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Vo l u m e 1 3 I s s u e 4 2 0 1 0

Inclusion of a mineral premix for lowsalinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei

Evaluation of Vibrio control - with a multi-species probiotic in shrimp aquaculture

Recent advances in the use of diformates in fish

the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry Member of the World Aquaculture Society, European Aquaculture Society, American Feed Industry Association and the International Aquafeed Association

8 - 10 July 2010

Jakarta Convention Center Indonesia

INDONESIA’S NO.1 FISHERIES INDUSTRY SHOW “The future of Aquaculture Industry”


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PT. Napindo Media Ashatama Jl. Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No. 10 Kompleks Billy & Moon Pondok Kelapa, Jakarta, 13450 Indonesia Telp. +6221 8650962, 8644756/85 Fax. +6221 8650963 Email:

















An international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

Volume 13 / Issue 4 / July-August 2010 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2010 / All rights reserved EDITOR’S DESK


Aqua News Ghanaian aquaculture sector receives boost following new modernisation project by Fusion Marine Alltech’s Symposium hosts a future-focused aquaculture session and an insightful discussion dinner Tailor-made solutions for the aqua feed industry Meriden expands global technical sales team Oceana highlights new regulations for the prevention and punishment of salmon escapes Danish UniBio signs deal in China British Columbia's Salmon Farmers support Heart and Stroke Foundation Professor Simon Davies in the Blue Grass State of Kentucky Lallemand range of science-based, field-approved solutions for a sustainable aquaculture AwF launch redesigned website

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Mineral premix Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei


Vibro control Evaluation of Vibrio control with a multi-species probiotic in shrimp aquaculture


Shrimp farming Thailand shrimp farming from boom to bust, to a sustainable future




Growth performance Effect of Orego-Stim on the growth performance and intestinal bacterial populations of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)


Diformates Recent advances in the use of diformates in fish


Probiotic The Probiotic approach to elevating health of fish


Feed cost Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture - Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health

Perendale Publishers Ltd


Book Reviews








International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058


I Editor Professor Simon Davies Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

Associate Editor Professor Krishen Rana Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

Editorial Advisory Panel: • Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt) • Aliro Borquez (Chile) • Chen Shuping (China) • Citas Pascual (Philippines) • Colin Mair (UK) • Daniel Montero (Spain) • Dom Bureau (Canada) • Eric De Muylder (Belgium) • Miguel A. Olvera (Mexico) • Mike Cremer (USA) • Ola Flesland (Norway) • Mohammad R. Hasan (Italy) • Ming DanChen (Thailand) International Marketing Manager Caroline Wearn Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email: Subscription & Circulation Manager Tuti Tan Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email: Production Manager Nicky Barnes Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

have just returned from the USA having attended the 26th Alltech International Symposium in Lexington Kentucky marking their 30th year in business. This was a well attended venue (over 2000 participants) covering many aspects of animal health and the feed industry. The Aquafeed sector was also addressed with a number of speakers from both sides of the Atlantic. Attention was given to the culture of new species such as the barramundi in recirculation systems in the Eastern United States and the world status of tilapia farming and its versatility to being raised in such a variety of systems. Alltech are now pioneering nutri-genomics in aquaculture as well as for other land species (and humans) with potential to vastly expand our knowledge of nutritional biochemistry for applications into better feed formulations and personalised health care. The agri- feed sectors responsibility to securing the transparency of the food chain and human health considerations was a paramount feature of the conference. Aquaculture must also play its part with improved feeds and meeting the quality expectations of the consumer for sea food. In this issue we have a strong focus on shrimp farming with a feature concerning mineral premixes for low salinity culture. The trace element nutritional requirements is especially difficult to establish for any marine species but is especially a problem for crustaceans due to their carapace shedding and the difficulty of undertaking experiments with feeds due to leaching of soluble nutrients such as minerals into the aquatic environment. The needs of shrimp for trace elements would be expected to be quite different in brackish conditions compared to higher saline levels and so this area is interesting one. Disease issues are always topical and of significance in shrimp due to the recurrent problems affecting this industry in so many regions of the world. A feature from Biomin discusses opportunities to address vibrio using probiotic applications should therefore be of value. Continuing our shrimp theme we have a view from Thailand on the future of the famed shrimp industry given the economic and social problems of late but with an optimistic outlook with trends moving in a sustainable direction for this very important resource in SE Asia. In addition we have two technical articles each focusing on dietary supplements with benefits to fish. Acidifiers are of considerable interest in animal nutrition with much progress being made for aquaculture. Further, we have a scientific report emphasising the potential benefits of specific probiotic based products in fish feeds on gut integrity and associated biota using molecular and advanced techniques for assessment. I trust you will also enjoy our news section too whilst keeping abreast of the technological advances and developments occurring this summer. Its more interesting then the world cup!!

ONLINE ARCIVE You can find back issues of International Aquafeed on our website, available to view completely free of charge. Individual features fromn the pages of International Aquafeed can also be found on profile/perendale

Design & Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email:

July-August 2010 2 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010


Welcome from a glorious summer in Plymouth

Aqua News Ghanaian aquaculture sector

receives boost following new modernisation project by Fusion Marine


usion Marine has won an order to supply aquaculture equipment for a new tilapia farm in Ghana in the first modernisation project of this type for the West African country. Ghana has excellent aquaculture potential, but up until now has relied on traditional and unso-

Simple net enclosures for tilapia are common but afford poor operation control

Most of the cages currently used in Ghana are very rudimentary Wenger_Ad_2010_210x147mm

phisticated culture systems. Fusion marine will initially supply five polyethylene circular fish pens but this number is expected to increase substantially once the farm becomes established. The new farm will be located downstream from the Akosombo dam on the River Volta. The water is of high quality and the water flow at the proposed farm site is constant as it is controlled through the dam. The farm is planned for an area where unemployment is high and it is expected to create a substantial number of jobs. It is also within easy reach of the main markets of the capital Accra. The project will star t with a production of 200 metric tonnes of tilapia per annum but the long-term plan is to reach 2000 tonnes per annum and then to diversify into marine species


9:37 AM

along the coast Professor Agius surveying the area last of the Gulf of year to lay the foundations for this project Guinea. The new initiative will initially purchase juvenile fish or fingerlings from commercial hatcheries but within 18 months it is planned to have in house state-of-the-art hatchery mistic it will contribute substantially to to meet the growing fingerling fish pen aquaculture developments in requirements of the project. The Africa as this industry comes of age in first phase is expected to be com- this vast continent.” pleted by September 2010, the new hatchery by middle of 2011, More information: and further expansion of the pen Fusion Marine Limited The Marine Resource Centre systems by the end of that year. Professor Carmelo Agius, Fusion Barcaldine, Oban, Argyll Marine international aquaculture PA37 1SE , Scotland Tel: + 44 1631 720730 consultant said, “Fusion Marine tech- Fax: + 44 1631 720731 nology has already proven itself in Email: other parts of Africa and we are opti- Website:

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innovation is our enduring legacy. Since 1935, we've been helping customers solve problems and capitalize on opportunities faced by their businesses. Seventy-five years ago, a key answer was a molasses mixer. Today, the solutions tend to be more technologically complex – but our founding pledge remains unchanged. At Wenger, we innovate to solve customer challenges. And then we do it again.

Inventing the new original since 1935. SABETHA, KANSAS USA







July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 3


Aqua News

Alltech’s Symposium hosts a future-focused aquaculture session and an insightful discussion dinner


lltech’s 26th Inter national Animal Health and Nutrition Symposium, which took place from May 16-19, 2010, at the Lexington Convention Center in Kentucky, USA, explored boosting profits and working towards the sustainability of the environment in which aquaculture operates. As part of this major industry event entitled ‘Bounce Back 2010: A Time for People, Profits and Planet,’ an aquaculture session consisting of several presentations occurred, which hosted expert speakers from around the world.

This was one of several species sessions held at the symposium; the other sessions focused on dairy, beef, pig, poultry, feed quality & regulation, equine and pet. The aquaculture session presentation topics explored the potential role of aquatic proteins becoming a major source to feed a growing population. Other topics covered by our speakers included mineral source contamination, such as with heavy metals; aquaculture’s answer of tilapia to chicken; new ingredients for fish like amino acids, flavorings and enzymes; nutritional strategies for unique species such as rock lobster ; nutritional breakthroughs with organic Chromium; and recirculation technology.

Twelve speakers presented over two days, each day concluding with a discussion-style question and answer session among the speakers and attendees. As par t of the Alltech Symposium experience, discussion dinners also took place. Fifty guests were in attendance at the aquaculture discussion dinner entitled ‘Aquaculture: Is the future so bright?’. For two hours, the attendees shared their thoughts on the industry’s future. The group agreed that the future is, indeed, bright with aquaculture reaching the 50:50 mark in relation to capture in 2010. Aquaculture business is also growing 9.8 percent a year and aqua feed currently accounts for seven to eight percent of total animal feed business. Fur thermore, it was noted that significant investment in the aquaculture industr y will occur in the foreseeable future. Despite the abundance of positive points in favor of a bright future, however, our discussion group also pointed out challenges present in the aqua industry that must be overcome in order to achieve this ultimate goal. Some of these challenges raised were sustainability and traceability related, while others were related to marketing. A number of the issues voiced came paired with helpful solutions. Beginning with the former type of challenge, one of the first issues raised was the magnification of toxins and concentration in the feed chain. Furthermore on the issue of sustainability and traceability, we must find the means to feed the hungry, even if with a less expensive product. In some areas of the world, a bright future

will be difficult to reach due to current situations of disease and environmental problems. The answer lies in the cooperation between the private and gover nmental sector s. Regarding the major problems encountered with the destruction of mangroves and in aqua nutrition, multi-trophic systems will be on the rise since they increase the number of seaweeds and bi-valves. Several challenges in the marketing arena also surfaced during our discussion, as mentioned above. Our industry needs to increase generic marketing as we have an under-demand problem. We need more investment in marketing and more promotions to “eat fish.” Presently, the United States impor ts 75 percent of the seafood that Americans eat, and an increase in aquaculture in the country will only happen with niche products and markets.

How do we increase demand? If we could market to encourage Americans to eat more seafood, it could change the situation for the best. In the United Kingdom, lipids are implicit in cognitive skill. We must use facts such as this in our marketing to play on the medical benefits and other positive points about seafood. Fur ther more , the United Kingdom has experienced a resurgence of urban aquaculture, which is the case with tilapia

4 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

and cod in this island country. Marketing can open the door to such resurgence if we seize the opportunity. Aquaculture is a supply driven market; we have so many aqua products. Therefore, aqua marketing is different than with other species. We need to make quality assurance and traceability a part of our marketing, and while consistency, volume and quality are useful points for aqua marketing, they are also challenges, as we must ensure that we provide this for our consumers. As the conclusion to our insightful evening together, it was agreed that if we promote more aqua, then we can sell

more aqua. Demand will grow in the U.S. and consumption of protein is increasing ever ywhere; aquaculture must play a central role. Alltech’s 27th International Animal Health and Nutrition Symposium will be held May 22 - 25, 2011. To learn more about Alltech’s aqua solutions, please go to or email More information: Website: symposium2010.

Traceability, Uniformity, Costs, Energy, Survival, Productivity, An Health, Water Quality, Profitabilit Environmental Concerns, Traceab There’s an Alltech solution ...naturally

The economic impacts of ammonia are increased production cost and decreased output. Alltech can help. De-Odorase contains an extract of the yucca plant known for its ability to reduce ammonia (NH3) arising from waste. Added to the feed at a low inclusion rate, De-Odorase forms part of a nutritional stragegy to reduce the impact of ammonia on health and productivity of aquaculture, water quality and the environment. De-Odorase is the most researched yucca product on the market supported by university and field trials on various species.

For more information on De-Odorase e-mail

Aqua News

Tailor-made solutions for the aqua feed industry

Buhler, the global partner for the feed production industry, masters all the process operations required for transforming raw materials into valuable aqua feed products.


ammer mill for efficient size reduction - The horizontal hammer mill is applied when efficient size reduction is required. The inlet gate feeds the material into the path of the hammers, a series of bars attached to a horizontal shaft that rotates at high speed. The design and placement of the hammers and the optimum velocity of the hammer bars ensure maximum contact with the material for efficient size reduction. The screens of the hammer mill can easily be exchanged. The doors of the machine can be quickly unhinged, and the patented hammer bar locking mechanism enables fast and easy access to the hammers for easy cleaning. High speed mixer sets new standard - The Buhler high speed mixer delivers precise mixes in half the time. The revised geometry of the mixer trough and the matching geometry of the flights cut the mixing time down to 1.5 minutes. Instead of 10 mixing cycles as up to now, the mixer achieves 20 mixing cycles per hour. A high homogeneity of the mixer product is obtained in compliance with the highest quality standards: with a mixing ratio of 1 to 100,000, the coefficient of variation (CV) achieved is ≤5 percent. With fewer

paddles and large double outlet doors, the high speed mixer is also easy to clean. Pellet mill producing clean, safe feed - The Buhler hygienizing and compacting system allows for the production of feed pellets meeting the most rigorous hygienic requirements. With adjustable retention times of up to 240 seconds at temperatures of about 85°C, pathogenic microorganisms are reduced to a safe value. Thanks to its modular design, the pellet mill can easily be adapted to specific customer needs. The advanced drive system significantly reduces operating costs compared to gearbox-driven systems. COMPAC twin extr uder : powerful, fast and flexible - High torques, screw speeds and pressures are essential in any state-ofthe-art twin-screw extruder for covering a wide range of specific applications. By applying a high degree of modularity, Buhler is in a position to provide the optimal extruder configuration at a reasonable cost and within a short time. Easy cleaning and accessibility of all critical zones ensure top sanitation for high quality aqua feed. Efficient, hygienic and uniform drying - Multi-pass conveyor driers provide efficient and hygienic drying of aqua feed. The small footprint of multi-pass driers max-

imizes the processor’s floor space. The dual plenum airflow distribution and temperature profiling are unmatched for best moisture uniformity in the industry. The better the uniformity, the closer the drier can be operated to the target moisture content of the product. Innovations in sealing the drier, improved burner operation and a unique zone control scheme allow precise drying at highest efficiency. Uniform coating of feed products - Added-value to aqua feed pellets and extrudates is created in the coating drum. Liquid addition of fats, oils, molasses, flavorings, colors, vitamins and enzymes is possible up to nine percent. Thanks to the patent pending design, the spraying unit of the coating drum can easily be pulled out on a skid without any tools. Thus, cleaning and maintenance effor t is significantly reduced. Solutions for the feed production industry - Buhler stands for consistent quality in a changing world. The company offers a wide range of solutions for complete plants, processes and stand-alone machines. Buhler supplies complete manufacturing installations including the associated services for its customers. Outstanding technology and the expertise of specialized engineers guarantee the produc-

tion of high-quality feed products meeting the most rigorous hygienic standards. Buhler plants are of modular design and can be ideally customized to satisfy a wide variety of feed requirements of

the individual animal species. Enhancing of the Asian platform Buhler is continuously developing the Asian market. The company operates its own production plants in China and India in addition to established branches in several Asian countries. The company has defined high quality standards and values being present with production facilities, laboratories and service centers close to the customers. Buhler is active in over 140 countries worldwide, and engages more than 7500 employees. For further information stop by the Buhler booth at VIV China in Beijing, China from September 8-10 2010. More


Stefan Hoh Product Manager - Feed Feed & Biomass, Bühler AG CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland Tel: +41 71 9553613 Fax: +41 71 9552896 Email: Website:

Meriden expands global technical sales team


eriden Animal Health Limited welcomes Dr Chloe Loh DVM to its growing technical sales team. The

position arose due to internal promotions made available by an expanding technical sales force, as a consequence of increased global demand for Meriden’s wide range of natural and reliable animal health solutions. Dr Chloe Loh has previous commercial trade and technical experience in the Malaysian feed industry.

Dr Chloe Loh will be working from the technical sales regional headquarters in Kuala Lumpur under the management of Dr Kelvin Chong, regional technical sales manager. She will provide sales support to customers situated in the South East Asia region. Dr Vinita Perera ,MRVCS, joined Meriden last year and has recently been transferred to the Meriden head office in the UK where she will be developing the South American market.  Meriden

6 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

anticipates that there will be a number of product launches throughout the year, in various countries throughout the South American region. More


Meriden Animal Health Limited Cranfield Innovation Centre, Cranfield Technology Park, Cranfield, MK43 0BT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1234 436130 Fax: +44 1234 436131 Email:

Aqua News

Oceana highlights new regulations for the prevention

and punishment of salmon escapes


n response to the approval of the modifications to the General Law of Fisheries and Aquaculture occurred this week in the National Congress, Oceana indicated that the new regulation will not be sufficient to adequately resolve the environmental problems caused by salmon aquaculture in Chile. However, the organisation valued the addition of new regulations destined to prevent and sanction salmon escapes, one of the most serious problems caused by the industry. "Even though this law emphasises the creation of more favorable financial conditions for the salmon industry and not substantive changes to protect ecosystems and the health of people, we value that they have finally incorporated regulations destined to prevent and to sanction the escape of salmon,” said Alex Muñoz, executive director of Oceana  who spoke on the matter.  Last July, the organisation presented a proposal to the Senate Committee on Fisheries to incorporate new provisions in the law requiring companies to take steps to prevent and repor t the escape of salmon, to repair the environmental damage caused and to mitigate their impacts, and to set penalties when these releases have been deliberate or produced by a direct breach of technical protocol.  "Chile has high rates of salmon escapes due, in large par t, to the current weak regulations applicable to this situation. We expect the new government to enforce this new created regulation with the measures to prevent escapes, as required by the law which was recently passed, "said Mr Muñoz.

Since 2008 Oceana has also been proposing legislature measures to reduce the amount of antibiotics used in salmon farming. In the year 2007 this amount was 600 times higher in Chile than it was in Norway. The organisation praised that the plan announced by the government in March 2009 for this purpose was legally bounded in this law, so as to enforce banning the preventive use of antibiotics and the implementation of a public information system that will monitor the numbers and types of antibiotics used. The environmental organisation also insisted on the need to halt the expansion of the salmon industry to other zones of Chilean Patagonia that have high ecological value. Oceana proposed the promotion of other sustainable economic activities and not to continue to promote an industry that has been incapable of operating with respect to the environment.  "The salmon aquaculture activity, as any another industr y, should respect strict environmental norms.  If salmon aquaculture is not capable of subsisting with these standards, then it is time to seek other economic activities to replace it in the South of the country,” declared Mr Muñoz.  More


Annelore Hoffens - Communications Oceana Avenida Bustamante 24 Oficina 2C Providencia, Santiago, CP750-0776 Chile Tel: +56 2 7957140 / +56 9 79598865 Email: Website:

July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 7

Aqua News

Danish UniBio signs deal in China 50,000 tonnes per year of single cell protein UniProtein® to be produced in Jilin Province


onghe Natur al Gas Co Ltd from the Jilin P r ov i n c e i n C h i n a signed a final license agreement with Odense-based UniBio A/S on Februar y 8, 2010. The license gives Honghe Natural Gas Co Ltd the right to produce Single Cell Protein - UniProtein® for 20 years. The future protein plant represents an investment of CNY1050m (EUR 128m), which translates into considerable royalty income to UniBio A/S for 20 years as well as a two-digit million-euro amount in technology transfer fee. And this is just the first phase of the project. UniBio A/S owns the patent for the production of UniProtein® using a specially designed nozzleU - l o o p f e rm e n t o r d e ve l oped in cooper ation with the Technical University of Denmark and the Danish Energy Agency. The new technology triggers ver y strong

productivity growth in terms of kg/m3 fermentor/hour. UniProtein® compares well with the best quality of fishmeal, does not contain toxins or dioxin often found in fishmeal and has a completely neutral

taste. The product is used mainly for shor t-lived animals such as fish and chickens. UniProtein® has been approved for use by the EU. The aim is to use UniProtein® for human consumption. The technology to make this possible already exists. With huge growth in China, a big need for feed for a growing production of chickens, cattle, etc and strong impor ts of fishmeal (approximately 1.4 million tonnes in 2009), Honghe Natural Gas has looked for the best technology for the product io n of single cell protein on the basis of natural gas for more than three years. The choice fell on the patented technology of UniBio A/S, allowing a ver y high output of biomass in terms of protein per m3 fermentor per hour. UniBio’s constant investment in technology development allows an even higher output on a relatively shor t horizon. Natural gas is used in the process, and natur al gas is abundant in many d e ve l o p i n g c o u n tries and especially i n C h i n a . Natur al gas is burnt off by the world’s oil producers with enormous economic and environmental costs, contributing to global warming. Honghe Natural Gas Co Ltd has already earmarked the nec-

essar y funds for the project for 2010 and UniBio Chairman Professor Christen Sørensen and Sales and Mar keting Director Henrik Busch Larsen came to see the commitment of the Chinese for themselves during their visit to the Jilin Province in December 2009. The location for the plant had already been found and the decision to constr uct a natural gas pipeline to ser ve the plant had already been made and financed. Initially, a 50,000 tonnes per year plant will be built but we expect this capacity to multiply within a relatively shor t time span, say Henrik Busch Larsen. In May Honghe Natur al Gas Co Ltd was represented along with UniBio A/S at t h e D a n i s h – C h i n e s e Tr a d e & Investment Symposium in Copenhagen, Denmar k, and in June Chair man Professor Christen Sørensen and UniBio CEO Ebbe Busch Larsen will go to the Jilin Province to conduct a Groundbreaking Ceremony. This will be a milestone in the histor y of UniBio A/S, dating back to 1982, and the Danish Ambassador, the

8 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

mayor of Songyuan City and of cour se the management of Honghe Natur al Gas Co Ltd will par ticipate in the ceremony. UniBio A/S makes an effor t to involve Danish par tners in a 20 m3 research and development plant in Denmark, where the product will also serve as intermediate goods in the production of amino acids. For more information: Ebbe Busch Larsen, CEO UniBio A/S, Billedskærervej 8 5230 Odense M Denmark Tel: +45 63 104040 Fax: +45 63 104049 Email: Website:

Aqua News British Columbia's Salmon Farmers support Heart and Stroke Foundation


ritish Columbia Salmon Farmer s Association members in Canada have come together to highlight the impor tance of salmon in your diet. A donation of US$5000 has been made to the Hear t and Stroke Foundation, in honour of all working to ensure salmon remain a dietar y and environmental staple. "We are providing a healthy food source in a way that's sustainable for the future. “This is key to the long-term health of our communities - as is education and continued research like that supported by the Heart and Stroke Foundation," said Mar y Ellen Walling, Executive Director of the British Columbia

Salmon Farmer s Association (BCSFA). There's a personal connection too between the BCSFA and the work of the Hear t and Stroke Foundation. Three years ago, Walling suffered a stroke and has since fully recovered. The advancement of research and public education by the Heart and Stroke Foundation has helped many people better understand stroke and hear t health issues. "It's a message that is ver y impor tant to me," said Walling. "It's key that people know how to best manage heart and stroke risks - eating salmon, with its high Omega-3 fatty

acid content can protect our health." As the world's population continues to increase its consumption of salmon, the province's

salmon farmer s continue to provide a renewable source of this important supplement that doesn't fur ther challenge wild salmon stocks. The donation is par ticularly timely as the Heart and Stroke Foundation moves into their educational Stroke Month, held in June each year. More

Mary Ellen Walling, Executive Director of BCSFA in Canada, makes a donation of US$5000 to the Heart and Stroke Foundation, represented by Bea Duquette, a 30-year volunteer in the Campbell River area


Mary Ellen Walling
 Executive Director British Columbia Salmon Farmers Association #302 - 871 Island Highway Campbell River, BC V9W 2C2 Canada Tel: +1 250 2861636 x223 Fax: +1 250 2861574 Email: Website:

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July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 9

Aqua News Professor Simon Davies in the

Blue Grass State of Kentucky


rofessor Simon Davies was a key-note speaker at the 26th Alltech International Symposium held in Lexington, Kentucky last month along with his PhD student Carly Daniels, who is researching lobster aquaculture based at the National Lobster Hatchery in Padstow, Cornwall, UK.

The meeting attracted over 2000 delegates worldwide from government, industry and academia with a focus on sustainable technologies to promote better food security and enhanced human and animal health through a range of natural products. Alltech is the ninth largest biotechnology company in the world and is involved mainly in fermentation biochemistry with a focus on yeast production and by-products as special feed additives. Professor Davies is working with Alltech to develop suitable alternatives to antibiotics for the health of farmed fish and to produce feeds for aquaculture containing organically-bound minerals such as selenium and zinc to promote disease resistance and growth of fish such as trout and salmon with improved quality and taste. Carly Daniels is Professor Davies’ 20th PhD student to date and is working on yeast cell-wall extracts as prebiotics in juvenile larval lobster which helps in their survival prior to release into the sea for stock conservation. “This was a major gathering of the animal and human food industries with interests ranging from equine, cattle, petfood companies to fish and even to a new generation of bio-fuels. Alltech is very supportive of biomedical research and is a pioneer in the area of nutri-genomics,” said Professor Davies. “The latter is concerned with how our genes respond to diet and nutrition which may predict our disposition to obesity, diabetes, bone disease, dementia and cancer.”

The Muhammad Ali foundation Professor Davies attended a special lecture on Alzheimer’s disease with Alltech closely involved with the Muhammad Ali foundation’s work on Parkinson’s disease and the BrownSanders Institute on Ageing. Said Professor Davies, “It was a real inspiration to also hear the main guest speaker, former Governor John Y Brown of Kentucky talking about entrepreneurship and marketing strategies for big business.” Brown was named by Harvard University as the one of the 10 most influential businessmen of the 20th Centur y due to his par tnership with the legendar y Colonel Sanders and the role he played in founding the famous Kentucky Fried Chicken chain. KYC is now popular in China. Alltech is the official sponsor of the Alltech Wor ld Equestrian Events in October this year and Professor Davies and Carly were fortunate to attend their ‘Kentucky Night’ dinner within the new stadium arena built for the occasion. The equestrian events are a huge attraction for Lexington which is established as the horse capital of the world and is well known to the Royal family. Her Majesty the Queen has already met with Alltech president Dr Pearse Lyons and is keenly aware of US links with the UK on such matters as equine research into breeding and health as Patron of the Animal Health Trust. It is also the first time that these games have been held outside Europe. Dr Lyons has an honorary PhD

10 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

from the University of Plymouth and is a great motivator of applied science and finding solutions to problems of food, sustainability and the environment. His latest project is to develop algal production for bio-fuels and aquacul-

ture applications and to generate ethanol from natural plant fibres as alternatives to using grain such as corn. “These materials will also yield valuable by-products we can use in feeds for farmed fish. Plymouth is already actively working to best determine how we can optimise such ingredients to produce diets less dependent on traditional marine and terrestrial proteins,” says Professor Davies. Aquaculture is an US$80 billion global industry contributing over 50 percent of sea- food production, a fact not missed by a number of universities and institutions in the UK that are now investing in meeting the academic and technical challenges ahead.

Aqua News AwF launch

Lallemand range of science-based, field-approved solutions for a sustainable aquaculture


allemand Animal Nutrition is dedicated to the development, production, and marketing of profitable, natural and differentiated yeast and bacteriabased solutions for animal nutrition and health. The company has developed a range of microbial-based nutritional solutions to support performance and health of aquatic species in a natural way. Lallemand’s aquaculture innovative solutions are based on specific yeast and bacteria strains grown in the company’s own production plants. Each product’s origin, safety and concentration are guaranteed. The development and validation of our ‘field led and science supported’ products is based on scientific research and performance trials conducted in par tnership with leading international research centres, universities and commercial firms around the world: Bactocell® (live bacteria strain Pediococcus acidilactici CNCM MA18/5M), the first probiotic strain authorised for use in aquaculture in the European Union, is a guarantee of its safety, quality and efficacy in aquaculture. Bactocell is one of the best scientifically-documented probiotic strains in aquatic species with many applications in salmonids, shrimps and other marine fishes.

Further applications being under investigation to cover other major aquaculture species (tilapia, carp, etc). Performance trials have proven beneficial effects in terms of growth enhancement, feed utilisation, as well as improved resistance under specific challenging conditions.

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F: Mineral premix

Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei by Eric De Muylder of Belgium; Leon Claessens of The Netherlands and Frederic Martens of Belgium


he white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has widely replaced Penaeus monodon as the cultured species. One of the reasons for this change is the fact that L. vannamei can be cultured in higher densities and with a lower exchange of water, which increases the bio-security. L. vannamei is a euryhaline species and can be cultured in salinities from 0 to 50ppt, although the best growth is obtained in salinities between 10 and 25ppt. In lower salinity culture, there is an osmotic pressure between the shrimp body and the surrounding water, resulting in automatic water uptake mainly through gills and intestine. With lower salinity the shrimp face Table 1: Apparent digestibility of selected minerals K and P in different diets



















more difficulties to uptake macro-minerals from the water. It has been shown that inclusion of these minerals through the feed can be a solution. However, Leaching of selected minerals in different diets leaching of these minerals, which are often highly water soluble Samples of feed were put in water reduces this option. with 0ppt salinity and 25째C for one hour. Therefore, a mix of specific minerals was The minerals in the feed were analysed developed which shows increased retention before and after leaching and corrected for in the pellets and is available for the shrimp.A moisture content and overall leaching. A growth trial confirms that shrimp show good reference diet, (0) without added minerals, growth even at low salinities when minerals was also analysed to have an idea of the are added in the feed. retention of minerals from the other ingredients. This gave a retention percentage for each mineral for each sample, which can be Leaching of minerals seen in Graph 1. from feed pellets It is clear that leaching of minerals In the first experiment, 12 diets were is especially important for Na and K, produced with a different mix of minerals. although we can see that some samples 98 percent of the ingredients used are the show a higher retention than others. same and two percent minerals were added. 12 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

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F: Mineral premix Table 3: Growth results during week 3 and 4 with lower feeding frequency

Table 2: Growth results during week 1 and 2



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Table 4: Growth results during week 5 and 6: influence of leaching of pellets before feeding average weight leaching


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14 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

F: Feature Solubility and digestibility The lower leaching rate (higher retention) could be the result of a lower solubility of the mineral; which could affect the digestibility of this minerals for the shrimp. Therefore, the apparent digestibility was tested for some selected growth trials. It is clear from Table 1 that for all diets, the digestibility of selected minerals is not the problem.

Material and methods From the leaching experiment, the most promising combinations were used for a feed trial. Four diets were produced on a small pellet mill with a diameter of two millimeters. Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were imported from Thailand and raised to two grams. They were then transferred to the CreveTec-AFT Research station in Venray and divided over 20 nets (volume 150L) in two separate tanks. Shrimp were acclimatised for several weeks to a lower salinity. Each tank is connected to a biofloc reactor to control water quality. This way, the water quality is equal for all nets. One tank was running on a salinity of 10ppt and the other on 5ppt. Each diet was used in three replicates for the 10ppt salinity and two replicates for the 5ppt salinity. Each net is equipped with a belt feeder. Feeding was adjusted daily to an estimated growth and percentage of biomass.

Results During the first two weeks (see table 2) the shrimp were fed continuously through a belt feeder. Growth was good for all replicates. Average growth loss between 10ppt and 5ppt was 4.3 percent. The most promising diets were diet number two and four. For diet four there was no growth diffference between salinities. These results show that Litopenaeus vannamei can easily be grown at good growth rates in lower salinities if minerals are added in the diet. For week three and four the feeding frequency was lowered to only four times per day. This will result in slower feed uptake, longer interaction of feed and water and higher leaching of minerals from the feed. The salinity of tank number two was lowered from five to four ppt. Growth was affected negatively by the lower feeding frequency and dropped to 1.25g/week (see table 3). There was no negative influence of

lower salinity anymore, maybe because shrimp adapted to this condition. The best growth was obtained with diet number three. For week five and six the feeding frequency was further lowered to only two times per day. To understand the influence of leaching on growth, the feed for the three replicates in tank number one was treated before feeding: Four nets received normal feeds; four nets received feeds which were first soaked in fresh water for one hour before feeding and four nets received feeds which were first soaked in tank water (10ppt) for one hour before feeding (see table 4). There was a clear influence of leaching on growth, indicating that leaching of nutrients is an imported factor in the growth of shrimp. Leaching for one hour in 10ppt water reduces the growth by 15 percent and leaching in fresh water reduces growth by 33 percent.

10ppt and lower salinity, which confirms earlier results of leaching and digestibility. Based on these results a special mineral premix was developed jointly by companies Prayon and CreveTec.



Frederic Martens Prayon SA, Rue J Wauters 144 4480 Engis, Belgium Email: Tel: +32 4 2739310 Website: Eric De Muylder CreveTec Email: Website: Leon Claessens Aquaculture Farming Technology Email: Website:

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Conclusion Growth and survival are negatively affected by lower salinity of pond water and by decreasing feeding frequency. The addition of various minerals in feeds makes it possible to still obtain growth in those conditions. Diet number two seems to be the best source of minerals in both

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F: Vibro control

Evaluation of Vibrio control

with a multi-species probiotic in shrimp aquaculture by Elisabeth Mayer MSc, Biomin, Austria In the economically important panaeid shrimp, members of the microorganism genus Vibrio have become a major constraint on production and trade during the past two decades. They are responsible for several diseases and mortalities of up to 100 percent, causing global losses of around US$3 billion. Shrimp disease prevention and control are now priority research topics. In this article Elisabeth Mayer reports on in vivo trials using AquaStar® as a probiotic feed additive in P. vannamei.


enaeid shrimp culture has become an important economic activity in many countries, particularly in Asia and South America, where shrimp farming represents a substantial source of revenue.

both in the hatchery and grow-out ponds, reduced feed conversion and growth rates in surviving individuals, thus having a negative impact on the overall financial efficiency of the business.

the normal microflora of farmed and wild panaeid shrimp. They become opportunistic pathogens when the natural defence mechanisms are suppressed (Lightner, 1993). In intensive systems, shellfish species are often exposed to stressful conditions due to the high stocking density, leading to secondary Vibriosis in shrimp vibriosis. aquaculture Vibrio harveyi, a luminous marine bacShrimp accounts for about 20 percent of Vibriosis is a bacterial disease caused by terium, is one of the most important the value of exported fishery products over gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobe etiological agents of mass mortalities of the past 20 years. bacteria of the family Vibrionaceae. It is black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) larval However, the shrimp farming industry ubiquitous throughout the world and all rearing systems. Epizootics occur in all life is constantly under threat due to the marine crustaceans, including shrimp, are stages but are more common in hatcheries. outbreak of infectious diseases and environsusceptible. Vibrio species are the eminent Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halomental problems. microorganisms in the marine environphilic bacterium distributed in temperBacteria are among the groups of ment and usually constitute the majority in ate and tropical coastal microorganisms causing waters throughout the serious losses in shrimp Table 1: Enumeration of total Vibrio spp. and Enterococcus in shrimp world (DePaola et al., culture throughout the digestive tract after feeding with test diet for 6 weeks (by FISH technique) 2000). Some strains can world. Members of the CFU/g cause acute gastroenteritis genus Vibrio, including Hepatopancreas Intestine in humans, often after the V. parahaemolyticus and consumption of contamiV. harveyi, have been Total Vibrio Entero-coccus Total Vibrio Entero-coccus nated seafood (Matsumoto described as the main (x 104) (x 106) (x 106) (x 108) et al., 2000). pathogenic species in Some Vibrio species shrimp and are responsiControl 68.8 +/94.1 +/have very high growth ble for most of the larval 19.5a 68.2ns rates under optimal condeaths. 1.7 +/56.5 +/29.5 +/7.8 +/- 5.7 AquaStar® ditions. Disease transmisThese pathogens 0.9b 23.2 19.4 sion can occur rapidly and cause serious infections, a, b Means within a column with different superscripts differ significantly is either via water or as decreased production (p < 0.05) 16 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

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F: Vibro control

Figure 1 and Figure 2: Survival and FCR of juvenile shrimp in biofloc culture system (p < 0.05)

Picture 1: V. parahaemolyticus (Courtesy Dariano Krummenauer)

Picture 2: L. vannamei with greenish fluorescence on the tail (Courtesy Dariano Krummenauer)

Picture 3: Necrosis on the muscular fiber caused by colonies of V. parahaemolyticus (Cortesy Dariano Krummenauer)

a result of ingestion of infective material, although there is some evidence that wounds can also provide a means of entry. The pathogen releases exotoxins that effectively break down the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and destroy the host´s immune cells. Death can occur overnight after acute outbreaks. (Peddie and Wardle, 2005)

Signs of Vibrio disease Vibrio infections are commonly known as black shell disease, tail rot, septic hepatopancreatic necrosis, brown gill disease, swollen hindgut syndrome and luminous bacterial disease, describing a number of clinical signs: • Lethargy • Loss of appetite • Discoloured and necrotic hepatopancreas with the presence of ‘clumping’ (aggregation of digestive cells) • Red discolouration of the body • Yellowing of the gill tissue • White patches in the abdominal muscle • Melanisation • Granulomatous encapsulation, necrosis and inflammation of organs (lymphoid organ, gills, heart etc.) • Luminescence

Management strategies for shrimp disease prevention and control Use of antibiotics to control these agents has led to problems of drug resistance and resulted in trade restrictions in export mar18 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

kets. Shrimp aquaculture continues to find more effective and environmentally friendly approaches of improving shrimp health and yields. One such approach is the prevention of infection by using specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp. Such shrimp are genetically improved stocks known to be free of one or more specified pathogens and will ensure that seed shrimp are not the conduit for introduction of pathogens (Lotz, 1997). However, SPF status is a temporary condition which isn´t passed on genetically and is lost once the SPF broodstock are transferred to a commercial facility. Vaccination or immunostimulation of shrimp is another widely accepted technology that promotes the immune response. Since shrimp possess a non-specific immune system without antibodies, they are not enabled to specifically ‘remember’ exposure to pathogens, which is the basis of vaccination. Consequently, the efficiency of response on subsequent encounters may be limited. Probiotics are another means of disease control which have found use in aquaculture. The mode of action of the probiotics is rarely investigated, but possibilities include competitive exclusion, that is, the probiotics actively inhibit the colonisation of potential pathogens in the digestive tract by production of bactericidal substances, competition for nutrients and space, and modulation of the immune-system. The stimulation of host immunity and exclusion of pathogens may provide greater non-specific disease protection as a result of both immunity enhancement and competitive exclusion (Rengpipat et al., 2000). There is accumulating evidence that the prophylactic use of beneficial bacteria is

F: Vibro control Table 2: Mean survival, growth rate, final weight, final biomass and FCR


A study by Dr Kidchakan Supamattaya (2006) at the Survival (%) 52.0a 83.0b Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, has shown that the use Growth rate (g/week) 0.85a 0.92b of AquaStar® Hatchery in feed Final weight (g) 8.42a 9.05a is effective in reducing the total Final biomass (kg/tank) 45.97a 78.87b number of Vibrio bacteria found FCR 2.70a 1.40b in the hepatopancreas and intesProductivity (kg/m²) 1.31a 2.25b tine of white shrimp (Panaeus vannamei), which can reduce the a, b Means within a row with different superscripts differ significantly (p < 0.05); analyzed by one-way analysis of risk of infection (see Table 1). variance (ANOVA). Groups of 20 juvenile white shrimp (1 - 1.5g) were stocked into 200L glass aquaria and fed effective at inhibiting a wide range of fish to satiation five times daily during a six-week pathogens. period. A commercial type diet was used Recent data from in vivo experiments as a control. AquaStar® Hatchery was supsuggest that AquaStar® may be beneficial in the control of the Vibrio load in shrimp plemented to the feed at an inclusion rate aquaculture. AquaStar® is a well-defined, of 0.5 percent. Six replicates for treatment were used. During the trial all data have been multi-strain probiotic product for fish recorded. and shrimp and promotes a beneficial Enterococcus faecium – as part of gut microflora as well as an improved AquaStar® Hatchery - was found along the environmental condition in shrimp and fish ponds. shrimp digestive system in the group fed the

diet including this probiotic strain. The total number of Vibrio spp. found in the hepatopancreas and intestine of shrimp fed AquaStar® Hatchery was lower than control group. In a recent study, the Marine Station of Aquaculture at the Federal University of Rio Grande (FURG) in Brazil, investigated the effect of the simultaneous application of AquaStar® Pond and AquaStar® Growout in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in a biofloc technology system contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Krummenauer et al., 2009). The juvenile white shrimp were stocked in tanks at the high density of 300 shrimp/m². Feed (38 percent crude protein) was supplied three  times/day. The experimental group additionally received three grams of AquaStar® Growout/kg feed and 0.5ppm/ week of AquaStar® Pond during the rearing period. Biological parameters, growth, weight gain, FCR and survival were evaluated throughout the study for each group. The experiment lasted for 70 days. The results showed that AquaStar® was effective in controlling Vibrio parahaemolyticus in a biofloc culture system and improved the overall productivity of the system. Survival

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Reducing the Vibrio load in the intestine of shrimp

F: Vibro control was increased by 30 percent and FCR improved significantly as well. Despite the high density, the final weight of shrimp supplemented with AquaStar® was also slightly increased (8.42g versus 9.05g). Thus, final biomass was significantly higher in the group receiving AquaStar® resulting in a 70 percent increase in production (79kg versus 46kg).

Conclusion In order to withstand the high stocking densities in shrimp production (hatcheries and pond grow-out) and related stress situations, directly-fed probiotics are a promising additive to stimulate shrimp growth and secure a low disease response. The data of these studies suggest that the use of AquaStar® improved survival, growth rates, and the general health status of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamai while also reducing pathogenic Vibrio spp.

References DePaola A, Nordstrom JL, Bowers JC, Wells JG, David WC (2003) Seasonal abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Alabama oysters. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69(3): 1521-1526.

Krummenauer D, Abreu PC, Lara G, Poersch L, Encarnacao P, Wasielesky Jr W (2009) The Effect of Probiotic in Litopenaeus vannamei Biofloc Technology Culture System contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Abstract World Aquaculture Conference, Mexico. Lightner DV (1993) Diseases of cultured penaeid shrimp. In: Mc-Vey JP (ed) CRC hand book of mariculture, Crustacean aquaculture, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 393–486. Lightner DV (1996) A Handbook of Shrimp Pathology and Diagnostic Procedures for Disease of Cultured Penaeid Shrimp. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA, p 4-1-4-27. Lotz JM (1997) Viruses, biosecurity and specific pathogen-free stocks in shrimp aquaculture. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 13(4): 405-413. Lundin GG (1996) Fish health and quarantine. In: Global Attempts to Address Shrimp Disease. pp. 45. Marine/Environmental Paper No. 4. Land , Water and natural habitats Division, Environment Department, World Bank, Rome. Matsumoto C, Okuda J, Ishibashi M, Iwanaga M, Vi Garg P, Rammamurthy T, Wong H, DePaola A, Kim YB, Albert MJ, Nishibuchi M (2000) Pandemic Spread of an O3:K6 Clone of Vibrio

parahaemolyticus and Emergence of Related Strains Evidenced by Arbitrarily Primed PCR and toxRS Sequence Analyses. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38(2): 578-585. Peddie S, Wardle R (2005) Crustaceans: The impact and control of vibriosis in shrimp culture worldwide. Aquaculture Health International, August: 4-5. Rengpipat S, Rukpratanporn S, Piyatiratitivorakul S, Menasaveta P (2000) Immunity enhancement in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) by a probiont bacterium (Bacillus S11). Aquaculture 191: 271-28. Supamattaya K , Viriyapongsutee B, Ruangsri J, Encarnacao P, Schatzmayr G (2005) Effect of probitoic Enterococcus faecium and Phycophytic Substances on Growth Performance and Health Condition of White Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

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20 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

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F: Shrimp farming

by Daphne Tan

Thailand shrimp farming from boom to bust, to a sustainable future


mong intensively cultivated aquatic species, shrimp has one of the highest values and is the most important fishery commodity traded. In 2008, the FAO estimated that world production of shrimp under aquaculture and capture was about six million tonnes. Of this, an estimated 60 percent was traded, bringing in over US$11 billion in export revenue for producing countries. But close on the heels of shrimp’s enormous economic benefit have been questions raised on the issue of sustainability, notably the impact of farming practices on the environment and natural resources. These controversies have not been lost on Thailand, the world’s largest producer and exporter of shrimp. The ‘bust’ cycles that followed the boom in Thailand’s shrimp sector closely shadow the collapse of the industry from heavy demands that unsound practices had placed on the environment, leading to diseases and a host of other problems. Shrimp farming in Thailand began with semi-intensive monocul-

ture species, mainly black tiger shrimp or P. monodon in the early 1970s. Significant yield increases were seen from these early systems which utilised small ponds enclosures and the introduction of hatchery-raised fry, supplementary feeding and limited mechanical water management. This lifted the profile of shrimp farming and led to its ‘boom years’ in the decade starting from the late 1980s. With the influx of foreign direct investment, particularly from Taiwan, training and technology inputs, yields rose from 0.45 to 2.13 tonnes per hectare between 1987 and 1999.

Crop failures But environmental pollution, depleted water supplies, changes in water salinity and disease problems soon led to massive crop failures along the central Chao

22 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

Phraya Delta regions as well as coastal areas in 1990. The second bust period for the industry in 1996 led to a sharp drop in production, leaving in its wake mounting debts for farmers and a degraded environment particularly, the destruction of mangrove swamps. Since then, in the early millennia,Thailand has moved from P. monodon to P. vannamei, or the Pacific white shrimp to counter the disease problems commonly found in the former, such as Yellow Head and White Spot Symdrome Virus. Despite its significant economic contribution, shrimp farms in Thailand are mainly small holder operations of under 1.5 hectares in size. Given the dominance of small-scale shrimp farms in total production, it is imperative that policies to improve sustainability are targeted at addressing the needs and concerns of such farms. A study carried out by the Asian Institute of Technology in Thailand found that lack of

F: Shrimp farming Table 1: Thai exports of frozen and processed shrimp, 2009

(Value in million/£UK) No.

Growth rate %

Proportion %































United Kingdom






South Korea
























The Netherlands





Total (10 countries)















Source : Information and Communication Technology Center with Cooperation of The Customs Deparment Information Center, Thai Frozen Foods Association Note : Preliminary Data

knowledge on standards, insufficient technical assistance program, assess to credit for investment, lack of information on market and declining market price of shrimp are the major issues to deal with to promote adoption of standards for responsible shrimp farming among the small-scale shrimp farmers.

Research into shrimp farming Research on the shrimp farming industry has revealed that where methods are highly intensive, production becomes susceptible to internal operational problems such as diseases and water quality, and to external factors such as inadequate water sources and the weather. As a result, the financial risks from such systems are huge.

Coupled with declining prices of shrimp in global markets, there has been a shift away from such highly intensive pond systems to semi-intensive systems across many parts of Thailand. With strict international rules governing the quality of exported shrimp, particularly with regards to acceptable levels of chemicals residues and antibiotics, this has encouraged the industry to move along in the right direction.

Regulating farming practices To address these issues, the sector has identified several economic instruments to regulate farming practices. For instance, differentiated price permits were proposed to enforce specific zoning regions for shrimp farming activi-

ties. Emphasis has also been placed on proper farm management practices to reduce the risk of polluting emissions and which were suited to the type of specie of shrimp cultured. Research in low polluting and cost effective feeds has also led to benefits for both the environment as well as farmer. Effort to eradicate diseases has largely focused on those diseases which have a direct impact due to losses through mortality. Until recently, there has been little attention paid to non-fatal diseases although the economic costs are high. These are diseases that affect productivity by reducing growth rates or affecting the quality and value of the shrimp produced and can impact profitability significantly. Health programs have since changed to include also non-lethal diseases and their syndromes. The use of specific pathogen-free (SPF) and specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) stocks associated with the popular P vannamei species has enabled multi-cropping and high-stocking densities, capable of producing up to 20-30 tonnes per hectare per crop. The control of broodstock to ensure that only true SPF species are supplied, as opposed to the use of ‘home grown’ F1 broodstock, has also led to lower levels of mortality, and greater success for the Thai shrimp industry.



Daphne Tan a*scribe - communicating agriculture Email:

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Our ROV Team Our team of highly experienced ROV pilot technicians and supervisors can be mobilised anywhere in the UK. Our staff continue to work in the offshore ROV industry when they can, with over 20 years experience between them, plus they have extensive electronics, hydraulics and engineering experience. Two of our team started their careers as commercial divers and are therefore used to working with divers in varying situations. Our ROV team are completely flexible in their work and can adapt accordingly, creating or improvising tools depending on what the survey reveals.

Survey Reports The cameras mounted on the ROVs provide instant, real-time footage fed directly to the surface so you can watch the survey as it transpires and are not reliant on second hand feedback. We can provide full video and dive logs of the survey, as well as stills, diagrams and recommendations, either direct to you or your client. Using ROVs to survey an area of work before committing divers saves time and money. The footage ensures the divers are fully prepared for the work which has to be carried out once on the dive site and provides all the information required regarding the work to be completed, such as the tools needed.

Extensive Survey Experience Thanks to the versatility of our ROV team, we have experience in carrying out extensive and wide-ranging subsea work, depending on requirements. Some of the experience we have includes: net surveys, anchor surveys, search and recovery, environmental studies, mooring surveys, police surveys, harbour and pier inspections, engineering surveys, video logs of subsea equipment in operation and/or trial, wreck and/or hull surveys, support of other engineering work e.g. guiding crane lifts and archaeological surveys. To discuss your subsea survey requirements in detail, contact the Head of ROV Training and Operations, Paul Bury at The Underwater Centre, Fort William on +44 1397 703786 or visit July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 25

F: Diformates

Recent advances in the use of diformates in fish

by Christian Lückstädt, Addcon, Bonn, Germany Email:

A summary of latest findings in respect to the effectiveness of diformates in fish nutrition


he use of acidifiers in aquaculture is currently gaining more interest among researchers as well as practitioners. A wide range of different organic acids and salts have been tested so far (Lückstädt, 2008). The mode of action of acidifiers in fish diets have been extensively described in Int. Aquafeed – Vol. 12, No. 2 in 2009. Diformates in particular have been used very regularly in tropical, as well as cold-water aquaculture, because of their high load of active ingredients on the one hand and their stability and handling properties in extruded feeds on the other. Ramli et al. (2005) tested potassium diformate (potassium salt of formic acid) as a growth promoter in tilapia grow-out in Indonesia (see Table 1). In this study, fish were fed over a period of 85 days, six times a day, diets containing different concentrations of potassium diformate (0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5%). The diets contained 32 percent crude protein, 25 percent carbohydrates, six percent lipids and 10 percent fibre. The fish were challenged orally starting day 10 of the culture period with Vibrio

tool to control bacterial infections in anguillarum at 105 CFU per day over a tropical tilapia culture. period of 20 days. Similar results were achieved by Zhou Over the entire feeding period et al. (2008), who tested hybrid tilapia from day one to 85, KDF signifi(Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis cantly increased feed intake (P<0.01) aureus) fingerlings (2.7 g initial weight) and weight gain (P<0.01) as well as in a dose response study with potassium improved the feed conversion ratio diformate (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9% and 1.2%), significantly (P<0.01). while also comparing the results with Furthermore, protein efficiency ratio an antibiotic growth promoter (8mg/kg was also significantly improved due to the Flavomycin). addition of the formic acid double-salt During the 56-day trial period, tilapia (P<0.05). The improvement was best with fed all the potassium diformate enriched 0.2 percent and 0.5 percent addition diets grew faster than the negative conof the diformate. Survival rates of fish trol (an increase of up to 11.6%), while after the challenge with V. anguillarum fish fed 0.3 percent and 0.6 percent KDF on day 10 were also significantly higher compared to the negative Table 1: Effects of potassium diformate (KDF) supplementation in diets on performance of tilapia challenged with V. anguillarum (modified from control and Ramli et al. 2005) the effect was dose Potassium diformate inclusion in diet (%) dependent 0 0.2 0.3 0.5 (P<0.01). T h e Initial weight (g) 16.7 16.7 16.7 16.7 a u t h o r s Final weight (g) 218a 258c 246b 252bc concluded that the FCR 1.34a 1.23b 1.25b 1.22b application Mortality (%), 33.0a 20.8b 18.4b 11.0c of potassium day 10-85 diformate at abc within rows, means without common superscripts are significantly 0.2 percent different (p<0.05) is an efficient

26 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

F: Diformates utilization as well as disease resistance in tilapia. Organic acid salt may be therefore especially during the grow-out period of high importance for tilapia culture (Lückstädt 2008).

energy of 17.3 kJ g-1. The fish in both the control and KDF treatment were given the appropriate feed with a daily ration equivalent to 5 percent of their body weight. Feed was dispensed thrice a day at 0800h, 1200h and 1600h. Water parameter as well as growth performance More work carried out of fish were monitored regularly. Dietary organic acids Recently, research groups in the Diet supplemented with KDF yielded Philippines as well as in Germany have A subsequent study with this highly improved growth data, based on daily concentrated their work again on the effective substance was carried out in growth rate as well as specific growth use of diformates in tilapia. Researchers Malaysia (Ng et al. 2009). There, a 14-week rate (P<0.01). Tilapia in the control group from the Southeast Asian Fisheries feeding trial was conducted to determine reached a mean body weight of 45.5±1.1 Development Center – Aquaculture the effect of dietary organic acids. g, while the fish fed with potasThe experimental diet was sium diformate reached an averadded with 0.2 percent KDF Table 2: Growth performance of tilapia after 42 days fed with age weight of 51.4±2.2 g. Likewise, and fed to triplicate groups of or without sodium diformate NDF feed conversion ratio was red hybrid tilapia. Control NDF (0.3%) P-level improved significantly (P<0.05). Upon completion, tilaThe results show that addition pias were challenged with of 0.3 percent KDF in the diets of Streptococcus agalactiae. Number of fish 160 160 Nile tilapia can help to improve Results clearly showed Initial weight (g) 34.0 33.9 n.d.* its growth performance and thus, that total bacteria per gram Final weight (g) 70.9 75.5 n.d. can achieve a more economic and of faeces were significantly Weight gain (g) 36.9 41.6 0.098 sustainable tilapia production. reduced in diets containing Furthermore, the additive optipotassium diformate. The FCR 1.46 1.29 0.007 mizes feed efficiency, which is number of adherent gut bac*n.d. – not determined in full agreement with previously teria tended to be lower as reported improved digestibility well. parameters after the inclusion of KDF in Furthermore, apparent digestibility of Department in Binangonan, Philippines fish feeds. phosphorous was improved too – by (Cuvin-Aralar et al. 2010) looked at the nearly 11 percent in acidified diets. effect of potassium diformate (KDF). Finally, cumulative mortality of fish Twenty-five male Nile tilapias with a Double salt feed additive fed no organic acids (58.3%) was higher mean weight of 7.84±0.90 g were stocked Researchers from the Göttingen compared with fish fed the potassium in eight 240-litre polyethylene tanks in a University in Germany (Liebert et al. diformate supplemented diet (16.6%) at static-renewal system. Fish were reared 2010) focused on the most recently 16 days post challenge. for 74 days. Proximate composition of developed double salt feed additive – The Malaysian data showed that the the commercial feed was 31.4 percent sodium diformate, which is also produced inclusion of this acidifier can exert strong crude protein, 6.9 percent crude fat, 8.6 at Addcon’s production site in Norway. antimicrobial effects and have the potenpercent crude fibre, 52.3 percent NFE Preliminary data from a semi-closed tial to exert beneficial effects on nutrient and 0.8 percent ash as well as a gross re-circulating system showed promising achieved even better weight gain than the fish in the positive control group. The authors speculated that dietary potassium diformate could stimulate a beneficial bacterial colonization of the intestine.


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F: Diformates results on the use of sodium diformate (NDF) at 0.3 percent inclusion rate in tilapia fingerling rearing (see Table 2). This new additive caught the interest of researchers from the APC in As,

perature affects physical quality of barley protein concentrate-based fish feed” highlighted that the physical quality (hardness, water stability index) of BPC-based fish diets could be improved by optimizing extruder temperature and Table 3: Growth performance of milkfish fed with or without potassium by adding NDF. diformate KDF The second Control KDF (0.3%) P-level study, entitled “Effect of sodium diformate Initial body weight [g] 12 24 n.d.* and extruder Final body weight [g] 307 311 n.d. temperature Culture period [d] 193 175 n.d. on nutrient ADG [g] 1.60 1.81 0.08 digestibility in FCR 2.52 2.26 0.06 rainbow trout fed barley Survival [%] 91.4 90.6 0.37 protein con*n.d. – not determined centrate-based diets” lead to Norway. Morken et al. (2010) showed two significant improvements in apparent studies during the ISFNF in China in June digestibility of crude protein and crude 2010 which included NDF in fish feed, fat, as well as essential amino acids in especially for trout. Rainbow trout. Results from the first study, entitled Latest results from Auburn University, “Sodium diformate and extruder temUSA (Lim et al. 2010) are in full agree-

ment with the above mentioned tilapia trials, since tilapia fed with increasing dosages of KDF (from 0.25% to 1.00%) showed increased weight gains. Addcon recently announced the successful test of its acidifier range, based on the diformate technology, in yet another fish species (see Table 3). A commercial scaled trial in milkfish marine cage culture was recently completed. First results showed clear tendencies (P<0.1) of KDF on growth (13% surplus in weight gain) and feeding efficiency (FCR improved by more than 10%) at inclusion rates of 0.3 percent.

Conculsion In general the authors concluded that data achieved under high hygienic conditions at laboratory scale will lead to even more pronounced effects of diformates in the field. It is therefore highly recommended to include organic acid salts, like diformates, in the ration of growing fish under tropical conditions.

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28 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

World AquAculture 2011

Aquaculture for a Changing World

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F: Growth performance

Effect of Orego-Stim on the growth performance and intestinal bacterial populations of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Channel Catfish are an important aquaculture species originally from USA but introduced into China in the mid 1980s and now widely cultured in China. Last year Chinese channel catfish production was estimated at over 500 thousand MT in both small scale and larger commercial monoculture and polyculture systems. by Z. L. Zheng of China and Matt Pearce of the UK


hina is the world’s largest producer of aquaculture, currently producing more than ten times more than India, and over 30 different species of aquaculture products. Now that financial incomes in developing nations such as China have increased, the demand for meat and dairy has also risen as more people can afford to consume these higher protein foods. Between 1995 and 2009 soybean imports increased from 150 thousand tonnes to 41 million tonnes to help sustain this increased demand in animal feed. During the same time period broiler production doubled to over 12 million tonnes and pork production increased by over 50 percent. China is undeniably the world’s most powerful nation in its appetite for agriculture and aquaculture commodity use and has consistently consumed over 20 percent of the world’s production of fishmeal in the past 10 years to help support its expanding aquaculture industry. Channel Catfish are an important aquaculture species originally from USA but intro-

duced into China in the mid 1980s and now widely cultured in China. Last year Chinese channel catfish production was estimated at over 500 thousand MT in both small scale and larger commercial monoculture and polyculture systems. Channel catfish is tolerant to poorer water quality conditions with dissolved oxygen (DO) of less than 1ppm, though when produced in aquaculture DO is maintained at or above 4ppm in order to optimise production efficiency.

Table 1: Formulation (g kg-1) and proximate composition of the diet


Chemical composition

Soybean meal


DE (kJ kg-1)


Rapeseed meal




Corn gluten meal




Fish meal




Wheat shorts




Rapeseed oil








Vitamin premixa




Choline chloride


Met + Cys


Sodium chloride


Mineral premixb




Note: Crude protein, crude lipid, ash, crude fibre are expressed on a dry matter basis and given as means (n=2) a Vitamin mix provided the following vitamins (mg kg-1 diet unless otherwise stated): vitamin A, 4000 IU; vitamin D3, 2000 IU; vitamin K, 10; vitamin E, 50; thiamine, 10; riboflavin, 12; pyridoxine, 10; panthothenic acid, 32; nicotinic acid, 80; folic acid, 2; biotin, 0.2; vitamin B12, 0.01; L-ascorbyl-2polyphosphate (250 g kg-1 vitamin C activity), 60 b Trace mineral mix provided the following minerals (mg kg-1 diet): zinc (as ZnSO4·7H2O), 150; iron (as FeSO4·7H2O), 40; manganese (as MnSO4·H2O), 25; copper (as CuCl2), 3; iodine (as KI), 5; cobalt (as CoCl2·6H2O), 0.05; selenium (as Na2SeO3), 0.09

30 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

F: Growth performance Optimisation of feed intake and nutritional composition of the diet helps to ensure that channel catfish are extracting the maximum possible growth from what they consume. Ingestion of aquatic feed inevitably causes drinking of the localised aquatic environment putting the gut interface of catfish into direct challenge with the indigenous pathogenic microbial community. The gastrointestinal tract is responsive and sensitive to a wide range of stressors. Various phytogenic ingredients have been shown to facilitate beneficial effects on gut environment and microflora, though some plant species have a stronger impact than others. The antimicrobial effects of Figures 1-4. Growth performance measured by total weight gain, specific growth phenolic compounds which are the ratio, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. active ingredient of phytogenic feed additives, target pathogenic bactecatfish aimed to analyse the response of rial cell walls by interaction with (Chongqing, China) were used for the bacterial populations when exposed to the cytoplasmic membrane and changing experiment. Experiments were conducted Orego-Stim®. its permeability for cations, like H+ and K+. in a recirculation aquaculture system at Both aerobic and anaeroInhibitory effects on bic beneficial microorganisms and pathogenic Orego-Stim® contains essential oils populations which include precise natural composiof bacteria tions of a-terpinene, p-cymene, carvacrol were isolated and thymol. These components are found and quantified to have inhibitory effects on microfrom differorganisms especially in spore forming ent regions of organisms. the intestine It has been clearly demonstrated that of channel chronic stress measured by prolonged catfish. Various elevated blood plasma cortisol concentraother growth tion in trout results in dose dependent parameters increased mortality from common aquatic such as weight bacterial and fungal diseases. gain, FCR, SGR, This finding is not just confined to salProtein effimonid species but is a normal physiological ciency ratio and response in all fish species. The hypothamortality were lamic-pituitary-interrenal axis in fish which also quantified. can be stimulated by both environmental and stress events affects the production of lymphocytes and antibody response as well Fish and as the reproductive capacity. culture Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) conditions is the interface between the diet, host Channel Guadalajara, Jalisco - Mexico physiology and gut microflora. GALT activcatfish (Ictalurus ity can be modified through the diet by punctatus) It is time to explore a wide range of three principles – competitive bacterial propagated challenging opportunities exclusion, bacterial antagonism and immune and reared by modulation which in turn affect the health the Research and commercial productive status of fish. Institute for This latest experimental trial in Channel Fisheries

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F: Growth performance

Southwest U n i ve r s i t y, Chongqing, China. Channel catfish with an average initial weight of 50 g were held in 200 L fibreglass tanks. Fish in randomly assigned duplicate aquaria (40 fish per aquaria) were fed one of the two experimental diets to apparent satiation six times daily. Water temperature and pH were constant (23-24°C; pH 8.5) during the experimental period. Water flow was maintained at 4.5 L/minute. Orego-Stim® (50g kg-1) was a commercial product of Meriden Animal Health Ltd., UK. The dietary formulation of each of the diets was as follows: Control: without feed additives Orego-Stim®: 50g kg-1 Orego-Stim®

Experimental design and diets Both diets were formulated to be isocaloric (12.51kJ kg-1 diet) and isonitrogenous (3450g/kg-1 crude protein). All ingredients were finely ground, mixed in a Hobart mixer and pelleted through a 2.4mm diameter die in a Hobart meat grinder. The pellets were air-dried at room temperature, fragmented and stored in a freezer until use. Ingredients and proximate composition of the experimental diets are presented in Table 1. The feeding trial lasted eight weeks.

At each feeding, an excess amount of feed was fed to the fish and uneaten feed was collected one hour after feeding, dried at 70°C and reweighed. Leaching of uneaten feed was estimated by placing weighed samples of each diet into a tank without fish for one hour and then recovered, dried and reweighed. The average leaching value was used to correct the amount of uneaten feed.

Intestine bacteriological sampling Six channel catfish were sampled from each diet group after one-day starvation. The fish were killed by physical destruction of the brain, and the number of incidental organisms was reduced by washing the fish skin with 700 ml L-1 ethanol before opening the ventral surface with sterile scissors to expose the body cavity. The ventral belly surface of the fish was opened to expose the peritoneal cavity, and then the spleen, gallbladder and liver removed. The intestinal sections were emptied and thoroughly rinsed three times in 2ml sterile 9g/kg-1 saline to remove nonadherent bacteria. Anterior intestine (AI), mid intestine (MI), and posterior intestine (PI) of the corresponding sections were treated separately, and were then transferred to sterile plastic bags and homogenised in a Stomacher (Seward Laboratory, London, UK).

Bacterial plates spreading and count Homogenates of the intestinal sections were diluted in sterile 9g/kg-1 saline and appropriate dilutions were spread on the surface of fresh water agar (FWA) plates.

The formulating method of FWA as follows: MgSO4 (0.05g), beef extract (2.5g), NaCl (500g), K2HPO4 (0.2g), glucose (1g), peptone (5.0g), yeast extract (2.5g), agar powder (15.0g), add water to 1000 ml, pH 7.2-7.4, and was sterilised for 30 min at 121℃. 18 FWA plates were spread with homogenates of the intestinal sections in each group. Nine plates were incubated at 30℃ for 24-48 hours in an incubator, and nine plates were incubated at 30℃ for 48-72 hours in an anaerobic incubator. Plates with 20-200 bacterial colonies were counted and bacterial numbers in plates were converted to the number per unit weight of intestine.

Identification of bacteria Approximately 10 colonies were randomly picked from plates containing 20 to 200 bacteria. A total of 100 isolates were inoculated with a method of slope culture, respectively. 60 tubes were incubated at 30℃ for eight to 12 hours in an incubator, and placed at 4℃ after incubation. Another 40 tubes were incubated at 30℃ for 24 to 36h in an anaerobic incubator, and were identified after 4 hours. The identification process of aerobic bacteria was formulated according to Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology and classified according to genera or groups on the basis of cell morphology, motility, gram reaction, catalase and oxidase and glucose fermentation, O/F test, salt tolerance for growth. Anaerobic bacteria were identified with an automatic microorganism identification instrument (VITEK-Ⅱ) by the French BioMerieux Company and identification plate (VITEK-ANA) for anaerobic bacteria.

Table 2: WG, SGR, FCR, PER and survival of Channel catfish fed different diets with feed additives


WG1 (g)

SGR2 (%/d)






















Data were presented as mean±SD (n=2). Value in the same column having different superscripts is significant (P<0.05). 1 WG (Weight gain, g) = final body weight − initial bodyweight 2 SGR (Specific growth ratio, %/d) = (loge average final weight - loge average initial weight) / no days) x


3 FCR (Feed conversion ratio) = feed consumed (g, dry weight) / weight gain (g) 4 PER (Protein efficiency ratio) = weight gain (g) / protein intake (g)

32 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

Results - Growth performance Survival rate of the experiment was high (>95%) and unrelated to dietary treatment (see Table 2). Data on the growth performance of channel catfish, including weight gain (WG), specific growth ratio (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) are shown in Table 2. WG of fish fed the OS diet was significantly higher than those of fish fed the Con diet (P<0.05). SGR of fish fed the OS diet

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F: Growth performance Numbers of Aer. also declined with the Orego-Stim® diet and this result was significantly different from the control (P<0.05). Conversely, Bac. numbers increased significantly upon addition of OS (P<0.05). Addition of OregoStim® had no effect on the numbers of Staphylococcus (Stap). In MI, the numbers of Ent. significantly decreased upon addition of OS (P<0.05). The feed additives had no effect on the numbers of Aer., Stap. and Vib.. The numbers of Bac. also increased significantly in the Orego-Stim® diets compared to control (P<0.05). In PI, the numbers of Ent., Aer., Stap. and Vib. decreased with the Orego-Stim® Figures 5-7: Composition of Aerobic and Anaerobic diet. bacteria species in the Anterior, Mid and posterior intestine of Channel Catfish Anaerobic bacteria The three intestinal anaerobic bacteria identified with were significantly higher than those of fish the identification plate (VITEK-ANA) of fed the control diet. FCR and PER were also anaerobic bacteria were Bifidobacterium affected by OS. (Bif.), Lactobacillus (Lac.) and Bacteroides Lowest FCR and highest PER values (Bact.), respectively. The predominant were observed for catfish fed the OS diet intestinal anaerobic bacteria were Bact. Bif. compared to catfish fed the control diet and Lac. (Figure 7). (P<0.05). In the AI, MI and PI numbers of Bif. and Lac in the Orego-Stim® group significantly Composition of bacteria increased compared to that of the control flora - Aerobic Bacteria (P<0.05). Numbers of Bact. significantly Bacterial numbers are shown in tables decreased in the Orego-Stim® group com5-7. pared to that of control (P<0.05). Intestinal aerobic bacteria of 4 families (genera) of channel catfish were identified. The intestinal predominant aerobic Discussions and conclusion bacteria were Enterobacteriaceae Ent.), As there is evidence that intestinal comAeromonas (Aer.), Bacillus (Bac.) and Vibrio petitive bacterial exclusion and bacterial (Vib.) (Figure 5-6). antagonism are the unique modes of action In AI, the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae that help the immune response of fish, it is in fish fed Orego-Stim® decreased sigpertinent to understand how Orego-Stim® nificantly compared to control (P<0.05). can beneficially balance the gut flora in 34 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

order to maximise growth performance and immune defence. This experimental trial isolated the bacterial species, compositional proportion and the region of the intestine that different bacteria species colonised. Orego-Stim® demonstrated the ability to selectively reduce or increase different species of bacteria. Numbers of key pathogenic bacteria such as Ent. Aer. and Vib were reduced in the Orego-Stim® group of catfish, where as beneficial bacteria which helped to promote gut health such as Lac. and Bif had higher numbers of bacteria. This study shows that Orego-Stim® acts in a similar way as probiotics using competitive exclusion, but unlike probiotics Orego-Stim® has much more potent antimicrobial properties.

Orego-Stim® is a phytogenic feed additive. This specific discipline of aquaculture feed science is still an innovative and pioneering technology. At the time of writing the exact biochemical mechanism by which beneficial bacteria are allowed to grow in the intestines and pathogenic bacteria are killed, is still not fully understood. The theory is that there must be a structural difference in the cell wall of the two classes of bacteria possibly relating to epitopes and virulence factors which selectively promotes or prevents cell lysis upon exposure to OregoStim®, but this needs further research to get the required scientific evidence. What is known is that both the holistic and generic effects of Orego-Stim® work in a way that alters intestinal bacterial populations and benefits the host fish by increasing aquaculture productivity, both experimentally and commercially. References are available on request.

About the authors: Z. L. Zheng of China - School of Veterinary Medicine of Sichuan Agriculture University, Sichuan 625014, PR China and the Fisheries Breeding and Healthy Cultivation Research Centre, South-west University, Chongqing 402460, PR China Matt Pearce - Meriden Animal Health Limited, Cranfield Innovation Centre, University Way, Cranfield Technology Park MK43 0BT, United Kingdom

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F: Probiotic

The Probiotic approach to elevating health of fish Molecular profiling of gastro-intestinal biota and effects on gut ultra-structural characteristics by Dr Daniel L Merrifield and Matthew Emery, Senior microbiology technician, The School of Biomedical and Biological Sciences, The University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK, Email:


robiotics and their applications in fish culture have been studied and discussed for much of the past decade.

However, we must not continue to use the umbrella term too loosely and be mindful that not all probiotics display the same properties or yield the same subsequent benefits. Probiotics are inclusive of a wide range of microbes: Gram-positive bacteria, Gramnegative bacteria, yeasts and cyanobacteria have all shown some varying degree of success when applied to fish. They provide benefits to the host fish, in part at least, by improving the microbial balance and functionality of the host gastrointestinal microbial communities.

Improving fish health From current literature, it is clear that probiotic applications can improve fish health, disease resistance, growth performance, feed utilisation, carcass composition, intestinal morphology and reduce malformations; however, we are yet to find a specific probiotic candidate that can achieve all of these effects. Some candidates are able to mediate more benefits than others, and perhaps one of the most well studied, which we have been working on at the Fish Nutrition and Health Research Aquarium, at The University of Plymouth, is Pediococcus acidilactici (BactocellÂŽ, Lallemand). P. acidilactici strains produce a range of antimicrobial proteins (pediocins) and organic acids (such as lactic and acetic acid) which gives them antagonistic properties against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, notably pathogenic Vibrio spp.. A clear effort to assess the use of this

microvilli morphology of the enterocytes probiotic in fish culture has been underin the anterior intestine of rainbow trout taken; information regarding the benefits of (Figure 1; Merrifield et al. 2010b). P. acidilactici is available for pollock Pollachius Not only could such intestinal improvepollachius (Gatesoupe 2002), channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Shelby et al. 2007), tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Shelby et al. 2006; Ferguson et al. 2010) and shrimp (Castex et al. 2008, 2010) but the benefits to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss health and production is most well documented (Quentel et al. 2004; Aubin et al. 2005a,b; Merrifield et al. 2010a,b). We have previously shown at Plymouth that the provision of dietary P. acidilactici can lead to potentially resident populations in close association with the intestinal epithelium of rainbow trout, even though other commercially available probiotics could not (Merrifield et al. 2010a,b). Figure 1. TEM micrographs reveal that although Subsequently, the microvilli appear healthy in both groups they are application of P. significantly longer in trout fed P. acidilactici (B) acidilactici enhanced than the control (A). Scale bar = 1 Âľm. (Merrifield et the gut ultrastrucal. 2010b) ture and improved

36 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

F: Probiotic OFIMER (Office National Interprofessionnel des Produits de la Mer et de l'Aquaculture), demonstrated that P. acidilactici could improve rainbow trout resistance to yersiniosis, as demonstrated by reduced accumulated mortalities after an intraperitoneal injection challenge. As well as benefits to intestinal morphology and disease resistance, P. acidilactici can also alleviate rainbow trout vertebral column compression syndrome (VCCS) and improve aesthetic quality by lowering condition factor (Aubin et al. 2005a; Merrifield et al. 2010a). These benefits which improve the quality of the final product could effectively boost production and elevate trout farming profit margins.

Figure 2. Probiotic P. acidilactici significantly elevated the circulating leucocyte levels and serum lysozyme activity of tilapia after 14 days feeding (Ferguson et al. 2010) ments provide a foundation for enhanced digestive function but maintaining epithelial integrity is paramount to defend against enteric infections. This is particularly relevant to salmonid culture as the gastrointestinal tract is a potential port of entry for many fish pathogens and both Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida (the causative agents of vibriosis and furunculosis, respectively)

can infect and cause severe tissue damage to the anterior intestine of salmonid fish. From these findings we hypothesise that dietary applications of P. acidilactici may be able to prevent or reduce pathogen damage and translocation in the anterior gut of salmonids and we are presently using novel approaches at The University of Plymouth to test this hypothesis. Indeed, a study supported by the

The financial benefits of this probiotic We have recently also begun to assess the efficacy of this probiotic in tilapia at Plymouth (Ferguson et al. 2010). We fed triplicate tanks of genetically male tilapia (12 x 175g fish per tank) a basal diet with or without the addition of P. acidilactici. After 14 days feeding on the experimen-

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July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 37


F: Probiotic tal diets serum lysozyme activity and circulating leucocyte levels were significantly higher in the P. acidilactici group than the control group (Figure 2). At day 32, PCR-DGGE demonstrated clear modulations of gastrointestinal microbial profiles and the presence of P. acidilactici (OTU – Pa) in the probiotic fed fish (Figure 3). The level of lactic acid bacteria in the intestine significantly increased from <0.001 percent in the control group to 9.81 percent in the probiotic group. These lactic acid bacterial isolates in the probiotic group were confirmed as P. acidilactici by 16S rRNA sequencing.

"We are continuing to pursue our scientific investigations to further our knowledge of the complex probiotichost interactions at the mucosal interface"

After reverting the probiotic group back to the control diet P. acidilactici persisted within the gastrointestinal tract for up to 17 days. Light microscopy revealed that the histological pattern of the intestinal tract did not differ between the control and probiotic groups: no signs of tissue or cell damage were observed and leucocyte infiltration levels remained unaffected. The simultaneous ability to elevate innate immune responses and fortify intestinal microbial communities is likely to boost tilapia defences against enteric infection. From the present data it is clear that there is a great potential for P. acidilactici applications for intensively reared fresh water fish species of economic importance, and the current applications conducted at the farm level will highlight the financial benefits of probiotic P. acidilactici use in industrial fish farming. At the University of Plymouth, under Professor Simon Davies, we are continuing to pursue our scientific investigations to further our knowledge of the complex probiotic-host interactions at the muco-

sal interface which help mediate the reported host benefits in order to maximise the benefits of future applications.

References Aubin, J., Gatesoupe, F.-J., Labbe, L., Lebrun, L. (2005a). Trial of probiotics to prevent the vertebral column compression syndrome in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aquacult. Res. 36, 758–767. Aubin, J., Gatesoupe, F.J., Quentel, C., Forraz, M., Facqueur, J.M., Rochet, B., Usache, V. (2005b). Étude de l'amélioration de la rentabilité et de la sécurité sanitaire des filières truite arc-en-ciel et bar par l'utilisation de probiotiques par voie alimentaire. Rapport Final, Convention N°00803C, Contract OFIMER N°A01959. 67 pp. Castex, M., Chim, L., Pham, Figure 3. 40-60% DGGE of the V3 region of the D., Lemaire, P., Wabete, N., microbial profiles of the intestine of tilapia after Nicolas, J.-L., Schmidely, P. feeding on probiotic P. acidilactici (Ferguson et al. & Mariojouls, C. (2008) 2010) Probiotic P. acidilactici application in shrimp mykiss Walbaum). Aqua. Nutr. in press. DOI: Litopenaeus stylirostris 10.1111/j.1365-2095.2009.00712.x. culture subject to vibriosis in New Caledonia. Aquaculture, 275, 182–193. Merrifield, D. L., Harper, G., Baker, R. T. M., Ringø, E., Davies, S. J. (2010b). Possible influence of probiotic Castex, M., Lemaire, P., Wabete, N., Chim, L. adhesion to intestinal mucosa on the activity and (2010) Effect of probiotic Pediococcus acidilactici morphology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus on antioxidant defences and oxidative stress mykiss) enterocytes. Aquacult. Res. in press DOI: status of Litopenaeus stylirostris. Under Vibrio 10.1111/j.1365-2109.2009.02397.x. nigripulchritudo challenge. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 28, 622-631. Shelby, R.A., Lim, C., Yildirim-Aksoy, M. & Delaney, M.A. (2006) Effects of probiotic supplements on Ferguson R. M. W., Merrifield, D. L., Harper, disease resistance and immune response of young G. M., Rawling, M. D., Mustafa, S., Picchietti, S., Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. J. Appl. Aqua., Balcázar, J. L. &. Davies S. J. (2010) The effect of 18, 22–34. Pediococcus acidilactici on the gut microbiota and immune status of on-growing red tilapia Shelby, R.A., Lim, C., Yildirim-Aksoy, M. & Klesius, (Oreochromis niloticus). J. Appl. Microbiol., early P.H. (2007) Effects of probiotic bacteria as dietary view doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04713.x supplements on growth and disease resistance in young Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Gatesoupe, F.-J. (2002) Probiotic and (Rafinesque). J. Appl. Aqua., 19, 81–91. formaldehyde treatments of artemia nauplii as food for larval pollack, Pollachius pollachius. Quentel, C., Gatesoupe, F.J., Lamour, F., Abiven, Aquaculture, 212, 347–360. A., Baud, M., Aubin, J. (2004) Effects of oral administration of probiotics on the resistance Merrifield, D.L., Bradley, G., Harper, G.M., of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, against Baker, R.T.M., Munn, C.B., Davies, S. J. (2010a). Yersinia ruckeri: asymptomatic carriers and Assessment of the effects of vegetative and humoral immune parameters. 6th Symposium on lyophilised Pediococcus acidilactici on growth, Fish Immunology, 26–29 May 2004. Åbo/Turku, feed utilisation, intestinal colonisation and health Finland, p. 60. book of abstracts. parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus

38 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

September 6 - 8, 2010


VIVChina 2010 0 1 0 2 a n i h C V I d visit V

n a e m Co The international platform for the Chinese Feed to Meat industry

New CIEC, Beijing

Book review Encyclopedia of Aquaculture Edited by Robert R. Stickney


lthough not updated since the original edition in 2000, Robert Stickney's 'The Encyclopedia of Aquaculture' remains one of the major publishing contributions to the Aquaculture industry. The Encyclopedia of Aquaculture will be of interest across the whole range of Aquaculture disciplines, from Alaskan salmon farmers to Zimbabwean prawn growers ... in the 'hands on' sense and will be a significant reference resource to many scientists, academics, sociologists and even governmental departments. There is even a strong case for the

casual, non-industry person to read this book as several chapters focus on the consumer market for aquaculture products, recreational fresh and sea water fisheries, environmental issues and animal welfare. In depth coverage to just about every allied commercial aquaculture species ... and perhaps one or two whose linking to aquaculture may be perceived as slightly tenuous! Set out in alphabetical order this encyclopedia has impressive contributions from many respected contributors from around the world, indeed the contributors listing reads like a veritable 'Who's Who' of the aquaculture industry. Significant contributions on all the major industry topics make up the body of the book. From the scientific and commercial issues of alligator farming to near Artic shell fisheries to the in-depth analysis on aquaculture feed and the science of fish and shellfish medicine. Whilst many of you within the industry will already have a copy of the encyclopedia, for those of you who have not - or students or new recruits to the industry - this book is essential and required reading.

Publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc

Are you a Perendale bookworm? Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of International Aquafeed, has set up an online Amazon-based â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Book Shopâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; that lets you browse a wide range of recentlypublished reports and books on aquaculture. You will be able to read an extended review before making your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent publications and as a result become a reference point for your reading and research.

Book store Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment gateway, packaging and mailing service. Consult Perendale Publishers Online Book Store at: 40 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

SUMMIT2010 7th - 8th October


The 10th GLOBALG.A.P Conference


Good Agricultural Practice

London, UK

Farming for Consumers Everything you need to know about Good Agricultural Practice certification in one place Come and join us for the best networking, discussion and debates at the world‘s favourite conference event for Good Agricultural Practice! Top International speakers from the private and public sector will provide key insights into Good Agricultural Practice developments around the globe. Join our retailer and supplier members as they share with you how they are implementing GLOBALG.A.P into their global supply chains. 7th - 8th October 2010 HILTON London Metropole Hotel London, UK You want to know more about our event? Then please visit

HOT TOPICS  Learn about the New Version of the GLOBALG.A.P Standard  Responsible Management of Resources  Residue Monitoring  Smallholder Programmes  Certification Integrity  Social Practices in Primary Production  Aquaculture and Livestock Trends  Linkages to Consumer Labels

Book review Making Fisheries Management Work Implementing of Policies for Sustainable Fishing - Edited by Stig S. Gezelius and Jasper Raakjaer


his book is essential r e a d i n g for anyone involved in Aquaculture, particularly fisheries management. Authors Stig S. Gezelius and Jesper RaakjĂŚr have produced what may be the definitive guide to managing fisheries on a global basis. The book contains a comprehensive overview of the current status of fisheries and fisheries management in tandem with a number of case studies. Some notewor thy chapters include the shaping of modern

fisheries management with some well researched historical background; required reading for industry students. Whilst the essential elements of the book are predominantly related to sea fishing industr y there are many useful and allied lessons to be taken from the text for the aquaculture industry. Central is where, when and how wild fish stocks are declining around the world, and how quotas may have a significant impact on the still nascent aquaculture industr y. Whilst it is far to premature to sound the death knell of the traditional ocean-going fishing industr y, the world, its governments and its entrepreneurs need to look to future and coastal and inland aquaculture to sustain constant levels of seafood supply. The overriding evidence this book provides is that the aquaculture industry really does need to understand what is happening to the traditional sea-fishing industry. This book illustrates many of the oppor tunities that are currently available and many more that will manifest themselves in future, to ensure future generations of consumers of marine foods will be fed around the globe for many years to come.

Publisher Springer

Perendale Publishers Ltd would like to announce the launch of a new publication! Due to recent calls to expand our content into other areas of aquaculture and our desire to remain true to the focus and existing readership of International Aquafeed magazine, we have decided to address these requests by introducing a new title: Aquaculture Health & Disease Management. AHDM will cover aspects of health and disease that are not strictly within the International Aquafeed remit, allowing us to tackle more diverse subjects, without compromising content for our existing loyal readers. This new title will aim to provide vital information to owners, managers, researchers and workers within the fish farming and hatchery industries. We aim to offer information and advice on common health-related issues that effect the industry today, in a practical way. As with IAF, all our features will be based on sound science. The publication will be available free-of-charge online to anyone who joins our complimentary mailing list.

Aquaculture Health & Disease Management Feature 1: Asian vaccine protects grouper juveniles against vibriosis Available now! FREE to view & download


42 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

Join us in Porto The European Aquaculture Society is pleased to welcome you to its AE2010 event,


To be held from October 5-8, 2010 in Porto, Portugal. Hosted by CIMAR (CIIMAR and CCMAR)

AE2010 comprises: • International Conference • Aquaculture Trade Exhibition • Farmers’ (industry) day • Student Forum • EU Forum • Satellite Workshops & Meetings Aquaculture Europe - the annual meeting of the European Aquaculture Society

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Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of International Aquafeed, has set up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a wide range of recently-published reports and books on aquaculture. From early 2010 you will be able to read an extended review before making your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. Consult Perendale Publishers Online Book Store at:

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From january 2010 all IAF Classified Advertisements will now appear on the websites our TWO online distribution channels: DocStoc and Scribd.

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Both these high traffic channels specialise in the targeted positioning of industry, government and academic documents and information. Each document is accompanied by independent, unsolicited reader statistics

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Subscribe International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, events, book reviews and more. Subscribers to International Aquafeed also receive a free copy of the International Aquafeed Directory worth UK£85. For more information please visit our website.

July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 45


28th - 30th September 10 *

2nd - 3rd July 10 FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish, Barcelona, Spain Contact: Arjan Palstra, Av. Diagonal 645, Spain Tel: +34 9340 39384 Fax: +34 9341 10358 Email: Web:

5th - 9th July 10


The 9th International Congress of the Biology of Fish, Barcelona, Spain Contact: Judith García, Mondial & Cititravel Congresos, S.L. C./ Rosselló 303, atc. 1, 08037 Barcelona, Spain Tel: +34 93 2212955 Fax: +34 93 4592059 Email: Web: sidciencies.uab.

8th - 10th July 10


Indo Livestock 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia Contact: Devi Ardiatne, PT Napindo Media Ashatama, Jl Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No, Kompleks Billy & Moon - Pondok Kelapa, Jakarta, 13450, Indonesia Tel: +62 21 8644756 Fax: +62 21 8650963 Email: Web:

1st - 4th September 10


Viii International Fair Of Aquaculture And Fisheries Aquamar Bicentenary 2010, Campeche, México Contact: Lic. Zoila López Lara, Lluvia No. 225 Bis, Col. Jardines Del Pedregal, C.P. 01900, México, D.F. Tel: +52 55 91170515 Fax: +52 55 91170515 Email: zoila_lopez@ Web:

6th - 8th September 10


VIV China 2010, Beijing, China Contact: Anneke van Rooijen, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2952772 Fax: +31 30 2952809 Email: Web:

Events Key: = See our magazine at this show *Events Key: information •* = More See our magazine available at this show

• = More information available

4th Food Proteins Course, Utrecht, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC, Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: Web:

6th - 8th October 10


Aquaculture Europe 2010, Porto, Portugal Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: Web:

7th - 8th October 10 GLOBALGAP Summit 2010, London, UK Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH Spichernstr.55, D-50672 Cologne, Germany Tel: +49 221 57993693 Fax: +49 221 5799389 Email: Web:


20th - 23rd October 10 * Aquasur 2010, Puerto Montt Chile Contact: Maria Paz Fernandez, Matilde Salamanca 736 Oficina 501, Providencia CP7500657, Santiago, Chile Tel: +56 2 7565402 Fax: +56 2 7565450 Email: Web:

21st - 23rd October 10 * VIV America Latina 2010, Expo Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco Mexico Contact: Renate Wiendels, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2952788 Fax: +31 30 2952809 Email: figap-vivamericalatina Web:

26th - 27th October 10 *

2nd International Congress & Exhibition on Aquatic Animal Health Management and Diseases”,Tehran-Iran Contact: Dr. Siamak Goharkhay, Unit5, No. 208, Shohadaye, Jandarmery St., 12th Farvardin St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran-Iran, P. O. Box: 13145-198 Tel: +98 21 66976060 Fax: +98 21 66970742 Email: Web:

16th - 19th November 10 * EuroTier 2010, Hannover, Germany Contact: Sandra Willer, Eschborner Landstrasse 122, 60489 Frankfur, Germany Tel: +49 69 24788265 Fax: +49 69 24788113 Email: Web:

25th - 26th November 10 * Future of Protein Summit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Contact: Marjolijn Cohen, Jan van Eijcklaan 2, 3723 BC Bilthoven, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2252060 Fax: +31 84 8327225 Email: Web:


Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2011, Kochi,, India Contact: Mario Stael, Begijnengracht 40, B9000 Ghent, Belgium Tel: +3292334912 Email: Web:

28th February 11 - 3rd * March 11 Aquaculture America 2011, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA Contact: Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: Web:

Is there an event that our readers need to know about! Events listings are free of charge and will appear in the printed magazine and online. To add your event to our listing, contact Tuti Tan 46 | International AquaFeed | July-August 2010

26th - 29th May 11



Aquarama 2011, Singapore Contact: Doris Woo / Linda Tan, No.3 Pickering Street, ♯02-48, China Square Central, Singapore 048660 Tel: +65 65920889 Fax: +65 64389060 Email: Web:

6th - 10th June 11


World Aquaculture 2011 Incl Giant Prawn 2011, Natal, Brazil Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: Web:

3rd - 5th September 11 *

EVENTS 2011 17th - 20th January 11

9th - 11th March 11 VIV Asia 2011, Bangkok, Thailand Contact: Anneke van Rooijen, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands Tel: +31 30 2952772 Fax: +31 30 2952809 Email: Web:

Asian Aquaculture Network 2010, Vijayawada, India Contact: Mario Stael, Begijnengracht 40, B9000 Ghent, Belgium Tel: +32 92334912 Email: Web:

18th - 21st October 11


Aquaculture Europe 2011, Rhodos, Greece Contact: EAS, Slijkensesteenweg 4 B8400 Ostend, Belgium Tel: +32 59323859 Fax: +32 59321005 Email: Web:

25th - 29th June 12


AQUA 2012, St Petersburg, Russia Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: Web:

Triple triumph for Aquaculture UK 2010


quaculture UK 2010, at Aviemore, Scotland, “succeeded as a place to do business, to network and to catch up with all the latest developments.” This comment came from Dan Barth of Washington State, USA, who opened the conference with an overview of mariculture. He had been unsure before coming whether the event on May 19-20, 2010 was a scientific one, a purely commercial one or a networking event. “I was delighted to find that it was all three rolled into one,” he said. More than 60 percent of the exhibitors have already confirmed they will be returning in 2012 when the biennial event will be held on May 23-24. Organisers Ascomber have pledged additional exhibition space for 2012. This year’s exhibition was sold out two months before the event and 12 companies who wanted to exhibit were disappointed. Visitors enjoyed unusually good weather although the hills surrounding the McDonald Aviemore Highland Resort were still snow covered. There was attendance from more than 20 countries despite volcanic ash problems two days before which delayed the large Norwegian contingent by over 10 hours. Exhibitors have been enthusing about the event - expressing pleasure about the numbers, the great atmosphere, the business done and the facilities. Gregor Sutherland from Sterner AquaTech UK expressed how good it was to meet up with friends and customers old and new and was gratified by the amount of interest in Sterner’s product range and for the orders placed. “Aquaculture 2010 went really well for us,” said Neil Crawford of Inverness Aquatic Hygiene, who is among those who have reserved the same spot for 2012. “This Aviemore event is undoubtedly better than Glasgow in terms

of doing business and meeting up with potential customers.” First time anywhere exhibitor Joanna Buitelaar Warden’s company FCCA offer welfare audit, training and consultancy. “I met a lot of my existing customers and picked up plenty of new contacts. The conference sessions gave me the steer I wanted on what was happening in the market. Overall the cost was very competitive and the service from the organisers was excellent,” he added. “Getting my team face-to-face with site managers and staff, was the main advantage for Biomar,” according to Technical Support Manager Nick Bradbury, who also appreciated the conference paper on the new fishmeal and fish oil certification programme being introduced worldwide by the International Fishmeal and Fish Oil Organisation (IFFO).

The world´s top event for animal production

Your Business Driven by Innovations

Conference sessions Audiences for the conference sessions were good and specially large on day two to hear Brian Dornan, head of aquaculture policy at Marine Scotland, Scott Lansburgh of the Scottish Salmon Producers Organisation and Douglas Low of EWOS outline the industry’s own vision for the future. David Mack of Ascomber is receptive to comments and suggestions. “Quite a few said they would prefer to have a buffet, rather than sit down, dinner - with a lower ticket price and we will work on encouraging more Shetlanders make the trip. “However my considerable powers do not extend to climate change,” he said. “This year late bedroom bookers were competing with skiers for bedrooms around Aviemore. I think this was a one-off and snow is very unlikely to be an issue in late May 2012 for the next Aquaculture UK. Entry will remain free for those with bona fide aquaculture interests.”

More than 1,800 international manufacturers on 170,000 m2 exhibition floor space Over 130,000 visitors from 96 countries All the innovations for breeding and keeping cattle, pigs, poultry, fish Leading technologies for the use of renewable energies

Exhibition Grounds Hanover / Germany 16 – 19 November 2010

Decentral including

July-August 2010 | International AquaFeed | 47 RZ_105x297_Anzeigen_ET_Opt_EN Kopie.indd 1

20.04.2010 14:30:58 Uhr

In every issue of International Aquafeed we will be providing a list of companies and web links related to key stories & topics within each specific issue. If you would like information on how your company can get involved, please contact our Marketing Manager, Caroline Wearn. Email: |Tel +44 1242 267706

WEB LINKS Addcon Europe GmbH - Alltech Inc - Amandus Kahl GmbH & Co - Andritz Feed & Biofuel - Beneo–Animal Nutrition - Biomin Holding GmbH - Buhler AG - Chemoforma Ltd - DigsFish Services Pty Ltd - Dishman Netherlands B.V - Extru–Tech Inc - FES Consultants Ltd - Forberg International AS - Geelen Counterflow - GePro - Jiangsu Muyang Group Co Ltd - Lallemand Animal Nutrition - Meriden Animal Health Ltd - Novus International - Nutri–Ad International nv - nv SCE - Ottevanger Milling Engineers B.V. - Palm View Trade - Prayon SA - SPF (activite Aquativ) - Tapco Inc - Tesgo International BV - UniBio AS - Van Aarsen International BV - Wenger Manufacturing Inc - Zeigler Bros Inc - Zhengchang Group (ZCME) -

Fatten up your bottom line. Buhler high-performance animal and aqua feed production systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating costs and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit

B端hler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96,

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July | August 10 - International Aquafeed  

International Aquafeed Volume 13 Issue 4. Featuring: Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei • Evalua...

July | August 10 - International Aquafeed  

International Aquafeed Volume 13 Issue 4. Featuring: Inclusion of a mineral premix for low-salinity culture of Litopenaeus vannamei • Evalua...