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QUEEN ELIZABETH OLYMPIC PARK

V O C A B U L A R Y

O F

V I S I O N S


RC14

Tutors Roberto Bottazzi Kostas Grigoriadis Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park

VOCABULARY OF VISIONS

Team Alican Inal Yu Ge Qi Xu Yanzhong Li

The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL London, 2016


A

Chroma Feature

Acoustic attenuation

Chromesthesia

Adobe Audition

CRISAP

Amplitude & Cycle

D

Anthropophony

Direct Manipulation Interface

At Every Instant There is More Than We

E

Can See and Hear

Echo Suppression & Cancellation

Auditory-tactile Synaesthesia

Electromagnetic Induction

Axial Space

Equal-loudness Contour

B

Extended Reality(XR)

Barry Truax

Eyebory

Berlin Sonic Places

F

Bernard Krause

Faraday`s Law of Induction

Bioacoustic

Five Village Soundscapes

Biophony

Frequency

Brown Note

G

C Convex Space

Geophony


H

N

How People Feel According to Different

Natural Frequency&Acoustic Resonance

Level of Sound Decibel

Noise Future Network

I

P

Infrasound

Peter Cusack

Integration

Period

Interactivity

Phase&Wavelength

J

Piezoelectricity

John Cage

R

L

Rhythmanalysis

Lenz`s Law

S

M

Schismogenesis

Minecraft

Schizophonia

Misophia

Sensitivity of Human Ear

Mixed Reality(MR)

Sonic Interaction Design

Mono & Stereo

Sounder City

Murray Schafer

Soundscapes of Canada


Sound Absorption Coefficient &

The vOICe

The Noise Reduction

U

Sound Frequency Hearing Range

Ultrasound

Sound Harvest

V

Sound Intensity

Virtual Reality(VR)

Sound Power

W

Sound Pressure

World Soundscape Project

Sound Speed Sound Vibration Space Syntax Spatial Sequence Synesthesia Spectrum Spectrogram Synesthesia & Grapheme-color Synesthesia

T The Hum The User Interface(UI)


[6]


Acoustic Attenuation Acoustic attenuation is a measure of the energy loss of sound propagation in media: 1.Sound is lost to heating of the medium it is propagating through. 2.Acoustic Scattering: high frequency is better reflected, while low frequency is able to pass through barriers.

[7]


[8]


Adobe Audition (Formerly Cool Edit Pro) Adobe Audition is a digital audio workstation from Adobe Systems featuring both a multitrack, non-destructive mix/edit environment and a destructive-approach waveform editing view.

[9]


[10]


Amplitude & Cycle Amplitude: Reflects the change in pressure from the peak of the waveform to the trough. Cycle: Describes a single, repeated sequence of pressure changes, from zero pressure, to high pressure, to low pressure, and back to zero.

[11]


[12]


Anthropophony The term, anthropophony, consists of the Greek prefix, anthropo, meaning human, and the suffix, phon, meaning sound. The term refers to all sound produced by humans, whether coherent, such as music, theatre, and language, or incoherent and chaotic such as random signals generated primarily by electromechanical means.

[13]


[14]


At Every Instant There is More Than We Can See and Hear Part from Kevin Lynch’s book “The Image of the City”: Looking at cities can give a special pleasure, however commonplace the sight may be. Like a piece of architecture, the city is a construction in space, but one of vast scale, a thing perceived only in the course of long spans of time. City design is therefore a temporal art… At every instant, there is more than the eye can see, more than the ear can hear, a setting or a view waiting to be explored. Nothing is experienced by itself, but always in relation to its surrounding, the sequences of events leading up to it, the memory of past experiences.

[15]


[16]


Auditory-tactile Synaesthesia In auditory-tactile synesthesia, certain sounds can induce sensations in parts of the body. For example, someone

with

auditory-tactile

synesthesia

may

experience that hearing a specific word feels like touch in one specific part of the body or may experience that certain sounds can create a sensation in the skin without being touched. It is one of the least common forms of synesthesia.

[17]


[18]


Axial Space (Idea popularized by Bill Hillier at UCL).A straight sightline and possible path.

[19]


[20]


Barry Truax A Canadian composer who specializes in real-time implementations of granular synthesis, often of sampled sounds, and soundscapes.

[21]


[22]


Berlin Sonic Places The project Klang Orte Berlin/Berlin Sonic Places was initiated by Peter Cusack during his residency for the DAAD Artists-in-Berlin Program to explore the importance of sound in the urban context and how it is affected by city planning and development. Reconstruction and development projects of every size and purpose have been a fact of Berlin life since reunification. It is a particularly relevant, and fascinating, city to illuminate the issues.

[23]


[24]


Bernard Krause An American musician and ecologist. He founded Wild Sanctuary, an organization dedicated to the recording and archiving of natural soundscapes, is an author, soundscape recordist and bio-acoustician, who coined the terms geophony, biophony, and anthropophony[1] and as a founder of the field, was germane to the definition and structure of soundscape ecology.

[25]


[26]


Bioacoustics Bioacoustics is a cross-disciplinary science that combines biology and acoustics. Usually it refers to the investigation of sound production, dispersion and reception in animals (including humans).[1] This involves neurophysiological and anatomical basis of sound production and detection, and relation of acoustic signals to the medium they disperse through. The findings provide clues about the evolution of acoustic mechanisms, and from that, the evolution of animals that employ them.

[27]


[28]


Biophony The term consists of the Greek prefix, bio, meaning life, and the suffix, phon, meaning sound. It specifically refers to the collective sound that vocalizing animals create in each given environment.

[29]


[30]


Brown Note The brown note is a hypothetical infrasonic frequency that would cause humans to lose control of their bowels due to resonance. Attempts to demonstrate the existence of a “brown note� using sound waves transmitted through air have failed.

[31]


[32]


Convex Space (popularized by John Peponis and his collaborators at Georgia Tech). An occupiable void where, if imagined as a wireframe diagram, no line between two of its points goes outside its perimeter: all points within the polygon are visible to all other points within the polygon.

[33]


[34]


Chroma Feature In the music context, the term chroma feature or chromagram closely relates to the twelve different pitch classes. Chroma-based features, which are also referred to pitch class profiles, are a powerful tool for analyzing music whose pitches can be meaningfully categorized (often into twelve categories) and whose tuning approximates to the equal-tempered scale.

[35]


[36]


Chromesthesia Common form of synesthesia is the association of sounds with colors. For some, everyday sounds such as doors opening, cars honking, or people talking can trigger seeing colors.

[37]


[38]


CRISAP Creative Research into Sound Arts Practice (CRiSAP) is a research centre of the University of the Arts London dedicated to the exploration of the rich complexities of sound as an artistic practice. The centre’s aim is to extend the development of the emerging disciplinary field of sound arts and to encourage the broadening and deepening of the discursive context in which sound arts is practised.

[39]


[40]


Direct Manipulation Interface In computer science, direct manipulation is a human– computer interaction style which involves continuous representation of objects of interest and rapid, reversible, and incremental actions and feedback.

[41]


[42]


Echo Suppression & Cancellation Echo suppression and echo cancellation are methods in telephony to improve voice quality by preventing echo from being created or removing it after it is already present. In addition to improving subjective quality, this process increases the capacity achieved through silence suppression by preventing echo from traveling across a network

[43]


[44]


Electromagnetic induction Electromagnetic or Magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

[45]


[46]


Equal-loudness Contour An equal-loudness contour is a measure of sound pressure (dB SPL), over the frequency spectrum, for which a listener perceives a constant loudness when presented with pure steady tones. By definition, two sine waves of differing frequencies are said to have equalloudness level measured in phons if they are perceived as equally loud by the average young person without significant hearing impairment.

[47]


[48]


Extended reality (XR) It is a term referring to all real-and-virtual combined environments

and

human-machine

interactions

generated by computer technology and wearables. It includes representative forms such as augmented reality (AR), augmented virtuality (AV) and virtual reality (VR), and the areas interpolated among them. The levels of virtuality range from partially sensory inputs to immersive virtuality, also called VR.

[49]


[50]


Eyeborg It is a device developed by Adam Montandan that incorporates the auditory and visual spectra. It makes it possible for people with color-blindness to hear colors. This device was inspired by naturally occurring synesthesia.

[51]


[52]


Faraday’s Law of Induction Faraday’s law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism predicting how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF)—a phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.

[53]


[54]


Five Village Soundscapes In 1975, a larg group of members from World Soundscape Project, including Murray Schafer, embarked on a tour of Europe. The tour included workshops and lectures in several major cities, spreading the educational and theoretical aspects of the Project, as well as detailed analysis and recording projects of five European Villages, one of each in Sweden (Skruv), Germany (Bissingen), Italy (Cembra), France (Lesconil) and Scotland (Dollar).

[55]


[56]


Frequency Frequency is defined as the number of cycles completed in one second. The unit of measurement for frequency is hertz (Hz), and it is fully synonymous the older and more straightforward term cycles per second (cps). The formula for frequency is: f = 1/t, where: f = frequency in Hz t = period in seconds The period can also be calculated if the frequency is known. Since period and frequency are inversely related, t = 1/f.

[57]


[58]


Geophony Term cames from the Greek prefix, geo, meaning earth-related, and phon, meaning sound, is one of three components of the soundscape that relates to the naturally occurring non-biological audio signal sources coming from different types of habitats, whether marine or terrestrial. Typically, these refer to wild, relatively undisturbed habitats.

[59]


[60]


How People Feel According to Different Level of Sound Decibel Those with spatial sequence synesthesia (SSS) tend to see numerical sequences as points in space. For instance, the number 1 might be farther away and the number 2 might be closer. People with SSS may have superior memories; in one study, they were able to recall past events and memories far better and in far greater detail than those without the condition. They also see months or dates in the space around them. Some people see time like a clock above and around them.

[61]


[62]


Infrasound Sometimes referred to as low-frequency sound, is sound that is lower in frequency than 20 Hz (hertz) or cycles per second, the “normal� limit of human hearing. Hearing becomes gradually less sensitive as frequency decreases, so for humans to perceive infrasound, the sound pressure must be sufficiently high.

[63]


[64]


Integration It measures how many turns have to be made from a street segment to reach all other street segments in the network, using shortest paths. If the number of turns required for reaching all segments in the graph is analyzed, the analysis is said to measure integration at radius ‘n’.

[65]


[66]


Interactivity Across the many fields concerned with interactivity, including information science, computer science, human-computer interaction, communication, and industrial design, there is little agreement over the meaning of the term interactivity, although all are related to interaction with computers and other machines with a user interface.

[67]


[68]


John Cage An

American

composer,

music

theorist,

writer,

philosopher, and artist. A pioneer of indeterminacy in music, electroacoustic music, and non-standard use of musical instruments, Cage was one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde. Critics have lauded him as one of the most influential American composers of the 20th century.

[69]


[70]


Lenz’s law The direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to Faraday’s law of induction will be such that it will create a field that opposes the change that produced it.

[71]


[72]


Minecraft A way of soundscape visualization: using small cubes as units to construct sound structure according to the decibel data of sound environment.

[73]


[74]


Misophonia A neurological disorder in which negative experiences (anger, fright, hatred, disgust) are triggered by specific sounds. Richard Cytowic suggests that misophonia is related to, or perhaps a variety of, synesthesia.

[75]


[76]


Mixed reality (MR) It sometimes referred to as hybrid reality, is the merging of real and virtual worlds to produce new environments and visualizations where physical and digital objects coexist and interact in real time. Mixed reality takes place not only in the physical world or the virtual world,[1] but is a mix of reality and virtual reality, encompassing both augmented reality and augmented virtuality.

[77]


[78]


Mono & Stereo Monaural or monophonic sound reproduction is intended to be heard as if it were a single channel of sound perceived as coming from one position. Stereo is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.

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[80]


Murray Schafer a Canadian composer, writer, music educator and environmentalist perhaps best known for his World Soundscape Project, concern for acoustic ecology, and his book The Tuning of the World (1977).

[81]


[82]


Sound Features

Natural Frequency & Acoustic Resonance Natural frequency is the frequency at which a system tends to oscillate in the absence of any driving or damping force. And acoustic resonance is a phenomenon that consists of a given acoustic system amplifying a sound whose frequency matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration.

[83]


[84]


Noise Future Network The primary purpose of the network is to facilitate interdisciplinary (multi-interest) research on future soundscapes.

[85]


[86]


Peter Cusack Peter Cusack is an artist and musician who is a member of CRiSAP (Creative Research in Sound Arts Practice), and is a research staff member and founding member of the London College of Communication in the University of the Arts London. He was a founding member and director of the London Musicians’ Collective.

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[88]


Period Period is the time required to complete one cycle of vibration. For example, if 20 cycles are completed in 1 second, the period is 1/20th of a second (s), or 0.05 s. For speech applications, the most commonly used unit of measurement for period is the millisecond (ms): 1 ms = 1/1,000 s = 0.001 s = 10-3 s A somewhat less commonly used unit is the microsecond (Âľs): 1 Âľs = 1/1,000,000 s = 0.000001 s = 10-6 s

[89]


[90]


Phase & Wavelength Phase: Measured in 360 degrees, indicates the position of a waveform in a cycle. Zero degree is the start point, followed by 90째 at high pressure, 180째 at the halfway point, 270째 at low pressure, and 360째 at the end point. Wavelength: Measured in units such as inches or centimeters, is the distance between two points with the same degree of phase. As frequency increases,

[91]


[92]


Piezoelectricity Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure.

[93]


[94]


Rhythmanalysis Rhythmanalysis is a collection of essays by Marxist sociologist and philosopher Henri Lefebvre. The book outlines a method for analyzing the rhythms of urban spaces and the effects of those rhythms on the inhabitants of those spaces. It builds on his past work, with which he argued space is a production of social practices.

[95]


[96]


Schismogenesis Steven Feld (1994, p. 265-271), apparently in response to R. Murray Schafer’s schizophonia and borrowing the term from Bateson, employs schismogenesis to name the recombination and recontextualization of sounds split from their sources.

[97]


[98]


Schizophonia A term coined by R. Murray Schafer to describe the splitting of an original sound and its electroacoustic reproduction.

Since

the

invention

of

the

electroaccoustical equipment for the transmission any sound can be recorded and sent anywhere around the world. Originally that was not possible, every sound was an original and could only be heard once.

[99]


[100]


Human hearing

Sensitivity of Huamn Ear The human ear can respond to minute pressure variations in the air if they are in the audible frequency range, roughly 20 Hz - 20 kHz.It is capable of detecting pressure variations of less than one billionth of atmospheric pressure. The threshold of hearing corresponds to air vibrations on the order of a tenth of an atomic diameter. This incredible sensitivity is enhanced by an effective amplification of the sound signal by the outer and middle ear structures. Contributing to the wide dynamic range of human hearing are protective mechanisms that reduce the ear’s response to very loud sounds. Sound intensities over this wide range are usually expressed in decibels.

[101]


[102]


Sonic interaction design Sonic interaction design is the study and exploitation of sound as one of the principal channels conveying information, meaning, and aesthetic/emotional qualities in interactive contexts.Sonic interaction design is at the intersection of interaction design and sound and music computing. If interaction design is about designing objects people interact with, and such interactions are facilitated by computational means, in sonic interaction design, sound is mediating interaction either as a display of processes or as an input medium.

[103]


[104]


Sounder City The Mayor of London’s noise strategy, Sounder City, shows how we can turn down the volume to help reduce some of the harsh and obtrusive sounds of the cityliving.

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Soundscapes of Canada Peter Huse and Bruce Davis, embarked on a tour across Canada in 1973, in an effort to document the changing soundscape and preserve dying sounds becoming obsolete due to new technology. The types of sounds recorded on this project included natural ambiences, signifiers such as bells, chimes and foghorns, as well as mechanical and industrial sounds. The recordings are typically long uninterrupted takes and do not attempt to mask the presence of the recordists.

[107]


[108]


Sound Absorption Coefficient & The Noise Reduction Coefficient Sound absorption coefficient is the ratio of absorbed sound intensity in an actual material to the incident sound intensity. The noise reduction coefficient is a scalar representation of the amount of sound energy absorbed upon striking a particular surface. An NRC of 0 indicates perfect reflection; an NRC of 1 indicates perfect absorption.

[109]


[110]


Sound Frequency Hearing Range Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals. The human range is commonly given as 20 to 20,000 Hz, and a gradual loss of sensitivity to higher frequencies with age is considered normal. Several animal species are able to hear frequencies well beyond the human hearing range.

[111]


[112]


Sound Harvest Using special devices or materials to collect enough amount of sound vibration to transform sound to energy.

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[114]


Sound Intensity Sound intensity also known as acoustic intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area. The SI unit of intensity, which includes sound intensity, is the watt per square meter (W/m2). One application is the noise measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listener’s location as a sound energy quantity.

[115]


[116]


Sound power (Acoustic power) Sound power or acoustic power is the rate at which sound energy is emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time. The SI unit of sound power is the watt (W). It is the power of the sound force on a surface of the medium of propagation of the sound wave.

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[118]


Sound Preaaure Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average, or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave. In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, and in water with a hydrophone. The SI unit of sound pressure is the pascal (Pa). In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, and in water with a hydrophone. The SI unit of sound pressure is the pascal (Pa).

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[120]


Sound Speed Sound travels faster at higher tempreture: v=331m/s+0.6m/s/degree Sound speed is also slightly affected by humidity: 20 degree, 0%humidity-343.4m/s 50%humidity-344.0m/s 100%humidity-344.6m/s

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Sound & Vibration A sound wave is an air pressure disturbance that results from vibration. The vibration can come from a tuning fork, a guitar string, the column of air in an organ pipe, the head (or rim) of a snare drum, steam escaping from a radiator, the reed on a clarinet, the diaphragm of a loudspeaker, the vocal cords, or virtually anything that vibrates in a frequency range that is audible to a listener (roughly 20 to 20,000 cycles per second for humans).The two conditions that are required for the generation of a sound wave are a vibratory disturbance and an elastic medium, the most familiar of which is air.

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[124]


Space Syntax The term space syntax encompasses a set of theories and techniques for the analysis of spatial configurations. It was conceived by Bill Hillier, Julienne Hanson and colleagues at The Bartlett, University College London in the late 1970s to early 1980s as a tool to help urban planners simulate the likely social effects of their designs.

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[126]


Spatial Sequence Synaesthesia Those with spatial sequence synesthesia (SSS) tend to see numerical sequences as points in space. For instance, the number 1 might be farther away and the number 2 might be closer. People with SSS may have superior memories; in one study, they were able to recall past events and memories far better and in far greater detail than those without the condition.

[127]


[128]


Spectrum Spectrum is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum. The word was first used scientifically within the field of optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light when separated using a prism. As scientific understanding of light advanced, it came to apply to the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

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[130]


Spectrogram Spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies in a sound or other signal as they vary with time or some other variable. Spectrograms are sometimes called spectral waterfalls, voiceprints, or voicegrams.

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Synesthesia & Grapheme-color Synaesthesia It is a neurological phenomenon in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. In one of the most common forms of synesthesia, individual letters of the alphabet and numbers are “shaded” or “tinged” with a color.

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[134]


The Hum The Hum is a phenomenon, or collection of phenomena, involving widespread reports of a persistent and invasive low-frequency humming, rumbling, or droning noise not audible to all people. Hums have been widely reported by national media in the UK and the United States. The Hum is sometimes prefixed with the name of a locality where the problem has been particularly publicized: e.g., the “Bristol Hum”, the “Taos Hum” or the “Windsor Hum”.

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The User Interface (UI) In the industrial design field of human–machine interaction, it is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

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[138]


The vOICe The vOICe is a privately owned research project, running without venture capital, that was first implemented using low-cost hardware in 1991. The device consists of a laptop, head-mounted camera or computer camera, and headphones. The vOICe converts visual stimuli of the surroundings captured by the camera into corresponding aural representations delivered to the user through headphones at a default rate of one soundscape per second. Each soundscape is a leftto-right scan, with height represented by pitch, and brightness by loudness.

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[140]


Ultrasound It is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing. Ultrasound is no different from ‘normal’ (audible) sound in its physical properties, except in that humans cannot hear it.

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[142]


Virtual reality (VR) It typically refers to computer technologies that use software to generate realistic images, sounds and other sensations that replicate a real environment (or create an imaginary setting), and simulate a user’s physical presence in this environment, by enabling the user to interact with this space and any objects depicted therein using specialized display screens or projectors and other devices.

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[144]


World Soundscape Project The World Soundscape Project (WSP) is an international research project founded by Canadian composer R. Murray Schafer in the late 1960s at Simon Fraser University. The project initiated the modern study of acoustic ecology. Its ultimate goal is “to find solutions for an ecologically balanced soundscape where the relationship between the human community and its sonic environment is in harmony.�

[145]

Profile for Alican Inal

Vocabulary of Visions  

A book of terms, terminologies, concepts, meanings and taxonomy. The project was held during my studies at The Bartlett School of Architectu...

Vocabulary of Visions  

A book of terms, terminologies, concepts, meanings and taxonomy. The project was held during my studies at The Bartlett School of Architectu...

Profile for inalican
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