Vo l u m e 1 3 I s s u e 3 2 0 1 0
Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquafeeds
Phytobiotics and Prebiotics: - a new alternative for sustainable aquaculture
Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture: - Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health the international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry Member of the World Aquaculture Society, European Aquaculture Society, American Feed Industry Association and the International Aquafeed Association
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An international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
Volume 13 / Issue 3 / May-June 2010 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2010 / All rights reserved EDITOR’S DESK
Aqua News Meriden enhances its product portfolio The launch of Fusion® - the next generation of toxin binder Aquaculture UK 2010 is a sell-out Stirling University’s Aquaculture research praised in Parliament SBAE Industries wins Sustainable Biofuels Award Aquativ and TC Union Agrotech A synergy for the Asian aqua feed market Tasmania - keeping pace with change Joint venture on disease resistance - Technologies for sustainable aquaculture commercialized by newly formed company Phodé Laboratories launch website and new visual identity
3 3 4 4 4 5 6 8 8
Lipid Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquafeeds
Aquaculture 2010 Aquaculture 2010 show review
Phytobiotic technology Enhancing the commercial and economic productivity of shrimp Penaeus vannamei with phytobiotic technology
THE AQUAFEED PHOTOSHOOT
LiptoCitro Phytobiotics and Prebiotics - A new alternative for sustainable aquaculture
Tuna Extending the shelf life of farmed juvenile Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)
Feed cost Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture - Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health
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International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
have just returned from the Aquaculture 2010 meeting in San Diego in a rather sunnier California compared to home. This was fairly well attended but subdued occasion due to the current economic climate but was nonetheless an opportunity for me to once again engage with the industry and catch-up on new research findings over a range of aquaculture areas. A very comprehensive coverage of diverse species including tuna, cobia and sturgeon as well as the established species such as trout, salmon, catfish and tilapia were addressed in some very sound scientific presentations by leading academics.
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There were sessions relating to feed ingredient evaluation with emphasis on protein concentrates and energy rich materials and a special session on feed additives. A more detailed report is presented in this issue by me and my colleague Eric Roderick of FishGen, who never misses these venues. I am very grateful for his contribution. There appears to be a slow revolution towards prophylactic approaches in the control of fish health and the inclusion of dietary feed additives will be a vital insurance policy to this effect in aquaculture management practices. I was delighted to see my friend Colin Mair (editorial panel) in good spirits and taking note of new developments in feed manufacturing processes and extrusion technology. It seems like the season for conferences with meetings due this year in Kentucky with the Alltech Symposium (their 30th year) and the XIV International Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Feeding to be held in Quindao (Ocean City), China in May/June. In the UK we also have the Aquaculture, UK event in Aviemore, Scotland which will attract the major salmon feed companies and related organizations. The speaker list looks impressive and specific aspects of fish nutrition will be included as well as the trade show. In October, we also have the Aquaculture Europe 2010 event in Oporto, Portugal which will overview trade and academic/technical issues across the European Union and non EU states with considerable aquaculture interests being promoted such as those in Norway,Turkey, Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation. In this issue we have an article focusing on fish oil and quality with respect to fatty acid content. The requirement for a sustainable use of alternative oil sources for fish oil is every bit as important as the repeated statements for protein and we must always note that energy is a key component of fish and crustacean feeds too. We have the expertise of Dr Wing-Keong No from the fish nutrition laboratory of the School of Biological Sciences, University Sans Malaysia and Dr Giovanni Turchini of Deakin University, Australia with Professsor Douglas Tocher of Stirling reporting in detail of the global demand for fish oil in aquafeeds and the quest for sustainable lipid sources to meet the stringent nutritional requirements of various species. The needs of the consumer are discussed and implications to traceability and human health as influenced by increased sea food consumption. In San Diego I was made aware of the advances in the culture of tuna by researchers led by Professor Daniel Benetti’s group at the University of Miami. I am pleased therefore to include in this issue a feature from a leading expert in farmed tuna from Australia. Dr Philip Thomas (University of New England, NSW) reports on work conducted previously in Flinders University on the effects of selenium status concerning its known role in combating oxidative damage of tissues with an emphasis on the promotion of flesh quality and colour in harvesting and processing. I hope you enjoy our news features and technical reviews as well as keeping abreast of advertising and new products. I sense a turn around in the aquaculture industry in 2010 with optimism for the feed sector based on continuing fundamental and applied science and technology and new market opportunities.
Production Manager Nicky Barnes Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email: email@example.com Design & Page Layout James Taylor Tel: +44 1242 267706 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
May-June 2010 2 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
WELCOME TO INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED MAGAZINE
Meriden enhances its product portfolio The launch of Fusion - the next generation of toxin binder ®
usion® is the next generation of toxin binder that also has great antifungal, ammonia binding proper ties and is an anti-caking agent. This unique product, in addition to its toxin binding advantages, offers analogous properties of a great source of essential amino acids, vitamins and other nutrients required to improve animal health and to boost performance. The individual components contained in Fusion ® have specific char acter istics and modes of actions that work synergistically to benefit all animal species. Mycotoxicosis is a well-known immunosuppressant caused by mycotoxins in animal feeds, increasing the risk of scouring, acidosis, enter itis and other gastrointestinal tract problems. The best solution to prevent mycotoxicosis in animals, in order to prevent the risk of zoonosis and reduce the detrimental effects caused by mycotoxins,
F - Fixes Mycotoxins U - Utilises the Feed S - Synergistic Effect I - Immune Booster O - Orego-Stim added N - Nutritional Benefits
is to include a high quality mycotoxin binder in
animal feeds. Meriden Animal Health Limited has specifically created the high affinity mycotoxin binder, Fusion ®, which safely binds various mycotoxin derivatives within the animal’s gastrointestinal tract, as well as inhibiting mould and fungus growth in feed. With its high binding capacity against mycotoxins such as, Deoxynivalenol, Fumonisin B1, Zearalenone, Vomitoxin, Aflatoxines (B1, B2, G1, G2), Ochratoxine A and T-2, Fusion ® protects and strengthens the immune system. Thus, the animal’s immune system is able to function normally and defend against various respirator y and gastrointestinal diseases. This enables proper growth and development of bone tissue and structure and minimises the r isk of secondar y bacterial invaders such as E. coli and Salmonella spp. As well as fixing mycotoxins Fusion ® increases growth rate and daily weight gain by improving FCR.
Meanwhile, it reduces scouring, acidosis, enteritis and other gastrointestinal tract problems. Fungal moulds in food and feed ingredients are the p r e - c u r s o r t o my c o t ox i n s . University studies have shown that Fusion ® has great antifungal proper ties that can kill Asper gillus and Penicillium strains that produce a wide range of mycotoxins that can cause great economical losses in animal industry. Fusion® can kill the fungal precursors preventing or reducing the mycotoxin presence, which in turn reduces the economic loss and increases returns. Fusion® is suitable for all types of animal feeds. More
Email: email@example.com Website: www.meriden-fusion.com
The natural choice for
Core vacuum coating 0ptimum penetration of liquid High energy feed May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 3
Aquaculture UK 2010 is a sell-out
xhibition space for Aquaculture UK 2010 on May 19-20 at the MacDonald Aviemore Highland Resort in Scotland is sold out 10 weeks ahead of schedule. Companies competing to display their products and services to an industry defying the recession have now booked the last of the 65 stand spaces in an exhibition area extended by 15 percent over that at the 2008 event. The biennial Aquaculture UK is now firmly established as the ultimate networking opportunity for everyone in the British shellfish and finfish sectors and as a fixture in the international aquaculture calendar. Aviemore, in Scotland’s stunning Cairngorms
National Park, is confirmed as the venue of choice for both exhibitors and visitors. In 2008 Scots, Norwegians and English accounted for the majority of the 1100 visitors, and were joined by delegates from 24 other countries. Enquiries about attendance this year - which is free to all those with a bona fide commercial, academic or political interest in aquaculture - are already buoyant. The target for 2010 is to add 20 percent to visitor numbers. David Mack, of event organisers Ascomber, says that Aviemore’s big advantage is that is has everything visitors and exhibitors need right there in the one complex – the exhibition halls, conference and business centre, plus - for the
inner man and woman - leisure arena, golf, restaurants, bars and accommodation. “This event is the most cost-effective way to catch up on the latest technology and to meet suppliers, buyers, decision-makers, opinion formers and colleagues,” he said. “We are back to the days where the event is regarded as a ‘must’ day out for everyone on the fish farm – not just the top brass.” Exhibitors cite lower costs and the right spirit and atmosphere as their reasons for favouring Aviemore. Lively conference sessions will run alongside the exhibition on both days. Themes will include: Is there an opportunity for Scotland to take advantage of the collapse
of salmon farming in Chile? At peak production in 2008, Chile sold 400,000 tonnes of salmon, but this year is forecast to sell less than 100,000 tonnes. The full conference programme will be announced shortly. The exhibition will be open from 10:00 until 18:00 each day. There are 1000 free parking spaces at the venue and a dedicated free shuttle coach service between Inverness Airpor t and the venue (45 minutes). Full details about travel and attendance are on the web site - www.aquacultureuk.com. More
David Mack Ascomber, Rosebank, Ankerville Street Tain, Ross & Cromarty, IV19 1BH Scotland Tel: +44 1862 892188 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Stirling University’s Aquaculture research praised in Parliament
n a recent Scottish Parliamentary debate, the future of Aquaculture was discussed and Scotland’s achievement in dramatically increasing its export of high quality salmon was recognised. Dr Richard Simpson MSP for mid Scotland and Fife, praised the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture for leading the way in this increasingly important field. The Institute, which runs highly regarded Undergraduate, Masters and Doctoral courses in Aquaculture, has made a significant contribution to many aspects of fish science. It has international links with Taiwan, Uganda
and Trinidad and its recent work with Tilapia fish has contributed to the work on warm water fish worldwide. In Aquaculture, effective disease control remains an impor tant factor and Dr Simpson raised the issue of upgrading the standards for combating bacterial kidney disease, the control of which is vital to the continued export of eggs and Smolts salmon. Speaking after the debate, Dr Simpson said: “Investment and diversity in Aquaculture is necessar y for the Scottish industr y’s long term future, as we
continue to lead the way in Aquaculture. “The work already carried out by the University, together with its ongoing research, is integral to Scotland’s success in fish farming. Its record of achievement has also had a knock-on effect worldwide, which is why Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture has a lot to be proud of.” Head of the Institute of Aquaculture, Profess Brian Austin said: “Aquaculture has been growing steadily and now contributes over 50 percent of the fish consumed world-
wide. The Institute of Aquaculture is proud of its world renowned reputation and long standing involvement in this important industry. “We work in close association both with UK and overseas governments, international organisations and industry to develop innovative technologies and creative approaches for the future.” More information Trudy Whyle University of Stirling Stirling, Scotland, FK9 4LA Tel: +44 1786 466687 Email: email@example.com
SBAE Industries wins Sustainable Biofuels Award
BAE Industries received the award in the Green Shoots competition during the past World Biofuels Conference in Amsterdam. The Green Shoots award is given to the most exciting innovation in next generation development. The award was handed out to Dr Koen Vanhoutte, founder and science director of the company during the award dinner.
An independent judging panel has voted on who they consider to provide the greatest sustainability benefits as measured by GHG savings, environmental impact and fur ther societal benefits of the operations or technology of the nominees. SBAE has added the DiaForce™ technology as a third pillar of algae production technologies. To date, those production technol-
ogies were limited to the open ponds versus closed photo bioreactors options. The patented DiaForce™ approach imitates rivers. This third pillar enables various new engineering solutions to the processing of algal biomass. DiaForce™ operates on running seawater and marginal land. It tackles the food-feedstock conflict and alleviates
4 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
freshwater needs for salinity reduction in traditional open pond systems. Moreover, part of the diatom biomass can be used as a fishmeal replacer, which reduces the price pressure on the aquaculture/human food sector. More
Marc Van Aken Tel: +32 9 228 06 38 website www.sbae-industries.com
Aquativ and TC Union Agrotech A synergy for the Asian aqua feed market
new Aquativ-SPF plant has been inaugurated on March 2, 2010. More than 25 par tners and customers visited the factory and attended the evening banquet, organized specially for this event. The new operation will produce high quality functional hydrolysates for the aqua feed and is located in Samut Sakorn, around to Chao Praya estuary, at 30 km of Bangkok. This industrial city is specialized in exporting marine products therefore benefits from fresh and sustainable marine raw materials from one of the major industrial player Tc Union Agrotech.
As in the other geographical area, Aquativ Thailand is supported by SPF local operation including a local R&D with a pilot line allowing developing quickly local products. This factory is set up under European standards in order to meet the requirements of the ISO, GMP + and HACCP certifications. Consequently, Aquativ uses the SPF core technologies of “bioprocess” to develop functional hydrolysates. Mr George Marco, director of Aquativ: “Aquativ-SPF has signed a long ter m supply contract with TC Union. Thai Union Agrotech has several years of experience in local and international business as well as a highly professional image in the feed Industr y. Being located on the same site shorten the supply chain therefore benefit the product quality thus the feed performance. Local production always ends up to a win-win situation for the local Industr y by reducing costs for the final user and
improving quality, consistency of the finish product.” Aquativ will propose two ranges of products in the Asian area: The NUTRIPAL range of quality marine raw materials (Tuna soluble, Tuna oil, Tuna liver powder) essentially used for its high nutritional value in the formulations (protein, omega 3, DHA…). The ACTIPAL range, a new generation of functional hydrolysates specially designed to improve the feed performance in regard with the farming productivity. Performance is mainly due to the high concentration of low molecular weights compounds (Natural Active NutrientsTM) such as peptides, free amino-acids and nucleotides generated by the bioprocess “We all know fish meal is critical for formulators because of the low molecular weight compounds n a t u r a l ly p r e s e n t e ve n though their level is ver y low. Our ACTIPAL range is a concentrate of these Natural Active NutrientsTM therefore allows the formulators to replace fish meal and keep the same level of low molecular weight compounds”, Marco said. Our local technical sales forces supported by technical experts in product application helps our customers to get the best from our product and bring to our customers innovating solutions for Aquaculture performance. SPF-Aquativ with this the 14th site worldwide will be closer to the Aqua feed manufacturers in Thailand and in Asia. More
Aquativ Thailand 68/5 Moo Rama 2 Road Bangkrachao Samut Sakhon 74000 Thailand Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 5
Tasmania keeping pace with change
he impact of climate change and advances in open ocean aquaculture are likely to be hot topics of debate at the upcoming 2010 Australasian Aquaculture International Conference and Trade Show. The Australasian Aquaculture Conference and Trade Show (AA2010) will be held in the city of Hobart, Tasmania, at the Hotel Grand Chancellor from 23-26 May 2010. The aquaculture industr y in Tasmania is well known for producing high quality seafood including Atlantic Salmon, searaised Trout, Pacific Oysters, Blue Mussels and Abalone, and has been labelled by some as the fish bowl of Australia.
The Tasmanian Salmon The Tasmanian Salmon industry is a new success story for aquaculture in Australia following a self rescue process during recent years, so that the industry now experiences strong growth and positive projections. T h e Ta s m a n i a n O y s t e r industr y is also a developing sector in Tasmania, currently providing direct employment for over 300 people , who produce around 3.6 million dozen Pacific Oysters a year, with an estimated farm gate value of $20 million. Australasian Aquaculture Conference Chair man Roy Palmer said the focus for the AA2010 Conference was keeping pace with change, whether that is economical, technological or environmental change. “In order for the aquaculture industry to continue to evolve as we move fur ther into the new millennium, there has to be adequate emphasis given to the
role that change plays in our lives,” Mr Palmer said. “The conference will address the 21st century challenge of unrivalled environmental concerns and performance, getting the right skills to the right place, industry economics and the requirement for technological adaption.” Mr Palmer said an industr y tradeshow will once again be one of the highlights of the conference and is set to be the leading aquaculture event in the Asia Pacific region in 2010. “Showcasing the latest products and ser vices available to the aquaculture industry, the tradeshow will expose delegates to cutting edge expertise and innovations from around the world,” he said. “Following from the previous conferences, this event is also truly international with registrations expected from over 40 countries across the globe.” During the three day conference, delegates will be exposed to a range of relevant and informative sessions including feed for the future, certification and ecolabelling, efficient aquaculture production and reducing red tape in aquaculture regulation as well as other interesting topics pertinent to the theme of keeping pace with change.
Day one Day one offer s delegates’ sessions with a focus on keeping pace with change in trade and markets. The plenary session will be presented by Mark Ryan from Tassal who will look at perspectives on the Australian trade of seafood, as well as aquaculture’s place in the seafood supply chain. Mr Ryan will also present Tassal’s strategy for keeping pace with predicted changes.
Day two Day two’s focus is placed on keeping pace with long and short term changes. This will see senior research scientist at CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Dr Alistair Hobday present a highly anticipated plenar y session on climate change. Dr Hobday’s research spans a range of topics including spatial management, migration of large pelagic species, environmental influences on marine species and the impact of climate change on marine species. Dr Hobday will provide delegates with the latest information on climate change and what the aquaculture industry needs to know in order to ensure it is ready for both the opportunities and challenges this issue presents. The second plenary speaker for day two is Adolfo Alvial who will present on the topic of sudden change with long term consequences. As part of this, Mr Alvial will provide an overview of the Chilean salmon industr y’s ISA outbreak and the enormous financial, social and political changes that have occurred in Chile since the outbreak.
Day three On day three, the focus of the plenary sessions move to keeping pace with changes that are affecting the global aquaculture industr y. Peter Redmond from the Global Aquaculture Alliance will speak to delegates about the integrity of the global aquaculture industr y through internationally agreed standards. Mr Redmond will also touch on what the Global Aquaculture Alliance is doing to help the industry cope with change. Other sessions during the three days of the conference explore
6 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
topics such as open ocean aquaculture, touted as the next frontier, as well as genetics and genomics, lean manufacturing in aquaculture and South East Asia aquaculture trends. National and international speakers will provide narrative on these and many other topics at both a practical and scientific level. The open ocean session will provide conference delegates with an oppor tunity to look at the most recent technology developments, the challenges facing the sector, technical and regulatory issues, and operational experiences and will conclude with possible development trends for technology and species. Not yet established in Australia, open ocean aquaculture is now operational in countries such as Norway, Chile, China, Ireland, Panama, Italy and Spain and offers considerable opportunities for the expansion of Australia’s finfish sector. A detailed conference program is due to be finalised over coming weeks and will be available for viewing at www.australian-aquaculturepor tal.com. Information about Hobar t, the host city of the AA2010 conference can be viewed at www.discovertasmania. com. The conference is proudly supported by the Australian Seafood CRC, the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, and the Australian Government Depar tment of Agriculture , Fisheries and Forestry. More
Sarah-Jane Day Tel: +65 437 152234 Email email@example.com.
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Joint venture on disease resistance Technologies for sustainable aquaculture commercialized by newly formed company
etaMorphix, Inc (MMI) and Stirius, Inc today announced that MMI and Stirius have formed AquaAnimal Health, Inc to develop aquaculture technologies to enhance production profitability and advance disease resistance. AquaAnimal Health is an aquaculture animal health company dedicated to serving the rapidly growing finfish and crustacean industry around the world. MMI has granted AquaAnimal Health a license to its proprietary Myostatin technology and an option to its GENIUS Whole Genome System™ for use in aquaculture. The financial details of the agreement have not been disclosed. One of MMI’s lead technology platforms, Myostatin, a natural protein which is a potent regulator of muscle growth, is present
in humans, animals and has been identified in over 40 species of fish as well as in economically important aquatic invertebrates such as shrimp, scallops and crab. Natural inhibition of Myostatin in finfish has recently been shown to produce more muscle protein and increase feed efficiency. The company believes that the technology will increase aquaculture productivity, a multibillion-dollar industr y that is growing faster than all other protein sectors. The suite of new products, MyoAqua I and II, are projected to reduce feed consumption ratios while strengthening aquaculture profits. Stirius CEO Karl Kelly said, “We believe that aquaculture answers many of the concerns in the pending world protein crisis as well as provides environmental
advantages over beef, poultr y and swine production. The AquaAnimal Health Myostatin technology has the potential to decrease the producer’s total feed costs while improving annual production.” Aquaculture is dependent on constant breeding to retain and enhance fish and cr ustacean quality. AquaAnimal Health will employ the MMI technology to sustain superior characteristics across all aquaculture breeding. MMI’s technology, DNA-based marker diagnostics for agriculture, has been used to predict how livestock will perform with regard to meat quality and production efficiency. MMI markets test kits for meat quality and production efficiency traits validated on sever al hundred thousand head of commercial
cattle. Employing the proven MMI genomic technology in aquaculture will provide similar benefits to increase aquaculture productivity as well as increase resistance to disease. “We feel mar ker-assisted selection will allow breeders to identify aquaculture species with superior traits, thereby improving quality and production efficiency. We are ver y pleased to have Stirius, with its wealth of experience and knowledge of the life sciences industry, jointly developing and commercializing our technologies,” said Dr Edwin Quattlebaum, MMI President & CEO. AquaAnimal Health is currently evaluating sites across South Carolina for the establishment of process development and aquaculture research laboratories.
Phodé Laboratories launch website and new visual identity
aboratoires Phodé was founded in 1996 by DVM Daniel Eclache with the objective to propose to the market innovative, functional and natural flavors. Phodé definitely broke the image of flavors in the food and feed industr y when proposing functional specialties with properties of appetite stimulation or stress reduction!
and international growth. This step must be marked by a visual evolution, which had not changed from the company founding. The Leaf stands as a symbol of the hear t of Phodé research, enhancing the natural dimension of the products. But at the first glance this stylistic leaf designs the great dynamism and the forward march of the company.
Quick and international development
Precise and detailed website
Like in a star t-up company, development was assured first in the mother-country - France, where 50 jobs were created in south-western Albi area. Now the company expands internationally, being present in more than 20 countries and owning four subsidiar ies in Fr ance , United States and China.
The website at www.phode. com moves to more modern, and becomes more interactive and customer-oriented.
Numerous awards The company was granted
as « Gazelle » by the French Government in 2007. During the same year, their innovative Space Phood’ing molecular-cookingbased range was awarded at SIAL with Grand Prix de l’ Innovation. They received also the price of the French International Chambers of Commerce for the best project of
establishment in China. Last but not least, the company was chosen by the French agency OSEO amongst the 2000 more innovative companies in the country.
New visual identity to mark milestone 2010 is the year of expansion
8 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
Caroline Bourgeois-Guingand Laboratoires Phodé Z.I. Albipôle – 81150 Terssac , France Tel: +33 5 63778060 Fax: +33 5 63778061 Email: email@example.com Website: www.phode.com
The worldÂ´s top event for animal production
Your Business Driven by Innovations More than 1,800 international manufacturers on 170,000 m2 exhibition floor space Over 130,000 visitors from 96 countries All the innovations for breeding and keeping cattle, pigs, poultry, fish Leading technologies for the use of renewable energies
Exhibition Grounds Hanover / Germany 16 â€“ 19 November 2010
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 9 RZ_105x297_Anzeigen_ET_Opt_EN Kopie.indd 1
20.04.2010 14:30:58 Uhr
by Dr Wing窶適eong Ng, Fish Nutrition Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Dr Giovanni Turchini, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University, Australia, Dr Douglas Tocher, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland
he global aquaculture industry is one of the fastest growing food p ro d u c t i o n sectors with farmed seafood currently accounting for about 50 percent of all fish consumed in the world.
Aquafeeds and fish oils
Marine fish oil production has not increased beyond 1.5 million tonnes for the past quarter of a century and in order to further expand, the global aquaculture industry cannot continue to rely solely on this source of lipid. The high demand, impending short supply and often times high prices makes
It is estimated that aquaculture produces about 65 million tonnes of seafood valued at more than US$78 billion annually. Aquaculture is anticipated to play an increasingly important role in meeting the seafood demand of a growing human population. The rapid increase in aquaculture production worldwide has been fueled by the use of industrially manufactured aquafeeds. Figure 2: The annual world production (1995Conventionally, marine fishmeal 2008) of the three major vegetables oils as and fish oil are used as the major compared to fish oil feed ingredients in the formulation of commercial aquafeeds to supply dietary fish oil a bottle-neck in the farming dietary protein and lipid, respectively. It is of aquatic animals, and there is currently estimated that aquafeeds currently congreat urgency within the global aquafeed sume about 90 percent of the global supply industry in finding suitable alternatives to of fish oil and many have predicted that the replace marine fish oils. demand for fish oil from the aquaculture This article will give an overview of the industry will imminently out strip supply. 10 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
various alternative lipid sources, grouped according to their main chemical characteristics. Their unique potential advantages and challenges for use in aquafeeds will be highlighted. The physiological effects of various lipid sources and their components on growth, lipid metabolism, health and post-harvest qualities of the farmed fish are briefly discussed.
Alternative lipid sources Oils and fats are characterised by their unique fatty acid composition. The major vegetable oils have one common characteristic; none contain n-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). In contrast, marine fish oils have a high content of n-3 LC-PUFA. In consideration of the fact that the dietary fatty acid composition is mirrored in farmed fish fillet, the inclusion of alternative lipid sources in aquafeed can have significant impacts on the nutritional qualities of farmed seafood products. The n-3 LC-PUFA are known to impart healthpromoting benefits to human consumers. Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich plant oils include palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil.
Figure 1: Stacks of imported fish oil in drums are a common sight at aquafeed mills in Asia
Alternative Lipid Sources in Aquafeeds
F: Lipid Global production of crude palm oil (CPO) exceeded 43 million tonnes and together with about nine million tonnes of coconut and palm kernel oils, constitutes a highly available and sustainable source of lipids for the aquafeed industry. When freshly extracted, CPO is the richest known natural source of β-carotene and is also a rich source of vitamin E, consisting of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Several studies have shown that various palm oil fractions can be successfully used either singly or in combination with other plant oils in the aquafeeds of commercially farmed species. The limited PUFA content, combined with the presence of natural antioxidants (in the case of CPO), has been reported to impart enhanced pellet and fillet oxidative stability. Furthermore, the overall fatty acid modification of the fish fillet is less detrimentally affected by SFA-rich oils, when compared to other alternative lipid sources. Nevertheless, concerns have been expressed on its potential negative effect on nutrient digestibility, particularly when fed to cold water fish species during the winter season.
High quality sources of dietary energy Soybean, corn, safflower, cottonseed and sunflower oils are the main n-6 PUFA-rich (namely linoleic acid, 18:2n-6) oils produced. When incorporated into aquafeeds, these n-6 PUFA-rich plant oils have been reported to be high quality sources of dietary energy and fatty acids during the grow-out cycle in most fish tested to date. However, a major concern of using these oils is that linoleic acid is abundantly and preferentially deposited in the fish fillet. Since our human diets already contain too much n-6 PUFA, some scientists believe that a good fish oil substitute should limit the deposition of these less desirable fatty acids in fish fillets. Once deposited, linoleic acid is also known to be selectively retained in fish fillets and resistant to ‘dilution’ even after switching to a fish oil finishing diet. This may be problematic in the context of using fish oil finishing diet strategies to restore beneficial n-3 to n-6 PUFA ratios in farmed fish fillets. Several selected cultivars of these oilseeds have been recently developed to contain significantly lower concentrations of linoleic acid. The major monounsaturated fatty acid
Figure 3: Palm oil is the most produced and fractionated oil in the world and many fractions have been successfully evaluated in aquafeeds
physiologically important n-3 LC-PUFA by (MUFA)-rich oil produced is rapeseed many farmed species, albeit mostly at lim(canola) oil with olive, peanut and rice ited capabilities. bran oils making up the rest of this class Despite encouraging evidence of potenof lipids. Oleic acid (18:1n-9) and other tial bio-conversion of ALA and SDA into MUFA are readily digested and β-oxidized n-3 LC-PUFA, the inclusion of these oils by fish to produce energy and have been (i.e. linseed/flaxseed, camelina, perilla and reported to have no known adverse effect echium) in aquafeeds is limited, as they are on fish growth performance. D e p e nding on market prices, rapeseed oil is currently one of the commonly utilized lipid alternatives in A new generation of omega-3 lipids commercial with a broader spectrum of health aquafeeds, benefits. especially those formulated for - High DHA contents, preferably in cold water easily digestible and highly bio and temperate available form for aquaculture use. species. Plant oils - Numerous benefits on improving rich in n-3 the immune response, better PUFA [namely α-linolenic acid, weight gain and physical ALA (18:3n-3), conditions of land animals. and stearidonic acid, SDA (18:4n-3)] has generated much research interest due to the ability of these fatty acids to be Fiskerihavnsgade 35 Phone +45 79120999 bio-converted P.O. Box 359 Fax +45 79120888 into the longer 6701 Esbjerg E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org chain, more Denmark Web www.999.dk unsaturated,
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 11 999_AD_IAF0904V3.indd 1
F: Lipid Impact of lipid sources on farmed fish As mentioned above, dietary fatty acid composition directly influences flesh fatty acid composition, the extent of which depends on the level of substitution of fish oil, the duration of feeding and the precise fatty acid composition of the substituting oils. In general, substitution with vegetable oils results in increased proportions of C18 fatty acids (18:1nFigure 4: Farmed seafood fed alternative lipid sources remains a good dietary source of health-promoting omega-3 fatty acids for the human consumer 9, 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3), and decreased proportions of n-3 LC-PUFA currently relatively expensive and limited (EPA, 20:5n-3 and DHA, 22:6n-3). New lipid sources in supply. In choosing substituting oils, we should In recent years, new lipid sources conHowever, they can be useful in oil blend aim to minimise these effects and so, ideally, taining n-3 LC-PUFA are the subject of formulations to adjust dietary n-3 PUFA the replacing oil should satisfy some general intense research interest. These include oils levels. criteria. The oil should have a high MUFA derived from marine invertebrates such as content, not only to provide a good energy copepods, krill and amphipods. source, but also to reduce the level of C18 Given the significantly large biomass of Animal fats PUFA, which should be relatively low. marine invertebrates and projecting a â€˜safeâ€™ Terrestrial animal fats include tallow, For this reason, oils with high C18 level of harvest, it has been estimated that poultry by-product fat and lard. About PUFA, particularly 18:2n-6, should be used these new sources have the potential to 12 million tonnes of rendered animal sparingly. produce more marine oils than current fats are manufactured every year around The replacement oil should contain global fish oil production. the world and are generally more eco18:3n-3, not simply for potential conversion However, there are some technical connomical than fish and plant oils. Animal to EPA and DHA, but also because its cerns on the use of such oils, such as harfats represent a very diverse group of inclusion will help to balance the n-3/n-6 vesting technologies and the large content products but are generally rich in SFA ratio and limit 18:2n-6 inclusion. Some of waxes and phospholipids together with although some can be rich in MUFA and researchers suggest that oil blends consistgreat variability in fatty acid composition. contain PUFA. ing of several plant oils are better in terms One good n-3 LC-PUFA-rich source Their fatty acid composition is largely of health and welfare of the fish when used are oils derived from by-catch and fishery influenced by the diet of the livestock. in aquafeeds. or aquaculture by-products. With better For example, poultry by-product fat in management and utilisation, it is estimated Australia is enriched with MUFA as chickthat the total quantities of fish meal and ens are commonly fed a rapeseed-based Dietary fat influences fish oil coming from aquaculture and fishery diet, while in the USA, it has relatively Dietary fatty acid composition also derived waste and by-products are most higher n-6 PUFA as birds are commonly fed influences various aspects of lipid and likely in the range of several million tonnes. a soybean-based diet. fatty acid metabolism. These include Single cell oils (from microalgae) and Recent studies have reported that these digestibility, lipogenesis, lipid transport genetically modified oilseeds represent lipid sources are well digested and utilised and uptake, fatty acid catabolism and novel n-3 LC-PUFA-rich oils. by most fish species. Growth performance fatty acid desaturation and elongation Nutritionally, single cell oils are likely to of aquaculture species are generally not that can all influence tissue fatty acid be the best alternative to fish oil as they negatively impacted by dietary animal fats as composition. contain even higher amounts of beneficial long as the diets are formulated to contain For example, the amount of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA, but their very high producsufficient amount of MUFA and PUFA to SFA influences the digestibility of lipids tion costs and limited availability make their facilitate the digestion of SFA and meet especially at low water temperatures. use almost prohibitive. Oils from genetically the essential fatty acid requirements of the LC-PUFA synthesis from 18:3n-3 has been modified oilseeds are not yet a commercial aquatic animal. shown to be increased in fish fed diets commodity and legislative issues may need Terrestrial animal fats are increasingly with fish oil substituted by vegetable oils to be addressed before such oils can be recognized as safe and cost-effective lipid through up-regulation of desaturase and used in aquafeeds. sources when properly used in aquafeeds. elongase gene expression and consequently 12 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
F: Lipid Seafood from farmed animals fed diets with high fish oil replacements remains a About the Authors: good source of n-3 LC-PUFA that, although Wing–Keong Ng of the Fish reduced, are still higher than in any alternaNutrition Laboratory, School of tive meat or food item and so contribute Biological Sciences, at Universiti positive health benefits. Sains Malaysia in Penang, Malaysia Impacts of dietary lipid source on (Email: email@example.com); Dr Giovanni physical quality aspects are few, but M. Turchini, is at the School of Life lower oxidation values in flesh during and Environmental Sciences, Deakin shelf life in fish fed vegetable oils comUniversity, Warrnambool, VIC 3280 in pared to fish oil is the most consistent. Australia and Douglas R. Tocher is at Other influences include some limited the Institute of Aquaculture, University effects on flesh colour, texture and gapof Stirling in Stirling, Scotland. ing, and liquid holding, but not freshness, during shelf life. In most farmed species studied, taste Author’s note: panelists were able to discriminate amongst The subject matter of this article some specific attributes and quality paramwill be the topic of an upcoming eters of fillet of fish fed different lipid book entitled ‘Fish Oil Replacement sources. and Alternative Lipid Sources in However, these differences are relatively Aquaculture Feeds’ edited by the subtle and consumers have been reported authors and published by CRC Press not to show any specific preferences for Taylor and Francis Group: http://www. differently fed farmed fish. Effects on filcrcpress.com/ let organoleptic properties are somewhat subjective and variable, and are dependent on the dietary oil blends used. The product quality factors can, to a large extent, Are you sure be restored I‘m not missing through the use a key essential of finishing diets rich in fish oil. nutrient? In conclusion, in the current era of increased consumer demands for food safety, traceability and quality, the challenge for ® the aquaculture industry is to maintain the naturally supports… recognised … Per formance benefits of … Health seafood con… Stress management sumption for human health, especially when alternative lipids are used in aquafeed formulations, while maintaining We have your per for mance in mind sustainability and profitability Chemoforma Ltd. CH-4302 Augst Switzerland of the industry. Tel +41 61 811 33 55 Fax +41 61 811 28 03
increased activity of the desaturation/elongation pathway. Unfortunately this is restricted to certain species and does not occur in marine fish and crustaceans. Irrespective of species, increased synthesis of LC-PUFA is not able to compensate for the lack of dietary n-3 LC-PUFA. Lipids and fatty acids are now known to be highly metabolically active, involved in controlling and regulating cell metabolism and animal physiology through mechanisms involving gene expression and several lipid signalling pathways. Therefore, modification of tissue fatty acid compositions can have wide ranging effects. Among the most studied are the eicosanoids (for example, prostaglandins, leukotrienes and resolvins) that are metabolically active derivatives of LC-PUFA with important roles in mediating inflammatory and immune responses to a variety of stresses. The n-6-derived eicosanoids are pro-inflammatory whereas n-3-derived eicosanoids are either less potent or anti-inflammatory. Thus, substitution of n-3-rich fish oil by n-6-rich vegetable oils will alter the eicosanoids produced resulting in effects on inflammatory and immune responses, which can be potentially detrimental or beneficial depending upon the particular stress. The above illustrates one mechanism whereby altered dietary fatty acids, especially n-3/n-6 balance, can affect the health and welfare of fish. However, substitution of fish oil with vegetable oils affects the immune system in several ways, including both cellular and humoral immunity, although these effects do not always alter resistance to disease. Other aspects of health status of fish that may be affected by dietary fatty acids include welfare, through altering the cortisol response to stress, tissue morphology (for example, liver and intestine) that may or may not affect organ functionality, skeletal development, cataracts and development of atherosclerosis and cardiac lesions. However, many factors can affect stress, immunity and pathogen resistance in fish, including the type, level and duration of vegetable oil feeding, other dietary nutrients, fish species and environmental conditions. Product quality encompasses physical aspects such as freshness and appearance, and organoleptic properties, as well as nutritional quality, which is largely defined by the n-3 LC-PUFA content.
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 13
F: Aquaculture 2010
Aquaculture 2010 San Diego - March 1-5, 2010 A report by Simon Davies and Eric Roderick (FishGen, UK) A report by Simon Davies (University of Plymouth) and Eric Roderick (FishGen, UK)
he theme for Aquaculture 2010, held this year at the Town and Country Resort in San Diego was Sustainable=profit. The venue hosted nearly 3000 participants from around 80 countries with a truly international flavour underpinning the global activities, research, technology and business as well as legislation and governance. . The conference organisers, John and Mary Cooksey and their team, ensured as ever that the events, presentations and the trade show performed to order and the social side was excellent with the Presidents banquet and a distinctly Californian menu. Joe Tomasso a past WAS president chaired the programme committee. This was a comprehensive programme with over 1200 abstracts listed. Oral presentations were arranged over 16 concurrent sessions. Additionally, there were over 200 poster presentations covering ever y area of aquaculture. Every significant cultured species was featured, but the main ones were shrimp, trout (and other almonds), catfish, tilapia, flatfish, shellfish, striped bass, sturgeon and algae. The meeting comprised the Califor nian Aquaculture Association (CAA) and associated organisations. Also included were the World Aquaculture Society (WAS), the National Aquaculture Association (NAA), the US Aquaculture Suppliers Association (USASA), Amer ican Tilapia
Association (ATA), Striped Bass Growers Association (SBGA), and U.S. Trout Farmers Association. This provided a sound platform for cross disciplinary exchanges of ideas, sharing of key knowledge areas and enabling technology transfer to be achieved across the various topics: These were principally appropriate to fish and shellfish husbandry, aquaculture engineering, genetics, disease and health management as well as nutrition and feed technology. Keynote speaker Peter Redmond representing Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) spoke on â€œThe Importance of Certificationâ€? followed by a session on Ecolabelling in Aquaculture. This is a controversial topic and has issues relating to aquatic animal welfare,
14 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
fish feed ingredient sources, genetic selection and product quality. Presently, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), Global Gap and the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA) compete directly for clients on a global basis with similar eco-standard criteria. It was advocated that the ideal scenario would be a single global standard, to enable producers and consumers to have a more transparent view of the sector. The importance of traceability appeared regularly in several presentations, highlighting the importance of being able to track produce from the farm to the plate as is our DEFRA terminology in the UK. Nutrition featured prominently throughout the venue with a number of sessions covering
F: Aquaculture 2010 recent advances in the nutrition of fin fish and crustacean species. A dedicated session chaired by Diane Bellis, Delber t Gatlin, Michael Rust, Jeffrey Silverstein and Frederick Barrows concerned alternative feedstuffs for aquaculture. The quest for replacing fish meal or at least reducing our burden on meal and oil from oceanic sources seems eternal but major steps have been taken. Although it may seem that such plant by- products as soya bean meal and oil seed rape meal and various protein concentrates derived from corn, rapeseed etc have been fully studied, there is much more information to be gained from continuing processing developments. Improved nutritional quality has resulted for fish such as trout and salmon with refinements such as enzyme treatments and enhanced milling technology to remove non-starch polysaccharides and anti- nutritional factors. Similarly, there was much discussion regarding the use of oils and lipid sources in general in aquafeeds in a session under the chair of Jesse Trushenski, Rebecca Lochman, Ron Hardy and Giovanni Turchini. Most of the presentations examined the role of lipids in relation to the physiological as well as metabolic requirements of fish with new insights into the use of novel sources from algae and macro-algae (seaweeds) for a variety of species. Speakers reported effects on carcass composition, fillet quality, as well as on growth, health and immune function. Advances in the use of alternative terrestrial plant oils were also featured. However, another area of interest seemed to be the relevance of feed additives which warranted a separate session. This was chaired by Delbert Gatlin and Ann Gannam and it was pleasing to be directly involved with presentations from myself, my PhD student Carly Daniels and work presented by John Sweetman involving Plymouth. There was a review on functional dietary components such as MOS, FOS and various algal, microbial and yeast extracts as well as probiotic applications. Rebecca Lochman from the University of Arkansas gave an interesting review on various dairy yeast prebiotic agents on golden shiners, goldfish and channel catfish culture with a very southern USA theme. John Sweetman spoke on mannan oligosaccharides (Bio-Mos) and their benefits from a commercial standpoint with sound scientific evidence for their positive effects on gastrointestinal function, growth and health potential in experiments conducted across Europe form several universities and institutions. This
work addressed trout, salmon and sea bass. Carly Daniels (UK) gave a splendid first talk at such a large venue on her work with the European lobster examining the use of prebiotic and probiotics in larval diets for different stages of development and survivability. Carly is based at the National Lobster Hatchery in Padstow, Cornwall which is devoted to the release of juvenile lobsters for a conservation and stock enhancement scheme. Professor Simon Davies p r e s e n t ed an overview on the complexities of the ver tebrate gut and how the fish intestine is as complicated as higher animals with distinct involvements in immunology, endocrine function as well as nutrient absorption. The effects of various feed additives as modulator s of gut immune function, microbiology and gut integrity were stated and the role of commercial MOS repor ted for a range of fish species.
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 15
Live foods and their use in aquaculture has always been a key aspect of the hatchery phase of fish and shrimp production. The conference sessions addressed this area with examples of improvements in husbandry, nutritional quality of artemia and new There is resurgence in interest in algae at present and this relates as much to algal based bio-fuel applications as well as fish
F: Aquaculture 2010 Additionally, were several sessions on drug testing and regulations and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave presentations on the development of safe and effective drugs for treating fish diseases at their Center for Veterinary Medicine Office of Research. Priorities include studying the biodistribution, residue persistence, metabolism, efficacy and environmental effects of drugs and other chemicals used in aquaculture. Other studies are designed to investigate the effect of drugs on the environment, non-target species, and the pathogens associated with aquatic species. Of increasing importance are studies designed to under-
and shellfish aquaculture practice. Recent research indicates that algal extracts have some potential to partially replace fish oils in many fish diets if we can raise their lipid content and achieve the correct essential fatty acid balance. Nutrition and larval rearing are seen as constraints to the rearing of many new species requiring much support for research and development. It is imperative to optimise the delivery of nutrients within live foods by enrichments and to assess artificial inert diets based on freeze dried algae and other components from animal and marine sources. Now that the humble zebr a fish is becoming a fish of widespread interest due to its use in biomedical research,
genomic expression and that proteomic matabolomic profiles can be affected by the nutritional history of fish and since the zebra fish is used principally for gene expression studies, standardisation of their diets would be highly advantageous in terms of global investigations and reliability of such data. The use of a controlled bio-floc approach was also a subject of much interest and there were companies present with products for promoting efficient bio-floc mass and stabilising this in water within recirculation systems and pond culture environments. This was particularly emphasised for intensive shrimp culture systems and a number of companies displayed products that would serve to enhance bio-floc production. It was good to hear first hand about Iranian aquaculture industr y and some academic bodies were represented in their own special session encompassing a range of very interesting presentations highlighting some leading research. Not surprisingly, the Iranian focus was on sturgeon farming and caviar production which are high value products and a niche market. I should add that we had a taste of smoked sturgeon at an evening function hosted by the Hubbs-Seaword Research Institute and it was a most delicious fish.
"Some 3000 participants from around 80 countries with a truly international flavour underpinning global activities, research, technology and business as well as legislation and governance, were present" there is a specialist session at these conferences relating to its husbandr y. Some commercial companies are now producing zebra fish feeds such as Zeigler bros USA but more research is needed to obtain reliable data for their specific nutritional requirements due to the necessity for standardisation. It is now recognised that
16 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
stand the development and transmission of antimicrobial resistance in both pathogens and environmental microbes. Several papers examined funding opportunities for the aquaculture industr y, as there is certainly going to be further expansion to meet market demands. With aquaculture currently providing over 50% of the fish consumed globally, and with more pressure on wild stocks, many new species are being successfully cultured, due to the excellent research work being undertaken, and it seems that the outlook for aquaculture as a global industry remains very positive despite the recent world economic situation. In summary, the conference was a valuable occasion to meet up with the industry at large and allow academics, technical, commerce and government interests to interact within an enjoyable setting with a renewal of dedication to embrace the spirit of a sustainable agenda for a profitable and expanding aquaculture industry. The associated aquafeed and nutrition research sector was well represented will play a vital role to achieving this objective.
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Enhancing the commercial and economic productivity of shrimp Penaeus vannamei with phytobiotic technology by Matt Pearce MSc
It appears that the 2006 EU ban against Antibiotic Growth Promoters in animal feeds has taken a world leading stance in a trend that is likely to continue in order to eliminate residual drugs in food and protect the efficacy of drugs for human health. This has led to changes in agricultural and aquaculture practices that could soon take place in other regions around the world. This article reports on a field trial using Orego-Stim® Aquatract as a phytobiotic feed additive in Whiteleg Shrimp Culture P. vannamei in Panama.
n the last decade, P. vannamei has emerged to become the number one shrimp of choice for cultivation around the world.
Today P. vannamei represents approximately three quarters of the world’s farmed shrimp and has replaced the previous favourite P. monodon due to a tolerance of higher stocking densities per hectare and better feed conversion ratios both of which result in higher return on investment for farmers and consequently the retail value chain.
Bio-secure shrimp production Shrimp aquaculture continues to find ways of applying revolutionary innovation
“Shrimp food products have consistently made up about half of the failed EU rapid alert tests in the last few years.” and technology to its commercial farming practices. One such revolution has been the development of specific pathogen free
vides resistance to a particular strain of virus for example. However, as is known with other mammalian and human viruses’, they have the ability to mutate into different strains and therefore SPR shrimp may not necessarily convey the same level of protection against all strains of viruses’. Similar to other organisms, there appears to be a trade-off between disease resistance and shrimp growth (Chevassus and Dorson 1990, Henryon et al. 2002, Ceniacua & Akvaforsk 2002).
(SPF) shrimp. Such shrimp are designated free from one or more of a particular named pathogen which is usually one of the nine viruses’ that are can infect shrimp. SPF condition is lost once the shrimp leaves the SPF facility, unless they are transferred directly to an equal status biosecure facility. Consequently, SPF status is a temporary condition that is not passed on genetically. Specific Pathogen Resistant (SPR) shrimp is another innovative technology that pro-
Trial - The trial took place at Eneríque Enseñat at Coclé in Panama Table 1: Trial Set-up
Stocking Density shrimp/m2
Average Pond Surface Area Hectares
Initial Stocking weight g
Total number of larvae Stocked
Feed Fed % body weight per day
Feed % Crude Protein
0.003 - 5g
5 - 15g
15g - >20g
Table 2: Feeding Methods
18 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
F: Phytobiotic technology Table 3: Harvest results
There are compelling reasons why breeding shrimp for resistance to a single viral pathogen, using current selective breeding strategies, may not be the most prudent course of action for the long-term viability of the shrimp farming industry (Moss et al. 2005).
Larvae nutrition Since marine fish and shrimp farming first became commercially viable on a significant scale, the larval and hatchery phases of growth have been particularly susceptible to high levels of mortality. There are several reasons for this. It is vital to use a nutritionally suitable feed of a correct size, colour and texture that moves in such a way to attract the fish or shrimp’s instinctive feeding behaviour. Despite the development of advanced commercial pellet diets, it has been impossible to replace live feeds in the early part of the life-cycles of fish and shrimp. Brine shrimp (Artemia spp.) are fed to shrimp larvae between the 7th and 26th days of their lives. This is a critical period to ensure high rates of survival when the fast-growing shrimp larvae need an energy-boost not available from other commercial feeds. It has been estimated that a single shrimp will consume 1750 brine shrimp during this two-and-a-half week period. The rapid development of shrimp farming in Southeast Asia and Latin America in the 1980s and 1990s created a huge demand for brine shrimp and transformed the industry, over 80 percent of which come from the great salt lakes of Utah, USA.
Grow-out nutrition Once the larvae are transferred into the grow-out ponds, their challenges change from dietary nutritional composition to disease resistance in an aquatic environment that doesn’t provide the same level of bio-security as the nursery. Ballast water exchange, for example in the Panama Canal, is a significant pathway for shrimp virus transmission from wild stock. It is more difficult to assess the health of shrimp populations in the ponds than the nursery, and any delay in the lag phase in recognition of potential indications of disease can have significant unwanted consequences for the farmer in terms of mortality and lowered FCR. Historically, one way that shrimp farms have combated disease has been with the use of antibiotics, however in recent years the EU
Orego-Stim® which is a major Aquatract Difference Control buyer of shrimp products on the Total harvest Weight (kg) 2,037 3,509 +1,472 world market has Feed intake (kg) 9,842 12,767 +2,925 changed its policy FCR 4.83 3.64 -1.19 on import legislation and border Growth period (days) 146 146 0 inspections. Survival rate (%) 22.5 41.3 +19 Shrimp food No. shrimp harvested 84,695 148,252 +63,557 products have consistently made up Table 4: Economic returns about half of the Orego-Stim® failed EU rapid alert Aquatract Difference Control tests in the last few years. Total harvest Weight (kg) 2,037 3,509 +1,472 The marker residue for the Shrimp sales revenue ($) 7,987 13,759 +5,772 banned nitrofuran Total feed consumed (Kg) 9,842 12,767 +2.925 veterinary antibiTotal feed cost ($) 6,504 8,436 +1,933 otic nitrofurazone OSA cost ($) 970 called semiProfit ($) 1,484 4,352 2,869 cabazide has been frequently detectReturn on investment 1 : 2.96 ed in foods (47 percent of recent V. cholerae etc.) have been well-docunitrofuran EU Rapid Alerts involve mented (WHO, 1999). semicabazide). Importers of shrimp have reported in the past rampant use of antibiotics The Next Generation of Toxin Binder such as chloramphenicol and nitrofuran in aquaculture farms. Traces of antibiotic residues in aquaculture shrimps exported in the past have prompted some of the E u ro p e a n countries to reject several export consignments. The development and spread of antimicrobial resistant human pathogens (motile Aeromonas spp., E. tarda, Escherichia Cranfield Innovation Centre University Way, Cranfield Technology Park, coli, V. vulnCranfield, UK MK43 0BT ificus, V. paraTel: 0044 1234 436130 www.meriden-fusion.com E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org h a e m o ly t i c u s ,
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 19 Meriden_FusionAdvert_90x132.indd 1
4/16/10 3:09 PM
F: Phytobiotic technology Figure 2: Survival rates
Figure 1: Feed conversion ratio
Feed Treatment Methods
and survival rates are shown in Figures 1 and 2. Feed conversion ratio was A commercial shrimp feed was used reduced by an average of 25 percent in for the entire duration of the trial manuthe Orego-Stim ® Aquatract ponds. factured by a leading Shrimp feed manufacturer. Shrimp were fed twice a day at a Total survival rates of the Orego-Stim® rate of 60 percent their daily ration in the Aquatract ponds were almost twice the morning and 40 percent in the afternoon. control ponds. Table 3 shows the huge differThe trial lasted for a period of four-and-a-half months with post larvae stocked into Figure 3: Total harvest weight and FCR five ponds, three control and two Orego-Stim ® Aquatract trials. Shrimp were harvested at an average weight of between 23g and 26g. Orego-Stim® Aquatract was applied topically to the pellets prior to feeding at a concentration of two kg per tonne dissolved into a small quantity of blended marine fish oil.
Feed conversion ratio & Survival rates The trial was compromised by an invasion of a species of marine ghost shrimp which competed for commercial feed and had cannibalistic effects. Consequently, FCR was higher than expected and survivability was lower than expected. The feed conversion ratio Figure 4: Harvest weight per hectare
ences in harvest parameters made between the two treatments with a 72 percent increase in final total harvest weight and a 75 percent increase in the numbers of shrimp harvested.
Conclusion Mr Juan Achurra, the farm owner said, “In this field trial done on my farm, the Orego-Stim® Aquatract groups produced 3.5 tonnes harvest weight compared to the control group which produced two tonnes. “Harvest weights per hectare were 913kg with OregoStim® Aquatract and 472kg per hectare in the control groups. “These increased harvest weights gave me a 3:1 return on investment on the cost of Orego-Stim®, Aquatract.” 20 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
References Ceniacua & Akvaforsk 2002. Selective breeding of Litopenaeus vannamei in Colombia. Panorama Acuicola 7(2): 30-31. Chevassus, B and M Dorson, M 1990. Genetics of resistance to disease in fishes. Aquaculture 85: 83-107.
Henryon, M,A Jokumsen, P Berg, I Lund, PB Pedersen, NJ Olesen, and WJ Slierendrecht. 2002. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a famed population of rainbow trout. Aquaculture 209: 59-76. Moss, SM, RW Doyle, and DV Lightner. (2005) Breeding shrimp for disease resistance: challenges and opportunities for improvement. In: Diseases in Asian Aquaculture V pp. 379-393. (P Walker and R Lester, eds), Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, The Philippines. Mr Juan Achurra (Farmer Owner), La Morenita, Via Al Puerto, Entrando por la estación Eneríque Enseñat, Región Coclé, Panama World Health Organization 1999. Joint FAO/NACA/WHO Study Group on food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series, No 883.
8 - 10 July 2010
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INDONESIA’S NO.1 FISHERIES INDUSTRY SHOW “The future of Aquaculture Industry”
INDONESIA’S NO.1 LIVESTOCK AND FEED INDUSTRY SHOW
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THE AQUAFEED PHOTOSHOOT
22 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
his month our photoshoot comes from the recent Aquaculture 2010 show in San-diego, that was attended by International Aquafeed Editor Professor Simon Davies.
1: Professor Simon Davies and Dr Daniel Merrifield at the Hubbs-Seaworld Institute suchi dinner event 2: Professor Simon Davies with Stijn Bruwiere, sbae industries, Belgium 3: The team from Empyreal, USA 4: Professor Simon Davies with Dr Sungchul Bai (former WAS President) 5: WAS President Elect Dr Ricardo Martino WAS President- Elect (2011) 6: Professor Simon Davies with ken Copron, Rangen Inc. 7: Student Samad Omar with Professor John Halver 8: Simon Davies with Eric Roderick (FishGen) 9: Plymouth team meets Alltech
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 23
Phytobiotics and Prebiotics
A new alternative for sustainable aquaculture by Santiago de la Cuesta, Ignacio López, Antonio Martínez and Laura Muñoz, Spain Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: www.liptosa.com
nvironmentally friendly LiptoCitro is a prebiotic, immunoestimulant and growth promoter with a proved antibacterial activity. It can be used at any stage of the fish production cycle and no withdrawal period is needed because it does not contain any antibiotics. It is used at dosage rates of 2.5Kg/M/tonne and it can be incorporated in the feed mill during diet manufacture, or top-dressed on the feed using oil or molasses at the farm. It is made of a combination of prebiotics, plant extracts and plant essences and does not develop off-flavours in either fish or crustaceans. LiptoCitro is capable of improving nutrient digestibility, favouring beneficial intestinal flora, eliminating pathogenic bacteria, and promoting the immune system, resulting in higher resistance to stress and disease and improved growth, survival, FCR, production and cost-efficiency, even in the event of bacterial, viral and some parasitic disease outbreaks.
LiptoCitro trial data
the lots of infected fish that were fed with LiptoCitro improved significantly, Trials have been conducted in laboratories, research centres and farms Table 1: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of with a range of fish and shrimp LiptoCitro against bacterial strains tested in VISAVET species and pathogens. laboratory, Spain Trials conducted in the Microorganism MIC Veterinary Sanitary Vigilance Centre (VISAVET) of the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain showed that LiptoCitro possessed strong in vitro antibacterial activity against a range of pathogenic bacterial species commonly encountered in aquaculture production systems (Table 1). Trials carried from May to November in a commercial farm in Spain showed the efficacy of Liptocitro to control Haemorrhagic Enteritis outbreaks in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total amount of 1,700 MT of commercial feed with LiptoCitro added at 2.5Kg/MT was used. All the fish had the same handling and usual European vaccine prophylaxis. In the control lots, which were not fed Liptocitro, several Enteritis outbreaks occurred over the six month trial period and the fish had to be treated with antibiotics. However,
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida
Listonella anguillarum CECT 522
Leucothrix mucor DSM 2157T
Vibrio penaeicida DSM 14398T
Vibrio harveyi CECT 525T
Vibrio vulnificus CECT 529 Vibrio alginolyticus
0.1 mg/ml 6 mg/ml
Flavobacterium psycrophilum DSMZ 3660T
Edwarsiella ictaluri CECT 885T
Brevundimonas diminuta CECT 317T
Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida
Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae
Streptococcus iniae CCUG 27303T
Streptococcus difficilis DSZM 16828
Mycobacterium chelonae CCUG 47445T
24 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
F: LiptoCitro Table 2: Effect of prebiotic LiptoCitro on Daily Intake Rate (DIR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Survival Rate in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Data from six month laboratory trial using four replicates (eight tanks total) with 100 fish per tank. *Dosages of 3g/Kg. Values shown are the mean Âą standard error
Feed Without LiptoCitro (Control)
Feed With LiptoCitro*
% Effect (LiptoCitro vs. Control)
1.28 Âą 0.04 1.19 Âą 0.04
ď ą 7.03%
1.38 Âą 0.05 1.27 Âą 0.04
ď ą 7.97%
Survival Rate 94.75 Âą 6.13 98.00 Âą 1.41
ď ą 3.25%
ment of the growth recovered and did not need any antibiotic and survival rates. treatment at any stage of the trials. LiptoCitro antiTrials conducted throughout a production bacterial efficiency, cycle on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), survival and FCR under commercial conditions and using conimprovement and trol lots, showed 14 percent improvement in growth and immune FCR in the fish that were fed with 2.5 Kg/MT system promoter of LiptoCitro. This digestibility improvement effect have also was evaluated in further trials using the same been tested in variinclusion rates of Liptocitro in the feed. The ous shrimp species results showed that the cost of the ration and under different could be reduced without altering FCR. This farming and enviwas achieved by decreasing the amount of ronmental condiexpensive animal origin protein in the diet and tions. These results increasing the inclusion of cheaper vegetable can be provided protein instead. upon request. Six month trials were conducted in four Trials carried replicate tanks in the laboratories of the out with LiptoCitro Agricultural Development and Food Research have shown that the Institute IMIDA, in Murcia, Spain. These use of prebiotics trials were carried on European sea bass and phytobiotics in (Dicentrarchus labrax) under ideal conditions fish and shrimp feed and without a disease challenge. The fish leads into better fed three g/kg of Liptocitro showed three production parampercent improvement in growth and survival eters and enables rates and eight percent improvement in FCR sustainable aquaculover the fish in the control tanks (statistiture production on cally significant at 95 percent confidence level) a long term basis (Table 2). Improvements in the haemocrit and by reducing the use haemoglobin levels of fish blood following a of antibiotics and stress test were also observed. decreasing fish meal These trials have shown how a better content in diets. intestinal integrity, even under ideal conditions References of low density and very low mortality, results are available upon in better nutrient assimilation thus improving request. the feed conversion rate. Therefore, in the field, a better nutrient assimilation as a result of a good intestinal More infoirmation: integrity will have Antonio Martinez even more advantaLipidos Toledo SA, Spain Tel: +34 902157711Fax: +34 913567300 geous effects than Email: email@example.com those observed under Web: www.liptosa.com ideal conditions with regards the improve-
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May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 25
Extending the shelf life of
farmed juvenile Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) by Dr Philip Thomas, University of New England, New South Wales, Australia
n Australia, ranching of Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyyi), one of the most closely managed fisheries, occurs in the offshore region of Port Lincoln in South Australia. The farming of SBT started in 1991 as a result of diminishing fishery catches and a reduction of fishing quotas, which resulted in the operators allocating a portion of their catch to farming rather than for sale. Over the last 19 years this activity has developed into a commercially significant seafood sector in Australia. Considerable research effort has gone into developing this industry with initiatives from the Fisheries Research and Development Cooperation (FRDC) and Aquafin CRC. These initiatives included a focus on nutrition, health, product quality and marketing and fish husbandry and management. A more recent focus has been research into the propagation of SBT. This endeavour has been driven by Clean Seas Tuna in collaboration The Australian Seafood CRC. SBT currently ongrown in sea based aquaculture facilities are particularly attractive to the Japanese sashimi (rawfish) market due to the high fat content of their muscle and in 2007–08, the value of the fishery’s commercial production was approximately AUD$44.5 million from a
Dr Philip Thomas is currently principal research fellow in the Business Economics and Public policy group at the University of New England, New South Wales, Australia and the work presented in this article took place while he was senior researcher of biological science at Flinders University as part of Aquafin CRC - Cooperative research centre for sustainable aquaculture of finfish where his research focus was on the relationship between husbandry, production performance and flesh quality in aquaculture.
catch of 5239 tonne (DAFF). Prior to the export of fresh farmed SBT experienced Japanese graders will routinely remove a small redundant section of the tail of individual fish during processing and ascribe a subjective grade to each fish. This opportunity allows them to assess flesh quality, carcass shape and condition thereby allowing the target market, method of sale and the product price to be determined. The price obtained on the auction floor has been shown to be correlated to the subjective quality grades given prior to export. (Douglas et al, 2000)
Culture Traditionally tuna are caught at approximately 15 – 20 kg from December to 26 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
March along the Great Australian Bight region and transferred in specialized tow pontoons to the farm pontoons off Port Lincoln. Fish are then on-grown to a weight of 25-40 kg in a period of approximately six to nine months. The tuna are fed baitfish six days a week twice per day. This is done by feeding fresh local pilchards or placing frozen blocks of baitfish in mesh cages within each pontoon. Commercial feed pellets have been developed for SBT but under the current price conditions are unlikely to replace the baitfish as a major feed source. However with the prospect of a closed lifecycle for Bluefin tunas including SBT, there is an associated necessity for a commercially produced pellet feed. This
Figure 2: The role of glutahione peroxidase in the reduction of lipid organic peroxide-hyperoxides
Figure 1: Commercial cuts of meat
has resulted in a recently renewed effort by feed manufactures to produce larval, juvenile and grow-out feeds tailored specifically for tuna. During the ongrowing phase the farmed SBT will gain greater weights and have a higher condition index (CI >25) than their filler 4 23/2/10 16:27 Page 1
wild counterparts (CI<20). Condition index can be expressed as CI =
Weight (Kg) Length (m3)
and is a measure of SBT fatness. As the muscle fat content increases
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May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 27
the girth of the fish also increases. A large girth relative to the length of the fish indicates a fish with high muscle fat content. High condition equates to larger amounts of high value cuts of fatty muscle and therefore a more valuable carcass.
Traditionally tuna are caught at approximately 15 â€“ 20 kg from December to March along the Great Australian Bight region and transferred in specialized tow pontoons to the farm pontoons off Port Lincoln
Farmed fish also have much higher levels of tissue fat in comparison to the wild SBT. The differences in condition index and tissue fat levels in the different cuts of meat from wild and farmed SBT are shown in Figure 1.
Flesh quality and antioxidant protection Oxidative metabolism in aerobic tissues results in the continuous production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide. However oxidative stress occurs when the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds their normal removal. As fish contain a high percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids they are particularly vulnerable to attack by free radicals and are very dependant on antioxidants for protection. Under conditions of oxidative stress, induced by ROS, the lipid peroxidation
process begins, which leads to peroxidation of susceptible polyunsaturated fatty acids and ultimately membrane damage. The occurrence of selenium (Se) in the enzymes involved in controlling or reducing oxidative and free radical damage to the cell membranes is critical in fish. Fish under a state of stress may draw on tissue reserves of selenium to prevent oxidative damage and membrane lipid peroxidation through the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) pathways. Davies et al. 2008 describe the biochemical function of GSH-Px and its role in reducing lipid organic peroxide-hyperoxides to their corresponding alcohols and reducing the free hydrogen peroxide to water. For the GSH-Px to be active it must be in the reduced state. The major inter and intracellular reducing capability of ascorbic acid can provide the required proton to expedite the reduction of the GSH-Px from the oxidized form back to the reduced form. This interrupts phospholipid peroxidation and reduces further cell membrane structural damage (Figure 2)
The role of organic selenium
Substituting an organic selenium yeast source for inorganic sodium selenite has been demonstrated to improve uniformity and product quality. The reason for this is that the organoselenium compounds formed by yeast are more easily metabolized and can be taken up into tissue proteins, such as muscle non28 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
specifically in place of methionine, which provides tissue reserves of this critical trace element. Normal cell and protein turnover releases the required selenium, a process that escalates during periods of increased demand such as oxidative stress. The farming success in any aquaculture operation is dependant on optimal growth and performance with the product quality meeting the consumer preferences. In Atlantic salmon farming, fillet colour and texture are two very important characteristics. Fillets with a soft texture or fillets with slits or holes in the surface (gaping) cannot be satisfactorily processed resulting in poor appearance and downgrading by customers. Fillet gaping is responsible for 38 percent of the downgraded material in the secondary processing of salmon (Mitchie, 2001). The inclusion of selenium as a selenoyeast in salmon diets has been demonstrated to improve product quality in terms of decreased gaping and resulted in a higher content of selenium in the fillet. In terrestrial animals drip loss has been associated with the oxidative process that promotes post-mortem development of compromised cell membranes and facilitates increased moisture loss from processed meat. The use of organic selenium has been shown to significantly reduce the drip loss in poultry (Naylor et al. 2000).
Shelf life As with terrestrial red meats, shelf life is an important product quality feature of farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT). Also in common with beef, the bright red colour of SBT is due to the myoglobin content of
Key machinery and complete process plants for the aquatic feed industry Figure 4
the meat. During storage, the myoglobin is oxidised to met-myoglobin and gradually changes from red to brown. In addition, and unlike beef, the high levels of highly unsaturated fatty acids found in SBT meat in the presence of ROS can start the lipid peroxidation process resulting in unstable highly reactive lipid hydroperoxides which can threaten cell integrity and increase the rate of post mortem browning. Within the wild fishery, capture stress is unavoidable and hard to control while aquaculture offers the opportunity to manage all aspects of the ongrowing, pre-harvest and harvest practices, thereby minimizing stress and any negative effect that this will have on product quality. In addition it has been shown that pre-mortem conditions that can alter the physiology of the fish can in turn affect the post-mortem tissue biochemistry, which is then directly related to product quality (Thomas et al.1999). The use of antioxidant fortified diets
for farmed SBT has been evaluated to determine whether a muscle dose response could be achieved and result in improved antioxidant defence and extend the colour shelf life of farmed SBT. For five years, from the 2001 farming season and up to and including the 2004 season, our research group ran experiments that were designed to investigate and evaluate the use of feeds (baitfish and pelleted) fortified
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May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 29
F: Tuna in the fish fed the fortified diets (Figure 4). Higher levels of these antioxidants in the fish muscle consistently result in an extension of the colour shelf life of sashimi grade tuna meat as illustrated in Figure 5. By slowing the oxidation process in SBT meat it is possible to extend the window of sale opportunity at the market and reduce the losses that may currently be experienced through the practice of trimming portioned carcasses during cold storage. These benefits obviously have the capacity to improve the reputation of this valuable product. Pellet diets fortified with antioxidants are "The farming success in any aquaculture by far the most operation is dependant on optimal growth effective delivery system for these and performance with the product quality nutrients and therefore the meeting the consumer preferences" most effective way to improve the shelf life of farmed SBT flesh. In other work, not illuswith the natural antioxidants vitamin E (dl-αtrated here, it was shown that feeding tocopherol acetate), vitamin C (l - ascorbic SBT pellets fortified with a higher level of acid monophosphate) and selenium, initially vitamin E alone may not be as effective in as sodium selenate (Buchanan & Thomas extending the shelf life of SBT meat as a 2008) and then selenomethionine as Selcombination of higher levels of vitamins E Plex® (Alltech), organic selenium based and C plus selenium as Sel-Plex. on the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3060 (Thomas 2007 and Thomas et al. 2009). Acknowledgements When standard baitfish or pellet feed This work formed part of a project were coated or fortified with boosted of the Cooperative Research Centre for levels of vitamins E and C and selenium, as the Sustainable Aquaculture of Finfish Sel-Plex, significantly higher selenium levels (Aquafin CRC), and received funds from the were recorded in the muscle of SBT (Figure Australian Government’s CRCs Program, 3). This reduced the muscle oxidation status the Fisheries R&D Corporation and other 30 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
CRC participants. The author wishes to thank DSM Nutritional Products for their ongoing support of this research and Alltech® for providing the organoselenium from Sel-Plex selenium.
References Buchanan J and Thomas P. 2008. Improving the colour shelf-life of farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) flesh with dietary supplements of vitamins E & C and selenium. Journal of Applied Food Product Technology, 17 : 3. Davies S, Rider S and Sweetman. 2008. The nature of selenium and its role in fish nutrition. International Aquafeed, July/August issue, p28-33. Douglas A, Carragher J, Thomas P and Patterson B. 2000. Flesh quality and market price determination of farmed fresh Southern Bluefin Tuna in Japan. In Responsible Aquaculture in the New Millenium, European Aquaculture Society Special publication, No 28. Mitchie I. 2001. Causes of down grading in the salmon farming industry. In; Kestin, S.C., Warris, P.D, (Eds.) Farmed fish quality. Oxford: Blackwell Science, Fishing New Books. Pp 129-136. Morkore T and Austreng E. 2004. Temporal changes in texture, gaping, composition and copper status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) fed moist feed or extruded dry diet. Aquaculture 230: 425-437. Naylor A, Choct M and Jacques K. 2000. Effects of selenium source and level on performance and meat quality in male broilers. Poultry Science 79 (suppl), 17. Thomas P, Pankhurst N and Bremner H. 1999. The effect of stress and exercise on post-mortem biochemistry of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. Journal of Fish Biology, 54, 1177-1196. Thomas P. 2007. Aquafin CRC - Southern bluefin tuna Aquaculture Subprogram: Maximising the control of quality in farmed SBT (Aquafin CRC Project 2.2 FRDC Project No. 2001/248) Final Report. Thomas P, Thomas M, Schuller K and D'Antignan T. 2009. Aquafin CRC - Southern bluefin tuna Aquaculture Subprogram: Application of the use of dietary supplement for improving flesh quality attributes of farmed SBT. (Aquafin CRC Project 2.2(2) FRDC Project No. 2004/209) Final Report. http://www.daff.gov.au/brs/fisheries
Carcass Quality, Growth, Safety, H Traceability, Genetic Potential, Rel Health, Profitability, Oxidative Stre Shelf Life, Nutritional Value of Food
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For more information, visit www.Sel-Plex.com or e-mail email@example.com.
F: Feed cost
Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health by Peter Coutteau, Sam Ceulemans and Alexander van Halteren, NutriAd International, Belgium
The strong fluctuations of feed ingredient prices in combination with low market prices for aquaculture products challenge the profitability of many aquaculture operations around the globe. This has accelerated a search for alternative formulations to improve the cost efficiency of feeding under various scenarios of ingredient cost and availability. The present paper illustrates a number of new strategies in feed formulation to reduce the cost of feeding fish and shrimp.
quaculture is worldâ€™s fastest-growing sector in food production reaching an average growth rate since 1970 of almost 9 percent (versus 2.8 percent for land-based animal production). Global feed production for farming fish and shrimp has followed this expansion and is expected to reach 32 million tonnes by 2012 (Tacon and Metian, 2008). The fast growth of production volumes has resulted for many aquaculture species in a continuous erosion of the sales price at the farm gate and the profitability of the farm operations. In addition, all major aquafeed ingredients -including fishmeal, fish oil, vegetable proteins and fats, wheat flour, feed phosphates, additives, vitamins and minerals- have shown significant price fluctuations
over the past years. Despite the increased efforts to reduce the use of ingredients of marine origin, fishmeal remains a major or at least significant cost in many aquafeed formulations. As a result, the recent fluctuations of fishmeal prices are troublesome for feed manufacturers and farmers, which are already under economic pressure due to the low price of the end product. Optimizing formulation cost for fish and shrimp requires completing the gaps in the current knowledge of nutritional requirements (e.g. nutrient availability and interactions, the role of natural feed supplements in semi-intensive farming systems, nutritional requirements in function of growth stages and culture conditions). So far, apart from optimizing nutritional inputs and ingredient selection, aquaculture nutritionists have spent little attention to the optimal functioning of the digestive
32 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
system of fish and shrimp. As ingredient prices are rising, nutritionists may find new options for cost reduction in the formulation by maximizing the efficiency of digestive and metabolic processes which are at the basis of converting nutrients into growth. In agriculture, various types of feed additives are being applied to enhance the digestibility and/or utilization efficiency of nutrients, including exogenous enzymes and various types of digestibility enhancers allowing to extract more nutrients out of ingredients, flavours and palatability enhancers to stimulate appetite, and a wide range of products (pre/probiotics, botanical extracts, yeast derived compounds) to maintain a healthy gut. The feeding biology, digestive physiology and nutritional requirements of warm-blooded land animals differ significantly from those of aquaculture organisms. Therefore, the direct application
F: Feed cost
Figure 1: Compounds with potential for improving digestibility and feed utilization in fish (IN=intestine • PA=pancreas • LI=liver • BB=bile bladder •ST=stomach • E=esophagus • PC=pyloric caeca)
in aquaculture of nutritional and/or functional feed additives developed for livestock is often not trivial. The present article illustrates the potential to reducing cost of feeding in aquaculture by either improving the efficiency of nutrient utilization or by optimizing gut health.
Digestibility enhancement and improving nutrient utilization
10-15 percent fish oil. Animal by-products, including specific qualities of poultry byproducts and blood meals, offer interesting alternatives in terms of nutritional profile and digestibility but are not always an alternative to fish meal due to market conditions (eg high demand by the petfeed industry) and/or legal and consumer concerns. Increased replacement of fish
A wide variety of concepts and products are being investigated for improving digestion and feed utilization in pigs and poultry. Potential products for application in fish include botanical extracts and phytobotanical compounds, short and medium chain fatty acids, organic acids, enzymes, and natural emulsifiers (Figure 1). Digestibility enhancing additives have the potential to improve nutrient utilization from cheap ingredients and stimulate the conversion of nutrients into meat gain and less into fat accumulation in muscle and viscera. Effects on growth, feed conversion and protein efficiency were illustrated for Tilapia in an earlier contribution (Coutteau et al. 2009 in International Aquafeed, nov-dec 2009). Furthermore, the potential impact on farm economics of improved nutrient utilization was documented in the field for Pangasius in Vietnam where economic gains were observed both for the farmer (up to 2.4
percent reduction of feed cost per kg of whole fish produced and 16.4 percent shortening of the production cycle) as well as for the fish processor (up to 9.25 percent improvement in fillet yield) (van Halteren et al., 2009). Traditional feed formulations for marine fish are high in marine ingredients, containing 40-50 percent good quality fish meal and
Figure 2: Data from an 84-days culture trial with European seabass using triplicate tanks of 600l per diet. Fish were grown at 20-22°C in a seawater recirculation unit from 224g to ± 318g. The control diet consisted of a practical coated-extruded grow out (crude protein 45 percent; crude fat 20 percent), containing 19.6 percent Peruvian fishmeal (67 percent CP); 17 percent fish oil, 5.9 percent wheat gluten, 6 percent corn gluten, 5 percent pea protein concentrate, 32 percent defatted soybean meal, 8.5 percent wheat flour, 4 percent extracted rapeseed meal, 1.15 percent monocalcium phosphate, methionine 0.1 percent, lysine 0.2 percent, premix 0.55 percent (vitamins, minerals, antioxidant, antimould) (Ceulemans et al., 2010)
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 33
F: Feed cost ing fish meal by vegetable proteins is the depressing action of vegetable ingredients on lipid digestion, absorption and deposition. Therefore, digestibility enhancers with emphasis on improving lipid digestion have a great potential to support growth of carnivorous fish fed feeds containing reduced levels of fishmeal and higher levels of vegetable ingredients. European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine carnivorous fish, fed a diet containing 19.6% Peruvian fishmeal, showed improved growth (with 6.5%), feed conversion ratio (with
Figure 3: Percentage improvement of growth and feed conversion ratio (FCR) for different aquaculture species due to supplementing a phytobiotic growth promoter based on microflora modulation (SANACORE® GM). Data show relative effect on growth (for fish: SGR, %/day; for shrimp g/week) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) relative to the performance of the non-supplemented control group in a feeding trial with healthy animals. Feeding trials were run in triplicate tanks for Gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (trial duration 56 days; starting from 70g); Nile tilapia Oreochromus niloticus (70 days; starting from 17g); and white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (56 days starting from 1g) (Ceulemans et al., 2010).
meal/fish oil by vegetable protein sources derived from soybean, wheat, rice and corn offers possibilities to stabilize formulation cost in marine fish feeds. However, many nutritionists are hesitant to use high levels of vegetable protein in marine fish feed due to the fear for slower growth and poorer feed conversion compared to traditional feeds containing high levels of fish meal. Carnivorous fish – like any other animal – require a balanced diet which is satisfying nutritional requirements and of acceptable palatability/digestibility to promote ingestion/digestion. Formulating marine fish feed with less marine ingredients requires good knowledge of nutritional requirements and functional/nutritional additives which are capable of solving some of the typical problems encountered in carnivorous fish fed high levels of plant protein, such as reduced palatability and digestibility, anti-nutritional factors and amino acid misbalances. Dietary fat is an important source of energy for marine fish and is crucial to
maximize protein sparing effects. It has now been documented for a number of carnivorous fish species (including salmon, Kroghdal et al. 2003; trout, Romarhein et al., 2008; Gilthead seabream, Gomez et al., 2004), that one of the challenges for replac-
7%) and protein efficiency ratio (PER, with 7.6%) due to the supplementation of a digestibility enhancer (Fig. 2). This clearly demonstrates that the nutrients present in feeds containing low levels of fish meal and high levels of vegetable proteins are cur-
Table 1: Production results with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a semi-intensive farm in Panama for control ponds and treatment ponds receiving phytobiotic supplement (Sanacore® GM) (average and standard deviation of 8 replicate ponds of 3ha each per treatment, initial stocking density at 8/m2, 141 days of culture; Vaca et al., 2010).
Weekly Growth (g/wk)
Average coefficient of variation for parameters listed (CV%)
Shrimp size (g)
Crop Yield (kg/ha)
55.5 ± 7.1 a
16.6 ± 1.5 a
735 ± 78 a
4,170 ± 338 a
1.91 ± 0.23 a
0.825 ± 0.075 a
44.6 ± 10.6 b
15.7± 2.9 a
543 ± 90 b
3,464 ± 396 b
2.17 ± 0.39 a
0.776 ± 0.137 a
% change Sanacore vs Control
Sanacore® GM Control
Feed (kg/pond 3ha)
34 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
F: Feed cost Growth promotion based on optimized gut health and intestinal microflora
system.This increases the risk for the proliferation of an unfavourable gut microflora or frequent destabilization of the microflora, which can affect the optimal functioning of the digestive system. Furthermore, the digestive system of fish and shrimp is the main entry port for bacterial and viral infections, which remain a major risk for the profitability of aquaculture production. Sustainable approaches to modulate the gut microflora in farmed animals include the use of selected bacteria to inoculate the gut (probiotics), specific nutrients promoting the development of selected bacterial strains (prebiotics), and specific natural compounds (mostly derived from yeast and herbal extracts, so called “phytobiotics”) capable of modulating the microflora towards a favorable composition, favoring the development of beneficial bacteria and inhibiting potentially pathogenic microorganisms. The latter strategies have the advantage of being easily applicable at the feedmill on large volumes of feed and avoiding major adaptations of the production protocols at the farm. A synergistic blend of phytobiotics was selected for
The ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters in poultry and pigs, and the subsequent search for alternatives, has revealed the importance of Figure 4: Production results with white shrimp gut health and the (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a semi-intensive farm development of a in Panama for control ponds and treatment ponds stable, favorable receiving phytobiotic supplement (Sanacore® GM) (see gut microflora, Table 1; Vaca et al. 2010). on feed efficiency, overall performrently underutilized and require functional ance and productivity. Fish and shrimp are additives to maximize their utilization by highly exposed to exchanges of microflora the fish’s digestive and metabolic processes. between the environment and the digestive
Rising feed cost
Escalating fish meal price
Low Shrimp & fish prices
Tired of hearing only bad news ? Feed is the main cost in most aquaculture operations … and the most difficult one to reduce when ingredient prices are rising …
Preservation & Stabilization
Health and Well-Being
maximizes digestibility and feed utilization efficiency
enhances palatability and appetite
Feed and Food Safety
SANACORE® GM improves growth and productivity by promoting a healthy gut microflora
firstname.lastname@example.org • www.nutriad.net
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 35
applying nature for a healthy and sustainable future
F: Feed cost ponds for the six production parameters: control 18 percent versus SANACORE group 10 percent; Table 2). The drastic effects of the phytobiotic product on survival may be related to the fact that this study was performed during the worst farming cycle of the year in Panama, when shrimp ponds are exposed to severe transitional changes in weather at the end of the wet season and the beginning of the dry season. Natural White Spot Disease outbreaks were observed during shrimp farming in both treatments under similar frequency and severity; WSSV virus was confirmed by immuno-chromatography and nested-PCR tests. The presence of a synergistic blend of phytobiotics with antimicrobial activity possibly protected the shrimp from co-infections with opportunistic bacteria, often the major cause of mortality in WSSV-infected shrimp. Higher crop yield per hectare due to better survival often results in slower growth due to reduced availability of natural food. Despite significantly higher survival and crop yield, a positive effect was observed of phytobiotics on growth rate and food conversion. This confirmed that the continuous dosing of natural anti-microbial activity in the feed results in beneficial physiological effects from stabilizing the microflora present in the digestive system.
Conclusion their bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties against pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria in vitro using the disk diffusion method. This blend was capable of promoting growth significantly in feeding trials with healthy specimens of different species of fish and shrimp growing under controlled lab conditions (Fig. 3).
Effect of optimizing gut health and intestinal microflora on productivity and economics of semiintensive shrimp farming The efficacy of phytobiotics was tested under the field conditions for shrimp production in Panama during the dry season (September 2009- February 2010) by Vaca et al. (2010). The dry season in Panama is characterized by unstable climatological conditions, resulting in strong temperatures fluctuations which in turn affect shrimp growth and increase the impact of outbreaks of white spot virus (WSSV). During the trial, two treatments were compared which only
differed with regard to the supplementation or not of a phytobiotic growth promoter (Sanacore速 GM, Nutriad, Belgium) to the standard feed used at the farm. The supplementation of the phytobiotic feed additive resulted in improved values for all production parameters analysed in this study (Table 1; Fig. 4). Survival and processed crop yield (kg/ha) presented highly significant improvements (P<0.03), amounting to a relative increase with 24 percent and 35 percent compared to the control group, respectively. Although the other parameters did not show significant differences, important improvements were observed for the treatment receiving the phytobiotic, including 5.8 percent larger average shrimp size at harvest and 12 percent better feed conversion compared to the control group. The addition of the phytobiotic reduced drastically the variability of production results among ponds fed the same feed (average coefficient of variation between
36 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
Current aquafeed formulations are mainly focused on nutritional specifications and ingredient selection, whereas the optimal utilization of the nutrients and the health status of the digestive tract are two areas which are rarely taken into account. This is in strong contrast with the vast progress made in the agrifeed sector, where nutrient digestibility and gut health are regarded as two focus areas for further optimization of feed cost-efficiency. The current paper illustrated with lab and field studies the potential benefits in terms of productivity and farm economics of specific feed additives developed to enhance the functioning of the digestive tract of fish and shrimp, either by improving the nutrient utilization or by stimulating the development of a healthy gut microflora. References available from the author.
Peter Coutteau NutriAd International Kloosterstraat 1, 2460 Kasterlee, Belgium Email: email@example.com
SUMMIT2010 7th - 8th October
The 10th GLOBALG.A.P Conference
Good Agricultural Practice
Farming for Consumers Everything you need to know about Good Agricultural Practice certification in one place Come and join us for the best networking, discussion and debates at the world‘s favourite conference event for Good Agricultural Practice! Top International speakers from the private and public sector will provide key insights into Good Agricultural Practice developments around the globe. Join our retailer and supplier members as they share with you how they are implementing GLOBALG.A.P into their global supply chains. 7th - 8th October 2010 HILTON London Metropole Hotel London, UK You want to know more about our event? Then please visit www.summit2010.org.
HOT TOPICS Learn about the New Version of the GLOBALG.A.P Standard Responsible Management of Resources Residue Monitoring Smallholder Programmes Certification Integrity Social Practices in Primary Production Aquaculture and Livestock Trends Linkages to Consumer Labels
Book review Australian Fish Farmer A Practical Guide to Aquaculture - 2nd Edition
lthough published several years ago as the second edition this book still gives an up to ate insight into all aspects of the Australian Aquaculture industry. Topics given in depth coverage include nutrition and feeding, with content covering numerous species. Fish health and medicine is given comprehensive coverage. Review: A practical guide that covers important aspects of aquaculture including nutrition, breeding, fish health, harvesting and
marketing. This is a practical guide for people in the aquaculture industry and for those about to enter it. Australian Fish Farmer covers current as well as potential aquaculture industries and provides practical skills that will allow people to solve everyday problems in the day-to-day management of aquatic stock. This new edition reflects the considerable advances in technology, farming methods and commercial development. These aspects and more have been included in the revised edition, which also deals with financial and administrative management to provide the reader with sufficient information to operate a successful venture. The authors have drawn on their experience of designing and conducting aquaculture training programs and incorporated feedback, to ensure this publication is relevant and practical to Australian fish farmers.
Publisher CSIRO - ISBN 0643068651 - PDF - 456 pages - 6 mb
Seafood Ecolabelling Principles and Practice
he pursuit of balanced conservation of commercially exploited wild fish stocks, and the increasing importance of sustainability in the ever expanding aquaculture industry are never far from the headlines. In recent years there have been some major developments in the recognition of the importance of sustainable and environmentally-friendly fishing and fish culture method, with the introduction and implementation of various types of seafood eco-endorsements. These initiatives have now blossomed into an extensive range of types of product endorsement labels and systems. Building on an earlier book [Phillips et al. (2003) Eco-labelling in Fisheries] this new book comprehensively reviews the current systems in place. Commencing with a full description of the background and history of ecolabels, ratings, guides and choice systems, a section then follows looking in depth at seafood evaluation and cer-
tification. Chapters in this section include details of various approaches and systems including those adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the UN, the Marine Stewardship Council, the Global Aquaculture Alliance and the Seafood Choices Alliance. The book's third section encompasses a number of highly significant case studies in the use of eco-labels, including details of programs undertaken with species such as Alaskan Salmon, Pollock, New Zealand Hoki, Baja Red Spiny Lobster, Patagonian Toothfish and British Columbian Salmon. A final section of the book looks at perspectives for the future of seafood choices, ecolabelling, ratings, etc. Seafood Ecolabelling is an essential purchase for all those involved in fisheries and aquaculture management and product labelling throughout the world. Professionals including fishery scientists and managers, fish farm managers, marine biologists, environmental biologists, conser vation biologists and ecologists will find this book to be extremely valuable. Professionals involved in the seafood trade, packaging and seafood product labelling, will find a great deal of commercial interest within this book. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological sciences, food science and fisheries are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.
Trevor Ward & Bruce Phillips - Publisher Wiley Blackwell - 2009 - ISBN 140516266X - 472 pages
If you have a book that you would like to see reviewed or included into our International Aquafeed book store, then send your information to: firstname.lastname@example.org 38 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
Book review Australian Government Aquaculture Paper Freely available pdf download
quaculture is currently Australia's Australian Aquaculture Research and Innovation Strategy fastest growing primary industry. An industry currently increasing in value by almost 15 percent per year since the early 1990's.Current gross value of aquaculture production is nearing $1 billion annually - now almost half of the total GVP of the seafood industry. Report to the Aquaculture Industry Action Agenda Implementation Committee. September 2004
Future scope for the industry in Australia is enormous with only a few high value developed species currently being farmed;species such as southern bluefin tuna, pearl oysters,Atlantic salmon,
prawns and oysters;jointltly accounting for about 95 percent of the GVP. By weight these species plus the developing.Around 60 further marine species have been identified as showing commecial potential. These include; abalone, rock lobster and yellow tail king fish.Aquaculture represents around one third of Australia’s fisheries revenue, but accounts for only 20 percent of the total volume of fisheries production, as a direct result of the higher value products produced from aquaculture relative to wild fisheries.The future for the Aquaculture industry is enormous. The Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestery has published a comprehensive paper;"Australian Aquaculture Research and Innovation Strategy" The paper outlines the current industry structure, R&D programmes and Investment opportunities. The full paper can be viewed in PDF format here on the link below.
Are you a Perendale bookworm? Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of International Aquafeed, has set up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a wide range of recentlypublished reports and books on aquaculture. You will be able to read an extended review before making your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent publications and as a result become a reference point for your reading and research.
Book store Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment gateway, packaging and mailing service. Consult Perendale Publishers Online Book Store at: www.perendale.co.uk/books
www.perendale.com/books May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 39
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Subscribe International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, events, book reviews and more, all for UK£43.
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Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishers of International Aquafeed, has set up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a wide range of recently-published reports and books on aquaculture. From early 2010 you will be able to read an extended review before making your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. Consult Perendale Publishers Online Book Store at: www.perendale.com/books
SCE Buhler AG CH – 9240 Uzwil, Switzerland T: +41 71 955 11 11 F: +41 71 955 28 96 E: email@example.com
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To place a classified advert in our next issue, and take advantage of our great extra online exposure, please contact Caroline Wearn Tel:+44 1242 267706 Email:carolinew @aquafeed.co.uk
40 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010 21/12/2009 11:55
Cholesterol SF and XG Maximum weight gain Optimum growth Easy processing Defined particle size www.dishman-netherlands.com firstname.lastname@example.org
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Supply chain PALM VIEW TRADE “Your Reliable Supply Chain Manager” Products we produce and Export: • • • • • • •
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• GAME Engineering Ltd • Stolz - Sequipag
Add your own heading! If you have a product or service that you want to advertise, but we do not have a heading, let us know and we can create one for you.
From january 2010 all IAF Classified Advertisements will now appear on the websites our TWO online distribution channels: DocStoc and Scribd. Both these high traffic channels specialise in the targeted positioning of industry, government and academic documents and information. Each document is accompanied by independent, unsolicited reader statistics
Subscribe www.aquafeed.co.uk/subscribe.php International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, events, book reviews and more. Subscribers to International Aquafeed also receive a free copy of the International Aquafeed Directory worth UK£85. For more information please visit our website.
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 41
EVENTS 8th - 10th July
EVENTS 2010 16th - 19th May
Alltech’s 26th International Animal Health & Nutrition Symposium, Kentucky USA Contact: Lauren Ashley Pope, 3031 Catnip Hill Pike USA Tel: +1 8598 812213 Fax: +1 8598 873256 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.alltech.com
19th - 20th May
AQUACULTURE UK 2010 Aviemore, Scotland Contact: David Mack, ASCOMBER Rosebank, Ankerville Street, Tain, Ross & Cromarty IV19 1BH, Scotland Tel: +44 1862 892188 Email: email@example.com Web: www.aquacultureuk.com
23rd - 26th May
Offshore Mariculture Conference 2010, Dubrovnik, Croatia, Contact: Isobel Roberts, Mercator Media, The Old Mill, Lower Quay, Fareham, Hants, PO16 0RA, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1622 820622 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.offshoremariculture.com
5th - 9th July
The 9th International Congress of the Biology of Fish, Barcelona Spain Contact: Judith García, Mondial & Cititravel Congresos, SL C/ Rosselló 303, atc 1, 08037 Barcelona, Spain Tel: +34 9322 12955 Fax: +34 9345 92059 Email: email@example.com Web: http://sidciencies.uab es/9FishBiologyCongress
Events Key: * = See our magazine at this show • = More information available
1st - 4th September 10
17th - 20th January 11 Asia Pacific Aquaculture 2011 Kochi, India Contact: Mario Stael, Begijnengracht 40, B9000 Ghent, Belgium Tel: +32 9233 4912 Email: Mario.Stael@scarlet.be Web: www.was.org
VIII International Fair Of Aquaculture And Fisheries Aquamar Bicentenary 2010, Campeche, México Contact: Lic. Zoila López Lara, Lluvia
Tel: +52 5591 170515 Fax: +52 5591 170515 Email: zoila_lopez @aquamarinternacional.com Web: www. aquamarinternacional.com
6th - 8th October
AQUACULTURE EUROPE 2010, Porto, Portugal Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9233 4912 Fax: +32 9233 4912 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.marevent.com
7th - 8th October GLOBALGAP Summit 2010, London, United Kingdom Contact: Nina Kretschmer, c/o GLOBALGAP Foodplus GmbH, Spichernstr.55, D-50672 Cologne Germany Tel: +49 2215 7993693 Fax: +49 2215 799389 Email: email@example.com Web: www.summit2010.org
18th - 21st October 11
No. 225 Bis, Col. Jardines Del Pedregal, CP 01900, México, DF
Australasian Aquaculture 2010 International Conference and Trade Show, Tasmania, Australia, Contact: Sarah-Jane Day, PO Box 370 Nelson Bay NSW 2317 Australia Tel: +61 4371 52234 Fax: +61 2491 91044 Email: sarah-jane.day@ aquaculture.org.au Web: www. australian-aquacultureportal.com
16th - 18th June
Indo Livestock 2010, Jakarta, Indonesia Contact: Devi Ardiatne, PT Napindo Media Ashatama, Jl Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No 1, Kompleks Billy & Moon - Pondok Kelapa, Jakarta, 13450, Indonesia Tel: +62 2186 44756, Fax: +62 2186 50963 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.indoaquaculture.com
26th - 27th October 10 2nd International Congress & Exhibition on Aquatic Animal Health Management and Diseases, TehranIran Contact: Dr. Siamak Goharkhay, Unit5, No. 208, Shohadaye, Jandarmery St., 12th Farvardin St., Enghelab Ave, Tehran-Iran, P. O. Box: 13145-198 Tel: +98 21 66976060 Fax: +98 21 66970742 Email: email@example.com Web: www.icahmd.com
AQUACULTURE AMERICA 2011 New Orleans, USA Contact: Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9233 4912 Fax: +32 9233 4912 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.marevent.com
26th - 29th May Aquarama 2011, Singapore Contact: Doris Woo / Linda Tan, No.3 Pickering Street, 02-48, China Square Central, Singapore 048660 Tel: +65 6592 0889 Fax: +65 6438 9060 Email: email@example.com Web: www.aquarama.com.sg
6th - 10th June
WORLD AQUACULTURE 2011 incl Giant Prawn 2011, Natal, Brazil Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht 40 9000 Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9233 4912 Fax: +32 9233 4912 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.marevent.com
3rd - 5th September 11 * Asian Aquaculture Network 2010, Vijayawada, India Contact: Mario Stael, Begijnengracht 40, B9000 Ghent, Belgium Tel: +32 9233 4912 Email: Mario.Stael@scarlet.be Web: www.marevent.com
Is there an event that our readers need to know about! Events listings are free of charge and will appear in the printed magazine and online. To add your event to our listing, contact Tuti Tan Tutit@aquafeed.co.uk
42 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2010
Aquaculture Europe 2011, Rhodos, Greece Contact: EAS, Slijkensesteenweg 4 B8400 Ostend, Belgium Tel: +32 5932 3859 Fax: +32 5932 1005 Email: email@example.com Web: www.easonline.org
25th - 29th June 12 AQUA 2012, St Petersburg, Russia Contact: Mr Mario Stael, MAREVENT Begijnengracht, 40 9000, Gent Belgium Tel: +32 9 2334912 Fax: +32 9 2334912 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.marevent.com
Australasian Aquaculture 2010 Australasian Aquaculture 2010 is going south of the Bass Strait to the picturesque city of Hobart, Tasmania. The Hotel Grand Chancellor Hobart is hosting the event from 23-26 May 2010. Their spectacular views overlooking Constitution Dock are sure to impress. For your enjoyment the hotel offers panoramic views of the Derwent River and Mount Wellington, with the historic city of Hobart as the backdrop. Some of aquaculture's finest products are produced in the waters of this clean, unspoilt and pristine state. The 2010 event will be an opportunity to showcase the premium products on offer in Tasmania. Further information on the 2010 event is now available. Please view the Australasian Aquaculture Conferences Page of the website to download the Call for Papers Registration Brochure, Exhibitor Prospectus and Sponsorship Prospectus.
The Food of the Future: Visions for Aquaculture presented at Alltech’s upcoming symposium
quatic proteins are shaping up to become a major source to feed a growing population. Alltech’s 26th International Animal Health and Nutrition Symposium will look at this potential role, and also provide research and analysis of recent nutritional breakthroughs, and what they mean for aquaculture. Entitled ‘Bounce Back 2010: A Time for People, Profits and Planet’, Alltech’s 26th International Animal Health and Nutrition Symposium will take place at the Lexington Convention Center in Kentucky, USA from May 16-19, 2010. The Symposium will explore boosting profits and working towards the sustainability of the environment in which aquaculture operates. Sel-Plex® from Alltech based on a specific strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3060 has shown to increase the efficiency of aquaculture. Water recirculation is becoming a method that is utilized more and more within the industry. Accurate knowledge of these and other discoveries, and how they may be applied, is essential for the future of the aquaculture industry, and the main focus for the Symposium. Attendees will have the opportunity to liaise with other industry professionals
and exper ts to discuss these issues during a number of informative, aquaculture-specific seminars, exploring the following topics: • Feed quality control in a global economy – A potential Achilles heel for the aquaculture industry? • From yeast cell-wall to Artemia to Lobster: Live feed enrichment • Aquaculture’s answer to chicken - Tilapia, food of the future? • Novel ingredients for fish – Can enzymes unlock the nutritional possibilities? • Enhancing Rotifer nutritional value to improve cod larva survival • Nutritional strategies to increase egg production of Tilapia broodstocks in Brazil • Unique species with unique challenges – Nutritional strategies for rock lobster • Fish never get over a good or a bad start – The Nile Tilapia case study • Nutritional breakthrough – Chromium: An often forgotten mineral. How it can improve aquaculture • From algae to protozoa to Artemia - Live feed enrichments for marine larvae • Recirculation technology: A sustainable aqua system
Raising Barramundi (Australian sea bass) - in a recirculation system
There will be a number of expert speakers including: C. Daniels, National Lobster Hatchery, Cornwall, UK; K. Fitzsimmons, The University of Arizona, Arizona, USA; K. Filer, Alltech, Kentucky, USA; S. Penglase, National Institute of Nutrition & Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway; R. Neukirchner, Piscicultura Aquabel Ltda, Parana, Brazil; R. Fotedar, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; N. Areechon, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand; S. Davies, University of Plymouth, Devon, UK; R. Battle, University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA; O. Garay, Aqua Consultant, Puerto Montt, Chile; J. Goldman, Australis Aquaculture, Ltd., Massachusetts, USA Please visit the website for fur ther information and to request your place at Alltech’s 26th Inter national Animal Health and Nutrition Industry Symposium. www.alltech.com/symposium
May-June 2010 | International AquaFeed | 43
In every issue of International Aquafeed we will be providing a list of companies and web links related to key stories & topics within each specific issue. If you would like information on how your company can get involved, please contact our Marketing Manager, Caroline Wearn. Email: email@example.com |Tel +44 1242 267706
WEB LINKS Andritz Feed & Biofuel - www.andritz.com Tapco Inc - www.tapcoinc.com Van Aarsen International BV - www.aarsen.com Jiangsu Muyang Group Co Ltd - www.muyang.com Chemoforma Ltd - www.chemoforma.com Biomin GmbH - www.biomin.net GePro Gefluegel Protein Vertriebsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG - www.ge-pro.de Palm View Trade - www.palmviewtrade.com nv SCE - www.sce.be Forberg International AS - www.forberg.no Ascomber - www.aquacultureuk.com Australasian Aquaculture - www.australian-aquacultureportal.com University of Plymouth - www.plymouth.ac.uk Meriden Animal Health Ltd - www.meriden-ah.com Ecomarine Ltd - Email: firstname.lastname@example.org TripleNine Fish Protein a.m.b.a. - www.999.dk University of Stirling - www.stir.ac.uk Extru-Tech Inc - www.extru-techinc.com Lipidos Toledo - www.liptosa.com Tesgo International BV - Email: email@example.com Zhengchang Group (ZCME) - www.zhengchang.com Ottevanger Milling Engineers B.V. - www.ottevanger.com Nutri–Ad International nv - www.nutriad.net Alltech Inc - www.alltech.com Dishman Netherlands B.V - www.dishman-netherlands.com SPF (activite Aquativ) - www.aquativ-diana.com Wynveen International BV - www.wynveen.com/ Lipidos Toledo S.A. - www.liptosa.com Fish Nutrition Laboratory - www.usm.my University of Stirling - www.aqua.stir.ac.uk/nutrition/commercial.php Meriden Animal Health Ltd - www.meriden-ah.com MetaMorphix® Inc - www.metamorphixinc.com
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International Aquafeed magazine Volume 13 Issue 2. Featuring: Protein sources - Alternative protein sources should also show functionality i...