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Evaluation of Fishmeal Substitution Utilization of spray-dried Hemoglobin powder - in Shrimp feeds

Active ingredients for healthy animals - Rice, the technological ingredient for aquafeed

Opportunities for fish pheromones: - their applications and role in the sustainability of wild fish stocks the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry Member of the World Aquaculture Society, European Aquaculture Society, American Feed Industry Association and the International Aquafeed Association

Join us in Porto The European Aquaculture Society is pleased to welcome you to its AE2010 event,


To be held from October 5-8, 2010 in Porto, Portugal. Hosted by CIMAR (CIIMAR and CCMAR)

AE2010 comprises: • International Conference • Aquaculture Trade Exhibition • Farmers’ (industry) day • Student Forum • EU Forum • Satellite Workshops & Meetings Aquaculture Europe - the annual meeting of the European Aquaculture Society

















An international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

Volume 13 / Issue 1 / January-February 2010 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2010 / All rights reserved



Aqua News INVE Aquaculture sets new standards for responsible aquaculture AKVA group boosts local service in Norway Is ‘Farmed in the region’ the future?' Improvements on ‘Public Profile’ of users New Appointments at Kiotech International David Bullen appointed as chief operating officer & board member Karen Prior as group finance director Videos: a new tool for Public Profile information Aqua Sur 2010 – Tours organised by ACG Offshore Mariculture 2010 – Chairman confirmed Aquaculture without Frontiers launches online donation appeal Aqua specialist in new technical support role at Meriden Victam 2010 Partnership in synergy

3 3 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 8 10

Process Evaluation of Fishmeal Substitution


Ingredient Utilization of spray-dried Hemoglobin powder in Shrimp feeds


18 22

Nutrition Preventing the impact of seawater transfer on feed intake in salmon - The importance of sensory stimulation in fish feeding


Ingredient Active ingredients for healthy animals - Rice - the technological ingredient for aquafeed


Industry Opportunities for fish pheromones - their applications and role in the sustainability of wild fish stocks


Industry Sustaining the growth of a young industry

Perendale Publishers Ltd


Book Reviews








International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058



happy new year to all our readers and I hope that 2010 will be a prosperous and successful year for the aquaculture industry. Although we will face many of the same problems and challenges in the fish farming industry, we can look forward to new solutions and opportunities given the scale of enterprising companies and organisations involved in the feed sector at least. Having been the editor for exactly one year, it has been most educational for me to witness the enthusiasm of scientists and commercial stake-holders in advocating technical advances in applied fish and crustacean nutrition with an array of novel products that can be included in balanced feed formulations. There have been continuous refinements in major feed ingredients to improve their nutritional value by applying different processing conditions as a result of engineering improvements at the extrusion and post extrusion levels.

Editor Professor Simon Davies Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

Associate Editor Professor Krishen Rana Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

Editorial Advisory Panel: • Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt) • Aliro Borquez (Chile) • Chen Shuping (China) • Citas Pascual (Philippines) • Colin Mair (UK) • Daniel Montero (Spain) • Dom Bureau (Canada) • Eric De Muylder (Belgium) • Miguel A. Olvera (Mexico) • Mike Cremer (USA) • Ola Flesland (Norway) • Mohammad R. Hasan (Italy) • Ming DanChen (Thailand)

A whole new range of feed additives continues to be marketed with claims of immunemodulation, disease resistance attributes, functionality with respect to gut integrity and many other positive effects on physiological and biochemical parameters leading to improved performance and feed utilization. I am confident from peer reviewed research articles that there is much truth concerning the influence of some these well established dietary supplements, but we must always caution any spurious remarks akin to spin doctoring without very sound evidence of authenticity. The credibility of any such products for inclusion in animal feeds must pass many hurdles including several scientific, veterinary as well as stringent scrutiny from a legislative perspective. It is therefore imperative to consider these factors in any discussion as to their merits for aquatic live stock destined for either human consumption or the ornamental trade. In this edition, we have a feature examining the use of fishmeal in diets for sea bream with a Mediterranean theme from a well known academic in Egypt, Professor Eid. One of our editorial panellists, Eric De Muylder reports on the potential of a haemoglobin (blood based) meal product as a supplement to offset fish meal in shrimp feeds. Various blood meals obtained from designated sources have been the subject of much interest in fish and shrimp nutrition and impressive results have been obtained with respect to their value as attractants. Their nutritional value as sources of minerals and essential amino acids is also of interest. We feature a botanical based feed stimulant tested on salmon in Norway as well as an overview of rice flours and rice concentrate protein as ingredients in diets for trout and sea bream with potential for other fish species. So we start the year with topical reminders of the cost and availability of fundamental raw materials and resources that fuel fish and shellfish production. We enter the second decade of the 21st Century on a sound platform of increasing knowledge and optimism for this dynamic and responsive industry.

International Marketing Manager Caroline Wearn Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email: Subscription & Circulation Manager


Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

Production Manager

International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, events, book reviews and more. Subscribers to International Aquafeed also receive a free copy of the International Aquafeed Directory worth UK£85. For more information please visit our website.

Nicky Barnes Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email: Design & Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

January-February 2010 2 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010


Croeso a Blwthyn Newydd Dda

Aqua News

AKVA group

boosts local service in Norway


s a part of the ongoing work to build up a strong local service network in Norway, AKVA group is now expanding its operations on the island of Hitra, outside Trondheim. The Sandstad location will now offer spare parts inventory and a professional service organization for both Akvasmart and Polarcirkel products. “The comments from the farming companies in the region are very positive, and our good local service is one important reason for Salmar Farming to chose AKVA group to supply their next feed barges, sensors systems

and plastic cages”, says Sales Director, Stig Martin Bø. “Even a high speed Polarcirkel Cabin 860 boat is included in our plans to offer customers even faster service and prevent equipment down time”, says AKVA group Sandstad manager, Eskil Bekken. Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

Trond Severinsen Chief Marketing Officer AKVA group ASA, Nordlysveien 4, PO Box 271 N-4340 Bryne, , Norway Tel: +47 51 778500 Website:

INVE Aquaculture sets new standards for responsible aquaculture


he brine shrimp Artemia is a wellknown, convenient and indispensable live food for the industrial aquaculture of most marine fish and shellfish. What determines the success of Artemia? Not only its availability as a nutritious live prey, but also the possibility of tailoring its nutritional value to the hatchery needs and its flexibility of use in an industrial hatchery environment. The use of Artemia requires the hatchery operator to separate the freshly hatched brine shrimp nauplii from the cyst shells. This complex process usually involves sedimentation or decapsulation processes. Today, INVE Aquaculture has made this a redundant step by launching an innovative product & process called SEPArt. This is the new Artemia Technology for a sustainable and efficient one-step separation of hatched nauplii from the cyst shells. The process yields pure Ar temia nauplii without the use of chemicals or complex manipulations The advantages are multiple: • Pure & highly vital nauplii separated from cyst shells; • No use of toxic chemicals (decapsulation); • No environmental impact; • No adverse health effect for the hatchery workers

• High nauplii yields through elimination of losses. The use of SEPArt Artemia does not require any structural modifications or changes in incubation or harvest protocols. Using the INVE SEPArt cysts and the dedicated equipment (SEPAr t Tube separator or the high throughput CysTM unit) simplifies the process and excludes the need for any additional energy. SEPArt brine shrimp cysts are currently distributed to more than 150 customers in Asia and the Americas. It has also been demonstrated at several main European marine fish hatcheries and has been enthusiastically received as a major step change in the hatchery operations. SEPArt is now ready to be launched in the European markets. With SEPAr t, INVE Aquaculture highlights its commitment to innovating aquaculture to the highest standards and suppor ting sustainable and environmentally friendly practices. SEPArtTechnology is patent pending in all the major aquaculture countries of the world. Mo re

in fo rmatio n :


January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 3

Is ‘Farmed in the region’ the future'


s ‘Farmed in the region’ the future?” That is one of the questions currently occupying the fish industry’s collective mind. And that is why the 12th Fish International Fair will be addressing the topic ‘Recirculation technology in aquaculture –

Oppor tunities and outlook for the market’. In this section of the event, experts will discuss the pros and cons of this technology, share their experiences and present products from indoor fish farming. With sustainability as its central

theme, the 12th Fish International will take place at the Bremen Exhibition Centre, Germany, from February 21-23, 2010. Professional visitors from all segments of the fish industr y, trade and catering come to the Bremen fish fair to o b t a i n i n f o rmation, keep in touch with existing customers, establish new contacts and discuss the latest topics in the industr y. Within the topic block ‘Aquaculture’ it will be possible to gain information on sustainable and energyefficient fish production in recirculation systems – for example at the stand of International Fish Farming Te c h n o l o g y

4 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

(IFFT) GmbH: together with its par tners the company is currently setting up the world’s first enclosed inland marine fish farming facility in Saarland and will be presenting the technology at fish international.

Integrate aquaculture in the material cycle of its environment

“The idea behind the system is to integrate aquaculture in the material cycle of its environment,” explains IFFT manager Friedrich Esser. “The marine fish farm is thus connected to a biogas plant that produces energy and supplies heat. “In this way we can achieve energy-efficient production and the resulting biomass is in turn used for heat recover y. And thanks to a water treatment system, water exchange is no longer necessary. “Farming takes place in clean filtered water and produces convincing tasty products,” he adds. The farm opens up the possi-

Aqua News bility of farming fish under controlled conditions without detrimental environmental influences such as parasites, chemical loads or algal bloom and in the required quantity for year-round delivery to traders.

Indoor fish farming - the future

“International exper ts believe that indoor fish farming will play a special role in fish supply in the future,” confirms Dr Adrian Bischoff from IMARE Institut für Marine Ressourcen GmbH. “People are rather skeptical in Germany, however, with regard to competitiveness due to the still widespread belief that economic conditions are better elsewhere.” The fact that this is not true and that German producers, too can benefit from the main advantage of indoor fish farming, that is from bringing controlled farming and consumption of table fish closer together, can be seen in the topic block ‘Aquaculture’. “The indoor fish far ming segment is not only very interesting for fish industry exper ts but also for fish buyers and sellers,” says Sabine Wedell, the project manager of fish international at Messe Bremen. “Producers and distributors from Germany, Denmark and The Netherlands will display product alternatives from sustainable aquaculture and present state-of-the-ar t technology. There will also be plenty of oppor tunities for discussion, sharing experiences and giving and obtaining advice.”

The accompanying lecture programme in which speakers will talk about their experiences in aquaculture is being drawn up together with IMARE. The speaker s will include: Adrie Cornelisse from t h e c o m p a ny G r o e n t e e n Viskweker ij Cor nelisse B .V. (Grovis Co); Dr Ber t Wecker from IFFT; Michael Lutz from Köster Marine Proteins GmbH and Br ian Thomsen, t he M a na g i ng D i r ector of The Danish Aquaculture Organisation. Aspects, such as sustainability, animal welfare and feed usage will also be discussed. Among the topics are: Sustainable supply of fishmeal as a protein source for aquaculture; Suitable fish species and new candidates for farming in recirculation systems; Sustainable farming of marine fishes in enclosed recirculation systems under integration of the environment but without direct access to sea water ; Cer tification of fish and seafood from aquaculture and fisheries. 12th Fish International will take place in Halls 5, 6 and 7 of the Bremen Exhibition Centre, Germany, from Sunday February 21 to Tuesday February 23, 2010. The exhibition is divided into the four sections: Trading Market, Processing, Point of Sale and Logistics with the special topic ‘Sustainability’ running through all of them. Mo re

in fo rmatio n :


Improvements on ‘Public Profile’ of users

E has redesigned the tool ‘Public Profile: Now you can have access to the basic data of the most active users of our community’. Active users of our community are the ones that participate in forums of technical discussions, are authors of technical articles or belong to the staff of registered and authorised companies of our Directory, says the company. When ‘clicking’ on names visitor s can access to the public data of the user (see image), including their professional profiles and their activity on the website (for ums, news, technical ar ticles, participation in events, staff of a company).

Also, with the tool 'send to a friend', users can send to colleagues and friends all the work published in Engormix. com. Finally, users who have professional data and participate of the 'Professional's Guide' can be contacted for their services.

Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

María Giovanardi Community of International Business Related to Animal Production
 San Lorenzo 27 Chacabuco (6740)
 Buenos Aires Argentina Tel/Fax: +54 2352 432336 Email:

FOOD CHAIN From Farm to Table

The premier meeting point for the feed and food industry in 2010. Addressing common concerns and identifying opportunities. Join us in Cancun, Mexico!. For more information visit: Hosted jointly by FAO & IFIF

January-February 2010 | International IFIF QP AD.indd 1AquaFeed | 5

in co-operation with Conafab

19/06/2009 15:34

Aqua News

New Appointments at Kiotech International David Bullen appointed as chief operating officer & board member


avid Bullen has been appointed chief operating officer for Kiotech International and will join the main board of directors. David joined the Kiotech in July 2007 and, as general manager of Kiotechagil, has been responsible for the day-to-day commercial management of the agricultural business as well as setting up Kiotech’s whollyowned subsidiar y in China. David previously worked for the Animal Health division

of Novar tis where he was head of sales and marketing for the Benelux region. “David will continue to be responsible for Kiotechagil and China and will in addition be managing key par ts of the integration process between Kiotech and Optivite,” said Kiotech chief executive Richard Edwards. “He has an excellent understanding of marketing strategy as well as strong management, planning and organisational skills and I am sure will be successful

in his new role and in driving the integration process.” “I am looking forward to new challenges and taking our business forward,” said David Bullen.

technical resources to ensure we operate and serve our customers more efficiently and effectively.”

“Following the mer ger between Kiotech and Optivite there are likely to be benefits I can initiate , such as pooling production, mar keting and

Karen Prior as group finance director


iotech, the AIM listed international supplier of natural high performance feed additives to enhance growth, health and sustainability in aquaculture and agriculture, has appointed Karen Prior FCA as group finance director. Ms Prior joins from Town Centre Securities PLC the stock market quoted proper ty investment and development company, where she was finance director and company secretar y. Prior to that, she was chief financial officer at Q-Park UK, the Dutch real estate group that owns and

Mo re

operates car parks throughout Europe. Ms Prior qualified as a Chartered Accountant 1984. “Karen’s experience of working for a publically listed company and her involvement in all the regulatory and investor relations aspects will be extremely valuable to our company,” said Kiotech’s chief executive Richard Edwards. “So too will her exper tise and successful track record in handling and helping to i n t e g r a t e a c q u i s i t i o n s .” In August 2009 Kiotech

announced its interim results with sales up 30 percent to UK£3.47m and also the acquisition of Optivite, one of the largest independent animal nutrition a n d fe e d a d d i t i ve bu s i n e s s e s i n t h e United Kingdom with sales of Uk£17.5m.

“The company is involved in a very interesting and dynamic market with plenty of oppor tunities for growth and acquisition.”

“I am delighted to be joining Kiotech at this exciting time of its development,” s ay s K a r e n P r i o r.

in fo rmatio n : Scaramanga Communications - Tel: +44 1342 316193 - Email: - Website:

Videos: a new tool for Public Profile information

E has launched an innovative tool for product information: videos that allow companies to communicate users all the qualities of a specific product. With a new design, the tool aims to optimise the companies' profit of the usage of the site, allowing potential customers to have a direct

experience of their products. The most important aspect of the innovation relies in the possibility of transmitting direct content from a company member to a user. Visual communications and faceto-face exchanges are proved to be more successful and to have a higher remembrance index than the standard written ones,

therefore, delivers its clients this powerful advantage. The strength of the tool is centered in permanent validity and in the fidelity of customers, unleashed by the visual experience. When texts are too long or complicated, a professional video will fit the job. Users will automatically identify the member of the company

6 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

as a reference in the subject; this will also catalyze more fluid relationships in events. will continue developing useful tool for their clients and users, in order to improve the profit of the site. More information : Website:

Aqua News

Aqua Sur 2010 – Tours organised by ACG


he Aquaculture Communications Group (ACG) is planning a number of aquaculture facility site visits and business-to-business (B2B) meetings in conjunction with Aqua Sur 2010, which will take place in Puerto Montt, Chile on March 24-27, 2010. “In collabor ation with our industry contacts in Chile, we are in the early stages of putting our tour itinerary together,” said ACG senior consultant Dave Conley. “Despite the current challenges in Chile’s aquaculture industry, there has never been a better time for supply and service providers t o p r o s p e c t fo r bu s i n e s s oppor tunities in Chile. “Our contacts indicate that there is a strong interest in the construction of recirculation

aquaculture systems (RAS), and in supplies and services for freshwater facilities such as pumps and filters, sterilisation/disinfection equipment/products, feeding systems, equipment control and data management software , for example ,” he adds. Processing plants are looking for equipment to filter effluent and disinfect water, as well as labour-saving machines that can speed up processing activities. There are also opportunities for buying or investing in existing operations in both the production and processing sectors. For these ventures, the Government of Chile is prepared to offer help and forms are available for filling out by interested people/companies. “The specific facilities and site visits that we are planning, as well as any

B2B meetings, depend upon the interests of the tour participants,” s a i d To r- E d d i e F o s s b a k k , ACG senior consultant. “Because of this, we encourage interested people to contact us as ear ly as possible .” ACG will be putting together a draft itinerary with estimated costs in the coming weeks. We recommend that interested tour participants contact their national, regional and local international business development agencies as soon as possible to find out about funding options to cover tr ip expenses.

Other tours under development include:

• Aquaculture 2010, March 1 - 5 , 2 0 1 0 , S a n D i e g o, California, USA

• Seafood Processing America & Inter national Boston Seafood Show 2010, March 14-16, 2010, Boston, Massachusetts, USA • Seafood Processing Europe & European Seafood Exhibition 2010, April 27-29, 2010, Brussels, Belgium • AquaVision 2010, June 7-9, 2010, Stavanger, Norway   Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

Tor-Eddie Fossbakk The Aquaculture Communications Group, LLC 22483 Ennishore Drive Novi, MI 48375 USA Tel: +1 248 3059339 Website: Blog: /wordpress

World Class Aquafeed Extrusion. Reduce energy consumption by 25%, while optimizing quality and volume. Reduced energy consumption. Higher aquafeed production volume. Improved finished product quality. They’re all typical comments of aquafeed producers that have consulted with Extru-Tech to achieve best in market process solutions. At Extru-Tech®, we’re determined to elevate the industry’s production to higher levels, using less energy. By utilizing our collective resources, we’re engineering the next generation of aquafeed processing today. Now that’s innovation driven by Extru-Tech.


ET-199B.indd 1

Corporate Office P.O. Box 8 • 100 Airport Road • Sabetha, KS 66534, USA Phone: 785-284-2153 • Fax: 785-284-3143 •

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 7

12/16/09 10:12:17 AM

Aqua News Offshore Mariculture 2010 – Chairman confirmed


he organisers of Offshore Mariculture Conference 2010, Mercator Media, announces Arne Fredheim, the director of Create, Sintef Fisheries and Aquaculture, in Trondheim, Norway, as chair the conference. Offshore Mariculture will be held from the June 16-18, 2010 at the Hilton Imperial Hotel, Dubrovnik, Croatia. Arne Fredheim’s current work mainly involves research on topics related to technology for marine aquaculture and has previously researched current forces on and flow through net structures, structural and hydrodynamic analysis and assessment of floating fish farms and design criteria to prevent escape of fish

from floating aquaculture installations. A member of the Norwegian Aquaculture Escapes Commission, Arne brings a wealth of marine aquaculture knowledge and experience to the conference and is also an enthusiastic speaker on the subject. His participation in global fora on offshore mariculture, including the first OM Conference in 2006, is a big advantage for OSM2010. Alistair Lane, Executive Director of the European Aquaculture Society commented, "Arne was one of our keynote speakers at AE2009 and gave an excellent presentation on the issues with a focus on multi-disciplinary technology technologies.

“I'm sure that he will be an excellent chair for OSM2010.” The 2010 Offshore Mariculture Conference will be the third in this series of successful events aimed at growing offshore fish farming businesses and will explore the progress and prospects for offshore aquaculture in European and international waters. The technical conference will be held on June 16-17 with a fish farm visit planned for the June 18, 2010. The Conference Networking Dinner will take place on the evening of Wednesday June 16, 2010 at the Revelin Fortress that was built in 1462 to provide protection to the Eastern City Gate Place. Overlooking the Old  City

Aquaculture without Frontiers launches online donation appeal


quaculture without Frontiers (AwF) today launched its online appeal to solicit donations from the global aquaculture industry and interested public to support its objective of alleviating pover ty by improving livelihoods in developing countries. AwF has created an online secure donor page at its website where companies and individuals can make donations using their credit card. “We are asking members of the aquaculture community to host our ‘Donate Now’ logo link on their corporate websites to help us promote our appeal and reach as many potential donors as possible,” Said AwF Founder, Michael New OBE. “We are also asking the aquaculture community and members of the public to consider making a donation to help us fulfill our objective of working to meet the Millennium Development Goal #1, which is eradicating extreme pover ty and hunger,” said AwF

"Aquaculture without frontiers is an independant non-profit organisation that promotes and supports responsible and sustainable aquaculture in the alleviation of poverty by improving livelihoods in developing countries" co-chair, Dr Barry Costa-Pierce, of the University of Rhode Island, USA. This initiative is part of AwF’s launch of a new fund raising strategy to be announced at the World Aquaculture Society meeting in San Diego, California on March 3, 2010. On that occasion, people will come together for a charity dinner entitled “An Evening for the Poor”, whose centre piece for guests will be a very modest serving of the food that is typi-

cally eaten by the majority of the world’s poor today (for example, fish, rice, bread and vegetables). Details are posted at the AwF website. “Although there are some in the aquaculture community that have suffered during the past year due to the world’s financial crisis, the world’s poor have suffered more, and we hope that with the Season of Giving approaching, people will find a way to help those in extreme need,” said AwF co-chair, Dr M.C. Nandeesha of the Centre for Aquaculture Research and Development, St. Xavier's Bishr amganj, Tripura, India. Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

AwF Co‐chairs Dr Costa‐Pierce Dr Nandeesha Emial: 8 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Harbour, the Revelin's terrace offers, what are probably  the best  views of the Old City and its famous Harbour.  Full details of the programme will be release shor tly, for fur ther information please visit the website: Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

Isobel Roberts Marketing Manager Offshore Mariculture 2010 Mercator Media Ltd The Old Mill, Lower Quay Fareham, Hampshire, PO16 0RA United Kingdom Tel: +44 1622 820622 Email: Website:

Aqua specialist in new technical support role at Meriden


eriden Animal Health Limited has appointed M a t t Pe a r c e a s International Technical Suppor t Specialist. Mr Pearce will head up the Aqua division at Meriden Animal Health and give suppor t to the growing d e m a n d from the Orego-Stim® Aquatract product range (pictured left). Mr Pearce has 10 years international experience working in commercial fisheries and aquaculture and has a Masters Degree in Aquatic Pathobiology from the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland. Mr Pearce said he is looking forward to building his career within the animal feeds sector at Meriden Animal Health which offers practical and economic solutions to modern agricultural practices.

Mo re

in fo rmatio n :


Aqua News

Victam 2010 Partnership in synergy


ore than just a single event, Victam 2010 brings together three shows for the feed and milling industry. Held on March 3-5 in Bangkok, Victam 2010 brings together three days of exhibits and specialist conferences in the interrelated sectors of feed ingredients, additives and food, while introducing a brand new section for the first time – biomass. Aside from its mainstay in showcasing innovations in feed technology for pets, terrestrial and aquatic animals, Victam also incorporates the event feed ingredients and additives for the Asia Pacific, FIAAP 2010 and Grapas 2010, the segment for flour milling, grain, rice and noodle processing. Food and feed ingredients are commonly supplied by the same sources. Likewise, the technologies used in extrusion, pelleting, milling, intake, conveying, storage and packaging share similarities across both the food and feed sectors. “The feed milling sector arose out of the food milling industry where flour waste was fed to animals,” explains Henk van de Bunt, general manager of Victam. “This has since developed to become today’s sophisticated feed industry.” Visitors can not only expect to view the latest technologies in feed manufacturing, they can

also get in touch with related sectors such as raw materials and ingredients procurement, m a n u f a c t u r i n g , m a c h i n e r y, processing, storage and logistics. FIAAP, with consists of a trade show within Victam and seminars organised by specialist conference organiser s, under scores the inseparable link between feed ingredients and the feedstuffs and additives for animal production. Some 150 companies and organizations will be exhibiting at the event, spread over an area of 50,000 sq meters. Victam Asia is expected to draw at least 20,000 visitors from over 60 countries and generate an estimated two billion Thai baht (UK£36 million) in expenditure over three days. The majority of exhibitors are expected to come from countries such as Thailand, China, Singapore , Malaysia, the US, UK, the Netherlands and Germany. N e w t o t h e 2 0 1 0 s h ow is a biomass section. “There is tremendous potential for this sector in Asia”, notes van de Bunt, pointing to the m a ny s u i t a bl e c r o p s a n d sources of organic wastes in Asia that can be tapped on to produce biomass pellets. Asia’s emer ging economies are also under increasing pressure to tap on alternative forms of energy to meet their development needs, an area that biomass could potentially fulfill.

From left: Henk van de Bunt, General Manager, Victam Phusit Sasitaranondha, Managing Director, Expolink Global Network

Convention Centre

Returning to Bangkok’s Queen Sirikit National Convention Centre once again, the choice of venue attests to the relevance of the food and feed processing business in the Thai economy. The countr y boasts a vibr ant and well diver sified food and agr iculture sector. Despite an abundance of raw materials, Thai impor ts of raw ingredients for food and feed processing rose 25 percent in 2008 on year. A young demogr aphic profile that is increasingly urban, Thailand’s e x p e n d i t u r e o n fo o d a n d beverages is expected to reach US$38 billion in 2009, a seven percent increase on year. Bringing supplier s of equipment and ingredients together in a single event, Victam enhances the economy of Thailand while also showcasing the advancements in the feed and food equipment and processing industr y in Asia. “Machiner y

10 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010


technology is impor tant to producing quality food and feed,” says Jeera Sornnuwat, a senior exper t from the Thai Depar tment of Livestock. Victam’s global reach h a s a p o s i t i ve i m p a c t o n Thailand’s agr iculture industr y, fur ther sharpening its competitive edge . “ T h i s e ve n t w i l l e n h a n c e the level of productivity and potential in the Thai f e e d i n d u s t r y, f o s t e r i n g economic growth allowing for the exchange of ideas, knowledge and technologies per taining to the industr y,” says Phusit Sasitar anondha, managing director of Expolink Global Networ k, the joint organiser of Victam. Par ticipants can also benefit from the high quality s e m i n a r s a t t h e s h ow. These include the Aquafeed H o r i z o n s e m i n a r, f e e d ingredients and additives Asia Pacific or FIAAP and Grapas, a new meeting place for the grain, rice and flour milling industries. Note: Attendance to these three events is by p r i o r r e g i s t r a t i o n o n l y.

Swivel Valve Cooler MkII For highest food safety standards

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Holland USA Argentina China

F: Process

Evaluation of Fishmeal Substitution with selected Plant Protein Sources on Growth Performance and Body Composition of gilthead sea bream* Fingerlings by Abd Elhamid Eid* ,Badiaa Abd Elfattah*, Khaled Mohamed* *Department of Animal & Fish Production, Fac. of Agric. Suez Canal Univ. Ismailia 41522, Egypt


ilthead sea bream production in Mediterranean countries increased from 30,000 tons in 1996 to 90,000 tons in 2005,which mean that sale prices dropped considerably, from 6.6€/kg in 1996 to 5€/kg in 2005, with an historic minimum of 4€/kg in 2002 (APROMAR, 2006). To maintain the profitability of gilthead sea bream farms, cutting production costs is nec-

essary, mainly through feeding, which represents between 38 and 45% of operational costs (Lisac & Muir, 2000 and Merinero et al., 2005).

aquaculture, as it would reduce dependence on fish sources (Martinez-Llorens et al., 2009). In the last decade, the increasing demand, price and world supply fluctuations of Reductions in feeding costs can be fishmeal (FM) has emphasized the need obtained by optimizing feeding strateto look for alternative protein sources in gies, nutrient levels in diets, and by using aquafeeds. Some plant ingredients have vegetable sources as substitutes for fish been studied in gilthead sea bream (lupin oil and fishmeal. This aspect is also very seed meal, extruded peas and rapeseed important to improve the sustainability of meal) but Poaceae and Fabaceae seeds and their by- products, among which corn gluten and soybean meal, in parTable 1: Composition of the experimental diets ticular, are widely used in fish nutrition Diet because of their high protein content Ingredients (g/100g)* (40-60%), low cost and relative wideFM PPs/25 PPs/50 PPs/75 PPs/100 spread availability. Therefore, soybean meal being the most nutritive and it Fish meal (CP 68%) 63 47.24 31.52 15.78 is used as the major protein source in Corn gluten meal (62%) 9 20 45 62 many fish diets. Partial or even total Soybean meal (44%) 13.7 24 13 15 replacement of dietary fishmeal by Yellow corn 21.5 14.30 8.20 8.90 5.05 soybean meal protein sources had sucFish oil+ Soya oil (1:1) 1** 12 12 12 12 12 cessfully accomplished with tilapia diets L-Lysine -0.26 0.62 1.69 2.32 (Fagbenro and Davies, 2002). Some DL- Methionine --0.16 0.13 0.13 studies with gilthead sea bream have Vit & Min mix2 3 3 3 3 3 shown that partial replacement of FM Cr2O33 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 by PPs is possible (Robaina, et al., 1995; Total 100 100 100 100 100 Hassanen, 1997a, b; 1998; Kissil, et al., 1- Mixture of fish oil and soybean oil (1:1 w/w). 2000; Sitja-Bobadilla et al., 2005 and 2- Each Kg vitamin & mineral mixture premix contained Vitamin A, 4.8 million IU, D3, 0.8 million Martinez-Llorens et al., 2009). Studies IU; E, 4 g; K, 0.8 g; B1, 0.4 g; Riboflavin, 1.6 g; B6, 0.6 g, B12, 4 mg; Pantothenic acid, 4 g; with sea bass have also reported some Nicotinic acid, 8 g; Folic acid, 0.4 g Biotin,20 mg, Mn, 22 g; Zn, 22 g; Fe, 12 g; Cu, 4 g; I, 0.4 success to partial replacing of FM by g, Selenium, 0.4 g and Co, 4.8 mg. PPs (Lanari, 2005 and Tibaldi, et al., 3- Cr2O3: Chromic Oxide 2006). Studies of using corn gluten to feed carnivorous fish (sea bream) are * obtained from the local market. very limited; therefore, the scope of *Sparus aurata 12 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

F: Process the present study was to evaluate the effect of partial or complete replacement of fishmeal with increasing levels of plant protein origin like corn gluten and soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and cost production of sea bream fingerlings’ diets.

Experimental protocol Diet preparation - Five isocaloric

Table 2: Proximate analysis of the experimental diets (% as fed)

Chemical analysis

Diet FM





Crude protein*



Crude fat



Crude fiber



Crude ash



PPs/50 8.30

















and isonitrogenous diets were formuNitrogen free extract 18.79 20.63 22.16 25.58 27.77 lated based on Fishmeal as the only 1 Gross Energy (kcal/100gm) 495.15 493.59 490.06 496.18 497.05 animal protein source or a mixture 2 P/E Ratio (mg protein/Kcal) 90.30 91.20 92.00 90.90 91.70 of PPs (Corn gluten and Soybean meal) as plant protein sources 1. Based on 5.64 Kcal/g protein, 9.44 Kcal/g fat and 4.11 Kcal/g carbohydrate (NRC, 1993). (Table 1). The diets formulated to be 2. Protein/Energy Ratio (mg Protein/Kcal). almost containing 45% crude protein by replacing 25, 50, 75 and 100% and plasma albumin (Doumas, et al., 1977). Experimental methodology of the FM (fishmeal protein) in control Apparent protein digestibility was deterThe tested diets and faeces were analyzed diet. Crystalline amino acids (L-lysine and mined using the method of Furukawa and for crude protein (CP %), ether extract DL-methionine) were added to diets PPs Tasukahara (1966). For determination of (EE %), crude fiber (CF %), ash (%) and 25, 50, 75 and PPs100% to become similar protein digestibility the diets and faeces moisture while whole body composition of to control diets. Fish oil and soybean oil were collected during the last 15 days of sea bream fish samples was also analyzed were added as dietary lipid sources (Table the experimental period. Any uneaten feed except for crude fiber (CF %) according to 1). The diets were pelleted using a small the procedures catering grinder with a 1.5 mm diameter described and kept frozen until the experiment was by A.O.A.C. started. During the growth period (120 (1995) as days), each diet was randomly allocated to shown in Table triplicate tanks of fish. Feed was offered by 2 and Table 5. hand at two meals / day (8:00h and 15:00) at The nitrogen 3% of body weight daily and the amount of free-extract diets were readjusted after each weighing. A new generation of omega-3 lipids (NFE %) was Experimental design - Sea bream calculated by with a broader spectrum of health fingerlings were obtained from a private fish difference. benefits. farm in Damietta governorate. Fish were Blood samples acclimated to laboratory conditions for 2 were col- High DHA contents, preferably in weeks before being randomly distributed into lected using easily digestible and highly bio fiberglass tank of 300-L water capacity each, heparinized in Ashtom Elgamel, Port-Said governorate.The available form for aquaculture use. syringes from water was obtained from channel comes from caudal vein of - Numerous benefits on improving Mediterranean sea. Fish of 10±0.2 g initial the experimenthe immune response, better body weight were distributed into 15 experital fish at the mental tanks in triplicate groups of 50 fish weight gain and physical termination each. The photoperiod was regulated to be of the expericonditions of land animals. 12h light: 12h dark. Water temperature was ment. Blood maintained at 25ºC by a 250- watt immersion was centrifuged heater with thermostat. Water temperature at 3000rpm for and dissolved oxygen were recorded daily (by 5 minutes to Metteler Toledo, model 128.s/No1242), other allow separawater quality parameters including pH and tion of plasma ammonia were measured every two days by which was pH meter (Orion model 720A, s/No 13062) subjected to and ammonia meter (Hanna ammonia meter). Fiskerihavnsgade 35 Phone +45 79120999 determinaWater salinity was 34ppt. The average water tion of plasma P.O. Box 359 Fax +45 79120888 quality criteria of all tanks are presented in total protein 6701 Esbjerg E-mail Table 3. All fish in each tank were weighed (Armstrong Denmark Web every 10 days. and Carr, 1964)

Marine phospholipids

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 13 999_AD_IAF0904V3.indd 1

22/06/2009 14:01

F: Process bream diets with no significant differences (P≥0.05) in growth performance compared to the control (Table 4). This conclusion is in agreement with Gomes et al (1995a Parameter Means ± SD Statistical analysis - All data of & b) for rainbow trout. These workers growth performance, body composition reported that replacement of fishmeal and blood parameters were analyzed by Temperature (ºC) 25 ±1 by plant protein sources had no adverse one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) Oxygen (mg/L) 5.4 ±1 effects on growth. The optimal rate of subusing the general linear models procedure Ammonia (NH3, mg/L) 0.011± 0.0001 stitution found in the present research was of statistical analysis system (SAS) version pH 7.1 ± 0.10 closed with Lanari (2005), he reported 8.02, (1998). Duncan's multiple range test that soybean meal can substitute up to (Duncan, 1955) was used to resolve difSalinity (ppt) 34.0 ± 0.4 25% of total protein of the sea bass diets ferences among treatment means at 5% without any negative effect on growth or faeces from each tank was carefully significant level using the following model. performance. Higher value than reported removed by siphoning about 30 min after in the present study was reported by the last feeding. Faeces were collected Results & discussion Gallagher (1994) in diets for hybrid striped by siphoning separately from each repliThe present study indicates that PPs bass, where soybean meal substituted 44% cate tank before feeding in the morning. (corn gluten and soybean meal) can replace of fishmeal without evidencing a negative Collected faeces were then filtered, dried 25% to 50% of fishmeal protein in sea effect on the feed intake and Table 4: Growth performance and feed utilization of sea bream (S. aurata) fed the experimental diets he also reportDiet ed that up to Parameters FM PPs 25 PPs50 PPs75 PPs100 75% of fishmeal protein can be replaced with Average Initial body weight (g) 10.1±0.05 10.2±0.25 10.3±0.10 10.1±0.10 10.0±0.23 soybean meal. M o r e o v e r, Average Final body weight (g) 102.6 a ±2.2 101.3 a ±0.3 97.7 b ±0.20 85.2 c ±0.2 78.9 d ±0.20 Sitja-Bobadilla 91.1 a Average Weight gain (g) 92.5 a ±1.1 87.4 b ±0.9 75.1c±0.10 68.9 d±1.10 et al., (2005) ±1.2 reported that 1.78 b SGR (% / d)1 1.93 a ±0.02 1.91 a ±0.01 1.87 a ±0.02 1.72 b ±0.01 up to 75% of ±0.09 fishmeal pro151.93 a 152.51 a 153.15 a 159.62 b 159.30 b Feed intake (g) ±0.4 ±0.2a ±0.10 ±0.2 ±0.10 tein can be replaced by Feed conversion ratio (FCR2 1.64 d ±0.10 1.67 d±0.1 1.75 c ±0.10 2.13 b ±0.1 2.31 a ±0.20 plant protein 1.04 b Protein efficiency ratio3 1.35 a ±0.01 1.32 a ±0.02 1.27 a ±0.01 0.95 b ±0.20 sources for ±0.10 juvenile sea Feed efficiency4 0.61 a ±0.1 0.60 a ±0.10 0.57 a ±0.10 0.47 b±0.10 0.43b ±0.12 bream, which also is in agreeHSI (%)5 3.2 a ±0.1 2.97 a ±0.1 2.93 a ±0.12 2.71b ±0.01 2.56 c ±0.12 ment with the Apparent Protein Digestibility (APD)6 88.25 a ±0.3 87.39 a ±0.2 86.09 a ±0.1 73.16 b±0.2 65.32 c ±0.1 present study for sea bream PTP (g/dl)7 5.21±0.10 5.20±0.12 5.15±0.10 5.03±0.12 5.01±0.10 fingerlings. In PA (g/dl)8 2.15±0.11 2.17±0.11 2.17± 0.12 2.07±0.02 2.08±0.08 the recent years, signifiPTG (g/dl)9 3.06±.0.12 3.03±0.10 2.98±0.11 2.96±0.09 2.93±0.01 cant amount of Survival rate (%)10 100 100 98 96 94 research has been conValues in the same row with a common superscript letter are not significantly different (P≥0.05). ducted on the Specific growth rate = (100 x [(Ln final wt (g) – (Ln initial wt (g) / days.] replacement of Feed conversion ratio (FCR) = feed intake (g) / body weight gain (g). FM by different Protein efficiency ratio (PER) = gain in weight (g) / protein intake (g). PP sources. In European Feed efficiency = body weight gain (g) / feed intake (g). sea bass Hepato-somatic index = 100 x liver wt / fish wt. ( D. l a b r a x ) 6 - Apparent protein digestibility, APD (%) (Kaushik et al., 2004) 7 - Plasma Total Protein, PTP (g/dl) and Gilthead 8 - Plasma albumin, PA (g/dl) sea bream 9 - Plasma total globulins= plasma total protein- plasma albumin, PTG (g/dl) (S.aurata) (Pereira and 10 - Survival rate =No of survive fish/total No. of fish at the beginning X100 Table 3: Average water quality parameters in the experimental tanks used in the study.

in an oven at 60oC and kept in airtight containers for subsequent chemical analysis.

14 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

F: Process fish. In fish, protein digestibility is generally high ranging from 75% to 95% and the apparent Final digestible coefficient of proteins Chemical analysis Initial from fishmeal is often higher FM PPs/25 PPs/50 PPs/75 PPs/100 than 90% in salmonids (NRC, 1993). Soybean meal contains Moisture 70.50 59.91 a 60.44 a 60.75 a 63.50 b 64.33 b various anti-nutritional factors Crude protein 14.25 17.56 a 17.50 a 17.56 a 17.34 b 16.90 b such as the anti-trypsin and an anti chimotrypsin factors, lectins, Crude fat 10.5 15.62 a 15.70 a 15.77 a 14.00 b 13.90 b oligosaccharides and a low level Crude ash 4.75 6.91a 6.36 a 5.92 b 5.16 c 4.87 d of methionine. Corn gluten has Values in the same row with a common superscript letter are not significantly different (P≥0.05) also a low level of amino acid lysine reduces the protein digestOliva-Teles, 2003 and Gómez-Requeni et These results of feed utilization related to ibility and amino acid availability of these al., 2004); short-term studies have shown apparent protein digestibility of diets used plant protein ingredients. that at least 60-75% of FM can be replaced in the experiment which showed worst Corn gluten meal (CGM) is considered by mixture of PPs without compromising feed utilization of sea bream fed on diets to have a good digestibility (NRC, 1993). growth performance for these species. In containing high mixture of PPs (corn gluten Diets containing 20% of CGM meal had the present study, the effects of FM replacemeal and soybean meal) was possibly due to a very good digestibility, in accordance ment were studied on growth performance the low biological value of such based diets, with the results of Morales et al.(1994) and feed utilization. This scenario, a high which are in agreement with Robaina, et al.,( and Gomes et al. (1995 a) in rainbow level of FM replacement by (50-75PPs %) 1995), Boonyaratpalin et al.,(1998), Regost trout fed diets containing about 20% corn produced a slight reduction in growth et al.,(1999), Lanari (2005), Sitja-Bobadilla et gluten meal. In contrast, apparent digestperformance. Concerning the results of al. (2005), and Tibaldi, et al.,(2006). ible coefficient of diets with high levels of feed utilization in terms of FCR, PER and Regarding to feed digestibility (Table plant proteins was very low. In common FE in the present study, the same trend 4), several investigations were conducted carp, Pongmaneerat et al. (1993) observed was showed with growth performance. to evaluate PPs and their digestibility by that the apparent protein digestibility Table 5: Whole body composition (% fresh weight ) of see bream (S. aurata) fingerlings fed the experimental diets

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F: Process had to be near 94% in a diet without fishmeal (corn gluten meal, soybean and meat meal). Results of apparent protein digestibility in the present study recorded that the dietary inclusion of high levels of corn gluten and soybean meal in replacement of fishmeal led to a significant decrease in protein digestibility which are in agreement with Lanari (2005), Tibaldi et al. (2006) and Sampaio-Oliveira and Cyrino (2008). The value of hepatosomatic index was found to be similar to that reported for sea bass by Ballestrazi et al., (1994) and Dias et a. , (1998),

et al.(2006) and Sampaio-Oliveira and Cyrino (2008) for sea bass D. labrax and Peres and Oliva-Teles (2009) for sea bream S. aurata. Calculation of the economical efficiency of the tested diets was based on the costs of feed because the other costs were equal for all studied treatments. As described in Table 6 feed costs (L.E) were the highest for the fishmeal diet and gradually decreased with increasing the replacing levels of plant protein sources.These results indicate that incorporation of PPs in sea bream diets reduced the total feed costs.

Boonyaratpalin,M., Suraneiranat,P., and Tunpibal,T..(1998). Replacement of fishmeal with various types of soybean products in diets for the Asian seabass, Lates calcarife, Aquaculture,161: 67-78. Dias, J., Alvarez, M.J., Diez, A., Arzel, J., Corraze, G., Bautista, J.M.and Kaushik, S.J. (1998). Regulation of hepati lipogenesis by dietary proteinrenergy in juvenile European seabass Dicentrarchus labrax .Aquaculture 161 : 169–186. Doumas, B. T., Waston, W. and Biggs, H. H., (1977). Albumin standards and the measurements of Serum albumin with Bromocresol Green. Clinical Chemistry Acta, 31: 87-96.

Table 6: Feed cost (L.E) for producing one Kg weight gain by sea bream (S. aurata) fingerlings fed on the experimental diets Experimental diets

Cost (L.E)/kg

Relative fishmeal diets

Decrease in feed cost (%)


Feed cost (L.E/Kg) weight gain

Relative to fish meal diet




































The local market price were 8LE for fish meal, 2.50LE for gluten, 1.70LE for soybean meal, 1.00 LE for yellow corn, 9 LE for oil, 5 LE for Vit. & Min.

they reported that the values of HSI were 2–3% or above. Effect of the experimental diets on hepato–somatic index confirmed that the fish fed on diets containing high levels of corn gluten meal and soybean meal evidenced a significant (P≤0.05) decrement of the HSI in relation to the utilization of glycogen, stored as an energy source.The results are in agreement with Lanari (2005) and Sampaio-Oliveira and Cyrino(2008). Effects of the experimental diets on whole body protein concentration (Table 5) were very small with exception of fish diet containing FM, 25 and 50%PP which showed a significant difference (P≤0.05) compared to the other experimental diets (75 and 100%PP). Fish body fat content decreased with increasing level of PPs substitution. The low percentage of fat stored with diets containing high level of PPs is due to the limited ingestion of the feed or to probable use of the body fat as energy source and may be also related to the carbohydrate levels and type of the diets. These results are in agreement with Lanari (2005), Tibaldi

However, high replacing levels of fishmeal by PP (75 and 100%PP) adversely affected all the growth and feed utilization parameters (Table 4), but the incorporation of PPs in sea bream diets seemed to be economic as incorporation of PPs in the diets sharply reduced feed costs by 13.71, 27.29, 39.64 and 52.44% for 25PPs, 50PPs, 75PPs and 100%, respectively. The reduction of feed costs was easily observed for the feed costs per Kg weight gain which decreased with increasing incorporation levels of PPs in agreement with Soltan (2005) for Nile tilapia and Eid and Mohamed (2007) for sea bass fingerlings.

References APROMAR., (2006). Asociacio´ n Empresarial de Productores de Cultivos Marinos de Espan, La Acuicultura Marina de Peces en ,Espan˜a. Informes anuales. Ca´ diz, Spain, 56 pp. Ballestrazi, R., Lanari, D., D’Agaro, E., and Mion, A., (1994). The effect of dietary protein level and source on growth, body composition, total ammonia and reactive phosphate excretion of growing sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax . Aquaculture, 127: 197–206. M.

16 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Eid, and Mohamed., K.,(2007). Effect of fishmeal substitution by plant protein sources on growth performance of seabass fingerlings (Dicentrarchus labrax). Agricultural Research Journal, Suez Canal University, 7 (3): 35-39. Fagbenro, O.A. and Davies, S.J. (2002). Use of oilseed meals as fishmeal replacer in tilapia diets. Proceeding of the fifth international symposium on tilapia aquaculture. Rio de Janeiro– RJ, Brazil 1: 145-153. Gallagher, M.L. (1994). The use of soybean meal as a replacement for fishmeal in diets for hybrid striped bass (M. saxatiles X M. chroy sops) Aquaculture, 126 (1-2) : 119-127.

Gomes, E. F, Rema, P. and Kaushik, S. (1995a). Replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in the diet of rainbow trout (O. mykiss) digestibility and growth performance. Aquaculture, 130: 177-186. Gomes, E. F, Rema, P. and Kaushik, S. (1995b). Replacement of fishmeal by plant proteins in diets for rainbow trout (O. Mykiss) : Effect of the quality of the fishmeal based control diets on digestibility and nutrient balances. Water Science and Technology, 31: 205-211. Gomez-Requeni, P., Mingarro, M., Calduch-Giner, J.A., Medale, F., Martin, S.A.M., Houlihan, D.F., Kaushik, S., and Perez-Sanchez, J., (2004). Protein growth performance, amino acid utilization and somatotropic axis responsiveness to fishmeal replacement by plant protein sources in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture, 232: 493-510. Hassanen, G.D.I. (1997a). Nutritional value of some unconventional proteins in practical diets for sea bass (D. labrax) fingerlings. Egyptian J. Nutrition and Feeds,1(special Issue ):335-348. Hassanen, G.D.I. (1997b). Effect of diet composition and protein level on growth, body composition and cost of production of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Egyptian .J. Aquat. Biol & Fish., 2: 1-18.

F: Process Hassanen, G.D.I. (1998). Lupin seed meal compared with soybean meal as partial substitutes for fishmeal in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) diets. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 23(1) : 141-154.

Merinero, S., Martı´nez-Llorens, S., Toma´ S, A. and Jover, M. (2005). Ana´ lisis econo´ mico de alternativas de produccio´ n de Dorada en jaulas marinas en el litoral Mediterra´neo espan˜ ol. Aquatic, 23: 1–19.

Kaushik, S.J., Coves, D., Dutto, G. and Blanc, D. (2004). Almost total replacement of fishmeal by plant protein sources in the diet of a marine teleost, the European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture, 230: 391 – 404.

Morales, A.E., Cardenete, G., De La Higuera, M.,and Sanz, A. (1994). Effects of dietary protein source on growth, feed conversion and energy utilization in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 124: 117–126.

Lanari,D’.A., (2005). Alternative plant protein sources in sea bass diets, ITAL.J. ANIM. Sci. .4 : 365-374.

Pereira, T.G. and Oliva-Teles, A., (2003). Evaluation of corn gluten meal as a protein source in diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus avrata L.) juveniles. Aquaculture. Research, 34: 1111-1117.

Lisac, D. and Muir, J. (2000). Comparative economics of offshore and on shore mariculture facilities. In: Mediterranean Offshore Mariculture. Options Me´diterrane´ennes (Serie B: E´tudes et Recherches) (Muir, J. & Basurco, B. Eds), pp. 203– 211. Publication Based on the Contents of the Advanced Course of the CIHEAM Network on Technology of Aquaculture in the Mediterranean (TECAM) Zaragoza, Spain, 1997. Martınez-Llorens, S.,Vidal, A.T.; Garcia, I.J.; Torres, M.P. and Cerda, M.J. (2009) . Optimum dietary soybean meal level for maximizing growth and nutrient utilization of on growing gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), Aquaculture nutrition.15: 320- 328.

Peres, H. and Oliva-Teles .A ., (2009). The optimum dietary essential amino acid profile for gilthead sea bream(Sparus aurata) juveniles. in press, Accepted Manuscript, Available on line 13 May 2009, Aquaculture. Pongmaneerat, J., Watanabe, T., Takeuchi, T., and Satoh, S., (1993).Use of different protein Meals as par tial or total substitution for fishmeal in carp diets. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish, 59: 12491257. Regost, C., Arzel,J., and Kaushik.S.J.(1999). Partial or total replacement of fishmeal by corn gluten

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 17

meal in diet for turbot (Psetta maxima), Aquaculture 180: 99-117. Robaina, L., Izquierdo, M.S., Moyamo, F.J., Socorro, J., Vergara, J.M., Montero, D. and Fernandez-Palacios, H.,(1995). Soybean and lupine seed meals as protein sources in diet for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata), Nutritional and histological implication. Aquaculture, 130: 219-233. Sampaio-Oliveira,A.M.B.M., and Cyrino,J.E.P.. (2008). Digestibilty of plant protein-based diets by largemouth bass Micropterus Salmoides, Aquaculture Nutrition , 14: 318-323. Sitja-Bobadilla, A., Pena-Llopis, S., Gomez-Requeni, P., Medale, F., Kaushik, S., and Perez- Sanchez,J. (2005). Effect of fishmeal replacement by plant protein sources on non-specific difference mechanisms and oxidative stress in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture, 249: 387400. Tibaldi, E., Hakim, Y., Uni, Z., Tulli, F., Francesco. D. M., Luzzana. U. and Harpaz. S., (2006). Effect of the partial substitution of dietary fishmeal by differently processed soybean meals on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and activity of intestinal brush border enzymes in the European sea bass ( Dicentrarchus labrax ). Aquaculture, 261. 182-193

F: Ingredient

Utilization of

spray-dried Hemoglobin powder in Shrimp feeds by Eric De Muylder1, Leon Claessens2, Marjorie Roux2, Carine van Vuure3 and Geert van der Velden3 1CreveTec bvba,, 2Aquaculture Farming Technology, 3Sonac BV,


s a result of the scarceness of fishmeal and higher demand, resulting in increasing prices, there is a growing interest to replace fishmeal with other protein sources.

This is especially true for more carnivorous fish species or for aquatic species with a rudimentary digestive system such as larval fish, juveniles and shrimp.

Animal proteins

Processed animal proteins are a valuable source of proteins and should be considered as alternative protein source in those diets. Hemoglobin powder needs to be considered because of its high protein content. In larval fish, carnivorous fish and shrimp the availability of proteins and amino acids is a limiting factor for growth. Hemoglobin powder is spray-dried, resulting in a nondenatured product with a higher digestibility. The goal – This was to test the inclusion of Hemoglobin powder (HGP) in feeds for shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mainly to replace fishmeal. Digestibility and composition - Amino acid content of Hemoglobin Powder is compared with amino acid requirements of shrimp, expressed as percentage of protein (D'Abramo et al, 1997) Degree of hydrolysis "In larval fish, carnivorous fish and shrimp the (DH%) of various blood meals availability of proteins and amino acids is a limiting Shrimp are poor digesters. factor for growth. Hemoglobin powder is spray-dried, Their digesting system is rudiresulting in a non-denatured product with a higher mentary and a lot of nutrients digestibility" can pass their digestive system without being assimilated. The Vegetable protein sources are widely available but the replacement of fishmeal by those vegetable proteins is limited in some aquatic species.The main nutritional problems associated with higher utilisation of vegetable protein sources are unbalanced amino acid profile, lower digestibility of amino acids, high fiber content, presence of anti-nutritional factors and low availability of phosphorus.

18 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

enzymes associated with shrimp also differ from other aquatic organisms. Therefore, it is important to evaluate ingredient digestibility with shrimp enzymes. Protein digestion in shrimp digestive tract was simulated through the reaction of ingredient protein and shrimp proteolytic enzymes. Enzymes from the hepatopancreas (digestive gland) of Litopenaeus vannamei were employed in the present analysis.

Table 1: Hemoglobin powder has a high level of Lysine, but is deficient in Methionine. However, this deficiency is compensated by its higher digestibility.

Amino acid as % of protein





































F: Ingredient Table 2: Spray dried Hemoglobin powder shows a higher digestibility than Poultry blood meal and Porcine blood meal. This is due to the spray-drying, which doesn't denature the proteins.


The assay is based on the breakage of peptide bonds of ingredient protein through digestive enzyme action. The degree of hydrolysis (DH%) obtained is proportional to the number of peptide bonds cleaved (Ezquerra et al., 1997; Lemos et al., 2000). This degree of hydrolysis is related to the apparent digestibility of the feed or ingredient.

However, it is not possible to make a 100 percent relation between degree of hydrolysis and apparent digestibility measurements. The degree of hydrolysis can be better used as relative comparison. However, Lemos and Nunes (2007) showed that the degree of hydrolysis of commercials shrimp feed brands had the best correlation


Poultry blood meal


Porcine blood meal


Spray dried Hemoglobin powder


Soybean meal (as reference)


with actual shrimp growth, even better than apparent digestibility or amino acid balance. The Hemoglobin powder (HGP) was included in two inclusion levels: three and six percent, along with a reference diet without HGP (See table). Fishmeal content was reduced from 14 to 6.1 percent. Fish oil was adjusted to achieve the same lipid content for all diets.

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• Pro-Bind Plus, a nutritional, gelatin based pellet binder, especially for pelleted (shrimp) feed. • Blood meal, a fish meal alternative, especially for carnivorous fish species. • Muco-Pro®, high contents of natural proteins, amino acids and peptides. • Hemoglobin Powder, high protein content and good digestibility, for better feed conversion

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 19

F: Ingredient

Shrimp 31 shrimp were acclimatized in the nets during one week. They were than measured and the trial starter. Shrimp were obtained from the Happy Shrimp farm and transferred to AFT. The shrimp trial lasted for five weeks.

Experimental system There are 12 nets of 150 L. The nets are submerged in a bigger tank, which is con-

"The replacement of fishmeal in the diet of Litopenaeus vannamei by HGP at three percent results in improved growth and FCR"


nected to a biofloc reactor. Water quality is maintained through bioflocs and is the same in all nets. There are four replicates for each diet. Each net was stocked with 31 shrimp of 6g each.

Measurements during trial At the start and each week, the shrimp were weighted together and counted, to have the average weight and total biomass. Feeding gift was adjusted daily according to an expected growth curve and average weight from last measurement. At the end of the experiment, all shrimp were weighed individually.

Water quality DO was more than 6 ppm at all times. Temperature was between 27.2 and 27.7 째C Salinity was kept between 14 and 15ppt. pH was between 7.3 and 7.7

All shrimp showed very good growth (>1,5 g/week) during the experiment and more than doubled their individual weight at start.

Table 3

Raw Material :


Hemo 3

Hemo 6

Corn gluten




Danish fishmeal




Squid meal






Rapeseed meal




Wheat flour




Soybean meal




Hemoglobin powder 92P

Fish oil














Hemo 3

Hemo 6









20 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010













F: Ingredient The average weight of the shrimp receiving some HGP in their diet was lower during the first weeks of the experiment. However, when shrimp were bigger, there was an increase in growth resulting in a better result for shrimp receiving three percent HGP in the diet.

Growth results of the shrimp show the same trend Now we can see that the growth of the three percent HGP was better than the reference diet during week four and five, resulting in an overall better performance. The shrimp receiving six percent HGP had a slightly slower growth, but certainly not significantly different. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) follows the same trend: Again, we observe a very good FCR for all diets. This means that feeding gift was optimal and the feeds were not given in excess. This is important to note because a deficiency will show faster if FCR is low.

Conclusions Hemoglobin Powder shows a high protein content and a good digestibility. The digestibility of an ingredient is the most important quality parameter for some aquatic species, which will result in a better feed conversion. The replacement of fishmeal in the diet of Litopenaeus vannamei by HGP at three percent results in improved growth

and FCR. The inclusion of six percent give almost similar results as the reference diet and could be an economic valuable option. It seems that bigger shrimp (>10 g) have a better ability to cope with the inclusion of HGP in the diet. This could be due to an improved digestibility system or a better adaptation of the digestive system to the presence of HGP in the diet. For optimal results, it is recommended to include three percent HGP in diets for Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp. Hemoglobin Powder is produced by SONAC BV.

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 21

Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

Mr Geert van der Velden Kanaaldijk Noord 20-21 5691 NM Son The Netherlands Tel: + 31 499 364826 Mob: + 31 651 063301 Fax: + 31 499 373873 Email:


22 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 23

F: Nutrition

Preventing the impact of seawater transfer on feed intake in salmon The importance of sensory stimulation in fish feeding by Virginie Noirot, Laboratoires Phodé, Albi, France


hanges in diet, environment or physiology represent many stress factors for farmed animals that can impact their appetite, health and performance. In salmon farming, the transfer of smolts from freshwater to seawater is a stressful event.

additive, designed to improve feed intake and induce feed loyalty in fish (Optifeed® Aqua), has recently been evaluated in Norway for its capacity to optimise appetite and feed intake following the transfer of Atlantic Salmon smolts into seawater. It showed an interesting potential for a profitable and sustainable aquaculture.

Stradmeyer (1994) has shown that the weeks following this transfer see a dramatic drop of appetite and feed intake: in his observations, only 10 percent of the fishes were feeding within the first week following transfer, increasing to no more than 65

Trial conditions A production trial was conducted in Norway at the Nofima Marine experimental station, SunndalsØra, and supervised by AVS Chile. At the beginning of the trial, 252 Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar, SalmoBreed strain), weighing 100-120g, were transferred to six 200-litre seawater tanks (42 fishes/tank). The experiment was conducted in triplicates over a six-week period (January-February 2009). Three tanks were allocated to each diet: control (basal diet), and Optifeed® Aqua treatment (basal diet plus 0.2 percent Optifeed® Aqua KX 81 P1). The basal feed contained 31.7 percent fishmeal and 24.3 percent fish oil (see table 1). The feed was extruded and vacuum coated with the oil. Feed nutritional analysis was: 43.8 percent crude protein, 6.6 percent moisture, 6.8 percent ash and 28 percent fat. Both feed were given by auto-

"Transfer to seawater represents a stressful event and can have a detrimental effect on smolts feeding behaviour" percent after five weeks. Reducing this gap in feed consumption is an important factor to optimise production and reduce economic losses. A sensory feed

24 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

matic feeders (one meal every 15 minutes), during six weeks following the seawater transfer. The daily feeding was continuously adjusted according to feed intake the previous two days, aiming at an overfeeding of 20 percent to allow optimal feed intake. Feed waste were collected from the outlet and dried in order to quantify feed intake. The water average temperature was 8.7°C, salinity 33ppt. The fishes were weighted individually at start and at the end of the trial.

Table 1: Salmon diet composition



LT Fish Meal-Norway


Soybean meal


Soy Protein Concentrate


Hydrolysed feather meal


Wheat gluten




Fish oil (NorSalmOil)


Vitamin premix


Mineral premix


L-Lysine HCl




Carophyll Pink (10% astaxanthin)


Mono calcium phosphate


F: Nutrition we can add a good sensory memory, since salmons smolts have the ability to ‘record’ the smells of a river along their migration towards the sea in order to find their way back, sometimes years later. Figure 1: Daily cumulated feed intake (g/tank) Based on an expertise of sensory stimuImproved feed intake lations in fish, a range of feed additive has after smolts transfer been developed specifically to encourage At the end of the six week period, the feed consumption in aquatic species, with a smolts that received Optifeed® Aqua had specific formula for salmonids /carnivorous consumed significantly more feed than fishes, and shrimps: Optifeed® Aqua. This with the control diet (487g/tank vs. 366, additive combines three activities: P=0.006). Attraction: fishes and crustaceans The cumulated feed intake per tank are particularly attracted to amino acids over the six-week trial was improved by 33 (L-isomers). Optifeed® Aqua for salmon and percent with Optifeed® Aqua. carnivorous fish contains a formulation of The difference between treatments amino acids composed of two blends: one started to appear around 10 days after the present in a plant and an other in a seawabeginning of the experiment (see Figure 1). ter animal, both being particularly attractive for these types of fish. The effects of sensory Appetite stimulation: a specific core stimulation in fish based on plant extracts has been developed As mentioned earlier, transfer to seato stimulate the appetite center and pathwater represents a stressful event and can way within the nervous system. have a detrimental effect on smolts feeding Feed loyalty: specific plant extracts are behaviour. Fishes have a well-developed used as a natural source of alkaloids to sensory system. induce habituation to the feed. Depending on the species, they have The present trial confirms the effia variable number of sensory receptors ciency of Optifeed® Aqua in optimising feed located in various parts of their body, from intake in salmons after transfer to seawater. the tongue to the entire body surface Moreover the smolts were fed a diet with in the case of cat fish (the animal with a relatively high level of plant proteins, the larger number of gustative receptors!). potentially representing a second stress facSalmons have 3000-4000 receptors. To this, tor with negative impact on their appetite.

Other feed additives have also been shown to increase feed intake during transfer to seawater. But, when compared to Optifeed® Aqua, which is essentially composed of sensorial feed additives (botanicals and aromatic molecules); most appetite stimulants studied in fish have been of marine origin. Compared to existing alternatives, therefore, Optifeed® Aqua can be considered as a favourable factor for a sustainable aquaculture.

Reference Stradmeyer L., 1994. Sur vival, growth and feeding of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts after transfer to seawater in relation to the failed smolt syndrome. Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 25: 103-112.

About Phodé Phodé is born from the conviction that the sense of smell is our primary sense, and one of the driving forces behind the behavior and well-being of living beings. Its mission is to capitalise on its expertise of olfaction and nutrition to improve the well-being and health of humans and animals, both through their food and their environment. Phodé develops, produces and distributes innovative solutions for animal nutrition, the environment and the food industry thanks to its unique expertise in taste and smell physiology. Based in Albi, in the South-West of France, Phodé has 49 co-workers and operates in over 20 countries through a network of local distributors and research partners. For more information, visit

The natural choice for

Core vacuum coating 0ptimum penetration of liquid High energy feed

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 25

F: Ingredient

Active ingredients for healthy animals


- the technological ingredient for aquafeed

by Karel Thurman, BENEO-Animal Nutrition, Belgium When rice extrudates are cooled the product’s structure is more homogeneous and the surface smoother. The surface of extrudates is important when it comes to the behaviour of the pellet in water


ith a production of over 600 million tonnes per year, rice is the most important food-cereal and serves as a basic ingredient for people all over the world. On the other hand only six percent of the total rice production is used in animal nutrition. Rice has, however, various nutritional and technological properties which makes it a fascinating ingredient for aquafeed.

An extra-ordinary cereal Adapted to growth in a variety of regions worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa L) consists of over 120,000 cultivars. Just as for other cereals the rice’s endosperm is rich in starch (up to 80 percent). Compared to other starch sources (see Table 1), rice has exceptionally small starch granules. This morphology explains the high water/oil absorption of rice flour. Rice starch is characterised by a very low content of amylopectin-chains of intermediate degree of polymerisation (DP12-22). The

Table 1: Characteristics of different starches

Rice starch

Wheat starch

Corn Starch

Tapioca Starch

Potato Starch

Size (µm)












Gel structure

Soft, creamy





short and long chains in rice amylopectin (DP6-9 & DP>25) limit retrogradation. In addition, rice amylose is characterised by a very high degree of branching, inhibiting amylose diffusing out of starch granules. These specific characteristics lead to a favourable behaviour during extrusion-processes. Compared to other starch sources, rice derivatives benefit also from a neutral taste.

A large variety of rice starches There is a large variety in the characteristics of rice starches and resulting functional properties.

26 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

The various rice varieties differ strongly in amylose/amylopectin content, giving the starch of each variety a specific set of technological characteristics. This enables the feed technologist to play with gel strength, gelling temperature and starch granule rigidity. Not only is there a large natural range of starch characteristics, but also a wide array of treatments, ranging from pregelatinisation to acetylation, allow to adjust the characteristics of the starch/flour to the specific technological requirements of a fish feed.

F: Ingredient

When the extrudates are cooled down, the product’s structure is more homogeneous and the surface will be smoother. The surface of the extrudates is important when it comes to the behaviour of the pellet in water. Via the use of rice starches, water penetration in the pellet can be limited increasing the durability of the pellet in the water.

An extrusion enhancer In the extrusion process, one of the most important characteristics is the hotset of a flour.

This is the increase of viscosity during the cooling of the dough. Rice flours/starches are characterised by a very high hot set temperature and viscosity increase rate during expansion of the dough after the extruder’s die, certainly compared to other cereal flours.As the A floatability regulator IAF03-OEEFishfeed 10.12.2008 1 viscosity is increasing earlier and faster10:54 with riceUhr Seite Not only the surface of the pellet is derivatives, the expanded dough will give more smoother when rice flour is used in the resistance to the formation of steam pockets. extrusion process. Also the expansion of

"The surface of the extrudates is important when it comes to the behaviour of the pellet in water"

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January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 27

F: Ingredient the extrudate products is modified when rice flour is added. Rice starch has a positive effect on the expansion of an extrudates. Since the expansion characteristics are directly linked to the bulk density of the pellet, adding rice flour or starches to the fish feed enables the aquafeed producer to adjust the floating capacities of extruded fish feed.

"Studies on seabream and rainbow trout indicate that rice protein concentrate is a good alternative to fish meal and an inclusion up to 20 percent without a negative influence on the zootechnical performances nor the fillet quality is feasible"

Optimising dough viscosity Also when it comes to dough-feeding of specific aquatic species, rice ingredients can be used to optimise the viscosity of the product. Depending on the type of application, rice starches/flours can help in the assessment of an improved elasticity or durability of the dough in contact with water. This allows to fine-tune the Table 2: Amino acid characteristics of the dough profile of rice protein (aa per % protein) to the requirements for each species. % Amino Acid protein

Rice protein as alternative to fishmeal

During the starch extraction of rice, a highly concentrated rice protein is produced. The amino acid profile of rice protein is more equilibrated than wheat protein. Because of the booming aquafeed-business, an incremental stress is put on global fishmeal supplies. Nutritionists are looking more and more into vegetal protein sources to replace this expensive and rare ingredient and to develop a more sustainable aquafeed production which alleviates the environmental consequences of industrial aquaculture.



























Aspar. Acid


Glutam. Acid








Studies on seabream (Palmegiano et al, 2007) and rainbow trout (Palmegiano et al., 2006) indicate that rice protein concentrate is a good alternative to fish meal and an inclusion up to 20 percent without a negative influence on the zootechnical performances nor the fillet quality is feasible.

Conclusion Despite the fact that rice is mainly used in human nutrition, the cereal has a number of exceptional characteristics, making it the ideal technological ingredient for the aquafeed producer. Rice protein concentrate on the other hand can be a nutritionally valuable alternative to fish meal.

28 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

BENEO-Animal Nutrition offers with its broad range of rice products tailor-made solutions for a number of challenges with which fish feed producers are confronted on an every-day base.

About the company BENEO-Animal Nutrition offers a broad range of natural ingredients with nutritional benefits. The product range comprises vegetable proteins, functional fibers and carbohydrates as well as chicory-based prebiotics. BENEO-Animal Nutrition translates the BENEO-Group’s unique expertise in human food to the world of pet food, animal feed and aquafeed. The BENEO-Group specialises in the production and commercialization of functional feed ingredients and is a business unit of the Sßdzucker Group. For more information visit:



7:51 AM

Page 1

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January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 29

F: Industry

Opportunities for fish pheromones - their applications and role in the sustainability of wild fish stocks by Maarten Jay van Schoonhoven, Head of Aquaculture Kiotech International, UK


here are not enough fish in the sea to satisfy the growing demand for aquaculture feeds!

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) estimate that an additional 40 million tonnes of fish and sea food will be required by 2030 just to maintain the current growth levels of consumption. In its annual report the FAO records that 45 percent of all fish eaten are now raised on fish farms and that the principal source of proteins and oils in the feeds for the 48 million tonnes of farmed fish is from wild fish capture. This heavy demand on wild fish stocks has resulted in 52 percent of the 600 fish groups monitored being fully exploited. While world production of fish feeds in 2005 was 23 million tonnes, it is estimated to rise to 35 million tonnes in 2012. With wild fish capture remaining steady at 90-93 million tonnes since the 1980s, the need for a move away from reliance upon fish meal and oil in aqua feeds is imperative.

Freshwater environment In the last 30 years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of invasive fish species in the freshwater aquatic environment, which are increasingly having a severe negative impact on the natural ecological

balance and diversity of the invaded region. efficiency of feed formulations and achieve Invasive fish are estimated to cost about truly sustainable supplies of feed ingredients US$6 billion annually in the USA (although such as grown crops without reducing feed this estimate varies considerably depending attractiveness and palatability to the fish. on whether the value of introduced fish to the sport fishing industry is "Pheromones are considered to play included or not). As of 1997, there were 138 a key role in fish behaviour such as species of non-indigenous fish established in the country. shoaling, feeding, social interaction Some arrive through natural processes, but, as in the case of the (dominance), prey detection, migration modifications to the Welland Canal in 1919 allowing sea lampreys to and signalling the presence of bypass Niagara Falls and enter Lake Erie, the majority of introductions predators. Recent research, which is are caused by human intervention. more directly related to aquaculture, Invasive freshwater fish species in Australia include common carp, has demonstrated that this form of brown trout, rainbow trout, mosquito fish and spotted tilapia to chemical signalling can trigger an name a few. While the damaging impact of involuntary feeding response in a range non native species is well recognised and efforts have been made to conof fresh water and marine fish species. trol the spread, the effects have been only limited. There is a similar story in every developed country. The UK-based company Kiotech International plc has formed a strategic Improving feed formulations partnership with Cefas (Centre for the and efficiencies Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture The key to resolving the dilemma of Science), an Executive Agency of the UK exploiting wild fish to supply the protein government, which has two UK coastal in farmed fish diets is to improve the research laboratories.

30 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

F: Industry

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Tel: +31 (0)26 - 479 06 99 Fax: +31 (0)26 - 479 06 98 January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 31

F: Industry Selective use of pheromones

The initial objective of the partnership is to develop pheromone-based attractants for aquaculture applications that will increase the feeding activity of farmed fish and crustacea resulting in faster growth, improved feed conversion and reduced wastage of uneaten food. The longer-term objective is using pheromone-feeding stimulants to permit the use of more sustainable forms of protein, which are less palatable and not based on fish oils or proteins. Pheromones are, as defined by Stacey and Sorensen (2004) ‘an odour or mixture of odorous substances, released by a sender and evoking an adaptive, specific and species-typical response in the receiver, the expression of which need not require prior experience or learning’. Pheromones are considered to play a key role in fish behaviour such as shoaling, feeding, social interaction (dominance), prey detection, migration and signalling the presence of predators. Recent research, which is more directly related to aquaculture, has demonstrated that this form of chemical signalling can trigger an involuntary feeding response in a range of fresh water and marine fish species. The basic research involves the collection and concentration of biological samples and water from juvenile and adult specimens. The extracted pheromonal compounds are fractionated and the resultant activities of the fractions, as seen on the physiological and behavioural response of the fish, are monitored. These secretions and other cues are extremely potent odorants and therefore minute amounts are required to produce the necessary response. As the molecules are water borne and detected by the sense of smell, the feeding stimulants have been developed as soluble liquids.

A successful integrated management approach to the control of an invasive fish species was adopted by the Canadian Great Lakes Fisheries Commission and Michigan State University in the battle against the non-indigenous Sea Lamprey. One of the complimentary techniques, which included poison, steam barriers and traps was the use of pheromones. This parasitic fish, resembling an eel, latches onto and usually kills its host. In the research, Lamprey pheromones were isolated, identified and reproduced and used to bait traps placed in rivers feeding the lakes. The lamprey first entered the lakes in the 1920s and had devastated the trout population by the late 1950s, but now, due to successful environmental management the US$7 billion a year sports fishing industry in the Great Lakes has been revitalised. The application of the selective use of pheromones in the integrated management of this global environmental problem has yet to be realised.

Sports fishing industry Early formulations were trialled in the sports fishing industry to enhance the angler’s catch rate. Since 2004, formulations have been successfully incorporated into baits for a wide range of freshwater and marine species. These products sold in Australia, New Zealand and Japan are now household names in the angling fraternity under the brands ‘Ultrabite’, ‘Stimulate’ and ‘Activate’. More recently the pheromones have

been incorporated into soft lures under the brands ‘Slam’ and ‘Trigger X’. In 2010 these brands will be rolled out in Europe and North America. For aquaculture applications the pheromone formulations under the brand ‘Aquatice’ have been employed in successful feeding trials in China and Thailand involving tilapia, white leg shrimp and catfish, together with trials involving fish diets with low concentrations of fish protein in Japan. This has given Kiotech stimulus to prepare the regulatory documentation that will allow the products to be promoted in the aquaculture markets worldwide. These trials have seen significant improvements in growth rate and food conversion ratio compared with the untreated controls. The farmers in all these trials have taken profits and products for a range of other intensively farmed fish species including Asian and European bass, eels, bream, tuna, trout and salmon are being developed.

Commercial fishing industry Long line fishing, in which vessels commonly lay lines of 100km, results in the indiscriminate catch of non-targeted fish species and mammals. Recent success in long line trials with the fishing fleet from the Kessenuma port in Japan has demonstrated the benefits offered by the species-specific nature of the pheromones to help to reduce bycatch whilst improving the catch rate of the targeted species. It is estimated that there are more than 1 billion long line hooks set each year. Fish pheromones are therefore a versatile tool not only in aquaculture applications and for the angling fraternity but also with aquatic environmentalists, the ornamental fish industry and for the commercial fishing industry for both long line and potting.

About the author: Maarten Jay van Schoonhoven has Dutch and American nationality, joined Kiotech of Surrey in the UK ( from INVE and Salt Creek where he was sales manager across South East Asia and in the Latin and North America region too. Maarten has also worked with aquaculture supplier Catvis and has a two MSc’s from Wageningen and Cork Universities in both Biology and Aquaculture. Maarten’s role as head of aquaculture involves appointing distributors and working with the feed mills and farmers to get Aquatice’s species-specific products used and sold into key customers.  He also oversees and monitors customer trials and conducts the product launch process in each country. 

32 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Aquaculture UK 2010 19-20 May 2010 at Aviemore

Now an established, major event, Aquaculture UK will be held again in May 2010. With visitors from 18 countries as far afield as Sweden, Chile and the United States, make sure you don’t miss out on this opportunity to connect with buyers and decision makers from the aquaculture industry worldwide.

Here’s what exhibitors said of the 2008 exhibition...

“The show went well for EWOS - our costs were much lower than Glasgow and we got the audience we wanted” Douglas Low - MD Ewos

“Aviemore was a good location and the show had a certain spirit which is always hard to create”.

“Many thanks for delivering a very successful exhibition and return to Aviemore”

Guy Mace - MD Biomar

Alan Stewart - Director Landcatch.

“The feedback regarding Aviemore seems to have been very positive and it had a much better atmosphere than Glasgow” Will Jewison - Skretting

F: Industry

Sustaining the growth of a

young industry by Daphne Tan


n increasingly important source of animal protein, aquaculture is the only way to meet the world’s fast growing demand for seafood. Current projections estimate that aquaculture production would need to expand by 40 million tonnes by 2030 in order to keep pace with consumption levels of today.

"By creating standards, the industry is acknowledging from the onset its reliance as well as impact on its immediate environment" This increase is about two-thirds of current production quantities, which in 2007 stood at 65 million tonnes. At the same time, aquaculture provides a means of livelihood for numerous small and medium-sized farmers in developing countries, underscoring its crucial role in income generation and

rural development.Worldwide, employment in aquaculture has grown from five million in 1990 to almost nine million by 2006. Despite unparalleled demand growth for aquaculture products, producers are facing numerous challenges, such as falling prices for their products, higher costs of production, and depleting fishmeal sources. Yet, due to the relative infancy of the industry, aquaculture has had the benefit of tapping on earlier progress achieved in the disciplines of terrestrial animal species with regards to health, genetics, nutrition and management. Limited fishmeal supplies should not curb the growth of aquaculture excessively if effective management strategies are applied. Studies on alternative protein feed sources have found several practical applications in the area of fishmeal replacements in diets for aquatic species. The successful culture and production of SPH (Specific Pathogen Free) P. vannamei shrimp in countries such as Thailand for instance, have shown that the industry is able to tackle once problematic diseases such as Yellow head and White Spot Syndrome virus. “If we do it the right way, aquaculture has tremendous growth potential,” says George Chamberlain of the Global Alliance for Aquaculture in the US, at the Asian

34 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Pacific Aquaculture 2009 in Kuala Lumpur. Negative media reports have blamed aquaculture for a host of problems, such as the destruction of tropical mangroves, sea pollution and unethical production and trade practices. All these have adversely affected consumer perceptions of the young industry. Despite the bad press surrounding aquaculture’s track record particularly with respects to the environment, resource and environmental indicators such as feed conversion ratio, land-use efficiencies and carbon footprint show that aquaculture farming stacks up favourably against terrestrial livestock. “If we can eliminate the negative issues and focus on the health benefits of seafood, the future is bright,” points out Chamberlain. But this does not mean sweeping issues under the rug. Recent experiences in the Chile salmon industry, where the infectious salmon anaemia virus had almost all but destroyed a once thriving industry, show the need for preventive thinking in growing the industry.

Who is responsible? While governments, international policy-makers, farmers and markets play a part in shaping the sustainable future of aquaculture, it is those in the industry

F: Industry Table 1: Efficiency of Aquaculture versus Terrestrial Livestock

Feed conversion ratio


Land use efficiency (Kg/ha/ year)

Carbon footprint (Kg CO2-e/ Kg

















who must take the brunt of responsibilities. Rather than wait for the first signs of a crisis, the industry should step up on biosecurity measures with a view to improving standards rather than in response to a disaster. By creating standards, the industry is acknowledging from the onset its reliance as well as impact on its immediate environment. Aquaculture standards should take into consideration four broad ranging factors – the environment; social sphere; disease and food safety issues, and traceability. Environmental standards should consider the level of effluent discharge from farming activities, changes in natural habitats and coastlines, and track levels of water salinisation. Labour rights and safety, and community welfare are also crucial to the social sphere in which many aquaculture activities take place, particularly those that involve the contracting of small-holder farm suppliers. Pathogens such as salmonella, and antibiotics can wreak havoc on an industry if standards to control them are not put in place and well enforced. And winning the confidence of the consumer ultimately is all about supply chain accountability that involves traceability from the feed mill, hatchery and farm through to the processing plant. Having different stakeholders come together ensures that the needs of each group

for Aquaculture Certification and Global Food Safety Initiative. No standard is ever set in stone; these have to be continually reviewed and revised to ensure relevance to current market trends and industry needs. Standards that are eventually translated to well-recognised certified products build trust and encourage trade. Credible, allencompassing standards also reduce the need for other tests to be carried out, hence streamlining and simplifying procedures. Suppliers can provide a full traceability history to their buyers, thereby building up confidence within the industry and for the industry, while sustaining its growth for future development.

Photo courtesy of CSIRO

Source: Global Aquaculture Alliance

are well represented and balanced out. In a standards development process, this usually consists of an oversight committee made up of individuals from the industry, government, academia and non-governmental groups, together with experts that form a technical committee. Standards need to adhere to international compliance rules set by the FAO Guidelines

23-26 May 2010

‘keeping pace with change’

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January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 35

Book review Code of practice for fish and fishery products ISSN 0259-2916


Code of practice for fish and fishery products First edition


he Code of practice for fish and fishery products is intended for all those engaged in the handling, production, storage, distribution, export, import and sale of fish and fishery products.

The Code will help in attaining safe and wholesome products that can be sold on national or international markets and meet the requirements of the Codex Standards. The Code is a work in progress and a number of appendixes remain under development. This first printed edition contains revisions to the texts adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission up to 2008. This Code has been developed by the Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products from the merging of the individual codes plus a section on aquaculture and a section on frozen surimi. These codes were primarily of a technological nature offering general advice on the production, storage and handling of fish and fishery products on board fishing vessels and on shore. This combined Code of Practice has been further modified to incorporate the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) approach described in the Recommended international code of practice – general principles of food hygiene. A prerequisite programme is described in the Code covering technological guidelines and the essential requirements of hygiene in the production of fish, shellfish and their products that are safe for human consumption and otherwise meets the requirements of the appropriate Codex product standards. The Code also contains guidance on the use of HACCP, which is recommended to ensure the hygienic production of fish and fishery products to meet health and safety requirements. A similar systematic approach has been applied to essential quality, composition and labelling provisions of the appropriate Codex product standards. Throughout this is referred to as “defect action point (DAP) analysis”. However, DAP analysis is optional. The Codex Committee on Fish and Fishery Products recommended at its 20th Session that defects of a commercial nature, that is workmanship defects, which had been removed from Codex fish product standards, be transferred to the appropriate Codex Code of Practice for optional use between buyers and sellers during commercial transactions. A similar approach to HACCP has been incorporated into the Code as guidelines for the control of defects (DAP analysis).

This Code will assist all those who are engaged in the handling and production of fish and fishery products, or are concerned with their storage, distribution, export, import and sale in attaining safe and wholesome products that can be sold on national or international markets and meet the requirements of the Codex Standards

How to use the Code The aim of the Code is to provide a user-friendly document as background information and guidance for the elaboration of fish and shellfish process management systems that would incorporate good manufacturing practice (GMP) as well as the application of HACCP in countries where these, as yet, have not been developed. In addition, it could be used in the training of fishers and employees in the fish and shellfish processing industries. The practical application with regard to national fisheries would require some modifications and amendments, taking into account local conditions and specific consumer requirements. Therefore, this Code is not intended to replace the advice or guidance of trained and experienced technologists regarding the complex technological and hygienic problems that might be unique to a specific geographical area or specific fishery and, in fact, is intended to be used as a supplement in such instances. The Code is divided into separate though interrelated sections. It is intended that in order to set up an HACCP or DAP programme, these should be consulted as appropriate: (a) Section 2 – Definitions – Being acquainted with the definitions is important and will aid the overall understanding of the Code. (b) Section 3 – Prerequisite programme – Before HACCP or a similar approach can properly be applied to a process, it is important that a solid foundation of good hygienic practice exists. This section covers the groundwork that should be regarded as the minimum requirements for a facility prior to the application of hazard and defect analyses. (c) Section 4 – General considerations for the handling of fresh fish, shellfish and other aquatic invertebrates – This section provides an overall view of the potential hazards and defects that may have to be considered when building up an HACCP or DAP plan. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list but is designed to help an HACCP or DAP team to think about what hazards or defects should be considered in the fresh fish, shellfish and other aquatic invertebrates, and then it is up to the team to determine the significance of the hazard or defect in relation to the process. (d) Section 5 – Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and defect action point (DAP) analysis – Only when the groundwork has been completed satisfactorily should the application of the principles outlined here be considered. (e) Sections 6 and 7 – Aquaculture production and Live and raw bivalve molluscs – These sections deal with pre-harvest and primary production of fish, crustaceans and molluscan shellfish not caught in the wild. Although potential hazards and potential defects are listed for most steps in Sections 6–18, it should be noted that this is only for guidance and the consideration of other hazards Under development.

36 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Book review

(f) Section 8 – Processing of fresh, frozen and minced fish – This section forms the foundation for most of the subsequent processing sections. It deals with the major process steps in the handling of raw fish through to cold storage and gives guidance and examples on the sort of hazards and defects to expect at the various steps. This section should be used as the basis for all the other processing operations (Sections 9–16), which give additional guidance specific to the appropriate product sector. (g) Sections 9–16 – Processing of specific fish and shellfish products – Processors operating in particular sectors will need to consult the appropriate section to find additional information specific to that sector.

(h) Sections 17–18 – Transportation and Retail cover general transportation and retail issues. Transportation and retail apply to most if not all sections for processing of specific products.They should be considered with the same care as the other processing steps. Mo re

in fo rmatio n :

Codex Alimentarius Commission Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla 00153 Rome, Italy Fax: +39 06 57054593 Email: Web:

First edition - ISSN 0259-2916

Handbooks in Economics – Agricultural Economics (Volume 4)


he aim of the Handbooks in Economics series is to produce Handbooks for various branches of economics, each of which is a definitive source, reference, and teaching supplement for use by professional researchers and advanced graduate students. Each Handbook provides selfcontained surveys of the current state of a branch of economics in the form of chapters prepared by leading specialists on various aspects of this branch of economics. These surveys summarize not only received results but also newer developments, from recent journal articles and discussion papers. Some original material is also included, but the main goal is to provide comprehensive and accessible surveys. The Handbooks are intended to provide not only useful reference volumes for professional collections but also possible supplementary readings for advanced courses for graduate students in economics.

Contents of the handbook Volume 4 of The Handbooks in Economics, which in total has 887 pages and continues on after Volume 3, devotes most of its chapters to reviewing sectoral policies related to agriculture. For example, the first chapter (Chapter 61) moves to a macroeconomic and macro-sectoral view of the policy framework

and its possible interaction with the agricultural sector. A previous handbook (Gordon Rausser and Bruce Gardner, eds., 2002) devoted a whole section with several chapters to economy-wide policies. Since then, there have been nontrivial changes in macroeconomic trends and policy debates, not only regarding domestic aspects but also, and perhaps more relevant for developing countries, at the level of the global economy. This chapter attempts to review and update some of the world macroeconomic issues relevant for agriculture, while at the same time covering domestic macroeconomic development affecting the sector, in both cases taking mostly the perspective of developing countries. In Section 1, we define the main macroeconomic topics that we will cover and their links to agriculture. Section 2 presents a brief characterization of differentiated structural issues in developing countries economy in general and the agricultural sector in particular as a background for a more detailed analysis of world macroeconomic conditions and trends (Section 3) and of domestic macroeconomic policies (Section 4). Section 5 concludes by trying to weave a narrative with the performance of the agricultural sector in developing countries during the last half-century in light of world and domestic macroeconomic issues analyzed in the previous two sections and to present some speculative thoughts about the future evolution of the sector in those countries. JEL classification: E000, Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics: General; F000, International Economics: General; O110, Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development; Q180, Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

First eEditors Prabhu L. Pringali and Robert E. Evenson - ISBN 978-0-444-51874-3 - Published by North-Holland (an imprint of Elsevier) - The Boulevard, Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1GB, UK January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 37

Book review Practical implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture RAP PUBLICATION 2009/10

APFIC Regional Consultative workshop

Practical implementation of the ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture 18–22 May 2009, Colombo, Sri Lanka

Sustainable Development

Ecological well-being

Human well-being


National Government Fisheries agency Environmental agency

Harvesting of fishery resources

Equitable distribution of wealth

Habitat protection and restoration

Sustainable livelihoods

Fishing communities Fishing industry

Pollution reduction and waste management

Improved/sustained national economy & trade

Other e.g. NGO, Local govt.

General ecosystem impacts


he need to apply an ecosystem approach to fisheries management is now globally accepted and has been endorsed in a range of international decision-making for a says the FAO in this report following a report on the APFIC/FAO regional consultative workshop held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, from May 18-22, 2009.

It says, this approach represents a move away from fisheries management systems that focus only on the sustainable harvest of target species towards systems and decision-making processes that balance environmental well-being with human and social well-being within improved governance frameworks. The FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF) provides a global framework for responsible fisheries, but member countries, fisheries organizations and fisheries stakeholders require a practical framework to implement the recommendations of the CCRF. The ecosystem approach to management of fisheries (EAF) and aquaculture (EAA) presents such a practical framework whereby the objectives of responsible and sustainable fisheries and aquaculture can be implemented at national and local levels. Although there is an increasing will to move towards more holistic fisheries and aquaculture management and planning frameworks, the practical approach and application of ecosystem based planning and management remains challenged by a lack of familiarity with EAF and EAA and the need for considerable policy reform. Regional Consultation The 2nd Regional Consultative Forum Meeting of the Asia-Pacific Fishery Commission (APFIC) and the 30th Session of APFIC convened in Manado in 2008, recommended that APFIC promote understanding of how to implement ecosystem approaches to aquaculture and fisheries management. They noted too that this would effectively contribute to the implementation of the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The session emphasized the need for guidance on how to apply this management approach to the small-scale production sector, the development of offshore fisheries and in the data-poor situations that prevail in the APFIC region. This report is the proceedings of the APFIC/FAO/Government of Sri Lanka regional consultative workshop convened in response to this recommendation. The workshop brought together 75 participants from member countries across the Asia and Pacific region together with

representatives of regional fisheries, aquaculture and environmental intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, alongside projects and other arrangements. The workshop represented a unique opportunity to build awareness and understanding of the potential opportunities that are offered by an ecosystem approach to management and hopefully will lead to the development of ecologically sound action plans for fisheries and aquaculture in the region. All country representatives agreed that the ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) management and the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA) management should be implemented in their countries to manage their fisheries and aquaculture responsibly. EAF/EAA1 is a means of achieving sustainable development, contributing to food security and human development by maintaining environmental integrity and enhancing social well-being by reducing intra- and inter-sectoral conflict through participatory approaches and stakeholder consultation. Application of EAF/EAA implies a balanced approach to addressing ecosystem well-being and thus contributes positively to biodiversity, governance and human well-being, including social development and poverty alleviation. EAF/EAA is very useful in situations where conflict resolution is required. All countries have EAF/EAA aligned activities and there are many initiatives that are aimed at implementing the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF). Many traditional systems have practices that broadly conform to EAF/EAA principles but are not recognized as “ecosystembased” approaches and there is a lack of appreciation of what is already being done. EAF/EAA is also a useful tool for managing fisheries and aquaculture in inland waters and steps need to be taken to implement this. EAF/EAA can also be used for addressing the adaptation or resilience of fisheries and aquaculture in the face of climate change impact and effects. It is expected that this could provide funding opportunities for EAF/EAA related work. Each country has its own context for policy development and resource allocation, therefore implementation of EAF/EAA will differ depending on that context. Many countries note that existing legislation and policy may not explicitly support EAF/ EAA and will require amendment or updating. Fo r

co pies:

The Senior Fishery Officer FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Maliwan Mansion, 39 Phra Athit Road Bangkok 10200 THAILAND Tel: +66 2 697 4000 Fax: +66 2 697 4445 Email:

ISBN 978-92-5-106319-4 - Published by FAO 38 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Book review Compendium of Food Additive Specifications


his volume from the FAO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) Monographs, contains specifications of identity and purity prepared at the 71st meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO JECFA meeting, held in Geneva, Switzerland, from June 16-24 2009. In addition, a revised analytical method for measuring softening point for glycerol esters of rosins was prepared and included in this publication. The specifications monographs are one of the outputs of JECFA’s risk assessment of food additives, and should be read in conjunction with the safety evaluation, reference to which is made in the section at the head of each specifications monograph. Further information on the meeting discussions can be found in the summary report of the meeting in Annex 1, and in the full report which will be published in the WHO Technical Report series. Toxicological monographs of the substances considered at the meeting will be published in the WHO Food Additive Series. Specifications monographs prepared by JECFA up to the 65th meeting, other than specifications for flavouring agents, have been published in consolidated form in the Combined Compendium of

Food Additive Specifications which is the first publication in the series FAO JECFA Monographs. This publication consist of four volumes, the first three of which contain the specifications monographs on the identity and purity of the food additives and the fourth volume contains the analytical methods, test procedures and laboratory solutions required and referenced in the specifications monographs. FAO maintains an on-line searchable database of all JECFA specifications monographs from the FAO JECFA Monographs, which is available at: search.html . The specifications for flavourings evaluated by JECFA, and previously published in FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 52 and subsequent Addenda, are included in a database for flavourings (flavouring agent) specifications which has been updated and modernized. All specifications for flavourings that have been evaluated by JECFA since its 44th meeting, including the 69th meeting, are available in the new format online searchable database at the JECFA website at FAO: search.html. The databases have query pages and background information in English, French, Spanish, Arabic and Chinese. Information about analytical methods referred to in the specifications is available in the Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications (Volume 4), which can be accessed from the query pages. More information on the work of the Committee is available from the FAO homepage of JECFA at: agns/jecfa_index_en.asp

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives - 71st meeting 2009 - ISSN 1817-7077

Are you a Perendale bookworm? Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of International Aquafeed, has set up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a wide range of recently-published reports and books on aquaculture. From February 1, 2010 you will be able to read an extended review before making your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent publications and as a result become a reference point for your reading and research.

Book store Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment gateway, packaging and mailing service. Consult Perendale Publishers Online Book Store at:

January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 39

In every issue of International Aquafeed we will be providing a list of companies and web links related to key stories & topics within each specific issue. If you would like information on how your company can get involved, please contact our Marketing Manager, Caroline Wearn. Email: |Tel +44 1242 267706

Addcon Europe GmbH - AKVA Group - Amandus Kahl GmbH & Co - Aquaculture without frontiers - Aquativ - BENEO-Animal Nutrition - Biomin GmbH - Buhler AG - Engormix - Extru‑Tech Inc - Forberg International AS - Geelen Counterflow - Inve Aquaculture Jiangsu Muyang Group Co Ltd - Kiotechagil - Lican Alimentos SA - Meriden Animal Health - Ottevanger Milling Engineers BV - Palm View Trade - Scaramanga Communications - Shanghai ZhengChang International Machinery and Engineering Co Ltd - Sonac - Tesgo International BV - The Aquaculture Communications Group, LLC TripleNine Fish Protein amba - WYES Machinery (Shanghai) Co Ltd - Wynveen International BV -

40 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

A partnership with synergy

Aquafeed Processing Technology Storage & Distribution and Aquafeed Ingredients, Additives & Formulation

VICTAM Asia2010 For everything you need to know about producing aquafeed. Over 6000 visitors to the 2008 show!

FIAAP A s i a 2 010 Queen Sirikit National Convention Center . Bangkok . Thailand 3 – 5 March 2010

The Conferences: • Aquafeed Horizons 2010 • The FIAAP Conference 2010 • The Thai Feed Conference 2010 Supported by: Thai Petfood Industry Association Thai Ministry of Agriculture & Co-Operatives Thai Department of Livestock Development Thai Feed Mill Association Thai Chamber of Commerce Thai Convention & Exhibition Bureau

Now co-located with GRAPAS Asia 2010 – the rice & flour milling, grain, noodle, breakfast cereal and extruded snack production exhibition & conference. For information visit: or

Your key to success

Classified Adverts Additives

Driers • Aeroglide Corp • Alvan Blanch • Andritz Feed & Biofuels • Awila • BNW industries • Bratney Equipment Co • Brice Baker • Chief UK Ltd • Clextral • Coastal Aquatic Proteins • Continental Agra • CPM Wolverine Proctor • CSE & Intec • Dinnissen BV • ESE & Intec • Game Engineering

Extruders • Almex

Pulverisers • Anderson International • Baker Perkins • Bechtel GmbH • Brabender

• Aaron Equipment • Caterday Jacobson • Christy Turner • Fritsch GmbH • Jaeckering

• • • • •

• Stedman • Sterner Aqua Tech • Mill Technology


• • • • • • • Bentoli Agri Nutrition • Crevetec • Danisco Animal Nutrition • Exquim • Ge-Pro Aqua • Inve Nutri-Ad • Kiotech Agil • Lipidos Toledo • Lohman Animal Health • Lucta USA Inc • New Zealand Pharmaceutical • Nutri-Ad International BV • Ocialis • SAP International Corp • Seabait • Sopropeche • Tetoros Bros SA • Trouw Nutrition HiFeed • VDS BVBA

Not in the classified section? You can create you own heading!

Kason Corporation Law Denis Engineering Ltd Millbank Technology Muench Edelstah Pavan Group Sweet Manufacturing Co

Caliber Control Coperion CPM Roskamp Champion Fudex Group Spa Insta Pro International

Shrimp feed & larval diet

Equipment for sale

Supply chain

classified advertising To place a classified advert in our next issue, and take advantage of our great online extra exposure, please contact Caroline Wearn Tel:+44 1242 267706 Email:carolinew@

• Setrem • Suehiro EPM • TGC Extrusion • Wenger

42 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

Place artwork in a range of sizes!

Vacuum • A&J Mixing

AT LAST! - low-cost classified advertising that really works! Unique opportunities to achieve high volume exposure for your marketing budgets Traditionally, in most publications, Classified Advertising has been the poor relation to placement and display advertising. Consigned to the least read pages in most magazines Classified Advertisements at best usually only attract companies and services that have limited marketing budgets, for questionably, very limited or unmeasurable reader exposure. From 2010, whether your business is a blue chip multi-national or a sole trader ... International Aquafeed has changed the rules. IAF has recognised this inadequacy and is responding with a strong exposure and quantifiable results solution. From january 2010 all IAF Classified Advertisements will now appear on the websites our TWO online distribution channels: DocStoc and Scribd. Both these high traffic channels specialise in the targeted positioning of industry, government and academic documents and information. Each document is accompanied by independent, unsolicited reader statistics, recording the number of visitors to each document. All future IAF Classified Advertisements, by issue, will now appear in these sites as individual documents with their own individual traffic records. In addition, all Classified Advertisements will now be accompanied by a 250 word (maximum) profile of your company or service ... at no extra cost! You will also be able to update your profiles twice a year to help you showcase new products and services. All profile content will be 'keyword compliant' to guarantee maximum exposure to the major search engines. Our Classified Advertisement trial indications show in excess of 300% more exposure than print alone. Classified Advertising rates for 2010 will remain the same as those for 2009 ... but with all the extra exposure.

• Stolz - Sequipag

Check out the rates and availability now and have a very prosperous 2010!


January-February 2010 | International AquaFeed | 43

EVENTS 25th - 26th January 9th Practical Short Course: Aquafeed Platform Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition & Feed Management, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Contact: Dr Ignace Debruyne, ID&A, Ignace Debruyne & Associates AQUAFEED Haverhuisstraat 28 B-8870 Izegem, Belgium Tel: +32 51 311274 Fax: +32 51 315675 Email: Web:

1st - 5th March AQUACULTURE 2010: San Diego, California, USA Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: Web:

2nd - 4th March ACUI 2010, International Aquaculture Exhibition of Galicia Vilagarcia de Arousa, Pontevedra Spain Contact: David Barreiro, Dr Teixeiro Nº 35, 1º Tel: +34 986 488875 Fax: +34 981 552718 Email: Web:

3rd - 5th March Victam Asia 2010, Queen Sirikit National Convention Center Bangkok Thailand Contact: Andy West, PO Box 411 Redhill, RH1 6WE UK Tel: +44 1737 763501 Fax: + 44 1737 762996 Email: Web:

20th - 23rd April Global Feed & Food, Cancun, Mexico Contact: Mr Roger Gilbert, 7 St George's Terrace St James' Square Cheltenham GL50 3PT UK Tel: +44 1242 267702 Fax: +44 1242 267701 Email: Web:

16th - 19th May Alltech’s 26th International Animal Health & Nutrition Symposium, Lexington Convention Center, Lexington, Kentucky USA Contact: Lauren Ashley Pope, 3031 Catnip Hill Pike USA Tel: +1 859 8812213 Fax: +1 859 8873256 Email: Web:

2010 19th - 20th May AQUACULTUREUK2010, Aviemore, Scotland Contact: David Mack, ASCOMBER Rosebank, Ankerville Street, Tain, Ross & Cromarty IV19 1BH, Scotland Tel: +44 1862 892188 Email: Web:

23rd - 26th May Australasian Aquaculture 2010 International Conference and Trade Show, Hotel Grand Chancellor, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Contact: Sarah-Jane Day, PO Box 370 Nelson Bay NSW 2317 Australia Tel: +61 437 152234 Fax: +61 249 191044 Email: Web: www.

5th - 9th July The 9th International Congress of the Biology of Fish, Hotel Sehrs Campus in the UAB Campus at Bellaterra – Barcelona (Spain) Contact: Judith García, Mondial & Cititravel Congresos, S.L. C./ Rosselló 303, atc. 1, 08037 Barcelona, Spain Tel: +34 93 2212955 Fax: +34 93 4592059 Email: Web: http://sidciencies.

6th - 8th October AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2010, Porto, Portugal Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: Web:

7th - 8th October GLOBALGAP Summit 2010, HILTON London Metropole Hotel London, UK Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH, Spichernstr.55, D-50672 Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 221 57993693 Fax: +49 221 5799389 Email: Web:

To add your event to our listing, contact Tuti Tan

Listen to ‘The Sound of Nutrition’ at the World Nutrition Forum 2010


xperts and industry delegates gather to discuss the future of nutrition, Biomin’s NutriEconomics® program, developments in science, business, the environment and leadership at the World Nutrition Forum 2010 in Salzburg, Austria. In less than a year, the next World Nutrition Forum will be hosted once again from October 13-16, 2010. This time, the venue of Salzburg, Austria, has been chosen to closely reflect the theme of the Forum: “The Sound of Nutrition”. As the world economy climbs out of the downturn, the World Nutrition Forum aims to shed light on the trends that will affect animal nutrition and production and how businesses can take full advantage of key information to move forward. “Coming out of this period of recession, the future development of the market has become an issue of greater importance than ever,” says Erich Erber, CEO of Biomin. “We want to provide useful insights with regards to the dynamics in current market developments and identify and substantiate our findings on industry trends.” At the last Forum,“Achieving Peak Performance” was the key topic addressed. Discussions centered on how animal nutritionists could balance feed and inputs costs with improved animal performance, thereby taking a holistic approach to nutrition and livestock productivity. Taking this concept fur ther in the light of profitability, the 2010 Forum will address the relationship between peak performance in the animal and profits in the animal production business. “As the business environ-

44 | International AquaFeed | January-February 2010

ment continues to evolve with fluctuating feed ingredients prices, economic uncertainty and changing consumer trends, the animal production sector has to take a practical and realistic approach to profitability, while at the same time not lose its focus on developing and perfecting the science of animal nutrition,” says Florian Zehner, division marketing officer for Biomin. Biomin’s latest programme, NutriEconomics® helps to address this issue of nutrition, profitability and performance by focusing on three core principles – nutrition, economics and the environment. These key considerations map out how efficient animal performance can be achieved alongside productivity and profitability in the business, and lay the foundation for the 2010 Forum’s theme and discussions. The theme for the 2010 For um, “The Sound of Nutrition”, was inspired by this vision of a harmonious approach to balancing the ‘sounds’ or demands of nutrition, with that of the environment, economics, science and business. Salzburg, a city famed for its classical music heritage and the setting of the world famous “Sound of Music” musical film, has been chosen as a meeting place befitting the agenda. In the tradition of past Forums, the 2010 edition will also include a line-up of thought-provoking issues related to business, trade, science and leadership, including the 
B.R.A.I.N. (Biomin Research and Innovation Network) program that awards groundbreaking work in animal nutrition. Mo re

in fo rmatio n :


Leading technology – local solutions. Whether for fish or crustaceans, whether sinking or floating feeds – for every product Buhler offers the perfect solution from raw material processing, mixing and extruding to drying. Process expertise combined with technology solutions made in Asia guarantees the production of high-quality animal feeds. But there is even more to it: Buhler know-how also enables customers to create the most cost- and energy-efficient process solution from stand-alone machines to complete plants. Visit us at Victam Asia 2010 in Bangkok, Thailand, 3 – 5 March 2010, Bühler AG, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T: +41 71 955 11 11, F: +41 71 955 33 79,

The solution behind the solution.

January | February 10 - International Aquafeed  

International Aquafeed Volume 13 Issue 1. Featuring: Evaluation of Fishmeal Substitution • Utilization of spray-dried Hemoglobin powder in S...