs are reduced thanks to the design.

Due to the design of the bio filter, settlement in the first part of the bio filter is impossible. The use of 2-3 bio filters gives each bio filter less volume this will result in significant higher water speeds in the bio filters. High water speed makes it difficult to catch micro particles. The cleaning of the bio filter blocks has shown to be very time consuming

sing, there is a need to have a high water flow to keep the CO2 level down as trickling filters have lower efficiency compared to degassing tanks. The water enters the trickling filter just after the drum filter and still has a lot of organic material in the water. Organic material creates a lot of sludge in the bio filter, the trickling filter, “drops off” of old sludge that



Trickling filter does 2 jobs - CO2 stripping and ammonia removal.

2 times pumping gives higher power consumption. CO2 stripping is cooling the system down at winter and heating it at summer. Labor intensive to clean bio filters. Need higher water flow to control CO2.



Trickling filter does 2 jobs - CO2 stripping and ammonia removal.

2 times pumping gives higher power consumption. CO2 stripping is cooling the system down at winter and heating it at summer. Labor intensive to clean bio filters. Need higher water flow to control CO2.



Low energy consumption of the pumping of the water due to the one-time pumping. No cleaning of the bio filter.

Makes dirty water when running at full capacity. Little CO2 degassing capacity.



Low energy consumption due to “one time pumping”. Best mechanical capture of particles in the bio filter! This makes clean water. Less oxygen consumption due to clear water = less CO2 production = less power consumption.

A little higher area requirement. Not full automatic cleaning of the bio filter.

because it sometimes needs to be taken out of bio filter for manual cleaning. It is a known fact that the relatively large amount of air needed for trickling filters cools the water significant because of the evaporation. This technology is actually well known in cooling towers. When using trickling filters for CO2 degas-

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goes back to the fish tanks as small particles (circa 70% goes to fish tanks and circa 30% to fixed bed filters). This design makes the water dirty due to low cleaning efficiency. The fixed bed bio filter has more chambers which runs in series at 4 times the speed of the water compared to fixed bed up-flow filters were the water runs parallel.


The trickling filter is made of bio block systems which requires cleaning 1-2 times a year with a high pressure cleaner. The water is pumped 2 - 3 times which gives higher power consumption. The high water speed in fixed bed up- and down-flow filters makes it difficult to remove the micro particles. In combination with a trickling filter this makes the water unclean. As described before, the relatively large amount of air needed for a trickling filter

cools the water significant because of the evaporation. Moving bed filters are self-cleaning because of the air that is blown into the bio filter medias to keep them moving. When the layers of dead micro-organisms grow too thick it will peel off causing dirty water. The smallest particles that come into the moving bed filter will not be caught in the filter but go back into the fish tanks causing very unclear water.

Blowing air into deep water columns as it is done in moving bed bio filters gives high super saturation of Nitrogen which requires significant vacuum degassing systems to remove the super saturation of Nitrogen in the water. Dirty water in the fish tanks creates a significant higher oxygen consumption and CO2 production of up to 50% which requires up to 50% more electricity consumption for oxygen injection and CO2 removal as well as 50% more oxygen purchase.

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Fish farming Technology | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 05


Pharmaq in ‘holistic ‘ distribution deal with Leiber to expand its global product portfolio


wo key companies to the aquaculture sector have entered into a distribution agreement that will benefit fish farming operators when it comes to combining fish health with fish nutrition. By signing a distribution agreement with the German ingredient manufacturer, Leiber GmbH, Pharmaq AS teams up with a very competent partner in the interesting segment of yeast products and immune stimulation for its global aquaculture customer base. “Pharmaq is very happy to add the quality products of Leiber GmbH to its portfolio. It will make a basis for early entry into new geographies and species, as well as strengthening the relationship with customers in our present markets," says Jan Oppen Berntsen, Director Feed Products and Equipment in Pharmaq AS. For 60 years, Leiber GmbH, located in Bramsche in Lower Saxony, Germany, has

Interview - Pharmaq International Aquafeed interviewed Jan Oppen Berntsen, Director - Feed Products and Equipment based in Pharmaq’s Oslo office, Norway, who answered questions with interesting insights and depth.

How will Leiber’s products benefit Pharmaq’s customers?

Traditionally, Pharmaq AS has had its main focus on vaccines for farmed fish. And as such our vaccines are specific products, meaning one component in any given vaccine is designed to solve one specific disease in one specific specie. A vaccine can contain many different components and thus solve many disease problems in one injection. The most commonly used injection vaccine in Norwegian salmon farming today contains six different antigens and protects against as many pathognes. Leiber's products are delivered through feed and their basic ingredient is beta-glucan. Beta-glucans boost the animal’s unspecific immune system and as such is a more

been one of the leading manufacturers of specialist yeast products. The natural raw material of brewers' yeast is processed using an innovative biotechnological method to form highquality products which are used in the areas of animal nutrition, food, food supplements and biotechnology. “Our customers are found in the salmonid, tilapia, pangasius, sea bass/bream as well as the shrimp segments of the global aquaculture industry. “By adding a high-quality beta-glucan man-

general way of helping animals overcome general stress periods. Feeds containing immune stimulating substances such as beta-glucan are often recommended during stress periods caused by for example change in temperature, change in feeding regime, before handling such as sorting and vaccination.

At what stage is it now and what is the long-term goal of the agreement? Is this a world-wide agreement or for specific regions?

Leiber wanted to strengthen their presence in the aquaculture segment and chose to do so through the collaboration with Pharmaq AS. Pharmaq AS is recognised as the world's leading pharmaceutical company specialising in aquaculture. We provide environmentally sound, safe and efficacious health products to the global aquaculture industry through targeted research and the commitment of dedicated people. The agreement gives Pharmaq access to Leiber's products exclusively to

ufactured by Leiber to our Pharmaq product portfolio, we will support unspecific immunity to products administered by the oral route,” says Jan Oppen Berntsen. Pharmaq AS provides environmentally sound, safe and efficacious health products for the global fish farming industry. Besides a range of therapeutic products, the company's core products are fish vaccines with a broad portfolio of 25 different vaccines for various markets.

aquaculture in a few selected markets (Greece and Spain) and as our own branded products to aquaculture on a global basis. Leiber's brands are BioLex MB40 and Beta-S. Pharmaq's corresponding brands are Vetregard and ALPHA Beta 80. The latter products (Beta-S and AB 80) are purified and with a very high content (> 80%) of Beta-glucan. The long term goal is to build a stronger presence in the feed additive segment for a product portfolio that fits our business idea. (Pharmaq provides environmentally sound, safe and efficacious health products to the global aquaculture industry.) Leiber products fit this perfectly.

Has there been a history of working with fish farmers that use Leiber products anyway? Has it been a naturally, gradual process?

No, we have a small product portfolio in selected markets in this segment. Some of our present customers will naturally be interested in the Leiber products.

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Interview - Leiber


nternational Aquafeed interviewed Karen Mörler, Marketing Animal Nutrition at Leiber GmbH in Bramsche in Lower Saxony, Germany who also answered question about the agreement in detail.

How will Leiber’s products benefit Pharmaq’s customers?

Leiber’s high quality ‘made in Germany’ products for aquaculture include the highly purified 1.3-1.6-ß-D-glucan Leiber Beta-S and the yeast cell wall product Biolex MB40, which are both delivered through the feed. The famous phrase “prevention is better than cure” gains more and more importance in today’s aquatic animal husbandry. Following this approach, the overall aim and result of these prophylactically administered products is to boost the immune and health status of fish and shellfish in order to increase their resistance against the variety of stress factors that occur during the production cycles in intensive aquaculture. As a result, the efficiency and profitability of the aquaculture farms is improved, mainly but not exclusively through a reduction in mortality rates.

How important is the health of fish to Leiber’s current customers, and does Leiber's immune stimulation products match well for fish farmers with Pharmaq’s products and expertise in fish vaccination and fish health?

The health status of fish and shellfish is the decisive

factor in why Leiber’s customers are using the health promoting products Leiber Beta-S and Leiber Biolex MB40. In today’s intensive aquaculture fish and shellfish are often subjected to a plethora of various stress factors in their living environment. A chronic stress response is generally believed to suppress or dysregulate immune functions and makes the organism more susceptible to pathogens with the eventual risk of causing diseases. Among others one frequently occurring stress factor is handling, and this is where Leiber’s and Pharmaq's products complement each other perfectly. Especially Leiber’s ß-glucan product Leiber Beta-S prepares the fish to better overcome the stress of a vaccination procedure and, in addition, subsequently improves the effect of the vaccination through its proven, adjuvant effect.

What links will this distribution partnership bring, are there long-term goals?

Leiber wants to further strengthen its presence in aquaculture and Pharmaq as the market leader in aquaculture pharmaceuticals, with a direct link to the farmers, is an ideal partner. The combination of both companies’ products will generate a more holistic approach to the improvement of fish health and ultimately to the profitability of aquaculture operations for the farmers’ benefit in a sound, safe and sustainable way.

Fish farming Technology | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 07


SEAFEX Middle East/North Africa Seafood Summit


n ever increasingly crowed ocean where increasing demands are being made by various activity groups is putting unnecessary pressure on the fishing and aquaculture industries. That’s the message delegated attending the inaugural Seafood Summit event which was part of the Seafex Seafood Exhibition (which in itself was part of a massive program covering all activities seafood related from world hospitality competitions through to various trade shows and meetings), at Dubai World Trade Centre earlier this year. The Association of International Seafood Professionals (AISP) was engaged to put together the Summit program. The opening of the Summit included a message from Carl-Christian Schmidt, Head of Fisheries Policies Division at OECD with a video which sets the scene for the challenges ahead for what is describes as the “Green Growth Period”. Starting proceedings with a session ‘Corporate Ocean Responsibility: Regional Ocean Industry Collaboration’ was Paul Holthus from the World Ocean Council (WOC). Mr Holthus highlighted how complex and challenging it is when we are dealing with an ever increasingly crowded ocean with everyone demanding their needs should get priority. The WOC session brought together representatives from shipping, desalination and fisheries/ aquaculture and much was learned about the challenges and opportunities in each sector. Captain Anshuman Singh, a legal expert in shipping matters, explained that at the moment many shipping companies were economically challenged and this has seen many vessels simply left an anchor, that is, dumped. Captain Singh also spoke about water ballast issues and action plans in case of oil spillages – these can both have incredible impacts on fisheries/aquaculture. Prathapchandra Shetty, Emirates Star Fisheries, commented that in addition to fisheries, aquaculture, shipping and desalination, these same waters host an increasing level of many other economic activities - oil and gas, ports, dredging, coastal development, tourism and their ocean uses - which collectively create challenges to maintaining marine ecosystem health and productivity in the region. Felix Dent, FAO Globefish, gave an excellent presentation on ‘Status and Trends of Global Fisheries & Aquaculture’ and gave some basic information on FAO and Globefish roles. ‘Certification – Benefits beyond the Demands’ was a presentation by Peter Redmond, Global Aquaculture Alliance. Through the development of its Best Aquaculture Practices certification stand-

ards, GAA has become the leading standardssetting organisation for aquaculture seafood. Trading seafood in MENA, especially the Middle East is an important activity that people do not know enough about. Sadaf Murad, an AISP member based in UAE, gave her views on ‘Import, Consumption and Re-Export’ business. Sadaf highlighted that the area has become a large re-processing hub for the MENA area. Sadaf gave information on import patterns (species, sources and connections); the spectrum of seafood products (the top echelon, masses, bottom of the pyramid consumption, species and movements, etc.); inter trade and cross trade (re-processing, re-export, etc.). The presentation created a taste for the next subject ‘Fishing & Aquaculture including Financing and Investing in the Arab Region’ led by Izzat Feidi, Fisheries Consultant based in Egypt and a panel of people he had engaged. The panel consisted Salih Salem Bahawini, Al-Qalzam (Sea Global Co, Saudi Arabia); Professor Jean-Yves Mevel, UAE University, UAE; Prathapchandra Shetty, Emirates Star Fisheries, Yemen/UAE and Max Goulden, MacAlister-Elliott Partners Ltd, UK. We learnt that whilst the overall resources of the Arab region in general constitute a small part in the international fisheries scene they are considered a very important economic activity especially in the traditional, artisanal communities in these countries where it provides employment, food and a source of income from the various activities associated with the fisheries industry. “With this background, and in order to increase the benefits of a largely low level industry in terms of returns of the industry to the various national economies as well as to the various sectors of the industry including the fishermen communities, there is a significant need for more attention and prospective of development in the region in order to raise the potential of food security. “Major investments will need to be injected in the sector to increase the future benefits of aquaculture in these countries of the region,” commented Izzat. A successful day one was wrapped up with a presentation on Aquaculture without Frontiers, highlighting the issues regarding the alleviation of hunger and poverty and the activities of the AwF. Day Two at SEAFEX was focused on how to make money from our oceans/water responsibly. Dr Jed Brown, of the MASDAR Institute, gave us an insight into ‘Integrated Seawater Aquaculture/ Agriculture Project for Bioenergy Production in UAE’. The importance of seafood as it relates to individuals health was a GILLS presentation. The catch cry is that everyone knows the importance of seafood and health but if that was true then surely we would not be getting anti-seafood activities and surely every country would address their food security needs as far as seafood is concerned. Importantly, we would not have eating disor-

ders as we have with both hunger and obesity around the world and seafood would be given priority in areas relating to space/access. We know that is not the case so we need to continue to find new ways to spread the message globally. Roger Gilbert, International Aquafeed, just returning from an important Chinese Nutrition Conference which focused on aquaculture feeds, etc., gave an excellent presentation on the challenges we face on how to feed a growing population in the future. He stressed that aquatic organisms like fish, have an advantage in efficiency (very effective feed converters) compared to land animals which is due to their advantage of having ambient body temperature,and requiring less energy for keeping body in balance, as they live in water. As feed resources become scarce and more expensive this advantage will become stronger he believed. Despite these facts, there is a perception, mainly outside the aquaculture society, that feed is a major sustainability issue for aquaculture. Most concern is related to the use of fish as feed for fish but he believed that as long as there is good management of fisheries ensuring that fish harvest is sustainable, due to the efficiency benefits of fish, aquafeed is the best allocation for fishmeal and oil. However, he pointed out that the industry has invested in substantial knowledge allowing use to reduce fishmeal input in diets with many feed companies reducing the inclusion of marine ingredients by 50 percent over the last 10 years, and clearly had more gains to make. ‘Marketing and Lessons in Fishing & Aquaculture’ was presented by Professor Jose Fernandez Polanco, Universidad de Cantabria, who has a wealth of experience in these areas stressed that marketing is an imperative in driving the industry from being commodity driven to consumer driven. Through various case studies which he has completed over the years he highlighted that marketing was still an important issue to be overcome. Dr Farshad Shishehchian from Blue Aqua, Thailand, spoke about ‘Making Profit in Aquaculture’ and attracted a good audience. The IASP launched its website ( highlighting that its aims were to create a professional association representing all individuals from all sectors of the global seafood industry community enabling interaction, understanding and collaboration; disseminating knowledge about fish, seafood and associated products; lifting values by promoting advancement in seafood research, development, extension, education and standards that will lead to a professional accredited industry. The event closed with the International Premiere showing of “Drawing the Line”, an 80 minute movie, a concept of Bruce Davey, a Northern Territorian Spanish Mackerel fisherman who was keen to get some factual issues on record about the previous Australian Governments push for Marine Parks and with the added value of explaining the ‘Super trawler’ issue as it unfolded in Australia.

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IAF1403 - Fish Farming Technology supplement  
IAF1403 - Fish Farming Technology supplement  

Featuring: Nets & Cages, and Aquaculture recirculation systems