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Vo l u m e 1 4 I s s u e 4 2 0 1 1

Colombian Tilapia: Increased fry survivability with Orego-Stim速

Breakthrough in Natural Growth Promotion Gustor Aqua: An effective solution to optimise health status and nutrient utilisation

Update in Phosphorus Nutrition in Aquaculture

the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

















An international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

Volume 14 / Issue 4 / July-August 2011 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2011 / All rights reserved EDITOR’S DESK


Aqua News The use of B-Safe results in a significant increase in growth Dip it, stock it and reap it ... You will have your shrimps in 100 days! A shared vision for aquaculture in Asia: - Inaugural Roundtable Series on focuses on feed and nutrition Innovation is vital for continuing success of Scottish fish farming industry Stirling signs aquaculture agreement with Chinese university Call for Papers announced: FIAAP Asia Conference 2012 AQUA 2012: Global Aquaculture - Securing Our Future Specialist business & science Centre set to play a key role in aquaculture KAHL extruder OEE for the production of fishfeed

6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 12 13

F: Survivability

Colombian Tilapia - Increased fry survivability with Orego-Stim®


F: Growth Promotion Breakthrough in Natural Growth Promotion An effective solution to optimise health status and nutrient utilisation

18 22

F: Gustor Aqua Gustor Aqua


F: Victam 2011 A review from Cologne, Germany


F: Phosphorus Update in Phosphorus Nutrition in Aquaculture


F: Tropical Tropical - A good example of modern specialised polish firm

Feed Management

34 38

Book review Chemical Communication in Crustaceans Fish Oil Replacement & Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds Fish Processing – Sustainability and New Opportunities

42 42 43

Classified Adverts




GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture Version 4 responds to consumer requirements


International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2011 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

EDITOR’S DESK Professor Simon Davies Email:

Associate Editor Professor Krishen Rana Email:

Editorial Manager Nicky Barnes Email:

Editorial Advisory Panel: • Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt) • Professor António Gouveia (Portugal) • Professor Charles Bai (Korea) • Colin Mair (UK) • Dr Daniel Merrifield (UK) • Dr Dominique Bureau (Canada) • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman (Greece) • Dr Kim Jauncey (UK) • Eric De Muylder (Belgium) • Dr Pedro Encarnação (Singapore)

Subscription & Circulation Tuti Tan Email:

Design & Page Layout James Taylor Email:

International Marketing Team

Croeso and welcome again


ext year is Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee and 60 years is some achievement as the British head of State. Long may she reign over us and the Commonwealth!. For me, 25 years, my own Silver Jubilee at the University of Plymouth is also quite symbolic and a timely occasion for celebration, reflection and a chance for me to plan the next chapter in my role as a Professor and my related academic duties. I am a feature myself in this issue and our Roger Gilbert, owner of Perendale Publishers has kindly written a feature on me so I’ll leave it at that!! Since my time as Editor of International Aquafeed, it has become clear that the aquaculture industry has undergone major changes and challenges which have been most informative and interesting for me to follow over these last few years. It has been an education and I have really enjoyed meeting new people and receiving letters from our growing readership. The major drivers for improving the health and production of farmed fish and shrimp have been addressed in many previous issues during my editorship and continue to be important and vital to appreciating the ever changing dimension within this dynamic industry. In this issue, there is much in our news section with a range of activities, meetings and workshops being planned for the aquaculture related feed sector. We see much evidence for this in Asia with meetings being held soon in Singapore. We report on a natural clay based additive for use in fish feeds as a potential antimicrobial agent from work done recently in Vietnam, there is a feature on special feed additives to promote health in tilapia from field trials conducted in Colombia and two special features highlighting natural growth promoters in fish based on organic acids. We also have a review on phosphorous nutrition which is especially important in relation to feeds which increasingly contain alternative plant based ingredients limiting P availability, retention and efficacy. The need to understand improved P supplementation strategy is imperative in a time where mineral nutrition is becoming an issue from an environmental as well as a biological perspective. Also its good to see a report on the tropical fish feeds sector as ornamental fish are often overlooked despite their huge global value and impact as companion animals. Krishen Rana continues with his articles concerning feed safety and pricing as we face more economic pressures in the commodity area. Finally, the photo-shoot is all about my team in Plymouth. I am indebted to my colleagues and students who work so hard and are dedicated to a research programme that has earned Plymouth its reputation in this field. My success is their success too! 25 years is a long time in academia, but a well deserved glass or two of fine wine, a dinner comprising oily fish rich in omega 3 fatty acids is due as I prepare for the autumn editorial and my next 10 years, if good health allows.

Caroline Wearn Email: Sabby Major Email: Lee Bastin Email:

Latin American Office Ivàn Marquetti Email:

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July-August 2011 2 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011



25 years

in aquaculture at The University of Plymouth


t’s with great pleasure that I write on behalf of all readers of International Aquafeed magazine to congratulate Professor Simon Davies on celebrating - on July 1, 2011 - his 25th anniversary in the field of aquaculture nutrition research and teaching at the University of Plymouth in the UK. We at IAF are honoured to have him as our editor, a position he has held for the past three years. However, Professor Davies career in aquaculture goes back more than two-anda-half decades when in 1978 he achieved his first degree, a BSc with Honours, from Cardiff University in Wales. He quickly followed that with an MSc in agricultural

He joined Plymouth University’s biochemistry at the University of Department of Biological Sciences as a lecNewcastle the following year before turer in animal physiology and aquaculture turning his attention to aquaculture nutrition in 1986, which had a staff of over and completing his PhD in 1984 with a 40! In those days, he tells me, the ratio of dissertation on ‘The Nutritional value academic staff to students was typically high of Dietary Fibre in Rainbow Trout’ at at both universities and technical institutes the University of Stirling in Scotland and included numerous technicians, senior where he studied under the direction academics, professors, etc. of Dr Albert Tacon within the Institute Today, his major responsibilities include of Aquaculture and who has also held pathway leadership for Plymouth’s BSc the role of IAF’s editor in recent years. degrees in marine biology and animal sciProfessor Davies was an Elizabeth ence with particular emphasis on fish nutriTuckerman Foundation Fellow (1984-85) tion, feed technology and fish health for sponsored by the Bank of America and students in their second and third years of for two years carried out post-doctoral research at the Department of Fish, Game and Wildlife Management at the University of Idaho at Moscow in the USA and also worked at the Rangen International Aquaculture Research Centre (IARC) in Hagerman, Idaho. He worked under the eminent fish pathologist Professor Bill Klontz whilst at the University of Idaho. Further post-doctoral research was done back in the UK at Kingston University’s Department Professor Simon Davies in the feed technology of Life Sciences in London on warm lab with Holger Kuhlwein, Daniel Leeming, water fish nutrition and breeding Sam Staggs, and Ben Eynon (left to right) technology of tilapia.


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July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 3


F: Feature

Plymouth University Campus

study. He also has an active involvement in Masters student project supervision as well as undergraduate projects. In addition to teaching on Masters Degrees in applied fish biology within what is now referred to as ‘Sustainable Aquaculture Systems’ (SAS), his role is to promote the University and its activities. In his 25 years at Plymouth he has

Simon Davies talking to student, Thomas Adjei-duodu in the Feed Nutrition Lab spearheaded the Masters Degree program in aquaculture in particular and has supervised the successful completion of more than 70 Master Degree projects relating to the theme of aquaculture, nutrition, fish physiology and biochemistry and more than 22 PhDs by doctoral students.

He has been instrumental in building research aquaria for fish feeding trials for nutritional assessment at the University and comprehensive suites of laboratories for feed analysis. Plymouth was not always a University. As a polytechnic, offering Simon Davies with Daniel Merrifield courses in vocational and technical subjects, it was one of the leading schools of its type in the UK with a strong ultural research is a ‘game changer’, that mandate and recognition for its marine and through greater attention of the comfisheries science and nutrition teachings. mercialization of fish production through That’s why under John Majors’ government aquaculture – and aquaculture is currently it was made a University in 1992 and as a the fastest growing food production sector result became more ‘business facing’ in its in the world – that science is making and activities. will continue to make a significant difference Many of Professor Davies former PhD in the supply of high quality, safe and affordstudents have made an impact in the field able food to a growing world population. of agri-business; working for major national That’s why addressing conferences and and international groups ranging from Mars, meetings around the world on the imporBASF and Skretting to Alltech in the USA tant developments in aquacultural research and Mapleleaf Foods in Canada; from the is central to his role at Plymouth University. fishing industry, to the poultry feed indusHis activities have not only ‘internationaltry to the petfood industry; from the ised’ the University through his specializaGreece National Aqua Centre and Turkey’s tion but has promoted the importance of Aquaculture Centre at the University in fish nutrition globally. Izmir to Libya’s head of aqua research. In his department’s quest to become internationally recognized for its work in fish nutrition, he points to the support he Game changer has received from the University’s ViceProfessor Davies believes that aquac-

Proffessor Simon Davies greeting visitors from Plymouth Council

4 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

F: Feature

Simon with Saana Mustafa, phd student from Iraq

Simon with Arafat Ahmed Phd student from Iraq

Simon with Kurdish phd student Samad Omar Chancellor and chief executive officer Professor Wendy Purcell which is reflected in the recent appointment of a research fellow – Daniel Merrifield - to further expand fish nutrition at the University. Back in the early days there was little talk about sustainability when developing fish diets. Emphasis was centered around good growth rates, conversion ratios and meeting basic nutritional needs. There has been a significant shift in recent years towards greater awareness of the industry’s environmental impact both in terms of producing fish feeds and growing fish; the latter including their biosecurity, a greater

emphasis on transparency within the food chain, the quality of the fish being produced, the welfare of fish and greater consideration Simon with Dr Ted Henry in the Zebra fish given to consumer perceptions of laboratory aquaculture. All these aspects are having a significant impact on the development of which is high in Omega 3 and an important the industry and the role research and part of a balanced nutritional diet. science is now playing in aquaculture. He says the greatest challenge in his Professor Davies says the pendulum is view for the 21st Century is to produce a swinging back towards a re-evaluation of feed alternative feed ingredients such as those from plant materials suitable for inclusion in fish diets to by-products from other industries such as the meat processing industry to the inclusion of single-cell proteins and functional feed additives such as pre- and probiotics. All are gaining in momentum and opening the market to the possibility of diets based on a range of sustainable ingredients with Simon with the office greater consideration as to how the secretarial staff resulting fish products can better meet human health requirements. high-quality fish product that are beneficial to the human condition, that secures profits Health food option for those who grow fish, and that the enviProfessor Davies says aquaculture is ronmental impact from greater production continuing to expand at an alarming rate. of fish from aquaculture is sustainable. He says we must continue to grow and This is a challenging area for scientists, promote fish as a healthly food option he tells me. Scientists will have to be flexible, continue to develop their engagement with industry directly and forsake the peace and serenity of their ivory towers. As the publisher of International Aquafeed, I wish to congratulate Professor Davies on his 25th Jubilee year at the University of Plymouth, thank both him and the University for its support of IAF and look forward to his continued Senior Technician Liz Preston in the contribution as editor to our magazine and Analytical Nutrition laboratory its readers.

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 5

Aqua News

The use of B-Safe results in a significant increase in growth


n a study carried out at In Vivo NSA research centre in Vietnam near Ho Chi Minh City, the use of B-Safe resulted in a significant increase in growth – from between +9.5 and +10.8% and generated a significant reduction in the feed conversion ratio from between -11% and -12%. Despite the additional cost of B-Safe, feed cost to produce one tonne of fish was reduced by about 10 percent using two doses, demonstrating a return on investment (ROI) of using B-Safe at 1/10! The results below were presented at the World Aquaculture Society Congress (Natal, Brazil in June 2011).

B-Safe: Zootechnical and economical interest in growing tilapia Interest of a patented cation

exchanged clay (B-Safe) on zootechnical performances of growing tilapia fish by Pascal Boisot*, Phong Huy Dao, Gaëlle Benzoni and Alain Guyonvarch, Néovia, Talhouët, Saint Nolff, France The use of antibiotic growth promoter factors in feed for terrestrial or aquatic animals is either banned - for example in Europe - or heavily criticised due to the potential increase in bacterial resistance. Cation exchanged clays have been repor ted to be an effective antibacterial material and its interest as a growth promoter factor has been reported in terrestrial species such as poultry. To our knowledge, the interest of cation exchange clays has never been studied in fish species. The purpose of this trial was

to test the interest of a patented cation exchanged clay (B-Safe) at two different doses on the zootechnical performances of growing tilapia fish. This study was carried out at In Vivo NSA research centre in Vietnam near Ho Chi Minh City. 1 9 2 0 fi s h ( O r e o c h r o m i s Niloticus* Oreochromis Mosambicus) of average initial weight of 27.2+2.6g were divided in three groups of 640 fish. Each group was subdivided in eight cages of 2.5m3 (80 fish/ cage). Cages were placed in a fresh water pond. Fish were fed to apparent satiety for 38 feeding days with a commercial type feed (protein: 31%, fat: 4.5%, fibres: 4.5% and starch: 20%) with or without a patented

Table 1: Main zootechnical results (mean+ standard deviation) Group 1: Control

Group 2: Bsafe SD 2kg/t

Group 3: Bsafe SD 3kg/t


Initial weight (g)

27.3 ± 2.6

27.0 ± 2.7

27.2 ± 2.6


Final weight (g)

129.0 ± 20.8a

138.3 ± 22.2b

139.4 ± 21.6b


Daily weight gain (g/ day)

2.08 ± 0.15a

2.28 ± 0.10b

2.31 ± 0.13b


Death rate (%)

2.03 ± 1.48

1.72 ± 1.33

1.09 ± 1.24


Daily feed consumption per fish (g)

3.50 ± 0.10

3.45 ± 0.10

3.46 ± 0.09



1.71 ± 0.11b

1.53 ± 0.08a

1.51 ± 0.08a





Feed cost to produce one tonne of fish (Euro)

ns: non significant a,b: means with common upper scripts are not significantly different from each other at the five percent level 6 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

cation exchanged clay: Group 1 (control), Group 2 (2kg/T of B-Safe SD), Group 3 (3kg/T of B-Safe SD). Individual body weights were controlled at the star t and at the end of the study. Daily feed consumption and daily mortality per cage was also recorded. Data were analysed by analysis of variance. Main zootechnical results are presented in Table 1. Death rates were quite low on this trial and no significant differences among treatment were obser ved. The use of B-Safe resulted in a significant increase in growth (+9.5 to +10.8%) in link with a significant reduction of feed conversion ratio (-11% to -12%) with no significant dose response effect. Despite the additional cost of B-Safe, feed cost to produce one tonne of fish was reduced by about 10 percent at the two doses. In conclusion, results of this study demonstrate that B-Safe can have a zootechnical and economical interest in growing tilapia and that a dose of 2kg/tonne was optimal in the environmental context of this study. More


Sandrine Durox Marketing Manager NEOVIA, BP 394 56 009 Vannes cedex France Tel: +33 2 97485383 Fax: +33 2 97485385 Email:

Aqua News

Dip it, stock it and reap it ... You will have your shrimps in 100 days!


ave yo u h e a r d o f shr imps growing in about 100 days to the harvestable size of 30 counts? Yes, it is possible. Or fish fry, growing faster than normal? That too is possible. Using a totally environmentfriendly, all-natural and fully-biodegradable enzyme mix - yes, no hormones and no antibiotics - has been achieved in farms in Asia. The product called Gutacean and comes from Singapore Biotrade which delivers result with a one-time simple application. The product comes in a concentrated mix, each vial containing 150mg of the product. In shrimp hatcheries the product is to be mixed with a solution provided along with the product. It is added droplet by droplet to a bin/tank of 200 litres of seawater. Each 150mg is optimised for three million nauplii. Proper aeration is required in the seawater and then the nauplii, preferably N4 to N6, are introduced. For larger quantities of nauplii a propor tionate increase in Gutacean vials should be added. After dipping in seawater for about half to one hour the nauplii can proceed through the normal protocol of the hatcher y and stock into the larval holding tanks. Care should be taken to ensure that any EDTA or iodine is to be used only after the dipping treatment. Care should also be taken to ensure that the volume of seawater is as precise as possible to 200 litres. When used under proper hatcher y conditions, Gutacean gives additional sur vival of nauplii to post lar vae . In addition, the conversion time from nauplii to post lar vae is shor ter and at the same time

increasing heat shock proteins leading to extra strength against diseases. That’s all. Dip it, stock it and reap it. Shrimp farmers (or grow out ponds in integrated production units) can treat the post larvae dipped in Gutacean at the hatcher y itself or at the pond side before stocking into the pond. The product can be used only at stocking and not later on. W h e n used under proper farm conditions Gutacean gives additional survival in grow- out ponds, with additional defence a g a i n s t diseases and the growth takes place in shor ter nu m b e r o f days. In Malaysia , Thailand  an d Vietnam  it is common to har vest a 15g prawns within 80 to 90 days, however with Gutacean it can be done in about 70 days.  While this is in Asia, farmers elsewhere will also get significant reduction in the number of days it takes to culture shrimps in their region by the application of Gutacean. One of the farmers in India began giving extra feed to shrimps in his control pond when he obser ved that the shrimps in the Gutacean treated pond had grown bigger.

The product is being sold in Asia. The people at both hatcheries and farms are happy with it says Mr Ar thur Yeo, client support manager for Singapore Biotrade. As one hatchery owner in India, Mr Kumar of Kakinada in Andhra Pradesh says, “Gutacean does work and we are ordering for main production this June.” The first farmer to have tried it

produced from external hatcheries as well as for ver tically integr ated companies with in-house hatcheries and farms. Farmers in shrimp farming can experience reduction in their culture period by about 15 days than the farms, which do not use Gutacean. Singapore Biotrade is interested in collabor ating with companies, farmers and f a r m e r ’s a s s o c i a t i o n s t o

out in India, Mr Thirunavakarasu of Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, says “The post larval shrimps grows to double the size lengthwise within the first 15 days after the post larvae is treated with Gutacean.” The beauty of the product is in its ‘one-time application’ producing results throughout the farming cycle. Gutacean has the capacity to revolutionise shrimp farming for entire farming regions. It is both for the stand-alone farms which depend on post lar vae

m a ke t h e G u t a c e a n s e r i e s of enzymes available to them to reduce production periods. Singapore Biotrade has recently entered India after its success in Asia.

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 7



Mr Arthur Yeo Client Support Manager Singapore Biotrade Private Limited 46 Lorong 17, #07-02 Enterprise Industrial Building, Singapore 388568 Email: Website:

Aqua News A shared vision for aquaculture in Asia: Inaugural Roundtable Series on focuses on feed and nutrition


hile modern aquaculture has been around for the past 40 years, it has not developed at the speed expected of an industry that has the enormous responsibility of creating an alternative source of seafood to the dwindling capture fisheries. One of the major contributing factors is the lack of direction, coordination and technology development to propel the industry forward. Dr Zuridah Merican, editor of Aqua Culture Asia Pacific Magazine poses the question, “We have seen the developments Asian aquaculture but this still remains fragmented. We need to ask, are we moving in the right direction, and what do we need to collectively do to propel the industry forward in the next decade?” Asia leads the world in terms of gross aquaculture production (quantity and value), pro-

ducing the majority of the world’s cultured carp, shrimp and molluscs. China, India, Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia are the world’s top five aquaculture producers in terms of quantity, with a combined production of more than 80 percent of the world’s total. However, future growth is being hampered by a number of challenges that is impacting the region today. These range from increasing consumer demands for quality and value for price of aquaculture products, to product consistency, reliability of supply, food safety and more recently sustainability of production and social equity. Correspondingly, more attention is being drawn to the need for new standards, as well as labeling and certification of aquaculture systems and products. The Aquaculture Roundtable

Series 2011 (TARS) seeks to address these challenges by providing a neutral platform for all stakeholders, from the public and private sectors, to come together to discuss, deliberate and formulate a clear strategy to take Asia’s aquaculture industry to the next level. The first in the series, TARS will be held in Singapore from August 17-18, 2011 and will focus on aquaculture feeds and nutrition. I n t e r n a t i o n a l ly r e n ow n e d exper ts in aquaculture technology and nutrition will speak on a range of topics that will: • Review the present status and trends for aquaculture development in Asia • Address emerging issues in aquaculture development • Assess oppor tunities and challenges for future aquaculture development • Build consensus on advancing aquaculture as a global, sus-

tainable and competitive food production sector The two-day meeting will also incorporate three breakout sessions for par ticipants to deliberate on future challenges impacting shrimp, marine fish and freshwater fish. “The objective of the breakout sessions is to engage all participants who will not only be able to provide invaluable insight, but also contribute to strategies aimed at shaping the future growth of the industry,” says Dr Merican who is also the chair for TARS. TARS is open to nutritionists, feed formulators, aqua feed producers, integrators, feed equipment manufacturers, feed ingredients and feed additive suppliers. Par ticipation is limited to the 200 delegates, and pre-registration is required. More



Innovation is vital for continuing success of Scottish fish farming industry


nnovation, investment and continuing development of fish farming equipment is essential

if Scotland is to maintain its status as one of the world leaders in marine aquaculture.

Stephen Divers, managing director Fusion Marine (left) receives the award from Walter Speirs, chairman of the Association of Scottish Shellfish Growers

This is the view of Stephen Diver s, managing director of Fusion Marine, speaking shor tly after the Oban-based company scooped the prestigious Aquaculture Supplier of the Year Award at the Crown Estate Marine Aquaculture Awards in Edinburgh, Scotland. “The trend for the future in Scotland is almost cer tainly for salmon far ming oper ations to move fur ther offshore, which means the require ment for large and robust pens to securely contain fish,” he says. “We recognised this requirement several years ago and this resulted in the development of our Triton fish farm pen that

8 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

is now successfully used in Scotland and other locations around the world. “The development of Triton required considerable investment on our par t and such a strategy has proved fundamental to the success of Fusion Marine. “We are delighted that our development of new designs and technology has been recognised at the Marine Aquaculture Awards and we will continue to innovate over the coming years by working closely with our par tners in Scottish salmon farming sector.” More



Aqua News Stirling signs aquaculture agreement with Chinese university


he Univer sity of Stir ling has signed an agreement with Guangdong O c e a n U n i v e r s i t y, which will see students from China coming to Scotland to study Aquaculture - demonstrating the institution’s world-class expertise in this field. The signing is the culmination of a long-standing research partnership between the two institutions and will see students transferring from China following their four year undergraduate BSc degree to pursue Aquaculture Master’s programmes at Stirling’s internationally renowned Institute of Aquaculture. Professor Sandra Adams of the Institute of Aquaculture explained the background: “I have had close

links with senior scientists from Guangdong Ocean University (GOU) for about 15 years, cochairing sessions and giving talks at international conferences in China and elsewhere. Our research areas are very similar, focusing on fish disease diagnosis and vaccine development.” Professor Adams, who is now an honorary Professor of GOU, has worked on a research project to develop Vibrio vaccines in fish funded by the Chinese Government and last year she

advised on their vaccine development programme. Sever al Stir ling academics have visited China to give lectures and advise on the research programme of their Fish Disease Laboratory. These visits have been reciprocated when Chinese academics visited Stir ling to conduct research and recently a formal degree par tnership was proposed to the Director of the Institute of Aquaculture, Professor Brian Austin. He said: “The par tner ship recognises the world-renowned exper tise of both institutions in aquaculture, which is now the fastest growing sector of food production, worldwide. The agreement will enable Chinese grad-

Call for Papers announced: FIAAP Asia Conference 2012


igh quality presentations related to advances in animal feed ingredients and additives are now invited for the FIAAP Asia Conference 2012, to take place February 16, 2012, Bangkok Thailand. DEADLINE: September 1, 2012. An integral par t of FIAAP ASIA 2012, the specialized feed ingredients and additives event will be the FIAAP Conference. High quality presentations are now invited from qualified experts that deliver new information to the feed industr y worldwide, and particularly in Asia Pacific on: • feed formulation • nutrient requirements • tr aditional and novel protein sources • the application of ingredi-

ents and feed additives for animal health and growth, • t h e m a n i p u l a t i o n o f finished animal product quality, optimizing available raw materials, food chain safety, environmental impact or physical pellet quality. The 4th in the series of FIAAP Conferences will take place Febr uar y 16, 2012 at a new venue: the BICC, Bangkok, Thailand, in association with Victam Asia 2011. The deadline for presentation submission is September 1, 2012. More


Suzi Dominy Email: Website:

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 9

uates to benefit from the excellence of Stirling-based Master’s degrees.” The Memorandum of Agreement was signed at Stirling on Friday 24 June by Professor Steve Bur t, Deputy Principal of the University of Stirling, and Professor He Zhen, President of Guangdong Ocean University. Dr Trevor Telfer, Course Director for the Institute of Aquaculture’s Master’s programme said: “We are delighted with the outcome. The geographical spread of the 2010/11 classes covers 22 countries, not including China. This agreement will result in up to 15 students per year from China joining our Aquaculture Master’s courses.” More



Aqua News

AQUA 2012: Global Aquaculture - Securing Our Future


he Boards of Directors of the European Aquaculture Society (EAS) and the Wor ld Aquaculture Society (WAS) have the pleasure to

Republic capital, Prague, from September 1-5, 2012. The AQUA events are coorganised by EAS and WAS every six years, and AQUA 2012

announce that the AQUA 2012 event will take place in the Czech

succeeds the 2006 event in Florence, Italy and the 2000 event

held in Nice, France. The event comprises an international scientific conference, an international trade exhibition, workshops for aquaculture producers, forums organised by students and by the European Commission Directorate General for research and many other satellite workshops and meetings. The previous AQUA events each attracted more than 2000 participants from over 50 countries, showing the global importance of aquaculture and specifically this event. The theme “Securing our Future” has several aspects. It has obvious implication in global and regional food security and aquaculture trade, placing aquaculture products in the global fisheries market. It also refers to economic and environmental sustainability

and the image of aquaculture activities. Our future is what we make of it now – how we alleviate pover ty; how we manage our future resource needs and especially how we educate, train and manage knowledge for the next generation of aquaculture researchers, producers and other stakeholders. AQUA 2012 Programme cochair s Marco Saroglia, José Polanco and Zdenek Adamek have put together a vast programme of more than 50 technical sessions that will be open for abstract submission. Major pillars of the technical programme include Environment, Biodiversity and Climate Change; Aquaculture Cer tification; Aquaculture and Human Health; Production Systems; Feedstuffs, Feeds and Feed additives; Molluscs & other

DOES! Alltech European Bioscience Centre | Sarney | Summerhill Road | Dunboyne | Co. Meath | Ireland Tel: +353 (1) 825 2244 | Fax: +353 (1) 825 2245 |

Aqua News Inver tebrates; Mar ine Shr imp; G e n e r a l Finfish Culture; Freshwater Fish Culture; Marine Fish Culture; S e awe e d s ; Ornamentals; Aquaculture Economics; Animal Welfare, Health and Diseases; Breeding and Genetics and other specialised topics. The programme therefore covers many aspects of the global aquaculture value chain for contribution by authors from all over the world. Following the approval of the location by EAS and WAS Boards, Michael New OBE, Chair of the AQUA 2012 Steering Committee commented: “After somewhat delicate discussions over the past two years with our par tners and authorities in

St Petersburg, Russia and subsequently in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, the approved location in Prague is for me definitely not a ‘third choice’ location. We just hadn’t considered it in our earliest discussions. After visiting Prague for the first time early this year, I was taken in by its beauty and fascinated by the centuries-old tradition of aquaculture, pond and water management in the Czech Republic. Pr ague is at the centre of

Europe. It is an easy location to fly or drive to and the congress centre is close to the centre, with excellent metro links stopping in front of the building and with an extremely wide choice of luxury a n d bu d g e t h o t e l s within easy reach”. AQUA 2012 will be or ganised with the local par tner ship of the University of South Bohemia, the home of Czech aquaculture and pond fisheries. Professor Otomar Linhart, Dean of the Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters at the university expressed his support, saying “the University of South Bohemia is exceptionally proud to host the organisation of AQUA 2012 in our country. This year, we are celebrating the 90th birthday of the Research Institute of Fish Culture and Hydrobiology and the chance that we have to announce AQUA

2012 at the upcoming inauguration of the South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses is one that we will not miss. Our Institute staff members are young, dynamic and motivated and we will do our utmost to support the success of AQUA 2012.” Fur ther information on AQUA 2012 will be published on the web sites of EAS and WAS, with abstract submission and registr ation available online within the coming weeks. More


Alistair Lane European Aquaculture Society Email: Website: John Cooksey World Aquaculture Society Email: Website: Mario Stael MAREVENT Email:

Aqua News

Specialist business & science Centre set to play a key role in aquaculture


specialist facility that is expected to play an instr umental role in the growth of the aquaculture industr y both in the UK and elsewhere is officially open for business in Nor thumberland in the North East of England. Astec Aquaculture Business & Science Centre is a purpose-built

resource that has been created to support the growth of the aquaculture sector. It opened its doors to businesses and researchers at the end of May 2011, showcasing the extensive facilities and suppor t services that it offers. Due to its strategic location on the Nor thumberland coastline at Lyne Sands, Astec is uniquely placed to pump a constant supply of near tropical temperature, flow-through seawater to its state-of-the-art aqua labora-

tories, which are fitted out with specialist equipment to support a broad range of commercial and research activities. Kevin Haddrick, chief executive of Astec commented: “Astec provides a unique environment for businesses and researchers operating in the aquaculture sector. “Our intention is to create a thriving community here , of likeminded i n d u s t r y exper ts operating in a culture where experiences and knowledge are shared and oppor tunities are explored together. “We’re delighted to see the centre fully operational and the reaction and suppor t from key business figures, industry experts and local politicians has been extremely encouraging. “Ours is a growth industry and we believe that Astec has the potential to be at the forefront of its development and future influence and success, both here in the North East and internationally.” The centre has already attracted

a significant amount of interest from potential businesses and research projects. Matt Slater a researcher from Newcastle University’s School of Marine Science and Technology, who has a particular interest in sea cucumber aquaculture, commented: “The opening of the Astec centre is extremely positive for the industry. “It provides a connection between ideas and research and a developing a proven concept. These unique facilities will enable small business in the sector to establish themselves and have the support structures in place as they develop and grow. “The centre fits perfectly with what we are doing at Newcastle Univer sity, having recently launched our Aquaculture Enter pr ise and Technology Masters Degree. We hope that once our students graduate they will move to Astec with their business ideas and become the young aquaculture successes of the future.” Professor Gr ant Bur gess, director of the Dove Marine Laborator y at Newcastle University, added: “As the world’s first aquaculture incubator, Astec will draw aquaculture companies to the region to take advantage of the fantastic facilities, year round

12 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

warm seawater, nearby expertise and advice, and also additional expertise, equipment and highly trained people from Newcastle University.” Astec offers private, scalable and fully customisable laboratory, office and outdoor production space for all types of aquaculture related businesses and research projects. Links with other research institutions, the Nor th East science community and the region’s universities mean that businesses and individuals based at the centre can benefit from valuable support and advice to help them develop and commercialise their ideas. Howard Russell Construction Limited, a Nor th East-based business specialising in all building and civil engineering projects regionally and throughout the UK, was responsible for the design and build of the centre. The development of the centre has been jointly funded by local enterprise agency Go Wansbeck and regional development agency, One North East. More


Astec Lyne Sands, Woodhorn, Northumberland, NE63 9NW United Kingdom Email:

KAHL extruder OEE for the production of fishfeed The processing par ameter s such as moisture, temperature, pressure, and electromechanical energy input in the extruder influence the physical characteristics and the nutritional value of the Fishfeed. Compared with traditional extruders one remarkable difference must be mentioned. Die and knives of the extruder OEE are fastened to a hydraulically actuated piston. This possibility facilitates the start of the machine and offers a higher operational safety, as the die can be advanced in case of overload, so that the machine will not be overstressed. Product data: - Starch modification of 80 to 90 percent acc. to the amyloglucoseidose method (AMG). - Production of floating or slowly sinking pellets for tilapia, carps, and catfish. - Production of slowly sinking pellets for trouts, salmons, More information: and perches with a fat Amandus Kahl GmbH & Co contant of up to 30 percent. Dieselstrasse 5-9 - Production of water stable Reinbek Hamburg, D-21465 Germany pellets for shrimps and other Tel: +49 40 727710 crustaceans. Fax: +49 40 72771100 Pellet diameter: Email: 2 to 12 mm Website:


Brabender® Extruder Brabender® Laboratory Extruder instruments are used for research and development for more than 50 years. The single- and twin-screw extruder systems stand out for the low output of 0.1 kg up to 25 kg/h. Electronically controlled, recipes can be developed and improved, and the data are statistically evaluated. Segmented screw set ups allow for configurations which are adapted to the corresponding product and lead to optimum results. Different additional modules (like pressure transducer, dosing devices, etc.) in combination with Brabender® extruders, can be in a laboratory the basis of a successful final product on the market.

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F: Survivability

Colombian Tilapia Increased fry survivability with Orego-Stim

by Matt Pearce, Meriden Animal Health Limited


olombian Tilapia production takes full advantage of natural freshwater lakes and reservoirs with constant annual water temperatures in the mid twenties. Such environments provide ideal conditions for Tilapia aquaculture. Colombia is also one of the wettest regions of the world with some parts of the country receiving over seven metres of rainfall per year. As shown in table 1, Colombia is not only a significant producer of tilapia, but with plentiful land mass and water has fur ther potential for expansion of their aquaculture industry into the future.

Culture conditions The grow-out phase of Colombian tilapia production often occurs in lakes and reservoirs. A significant advantage of tilapia cage culture

is that there is a disruption in the reproductive lifecycle as any eggs (fertilised or unfertilised) drop through the floor of the cage. This helps to maintain more uniform sized fish within cages throughout the duration of the growout. Bacterial infections from Streptococcus are a significant cause of reduced productivity and can cause total average mortality between 30-40 percent. Annual yields with typical stocking densities of 200-400 fish/m3 can be in the range of 80-120kg/ m3. J u ve n i l e rearing of tilapia is much m o r e dependent 14 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

on feed quality and quantity as well as fish farming husbandry. Being an omnivorous fish, tilapia have longer intestines than salmonid species (about six times their body length). The morphology of their stomach and gut is also different. If the stomach is full, additional consumed feed will bypass the stomach and be partially undigested. The low pH of 2 in the stomach breaks

F: Survivability Table 1: Tilapia production in Latin American nations

2006 MT

2007 MT

2008 MT

Area Sq Km








2 days old to 1g







1-5 g

Costa Rica


















Immune challenges Juvenile tilapia have a range of stressors which confront them in aquaculture systems and test vulnerable biological defence mechanisms centred on their developing immune systems. Some of these stressors are physio-chemical parameters affected by water quality. Other stressors act directly on or via the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to the consumption of formulated feeds, tilapia consume a range of natural feed items including plankton, aquatic macrophytes, benthic and planktonic aquatic invertebrates, larval fish, detritus, and decomposing organic matter. These natural feed items provide extra nutrition, but can also be vectors of transmission of unwanted parasites, bacterial or fungal infection which can be of detriment to aquaculture operations.

Maximising Production This transitional period in the aquaculture lifecycle beyond being alevins but before fish have developed full immunological competency is one where there is the potential for the highest rates of mortality and greatest losses in profitability.

Times fed daily





5-20 g



20-100 g





>100 g

Source: FAO

down the tough cell walls of algae enabling an additional source of nutrition, especially in juveniles. Blue-green filamentous and planktonic algae which grow rapidly in Colombian water bodies can also be an excellent supplementar y source of protein in young tilapia. The time interval between feeding juvenile tilapia is ver y impor tant. The ideal time interval between feeding for optimal feed digestion is about four hours during daylight hours. Compound extruded aquaculture feeds should be nutritionally balanced with a good amino acid profile and protein levels around 45 percent for young fish. The correct quantity of feed relative to water volume or stocking density and the optimum physical size of feeds should also be used.

Feeding Allowance (% fish weight)

Source: Nutrient Requirements of Fish, NRC, 1993

There are two major ways in which detrimental damage to tilapia operational productivity and aquaculture earnings can be done. First, high mortality in juveniles can necessitate either over-compensatory stocking or re-stocking of juvenile fish or second, feed conversion and disease challenges in larger market sized fish can compromise final harvest weights and yields. Both of these are preferably to be avoided, but disease incidents have and remain to be the greatest constraints to profitable aquaculture production.

Trial parameters One of Colombia’s l a r g e s t c o mmercial aquaculture feed companies supplied a 45 percent b a l a n c e d protein tilapia diet for the trial. The exper imental group used OregoStim® Aquatract powder at 500g/tonne and the control group used standard feed with no additives. The trial period covered the first three weeks of life on commercial diets between July and August 2010 at a commercial tilapia farm at Neiva, Colombia. The first two trials used red

tilapia fry and another trial used black tilapia fry. All juvenile fish were between two and seven gr ams aver age weight and t h e r e w a s b e t we e n 4 0 0 a n d 7 0 0 k g of biomass for each tr ial. Wa t e r c h e m i s t r y p a r a m eter s were: Dissolved oxygen 5ppm, water temper ature 24 deg C , pH7, d i s s o l ve d a m m o n i a 1 p p m , A l k a l i n i t y 136ppm and total water hardness 140ppm. During the cour se of the trial the daily number of fish mor talities was recorded, feed cost, Orego-Stim ®

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Table 2: Daily feeding allowances of Tilapia at 28oC

2008 Prod. Per Sq Km (kg)

F: Survivability

cost and fr y cost enabled calculation of return on investment.


of the production cycles. Orego-Stim® Aquatract Powder will be of interest to end users at farm level, as this specific formula is for use not within a feed but as a p ow d e r t o b e coated onto feed pellets at the time of feeding. OregoStim ® is a unique 100 percent natural feed additive/ flavour. These unique essential oils contain natural phenolic compounds which h av e b e n e f i c i a l proper ties for fish and shr imp aquaculture. Tr ials have proven that Orego-Stim ® Aquatract can provide many benefits for ultimate productivity and animal health, leading to better profits and a higher return on investment for the aquaculture producer.

In all three trials there was a huge reduction in mortality by 28 percent, 20 percent and 51 percent respectively Table 3: Biometric parameters of the trial in the Orego-Stim® groups after the end of the first Orego-Stim® Control Trial 1 - 3rd August 2010 three weeks. These cost savings Number of Fry 200,000 100,000 provided a high return on Average weight (g) 2 7 investment of six, 16 and 32 Average Biomass (kg) 400 700 times the cost of OregoStim ® during the initial phase of the production lifeOrego-Stim® Control Trial 2 - 17th August 2010 cycle. Fry are one of the most Number of Fry 150,000 150,000 vulnerable stages of the proAverage weight (g) 1.5 1.5 duction lifecycle, so reducing mortality early can increase Average Biomass (kg) 225 225 production of harvest sized fish a few months later, Orego-Stim® Control Trial 3 - 17th August 2010 resulting in even more return on investment for the Number of Fry 150,000 150,000 Tilapia farmer! In these par ticular trials Average weight (g) 2 2 these future savings are likely Average Biomass (kg) 300 300 to account for a saving of a quarter, a fifth and a half of total expected final harvest weights in each Note: Sincere thanks to Dr Alfonso Diaz, of the respective trials, in the event that early Comervet SA ( for the mortalities are not replenished or that there collaboration and collection of the trial data from Colombian Tilapia farmers described in this article. are no more serious losses in the remainder

16 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

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F: Growth Promotion

Breakthrough in

Natural Growth Promotion by Angela Riemensperger PhD and Gonçalo Santos, Biomin Holding GmbH, Austria


he growth of aquaculture production has been increasing at a fast rate and this trend is expected to continue for some time into the future. This growth is also accompanied by more intensive farming conditions that may lead to a higher incidence of fish diseases. Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) have been used in such challenging condi-

Organic acids are known to have positive effects on growth performance and animal health. For terrestrial animals, mainly pigs and poultry, these effects are already well documented. Also in fish there is mounting evidence that organic acids improve growth performance and health of fish. Several studies reported the effects of organic acids in different species including carnivorous fish such as Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout, and Artic charr, also herbivorous fish such as tilapia, and omnivorous fish such as carp and catfish. These studies mainly reported an improvement in performance parameters such as lower feed conversion ratios, increased weight gain and improved nutrient digestibility. These effects are mediated by an antimicrobial effect of organic acids. The antimicrobial effect of organic acids is also shown by the reduced mortality of tilapia fed with acids and challenged with Vibrio anguillarum. Interestingly, for arctic charr it was also reported that fish fed diets with organic acids had a slower gastric emptying rate and this could enhance the antimicrobial potential of the acid salts. The presence of bacteria represents not only a possible threat to the animalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; health resulting in economic loses, it is also resulting in a loss of energy and nutrients. This

"There is a growing awareness regarding the misuse of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), which leads to the need to find more sustainable alternatives for responsible aquaculture production" tions to keep pathogenic bacteria under control. There is a growing awareness regarding the misuse of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs), which leads to the need to find more sustainable alternatives for responsible aquaculture production. Among these alternatives several feed additives, including organic acids, may be promising substitutes to the AGPs in aquaculture.

18 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

is, as possibly necessary immune responses require energy and the host is competing with the bacteria for nutrients. Therefore, it needs to be taken care that bacteria are effectively controlled. In recent years, great effort was put into enhancing the antimicrobial effects seen when using organic acids in aquaculture feeds. The successful control of pathogenic bacteria can hereby be enhanced by combining organic acid with other natural derived products, such as a phytochemical and the new Biomin Per4izer, a permeabilising substance, which increases the permeability of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. This is a totally new strategy as in this way the antimicrobial effect is boosted considerably.

Effects of the presence of pathogenic bacteria on growth performance On one side, animals live in symbiosis with different bacteria, while some bacteria are also known to cause diseases. The so-called beneficial bacteria can protect the host from pathogenic bacteria, regulate the development of the gut or produce vitamins and hormones for the host. However, the presence of possibly harmful bacteria in the gut always represents a possible threat to growth performance. In general, bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract compete with the host animal for nutrients. Furthermore, bacteria secrete toxic compounds (i.e. toxic amino

F: Growth Promotion This cell wall layer is significantly thinner in gram-negative bacteria compared to gram-positive bacteria. However, gramnegative bacteria are surrounded by an additional outer membrane, which provides the bacteria with an inherent resistance to hydrophobic antibiotics Figure 1: Inhibition of fish pathogens by an antimicrobial mixture (acid mixture, plus a and detergents. phytochemical) and an antimicrobial mixture Often organic acids and the Biomin Perforizer™ were combined with other naturally derived products such as essential oils in However, the mode of action of different an attempt to use possible synergisms phytochemicals varies a lot. to more powerful combat pathogenic So, for example, cinnamaldehyde which bacteria. is a phytochemical derived from cinnamon Essential oils in general serve as antibark oil, has a more complex mode of oxidants, stimulate the immune system, action as it targets the FtsZ protein. This suppress harmful microorganisms on one protein plays a major role in the cell division side but stimulate beneficial microbes on of potentially harmful bacteria. the other, they regulate the activity of FtsZ polymerizes into filaments, which certain enzymes, are known to protect assemble at the place within the cell, where the gut villi and to interfere with the DNA the cell division takes place. There they replication of bacterial cells, therefore havform into a polymeric structure known as ing anti-bacterial effects.

acid catabolites), decrease fat digestibility, stimulate rapid turnover of absorptive epithelial cells, require an increased rate of mucus secretion by intestinal goblet cells and stimulate immune system development and inflammatory responses. All of these effects lead to a loss of net energy to the microflora, resulting in decreased growth performance. Therefore, it is not only highly important to control possible harmful bacteria, but also to keep the well balanced bacterial population within the gut.

Naturally combating bacteria Already a long time ago organic acids were identified to be able to alter the gastro-intestinal microflora by reducing in particular acid-intolerant bacterial species such as E. Coli, Salmonella and Campylobacter resulting in increased growth performance. However, when combating bacteria the structural differences of grampositive and gram-negative bacteria have to be considered. The cytoplasm of the cell is surrounded by the cytoplasmic membrane. The cytoplasmic membrane is covered by a thick cell wall layer.

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F: Growth Promotion

"Growth performance was improved due to the supplementation of the diets with the acidifier Biotronic® Top3. Feed intake was not affected by the treatment" the Z-ring on the inner membrane in the mid of the cell, which is responsible for the division of the cell. Cinnamaldehyde inhibits not only the formation of FtsZ into filaments, but also inhibits essential processes involved in the Z-ring formation and its function and thus the cell division. This results in a reduction of the bacterial load, within the gastrointestinal tract. Even if the outer membrane of the gram-negative cell is acting as a protective barrier for external agents it is possible to weaken the outer membrane by agents commonly characterised as permeabilizers. However, permeabilizing substances have different modes of action. Some of them remove stabilizing cations from the outer membrane, while others bind to the outer membrane resulting in the loss of barrier function. When permeabilizing substances weaken the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, the activity of other antimicrobials is increased by facilitating the entry of external substances, which inhibit or destroy cellular functions, into the cell. This leads to synergistic effects when a permeabilizing substance is added to a mixture of organic acids. However, if a synergism can be found highly depends on the right combination of organic acids and permeabilizing substances, as not with each combination a synergism will be found.

Effects on the inhibition of fish pathogens Synergistic effects on the inhibition of commonly found bacteria in terrestrial animals such as E. Coli or Salmonella were

found when adding the Biomin Per4izer - a permeabilizing substance – to the formula of organic acids and a phytochemical. This is an indication that the permeabilization of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria facilitates organic acids and phytochemicals to penetrate the gram-negative cell destroying cellular functions, leading to cellular death. Seen synergistic effects on the inhibition of general pathogenic bacteria draw the attention to the potential effects on the inhibition of pathogenic bacteria specific for fish. Therefore, an in vitro trial was set up, at the Biomin Research Center in Tulln in Austria, to test the effects on the inhibition of bacterial growth of known fish pathogens by an acid mixture combined with a phytochemical and the Biomin Per4izer. Three different pathogens, specific for aquacultured species were tested. This was Yersinia ruckeri, which was shown to cause enteric redmouth disease, a disease which causes significant losses especially in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. The second fish pathogen tested was Vibrio Harveyi a major viulent strain causing vibrosis, which causes mass mortality in larval cultrues and shrimp production. As a third pathogen specific in fish, Aeromonas veronii was chosen. Aeromonas spp. are often isolated from humans suffering from diarrhoea, but also from fish with hemorrhagic septicaemia. Furthermore, the epizooticepizootic ulcerative syndrome in fish, which is causing severe economical losses, is associated with the presence of fish pathogens such as Aeromonas or Vibrio. Results show that inhibition of Yersinia ruckeri was increased by the addition of the Biomin Per4izer to

20 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

the antimicrobial mixture of organic acids and the phytochemical. For Vibrio Harveyi a 100% inhibition was already achieved with the antimicrobial mixture. A real synergism between the antimicrobial mixture and the Biomin Per4izer was found for the inhibition of Aeromonas veronii. While the acid mixture and the antimicrobial mixture had inhibiton rates lower than 20%, the addition of the Biomin Per4izer enhanced the inhibition to near 100%.

Effects on growth performance As explained earlier these mixture of acids combined with the phytochemical and the Biomin Per4izer - permeabilizing substance – can also have important impact as a growth promoter. Therefore, an in vivo trial was set up at the Biomin Research Center in Bangkok in Thailand to test this hypothesis. The fish species used in this trial was red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus). Groups of 60 fish averaging appr. 45g were stocked in 6 experimental tanks (Volume: 500l). Fish were fed to near satiety 3 times per day for a period of 56 days. Fish were fed a diet based on soybean meal, rice bran and cassava and wheat flower containing 30% crude protein. The control group diet contained no feed additives, whereas the diet of the trial group was supplemented with the natural growth promoter Biotronic® Top3 containing an organic acid mixture, a phytochemical and the Biomin Per4izer at an inclusion rate of 1.0 kg/t feed. Growth performance was improved due to the supplementation of the diets with the acidifier Biotronic® Top3. Feed intake was not affected by the treatment. However, feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by 5% (P>0.05) in the Biotronic® Top3 group compared to the control group. This higher efficiency of ingested feed resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) final body weight by 5% in the Biotronic® Top3 group compared to the control group. Also daily growth coefficient was significantly (P<0.05) improved by 6% in the Biotronic® Top3 compared to the control group. In short, the synergy caused by the inclusion of the permeabilizing substance boosts the effect of the antimicrobial ingredients, resulting in economical benefits for the end user. Therefore, it presents an innovative strategy to act against bacteria. The company has launched the natural growth promoter as Biotronic® Top3.



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F: Gustor Aqua

An effective solution to optimise health status and nutrient utilisation

GUSTOR AQUA by Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, DVM, MSc Aquaculture Technical Manager at Norel SA, Spain Email: Website:


quaculture today is facing a number of challenges: high stocking densities and the consequent proneness to pathogen transmission; the increasing limited - or even banned - use of antibiotics; the feeding of less degradable plant-based diets to name a few. As a result reduced survival, as well as lower efficiencies and growth, lead to unprofitable aquaculture practices. When confronting this situation the inclusion of Gustor Aqua in both fish and shrimp diets stands out as a natural tool to stimulate health and growth in aquaculture practices. Gustor Aqua contains sodium butyrate, which is the sodium salt form of butyric acid. Butyric acid is a weak and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) resulting from microbial fermentation of mainly undigested dietary carbohydrates, thus it is naturally produced and present within the intestine of both carnivorous and herbivorous fish (Holben et al 2002; Mountfort 2002). Several publications have addressed the effects of SCFA and their salts on the health and performance of fish showing improvements in digestibility, growth performance and health (Lückstädt 2008). These SCFA are commonly known by their specific antimicrobial activity, how-

ever, other key benefits such as trophic and anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal epithelium have been attributed to sodium butyrate (Gálfi and Bokori 1990; Le Gall et al 2009). From a practical feeding perspective, and unlike the acid form, sodium butyrate is characterised by reduced pungent odour, non-corrosiveness and non-volatility, allowing for convenient storage and feasible addition of Gustor Aqua before feed processing.

consequent disruption of the metabolic processes) and reduced energy availability due to the effort required transporting the proton out of the bacteria (Dibner and Buttin 2002). The subsequent reduction in the butyric acid intolerant microorganisms contributes to a diminished risk of subclinical infections and nutrient demand by the gut-associated immune system; this leads to enhanced health status and nutrient utilisation. As reported by Page et al (1976),

Antimicrobial effect The magnitude of the beneficial effects of sodium butyrate is largely dependent on two factors; concentration and pH. Each SCFA has a pKa value, defined as the pH at which the acid is half dissociated, thus pH determines the extent of dissociation/undissociation Figure 1: Dissociation/undissociation state of of the acid (see Figure 1). butyric, formic and lactic acids The same as the undissociated state of other SCFA, the stomach pH of channel catfish ranges the butyric form is strongly lipophilic and approximately from one to three proximally capable to diffuse across the membrane of and from three to four distally, while pKa gram negative bacteria (Gálfi and Bokori values for butyric, lactic and formic acids 1990). Once inside the bacterial cytoplasm, are 4.82, 3.83 and 3.77, respectively (Dibner the more alkaline pH causes dissociation and Buttin 2002). Thus, these values suggest of the acid, resulting in two fatal incithat while the degree of undissociation, dents for the bacteria: pH decline (and the 22 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

F: Gustor Aqua and consequently antimicrobial efficacy, in proximal stomach of catfish is similar for the three acids, it is greater for butyric in distal stomach.

Trophic effect on intestinal epithelium While pH in proximal intestine of pigs and broilers is acidic, it is closer to neutrality in fish and shrimp (Page et al 1976; YĂşfera et al 2004). In addition, pH alkalinity increases further down the digestive tract, reducing the presence of the acidic forms and the subsequent efficacy of SCFA to reduce microbial load in intestine. Therefore, the higher pH along the intestine of aquaculture species favours the butyrate or dissociated form of the acid. The stimulatory effect of butyrate on intestinal epithelium development in different animal species has been demonstrated in both in vivo and in vitro conditions, elucidating greater epithelial cell proliferation with the administration of sodium butyrate when compared to sodium acetate and sodium propionate (Sakata and Tamata 1978a, 1979; Sakata 1987). In a study conducted by Galfi and Bokori (1990), 0.17 percent sodium butyrate supplemented in pig diets increased cell proliferation in ileum by 33 percent, resulting in 30 percent increase in villi length. This stimulatory effect can be interpreted as a combination of direct and indirect mechanisms along the different sections of the intestine (Sakata 1984). While the caloric content of butyrate is higher than that of propionate and acetate, and it is preferentially oxidised by the epithelial cells when compared to other energy sources (Ardawi and Newsholme 1985; Roediger 1982, Roediger and Rae 1982), butyrate also stimulates insulin secretion, which in turn exerts a stimulatory effect on intestinal epithelium (Jordan and Phillips 1978). As a result of improved villi development, absorptive surface area is enlarged, leading to better nutrient utilisation and enhanced animal health status and performance.

Anti-inflammatory properties The increasing shortage of fish oil and fishmeal is motivating research towards the quest of alternative vegetable raw materials and their utilisation in aquaculture diets. Soy is a high protein ingredient with favourable price and available in large quantities on a world-wide basis. The use of whole soybeans as dietary ingredient is not recommended due to its high content of antinutrient factors (lecithin, saponins, allergenic proteins, etc.),

ient formulation of commercial feeds. thus extracted soy is the most commonly As described in mammals, butyrate utilised soy product. The alcohol-soluble provides anti-inflammatory properties fraction of extracted soy, however, still in the distal intestine by modifying contains active antinutrients, being ascribed as the cause of inflammation in distal intestine (enteritis) (Francis et al. 2001). Several investigations have reported soy-induced enteritis in salmonids (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl 1996; Krogdahl et al 2003), sea bream (Bonaldo et al 2008), sea bass (Boonyaratpalin et al 1998) and common carp (UrĂĄn et al 2008). This pathological alteration is microscopically characterised by hypertrophic mucosa, infilFigure 2: Beneficial effects of GUSTOR Aqua tration of inflammatory cells, hyperaemia, and shortening transcription factors, which in turn of the enterocyte microvilli, leading to control the expression of inflammatory decreased absorptive capacity and conseresponse genes (Hamer et al 2008, Le quently reduced nutrient utilisation and Gall et al 2009). performance (Baeverfjord and Krogdahl In fish, the anti-inflammatory effect of 1996; UrĂĄn et al 2008; van de Ingh et al sodium butyrate was detected by sup1991). plementing 0.01 percent to a salmon diet In addition, there is some indication containing 25 percent extracted soy, which that susceptibility to bacterial disease may be negatively affected by soyinduced enteritis (Krogdahl et al 2000). As a result, Krogdahl et al Providing proficient tools to (2003) conachieve cost-effective cluded that and sustainable aquaculture practices no more than 5-15 percent of soy (weight basis) should be included in salmon diets in order to prevent enteritis, thus limiting higher dietary incorporation levels of this ECOBIOL Aqua available source a highly effective single strain probiotic of protein. GUSTOR Aqua In this situa natural growth promoter ation, sodium butyrate arisBIOMET Aqua an organic mineral source es as a tool to prevent the l development Natunrautrition of soy-induced For more information visit enteritis and allow for a more conven-

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 23 ANUNCI 90X132.indd 1

27/06/11 18:24


24 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011


his issue our photoshoot comes from the research facilities at Plymouth University (as part of our coverage of Simon Davies' 25 years service at the University). The images above show the Aquaculture research facilities, including the recirculation systems for studies on farmed fish (currently including Rainbow trout, Carp, Tilapia, Catfish), as well as some images from the Feed Nutrition Laboratories.

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 25

F: Gustor Aqua

resulted in reduced enteritis when compared to the non-supplemented diet and in similar growth rate when compared to the same diet containing fish oil instead of soya (Koppe 2009).

B-coated contains 30-40 percent sodium butyrate protected with vegetable fat, ensuring the delivery of sodium butyrate to the lower tract, and consequently the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties on intestinal epithelium. B70 is the latest developed form, Forms containing both 40 percent free and Gustor Aqua is manufactured in three 30 percent protected Table 1: Effect of dietary supplementation of GUSTOR Aqua B92 (0.05%) on s o d i u m performance parameters of catfish (P. hypohthalmus) butyrate Initial Weight SGR and providFCR PER weight (g) gain (g) (% day) ing antimicrobial, Control 6.90 a 37.56 a 3.34 a 1.65 a 1.34 a trophic and anti-inflamGUSTOR Aqua 6.75 a 50.68 b 4.32 b 1.39 b 1.81 b B92 (0.05%) m a t o r y p ro p e r t i e s Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) SGR: Specific growth rate / FCR: Feed conversion ratio / PER: Protein along the efficiency ratio entire gastrointestinal tract different forms: B92, B-Coated and BP70, each of them designed to deliver different beneficial effects of sodium butyrate along Trial data the different sections of the gastrointestinal The efficacy of dietary supplementation tract. of Gustor Aqua - in both B92 and B-Coated B92 is 92% free sodium butyrate, thus forms - on performance parameters have maximising the antimicrobial activity as well been evaluated in different species. as the intestinal epithelium development in In a trial carried out at Nong Lam University the upper tract of fish. (Vietnam), a catfish (Pangasius hypohthalmus)

diet was supplemented with 0.5kg Gustor Aqua B92 per tonne of feed and fed twice daily during 56 days. Results (see Table 1) showed significant improvements in weight gain (+35%), specific growth rate (SGR) (+30%), feed conversion ration (FCR) (-16%) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (+35%) relative to the non-supplemented diet. In a second trial conducted at the College of Aquaculture and Fisheries at Can Tho University (Vietnam), a shrimp (Penaeus monodon) diet was supplemented with one kg of Gustor Aqua B-coated per tonne of feed and fed during two months. Coefficients of digestibility were determined by the use of chromic oxide as an inert marker. As shown in Table 2, the supplementation of Gustor Aqua B-Coated significantly enhanced digestibility of drymatter (DMd) (+12%), crude protein (CPd) (+5%) and energy (Ed) (7%), leading to numerical improvements in weight gain, survival and FCR. In both experiments, the observed positive outcomes can be attributed to two facts derived from the use of sodium butyrate; reduced pathogenic microbial load due to the antimicrobial effect and enhanced nutrient utilisation due to the better intestinal absorptive surface area.


Current aquaculture practices are exposed to high risk of disease and reduced performance due to the high stocking densities and use of plant-based diets. Thus, aquafeed formulations must focus not only on nutritional specifications but also on the health status of digestive tract and the resultant nutrient utilisation. Gustor Aqua, by providing antimicrobial, trophic and anti-inflammatory effects to the gastrointestinal tract, warrants reduced microbial competition as well as enlarged and healthy intestinal absorptive surface area. This is reflected in optimal health status and nutrient utilisation by the Table 2: Effect of dietary supplementation of GUSTOR Aqua B-coated (0.1%) on digestibility and performance animal and consequently in increased parameters of shrimp (P. monodon) productivity (see Figure 2). Therefore, DMd (%) CPd (%) Ed (%) Weigh gain (g) Survival (%) Gustor Aqua is a natural and costeffective alternative that ensures safe Control 64.90 a 85.20 a 78.10 a 13.67 90 and profitable production. GUSTOR Aqua B-Coated (0.1%)

72.46 a

89.11 b

83.26 b



Means with different superscripts in the same column are significantly different (P<0.05) DMd: Dry matter digestibility / CPd: Crude protein digestibility / Ed: energy digestibility / FCR: Feed conversion ratio 26 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

References Available on request

F: Victam 2011

A review from Cologne, Germany


ictam 2011 brought with it a lot of changes: A change of frequency – being held once every three years to every four years (as the previous one had been held on 2007); a change of localisation from - Utrecht (in The Netherlands) to Cologne, Germany; a change in its appeal - as Fiapp (an exhibition for ingredient and additive manufacturers) and Grapas (an exhibition for flour, pasta and rice milling and general grain processing for foodstuffs) became co-located exhibition following the success of an expanded show at Victam Asia. But the fundamentals were still there: international feed industry, new technology and innovation, meeting with conferences. Paradigm change takeing place With a more convenient localisation to express their growth, the Victam, GRAPAS and FIAPP 2011 shows had been a great success both for exhibitors or visitors. Easy-to-reach by train, air and car, easyto-park, easy-to-lodge in a city which offering enough rooms to accommodate any number of visitors and finally, on local tram lines to accommodate everyone. The change from Utrecht in The Netherlands to Cologne in Germany seems

to have been well accepted by visitors. The only exception to a smooth transfer were some technical issues with regard to the lack of signage to conferences rooms, which the exposition park missed providing. Exhibitors are still evaluating their experiences and expressing their views to the organisation so, over the next few months, more details will be available regarding the success of the change and decisions to be taken with regard to the next European show. Belying the change in location there is a real paradigm change taking place within our indusries: Western Europe is no more the centre of the feed universe, North Africa and Eastern Europe emergence are emerging as strong realities. Without overlooking the development of Middle East and Asia – showing up as either established visitors or exhibitors. The number of Chinese exhibitors has grown remarkably and they are looking for business in Europe and Africa, and not just within the Asian region: Victam Bangkok 2012 - to be held next February - is much more dedicated to be representative of the region. At Victam International in Cologne more than 17 Chineses exhibitors and four other Asian firms exhibited. Even if connected, our industry had seen this direction in growth for Victam

28 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

International as early as the 1990s. Now it is much more evident, as it had been clear at the beginning of 2008 in Bangkok during Victam Asia, that a more central European venue for Victam International was necesary.

Big machines – big displays First impressions of the show were that this was the real thing! With real and big machines on display. Visitors wanted to see and to touch and even smell the real thing. The immediate impression was about size: big, big machinery which begs the question, does the feed industry really give any thought to energy cost? Of course not you would think, but just look at Stolz and its work about optimisation of the drying process in connection with the French technical center Tecaliman. There were innovation looking at what might seems minor details as to the repartition of particle size reduction through grinding, as the easiest change of spare parts, through to the cleaning concepts now included on many machines. Another field that appeared to be a common thread throughout the show was on-line control, either to control humidity/ moisture or protein content. If we can easily see the interest in those control measures and the automatic regulation of the process

parameters for dealing with moisture, we are still waiting to see how we might use on-line protein control to regulate the process. Pelleting technology to be used in the production of bioenergy was also evident at the show.

Bioenergy and pelleting The biomass part of the exhibition is completely connected with the feed technology and visitors began showing an interest in this technology as early as 2007 during the previous Victam International in Utrecht. Some 40 millions tonnes of pellets might be produced in Europe by the bioenergy industry by 2020: this market might overtake the investment in feed equipment if it fullfills its promise and reaches this target, expressed during the European Biomasse Association conference Aebiom. It had been held on May 5, 2011. It should come at no surprise that some of the main exhibitors and sponsored for this event are strong players in the feed sector â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to name a few they include, Andritz, CPM, Kahl, Latgran, Poyry, VDB and Vapo. The estimation for world output of bioenergy pellets by 2015 is a massive 23.5 million tonnes. Europe is expected to produce 10 million tonnes of that - less than

the half of world output. However, aas early as 2008, European bioenergy pellet production reached 6.3 tonnes - which mean that already Europe was accounting for more than half of total production of 11.8 million tonnes at that time. The fastest growth might well occur in North America where output was just 2.9 million tonnes in 2008 with an estimated target of 7.7 million tonnes by 2015. Production is partly assured on machines from previously feed or other operations would need. But in 2010, over capacity had been significant throughout the world, from one-third in Germany to more than double in USA. So investments in this sector will need to wait a little for the new year to come. The feed-related co-located shows FIAPP, the feed ingredients and feed additives show, didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t seem as important regarding the number of exhibitors taking space, but are going their road. The EPA press conference about probiotics is pointing this fact. At the end of the 1980s, the first European conference which launched the debate between probiotics and antibiotics, for example, had already taken place at Huhn and Shwein (the previous name for Eurotier) in Germany. Maybe this press meeting signaled the real installation of

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 29

additives and ingredients as a part of this global show? As visitors to Victam International are mostly technologists, they might be more interested in the technical constraints or advantages of one ingredient over another, but the show must drive buyers to develop this part of Victam. Despite this consideration, the conferences gave some driving force to FIAPP. For example the seaweed products of Ocean Harvest showed its interest in aquafeed as a substitute of premixes with its range of minerals and vitamins (apart for B group vitamins which might be found on yeast products). GRAPAS, the grain (GRA) and pasta (PAS) show targeted flour milling, gain and rice processing as well as pasta and noodle production industries. These industries are using some of the same technologies that are used in the feed sector and it is quite clear there is sound synergies here.

Seminars Pellets for bioenergy Around 100 participants attended this event: It proved a great success for Aebiom (the European Biomass

F: Victam 2011 ticated price regulation tools are becoming available, a sign that the market is becoming a worldwide commodity. With the market growth, raw material diversification will become crucial: the use of new raw materials such as straw and hay (which poses questions about competition with feed), corn cobs, sunflower husks, peanut shells and other biomass offers a realistic opportunity for future diversification. The general pattern is the same as with feed: not to allow spoilage or waste of any resource. Finally, biomass quality is perceived as essential in achieving successful market development. The ENplus quality certification is developing: 60 percent of Germany and 90 percent of Austria production capacities are expected to be certified at the end of 2011.


Association) which had been held on the last day of the show. It focused on the market and on the opportunity for the pelleting technology. It shows some advantages: energy density, logistics, lower investments in plants â&#x20AC;Ś the pellet demand might reach 229TWh in 2020, 68 percent solid biomass, 50 percent pellets. For Jean-Marc Jossart (of Aeobiom), the demand for pellets will reach 42 million tonnes worldwide by then. Sweden with its two million tonnes (500Kt of import) of wood pellets and Germany (at 1.6 million tonnes or nearly self-sufficient) have been the major European markets in 2009. The globalization of the pellet sector opens up worldwide supply with the transport and logistical implication of the pellet transfer from regions with high biomass potential to high consumption regions. Price index and more and more sophis-

Organised by Linx Conferences in association with Nofima, the Norwan Research Institute, and sponsored by Buhler, Aquafeed Horizon was attended by more than 100 participants looking for the latest developments in aquatic feed production. For example, handling, storage and transport of feeds lead to attrition of pellets. Undersized particles represent loss and poor utilisation of feed resources. Thus, feed with high physical pellet quality is in demand. However, physical properties affect the nutritional value of feeds. Research shows that feed intake appears to be the main factor when evaluating pellet quality, but several other factors such as pellet durability, nutrient digestibility and fat belching must be taken into consideration when searching for the most economical and sustainable pellet quality. Hardness and durability combined with low, medium or high water and steam input in the extrusion process show different impacts on feed intake and fish growth. Those data can be used by the industry to better understand and correct the observed variance in extrusion properties, pellet quality and to improve the product

30 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

specifications used by fishmeal producers and purchasers. As explained Joseph P Kearns from Wenger, the developing trend in aquafeed plants is to ensure feed safety throughout the production process. A strategic path to accomplish this would be to assess and design the facility with attention to raw materials and their storage, plant equipment design, processing or operating procedure, final product efficacy and the overall culture of day-to-day operation of the plant. As Urs Wuest from Buhler said, the changing requirement in the aquafeed industry translate into a demand for specific technical requirement such as extrusion technology.

Ingredients and additives Eufetech, the European Feed Technology Center, and Linx Conferences proposed a conference focusing on feed safety and formulation advances. Eufetech brings together animal feed manufacturers, academia and researchers from: Bemefa (Belgium), FEFAC and FEFANA (UE), Cesfac (Spain), Tecaliman (France), Wageningen (The Netherlands), Ghent University (Belgium), FINSV (Serbia), Isan (Italy), University of Nottingham (UK). Since 1995, the EU has required feed manufacturers to estimate the mixing and cross contamination risk on their plants. The pressure from this regulation has continuously grown and the last Directive (08/09) limited the carryover from three to one percent for coccidiostics, depending on whether or not it is target feeds. In this context, Tecaliman had developed, beginning 20 years ago, rules to evaluate mixing capability of a mixer and cross contamination levels in plants. The technical centre promotes a method using external micro-tracer which became recognize as a reference in Europe. The quality of new raw material as distillers dried grain depend of the process on the plant as Kip Karges of Poet Nutrition showed. Ilvo from Belgium had evaluated the nutritional value of wheat DDGS for ruminants and pig. During the conference, a wide range of other topics had been presented, form GMP+ to enzymes as additives for upgrading the nutritive value of poultry diets containing sunflower meal and the potential of organic trace minerals to improve animal health and reduce environmental impact of animal production systems.



F: Phosphorus

Update in Phosphorus Nutrition in Aquaculture by Juan M. Hernandez Vieyra, Yara Phosphates Oy/ Argent Export SA, Argentina. Email:


q u a c u l t u re t o d ay represents almost 47 percent of the total fish consumption. According to FAO, this percentage can grow significantly in view of the increasing world’s population coupled with the steady wild catch. One

Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production system, with annual rates of 21 percent in Latin America (leading Chile and Brazil) and 23 percent since 1980 in Asia (mainly China, but also Thailand and Indonesia). Hence, it also has the responsibility of being environmentally sustainable and safe for consumers. In i n t e n s i ve Aquaculture systems, feeds provide the largest "Aquaculture is the fastest growing source of environmental pollution (Seymour and food production system, with Bergheim, 1991): mainly annual rates of 21 percent in Latin nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). America (leading Chile and Brazil) If pollution loads are to be reduced, feed must and 23 percent since 1980 in Asia be designed to maximize (mainly China, but also Thailand and nutrient retention and minimize nutrient losses Indonesia). Hence, it also has the to the environment. Among the minerresponsibility of being environmentally als required by fish, P is sustainable and safe for consumers" crucial because of its limited availability in natural waters. P accounts for the greatest expense in the mineral supplement. could estimate that by 2050 the Over-supplementation of P results in an farmed fish will represent close to unnecessary important investment, while 70 percent, and it is expected to leading to an inefficient utilization of the reach production levels similar to nutrient by the cultured species. Therefore, those of chicken. 32 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

it will increase the nutrient loading of the culture systems and effluent waters (Velasco et al 1998).

P Requirements: In 1997 Åsgård & Shearer made an experiment in which they measured the requirement of absorbable P in Atlantic salmon, reaching 10 mg g-1. This value was higher than previously reported ones in the literature. When compared to them, it was found that in Åsgård & Shearer trial, the feed efficiency was higher, although not Table 1 True P availability Protein source % Canola meal (30% CP) Soybean meal (solvent extract)

48.40 9.70

Soybean meal (extruded)


Soybean (raw, fullfat)


Peanut meal


Corn Gluten meal


Herring meal


Anchovy meal


Menhanden meal


Sardine meal


F: Phosphorus phosphate [DFP]), in rainbow trout Channel catfish and salmon Mirror carps*** P source Salmonids* ** (Ogino et al 1979; Lovell, 1978; Lall 1991). This was MSP 98 88.6 further confirmed MCP 94 90-94 in the 90’ for MDCP 81.7 different species. DCP 71 74.8 46 Kim et al. (1996) DFP 64 54.8 13 determined MCP b i o av a i l a b i l i t y Notes: * Ogino et al (1979), Hua & Bureau (2006) **Eya & Lovell of 90percent in (1997) ***Kim et al (1996). mirror carp. In channel catfish, Eya and Lovell (1997) also published higher yet at the current production levels. This values for water soluble sources (MSP, means that, as gain/feed ratio increases, the Monodicalcium phosphate [MDCP]). requirements (stated as fraction of the diet) In table 2, we can summarize what must also be increased if the rest of the literature has published about P availability factors remain the same. of inorganic P sources. This situation enhances the challenge of today’s Aquaculture since more available P should be added in the formulas. Modern diets: Later on, in 2000, Rodehutscord et al, Current developments in Aquaculture feed estimated the requirement of P as function production are seeking the substitution of fish of Digestible Energy (DE), reporting a value protein by mainly vegetable proteins. This trend of 0.25 g P per MJ of DE. is driven by both economic and ethical concerns. Commercial diets have changed from more than 40percent fish meal to less than 20percent, with Organic P sources: excellent/similar As it was the case in other monogastric production results. species (Van der Klis & Versteegh, 1996 and Recently, Jongbloed et al., 1996), during the 90’ there Brinkera and Reiteb was an extensive evaluation in Aquaculture (2011) evaluated of the raw materials both from vegetable as the replacement of well animal origin. fish meal by plant Again, as in other monogastric animals, P protein, aminoacids digestibility in vegetable feeds was found to and highly available be variable and depending on the amount inorganic phosphate of phitate P (Riche & Brown, 1996). The in trout feeds. They authors found that values ranged from 75 confirmed the percent in Soybean meal of phitate P, to 52 potential value of percent in case of Corn gluten meal. plant proteins as Regarding sources of animal origin, sigcomponents in feeds nificant differences could be found within to reduce eutrophifish meals. Herring meal was significantly cation by fish farm higher than Anchovy, Menhaden or Sardine wastes. The low meal. intrinsic P content In table 1, true P availability of various allows dietary levels feedstuffs can be observed. (Riche & Brown, to be easily adjusted 1996) to meet, without exceeding, the physiInorganic P sources: ological needs of the With regard to inorganic sources, we fish, thus minimizing find a similar situation to the one already the excretion of described for organic sources. the excess P. As a Before NRC 1993, information from result of this trial different fish species, revealed that water the authors found soluble sources (Mono sodium, potasium P digestibility sigand calcium, MSP, MKP and MCP respecnificantly improved tively) had higher availability (94% to 98%) with the diet based than non-water soluble sources (dicalcium on 100percent plant phosphate [DCP] or defluoriated rock Table2

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 33

origin, but also found healthier livers and leaner filets. This confirms what Lee et al. (2010) had published in rainbow trout regarding growth performance and feed utilization when a well-balanced ingredient mix of plant-proteins was supplied with limiting aminoacids and highly available inorganic phosphate.

Conclusion: Highly available inorganic feed phosphates should be used to formulate fast growing modern fish diets based on vegetable protein to accurately meet P requirements, helping the environment.

Bibliography: Literature available upon request

Yara Phosphates Oy provides highly available phosphate sources, Monosodium and Monocalcium phosphates, which are the perfect combination for the modern high plant protein diets, collaborating to reduce water pollution and thereby supporting the sustainability of Aquaculture.

F: Tropical

A good example of modern specialised polish firm by Prof Dr Leszek Moscicki, Dept of Food Process Engineering, Lublin University of Life Science, Poland


olitical and economical transformation in Poland in the years of the 90s when Poland entered free market world and the private activity became common, created new challenges for the business there. That was time when many local firms got tremen-

– Tadeusz Ogrodnik. - a leading manufacturer of ornamental fish feed, known not only in Poland but all around the world (fig. 1)

Tropical company was established in 1977 by Andrzej Ogrodnik, soon became one of the biggest producers of aquarium feed in Poland.Tremendous progress of the company has been noticed during "Recently one of the most last 15 years. Mr Tadeusz Ogrodnik - the succestechnologically advanced extrusion sor of the founder took line in the world has been installed in the chance and started rapid development of the Tropical, which enables to manufacture production by introducing new technologies, installgranules, pellets (incl. micro pellets of ing the most modern 0,5 mm) and sticks characterized with production equipment as well as the sophisticated the best possible parameters" packaging lines. That was achieved due to close cooperation with the scientists, the financial institutions and caredous impulse for the development of fully selection of ambitious staff. Nowadays the existing activity or to create a new flaked and agglomerated feed for aquarium one to be able to exist and compete and pond fish, foods for reptiles, rodents with the market leaders. One of the as well as aquarium care products and most spectacular examples of the tests are manufactured in the company’s “new era” firm is company Tropical 34 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

most modern facility equipped with fully automated production lines. Tropical keeps widening its offer, which at the moment is comprised of around 700 stock-keeping units available in different packaging units – from small sachets and tins in a few different sizes to economical buckets.They are multi-ingredient feed, vegetable and colorenhancing foods, vitality-enhancing ones, basic as well as professional – intended for specific species of fish. Recently one of the most technologically advanced extrusion line in the world has been installed in Tropical, which enables to manufacture granules, pellets (incl. micro pellets of 0,5 mm) and sticks characterized with the best possible parameters. Micronization, which consists in careful grinding of the ingredients, makes the products more absorbable and assimilable. They are all manufactured using HTST treatment and therefore the ingredients do not degrade and retain all their nutritional values. The structure of the granule itself has also been improved. Now every granule is a regular and dense formation, even in case of micro formation processes. Obtaining micro granules for aquarium products purposes had so far been possible only by crumbling bigger formations. This new technological solution



International exhibition 16 - 19 August 2011 • Trondheim • Norway

Meet the future! Follow the latest development of aquaculture research, technology, feed, fish health, education, financing, environmental protection etc. Visitors from more than 50 nations will be present. International conferences and seminars in connection with Aqua Nor will focus on research and challenges of the aquaculture industry. Exhibitor, visitor or conference participant? For more information:

AQuA NOr – the most important international venue for the aquaculture industry.

Organiser: The Nor-Fishing Foundation Klostergata 90, NO-7030 Trondheim, Tel +47 73 56 86 40, Fax +47 73 56 86 41,

filler 4



Page 1

THE ESSENTIAL GUIDE FOR EVERYONE INVOLVED IN THE GLOBAL AQUAFEED INDUSTRY An easy-to-use publication for manufacturers of fish feed to source suppliers. Designed to identify all aquafeed ingredients, raw material feedstuffs, feed additive microingredients, production machinery, plant and equipment available on the world market.

2010/ 11 editio n out no w • • • • •

Sections include: ■ Extruder & Expander Guide - Technical specification chart ■ Product Guide - locate suppliers by products covered ■ Trade Names index ■ A-Z Company Index with full contact details ■ Diary of Events

Including an all new useful information section Thousands of industry related products and services listed Over 1000 companies with full up-to-date information International Organisations Our improved equipment comparison section Now including: - Coolers & Dryers - Elevator Buckets - Extruders & Expanders - Hammermills - Mixers & Grinders - Pellet Presses

To request further information or to be included in the next directory, please contact Barbara Williams at To obtain copies, please contact our Circulation Department on +44 (0) 1923 692674 The International Aquafeed Directory is published by Turret Group Ltd, 173 High Street, Rickmansworth, Herts WD3 1AY. Tel: +44 (0) 1923 692660

2011/12 OUT NOW

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 35

F: Tropical

enabled to manufacture them at their first production stage, which eliminates the dust contaminating the water and changing its parameters. The most important features of these new products are their extraordinary regularity in shape and the fact that they do not disintegrate in the water, ensuring that food parameters remain unchanged. This new line makes possible to adjust forms, shapes and sizes to the anatomy of particular animals, their feeding habits, to match the way they feed in their natural environment. Tropical feed is manufactured from raw materials of the best quality; they do not use “compromise” in that field. The formulas are based on many years experience and knowledge, which allows them to offer high quality products. The passion involved

Since years Tropical follows all ISO 9001 and HACCP requirements. These certificates guarantee the compliance with all hygiene requirements for quality and safety of feed products. What is unique that Tropical located nearby residential part of the city doesn’t produce any odor around the company, which usually can be a great problem for the neighbors and environmental protection institutions. That is possible because the enormous bio-filter was installed there – the first of its type in Poland (fig. 2). All technical halls, all air outlets of the processing devices are hermetically connected to the bio-filter of a great capacity and efficiency. The air going out of the filter has much better parameters than regular city atmosphere. Tropical feed is "All Tropical feed products share some produced in four common features: they don’t cloud ranges: Natural, Standard,

the water, they are manufactured from best quality raw materials and they are extremely palatable" during developing process resulted in great market success nowadays Tropical’s products are exported to more than 70 countries all over the world. One of the most effective ways of products introduction is the participation in specialized fairs and exhibitions. That is quite well understood by the management; early Tropical is present on more than 30 such events all over the world.

36 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

Premium and Professional. Natural line consists of dried and freeze-dried invertebrates, fish’s favourite delicacies. The remaining three lines include products in the form of flakes, granules, tablets and sticks. Standard, Premium and Professional feed differ considerably in the type and amount of vitamins, trace elements and vitality-enhancing ingredients used in production (fig. 3). The Premium and Professional ranges are augmented with numerous valuable natural substances that improve disease resistance, increase vitality, facilitate digestive processes and enhance coloration. All Tropical feed products share some common features: they don’t cloud the water, they are manufactured from best quality raw materials and they are extremely palatable.

18th Annual Practical Short Course on

Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition, & Feed Management September 25-30, 2011

Protein Technology innovations 2011

o discussion and live equipment demonstrations following lectures on four major types of extruders o 30+ lectures over a wide variety of aquaculture industry topics o one-on-one interaction with qualified industry experts o at the internationally recognized Food Protein Hands-On Experience R&D Center on the campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas o various shaping dies (sinking, floating, high fat), coating (surface vs vacuum), nutrition, feed formulation, and MUCH MORE!

For more information, visit

Extruding Aquaculture Feeds

or contact Dr. Mian N. Riaz 979-845-2774

28 & 29 September 2011, Amsterdam (The Netherlands) Trends & Developments for Food, Feed, Petfood Industries Health & Texture Innovations | Sustainability & Bio-Refinery Challenges | Operational Excellence New protein technology innovations with successful implementations for protein foods, ingredients and processing technologies.

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 37

Feed Management

Impact of rising feed ingredient prices on aquafeeds and aquaculture production: Potential impact of nutrient substitutes in aquafeeds on fish health and on the food safety of aquaculture products by Krishen J Rana, Sunil Siriwardena and Mohammad R Hasan

The forth article in a series, taken from a new aquaculture book


n most major aquafeed–based intensive aquaculture production systems there is a high reliance on nutritionally balanced complete aquafeeds. In situations where on–farm feeds are made, farmers attempt to produce a balanced feed using vitamin and mineral premixes. In all regions of the world, the increase in the cost of raw ingredients for commercially manufactured or on–farm aquafeeds resulted in an increase in aquafeed prices from 20 to 40 percent, thus forcing farmers to adopt alternative strategies to secure feeds.

of interventions to mitigate against rising feed costs will compromise fish growth, health and welfare and could reduce fish productivity and production. As prices of raw ingredients increase, farmers have to travel farther distances to obtain cheaper and alternative feedstuffs, incurring longer transport times under suboptimal conditions of heat and humidity, and store greater than normal quantities of ingredients under suboptimal storage conditions, resulting in spoilage, and fungal and bacterial contamination.These contaminants are pathogenic to fish as well as humans. The subsequent use of such ingredients or contaminated diets could reduce growth and reduce survival. Aquafeeds can serve as a carrier for a range of microbial contaminants such as "In the light of such price increases, farmers moulds, mycotoxins and bacteria (Maciorowski et al., 2007). are increasingly looking for alternative Bacterial contamination of sources of feeds such as trash fish, animal feed ingredients or diets with potential pathogens such as by–products and grain by–products, or are Salmonella, E. coli, Staphylococcus, reverting to the use of single ingredient Streptococcus, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, and Clostridia supplementary feeding regimes, reduced will compromise fish and human feeding frequency and ration" health. Its impact may be relevant across the whole aquaculture sector, because the route of such contamination can be through both In the light of such price increases, farmplant and rendered animal protein sources ers are increasingly looking for alternative (Barakat, 2004; PDV, 2007). sources of feeds such as trash fish, animal by–products and grain by–products, or are reverting to the use of single ingredient 3.1.1 Implications of fungal supplementary feeding regimes, reduced contamination in aquafeeds feeding frequency and ration. These types The use of plant–based ingredients as 38 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

substitutes for fish protein and oil in aquafeeds increases the risk of contamination by mycotoxins (fungal toxins produced by naturally occurring filamentous fungi or moulds). To date, several potent mycotoxins have been identified and those of serious concern, based on their toxicity and ubiquity, are aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, the trichothecenes (DON, T–2 toxin), zearalenone, fumonisin, and moniliformin (Bhatnagar et al., 2004). Mycotoxin producing moulds can infect agricultural crops, particularly cereals and oilseeds, during crop growth, harvest, storage, processing or during the storage of the manufactured compounded feed. Suitable conditions for fungal growth, in terms of warm temperature and moisture, promote mycotoxin contamination. Aflatoxin, a ubiquitious mycotoxin, which is produced primarily by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is a major concern because of its carcinogenicity, especially in warm and humid climates. The production of aflatoxins increases at temperatures above 27°C, humidity levels above 62 percent and moisture levels above 14 percent in the feed. For the main aquaculture producing regions of the world, notably Asia, these climatic factors increase the risk of such contamination. The extent of contamination will further be affected by ingredient and feed storage practices and processing methods. Additionally, long duration of transport under poor conditions and improper storage are crucial factors favouring the growth of aflatoxin–producing moulds. Consequently, poorer aquafarmers in developing coun-

Feed Management

tries, where quality control of feeds may not be as high as in developed countries, are more likely to acquire contaminated feeds. Further, the recent increase in prices of feed ingredients is likely to drive poor farmers to look for cheaper sources and run the risk of purchasing rejected or contaminated ingredients and feeds. Mycotoxins pose a serious threat to fish health and well being. For example, aflatoxins are known to suppress the immune system and growth and increase mortality (Lim and Webster, 2001). Studies on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing 1.8 mg of aflatoxin/ kg of feed for 75 days showed reduced growth rates (Tuan et al., 2002). Impaired immune function has been observed in Indian major carp (Labeo rohita) subjected to as low as 1.25 mg of aflatoxin B1/kg body weight in the feed (Sahoo and Mukherjee, 2001). Aflatoxin B1 conComing in the next issue of The International Aquafeed magazine (September/ October issue) will be the next part of the book. The full publication can be found at: docrep/012/i1143e/i1143e00.htm

ingredients. Effective methods of reducing centrations of 75 ppb have been demonstrated the effects of mycotoxins using mycotoxin– to significantly reduce growth performance in adsorption agents such as Mycosorb® pre–adult shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Bautista (Alltech, Inc.) are available, but such addiet al., 1994). tives will increase feed costs further. The condition, aflatoxicosis, caused by such contamination could be minimized by enforcing strict regulations for screening Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of Grain & aquafeed ingreFeed MiIling Technology, has set up an online Amazondients, such as based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a wide range of recently-published reports and books on Grain & Feed oilseeds, corn relaed topics. You will soon be able to read an extended and other feed review before making your selection and purchasing ingredients, for directly from Amazon. aflatoxins. As

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the principal route of such contamination is through ingredients of plant origin, the effects of such contamination on cultured warm–water fishes, such as tilapia, carps, milkfish and catfishes (Pangasius spp.), may be more significant because their diets contain more plant than animal

We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent publications and as a result become a reference point for your reading and research.

Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment gateway, packaging and mailing service.

July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 39

The Aquaculturist A regular look inside the aquaculture industry

Hi my name is Martin Little. I am the Aquaculturists, with a background in Marine Zoology and eight years working in the field as a consultant fisheries observer in the North Atlantic, I am now part of International Aquafeed magazine, and as well as my column in the pages of the magazine I will be running an accompanying blog that can be found at


i i am the aquaculturists, during June we covered a wide selection of news stories from all over the world. On June 2, we looked at how Newfoundland and Labrador were setting records and growing rapidly. On Monday June 7, we launched our International Aquafeed Magazine in Spanish. The magazine will be published in both English and Spanish in the future and will be available to view through the blog . On June 22 a story covered was about the Frankenfish and how Congress was moving to ban the Genetically engineered fish. If you want to reveiw any of the stories that we have blogged during June then visit the blog and see them in our monthly round up at

Also on Twitter:

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July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 41

Would you like to know more about the GLOBALG.A.P TOUR 2011? Then please see or contact Nina Kretschmer: Follow us on Twitter@GLOBALGAP!

Book review Chemical Communication in Crustaceans


hemical Communication in Crustaceans covers a wide range of topics including the identity, production, transmission, reception and behavioural function of chemical signals in selected crustacean groups. There are several topics that the editors thought were ready for thorough review such as multimodal communication, deception and pheromones in aquaculture and pest management, but are still beyond the mainstream of crustacean research. Thomas Breithaupt, (University of Hull, Department of Biological Sciences): Martin Thiel (Universidad Catolica del Mar Depto de Biologia Marina) edited Chemical Communication in Crustaceans. They worked with the authors that contributed their research material for this book, along with descriptions from some of the authors on their respective research fields. The chapters are organised into five sections:

Section one is the introductory chapters giving a brief overview of the main questions that are dealt with in this book it also provides key definitions of the signals, cues and behaviour.(Chapters one and two) Section two deals with the transmission of chemical cues in the environment and on sensory biology (Chapters three to eight) Section three looks at chemical communication and behaviour in various species of crustaceans with examples of the best-studied taxa (Chapters 9 to 18) In section four recent advances in the molecular identification of chemical signals are presented with approaches to a molecular identification of sex pheromones in Blue Crabs (Chapters 19 to 24) In the fifth and last section it deals with the possible applications of pheromone research to aquaculture and pest management. Looking at the effects of pollutants on olfactory mediated behaviours in fish and crustaceans and other organisms (Chapters 25 to 27) A well-written comprehensive and well presented book, with rich illustrations. In my opinion this is a book that avoids technical jargon making it a suitable book for anyone that has an interest in the marine environment. It is a book that is useful to any aquatic chemical ecologist, students and researchers alike. In my opinion a great book that will be well used for a long time to come, a must have book.

ISBN: 978-0-387-77100-7

Fish Oil Replacement & Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquaculture Feeds


n the last couple of decades aquaculture has developed into a major industry and it now contributes at least 50 percent of all the fish consumed in the world.

One of the biggest problems to occur with aquacultures development has been how to feed the fish. The aquafeed industr y is experiencing exponential growth in many countries especially Asia with estimates of annual growth up to 30 percent. In modern aquaculture feeds can account for between 50 and 80 percent of the total production costs and greatly reduces the profitability of the fish farms. It is estimated that aquafeeds currently use about 90 percent of the global supply of fish oil. The book presents up-to-date information about the importance of lipid nutrition in finfish aquaculture, and about the availability and use of oil sources in the production of aquafeeds. Giovanni M Turchini, Wing-Keong Ng and Douglas R Tocher edited this book with contributions from more than 30 international experts; the book provides a global perspective on the

production, and use of fish oils, vegetable oils and animal fats in relation to the aquaculture and aquafeed industries. The book comprises of 15 chapters set out in an easy to follow format that will make this book a must have research aide and a very important reference source. Chapters one to five cover fish oils in aquaculture, lipids in aquafeeds. The worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oils and fats, along with palm oils and saturated fatty acid rich vegetable oils. Also covered are soybean oil and other n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid rich vegetable oils. Chapter six to 10 look at rapeseed oil and monounsaturated fatty acid rich vegetable oils n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oils and blends, terrestrial animal fats along with alternative marine resources. They also cover new alternative n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich oil sources. Chapter 11 to 15 deals with minor components in fish oil and alternative oils with potential physiological effect fish oil replacement in starter, grow-out and finishing feeds for farmed aquatic animals. Along with welfare and health of fish fed vegetable oils as alternative and the effects of fish oil replacement on nutritional and organoleptic qualities of farmed fish. I think this book will become a major resource in the future, as it is well-written and comprehensive and will be of use to fish nutritionists and other aquaculture professionals and students, researchers in the field of fisheries and fish farming.

ISBN: 978-1-4398-0862-7

42 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

Book review Fish Processing â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Sustainability and New Opportunities


n the 21st Century the international seafood industry faces many challenges, one of the most important challenges is that of sustainability.

In 2010 George M Hall edited this book Fish, Processing, Sustainability, Opportunities with contributions from S Kose, J C RamirezRamirez, K Shirai and K S Williams. This books looks to address the major challenges facing the global seafood industry by addressing the issues of efficient raw material utilization, energy usage, environmental impact, water usage, packaging and transport among others. It looks at the latest information on current technologies and introduces new ideas and technologies. Chapter one acts as an introductory chapter, which sets the tone for the book by presenting the background against which fish processing will exist in the near future. It will also serve as an introduction to later chapters on specific processes and

the current state of world fisheries defined by supply and demand. Chapter two looks at the canning fish and fish products, covering the principles of canning, packaging material, and process operations and the canning of specific species. Chapter three deals with the preservation by curing (Drying, Salting and Smoking), looking at basic relationships, drying, salting, smoking and post-harvesting in fish smoking along with sustainability. In later chapters subjects covered are sustainability of fermented fish products, on board fish processing, fishmeal production and sustainability, utilization of fish processing by-products for bioactive compounds and life cycle assessment of bulk packaging used to transport fresh fish products: Case Study. This book has brought together a lot of information about the fish processing industry and has presented it in a clear and concise layout that is easy to follow and understand. I believe this book will become a valuable asset to those who work and design new technologies for the global fish processing industry and it will be of great use to new and upcoming scientists in this field as well as students.

ISBN: 978-1-4051-9047-3

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44 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011

Events EVENTS 2011

15th September 11

1st - 11th August 11 Good Practices on White Shrimp Farming and Bio-floc Systems for the Most Profitable and Sustainable Culture, AIT Conference Center Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) Thailand Contact: Thanida Khumwiwat (Sally), Asian Aquaculture Network (AAN, 599/114 Ratchadapisek Road, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand Tel: +66 2 1921787 to 88 Ext.21 Fax: +66 2 192 1377 Email: Web:

16th - 17th August 11 Algae World Australia, Townsville, Queensland, Australia Contact: Ms. Tan Lee Lin, 80 Marine, Parade Road, Parkway Parade #13-02, Singapore 449269 Tel: +65 634 69146 Fax: +65 634 55928 Email: Web: www.cmtevents. com/?ev=110834&pu=207978&

17th - 18th August 11


Aqua Nor Forum 2011, Trondheim, Norway Contact: Alistair Lane, European Aquaculture Society, Slijkensesteenweg, 4, 8400 Oostende, Belgium Tel: +32 59 323859 Fax: +32 59 321005 Email: Web:


GLOBALG.A.P TOUR2011 – Warsaw (Poland), Le Royal Méridien Bristol, Poland Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH, Spichernstr.55, D-50672 Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 221 57993693 Fax: +49 221 5799389 Email: Web:

25th - 30th September 11 *

Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition and Feed Management Short Course, Texas A&M University College Station, Texas, USA Contact: Dr. Mian N Riaz, Food Protein R&D Center, 2476 TAMU, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2476, USA Tel: +1 979 845 2774 Fax: +1 979 845 2744 Email: Web: extrusion/

28th - 29th September 11 * Protein Technology innovation 2011 Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2252060 Email: Web:

18th October 11


BioMarine Business Convention, Nantes – France Contact: Pierre Erwes, La Grave du Tour, 40430 Callen, France Tel: +33 678 078 284 Email: Web:

GLOBALG.A.P TOUR2011 – Atlanta, The Westin Peachtree Plaza, Atlanta, USA Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH, Spichernstr.55, D-50672 Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 221 57993693 Fax: +49 221 5799389 Email: Web:

14th September 11

18th - 21st October

8th - 9th September 11

UK fishing and the future of the Common Fisheries Policy, Central London, United Kingdom Contact: Simon Regan, 4 Bracknell Beeches, Old Bracknell Lane West, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 7BW, UK Tel: +44 1344 864796 Fax: +44 1344 420121 Email: info@ Web: php?eid=284

Events Key: * = See our magazine at this show • = More information available




Aquaculture Europe 2011, Rhodos, Greece Contact: EAS, Slijkensesteenweg 4, B8400 Ostend, Belgium Tel: +32 59 323859 Fax: +32 59 321005 Email: Web:

26th - 28th October 11

10th - 12th November 11 * Expo Pesca & AcuiPeru, Jockey Convention Center, Peru Contact: JKUMAR ( J K), 674/6 U.E, Karnal, India Tel: +91 9812 390009 Fax: +91 1844 030999 Email: Web:

23rd - 23rd November 11 *

GLOBALG.A.P TOUR2011 – Bangkok Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH, Spichernstr.55, D-50672 Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 221 57993693 Fax: +49 221 5799389 Email: Web:

1st - 2nd December 11


5th International Algae Congress, Berlin, Germany Contact: Mrs. Paulien Hoftijzer, Stationsplein Noord 4, 3554 AD Woerden, The Netherlands Tel: +31 348 484 004 Fax: +31 348 484 009 Email: Web:

1st - 3rd December 11 IAI Expo, NDRI, Karnal, India Contact: Ms. Shweta Baweja, 923, Sector-9, Urban estate, Karnal, India Tel: +91 9991705009 Fax: +91 1842231050 Email: Web:

Is there an event that our readers need to know about!

Events listings are free of charge and will appear in the printed magazine and online. To add your event to our listing, contact Tuti Tan


Fisheries and Aquaculture Development Innovation and Technology, Expoforum, Hermosillo, Sonora, México Contact: Zoila López, Lluvia 225 Bis Col. Jardines del Pedregal, C.P., 01900, México, D. F. Tel: +52 55 51356128 Ext. 113 Fax: +52 55 51356128 Email: Web: 46 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2011


World Aquaculture 2011 - FENACAM 11 a ‘Tremendous Success’ Brazil had the privilege of hosting, for the second time, The Annual International Conference and Exposition of the World Aquaculture Society – WAS 2011 – which took place from June 6-10, 2011 in the beautiful city of Natal, located in the Northeast region of the country. This year’s event was held in conjunction with FENACAM 2011, the annual National Shrimp Fair hosted by ABCC, the Brazilian Shrimp Farmers Association. With the theme Aquaculture for a Changing World, the Conference drew international participants from all sectors of aquaculture representing over 65 countries plus a large contingent from the host country for a total attendance of 4290 people. Included was a large representation of Brazilian students, helping contribute to the 998 submissions for the poster session which ran concurrently throughout the four-day event. The well attended plenary session offered ‘seasoned’ industrial perspectives towards sustainability in a changing world through: Perspectives on the Development of the Aquaculture Industr y by Francisco Saraiva Gomes and Aquaculture Business Models for a Changing World by Bjorn Myrseth. The Trade Show of the Conference was completely sold out with 120 companies, government institutions, associations and universities presenting their products and services to 7,880 visitors over a three-day period.

EVENTS 15th - 17th February 12


FIAAP, Victam & GRAPAS Asia 2012, BITEC, Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Andy West, Victam International, P O Box 411, Redhill, RH1 6WE, England, United Kingdom Tel: + 44 1737 763501 Email: Web:

1st - 4th May 12


Skretting Australasian Aquaculture 2012 International Conference and Trade Show, Melbourne Convention Centre, Australia Contact: Sarah-Jane Day, PO Box 370, Nelson Bay NSW 2315, Australia Tel: +61 437 152 234 Fax: +61 2 4984 1142 Email:,au Web:

1st - 5th September 12


Aqua 2012, Prague, Czech Republic Contact: Mr Mario Stael, Marevent Begijnengracht 40, 9000 Gent, Belgium Tel: +32 9 233 49 12 Fax: +32 9 233 49 12 Email: Web:

13th - 16th November 12


EuroTier 2012, Hannover / Germany Contact: Dr. Karl Schlösser, DLG, Eschborner Landstrasse 122, 60489 Frankfurt/Main, Germany Tel: +49 69 24788-259 Fax: +49 69 24788-113 Email: Web:

GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture Version 4 responds to consumer requirements News conference at the European Seafood Exposition, Brussels, Belgium 4 May 2011 LOBALG.A.P presents in 2011 the new revised Ver sion 4. For the Aquaculture Scope, a 4-year intensive revision work has led to a standard that provides any aquaculture operation world-

tion. Traceabilty is another important component covering all stages from broodstock, seedlings, on-grown farm and post harvest handling operations. Compound feed supplied to aquaculture farms is included on the scope coverage and auditing activities.   GLOBALG.A.P pre-farm gate standards for Crops, Livestock and Aquaculture are Global Food Safety Initiative – GFSI recognized.

consumer to enable an instant search on certified status via the GLOBALG.A.P website. GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture has approved 15 Accredited Cer tification Bodies, operating worldwide as third party certifiers with the highest level of professional excellence in this sector. The number of certified countries to date is 22, covering Asia, Latin America, Africa and Europe. Harmonization platform

Aquaculture Dialogue Standard released, the Inter national Standard for Responsible Tilapia Aquaculture – ISRTA. The result is the interim Letter of Conformance against ISRTA now issued on farms in Honduras and Indonesia with farms in Ecuador on the way to receiving it. ISRTA uses the highly qualified platform of approved GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture auditors to perform joint audits GLOBALG.A.P –

wide the oppor tunity to demonstrate good aquaculture practices across major categories, e.g. any finfish, crustacean or mollusc farming activity can now apply for GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture Certification. Aquaculture Ver sion 4 is product of public consultations with more than 500 comments received from stakeholders representing 116 organizations worldwide that comprise certification bodies, retailers, research centers, universities, NGOs, suppliers, farmers, GLOBALG.A.P National Technical Working Groups for Aquaculture, producer organizations, scheme owners, consultants, the food service industry, the animal health industry, and metrology institutes. Trialled on all systems used for aquaculture.   Food safety is a main priority, with key criteria also identified for environmental (biodiversity inclusive) measures with animal welfare and workers welfare also given important considera-

For the aquaculture scope, this is unique in receiving this recognition worldwide. FAO Guidelines on Aquaculture Cer tification, since the initial drafts up to the recently launched version in 2011 were referenced with the  GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture revision for Version 4.  Greenpeace assessment on the environmental criteria for Version 3 is  now reflected in Version 4.   IUCN tailored made criteria fo r P r o t e c t e d A r e a s , i n i tially launched for the  Shrimp Standard, is now applicable for all species seeking  GLOBALG.A.P Aquaculture Certification.  GLOBALG.A.P Risk Assessment on Social Practice – GRASP is a  voluntary add-on module for those farms wishing to demonstrate risked based assessment on social practices at farm level.   GLOBALG.A.P Number – GGN followed by the 13 digit number is available to place on packaging for the final

The GLOBALG.A.P System offers to the already established pre-farm gate schemes the oppor tunity to be recognized and follow a globally harmonized tract through the benchmarking procedure, with the aim to make certification at farm level as efficient and cost effective as possible. Benchmarked schemes also receive the benefit of continuous performance monitoring through the GLOBALG.A.P Integrity Program. SalmonG.A.P – The private salmon scheme of Chile, is proud to become the first recognized aquaculture scheme on this sector. Partnerships From the standard setting procedure for shrimp, GLOBALG.A.P is proud to demonstrate how cooperation with international NGOs forms part of the standard setting for specific topics, e.g. social criteria with Oxfam-Novib and environmental with IUCN. WWF cooperation with GLOBALG.A.P, specific to the first

WWF Aquaculture Dialogues (Tilapia), resulting in efficiency and less costs for farms. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit – GIZ project for Sustainable Supply Pangasius Chain involves GLOBALG.A.P Certification on this German Agency for International Development Service and Technical Cooperation. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam will sign during ESE a cooperation agreement with GLOBALG.A.P, focusing on capacity building and implementation suppor t. The cooperation agreement was signed at the GLOBALG.A.P Press Conference on 4 May 2011, from 11:00 to 12:00, Room 1122.


July-August 2011 | International AquaFeed | 47



GLOBALG.A.P Secretariat c/o FoodPLUS GmbH Spichernstrasse 55 50672 Cologne Germany Tel: +49 221 5 7993-25 Fax: +49 221 5 7993-89 Email: Website:


In every issue of International Aquafeed we will be providing a list of companies and web links related to key stories & topics within each specific issue. If you would like information on how your company can get involved, please contact our Marketing Team. Tel +44 1242 267706

Addcon Europe GmbH

Fusion Marine



Alltech Inc

Geelen Counterflow



Amandus Kahl GmbH & Co




Andritz Feed & Biofuel

Lallemand Animal Nutrition



SPF (activite Aquativ) =

Tapco Inc =

The Aquaculturists =

The Aquaculture Communications Group, LLC =

Aquaculture Farming Technology

Meriden Animal Health Ltd



UniBio A/S =

BENEO-Animal Nutrition

Muyang Group



University of Plymouth =

Biomin Holding GmbH

Novus International



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Buhler AG

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Chemoforma Ltd

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Zeigler Bros Inc =

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