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A monthly review

February 2014

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The Aquaculturist A regular look inside the aquaculture industry


THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014 Additives

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The Aquaculturists blog is an online offshoot of International Aquafeed magazine. While the bi-monthly magazine covers aquafeed issues in-depth, the Aquaculturists takes a lighter approach. Our columnists have a keen eye for the most interesting, relevant and (let’s face it) bizarre aquaculture stories from across the world. Each weekday we scour the internet for topnotch news and package it for your perusal in one neat daily digest. The Aquaculturists are also massive fans of industry events and shows and can often be found out on the road. Here they share stories (and photos) from their travels and, being unable to keep a secret, share details of upcoming events.

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If you have any aquaculture news you think we should shout about, email Alice at alicen@ perendale.co.uk

31/01/14: Bob Geldof announced to present at aqua conference; Bermuda’s first aquaculture license; intersex tuna found in the Mediterranean

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Irish singer-singwriter and political activist Bob Geldof has been announced as the main speaker at this year’s AquaVision conference.

AquaVision is an established, world-class aquaculture conference that attracts a diverse range of stakeholders from across the aquaculture industry to Stavanger, Norway every two years. This year’s show takes place from 16-18 June.  “Sir Bob Geldof is one of the world’s highest ranked and most authoritative corporate speakers and I am therefore delighted he will be one of our main speakers at AquaVision 2014. His presentations are highly provocative, uplifting and inspiring,” says Viggo Halseth, COO of Nutreco Aquaculture. Full news available here.  Sandys Secondary Middle School in Bermuda has been issued the island’s first Aquaculture or ‘aquafarming’ license, reported Trevor Moniz, Bermuda’s minister of health and environment yesterday. “Today I am very proud. as Minister responsible for the environment, to announce an event which we hope will mark a turning point in the diversification of Bermuda’s economy with the birth of commercial aquaculture. It is therefore with much pleasure that I am able to issue Bermuda’s first aquaculture license.” Full news available here.

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Scientists at the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) have found intersex little tunny specimens (Euthynnus alletteratus) - commonly referred to as ‘little tuna’ - for the first time in the Mediterranean, reports FIS. The condition is thought to be the result of hormonal disorders possibly caused by environmental pollutants. Full news available here. 

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

31/01/14: Friday video: Closed containment - The future of fish farming

Consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the costs of large scale fish farming to both society and the environment. This video explores the potential of switching from open-net cages to closed containment technology, a move that could render sea lice infestations, farm waste, disease and escaped fish a thing of the past. What do you think? Is closed containment technology the future for fish farming? Would you be willing to pay more for fish raised in cleaner, less polluting, closed containment systems?

03/02/14: Invasive species prevention; fish factory upgrade; UK aquaculture programme announced

Scientists from the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA and the US Forest Service recently presented findings of the effectiveness of different Asian carp prevention barriers in a study published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology. It is estimated that hydrologic separation could prevent 95 percent to 100 percent of Asian carp from entering the Great Lakes, and an electric barrier could prevent between 85 percent and 95 percent of introductions. Full news available here. Australian fish farmer Huon Aquaculture recently announced the the construction of a  $12 million factory upgrade will start this month. The expansion will give the Parramatta Creek factory its own smoking and packaging capabilities and will create ninety full-time jobs and 100 temporary construction jobs.  Full news available here. For the first ever, Oceanology International - the world’s largest exhibition for marine science and technology - will feature a full aquaculture programme in light of the growing importance of the industry.  Oceanology International is scheduled to take place on 2 March 2014 from 10:00 - 15:00. Full news available here. 

03/02/14: Event: Aquaculture America - Less than a week to go! The countdown to this year’s Aquaculture America event has begun. As well as addressing the current  issues facing producers in the US and around the world, the event offers fantastic opportunities to inspect the latest products and services in the aquaculture industry.

All of this takes place in Seattle - the largest city in the US Pacific Northwest region - from 9 - 12 February 2014 at the Washington State Convention Center, USA. The event will focus on a range of topics including:  - Communications and media  - Aquatic animal health  - National animal identification  - Feed safety  - Aquatic invasive species  - Marketing  - Offshore aquaculture  - Environmental issues  - Start up Aquaculture  - Science and public policy  - Federal agency updates 4


THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

As well as the broad topic focuses, the event will also feature an extensive technical programme combining special sessions, contributed papers and workshops on all of the species and issues facing aquaculturists around the country.

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04/02/14: Norwegian salt cod in Angola; concerns over fish market in Pakistan; Atlantic salmon closed-containment workshop

An analyses by the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Nofima)  suggests strong potential for Norwegian dried and salted cod in Angola.  Angola is the largest market for Norwegian dried and salted fish in Africa. Nofima asserts that the market could expand if Norwegian companies can compete with Portuguese companies and their export of dried and salted cod. Full news available here.   A welfare society in Sabzazar, Pakistan has expressed serious concerns over the proposal to turn an old slaughter house in to a fish and poultry market. Society members said that they would not accept any fish or poultry market in the area becuase of the the pollution and smell it would cause.  Full news available here. The Atlantic Salmon Federation (ASF) and The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute (TCFFI) recently announced they are to jointly host an Atlantic Salmon Closed-Containment Workshop at ASF’s headquarters in New Brunswick, Canada. Scheduled to take place from 29 - 30 April this year, the conference will bring participants together to hear presentations and discuss the technology and operation of this increasingly-popular method of farming fish. Full news available here.

04/02/14: International Aquafeed interviews now available here!

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International Aquafeed - our sister publication - regularly talks to leading industry figures about the current hot topics in the aquaculture industry. These interviews are now available for your perusal right here!

06/02/2014: Fish oil prices underpinned; Price rise for fishmeal; Windfall for Tilapia

Strong demand and supply constraints are expected to underpin fish oil price According to Globefish Fish oil price is expected to hold in the first quarter of 2014, based on strong aquaculture demand coupled with supply constraints in the anchovy fisheries of Latin America. The Gulf menhaden fishery is anticipated to maintain its high level of fish oil supply and exports achieved in 2013, based on a recent positive stock assessment that recommends harvests can be kept at current levels. Read more ...   Rising price trend continues as a result of strong demand for fishmeal Long-term supplies of whole fish from wild sources available for fishmeal are falling due to political decisions regarding a number of important stocks for which direct human consumption is seen as preferable over reduction to fishmeal, according to Globefish. Read more ...  

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Windfall as Lunar New Year perks up demand for tilapia in Asia Strong festival demand for live tilapia during the Lunar New Year is keeping the current market strong in Asia. Prices at retail and in restaurant trade have strengthened by 50% in January creating nice bonus windfall for farmers. Read more ...

09/02/2014: Using the globe’s electromagmentic fields to navigate the oceans

Salmon use the earth’s electromagnetic fields to navigate the oceans, reports Margaret Badore on the ‘Treehugger’ website.

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Researchers from Oregon State University in the USA, published the findings in Current Biology that support this theory. Prior to this there was an estabished correlation between magnetic fields and salmon migratory patterns. However, to put the theory to the test, researchers at the Oregon Hatchery Research Center observed the effects of different magnetic fields on juvenile Chinook salmon. They found that the fish re-oriented themselves to swim towards the center of their feeding grounds, indicating that they use magnetic fields to find their way. “What is particularly exciting about these experiments is that the fish we tested had never left the hatchery ...” says Nathan Putman said in a statement. that suggests the fish are pre-programmed to know what they should be doing before reaching the seas. Read more on this exciting development here ...

09/02/2014: Complex trout plan; trout in the classroom; ice fishing rescue

A report on a complex trout fishery on the Upper Androscoggin River in Maine, USA, has met with widespread approval for its openness and transparency in addressing the objectives of a management plan that took into account the needs of conservation and recreation groups.  The Upper Androscoggin River Fishery Management Plan by state fisheries biologists Francis Brautigam and James Pellerin of the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife, was released last month. Read more here ... Hundreds if not thousands of school children are learning about fish through a unique initiative in the USA called ‘Trout in the Classroom’. The project began when Monica Willits of Byron  a small town in Minnesota, USA visited Stewartville Middle School in February last year. She asked a class decorated with fish, “Do you like fish?” It was to have wide-ranging impact. As it happens, Willits is youth education coordinator for Hiawatha Trout Unlimited (TU) and was looking for classrooms for TU’s ‘Trout in the Classroom’ projects in this region. Read more here ... Ice fishing is dangerous. Here, a video shows the removal of this Mazda SR9 with Wheelhouse Ice fishing shelter that broke through the ice. This 20-plus minute video has an informative voice over by the head of the recovery operation - a great team effort by Bob Kirschbaum’s Repair and Tow ice recovery crew of Spirit Lake, Iowa Watch and learn ...

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

09/02/2014: How to save a vehicle and trailer trapped in lake ice

This video and its commentary provides good advise for those working on ice and have to deal with a vehicle that has broken through and needs rescuing. If you can’t call in Bob Kirschbaum’s Repair and Tow ice recovery crew of Spirit Lake, Iowa, directly, then take heed of his words of advice from this broadcast interview - the video is over 20-minutes long. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_ embedded&v=pvP6FtUJlBM

10/02/14: Nigeria’s 420,000 tonne fish production; sawmiller raises salmon; Investing in Gulf aquaculture

The Catfish Association of Nigeria (CAFAN) recently announced that the country produced 420,000 metric tonnes of fish after aquaculture was included in the Growth Enhancement Support (GES) scheme last year. Chief Tayo Akingbolagun, president of CAFAN told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) in Lagos that the Federal Government placed a ban on some fish species in order to stimulate local production. Full news available here. A Wisconsin, USA entrepreneur could soon be producing Atlantic salmon just a mile off the Mississippi river. Kent Nelson, who owns a Prairie du Chien sawmill with his two brothers, is using water from a near-by spring to raise an estimated 30,000 Atlantic salmon. His first crop of 2 to 2.5 pound, 2-year-old fish will be harvested this summer, and a new batch of 35,000 eggs will be hatched this spring.  Full news available here. Saudi Arabia and Oman are leading a fresh wave of investment in the Gulf’s aquaculture industry, following an increase in regional fish consumption. In December 2013, the Saudi Arabian Ministry of Agriculture said it would inject an additional $10.6 billion into aquaculture projects to produce one million tons of fish in the next 16 years. Full news available here.

10/02/14: Fish traps seen from space

Scientists from the University of British Colombia, Canada have been investigating the number of officially reported fish catches in the Persian Gulf. Back in November - using satellite imagery from Google Earth -  researchers from the University of British Colombia estimated that  there were 1,900 fishing weirs along the coast of the Persian Gulf during 2005 and that an estimated 31,000 tonnes of fish were caught that year.  The official number reported by the seven countries in the region to the  United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization was 5,260 tonnes.  The study shows the potential for using remote-sensing approaches to identify and validate catch statistics and fisheries operations. “Time and again we’ve seen that global fisheries catch data don’t add up,” said Daniel Pauly, principal investigator with the Sea Around Us Project and the study’s co-author.  “Because countries don’t provide reliable information on their fisheries’ catches, we need to expand our thinking and look at other sources of information and new technologies to tell us about what’s happening in our oceans.” Read the full article, published in the ICES Journal of Marine science here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

11/02/2014: Australian Seafood CRC to end in June 2015; Aquaculture America 2014 honours

Australian Seafood Seafood Cooperative Research Centre calls off new potential application for an extension (re-bid) of the CRC beyond June 2015.  According to Chairman, Peter Dundas-Smith, the Board agreed that there was not a compelling case on which to frame an application that had any chance of success. Read more ... Aquaculture America 2014 - Carole Engel awarded by USAS with Distinguished Service and Gary Jensen honored by USAS with Lifetime Achievement Award at opening of Aquaculture America 2014 in Seattle. Plenary speaker Dr Patrick Sorgeloos highlighted unique opportunities with aquaculture but the need for innovation, collaboration and sharing. Stressed the need for interaction from USA and EU with China and other Asian countries and to learn especially from tried extractive methods. Read more ...

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13/02/14: ISA detected in the Faroe Islands; fish threatened by climate change; aquaculture project in Sri Lanka

The Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) virus was detected by the Faroese veterinary authorities on Monday at a farm site belonging to the islands’ largest salmon producer Bakkafrost. The salmon virus can have devastating consequences for the industry, but is of no danger for humans. Full news available here. According to an international team of researchers from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University, Queensland, Australia the rapid pace of climate change is threatening the future presence of fish near the equator. “Our studies found that one species of fish could not even survive in water just three degrees Celsius warmer than what it lives in now,” commented Dr Jodie Rummer, lead author of the study. Full news available here.

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Senura Aquaculture Lanka has announced it is to establish a fish farm in Chilaw, Sri Lanka. The company said it will invest US$100 million in developing 1,000 acres of lagoon land (private owned land) in the Chilaw district. Full news available here

14/02/14: Seafood company receives ASC certification; red tide causes mass fish deaths; aquaculture cooperation in Cuba

Norwegian salmon company Marine Harvest recently announced one of its farms has received Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) certification. The first of its farms to be certified.  The salmon farmer is committed to having all its farms ASC-certified by 2020. Full news available here. This week, officials in south China’s island province of Hainan blamed red tide - a toxic algal bloom, - for a large number of deaths of fish and shrimp. Local marine fishery authorities commented saying they have been keeping information and monitoring the red tide. Full news available here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Mario Aguilar Sanchez, head of the National Commission of Aquaculture and Fisheries (Conapesca), recently announced the signing of a cooperative agreement in fisheries and aquaculture areas with the Cuban government.

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Along with the agreement, Sanchez also stressed the fishing-aquaculture production potential of Mexico in the Caribbean, which generates highly demanded resources in the local market and abroad. Full news available here.  

14/02/14: Friday video: Fish on wheels

Today’s Friday video documents the notion of a fish controlling a robot car. By swimming towards an interesting object, the fish can explore the world beyond the limits of its tank. ‘Fish on wheels’ utilises innovative camera and computer vision software. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_ embedded&v=YbNmL6hSNKw

17/02/14: Delousing medicine effects on cod; Fish to 2030 report; acquisition of aquaculture vaccine assets A recent study by the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), Bergen, Norway has determined that the delousing agent diflubenzuron is not damaging to Cod. 

“We are aware that the use of diflubenzuron has increased, and that this substance can be distributed in the environment, so we wanted to study its effects on fish species that we know feed near sea-cages; in this case, Cod,” says Bjørn Tore Lunestad, a NIFES scientist. Full news available here.

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Fish farms will provide nearly two thirds of the global food fish supply by 2030. This was among a report by the World Bank Group, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) called “Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture,” released recently. View a PDF version of the report here.  UK based biotechnology firm Benchmark Holdings PLC has acquired the aquaculture vaccine and development assets of American animal health company Zoetis Inc in a deal worth US$3m in cash. As part of the deal, Benchmark have also acquired a worldwide license to utilise Zoetis’ research and knowledge in order to drive the development of the aquaculture vaccines. Full news available here. 

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17/02/14: Aquaculture America Abstract: Developing and validating protocols for waterless shipping of live shrimp During this year’s Aquaculture America event - which took place back in January in Seattle, USA - David Kuhn, research assistant professor at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Virginia Tech, USA presented a talk on Developing and validating protocols for waterless shipping of live shrimp as part of the Seafood Processing and Transport sessions. Below is an extract form the session. Shrimp is the number one consumed seafood product in the US., with an average annual per capita consumption of four pounds. Over 90% of the shrimp consumed in the US. is imported, and the majority of imported shrimp is from farmed, not wild-caught sources. The US has significant interest in developing an aquacultured shrimp industry.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Both pond and RAS production of shrimp (marine shrimp and freshwater prawns) have been shown to be technically feasible and commercial enterprises using both systems exist. However, production costs for US growers exceed those of foreign competitors, such as Asia and Central America. The US market value of commodity shrimp is depressed due to the high volume of foreign product available. To support the continued growth of a shrimp aquaculture industry in the U.S., a niche market that commands a significant premium over imported shrimp prices must be leveraged. The live market represents a very promising niche for USgrown shrimp. It is difficult and costly for importers to ship live shrimp to the US; hence the live market represents an opportunity for US producers that will experience little-to-no competition from foreign imports.

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17/02/14: New! IAF column: Requirement and digestibility modelling to ensure safe phosphorus intake, by Dominique P. Bureau This column appeared in the January/February 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine, available now in English, Spanish and Chinese.

 One of the major environmental concerns for freshwater fish farming operations is the release of phosphorous waste. This element is the most limiting factor for algae growth in freshwater ecosystems, and even a modest increase can, under certain conditions, set off a chain of undesirable events in the water body including accelerated plant growth and algae blooms. The potential for deleterious effects on aquatic ecosystems is high.  On the other hand, phosphorous is an essential nutrient for ll animals. There is a need therefore to maintain the supply of the nutrient (in digestible form) to meet the requirements of the farmed organisms while warding off dietary excess, which results in increased waste output and the potentially deleterious environmental impacts. In addition to this, phosphorous is a relatively expensive nutrient. On top of environmental concerns, formulating feeds to higher-than-required phosphorous levels can in some cases reduce their cost-effectiveness.

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18/02/14: Prawn tagging study; investment to expand Canadian aquaculture; crude oil in fish hearts

The prawn fishing industry in the Spencer Gulf - an inlet off the Southern coast of Australia -  along with State Government researchers are collaborating on a study which involves tagging prawns in order to improve the growth and movement patterns. 6000 western king prawns have been tagged in the region over the past two years, of which around 100  have been recaptured by prawn fishers and sent to researchers for analysis. Full news available here. Last week, the Honourable Gail Shea, minister of fisheries and oceans, Canada, along with Dr. James Lunney, MP provided further details regarding the country’s future aquaculture plans.  A recent investment of $54 million over the next five years will help expand Canada’s Sustainable Aquaculture Program, which focuses on scientific research and regulatory enhancements. Full news available here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

A recent study by scientists from Stanford University, USA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), also based in the US, has revealed that crude oil interferes with fish heart cells.  The toxic consequence is a slowed heart rate, reduced cardiac contractility and irregular heartbeats that can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. Full news available here. 

18/02/14: Stirring stories - shaping strategy, by Roy Palmer Below is an extract by Roy Palmer, director of Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF). The column  appears in the January/February 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine, available now in English, Spanish and Chinese. I was pleased that we had an excellent Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) session at Asian Pacific Aquaculture in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. We titled the session ‘Stirring Stories’, and so they were. People who donate their time to find solutions for the poor; needy and hungry - it’s a heartwarming feeling.  The session was jointly chaired by AwF founder Michael New OBE and myself, and there were nine presentations alongside the opportunity for some good Q&A time.  2014 marks an important time for our organization - we are entering our second decade and with this we are making some changes to the way we operate. This is all about he organisation maturing and developing as it evolves from humble but important beginnings. AwF has a strong foundation and is now working to create strategic alliances as a key part of its long-term plan. We will still rely heavily on the generosity of the incredible people who have been involved in AwF from its early days, but we will hopefully see the organisation becoming the charity that communities, governments and other charities look to for expertise and help with aquaculture activities aiding the alleviation of poverty and malnutrition.  Read the full column here. 

18/02/14: New! IAF article: Successful moisture control in aquatic feeds

In this article, published in the January/February edition of international Aquafeed, Roger E. douglas, director of engineering, Drying Technology Inc., Texas, USA discusses the importance of moisture control in aquafeed products. Successful moisture control of aquafeed can be seen through the safety of the product and in its profitability. Feed products must be dried sufficiently in order to prevent growth of microorganisms after the packaging process. However, over-drying the products will result in poor production yields and energy losses. The two challenges for feed manufacturers are 1) to find the highest moisture content for a given product that will still prevent growth of moulds and other microorganisms, and 2) to find a drying control method that will help achieve and maximise that moisture content. Read the full article here.

19/02/14: Chicago vs carp; fishmeal production at Icelandic firm; ‘prawn city’ expands production

Following an infestation of Asian carp, Chicago, USA is considering drastic measures to prevent the species entering North America’s Great Lakes.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Authorities recently announced potential plans to block the city’s canal system to stop Asian carp entering the lake, a move that could cost up to $18bn (£11bn). Full news available here. Icelandic fishmeal firm HB Grandi recently announced it has commissioned a new production line for handling by-products from groundfish production at its fishmeal plant. “The meal and oil produced from [the by-products] is excellent for manufacturing feed as the freshness of the raw material is as good as it can be and the salt content is minimal,” said Almar Sigurjónsson, department manager in charge of HB Grandi’s fishmeal production. Full news available here. Known as “prawn city”, Zhanjiang, Shanghai is set to expand production and improving product quality in its aquatic agricultural bases.

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The city government said it will introduce more policies over the coming months in order to support the city’s prawn industry and other forms of aquaculture. Full news available here. Wynveen International b.v.

19/02/14: Revision of National Aquaculture Charter

Revisions and updated were recently made to the National Aquaculture Charter (CNA) 2014, which includes studies in biotechnology, geographic distribution, farming and health management systems of 26 species with aquaculture potential and high market demand. The updates were made under the National Fisheries Institute (Inapesca), and thMexican Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, Rural Development, Fisheries and Food.

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The National Aquaculture Charter was first published in January 20011, and has since become a tool for consultation and guidance for the Mexican sector of aquaculture production, as well as an instrument to promote technological innovation and sustainable development of aquaculture.

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In its 2014 edition, the CNA presents the study of 26 information sheets, which will be incorporated into the updated document, of which three belong to aquaculture sector. In addition, eight correspond to new species, among which are the western blue shrimp, white shrimp and yellowleg shrimp, Nelson’s trout, eastern oyster and sea lettuce of the genus Ulva. It also presents an analysis of the aquaculture sector in Laguna Pueblo Viejo, Tampico, and the Alvarado Lagoon System. Full news available here.

20/02/14: New aquaculture zone in Western Australia; FISHBOOST project; Chef turns fish detective

Kimberley, Western Australia has received environmental approval for a new aquaculture zone that will significantly increase fish production. It is expected that the 2,000 hectare zone will produce up to 20,000 tonnes of barramundi per year.

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Full news available here. A new European research project FISHBOOST, hosted by the Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (NOFIMA) began yesterday. Opened by professor Trygve Gjedrem at Nofima, a selective breeding pioneer who was instrumental in developing the first family based breeding programme in aquaculture for Atlantic salmon. FISHBOOST will address the cost benefits of implementing selective breeding in aquaculture production. Full news available here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Top chef, Raymond Blanc - owner of the only two Michelin starred restaurant in the UK to be certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has been working closely with the organisation on series of short animations about sustainable fish. Officially launched yesterday, the films follow ‘Inspector’ Blanc as he investigates the curious cases of The Fish in the Canteen, Seafood Sabotage and The Fish out of Water. Full news available here.

20/02/14: New! IAF article: Current challenges and opportunities in amino acid nutrition of salmonids

In the second article to feature in the January/February edition of International Aquafeed, Cláudia Figueiredo-Silva and Andreas Lemme, Evonik Industries, Germany discuss the current challenges and opportunities in amino acid nutrition of salmonids. Fishmeal is still one of the main protein sources used in commercial feeds for trout and salmon. But its availability is shrinking and its cost is increasing year by year. The sustainability of the aquaculture industry depends largely on its capability to replace fishmeal with alternative sources of protein, and to reduce the currently excessive protein levels commonly applied in the formulation of commercial diets. At the same time, feeds must be formulated to be effective in covering the nutrient requirements of specific species in order to maximise growth.

20/02/14: Feeding our image, by Alistair Lane Below is an extract by Alistair Lane, executive director of the European Aquaculture Society. The column  appears in the January/February 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine, available now in English, Spanish and Chinese.  The political horizon for European aquaculture development has not looked this good since the Commission published its first strategy for the sector back in 2002. Although the growth targets set out back then were not achieved, at least we now know why not.  The Federation of European Aquaculture Producers’ ‘Aquaculture in Motion’ event held in Brussels in November looked in detail at the latest EU Guidelines for the Sustainable Development of European Aquaculture, I published earlier this year. FEAP presented its position on the four priority areas of the document, namely the simplification of administrative procedures for operating licenses, the application of coordinated spatial planning to identify suitable areas, enhancing the competitiveness of EU aquaculture and promoting a level playing field for EU operators. The event also showcased the diversity of European aquaculture with presentations on the status of development of national strategies from France, Hungary, Spain and Germany.  The first two of these priority areas were recently formally recognised by the European Committee of the Regions as being key issues that need addressing by the regional and local authorities that actually oversee the licensing process. 

21/02/14: New! IAF article: Whisky by-products – a sustainable protein source for aquaculture

In the third article that appears in the January/February edition of International Aquafeed, Julio Traub, PhD student, Heriot-watt University , Edinburgh, Scotland discusses the use of whisky by-products as a sustainable protein source for aquaculture.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Scottish whisky is a truly iconic product, with Scotland the largest-producing nation of whisky worldwide. Production has increased by 30 percent in the last decade and more than five times in the last half-century. In 2011 more than 500 million litres of pure alcohol (lpa) of whisky were produced in the UK. As the whisky industry prospers, more attention is drawn to the by-products of whisky production. Whisky manufacture yields considerable amounts of by-products – which include liquid and solid components – alongside the main product. These materials contain significant amounts of proteins that are currently underutilised and are often perceived as a challenge rather than an opportunity for distillers. Read the full article here.

21/02/14: Friday video: Aquaculture: The Way of the Future This video follows the work of the Cape Eleuthera Institute aquaculture program.

Based in the Bahamas, the objective of the Cape Eleuthera Institute’s offshore aquaculture program is to produce marketable size cobia, from hatchlings to harvest, with a systematic approach to promote higher growth rates with a low food conversion rate. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=2ZjmsOCjB8

21/02/14: The functionality dimension, by Ioannis Zabetakis Below is an extract by Ioannis Zabetakis, assistant professor of food chemistry, University of Athens, Greece. The column  appears in the January/February 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine, available now in English, Spanish and Chinese.  Thirty years after the Seven Countries Study into the relationship between diet and lifestyle and the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease, unanswered questions remain. Ancel Keys’s major 1984 study took in cohorts from the USA, the Netherlands, Finland, Italy, Greece, Yugoslavia and Japan, and famously established a link between blood cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease. But why did some cohorts have low frequencies of coronary heart disease but high levels of serum cholesterol? Why do people in Japan (fish eaters) and in the Mediterranean (olive oil eaters) have a lower incidence of heart disease irrespective of serum cholesterol levels? Do we, after all, really need to lower serum cholesterol to prevent atherosclerosis and cardiac malfunctions? In 2014, cardiovascular diseases, although preventable, remain the top global cause of death and stroke, and cutting-edge research should focus on suggesting ways to sustainably increase food functionality against this threat. The prevention of cardiovascular diseases, the atherosclerosis in particular, is a major objective for life sciences research and the focal point in biochemistry and functional food chemistry, which aims to find out how specific food components participate in the atherosclerosis mechanisms involved, and how we can ensure their sustainable production.  From the point of view of aquaculture, the term ‘Food Security’ has a double dimension: enough food must be sustainably produced to feed the growing human population in the long-term, but this food also has to be nutritious. In other words, food security includes sustainability and functionality.  Read the full column here. 

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

24/02/14: Seaweed Could be Next New Biofuel, New Fish Disease Discovered in Norway, EU Project Aims to Boost Aquaculture through Selective Breeding

New research from the University of Greenwich reveals that seaweed can be effectively used as a liquid bio-fuel; providing another renewable energy source. Unlike other bio-fuels; seaweed provides an alternative option that does not cut into food production - “First generation fuels such as bio-ethanol from sugarcane and corn, or biodiesel from rape seed and palm oil, are in direct competition with food for arable land and water. As such that have an adverse effect on food prices and supply.” Full news available here. Recently a the Norwegian Veterinary Institute has discovered a new disease in a hatchery of rainbow trout. This disease increases the likelihood of mortality and is contagious - the institute is working on finding out how the disease is transmitted. “Typical disease symptoms are circulatory failure and anemia and disease fish often have heart inflammation.” Full news available here. In order to prepare for the future the EU project is aiming to boost aquaculture through selective breeding. Increasing productivity and profitability with little cost to the environment. This project will look at the cost vs benefit of implementing selective breeding within aquaculture - a relatively new industry. Full news available here.

24/02/14: Event: Oceanology International - Aquaculture conference

For the first time, the Oceanology International 2014 conference will include a conference on aquaculture, reflecting the growing importance of this industry in the marine environment. This conference seeks to promote collaboration between academia and industry in areas where there are opportunities for technology transfer. What will the Aquaculture Conference involve? The conference will focus on a wide range of production systems and species types, encompassing macro- and micro-algae, shellfish, crustacean and finfish, encompassing production for a number of different markets such as food chain, blue biotechnology and renewable energy/ biofuels. A Steering Committee of 6 technical and scientific experts will guide the subject areas of the Aquaculture session that seeks to address some of the constraints to the industry’s development. The session will also identify potential cross-disciplinary marine industry opportunities such as remote sensing, engineering and modelling, where aquaculture may benefit from the progress that has already been achieved in other sectors.

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When/where is the conference? The conference will take place on the 12 March 2014 at the ExCeL London Exhibition and Convention Centre. For a full programme list and registration details, visit the Oceanology International website here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

25/02/14: Aquaculture farms to use geothermal resources, Kimberly aquaculture zone given environmental green light,

Aquaculture farms in Mindoro will be growing large volumes of Tilapia, Sea Bass and Shrimp through the utilization of geothermal plants. This will provide a controlled water temperature that is also nutrient-rich, which can be utilized in order to grow high quality fish. (EPI) Emerging Power Inc is hoping to implement this development and work in conjunction with Mindoro fisherman in a joint venture. Launching the joint venture with a 40-megawatt plant costing $180 million; the Geothermal water will allow a temperature of 36 to 38 degrees to be maintained within the fish tanks shortening the breeding cycle of the fish drastically. Read more here. The (EPA) Environment Protection Authority in Western Australia has provided the green light for the development of aquaculture in the North West of Derby. It is estimated that the allocated 2,000 hectare zone will produce 20,000 tonnes of fin fish per year. “It provides an investmentready platform that companies who want to come in, or existing companies who want to expand, can actually use.� Read more here.

25/02/14: China to Lead Growing Demand for Fish, The Role of Bioassays in Sea Lice Management, By 2030, China is projected to account for 38 percent of the worlds total consumption of fish. As the worlds middle class exponentially grows; so will the demand for fish - After 2030, 70% of the worlds total fish produce will be consumed by Asia. With this demand for fish looming, China and other nations are exponentially increasing their investment within the aquaculture industry. Read more here. The Fish Vet Group explains the role of bioassays in sea Lice management; developing a fundamental understanding of the best-practices for control and prevention of sea lice. Bioassays allow us to determine how much medicine is needed in order to deal with sea lice populations, measuring the toxicity of chemicals to living organisms and determining how resistant they might be to the medicine in question. This provides us with the opportunity to see how sea lice respond to different dosages of medicine in a controlled environment. Read more here. (There is a second article to come later in the month)

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

25/02/14: Marine laboratory introduces elegant microalgal ‘bubble column’

Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK, well known for its environmental research, has expanded its interests into commercial algal biomass production; but it’s not the algae they are selling but the means to grow them. After 30 years of growing microalgae for research purposes, PML is now utilising this knowledge and expertise to provide solutions to the wider community. The first product out of the laboratory and onto the production line is a bubble column-style photobioreactor for growing microalgae. “We designed and built half a dozen of these units as tools for our personal use on research contracts we were undertaking” says Mike Allen, Senior Scientist at PML. “The only problem was, when we showed visitors around the lab they kept wanting to buy them off us!” The demand for the in-house built photobioreactors from visitors was difficult to ignore, and following a redesign to make the reactors look like a professional product, the commercial arm of PML - PML Applications - is now about to officially start selling their bubble column range. Already, prior to the official launch, units have been sold to customers in Europe, America and Western Asia working in the fields of aquaculture, academia and engineering. Elegance of design The newly launched range offers laboratory grade, vertical column photobioreactors capable of growing different strains of algae for research, aquaculture and education purposes with a focus on biomass quality, reliability and elegance of design. Stand-alone, wall-mounted or hanging units grow microalgae under controlled agitation and are designed to ensure that all the user needs to do is throw in their growth media and algae of choice, plug them in and they are good to go. To date, the bubble columns have successfully grown freshwater, brackish and saltwater strains (natural and genetically modified) including:

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

•    Nannochloropsis salina •    Nannochloropsis oculata •    Tetraselmis suecica •    Tetraselmis chuii •    Isochrysis galbana •    Thalassiosira pseudonana •    Phaeodactylum tricornutum •    Emiliania huxleyi •    Chlorella salina •    Chlorella vulgaris •    Chlorella sorokiniana •    Dunaliella salina •    Ostreococcus tauri •    Botryococcus braunii •    Rhinomonas reticulate •    Pavlova lutheri •    Arthrospira platensis They have all been grown to cell densities well over 107 cells per ml. Whole culture harvesting is achieved through a tap at the bottom, while smaller volumes for quality control monitoring can be drawn off from the middle of the column. Sizes supplied Typical sizes supplied already include three, six, 10 and 15 litre columns, with bespoke sizes and volumes available. The systems are based around a robust polycarbonate tube with anodised aluminium components available in a variety of colours such as light blue, dark blue, pink, purple, green, orange, gold, black, silver and red; a feature particularly useful if you are looking to combine function with a visually striking display system which matches your company logo and colours. Designed by algae experts for algae growers of all abilities, interests and purposes the PML built bubble column photobioreactor offers a cost effective and elegant solution to your microalgae culturing needs. Visit the Plymouth Marine Laboratory website here. Check out www.bubble-columns.com in the coming weeks for more details!

26/02/14: Indonesia to boost fisheries production and exports, Honduran shrimp exports to exceed $220 million during 2014.

The Ministry of Affairs and Fisheries (MMFA) in Indonesia plans to continue its expansion of the fishing industry - increasing the total amount of fish based exports; from both cultured fish and catch fish. Current valuation of the Indonesian fish market is valued at approximately $5.65 billion, exporting 20.95 million tons of fish. Read more here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Growing foreign demand has increased the value of Honduran shrimp exports by 7.4 percent compared to the previous year (2013); according to the National Aquaculture Association of Honduras. Exporting an increasingly high volume of shrimp valued at $220 million this year (2014) global demand has also exponentially increased the value of this product according to the president of Andah, Victor Wilson Read more here.

26/02/14: Biomedical bleeding affects horseshoe crab behavior, New Zealand Launches Scampi Aquaculture Program

The blood of horseshoe crabs is often harvested from live crabs for use in pharmaceuticals; the major product from their blood being limulus amebocyte lysate. A product which is used throughout the medical and pharmaceutical industry.  According to University of New Hampshire and Plymouth State University these living crabs are being too heavily bled - harvesting approximately thirty percent of their total blood; leading to a mortality rate of twenty to thirty percent. After conducting experiments it was concluded that the horseshoe crabs would become heavily disoriented which drastically changed their behavior. After further analysis it was determined that this would have a further adverse effect if done during their breeding season. Read more here. New Zealand has recently taken upon itself a new initiative to improve its scampi production; producing a new hatchery in Cawthron Aquaculture Park - a project that has been in the works by the New Zealand Government for approximately six years. Over the next six years the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment will be investing NZ$1.5 million per year into this project. Encouraging a sustainable and healthy aquaculture industry; New Zealand is hoping to grow the exports from the current NZ$21 million to NZ$200 million by 2030. Read more here.

27/02/14: Event: Join Perendale Publishers Ltd at Campden BRI Safety and Quality of Livestock Feed Campden BRI will be holding a seminar on the safety and quality of livestock feed during the 6th of March 2014. Event site can be found here.

This event will be tailored towards feed producers and those within the food business who produce the raw materials necessary for feed. Providing an array of information for those who use and prepare their own feed. Further exploring the important role that feed has within the food supply providing a fundamental understanding as to how it effects the safety and quality of food products. Emphasizing on the importance that feed quality has within the agricultural, feed and food sectors. As the food sector and need for live stock increases Campden BRI believe it is important to highlight where the sourcing of material comes from and ensuring that feed quality is high while remaining safe. Register here. Topics: Nutrition, Product Quality, Human Health, Aquaculture, Industry Services Speakers and Organization (Link): Angela Booth - AB Connect Christopher Knight - Campden BRI Ian Givens - Professor of Food Chain Nutrition, University of Reading Professor Julian Wiseman - University of Nottingham Michael Bedford - AB Vista 23


THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

Poppy Frater - EBLEX, Division of AHDB TorbjØrn Åsgård - Nofima Research, Norway Roger Gilbert - Perendale Publishers Event Programme (Link): 9:00 Registration and Refreshments 9:30 Chairman’s Introduction 9:40  Needs of Ruminant Feed Industry - Future Perspectives 10:10 Legislation and Feed Safety 10:40 Refreshment Break and Opportunity for Exhibition 11:10 Management of Feed Safety in the Food Chain 11:50 Nutritional Content of Animal Feed and Product Quality 12:20 Influence of Feed Enzymes on Nutrient Availability 13:00 Lunch and Opportunity to Visit Exhibits 14:00 Can the Diet of Food Producing Animals Influence the Health of the Food Consumer? 14:30 Innovations of Poultry Feed 15:00 Aquaculture and Feed - Current and Future Developments 15:45 Chairman’s Closing Comments and Discussion Event Details Event Director: Nick Saunders When?: 06/03/2014 Where?: Campden BRI, Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, GL55 6LD, UK (Click here for map) Contact: Training Department +44(0)1386 842104 (Direct Line) Email: training@campdenbri.co.uk Charge: Members and AIC: £295 + VAT Non-Members: £395 + VAT Register here.

27/02/14: New Crayfish Plague Detection Techniques Being Tested, CSIRO to Work with C02 Group on Aquaculture Research

North American crayfish species have been known to carry a parasite known as the Aphanomyces astaci; while encroaching and becoming an invasive species to native European crayfish - devouring and competing for their food. However this is not the only issue, the parasite brought forward by the North American species has acted as a plague amongst the vulnerable European crayfish - killing them within weeks of infection. This has led to the need to adapt and develop new detection methods in order to find North American crayfish as well as infected European crayfish in order to eliminate them before the infection spreads. Read more here.

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THE AQUACULTURIST | February 2014

WARL (Western Australia Resources Limited) will be changing its name to Seafarms Group Limited after its acquisition of Seafarm in North Queensland. WARL has also recently entered into an agreement with CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) in order to build its relationship and collaborate. Allowing CSIRO to provide WARL with the provision of aquaculture research and development helping it to develop a new high-tech, high-quality enterprise in Australia. Read more here.

28/02/2014: Biomarine TV has arrived

Marine-based bio-industries received an injection of support today with the launch of BioMarine TV. This is a new ‘news’ service, offered through Bio-Marine Organisation Ltd in partnership with Paris-based MLG Events, that has been launched today and is available on the internet through YouTube. The sub-five minute inaugural video is presented by newsreader Ginie Van de Noort and reports on recent news items related to the biomarine industry in a quick-fire format. News items covered in this first edition of Biomarine TV includes: Iceland Ocean Cluster - Fish processing Pia Winberg, Australia - Seaweed Production Ilaria Nardello, Ireland - European Projects Allma & A4F, Portugal - Microalgae Tiago Henriques, Portugal - Biomaterials HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco - Awarded A featured interview: Pierre Erwes, Chairman BioMarine / Marine Bioresources Ecosystem (Pierre offers anyone with news to contact him “if you wish to add some visibility, be interviewed, or co-develop a web series” on: pierre.erwes@ biomarine.org)

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The Aquaculturist A regular look inside the aquaculture industry

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The Aquaculturists - February 2014