Soundscape of the Antropocene: A Sonic Schismogenesis

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Chapter 1: Necessity of a [Soundwise] Paradigm Shift Sonic Landscapes: The Soundscape Theory In-Between Grey Areas

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Chapter 2: The Theory of Schismogenesis [and Why It’s Beneficial to Adopt it?] Considering Soundscape A Matter Of Sound, Space And Time

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Chapter 3: A Glance Through The Anthropocene [Excavating Soundscapes] The Anthropocene Epoch Timeline of the Ever-evolving Soundscape

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Chapter 4: Designer As An Arbiter [of Future Human/Soundscape Interactions] A Sonic Schismogenesis

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Conclusion: Soundscape for All


Addendum: Synesthete City [A Design Proposal for a Balanced Soundscape]



SOUNDSCAPE OF THE ANTHROPOCENE: A SONIC SCHISMOGENESIS How can we contribute to the soundscape by exploring the potentials of sound as a design input? How can we design spaces/cities that raise human awareness of the surrounding soundscape? What is the responsibility of the designer when a unique paradigm shift is necessary?


ABSTRACT As humans of early 21st century, our approach to sound in urban scale is destructive and sound-driven applications are mostly based on alienation. This trajectory needs a paradigmshift. We need more open and inclusionary methods and practices to interact with sound in our cities. The variety of these novel interaction approaches should have a wide range in terms of scale, from urban noise management tools to 1/1 public installations. In this case, the relationship between us (city settlers) and the soundscape, should be considered wider. It should be thought as a multi-layered sound, space and time condition. Therefore, a new approach is needed to human/soundscape interaction in urban environments. We need a deeper understanding and an extensive grasp of not only black and whites but also the grey areas in-between “good” or “bad”. This thesis will consider the footsteps of Schafer (1969) and Bateson (1936) as a spiral spine in terms of borrowing, pairing and cross-reading their definitions and discussions around their theories of “Soundscape” (Schafer, 1969) and “Schismogenesis” (Bateson, 1936). These two theories will be a core approach to not only grasp the black and whites but also the grey areas of our sonic environment and our interactions with it. The thesis will include an intent to raise awareness of how we end up with our contemporary soundscape by taking a glance to the evolution of the soundscape throughout the Anthropocene. The study will be taken further by investigations clustering around the aspects of; foreseeing future soundscapes of our built environment and defining possible new communication ways with the soundscape. A conclusion will be made by excavating the role of design and the designer in human/ soundscape interaction. The essential objective throughout the whole piece will be counting sound as an element which can contribute to the urban environment well, and be a beneficial part of our cities without being avoided.



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“The final question will be: is the soundscape of the world an indeterminate composition over which we have no control, or are we its composers and performers, responsible for giving it form and beauty?” R. Murray Schafer The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World

For a man to change the basic beliefs that determine his perception - his epistemological premises - he must first become aware that reality is not necessarily as he believes it to be. Sometimes the dissonance between reality and false beliefs reaches a point when it becomes impossible to avoid the awareness that the world no longer makes sense. Only then is it possible for the mind to consider radically different ideas and perceptions.” Gregory Bateson Steps to an Ecology of Mind

“No sound, once made, is ever truly lost. In electric clouds, all are safely trapped, and with a touch, if we find them, we can recapture those echoes of sad, forgotten wars, long summers, and sweet autumns.” Ray Bradbury Now and Forever: Somewhere a Band Is Playing Leviathan ‘99

“This planet has — or rather had — a problem, which was this: most of the people living on it were unhappy for pretty much all of the time.” Douglas Adams The Ultimate Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy


INTRODUCTION Our sonic environment within the Anthropocene epoch has a key role in the investigation and understanding of our human existence and relationships with our surrounding. Thus, it takes an evolutionary path throughout the Anthropocene. The evolutionary timeline initiates with rural settlements and expands till the post-digital world, our modern world. The term “soundscape” proposed by Murray Schafer as an inclusive roof to cover all aspects of our sonic environment. The primary objective of this new research field is to relate sonic/acoustic environment with the landscape shaped by both nature and human. Though, throughout the timeline of the Anthropocene, the interrelation of soundscape and our urban environment changed consistently. Schafer and Truax define these ever-evolving relationships between soundscape and urban environment in two characteristics such as negative and positive soundscapes. This division of different soundscape approaches will form one of the two main branches of this paper’s conceptual backbone. Ingold describes the soundscape as a communication platform (2009), where the sound is also recognised as a mutual. However, today, sound in our built environment considered as “noise” and seen as a hostile figure. It is not treated as an entity. This destructive humancentric behaviour against sound causes many misleading decisions made for our cities. It is evident that positive oppositions between different beings are beneficial in urban spaces. According to this statement, the schismogenesis phenomenon (Bateson, 1936) was raised to structure an experimental cross-reading. In the 30’s, anthropologist Gregory Bateson investigates relational social behaviours between groups among the Latmul People of Papua New Guinea (Bateson, 1936). He invented the term “schismogenesis” to describe the behavioural changes between two separate sides according to their attitudes to each other. According to this description, he also proposed two types of schismogenesis: complementary and symmetrical. This two kinds of schismogenesis will be paired with two kinds of soundscapes: negative and positive soundscapes. According to have a better understanding of this dilemma the historical roots of the soundscape will be traced through the Anthropocene. Then the study will be concluded with a critical look at the role of design and designer in various scales from the point of view of schismogenesis theory.



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Necessity of a [Sound-Wise] Paradigm Shift

Sonic Landscapes: The Soundscape Theory Landscape is a subject which has been researched in depth for many years. Geologist study different formations and layers of the landscape for many years (Schafer, 1967). Similar to geologists, architects, urban designers, engineers and artists are also following researches on landscape mostly to reconstruct it and to find in-between relationships with the society (Atkinson, 2007). The term “soundscape” proposed by Murray Schafer in 1969. According to his articulations, the soundscape is a new research field which includes “landscape” and “sonic” studies embedded in itself (1969). The primary objective of this new area of research is to relate sonic/acoustic environment with the landscape shaped by both nature and human. In many institutes around the globe, researches are being done in many individual subjects under sonic studies such as acoustics, psychoacoustics, noise management, sound engineering and music. Schafer relates these studies with a simple yet contextually complicated question: what is the relationship between human and the soundscape of her/his environment and what happens when these sounds change (1976)? For example, Noise pollution these days always related with the solution of noise abatement. Schafer and Truax divide these ever-evolving relationships between soundscape and urban environment into two basic types: negative and positive soundscapes. To create a better understanding of the distinction between these two types, Schafer proposes a question as a filter: which sounds do we want to preserve, encourage, multiply? In 1977 Schafer stated that we should do more in the future than just turning down the volume. “Noises are the sounds we have learned to ignored“. he wrote and continued by mentioning that our noise pollution strategies today mostly rely on negative approaches, where we should seek more positive environmental acoustic programs (Schafer, 1977).

The work of Schafer followed by many researchers including Ingold, arguing that soundscape approach starts to objectify sonic elements, rather that considering them as experiential artefacts. (2009) According to Ingold, sound is our shared language with our voiceless environment which we blend occasionally. Therefore, the soundscape provides the platform for this communication (Ingold, 2009). Regarding to Schafer, the soundscape theory argues that not all sounds in our urban environment should be considered as “enemy”. For example, the effects of urban noise were considered as a “negative soundscape” reflexively in conventional approaches. But on the other hand, urban sounds are the characteristic of cities, and it is a significant layer of the urban environment. It creates belonging, awareness, attention (Bryant, 2008). Besides, conventional approaches that consider urban sound as a repelling entity always assuming urban soundscape consists of transportation noises, industrial noises and so forth. Whereas the urban soundscape should be considered as the sonic environment created by living entities and their activities in cities (Bild, 2016) Regarding to this, the soundscape theory suggested that users and designers should treat both negative and positive soundscapes equally constructive. Although this new approach could be considered as a preliminary initiation, still it was surely a promising sprouting. The weakness of the soundscape theory was, even though its arguments were against the alienation of sound, ill its approach to the issue was superficial. It almost brought a binary dilemma to the subject. We might consider this as an “only black and whites” approach. But the significance of the soundscape is that there is a novel dialectic embedded into it. There are blacks and whites, plus, there is also the shifts between two, almost like tidal waves. This dialectic relationship between the negative and positive soundscapes produces in-between situations, which can be considered as the grey areas.


In-Between Grey Areas [of Human-Soundscape Interaction] As I mentioned before, although the soundscape theory is a positive progression, it is only covering black and whites. But the issue of soundscape/human interaction in cities is more complex than that. It has colossal grey areas in-between. And it is not as rigid as true or false. It is evolving according to the changes on both sides of this interaction. The habits and lifestyles of human are rapidly changing, and cities (therefore the urban soundscape) is also progressively changing. So we need to define a more flexible thought system. The theory of schismogenesis put forward by anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1936) involves the investigation at this stage. Schismogenesis theory proposes a thought system where both sides of an encounter change and evolve in time according to their behaviours to each other and also due to the changing environmental conditions. Meaning that, the theory of schismogenesis in not proposing a binary situation (as blacks and whites). There is an ever-evolving (or infinite) shift between both options, which provides us with the ability to discover the grey areas between positive and negative. By borrowing this study approach and implementing to human/soundscape relationship, we will be able to have an extensive grasp of how is this relation right now, how was it in the past. As a result, according to understanding of past and present of this relationship, we might be able to estimate the future of this interaction.

208 | Synesthete City | RC14 | The Bartlett School of Architecture 12

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The Theory of Schismogenesis [and Why It’s Beneficial to Adopt it?]


Ingold describes the soundscape as a communication platform between us and our voiceless environment (2009), where sound is also recognised as a mutual. However, according to the conventional beliefs and methods throughout the Anthropocene, sound propagating in our built environment is always considered as “noise� and seen as a hostile figure, except some rare and discrete examples. It is alienated and not treated as an entity on its own. This unfortunate humancentric behaviour against sound caused misleading management, regulatory and design decisions in our cities. It is evident that positive oppositions between different sides are beneficial necessities in urban space. As I stressed the case of our need for a paradigm shift to investigate the relationships between human and the soundscape, the schismogenesis phenomenon created by Bateson was raised to structure an

experimental cross-reading. Anthropologist Gregory Bateson (1936) published the concept of Schismogenesis to specify the relational social behaviours between groups among the Latmul People of Papua New Guinea. He describes schismogenesis as the behavioural changes between two separate sides according to their attitudes to each other. According to this description, he also proposed two types of schismogenesis: Complementary and symmetrical (Bateson, 1936). Complementary schismogenesis characterised by a class struggle, where the behaviours of counter sides to each other is in a dominant/submissive form which can cause a negative/destructive struggle between two. On the other hand, in symmetrical schismogenesis counter sides have the same conditions and each party benefit from the socalled judicious rivalry in a positive manner.

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The two categories of the soundscape theory (negative and positive) lay emphasis on the incident itself. It analyses the properties of the incident and although the approach to both is recommended to be constructive, it determines rather the incident is good or bad. On the other hand, categorisation of the schismogenesis theory lays the emphasis on the sides of the incident. Which means that incidents are a result of the behaviours of the sides and they can be flexible according to the changes happening on the sides. This is the crucial and significant property of the schismogenesis that makes the theory more flexible and more focused on “beings” rather than just the happenings. Before proceeding to the sound-oriented aspects of borrowing the schismogenesis theory, I find it useful to expand these two types of schismogenesis with a couple of non-sound-related examples and define how this theory is beneficial to discover the grey areas in-between and how it is differentiating from the soundscape theory.


First of all, I will raise the socio-economic and political case of “income gap” as an example of complementary schismogenesis. The circumstances for an income gap to exist in a community relies on the “Pyramid of The Capitalist System” (Bendix, 1980) The social stratification of this Pyramid represents the classes and financial inequality. The relationship between the working class and bourgeoisie can be characterised as a complementary relationship. Both sides are dependent on each other, and the progress on one side affects the other side accordingly. (A positive or negative impact might occur.) One of the major realities that make this relationship complementary in terms of schismogenesis is the income gap between the sides. The gap causes numerous social movements and struggles (Bendix, 1980). Most of these struggles sparkle after one of the sides changes their usual behaviour. If the bourgeoisie is the one who changes their attitude towards the working class (in a bad manner in this case), the working class

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might revolt, or be less efficient. Or if the working class demands equality and revolt against on-going system, the bourgeoisie might confer or confront. In both cases, the chain of incidents starts with a single behavioural change and continues as a vicious loop. This struggle creates destructive effects. But is it possible to qualify any of these incidents mentioned above as negative or positive? Is causing inefficiency in the working class a positive thing? Is revolting a negative thing? What about conferring or confronting? Secondly, as an example of symmetrical schismogenesis, I will raise the issue of “academic competition�. In this case, the sides are equipped with more or less equal opportunities in terms of accessibility to resources. The supremacy between sides is

purely spread according to successful academic progress. This competition between sides does not overlap or interfere with each other. Most of the time they feed and accelerate opponents. This growth of knowledge is an elementary form of a symmetrical schismogenesis. Is competing with our colleagues a positive attitude? Is to be pushed by a colleague’s achievement a negative thing? Even from a couple of generalised social examples, it is quite clear to understand that when we lay the emphasis on the incident itself only, it is inevitable to misjudge situations. By focusing on the sides of the relationship, we can have a deeper understanding of how incidents emerge and evolve. Then we can start to speculate about the future of this interaction.


Considering Soundscape [Through The Perspective Of Schismogenesis]

Negative Soundscapes [Complementary Schismogenesis]

After having an understanding of the schismogenesis with the help of non-sound-related examples, it might be convenient to initiate a more intimate relationship between sonic studies and the theory schismogenesis. Firstly, we need to define the terms such as “positive”, “negative” and “the grey areas in-between” in a more sound-wise sense from the perspective of schismogenesis and propose how to apply this thought system to the study of soundscape.

The acoustic components of the urban environment are considered as noise pollution and mental/body health in many cases. This approach makes most of the studies of the soundscape similar to a complementary schismogenesis, where the relationship between two sides eventually creates a one-sided superficial proposal. The sides of the schismogenesis mentioned here can be considered as resident of the city and the so-called noise.

In this case, “complementary schismogenesis” was matched with “negative soundscapes” and “symmetrical schismogenesis” was matched with “positive soundscapes” for an example oriented comparison.


For example, Babisch (1999) investigated a relationship between urban vehicle noises and heart problems of human. Similar to this, Evans (2001) argued about a correlation between children health and negative soundscapes. Another study was conducted by Brainard (2004) to relate social equality with urban noise

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exposure between different ethnical groups. Tomkins (1998) also looked from a different point view and studied how airport noises effecting the local business. All these studies exhibited a digitally proven management approach to our contemporary soundscape, but none of them is actually considering sound as an entity and providing a more beneficial approach. In this kind of examples of sound related complementary schismogenesis, the human side is the dominant figure and the soundscape is submissive. So, similar to the example of working class/bourgeoisie relationship, every hostile behaviour change occurred on the human side, causes a behavioural response in the soundscape side. So the vicious loop initiates. For example in his studies that I mentioned above, Babisch (1999) investigated

the relationship between traffic noise and heart diseases. But he missed the argument of who is causing the traffic noise levels that are as severe as to emerge a heart disease risk. On the other hand, Tomkins (1998) got closer to see the whole picture by revealing that, even though proximity to airports causes high noise levels which affect the local economies negatively, still, the same fact also increases the accessibility of those businesses and eventually causes a positive effect. The approach of Tomkins includes the cause and effect relationship into the argument; thus, it creates a more realistic and inclusive impact. It is a must to consider the cause and effect relationships while pursuing issues which has tremendous depth. This is what makes complementary schismogenesis a wider property of each incident, rather than just being “good� or bad�.


Positive Soundscapes [Symmetrical Schismogenesis] A more beneficial approach towards the soundscape is occurring when we add the experience factor to this cause and effect relationship between sides of the schismogenesis. But how can we evaluate the sound experience? Schafer clarifies that sounds may be separated in many orders. (1977) This division might occur in terms of their formal properties, which is known as the study acoustics, or it may occur as perception differences, known as psychoacoustics. Both approaches can be used to form a positive soundscape. Contrary to negative soundscape approaches, these evaluations count sound as an element which can contribute to the urban environment well, and be a part of our cities without being avoided. In this range of approaches, the individuals do not count themselves as a dominant figure against the soundscape. They benefit from sound, the soundscape benefits from them. That is why this sort of positive soundscapes can be related with the symmetrical schismogenesis. As I mentioned before, in symmetrical schismogenesis, sides of the debate properly benefit from each other, and both sides increase their powers and stimulus to achieve more.


Sam Auinger beneficially used urban acoustic environment in his projects Resonating Mexico City (2012) and Urban Sound Berlin (2016), where he aimed to create non-place soundmarks from ordinary sounds from cities. Similar to Auinger, Voegelin from CRiSAP considers the soundscape as a whole in her book Listening to Noise and Silence (2010). Iannis Xenakis compounded space and architecture with art in a soundscape level in his works (1973). The names and works mentioned, and much more, considered the soundscape in a friendlier manner and all of their work created “soundmarks� in the urban environment. These individual works were all categorised as sound art or public art. They have a constructive effect on people, but their symmetrical growth with sound only affects a limited amount of individuals and beings. However, the examples of complementary schismogenesis have wider public effects. They are almost on a societal scale. So it is an obligation to pay attention to both types of schismogenesis and to suggest interventions to both of them. First intervention should be increasing the range of scale in symmetrical schismogenesis to be more inclusive, while second intervention should be promoting the cause and effect relationship approach in complementary schismogenesis.

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A Matter Of Sound, Space And Time Both interventions uncover that generating new methods and paradigms to have a better relationship with the soundscape highly dependent on the time and space variables. The dependency of time and space, which is not covered extensively in the soundscape theory, means having the flexibility and patience to wait for an approach to transform itself. In our case, it means that through time and space, both symmetrical and complementary schismogenesis approaches can evolve and transform. Plus, they can also shift between each other, which will promote the grey areas of the soundscape as I mentioned earlier. At this phase, we can state that the human/soundscape interaction can be studied as a matter of Sound, Space and

Time. It is not a rigid, one-time, concrete element anymore. It is even possible with this comprehension, to trace cause and effect relationships throughout the evolution of the soundscape. The wider perspective of the schismogenesis theory helps us to trace the changes in these three aspects of this interaction. So, to have a better understanding of how our relationship with urban soundscape come to a point where we alienated sound, a glance throughout the evolution of the soundscape can be conducted. During this browsing, the main focus won’t be eventually in terms of “positives” and “negatives”. Henceforward, the orbit of the glance will be the schismogenesis oriented approaches, which is, in this case, the transformations and evolutions of the soundscape.



A Glance Through The Anthropocene (Excavating Soundscapes In The Recent Past)


As we are discussing the soundscape in a manner where both causes and effects are related to human, this attempt to uncover how soundscape changed in time and space, will be performed in the Anthropocene epoch. Since the human impact on Earth and Earth’s impact on human is the reason of Anthropocene’s emergence (Edwards, 2015). So this will be a search for grey areas, transformations and evolutions in the “Soundscape of the Anthropocene”.

The Anthropocene Epoch The timeline of Earth’s geographical periods was created to increase the resolution of our understanding (Coates, 2005). Officially, we are in the epoch of Holocene since 10 BC. But our natural environment is being exposed to human impact for many years. These years carry references of human dominance of the environment. It is proposed that Anthropocene is a new epoch in the Geological Time Scale, which is characterised by nature’s exposure to humancentric entities (Gale and Hoare, 2012). But still, Anthropocene is not currently a formal phase of the Geologic Time Scale. Human activity is revealing an extensive and persistent mark on the globe. Intense discussion carries on about whether these human impacts create a recognition as a new geologic time unit known as the Anthropocene (Edwards, 2015). The appearance of human-made materials in geological rock formations, including aluminium, plastics, and concrete heats up the global discussion. Carbon cycles have been considerably modified over the past century. Rates of sea-level rise and the degree of human distress on the climate system surpass Holocene changes (Gale and Hoare, 2012). These combined signs solidify the Anthropocene is quite distinct from the Holocene and earlier epochs. There are two major considerations about the beginning of the Anthropocene (Zalasiewicz, 2015). First one is arguing that the start of the Industrial Revolution around 1800 reveals a valid start date for this new epoch (Edwards, 2015). The second view holds Figure (11)


on to the idea of accepting the Neolithic Revolution (Agriculture) is a fitting start point for the Anthropocene (Lewis and Maslin, 2015).

as part of the studies clustered around the history of music and noise (Timmerman, 2011). Therefore, it is crucial to analyse the evolution of the soundscape from past to present.

Meanwhile, parallel to these human impact to the Earth, civilisation and development trends of the humankind shows that it is gradually increasing. The scientific fields are branching in sub-fields and depth of research is rising day-by-day. Thanks to these advancements, we are getting more capable of examining Earth, and its visible and invisible systems. In a way, our world is revealed to its layers and sub-layers, in terms of different scientific fields. One particular layer within the stratums of our world is our sonic environment. It is differentiating in terms of its metadata capabilities. Our sonic environment within the Anthropocene epoch has a key role in the investigation and understanding of our human existence and relationships with our surrounding. Sonic environment layer and relationships between sonic environment and other layers took an evolutionary path throughout the Anthropocene. The evolutionary timeline begins with rural settlements and expands till the post-digital world, our recent world.

Throughout the process of examining soundscape as an evolving instance, the first thing to accept is that it is a dynamic instance. It is perpetually changing both in time and space (Schafer, 1969). Along with this process, contrary to our daily perception, the sound commits suicide instantly. It is impossible to hear any sonic element for the second time unless it is captured digitally. This means that each sound is unique and every replica of a sound is a schizophrenic twin. Schafer asked the question of “Where are the museums for disappearing sounds?� in his speech during 12th International Congress of Sound and Vibration in Lisbon (2005). Regarding this question, he launched the project called The Vancouver Soundscape, including two pieces of vinyl consisting of field recordings around the city of Vancouver. This attempt is one of the very first documentation of a significant soundscape in a given moment and space (1973). However, it was not always possible to record sound. Recordings are not able to clarify the eras of the soundscape when the technology of documenting via recording is impossible. To estimate the historical soundscapes, observers and artefacts like literature, paintings, photographs are quite remarkable. The changes in the soundscape are directly linked to changing technologies and new ways of listening. There is only one constant in sound, which is its infinite relationships with changing time and space.

Timeline of the Ever-evolving Soundscape [of the Anthropocene] The parent fields of soundscape; geography and acoustics, systematically studied as evolving areas. Additionally, a significant amount of work done in natural and built environment acoustics


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Pre-Industrial City: Rural Soundscape Cities were always consisting of a serious amount of sound. The source and shape of urban sounds were different. Urban historians assume that even if the sounds were different among various times in time, the effects and roles they play were quite similar (Garrioch, 2003). It is believed that the neighing of horses and grumble of carriages were the equivalent of today’s traffic noise. Likewise, the church bells were the equivalent of the alarm clocks of the industrial age factories (Bull, 2001). In common sense, we could consider these comparisons as right. But the significant difference is that even the purpose of each sound element is similar, the perception of the people was different than our contemporary understanding. One of the studies regarding the pre-industrial period soundscape was held by Bruce Smith, in his work called Acoustic World of Early Modern England. (Smith, 1999) The study aims to reconstruct the early modern England, particularly London in a sonic sense. One of the initial statements coming out of the work is that even we had the same hearing capabilities with the people in those times, the differences between our conscious and interpretation of the present cultural situation, causes different perceptions of the soundscape. Although after the industrial revolution industrial noise because one of the primary characteristics of cities, the urban noise volumes were

lower before the age of steam (Coates, 2005). The soundscape of the industry mostly consists of rhythmic hammering, reverberation from forges, sawing, grinding sanding and much more. The sources of sound were the workshops of the shoemakers, locksmiths, carriage makers, metalsmiths and wooden shipyards (Garrioch, 2003). Also, there were less industrial noises produces in the pre-industrial city such as the marching soldiers, women beating their laundry and rambling street traders (Atkinson, 2007). In addition to transportation and industry, even the largest urban areas had farms inside their borders. Since there was no railway system back then, streets were the only spaces to transfer animals. So, the streets or a pre-industrial city is not only filled with horses but also sheep and goats (Garrioch, 2005). Since the early 18th century, it is documented that there is a high population of rooks in the urban environment of London (Major of London, 2004). Today, the urban soundscape is avoided by communities. But in early modern settlements, it is a crucial part of daily life. It was almost like a device to locate yourself in time and space (Truax, 1996). This issue is named as an “auditory community� by Truax. He also expands the topic by arguing that the soundscape helped people to construct their identities and structure relationships (Truax, 1996).


Industrial City: Machinery Soundscape In the book The Machine Stops (1909), Foster foresaw a distant dystopian future where all the communication and every kind of transportation needs were held by one big machine. In that dystopian future, any contact with environment, sights and sounds were considered as unnecessary. The protagonist of the novel, Kuno, who later in the book stopped the machine, once said the to his mother that “The Machine hums! Did you know that? Its hum penetrates our blood, and may even guide our thoughts� when he was trying to explain the evil behind the machine (Foster, 1909).


This figurative image of an evil machine which is against sensing and actual social contact might also be interpreted as a way to express the importance of industrial noises in an industrialised city. Even though the situation was never as catastrophic as it is visualised by Foster, still, cities became more and noisier during the industrial age (Schulte-Fortkamp, 2009). Instead of industrial facilities, another field which is benefiting from the industrial revolution also started to affect the soundscape of this age. The noises caused by short and long distance public transportation means, increasing personal vehicles, initiation of aviation and much more started to have severe impacts on urban life.

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Digital City: Multi-Layered Soundscape From carriages to steam trains, and from steam trains to personal automobiles the digital age came with its soundscape (Arkette, 2004). It is consequently not only limited to transportation and such. From hand scripts to typewriters and from typewriters to personal computers, all of our edges which are touching with the technology affected by this digital revolution in the urban environment. The digital age is a multi-dimensional era. No artefact is perceived from one direction thanks to the developing capabilities of technology. Leach (2009) argued that cities should be seen as systems that run a group of more systems. These cities and their sub-systems should be considered as amalgams of processes, like self-regulating systems of the future. The system-based approach that Leach was arguing forms the primary structure of the soundscape of the digital age. We may continue with the transportation topic for further discussions. Traffic and transportation, both on the ground surface and air dominate the city soundscape in the digital age (Cameron, 2013). On the other hand, electric cars lacking engine voices creates almost zero noise in the streets (Schulte-Fortkamp, 2009). Contrary to this, in a more artefact level, almost every technological device comes with inbuilt voice effects and notification sounds (Timmerman, 2011). As it is seen from these examples, the city is divided into different layers and sub-systems in the digital age, and each layer has its soundscape which is evolving individually.

I find it beneficial to reveal a couple of examples at this stage which is not urban-related but still strongly related to the digital age and humanity’s sonic trace in the universe. As we made it clear that the Anthropocene epoch is focusing on the human impact on Earth. But with the digital and technological achievements we reached, the human impact is not only limited within the borders of the Earth. Humanity also started to left tracks in the Space. A very significant example to our trace in the outer space is the Voyager Space Program, launched in 1977 (, 2017). The sound-wise aspect of this space program is that a vinyl named “Voyager Golden Record� was attached to both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 space crafts that were sent to investigate outer space as part of the space program. This golden record includes sounds and visual to define human and the environment of Earth. In case of an encounter with an extra-terrestrial life form, these documentations will provide enough material to introduce ourselves (, 2017). Voyager 1 is currently the farthest artificial object from Earth and it is embodying a brief soundscape of the Earth. Benefiting from the capabilities we developed within the digital age, we are able to not only define interactions between humans and the soundscape, but also define encounters between extra-terrestrial life forms and our soundscape in the Anthropocene. This is an example where the borders between complementary and symmetrical schismogenesis become blurry and unpredictable.


Another distinct/speculative example of the human/soundscape interaction in the early digital age is Pink Floyd’s live performance at the ancient ruins of Pompeii, Italy. This live show dates back to 1972, where the audio/visual technology is in its early digital periods. The show took place in the Roman amphitheatre that seats in the southeastern border of the city. What makes this show exceptional is that the enchanting and atmospherical soundscape created by Pink Floyd is overlapping with mysterious and ageless cityscape of the city of Pompeii. This remarkable fusion of rock music and ancient architecture, besides being an unintended but


unique creation of a new type of soundscape, is a perfect example of a sound, time and space phenomenon. In this particular case, we engage with the idea of being beyond time and space. Neither the band nor the city of Pompeii shares any common in terms of time and space. They did not have any kind hierarchical dominant/submissive relationship. But they became a part of a new-born layer of the soundscape. This is one of the most exclusive and stimulating examples of the possibilities of the grey areas between types of schismogenesis.

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Post-Digital City: Contemporary Soundscape Despite to the past, each sub-system of a post-digital city could be analysed individually. So each soundscape produced by these sub-systems are visible. As part of this awareness, noise management became a serious part of urban design and planning. In 2004, The Greater London Authority revealed a plan called Sounder City: The Major’s Ambient Noise Strategy. (2004) The principal stress of the project is not just getting rid of sound, but creating better soundscapes. As it is stated by the project, “better soundscape management should not be seen as a killjoy activity” (2004). But not all of the noise management approaches were this friendly. Most of the urban-scale noise management strategies consist of simple noise reduction methods or noise barrier design around the city.

As the final stage of the historical glance is today’s urban soundscape, the study will pursue the schismogenesis oriented tracing with more contemporary examples within the postdigital age, varying from conventional noise management applications to sound arts in urban environments. On the other hand, with the benefit of selecting a wide range of human/sound interaction examples and thanks to our historical (timeline) and anthropological (schismogenesis) approach, we’ll have a clear image of the role of design and designer in this evolution. So the study will proceed with a design and designer point of view, since the relationship between the phenomenon and individuals connected to it is more apparent in the post-digital age. Chapter 4 will focus on more discrete examples discussing design and designer impact on the in a post-digital era.



Designer As An Arbiter (Of Future Human/Soundscape Interactions)


A Sonic Schismogenesis (Designer Vs. Soundscape In Various Scales) As I mentioned multiple times since now, human/sound interaction is a matter of sound, space and time which is designed and conducted by individuals. The examples and approaches throughout the history of the soundscape give us an idea of the role of design and designer in this interaction. Also, with the schismogenesis theory, we figured out that not only the sides or incidents matters, but also the changes in these factors and the environment itself should also be considered. So all aspects of this interaction are leading us to a point where the individuals designing or envisioning the interaction between human and sound have a major responsibility. Their approach defined the past and present, and it will also define the future of this interaction.


Figure (18)

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“I’m Sitting in a Room” and “Evolving Sonic Environment” [Sonic Arts/Public Installation Scale] The technological level we reached in the post-digital era created the opportunity for the designer to reconfigure the relationship among space and sound (Braddock, 2014). The sonic art piece by Alvin Lucier named “I am Sitting in a Room” is a contemporary example to this reconfiguration (Joseph, 2015). In his work, Lucier uses the basic mechanism of a feedback loop to fill the space with the soundscape recursively. The loop is triggered by a single noise created by a human, sitting in the middle of the room. This single noise reverberates and multiplies by hitting the walls of the room. The recorders in the room collect the reverberated/multiplied version of the noise and replay it. The new version of the noise passes through the same process. The infinite loop continues as it is. With each play/ replay, the noise differentiates from its source slightly. This sonic experience in a sense deconstructs the noise source by means of time and space. It is almost like a micro-scale version of a symmetrical schismogenesis where the human triggers this micro experiment then the rest emerge within the interaction of space and soundscape. All figures that are involved in this feedback loop is transforming and evolving according to the changes of all sides. Another bright example in this sense is a work from Usman Haque named “Evolving Sonic Environment”. Haque proposes a group of sonic devices scattered in a space with the ability


to sense and record their surroundings (Labelle and Martinho, 2011). These devices are all connected to a common algorithmbased network to generate unique behaviours for each device individually. According to real-time changes in the exhibition space, the algorithm blends the history of the space with the current happenings and adopt, transform, evolve itself in terms of creating unique soundscapes in the space. In computational design, these type of generative and learning/ remembering systems are linked with neural networks. (Artificial neural networks, ANN) This piece of Haque’s has a significant potential to be implemented to larger scales because of this network-based capability. I consider this case, as a computational and advanced type of a symmetrical schismogenesis. Both sides of the interaction have the ability to evolve and adapt to the changes. Soundscape is not a naturally occurring element in this particular example. It is taking the initiative to become something else and evolve. The designer’s intention to generate a “survival of the weakest” experiment puts sound in a position where it almost becomes a conscious being. While both examples from Lucier and Haque focuses on a better and more experimental interaction between human and the soundscape, they reside in a safe corner of the discussion. As I mentioned before while defining symmetrical schismogenesis, even though both are progressive and promising, the weakness of these cases is that their impact on daily life is limited and noninclusive.

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“Son-O-House” and “Philips Pavilion” [Architectural Scale] One of the significant aspects of the post-digital age is that designers started to intend treating different materials without their limitations (Beretta, 2011). An early sonic art oriented example for these experiments was made by NOX. (Lars Spuybroek & Edwin Van der Heide) They treated sound like a fluid material in their project Son-o-house (Beretta, 2011). The architectural design consists of 60 amplifiers triggering in real time due to the movements of the visitors. The experiment redefines sounds as equal elements of a space. It depends on attraction and feedback mechanisms between the design and the user (Beretta, 2011). This design experiment could be labelled as a good example of treating sound as an entity in our daily spaces. It hosts the idea of a symmetrical schismogenesis in a good manner. Both the soundscape and the people benefit from each other in terms of experience and perception. Plus, both sides of the experiment are not constant. They are adapting and transforming according to each other. The variety of interactions become infinite. As designers, NOX also benefits from sound to create the physical form of the building (Beretta, 2011). Additionally, they also manage to discover a critical position to the designer itself in their experiment. They avoid themselves to become the trigger or the manipulator of the space. They only defined the input output mechanism of the human/soundscape interaction. As it is not clear the start of the post-digital era, there were individual minds who were thinking timelessly. Even though it is rigorously intended to do so, their ideas and works are not easily categorised. Le Corbusier was one of these individuals. Back in 40’s, in a speech, he stated that musicians, with their notation systems, are capable of transmitting their compositions through time and space (Weatley, 2007). While in the same years he was working on his harmonic measurement system for human body: The Modulor. It is count as a universal dimension system for human centric design.

Musician and architect Iannis Xenakis were one of the employees of Le Corbusier back then (Weatley, 2007). While Corbusier was mostly focused on his designs in the city of Chandigarh, Xenakis is the one working on the famous Philips Pavilion. The first example I will put on the table in the architectural scale is this Pavilion designed for Expo ’58 Brussels. Since computational methods, CAD softwares or additive manufacturing methods were not invented by the architectural industry yet, Xenakis created 3D models from Piano strings and cigarette paper. The design had a shape of nine hyperbolic paraboloids. A couple of years after the Philips Pavilion showcased itself in the Expo ‘58, it was revealed that Xenakis-inspired the interior and exterior experience of the design from his first musical composition Metastasis (Weatley, 2007). This case differentiates from others as it is sailing too close towards audio-mimicry. But when we excavate further, it is getting clear that Xenakis’s intention are not using musical notations as a source of form. His aim is more close to what NOX imagined. He envisioned an in-between situation between sonic arts and architecture. In this case, the sides of the schismogenesis are not human and the soundscape. The sides are soundscape and architecture. Both sides are equally respected and fairly inspired each other. So this could be count as a non-human-centric alteration of a symmetrical schismogenesis. Although the work of NOX and Xenakis count as architectural pieces, they are still not a permanent part of a cityscape. This is a crucial critique to raise when discussing the soundscape treatment in the architectural scale. It is apparent that constraints in the technological development interfered with the visions of designers for a long time (Beretta, 2011). Even if the intentions were not meant to be superficial and alienating, the capabilities were low. This situation oriented sound studies at the architectural level mostly towards space acoustics. But in a post-digital era, it is a must to abandon conventional practices and replace them with more significant elements for the sake of envisioning better spatial experiences.


“Positive Soundscape Project” Et. Al. [Urban Scale] Truax (1996) states that communities are bounded together both spatially and socio-culturally by means of sound. He defines this situation as “acoustic communities”. Since a community is one of the smallest modules of an urban cluster, it is always beneficial to initiate a urban-scale soundscape discussion by following the footsteps of Truax. The first example I will discuss in an urban aspect is a soundscape study named “Positive Soundscape Project” conducted by a group academic across UK (Davies, et al, 2013). Their work is more of a field study than a design intention, to create a framework for our approach to soundscape as designer from the user’s point of view. They borrowed Truax’s (1996) sound walk idea and applied it to an urban context as public on-site surveys and explorations. By means of data processing, they focused on specific urban sites which embody potential problems and struggles in terms of noise management. The areas were defined not as specific points, but as routes through the problematic areas. This is a valuable decision in terms of not considering sound as a singular and point-based entity, but to examine it as a three dimensional and changing substance. Additionally, it also fits with the Truax’s concept of “sound walk”(1996). They conducted on-site surveys across the pedestrians on these troubled (sound-wise) routes. The questions were focused on acoustic memories and perception of the soundscape surrounding pedestrian’s usual environment. According to the study, key aim of the survey was to excavate how ordinary users evaluate the soundscape in terms of positive and negative, and how do they respond to sound-wise trouble situations in their daily routines (Davies, et al, 2013). They repeated the same group of questions for various points across the sound walk. Results were evaluated not with a binary system of “goods” and “bads”. They classified answers according to the transcripts of the recordings they took while the participants were answering each question. They assessed the usage of significant


words, phrases and definitions, and then correlated these with the personal specifications of each participant. As a brief example, two of their findings were: Older users think more emotionwise when it comes to evaluating the soundscape, that they qualify spaces with their historical backgrounds, while younger participants focus more on instantaneous changes across the city soundscape (Davies, et al, 2013). The core point here is that their approach to human/soundscape interaction is not just physical, but also cognitive. As a conclusion, the study envisions a reliable analysis and simulation engine as a future premise, to assess both the technical and cognitive aspects of the soundscape and feedback the design process accordingly. This case is an apparent example of a complementary schismogenesis, since both sides are not fairly transforming and benefiting each other. As I discussed in Chapter 2, this type of schismogenesis mostly credited as a negative soundscape. It is entitled with class struggle and destruction. I also explained that we should find ways to benefit from various kind of complementary schismogenesis issues by focusing not only the incidents but also to sides. This study proposes a friendlier approach to complementary schismogenesis. Their approach is a consistent example of how complementary schismogenesis issues can also be treated as opportunities. Similar to “Positive Soundscape Project”, Raimbault and Dubois (2005) also used the technique of a questionnaire to initiate a study towards a better soundscape evaluation. But as distinct from “Positive Soundscape Project”, they assessed the behaviours of urban designers, meaning that, the questionnaire was designed to evaluate the approach of the designer towards the significance of sound-related issues in their design intentions. This is a divergent example since it is targeting the designer itself and setting the designer and the soundscape as two sides of a symmetrical schismogenesis.

In another urban-scale study, Hong and Jeon (2013) experimented on the impacts of visual and audial elements on soundscape perception in the cities. Their proposal is to test whether is it possible to balance the perception of high road traffic noise exposure with natural soundscape elements, such as a waterfall and bird sounds. They designed imaginary cityscapes with actual urban and natural noises and through off-site participatory experiments, they evaluated their design process proposal. Their intention can be defined as adding a secondary/overlapping layer to the existing soundscape. This is an example which is on thin ice in terms of schismogenesis. The overall intention has the flavour of an alienating and superficial approach. But when it

is considered in depth, even the proposal is not constructively handling issues, eventually, it reaches a point of considering the overall soundscape not as numeric values of decibels and frequencies, but as a being changing from perception to perception. This type of a designer attitude can be considered as a constructive complementary schismogenesis. As we might understand from these three examples, there is a colossal gap in the field of design-wise intentions towards a better soundscape. Most premising work cannot step outside of the academic fields, and the materialised ones cannot cover the depth of the soundscape theory.

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CONCLUSION: SOUNDSCAPE FOR ALL Throughout the complete body of this study, the concrete argument was to think out of our dogmatic boxes when it comes to our interaction and relationship with the sounds surrounding us. The soundscape theory was the backbone of the whole discussion, while schismogenesis theory undertook the role of an accelerator. The debate, in parallel, revealed that soundscape is not just part of our modern environment, yet it has strong historical roots through the Anthropocene epoch. Therefore, it is a phenomenon of time and space. It is an essential way of perceiving and understanding our current and past built environment. Subsequently, the study aimed to define the role of design and designer when it comes to defining the future of sound, time and space triangle. During investigations, it was cleared that, even though all the intentions were pure optimistic, the soundscape theory brings a binary dilemma to the subject. Therefore, to gain a more depth understanding of this novel dialectic embedded into soundscape studies the theory of schismogenesis was raised. Which means that there is not only two options as negative and positive in the study of schismogenesis. There is an ever-evolving (or infinite) shift between both options. As a result of this, according to understanding of past and present of this relationship, I argued that it is possible to estimate the future of human/soundscape interaction. While I was browsing through the “soundscape of the Anthropocene� and then proceed by unfolding the role of designer in some significant examples in different scales, it became almost solid that, when the scale goes larger, the possibility of a more powerful impact increases, but the intentions towards a better soundscape design decays. Schismogenesis theory enabled the ability to figure out that not only the sides or incidents matters but also the changes in sides and the environment itself can be considered in all of the cases I examined. So all aspects of these examinations lead me to a clear conclusion where the individuals/groups designing or imagining the interaction between human and soundscape have a major responsibility. Their sensibilities defined the past and present, and it will also shape the future of this interaction. We, as designers, have to provoke these paradigm shifts. The responsibility of shaping communities’ approaches towards the soundscape is based on the sensitivity of design and


designer in the whole range of scales. Design that is made for a better sounding environment should be more permanent and accessible parts of our cityscapes. The premising approaches generated in sonic arts field should courage larger scale intentions. Compared to other inputs of our built environment, sound had a less significant role in terms of our contemporary architecture and urbanism. This has to change. I would like to conclude my investigation with an open ending. I would like to release two major questions to free-float in space. I hope that they would multiply and create constructive challenges for designers. How can we contribute to the soundscape by exploring the potentials of sound as a design input? How can we design spaces/cities that raise human awareness of the surrounding soundscape?

“It is an important and popular fact that things are not always what they seem. For instance, on the planet Earth, man had always assumed that he was more intelligent than dolphins because he had achieved so much—the wheel, New York, wars and so on—while all the dolphins had ever done was muck about in the water having a good time. But conversely, the dolphins had always believed that they were far more intelligent than man—for precisely the same reasons.” Douglas Adams The Ultimate Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy



Synesthete City [A Design Proposal for a Balanced Soundscape]


Synesthete City is a design proposal conducted in parallel with in-depth studies of soundscape and schismogenesis theories. Both investigation processes pushed each other forward from the very beginning. The main aim of the design investigation is to reveal a novel approach for a balanced soundscape. To fulfil this aim, a constructive symmetrical schismogenesis idea used as a backbone to the whole body of the design work. The design proposal was made for the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park site, London, by me and my two colleagues (Yanzhong Li and Ge Yu). The design intent benefitted deeply from the approaches of Schafer, Bateson and Truax. Figure (24)


Studies initiated with an extensive analysis of the current soundscape by means of processing 425 on-site field recordings. The raw data from these recordings then manipulated with various digital tools and the sound structure of the current soundscape of the Park was built in terms of data visualisations and simulations. We define this phase as the discovery of the current soundscape where the major aim was to gain a deep understanding of the relationships between the built environment, people and sound. After our discoveries, we started to extend the investigation by focusing smaller scale pieces of the site. We named this phase as “reclaiming lands� since our aim is to focus on sound-wise challenging sites and reclaim these areas in terms of managing the soundscape in a balanced way. That is when we came up with the idea of Sonic Crystal Arrays. The Sonic Crystal Array research had a wide range from nanoscales to product scales. The core idea behind arrays is that, independent from their material or scale, they have the ability to transform and filter sonic waves.


Since our approach towards the soundscape is not to alienate or disregard it, an urban-scale interpretation of these arrays would be a perfect match with our approach. The Sonic Array idea was tested both physically and digitally through physical models and computer simulations. In parallel to Sonic Array studies, other issues such as accessibility, program, material and space-making were also continued. Besides the design process and the end product, the significance of the progress was that the roles of the designer (us), the site (built environment) and the soundscape shifted constantly. There were no dominant-submissive relationships between the sides of this interaction. As it is in the symmetrical schismogenesis, sound was always counted as a transforming and evolving being. Even the dataset or the design intentions change in time and space, the interaction between all entities in the process was placed constructively.

Figure (25)















19. 10.






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Davies, W. et al., 2013. Perception of soundscape: An interdisciplinary approach. Applied Acoustics, 74(2), pp.224-231. Edwards, L., 2015. What is Anthropocene?. EOS, 96, pp.1023–1027. Evans, P., 2001. Community noise exposure and stress in children. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(3), pp.1023– 1027. Feld, S., 1984. Sound Structure as Social Structure. Ethnomusicology, 28(3), pp.383. Feld, S. & Brenneis, D., 2004. Doing anthropology in sound. American Ethnologist, 31(4), pp.461–474. Foster, E.M., 1909. The Machine Stops. The Oxford and Cambridge Review. Gale, S. & Hoare P., 2012. The stratigraphic status of the Antropocene. Holocene, 22, pp.1491-1494. Garrioch, D., 2003. Sounds of the city: the soundscape of early modern European towns. Urban History, 30, pp.5–25.

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure(1): Author’s work. 2017. A composition of spectrograms. Design Project. London. [Illustration] Figure(2): Author’s work. 2017. From the eyes of a Synesthete. Design Project. London. [Illustration] Figure(3): Author’s work. 2017. An artificial forest of Sonic Arrays. Design Project. London. [Illustration] Figure(4): Bateson, G., 1938 Village Systémique painted by a Balinese artist. Bali. [Painting] Available at: [Accessed: July 12 2017] Figure(5): Anon., 1911. Pyramid of the Capitalist System. [Illustration] Available at: System#/media/File:Pyramid_of_Capitalist_System.jpg [Accessed: July 04 2017] Figure(6): Anon., 1991. The Great Mine Workers March from Zonguldak to Capital Ankara. Turkey. [Photograph] Available at: [Accessed: July 12 2017] Figure(7): NoiseSeal, Date not available. A product showcase of the company NoiseSeal Acoustic Product Supplier. Lincolnshire. [Photograph] Available at: [Accessed: July 12 2017.] Figure(8): Sitav, Date not available. A product showcase of the company Sitav Construzioni. Turin. [Photograph] Available at: http:// [Accessed: July 12 2017] Figure(9): Xenakis, I., 1953. Metastaseis (A notation for a musical piece) [Illustration] Available at: Iannis_Metastaseis_B_1953-54_score.pdf [Accessed: July 12 2017]


Figure(10): Author’s work. 2017. A modular Sonic Crystal Array. Design Project. [Illustration] Figure[11): NASA, 2016. A night shot of the Nile Valley from outer atmosphere. [Satellite Image] Available at: sites/default/files/thumbnails/image/2016-nile.jpg [Accessed: July 10 2017] Figure(12): NASA, Satellite image of crops growing in Kansas, USA. [Satellite Image] Available at: http://earthobservatory.nasa. gov/Newsroom/NewImages/images.php3?img_id=17006 [Accessed: June 27 2017] Figure(13): Varner, J., 2016. For whom the bell tolls. [Photography] ] Available at: [Accessed: June 18 2017] Figure(14): Thorgerson, S., 1977. Pink Floyd’s “Animals” Album Cover. (a pig floating between two chimneys of the Battersea Power Station) Designed by: Storm Thorgerson, London [Manipulated Photograph] Available at: (Pink_Floyd_album)#/media/File:Pink_Floyd-Animals-Frontal.jpg [Accessed: June 12 2017] Figure(15): NASA, 1977. Cover of the Voyager Golden Record. [Photograph] Available at: Golden_Record#/media/File:The_Sounds_of_Earth_Record_ Cover_-_GPN-2000-001978.jpg [Accessed: July 5 2017] Figure(16): Maben, A., 1972. A still image from the concert documentary “Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii”. Naples. [Video Frame] Available at: [Accessed: May 12 2017] Figure(17): Author’s work. 2017. 3D printed soundscapes. Design Project. [Photograph] Figure(18): Author’s work. 2017. Assembly drawings of a sonic material tester. Design Project. [Illustration+Photograph]

Figure(19): Watz, M., 2006. Usman Haque / Robert Davis: Evolving Sonic Environment. Netherlands. [Photograph] Available at: https:// [Accessed: July 01 2017] Figure(20): Haptour, R., Date not available. Son-O-House by NOX. Photo taken by Rebecca Habtour. [Photograph] Available at: https:// [Accessed: June 20 2017] Figure(21): Hagens, W., 1958. Expo 1958 Philips Pavilion. Brussels [Photograph] Available at: Pavilion [Accessed: June 03 2017] Figure(22): Xenakis, I., 1957. Architecture inspired musical score. Paris. [Drawing] Available at: works/catalogue.html [Accessed: May 01 2017] Figure(23): Debord, G., 1957. The Naked City. Paris. [Illustration] Available at: debord-guy/the-naked-city-64.html?authID=53&ensembleID=705 [Accessed: July 13 2017] Figure(24): Author’s work. 2017. Spectrogram topography. Design Project. [Illustration] Figure(25): Author’s work. 2017. Anatomy of a point. Design Project. [Illustration]


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