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JULY 2021

DIGITIZED VACUUM EJECTOR p.21

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S Y A L U W L F A ITHALVES V A O F RV SE

Application of Proportional Valves p.6 Catch Large & Small Particles with Microfiltration p.30 Innovative Designs & Publishing • 3245 Freemansburg Avenue • Palmer, PA 18045-7118

IN H

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IN THIS ISSUE

JULY 2021

VOLUME 28 • ISSUE 7

Features 6 Test Your Skills Application of Proportional Valves 12 Cover Story Always Faithful: Servo Valves in Harm’s Way* A vital hydraulic component is largely unchanged as military technology advances.

12

21

21

Get Smart: Digitized Vacuum Ejector Bolsters Predictive Maintenance Upgraded robotic gripping component maximizes uptime and energy savings.

30

Capacity Crowd: Microfiltration Catches Particles Large and Small Radial cellulose elements can result in fewer oil changes.

Departments

30 Publisher’s Note: The information provided in this publication is for informational purposes only. While all efforts have been taken to ensure the technical accuracy of the material enclosed, Fluid Power Journal is not responsible for the availability, accuracy, currency, or reliability of any information, statement, opinion, or advice contained in a third party’s material. Fluid Power Journal will not be liable for any loss or damage caused by reliance on information obtained in this publication.

CELEBRATING 60 YEARS

4 5 8 15 24 26 28 31

Notable Words Figure It Out FACES of Fluid Power IFPS Update Component Showcase All About Vacuum Product Spotlight Classifieds

COVER PHOTO by Sgt. Chad Menegay, courtesy U.S. Army. * The appearance of U.S. Department of Defense visual information does not imply or constitute DoD endorsement.


2021 Fluid Power

CONTEST WINNER HITACHI FLANGELOCK TEAMWORK in Working AND CAP KITS AVAILABLE with Hydraulics TM

Part number

Part description

Applicable machines

TM

Number of parts

Weight (kg)

By Montasir Mamun Mithu, 16 x 2062U - red FlangeLock 6.7 Western Michigan University TM

SWINGFLGLCK2062

Swing hose FlangeLock kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

SWINGCAP2062

Swing circuit cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

16 x 2062 - cap

4.5

TRAVELFLGLCK2462

Travel hose FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

16 x 2462U - purple FlangeLockTM

7.7

TRAVELCAP2462

Travel circuit cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

FRONTATTFLGLCK326162

Front attachment FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

FRONTATTCAP326162

Front attachment cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

BOOMARCHFLGLCK3262

Boom arch hose FlangeLockTM kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

20 x 3262U - black FlangeLockTM

9.9

BOOMARCHCAP3262

Boom arch hose cap kit

EX3600, EX5600, EX8000

20 x 3262 - cap

11.3

16 x 2462 - cap THANK YOU TO EVERYONE WHO PARTICIPATED IN 14 x 3262 - cap THE 4 x 3261CONTEST. - cap

14 x 3262U - black FlangeLockTM 4 x 3261U - black & silver FlangeLockTM

6.4 8.9 9.5

CONTAMINATION CONTROL

Routine and scheduled maintenance of hydraulic systems are vital to getting the most out of your Hitachi Mining Excavator. While maintenance plays the largest role in the prevention of unnecessary machine downtime, it can also expose the hydraulic system to high levels of contamination rapidly decreasing component longevity. The importance of contamination control is sometimes overlooked when performing maintenance due to incorrect practices being used.

CO U T CO NTA LTIM HE NT M A RO INA TE L T TI OO ON L

Stop the Mess

THE FLANGELOCK™ TOOL AND CIRCUIT BLANKING CAPS

The FlangeLock™ tool and caps are the ultimate contamination control tools for protecting your hydraulic system. The FlangeLock™ allows for the simple sealing of open hydraulic flanges without tools while the caps can be bolted in place of a flange connection. Easy on, easy off, they offer a leak-proof solution to hydraulic systems and environmental cleanliness. FlangeLock™ tools and caps stop the mess.

The FlangeLock™ Tool is the ultimate contamination control tool for protecting HITACHI MAKING systems. CONTAMINATION CONTROL EASY sealing of open SAE code 61, 62 your hydraulic It allows for the simple Hitachi have packaged FlangeLock™ tool and caps specifically for Hitachi mining excavators. The Hitachi customised & make CAT-Style hydraulic without Constructed from lightweight aluminum. kits sure no matter whichflanges component routine tools. maintenance is being performed on, you will always have the exact Easyofon, easy off.™*Offers to hydraulic system and environmental number FlangeLocks and capsatoleakproof help reducesolution contamination. cleanliness. FlangeLock™ Tools stop the mess! ™ *Note: FlangeLocks are not to be used under pressure

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This product is Patented, other Patents pending.

For more information, call 203-861-9400 or email sales@flangelock.com. www.flangelock.com WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

JULY 2021

3


N OTA B L E WO R D S

The New Generation of Fluid Power Drives and Controls By Jon S. Rhodes, CFPECS, CFPAI, President, CFC Industrial Training

»

FLUID POWER IS a mature market with a proven track record in unmatched power density, transmissibility, and long-term reliability in the most demanding applications. As the digital revolution unfolds and continues to advance, the fluid power industry has responded with an impressive array of technologies to meet demands for increased efficiency, autonomous control, and predictive maintenance. The terminology used to describe the new technologies can be complex and sometimes inconsistent as it relates to fluid power. The terms “electrification” and “digitalization” have come to describe different aspects of power management and electronic controls in modern components and systems integral to current fluid power machine designs. The words mean different things in different circles within the industry. Electrification is more commonly associated with the electric prime mover (that is, the motor) driving our pumps. Significant increases in the efficient use of electricity and fuel in fluid power machines have been made by “matching” the prime mover to the machine power requirement during a specific operating condition by delivering flow and pressure to the actuator only when the demand is present. Many clever strategies exist to match the delivery precisely to the machine duty cycle. We can not ignore the benefit of improved power efficiency in fluid power machines any longer. In every new design or retrofit, efficiencies must be increased over traditional designs. Digitalization is most associated with the automated control and documentation of fluid power machines. The terminology is not easily generalized and can have various meanings in hydraulic, pneumatic, mobile, and industrial groups. Each unique application has advanced automated control over the fluid power machine in different ways. In industrial pneumatics, the automated control system and communication networks have become integral to the directional control valve manifold or stack. In some cases, the PLC or PAC microprocessor controlling the entire machine resides within the pneumatic valve assembly. In hydraulics, proportional control valves are delivered with onboard electronics that can be programmed and configured to match the specific actuator under control. Advancements in onboard electronics even provide stand-alone microprocessor-based PID control in which the valve has integral inputs and pressure sensors for complete closed loop tonnage and position control. The exact tuning parameters are documented and downloadable to the valve when a replacement is required. Sensors are placed strategically on the entire fluid power machine to communicate critical data for predictive maintenance, process control, and a variety of analytical purposes, including position, speed, flow, pressure, temperature, and level. Web-enabled components can deliver wireless communication data over 5G mobile networks more cost effectively than ever. Thomas Jefferson said, “If we want something we don’t have, we must do things we haven’t done.” Blended electro-fluid power systems bring challenges we must work together to overcome. We need each other now more than ever. The blended skill sets required to meet these challenges demand we work cooperatively. The front-end costs associated with electrifying and digitalizing pale in comparison to savings over the long life of our machines. Our youth are primed to accept these challenges and push forward into the fourth revolution. Put them to work. The time is now. 

4

JULY 2021

PUBLISHER Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc. 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118 Tel: 800-730-5904 or 610-923-0380 Fax: 610-923-0390 • Email: Art@FluidPowerJournal.com www.FluidPowerJournal.com Founders: Paul and Lisa Prass Associate Publisher: Bob McKinney Editor: Michael Degan Technical Editor: Dan Helgerson, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPSD, CFPMT, CFPCC - CFPSOS LLC Art Director: Quynh Fisher Eastern Region Acct Executive: Norma Abrunzo Director of Creative Services: Erica Montes Accounting: Donna Bachman, Sarah Varano Circulation Manager: Andrea Karges INTERNATIONAL FLUID POWER SOCIETY 1930 East Marlton Pike, Suite A-2, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003-2141 Tel: 856-489-8983 • Fax: 856-424-9248 Email: AskUs@ifps.org • Web: www.ifps.org 2021 BOARD OF DIRECTORS President: Rocky Phoenix, CFPMMH - Open Loop Energy, Inc. Immediate Past President: Jeff Kenney, CFPMHM, CFPIHM, CFPMHT - Dover Hydraulics South First Vice President: Denis Poirier, Jr., CFPAI/AJPP, CFPHS, CFPIHM, CFPCC - Eaton Corporation Treasurer: Jeff Hodges, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMHM - Altec Industries, Inc. Vice President Certification: James O’Halek, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPMIP, CMPMM - The Boeing Company Vice President Marketing: Scott Sardina, PE, CFPAI, CFPHS Waterclock Engineering Vice President Education: Randy Bobbitt, CFPAI, CFPHS Danfoss Power Solutions Vice President Membership: John Bibaeff, PE, CFPAI, CFPE, CFPS DIRECTORS-AT-LARGE Chauntelle Baughman, CFPHS - OneHydraulics, Inc. Stephen Blazer, CFPE, CFPS, CFPMHM, CFPIHT, CFPMHT Altec Industries, Inc. Randy Bobbitt, CFPAI, CFPHS - Danfoss Power Solutions Steve Bogush, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPHS, CFPIHM - Poclain Hydraulics Cary Boozer, PE, CFPE - Motion Industries, Inc. Lisa DeBenedetto, CFPS - GS Global Resources Daniel Fernandes, CFPECS, CFPS - Sun Hydraulics Brandon Gustafson, PE, CFPE, CFPS, CFPIHT, CFPMHM - Graco, Inc. Garrett Hoisington, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPS, CFPMHM Open Loop Energy Brian Kenoyer, CFPHS - Five Landis Corp. Jon Rhodes, CFPAI, CFPS, CFPECS - CFC Industrial Training Mohaned Shahin, CFPS - Parker Hannifin Randy Smith, CFPHS - Northrop Grumman Corp. EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR (EX-OFFICIO) Donna Pollander, ACA HONORARY DIRECTORS (EX-OFFICIO) Paul Prass, Fluid Power Journal Liz Rehfus, CFPE, CFPS Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFC Industrial Training

IFPS STAFF Executive Director: Donna Pollander, ACA Communications Director: Adele Kayser Technical Director: Thomas Blansett, CFPS, CFPAI Assistant Director: Stephanie Coleman Certification Coordinator: Kyle Pollander Bookkeeper: Diane McMahon Administrative Assistant: Beth Borodziuk

Fluid Power Journal (ISSN# 1073-7898) is the official publication of the International Fluid Power Society published monthly with four supplemental issues, including a Systems Integrator Directory, Off-Highway Suppliers Directory, Tech Directory, and Manufacturers Directory, by Innovative Designs & Publishing, Inc., 3245 Freemansburg Avenue, Palmer, PA 18045-7118. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part of any material in this publication is acceptable with credit. Publishers assume no liability for any information published. We reserve the right to accept or reject all advertising material and will not guarantee the return or safety of unsolicited art, photographs, or manuscripts.

WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


Robert Sheaf has more than 45 years troubleshooting, training, and consulting in the fluid power field. Email rjsheaf@cfc-solar.com or visit his website at www. cfcindustrialtraining.com.

BLOW MOLDING NOZZLE CONTROL CYLINDER

FIGURE IT OUT

RETURN FILTER

MOOG SERVO VALVE

DIAPHRAGM ACCUMULATOR

PRESSURE FILTER

LIFT HANDLE

HINGED TOP

New Problem

Servo System Pump Keeps Failing

EM

5

By Robert Sheaf, CFPAI/AJPP, CFPE, CFPS, CFPECS, CFPMT, CFPMIP, CFPMMH, CFPMIH, CFPMM CFC Industrial Training

SET AT 2000 PSI

FLOODED SUCTION LINE HOSE

»

A COMPANY THAT manufactures plastic bottles for suppliers of motor oil started losing pressure-compensated pumps weekly on one of four identical units. The system used a servo valve for controlling a cylinder that had to maintain a position very accurately, and both oscillated continually. They could not understand why three units worked fine but one gave them problems. The 5-gpm (19-lpm) pumps were internally grenadeing. After each failure, they cleaned the entire system of debris, changed the filter elements, inspected the case line for broken pump parts, and installed a new intake-line hose, but they were still losing pumps on an average of one a week, a total of four pumps when I was called into help. What could be causing the problem?

Solution to May 2021 problem:

System Overheats on Custom Drum Crusher When overhauling four-pass water-cooled heat exchangers, the end caps must be oriented so that the internal entry cap baffle is 90° from the blank end-cap baffle on the opposite end. Water travels from the inlet to the back cap and returns to the area just below the entry cap, looping back toward the blank end cap, where it loops back into the tubes and out the outlet. If the baffles are parallel, half of the exchange has no water flowing through it. Also, increasing the water flow to more than one-quarter of the oil flow will chill the copper tubes causing the oil in contact with the tubes to thicken, reducing the heat exchange. Thick oil can be a great insulator. The cold water entering the cooler should be warm on exiting the cooler, showing it is absorbing heat from the oil. Excess water flow can actually decrease the heat exchange. One other note: on single-pass coolers, the hot oil should enter where the warm water exits, giving even heat exchange throughout the unit. To view previous problems, visit www.fluidpowerjournal.com/ WWW.IFPS.ORG figure-it-out. • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

JULY 2021

5


TEST YOUR SKILLS

T

APPLICATION OF PROPORTIONAL VALVES

here are many applications for proportional solenoids in the control of hydraulic pressure and flow in both mobile and industrial applications. This article focuses on industrial, electrohydraulic proportional directional control valves (hereafter referred to as a proportional valve or simply valve). The terms pressure differential and pressure drop indicate the same entity – a difference in pressure – and are often used interchangeably. In this discussion on proportional valves, the term pressure differential will be used. Proportional valves are typically catalog rated for a nominal flow at a 5 bar (72.5 psi) pressure differential per flow path for a total 10 bar (145 psid), and a total loop differential across the valve equal to system pressure minus load and return line pressure or ΔpV. = pS - pL - pT . In reality, however, very few systems have such an exact pressure differential. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the size of valve, based on the requirements of the system that it will be controlling. To maximize the performance characteristics of a proportional valve, a more thorough examination must be conducted of not only the required actuator flow but also of the available pressure to drive flow through the valve. In most applications using industrial-type proportional valves, flow is simultaneously metered in and out of the actuator (much like a pair of interconnected flow controls with sharp-edged orifices) in some proportion to the magnitude of the electric input signal to provide precise control. And for a sharp-edged orifice of a given size, a mathematical relationship exists between the flow rate through and the pressure differential across the orifice such that: Flow is proportional to the square root of the pressure differential and is expressed as:

Meaning that if the pressure differential is increased by a factor of 4, the flow will double. For example, with a given size valve: If QRATED = 10 lpm at ΔpRATED = 10 bar, what is QACTUAL if ΔpACTUAL = 40 bar?

QACTUAL =

ΔpACTUAL ΔpRATED

• Qrated =

40 •10 = 20 lpm 10

Where: ΔpACTUAL is the actual (or required) pressure differential across the valve ΔpRATED is the catalog rated pressure differential across the valve QACTUAL is the actual (or required) flow passing through the valve QRATED is the catalog rated flow through the valve at a given pressure differential Conversely, pressure differential is proportional to the square of the flow and is expressed as: Δp::Q2 Meaning that if the flow is reduced by half, the pressure differential is reduced to 1/4. For example, with a given size valve: If ΔpACTUAL = 40 bar and QACTUAL = 20 lpm, what must ΔpRATED be if QRATED = 10 lpm?

Initially, increasing the pressure differential will increase the power available to the actuator and the higher flow will outweigh the power lost by the increased differential across the valve. Beyond a certain point, however, the power lost due to the increasing pressure differential becomes larger than the power gained by higher flow to the actuator, as shown in figure 1.

Figure 1: Pressure Drop Across Valve (ΔPV) Experience has shown that this point occurs at approximately 1/3 of the maximum available system pressure and can be calculated as:

Δpv =

Where: ΔpV = Total valve pressure differential pS = Available system pressure. For example, if applying this to a system with a maximum system pressure of 150 bar (2,175 psi), if the sum of the pressures acting on the load (including acceleration, friction, and pressure losses across other connected components and plumbing) and return line back pressures add up to 100 bar (1,450 psi), 50 bar (725 psi) remains and is the differential that will drive flow across the valve. Assume that the system has a 200 lpm (53 gpm) flow requirement. The graph in figure 2 is for a valve that at 100% command passes 200 lpm (53 gpm) at a 10 bar (145 psi) differential (flow curve 1). On the surface, this seems like a reasonable, energy-efficient choice because the valve can pass the required flow at a low-pressure differential. The reality is, however, the system has up to 50 bar (725 psi) available to drive flow and at 95% command, this valve can pass over 500 lpm (132 gpm) (flow curve 4), far in excess of the 200 lpm (53 gpm) required. To limit the flow this proportional valve can pass at a 50 bar (725 psi) differential, the spool command would have to be set to about 63% of its full stroke – effectively a 37% reduction in its available control range. The graph in figure 3 is for a valve that at 100% command produces approximately 100 lpm (26 gpm) at a 10 bar (145 psi) differential (flow curve 1) which compared to the 220 lpm (58 gpm) valve is, on the surface, too small. What if the valve was sized to take advantage of the full spool stroke at the available pressure differential of 50 bar (725 psi) to pass the required flow of 200 lpm (53 gpm)? Plugging in the known quantities into the equation for QACTUAL:

2

ΔpRATED 6

2 ⎛Q ⎞ ⎛ 10 ⎞ RATED ⎟ • Δp = ⎜⎜ = ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ 40 = 10 bar ACTUAL ⎟ ⎝ 20 ⎠ ⎝ QACTUAL ⎠

JULY 2021

1 •p 3 s

QACTUAL =

ΔpACTUAL ΔpRATED

• Qrated =

50 •100 = 223 lpm 10

WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


Figure 2: Nominal Flow With a 10 Bar Differential (Flow Curve 1)

Figure 3: 100 lpm at a 10 Bar Differential (Flow Curve 1) At 50 bar (725 psi) pressure differential, and a 95% commanded spool stroke, this valve passes about 200 lpm (53 gpm) (flow curve 4), equal to the system's 200 lpm (53 gpm) requirement while providing some additional flow capacity. The purpose of using electrohydraulic proportional valves is to provide control; that is, the metering of flow across the full spool stroke offers the best resolution and performance. It is well understood that a flow moving from a higher to a lower pressure zone without doing useful work is energy lost in the form of heat and the pressure losses incurred using a properly sized proportional valve is no exception. Simply increasing the size of the valve will not provide for a more energy-efficient system because the valve must still be throttled to the equivalent cross-sectional area to regulate flow, resulting in the same magnitude of pressure loss and heat generation. One way to make the system more energy efficient is to dramatically reduce the maximum supply pressure and substantially oversize the valve to pass the required flow at the lower available differential. However, larger proportional valves have bigger spools with more mass and are not as quick to respond to an input signal change as a smaller valve flowing at a higher pressure differential. Using the higher available pressure differential to drive the required flow through a smaller valve (while respecting the power limits mentioned earlier) certainly is less energy efficient, sometimes significantly so, but it is the price to be paid for greater control. Proper sizing of industrial-type electrohydraulic proportional valves can be a rather involved, multistep process but is critical in performance-dependent systems. The IFPS Electronic Controls Specialist Certification and Study Manual covers these topics in significant detail and is highly recommended for advanced coverage of this subject. 

TEST YOUR SKILLS

1

When the inlet pressure to a proportional valve is doubled with no change to the outlet pressure, the resultant flow will be: a. reduced by 50%. b. the same. c. doubled. d. increased by 141%. e. increased by 400%. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

2

Increasing the Δp through a valve beyond 1/3 of the available system pressure: a. increases the power available to the actuator. b. decreases the power available to the actuator. c. causes the actuator to reverse. d. has no effect on the system. e. reduces the heat load in the system.

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See page 31 for the solutions. JULY 2021

7


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JULY 2021

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JULY 2021

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10

JULY 2021

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As a third-generation, family-owned business, it is our priority at Lexair Inc., to treat our customers like family. We have delivered the highest quality of service and industrial products to our customers over the past 44 years, and we aspire to provide those same, if not better, qualities for years to come. Lexair Inc. was founded in 1977 as a manufacturer of high-pressure compressors and stainless-steel valves for the United States Navy. Through the years of dedication, expertise, and support from our customers, we have evolved into a World Class Manufacturer of Fluid Power Products, Compressors, and Machine Tool Accessories. All of our fluid power products are made in the U.S.A. Offering a wide range of media compatibility, our valves are designed, manufactured, assembled, and tested at our headquarters in Lexington, KY, providing our customers with confidence in the reliability of the products we offer. We continue to expand our unique lines of fluid power products by designing and manufacturing new or modified items to meet the special requirements of our customers. We look forward to providing you and your business with exceptional products and services. Phone: 1-859-255-5001 | Fax: 1-859-255-6656 | Email: valvesales@lexairinc.com | Web: www.lexairinc.com

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JULY 2021

11


S Y A ALW L U F H T I FSERA VO VALVES COVER STORY

er; s Sales Manag l, Naval System ; and er ag By Matt McCal an M s le Sa issile Systems Systems Tony Clarke, M fense Control De , er itz llw p Brandon Go De d fense Grou Moog Space an , er ag an M g Engineerin U.S. Navy photo by PH1 David C. Maclean

IN HARM’S WAY

T

he nozzle/flapper servo valve was invented and developed by Bill Moog shortly after World War II and was quickly incorporated into military applications. In the decades since then, the performance, reliability, and cost of these motion-control components have made them stand the test of time and endure an onslaught of new technologies. While many new servo actuation systems use electromechanical (EM) and electrohydrostatic (EHA) technology, electrohydraulic (EH) servo controls remain prevalent because pre-existing component designs and mature supply chains result in costs and development times that electrified systems often can’t match. EH servo systems are highly modular and have development costs that can be a fraction of equivalent EM or EHA solutions in certain applications. Commercial EH hardware that is designed and suited for aerospace and defense applications, such as pumps, accumulators, cylinders, and plumbing, are readily available in various sizes and performance ranges. These elements are easily pieced together with lightly customized components, such as manifolds and valves, to create a system that balances cost and performance. A practical EH servo system can be compiled from these components to meet the needs of a unique application in as quickly 12

JULY 2021

as a few days. While other technologies are still being designed, an EH system may already be available for delivery. EH servo systems often offer performance comparable to EM or EHA counterparts while shedding many of their cost and lead-time downsides, offering project management benefits critical in today’s fast-paced, cost-sensitive environment. The Moog servo valve is at the heart of these systems and is one of the most easily modified components to yield significant performance improvements. While an EH solution is not always the best approach for an application, overlooking this proven technology without consideration is ill advised.

Every theater of military operation continues to use and develop EH servo valve systems. Servo valves can be found in difficult air, sea, and land applications ranging from missile and torpedo steering to motion control of vehicle-mounted weapons.

Missile control systems Bill Moog’s innovative servo valve remains a relevant technology in missile applications today. The first application of Moog’s invention was the Bumblebee Missile Program, which resulted in the U.S. Navy’s 3-T missiles – Talos, Terrier, and Tartar. They are today’s Standard

Moog’s 30 Series servo valve. WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


Naval applications For the U.S. Navy, servo valves are key to both survivability and lethality. Servo valves have been entrusted with catching planes on the decks of aircraft carriers for more than half a century and managing turbine controls on nuclear-powered ships and submarines. However, they’ve also been critically employed on one of the most lethal maritime weapons in history, the Mark 48 heavyweight torpedo. At 19 feet (6 meters) long and 21 inches (53 cm) in diameter, the Mark 48 carries a 1,000-pound (453-kg) high-explosive warhead. It weighs between 3,400 and 3,700 pounds (1,542 and 1,678 kg) and travels at speeds greater than 32 mph. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

It’s capable of destroying a large enemy combatant by detonating underneath and severing the keel of an enemy ship or rupturing the pressure hull of an enemy submarine. With stealthy acoustic improvements, upgraded sensor platforms, and advanced guidance and control systems, the Mark 48 is arguably the most feared and regarded antiship and antisubmarine weapon in existence. The Mark 48 was developed in the 1950s and '60s for effectiveness against the Soviet Union’s rapidly advancing submarine technology. Officially operational in 1972, the Mark 48 became the principle weapon of U.S. Navy submarines. The Mark 48 is also employed by NATO allies such as Canada, Australia, and the Netherlands.

steering control gave the highest performance and greatest power density, and servo valves ensured weapon accuracy. With the compact, lightweight design of the Moog 30 Series valve, additional fuel storage extended the torpedo’s range beyond five miles. Multiple iterations of the steering fin control system were designed and tested for optimization, and thanks to the modularity of the servo valve design, various performance characteristics were quickly and cheaply tuned through various valve modifications. Null cut changes on the bushing and spool assembly allowed the control system to reduce unwanted movements within the torpedo’s flight path. Adjusting flow gains on the servo valves helped optimize steering response, improving accuracy, and ensuring an “on-target” hit. Improving pressure compensation capabilities

Consistently and accurately steering the Mark 48 under the ice of the Arctic and through the open oceans proved challenging. Temperature, salinity, current, and thermocline variations are unique environmental challenges not found in many actuation applications. With fluid power, the torpedo actuates linear cylinders that use crank arms to rotate each of the four control surfaces, or fins. These fins give full steering and depth control to the torpedo, allowing it to track its target and circle back should it miss its initial mark. The original servo valve that controls those linear steering actuators has remained largely unchanged, a testament to its enduring design and performance. Power density was a critical requirement in the design phase of the Mark 48, as each ounce shed in the design allowed the torpedo to carry more fuel for greater stand-off ranges. Hydraulic

of the servo valve helped the Mark 48 reach greater depths than any previous torpedo and ensured that it reached even the most advanced subs at their depth limits. While submarines and surface combatants have undergone revolutionary design changes over the past half-century, the servo valve has remained largely unchanged across all platforms.

U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Travis Simmons

Missile family. In the 1950s, the newly developed servo valve unlocked the ability to accurately position a control surface under high loads with fast dynamic response, all inside the small tail section of a fast-moving missile. As control actuation needs evolved and missiles continuously grew smaller, pneumatic actuation became widely used. This is largely because the actuation media – gas – can be dramatically compressed into high-pressure reservoirs, reducing the size and weight of the power source for the actuation system. Pneumatics are wellsuited for single-use actuation or short-duration proportional control. The drive for longer flight times, among other requirements, pushed missile steering control toward EM actuation systems. As electrical power storage capabilities improved, EM actuation systems became a viable missile steering control methodology. In recent years, the maturation of additive manufacturing capabilities has affected the trade between hydraulic, pneumatic, and electric control actuation solutions. Additively manufactured components naturally align with hydraulic systems, as flow paths for the fluids can be dramatically optimized when compared to traditional subtractively machined designs. This manufacturing capability allows hydraulic solutions, along with their servo valve “brains,” to be integrated into almost any envelope or configuration, as the additive manufacturing design can effectively use whatever space is available inside a volume-constrained missile. With heritage applications and new opportunities unlocked by complementary technology, servo valves remain relevant to the missile-steering market today. Moog is actively manufacturing and delivering servo valves to provide proportional steering control to missile control surfaces on various platforms around the world. Servo valves represent a mature and well-understood solution in the control-systems world and remain a viable method to solve many control-actuation needs.

Ground vehicles On military ground vehicles, servo valves provide precision motion control of stabilized turreted weapon systems and critical positioning of missile launch platforms. Moog technology is used extensively to control elevation and traverse motion in both applications. Stabilized motion control is an essential (Continued on page 14) JULY 2021

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(Continued from page 13)

Photo by Spc. Hubert D. Delany III, courtesy U.S. Army

capability in modern military fighting vehicles. Servo valves keep turreted weapons on target while the vehicle is traversing rough terrain and reacting to the recoil caused by firing the cannon. Hydraulic drives are the solution of choice for large-caliber platforms like main battle tanks and mobile artillery, and Moog servo valves are at the heart of those systems. These turrets, often wielding barrels with bore diameters ranging from 120 to 155 mm (5 to 6 inches), require the power density and high bandwidth of Moog servo valves to achieve performance under often high unbalanced loads. Missile-launching platforms differ from turreted weapons in that they typically execute their mission from a stationary position. As a result, missile launchers rarely require stabilized motion control. The job for these servo valves is to move a launcher payload weighing several tons from rest at one position to rest at the farthest extreme in a matter of a few seconds. This application requires high rates of acceleration and hydraulic braking, which are profiled carefully to meet the mission objective without overturning the platform or damaging sensitive equipment. Ground-based warfighters benefit from mature and robust modular servo valve

technology for new system development and performance upgrades to fielded systems. New applications can leverage existing servo valve designs to reduce design costs and shorten development time. This approach supplies critical tools to the field and saves money. Additionally, legacy platforms can recover performance that has been eroded by supplemental payloads. Over time, systems are saddled with new mission equipment to help maintain readiness.

However, those new capabilities come at a cost to the performance of the hydraulic drive systems because they have to overcome the increased weight and inertia of the system. In these cases, servo valves employed in conjunction with increased system pressure restore and even increase performance beyond the original design points. These cost-effective modernization efforts allow technology insertion to the current force and extend the service life of the platforms. 

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WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


I F P S U P D AT E

CELEBRATING 60 YEARS

2021 Spring Meeting Recap

»

THE IFPS SPRING Meeting was held virtually and in person in San Antonio, Texas. It was great to see everyone in person! IFPS thanks all the companies who support our volunteer board members.

Projects on the Horizon   Our committees have been hard at work, and the following projects are in development, with a few near completion: • Upgraded Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic Certification – just released. • Mentorship Program • Fluid Power Symbols Library • Fluid Power Symbols Guide (Just released, see page 18) • Beginners Guide to Fluid Power • Fluid Power Associate Certification The IFPS Annual Meeting takes place Oct. 3-7 in Reno, Nevada.

Animated Hydraulic Circuits Available

»

THE IFPS COLOR-CODED, animated mp4 and wmv files of each circuit operation use ANSI-recognized color designations. Each circuit shows the sequence of operations within a hydraulic circuit as well as the flow paths during operation. Key bullet points for each circuit assist understanding of the components’ function and interaction within the circuit.

Available circuits (* indicates recently added) • Accumulator Circuit • Accumulator Circuit Operation • Boom and Bucket* • Boom Raising Circuit* • Brake Valve Circuit • Brake Valve Circuit with Check Valve • Circuit for the Two Cylinders Application • Closed Center Steering • Closed Center Steering

WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

• Closed Circuit Hydrostatic Transmission* • Counterbalance Valve in a Press Circuit • Cylinder – Motor Circuit • Cylinder – Motor Circuit 1 • Float Centre Spool used with Pilot Operated Check Valves • Full-Time Regenerative Circuit • Full-Time Regenerative Circuit B Port Blocked • High Low Circuit • High-Low Circuit • Intensifier System with an AirOil Return Tank • Load Reaction Center Steering • Load Reaction Centre Steering • Load Sense Schematic • Open Center Steering • Open Centre Steering • Operational Description for Test Bench Used for Testing Open and Closed-Circuit Pumps* • Over-Center Valve in a Press Circuit • Part-Time Regenerative Circuit with Bleed • Part-Time Regenerative Circuit with Bleed-Off • Part-Time Regenerative Circuit with Counterbalance

• Part-Time Regenerative Circuit with Counterbalance Valve • Pilot Operated Check Valve Application • Pilot Operated Directional Control Valve Circuit • Pressure Gauge Locations* • Pressure Reducing Valve • Pump Test* • Regenerative Circuit with Regen Position in the DCV • Regenerative Circuit with Regen Position in the DCV • Sequence Valve Circuit • Sequence Valve Circuit • Setting a Pressure Reducer* • Synchronous Circuit with a Displacement-type Flow Divider • Synchronous Circuit with Cylinders Connected in Series • Tandem Center Circuit Equipped with a Relief Valve • Unloading Relief Valve Visit ifps.org to purchase and download the circuit library for $149.

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I F P S U P D AT E

Keeping the Lights on During the Pandemic

»

DURING THE PANDEMIC, Altec customers still had to keep the lights on. From utilities to telecommunications to tree care to lights and signs, all industries had to keep working as they responded to fires in California, hurricanes in the Gulf, and other necessary service calls. They continued to depend on Altec for products with hydraulic functions and related services. As a result, Altec associates met COVID challenges to support their customers’ essential work successfully. Altec and the International Fluid Power Society worked together to create innovative ways to continue strengthening and advancing professional careers in the fluid power workforce during the pandemic. “IFPS needed to be creative in its approach to how to conduct certification testing, with so many facilities closed to the public,” said Donna Pollander, ACA, IFPS executive director. “I believe with today’s technology, IFPS overcame the many obstacles COVID brought to so many industries, in ways we never imagined.” To safely train service technicians who work on Altec equipment, the Altec Service Group adjusted its learning environments. With new safety protocols, the Altec Service Group facilitated several IFPS mobile hydraulic mechanic and job performance tests in addition to an IFPS Accredited Instructor and Job Performance workshop. Tim Petrishen, CFPAI and training supervisor with Altec, said, “A week-long review and testing session is not an easy feat in itself without a global pandemic. Planning for social 16

JULY 2021

distancing and preventing virus spread called for military-like plans. Class sizes were reduced, gloves and cleaning supplies were provided for practice and test stations, and thorough cleaning processes were implemented.” All in-person IFPS mobile hydraulic mechanic review sessions and certification testing sessions implemented CDC and Altec COVID-safety guidelines along with classroom modifications made for Altec’s IFPS accredited instructors so they could continue to teach and proctor certification tests. Several job performance and written test sessions were held each month for Altec’s customers and internal technicians. Altec administered over 200 certification tests at 20 different locations across the U.S. from March 2020 through March 2021, all accomplished safely and without any resulting COVID cases. Travel restrictions also called for new approaches for attending the IFPS Accredited Instructor and Job Performance workshop. Six

CELEBRATING 60 YEARS

Altec Service Group trainers were the first to participate in a virtual pilot program for the Accredited Instructor workshop held in December 2020. Each trainer gave instructional sessions individually using professional equipment in a multicamera virtual livestreaming setup. The participants were able to conduct their IFPS-required presentation in a relatively traditional classroom setting with peers and a remote IFPS subject-matter expert panel to observe and evaluate. At the end of the presentations, the trainers responded directly to questions from their peers in the room and the virtual panelists. “Key personnel at Altec did a superb job of using technology to facilitate the logistics necessary to conduct the workshop, and it truly was highly effective and maintained the high quality expected from such a workshop,” said Tom Blansett, CFPAI, IFPS technical director. “This would not have been such a success without Altec’s commitment and support.”

Altec is a leading equipment and service provider for the electric utility, telecommunications, contractor, lights and signs, and tree care markets. The company provides products and services in more than 100 countries throughout the world. The Altec Service Group has service centers, mobile service vehicles, and technicians located throughout the United States and Canada.

WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


I F P S U P D AT E

April 2021

Newly Certified Professionals

Geared-Up-Grad Sweepstakes Winner

MASTER MECHANIC holds IHM, MHM, and PM certifications Kenneth Cryer, The Boeing Company Steven Downey, Hydraulic Parts Source

»

CONRAD ADAMS FROM Purdue University was the winner of the IFPS Geared-Up-Grad Sweepstakes. Conrad majors in mechanical engineering and has participated in some great engineering projects. He also has five years of summer internship experience, and he is open to relocating to the Midwest, South, and East regions of the country. Congratulations, Conrad!

HYDRAULIC SPECIALIST Dylon Ackerman, Bedford Industries Owen Bowles, Flodraulic Jaskaran Gill, Wainbee Ltd. Hiram Knapp, Spudnik Equipment LLC Andrew Slaght, Tigercat Arjun Sood, The Fluid Power House Inc. PNEUMATIC SPECIALIST Abdulhakime Abdurhaman Benjamin Bersie Austin Freiermuth, Force America Eric Prince Joseph Provo Matt Savage SPECIALIST holds HS and PS certifications Abdulhakime Abdurhaman Benjamin Bersie Austin Freiermuth, Force America Eric Prince Joseph Provo MOBILE HYDRAULIC MECHANIC John Bray Glen Cluff, Altec Industries Inc. Antonio Flores, Altec Industries Inc. David Rowe, Altec Industries Inc. Austin Swihart, Altec Industries Inc. Brennan Vaughan, Altec Industries Inc. Evan Cesmat PNEUMATIC MECHANIC Kenneth Cryer, The Boeing Company Steven Downey, Hydraulic Parts Source John Osko, The Boeing Company Christopher Scime Michael Sherman Paul Younglove, The Boeing Company INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC MECHANIC Andrew Guajardo, Perfection Servo Hydraulics Marty Jones Mason Will CONNECTOR & CONDUCTOR Amy Dowdy, Controlled Fluids Inc. Jose Hernandez, Controlled Fluids Inc. Bradley Little, Controlled Fluids Inc. Tarayan Short, Controlled Fluids Inc. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

LEAD TIMES OF HOURS, NOT WEEKS. HYDRAULIC PUMPS. MOTORS. VALVES. SERVO VALVES. PROPORTIONAL VALVES. When you need to get a machine back up and going yesterday, we’re here for you with our Hydraulex Reman™ line. Remanufactured pumps, motors and valves engineered to deliver OEM level performance and that carry an industry-best 24-month warranty. With our unmatched on-the-shelf inventory of units and parts, and our ability to convert or build units in hours instead of days or weeks, we’re sure to have the unit or part you need right now. Speed and availability redefined. Put a Hydraulex Reman™ unit to work for you.

1.800.422.4279 sales@hydraulex.com www.hydraulex.com

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I F P S U P D AT E

Fluid Power Symbology Guide

CELEBRATING 60 YEARS

MEMBER PRICE: $12.85 • NON-MEMBER: $16.00 This 30-page guide presents fluid power symbols commonly used within ISO 1219-1 and 2 standards and illustrates the component function applied within fluid power systems. This Symbology Guide is permitted to be used during an IFPS certification test. Note: ISO 1219 also specifies the drawing size and orientation of drawn components, which is not covered in this booklet; refer to ISO 1219 for further detailed information. HYDRAULIC SYMBOLS • Basic Symbols • Pumps and Motors • Pressure Controls • Logic Valves • Accumulators • Cylinders • Directional Control Valves • Common Directional Control Valves • Fluid Conditioning • Sensors • Flow Controls

• Flow Dividers • Accessory and Misc. Components ELECTRICAL SYMBOLS • Basic Electrical Symbols • Electrical Relay Diagram Symbols • Logic Gate Symbols PNEUMATIC SYMBOLS • Basic Symbols • Air Compressor, Air Motors and Vacuum

IMPORTANT ANNOUCEMENT Make Sure You Have the Most Up-To-Date Hydraulic Specialist  Study Manual

• • • • • • • • •

Components Pressure Controls Logic Elements Cylinders Directional Control Valves Common Directional Control Valves Fluid Conditioning Flow Controls Sensors Accessory and Misc. Components

Your Hydraulic Specialist Study Manual should be dated 4/5/2021.  If your study manual has any other date, you can still use it. However, the updated study manual is streamlined and enhanced for easier comprehension.  • We’ve reworded complex topics for easier comprehension, added additional examples, and enhanced graphics to support the material. • We’ve streamlined the equation formulas and subsequent text describing how to compute complex formulas for ease of calculation. • We’ve also added bar to the equations whenever pressure units are used to reflect the relevance to the fluid power industry. Visit ifps.org to download the most up-to-date version of the manual.

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WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


I F P S U P D AT E

AVAILABLE IFPS CERTIFICATIONS CFPAI Certified Fluid Power Accredited Instructor CFPAJPP Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor CFPAJPPCC Certified Fluid Power Authorized Job Performance Proctor Connector & Conductor CFPE Certified Fluid Power Engineer CFPS Certified Fluid Power Specialist (Must Obtain CFPHS & CFPPS) CFPHS Certified Fluid Power Hydraulic Specialist CFPPS Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Specialist CFPECS Certified Fluid Power Electronic Controls Specialist CFPMT Certified Fluid Power Master Technician (Must Obtain CFPIHT, CFPMHT, & CFPPT) CFPIHT Certified Fluid Power Industrial Hydraulic Technician CFPMHT Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Technician CFPPT Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Technician CFPMM Certified Fluid Power Master Mechanic (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPMHM, & CFPPM) CFPIHM Certified Fluid Power Industrial Hydraulic Mechanic CFPMHM Certified Fluid Power Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic CFPPM Certified Fluid Power Pneumatic Mechanic CFPMIH Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPIHM, CFPIHT, & CFPCC) CFPMMH Certified Fluid Power Master of Mobile Hydraulics (Must Obtain CFPMHM, CFPMHT, & CFPCC) CFPMIP Certified Fluid Power Master of Industrial Pneumatics (Must Obtain CFPPM, CFPPT, & CFPCC) CFPCC Certified Fluid Power Connector & Conductor CFPSD Fluid Power System Designer CFPMEC (In Development) Mobile Electronic Controls CFPIEC (In Development) Industrial Electronic Controls

WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

Tentative Certification Review Training IFPS offers onsite review training for small groups of at least 10 persons. An IFPS accredited instructor visits your company to conduct the review. Contact kpollander@ifps.org for details of the scheduled onsite reviews listed below. HYDRAULIC SPECIALIST CERTIFICATION REVIEW September 13-16, 2021 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio | Written test: September 16, 2021 September 27-30, 2021 - MSOE, Milwaukee, WI | Written test: September 30, 2021 ELECTRONIC CONTROLS CERTIFICATION REVIEW August 9-12, 2021 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio | Written test: August 12, 2021 CONNECTOR & CONDUCTOR CERTIFICATION REVIEW November 16-17, 2021 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio | Written and JP test: November 18, 2021 MOBILE HYDRAULIC MECHANIC CERTIFICATION REVIEW Online Mobile Hydraulic Mechanic Certification Review (for written test) offered through info@cfcindustrialtraining.com. This course takes you through all chapters of the MHM Study Manual (6.5 hours) and every outcome to prepare you for the written MHM test. Members receive 20% off. (Test fees are additional - separate registration required.) August 30 - September 1, 2021 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio | Written and JP test: September 2, 2021   INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC MECHANIC CERTIFICATION Call for dates. Phone: 513-874-3225 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio   INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULIC TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION REVIEW TRAINING Call for dates. Phone: 513-874-3225 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio   MOBILE HYDRAULIC TECHNICIAN CERTIFICATION REVIEW TRAINING Call for dates. Phone: 513-874-3225 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio   PNEUMATIC TECHNICIAN and PNEUMATIC MECHANIC CERTIFICATION REVIEW TRAINING Call for dates. Phone: 513-874-3225 - CFC Industrial Training, Fairfield, Ohio   JOB PERFORMANCE TRAINING Online Job Performance Review - CFC Industrial Training offers online JP Reviews, which includes stations 1-6 of the IFPS mechanic and technician job performance tests. Members may e-mail askus@ifps.org for a 20% coupon code off the list price or get the code in our Members Only area for the entire IFPS Job Performance Review; test not included. LIVE DISTANCE LEARNING JOB PERFORMANCE STATION REVIEW E-mail info@cfcindustrialtraining.com for information.

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I F P S U P D AT E

Certification Testing Locations Individuals wishing to take any IFPS written certification tests can select from convenient locations across the United States and Canada. IFPS is able to offer these locations through its affiliation with the Consortium of College Testing Centers provided by National College Testing Association. Contact headquarters if you do not see a location near you. Every effort will be made to accommodate your needs. If your test was postponed due to the pandemic, please contact headquarters so that we may reschedule.

TENTATIVE TESTING DATES FOR ALL LOCATIONS: August 2021 Tuesday 8/3 • Thursday 8/26 September 2021 Tuesday 9/14 • Thursday 9/30 October 2021 Tuesday 10/5 • Thursday 10/28 November 2021 Tuesday 11/2 • Thursday 11/18

ALABAMA Auburn, AL Birmingham, AL Calera, AL Decatur, AL Huntsville, AL Jacksonville, AL Mobile, AL Montgomery, AL Normal, AL Tuscaloosa, AL ALASKA Anchorage, AK Fairbanks, AK ARIZONA Flagstaff, AZ Glendale, AZ Mesa, AZ Phoenix, AZ Prescott, AZ Scottsdale, AZ Sierra Vista, AZ Tempe, AZ Thatcher, AZ Tucson, AZ Yuma, AZ ARKANSAS Bentonville, AR Hot Springs, AR Little Rock, AR CALIFORNIA Aptos, CA Arcata, CA Bakersfield, CA Dixon, CA Encinitas, CA Fresno, CA Irvine, CA Marysville, CA Riverside, CA Salinas, CA San Diego, CA San Jose, CA San Luis Obispo, CA Santa Ana, CA Santa Maria, CA Santa Rosa, CA Tustin, CA Yucaipa, CA COLORADO Aurora, CO Boulder, CO Springs, CO Denver, CO Durango, CO Ft. Collins, CO Greeley, CO Lakewood, CO Littleton, CO Pueblo, CO DELAWARE Dover, DE Georgetown, DE Newark, DE FLORIDA Avon Park, FL Boca Raton, FL Cocoa, FL Davie, FL Daytona Beach, FL Fort Pierce, FL Ft. Myers, FL Gainesville, FL Jacksonville, FL Miami Gardens, FL Milton, FL New Port Richey, FL Ocala, FL Orlando, FL Panama City, FL Pembroke Pines, FL Pensacola, FL Plant City, FL Riviera Beach, FL Sanford, FL

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JULY 2021

Tallahassee, FL Tampa, FL West Palm Beach, FL Wildwood, FL Winter Haven, FL GEORGIA Albany, GA Athens, GA Atlanta, GA Carrollton, GA Columbus, GA Dahlonega, GA Dublin, GA Dunwoody, GA Forest Park, GA Lawrenceville, GA Morrow, GA Oakwood, GA Savannah, GA Statesboro, GA Tifton, GA Valdosta, GA HAWAII Laie, HI IDAHO Boise, ID Coeur d ‘Alene, ID Idaho Falls, ID Lewiston, ID Moscow, ID Nampa, ID Rexburg, ID Twin Falls, ID ILLINOIS Carbondale, IL Carterville, IL Champaign, IL Decatur, IL Edwardsville, IL Glen Ellyn, IL Joliet, IL Malta, IL Normal, IL Peoria, IL Schaumburg, IL Springfield, IL University Park, IL INDIANA Bloomington, IN Columbus, IN Evansville, IN Fort Wayne, IN Gary, IN Indianapolis, IN Kokomo, IN Lafayette, IN Lawrenceburg, IN Madison, IN Muncie, IN New Albany, IN Richmond, IN Sellersburg, IN South Bend, IN Terre Haute, IN IOWA Ames, IA Cedar Rapids, IA Iowa City, IA Ottumwa, IA Sioux City, IA Waterloo, IA KANSAS Kansas City, KS Lawrence, KS Manhattan, KS Wichita, KS KENTUCKY Ashland, KY Bowling Green, KY Erlanger, KY Highland Heights, KY Louisville, KY Morehead, KY

LOUISIANA Bossier City, LA Lafayette, LA Monroe, LA Natchitoches, LA New Orleans, LA Shreveport, LA Thibodaux, LA MARYLAND Arnold, MD Bel Air, MD College Park, MD Frederick, MD Hagerstown, MD La Plata, MD Westminster, MD Woodlawn, MD Wye Mills, MD MASSACHUSETTS Boston, MA Bridgewater, MA Danvers, MA Haverhill, MA Holyoke, MA Shrewsbury, MA MICHIGAN Ann Arbor, MI Big Rapids, MI Chesterfield, MI Dearborn, MI Dowagiac, MI East Lansing, MI Flint, MI Grand Rapids, MI Kalamazoo, MI Lansing, MI Livonia, MI Mount Pleasant, MI Sault Ste. Marie, M Troy, MI University Center, MI Warren, MI MINNESOTA Alexandria, MN Brooklyn Park, MN Duluth, MN Eden Prairie, MN Granite Falls, MN Mankato, MN MISSISSIPPI Goodman, MS Jackson, MS Mississippi State, MS Raymond, MS University, MS MISSOURI Berkley, MO Cape Girardeau, MO Columbia, MO Cottleville, MO Joplin, MO Kansas City, MO Kirksville, MO Park Hills, MO Poplar Bluff, MO Rolla, MO Sedalia, MO Springfield, MO St. Joseph, MO St. Louis, MO Warrensburg, MO MONTANA Bozeman, MT Missoula, MT NEBRASKA Lincoln, NE North Platte, NE Omaha, NE NEVADA Henderson, NV Las Vegas, NV North Las Vegas, NV Winnemucca, NV

CELEBRATING 60 YEARS

NEW JERSEY Branchburg, NJ Cherry Hill, NJ Lincroft, NJ Sewell, NJ Toms River, NJ West Windsor, NJ NEW MEXICO Albuquerque, NM Clovis, NM Farmington, NM Portales, NM Santa Fe, NM NEW YORK Alfred, NY Brooklyn, NY Buffalo, NY Garden City, NY New York, NY Rochester, NY Syracuse, NY NORTH CAROLINA Apex, NC Asheville, NC Boone, NC Charlotte, NC China Grove, NC Durham, NC Fayetteville, NC Greenville, NC Jamestown, NC Misenheimer, NC Mount Airy, NC Pembroke, NC Raleigh, NC Wilmington, NC NORTH DAKOTA Bismarck, ND OHIO Akron, OH Cincinnati, OH Cleveland, OH Columbus, OH Fairfield, OH Findlay, OH Kirtland, OH Lima, OH Maumee, OH Newark, OH North Royalton, OH Rio Grande, OH Toledo, OH Warren, OH Youngstown, OH OKLAHOMA Altus, OK Bethany, OK Edmond, OK Norman, OK Oklahoma City, OK Tonkawa, OK Tulsa, OK OREGON Bend, OR Coos Bay, OR Eugene, OR Gresham, OR Klamath Falls, OR Medford, OR Oregon City, OR Portland, OR White City, OR PENNSYLVANIA Bloomsburg, PA Blue Bell, PA Gettysburg, PA Harrisburg, PA Lancaster, PA Newtown, PA Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh, PA Wilkes-Barre, PA York, PA

SOUTH CAROLINA Beaufort, SC Charleston, SC Columbia, SC Conway, SC Graniteville, SC Greenville, SC Greenwood, SC Orangeburg, SC Rock Hill, SC Spartanburg, SC TENNESSEE Blountville, TN Clarksville, TN Collegedale, TN Gallatin, TN Johnson City, TN Knoxville, TN Memphis, TN Morristown, TN Murfreesboro, TN Nashville, TN TEXAS Abilene, TX Arlington, TX Austin, TX Beaumont, TX Brownsville, TX Commerce, TX Corpus Christi, TX Dallas, TX Denison, TX El Paso, TX Houston, TX Huntsville, TX Laredo, TX Lubbock, TX Lufkin, TX Mesquite, TX San Antonio, TX Victoria, TX Waxahachie, TX Weatherford, TX Wichita Falls, TX UTAH Cedar City, UT Kaysville, UT Logan, UT Ogden, UT Orem, UT Salt Lake City, UT VIRGINIA Daleville, VA Fredericksburg, VA Lynchburg, VA Manassas, VA Norfolk, VA Roanoke, VA Salem, VA Staunton, VA Suffolk, VA Virginia Beach, VA Wytheville, VA WASHINGTON Auburn, WA Bellingham, WA Bremerton, WA Ellensburg, WA Ephrata, WA Olympia, WA Pasco, WA Rockingham, WA Seattle, WA Shoreline, WA Spokane, WA WEST VIRGINIA Ona, WV WISCONSIN La Crosse, WI Milwaukee, WI Mukwonago, WI

WYOMING Casper, WY Laramie, WY Torrington, WY CANADA ALBERTA Calgary, AB Edmonton, AB Fort McMurray, AB Lethbridge, AB Lloydminster, AB Olds, AB Red Deer, AB BRITISH COLUMBIA Abbotsford, BC Burnaby, BC Castlegar, BC Delta, BC Kamloops, BC Nanaimo, BC Prince George, BC Richmond, BC Surrey, BC Vancouver, BC Victoria, BC MANITOBA Brandon, MB Winnipeg, MB NEW BRUNSWICK Bathurst, NB Moncton, NB NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR St. John’s, NL NOVA SCOTIA Halifax, NS ONTARIO Brockville, ON Hamilton, ON London, ON Milton, ON Mississauga, ON Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON North Bay, ON North York, ON Ottawa, ON Toronto, ON Welland, ON Windsor, ON QUEBEC Côte Saint-Luc, QB Montreal, QB SASKATCHEWAN Melfort, SK Moose Jaw, SK Nipawin, SK Prince Albert, SK Saskatoon, SK YUKON TERRITORY Whitehorse, YU UNITED KINGDOM Elgin, UK GHAZNI Kingdom of Bahrain, GHA Thomasville, GHA EGYPT Cairo, EG JORDAN Amman, JOR NEW ZEALAND Taradale, NZ

WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


DIGITIZED Vacuum Ejector

The piCOMPACT SMART vacuum ejector.

Bolsters Predictive Maintenance

By Andrea Bodenhagen, Communication and Content Manager, Piab

redictive maintenance is usually defined as monitoring the performance and condition of equipment during normal operations. With vacuum ejectors, being highly efficient, reliable, and small enough to integrate is no longer enough. Vacuum ejectors powering robotic gripping systems such as suction cups and foam grippers for pick-and-place applications are the interconnection between the gripping unit and the robot, and they can provide insights into both sides to ensure a smooth-running system. When digitizing its flagship product to a smart version, Piab focused on supporting the requirements of predictive maintenance. The result was the piCOMPACT23 SMART ejector,

which boasts technology to keep systems up and running at the maximum possible level while minimizing energy consumption. Connectivity allowing communication between devices and the cloud permits the collection of data that simplifies maintenance and enables real-time settings adjustments without resetting the entire system. However, in an industrial landscape built with a plethora of different fieldbus protocols and no standardization in sight, it is difficult for suppliers to know where to start. With various countries and industry segments all presenting different preferences, the challenge was to find solutions that suit as many as possible. Piab decided on connectivity of the piCOMPACT23 SMART ejector through an IO-Link. IO-Link bypasses this problem because it is not a fieldbus but a generic communication technology that fits any type of fieldbus. IO-Link

is the first worldwide standard (IEC 61131-9) for IO technology used for sensor and actuator communication. The powerful point-to-point communication is based on the long established three-wire-sensor-and-actuator connection and places no additional requirements on the cable material. Offering fieldbus independence, IO-Link is a further development of existing, tried-and-tested connection technology for sensors and actuators. It offers automated parameter setting and enables operators to read and write parameters for various features even during operation. Such a degree of process overview in real time means operators can deal with many potential issues before they have any real impact on production. The opportunity for system diagnosis allows operators to identify problems and correct them more easily and quickly. This has the potential to lead to greatly improved productivity. One of the key factors behind this diagnostic ability is that, contrary to conventional technology, IO-Link offers a data-storage function. This enables operators to quickly establish if a device or operation has failed and to identify the failure’s cause. If a new, identical substitution device is connected, the parameters of the previous device transfer automatically.

Sensor integration

Suction cups handle a metal part in an automotive press shop. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

In vacuum systems, big data analysis requires measurements of various characteristics. Sensors collect information for condition monitoring and predictive maintenance. They measure direct operation characteristics of the vacuum ejector for quick detection of potential operational issues such as system leakage. Users can set trigger points that indicate when maintenance is needed. (Continued on page 22) JULY 2021

21


(Continued from page 21) This allows preparation and the exchange of parts, avoiding unforeseen shutdowns. Piab equipped piCOMPACT23 SMART with diagnostic sensors that support predictive maintenance by measuring system temperature, voltage, acceleration, cycle counts, and self-check features. Changes in the measurements can indicate something broken in the robot cell or plant. A sensor shows the real operating temperature and provides fast information in case it moves out of range, which may indicate problems in the closer environment of the ejector. This feature was integrated as an easy-to-detect warning signal of issues with other system devices that cause temperatures to rise. A voltage sensor controls the power input and determines the operational status. It can warn of damages to the system due to low power. Keeping vacuum-based robotic gripping systems clean is an important parameter to predicting maintenance. In dusty applications, vacuum filters can contaminate over time, leading to unwanted vacuum-pressure drops that slow the process or even give false signals. A way to monitor this is to keep control of the vacuum system’s built-in pressure-drop level. If the level starts to drift from its initial status, it means the system is starting to clog. Another way to predict maintenance is to track the time to evacuate to a certain vacuum level. It can show if the system suffers from leakage and needs service.

Improved safety features Operational safety plays an important role in the running and maintenance of machines. This led to the development of separate power domains for actuators and sensors. The sensor power is also used as main power for the unit. The separation occurs with optocouplers. The sensor power activates separately by the operator for maintenance or troubleshooting in the robot cell while leaving actuators disconnected from power supply. Operators are not endangered by moving parts in case of, for example, a short circuit. The advantage of the separate power domains is that it allows the use of compact-style ejectors without separate valve stations. This reduces the cost of installation, and expensive workarounds or add-on modules to compact ejectors are usually not required. A second safety feature is a complementary bit that needs to be enabled to activate vacuum or blow, in addition to the ordinary vacuum or blow signal. It also avoids a “too-quick” vacuum on signal, which creates a risky situation if the rest of the program is not yet fully up and running or communicating. When the 22

JULY 2021

complementary bit is enabled, it needs to be the opposite of the vacuum signal to get vacuum on and off to function. Vane pumps are the most common type of mechanical vacuum pumps. They have individual rotors that spin at high velocities. The rotary motion traps air entering the intake port and sweeps it through, creating a vacuum behind the port. The piston pump, another mechanical pump type, uses a rocking motion to displace air from one side of the system to another. The regenerative or centrifugal blower is a type of mechanical pump that works much like a fan in reverse. Blowers typically produce large amounts of vacuum flow at low levels of vacuum pressure. A feature common to all mechanical vacuum pumps is that they need to be individually powered either by electric motors or internal combustion engines. In a compressed-air-driven vacuum pump, compressed air is forced through a small orifice or ejector nozzle at high speed, resulting in negative pressure building up inside the system. From the outside of the system, atmospheric pressure attempts to balance this negative pressure and reinstate equilibrium. This creates the vacuum flow or induced air flow. The way this works is known as Bernoulli’s principle, named after the 18th-century scientist Daniel Bernoulli, who discovered that an increase in the speed of flow occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure. This means that fast-moving air results in a lower pressure than slow-moving air. Bernoulli presented his findings in his 1738 book “Hydrodynamica.” His principle, which can be derived from the principle of the conservation of energy, is critical in aerodynamics.

Ejectors The simplest type of compressed-air-driven vacuum generator is known as a single-stage ejector. In this, as indeed in any air-propelled vacuum generator, the vacuum level produced depends on the diameter of the ejector nozzle. The air stream reaches its highest velocity at the narrowest part of the ejector nozzle, which is also where the deepest vacuum level is created. The compressed air that generates the low pressure and the vacuum flow that balances it mix and exit through an exhaust.

Vacuum-based robotic gripping systems in the automotive industry.

For a single-stage ejector, the ratio of air consumption to generated vacuum flow is never better than 1:1, but most commonly it is 2:1 or 3:1. In other words, for every 3 cfm of compressed air, only 1 cfm of vacuum flow is generated. This is quite inefficient. Combining several ejector nozzles and chambers in series achieves a more efficient multistage ejector pump. In this kind of pump, compressed air enters the pump and is led through a system of ejector nozzles and chambers of varying sizes that act as a “pressure amplifier.” Different vacuum pressures are created at each chamber opening due to different ejector nozzle diameters. There is also a common chamber where the vacuum pressure is greater because of the combination of vacuum pressures in all other chambers. Atmospheric pressure outside the system rushes inward attempting to create equilibrium, generating an efficient vacuum flow. The higher level of vacuum pressure in the common chamber causes rubber diaphragms or flap valves to close over the chamber openings. The only chamber not sealed is the first vacuum chamber, where the deepest vacuum levels are attained. The mix of compressed air used to generate the low pressure and the vacuum flow exits through the exhaust. This process is completed in milliseconds and repeats continually as the vacuum level rises and falls.

The single-stage and multistage ejector principles. WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


Multistage ejectors make optimum use of the energy stored in the compressed air through specially designed air nozzles and a series of progressively larger ejectors that allow the compressed airflow to expand in controlled stages. As a result, typical ratios for compressed air to vacuum flow are 1:3, that is, every 1 cfm of compressed air results in 3 cfm of vacuum flow. Multistage ejector vacuum pumps are therefore considerably more efficient than single-stage ejector pumps and offer many benefits over mechanical vacuum pumps, such as quiet and virtually maintenance-free operation, few moving parts, and no heat generation, vibration, or oil mist. Additionally, they are usually smaller and lighter in weight – an important characteristic for robot and particularly cobot integrated applications. When designing a system, multistage ejectors can simply be added in the same system to achieve higher power.

Saving energy Reducing energy consumption lowers operational costs and environmental impact. One of the focus areas of the piCOMPACT SMART project was to develop an ejector that constantly adapts to the environment and minimizes the energy required to safely operate the vacuum gripping device. Developers achieved this by bundling several features under an energy-saving header. The base energy-saving function in a piCOMPACT SMART ejector automatically shuts off the energy supply when vacuum is no longer needed in a sealed or semisealed system. The shut-off level and hysteresis (how much the vacuum level can drop before restart) is fully adjustable. The function can save up to 95% of compressed air usage in a lifting cycle. The energy-saving system (ES) combines with automatic level determination and automatically sets optimized ES shut-off and restart levels in every cycle based on actual conditions. Automatic condition monitoring (ACM) turns off the ES function in case of significant leakage in the system to protect the valves from switching on and off rapidly and to prolong valve lifetime. A leakage warning output signal is available when ACM is triggered. The leakage warning is an important aid for preventive maintenance and increased uptime. If semiporous material such as cardboard or surface-leaking materials such as a bag of crisps are handled, more leakage in the system may be necessary to suite the application. In this case the ACM recover cycle can be modified accordingly. Finally, adaptive pulse width modulation (A-PWM) reduces the power to the valves when they are in holding position and allows WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

for full power when switching the valves to achieve a response as quickly as possible. The adaptive part allows for fluctuating voltage without impacting functionality. A-PWM significantly reduces power consumption, generates a lower temperature, increases robustness of the installation, and thereby extends the life of the gripping unit. Digitizing vacuum generation for pick-and-place applications in the automotive industry, among others, helps realize the Industry 4.0 promises of more efficient equipment, systems, and processes. Making predictive maintenance feasible, the piCOMPACT23 SMART ensures high machine uptimes as it monitors enviFunctionality of automatic condition monitoring. ronmental conditions that influence the system’s performance. Taking growing trends toward collaboration With an eye on the automotive industry with its high degree of automation and handling between robots and humans into consideration, of large and heavy parts, the safety features Piab is now working on minimizing the system increase operator safety and, for the first time, size to fit ejectors that can integrate into speallow the deployment of compact-style ejec- cific vacuum cobot gripping solutions. Here the tors without additional expensive supporting IO-Link plays an important role, while sensors equipment or workarounds. can be included in the gripping unit directly. 

JULY 2021

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A L L A B O U T VAC U U M

Troubleshooting & Testing Vacuum Systems By Dane Spivak, Engineering Manager, Davasol Inc.

This article focuses on how to identify and fix issues within a vacuum system. The specific focus is on vacuum cup systems where cups are used to grip or lift a part. However, many of these concepts can be applied to different types of vacuum systems with air as the fluid medium.

»

IN A VACUUM gripping system that is not performing as it should, it may be natural to look at the vacuum cups as the problem. Vacuum cups naturally wear away and lose their ability to seal on a cup surface. Or in another scenario, when testing a new system and the cups do not grip the product, again the cups are usually blamed. Changing out vacuum cups for new ones or switching to a different model that is better suited for sealing against the product surface is certainly an easy approach to a solution. And if it works, things carry on as usual and the problem is soon forgotten. However, if this quick fix does not work, there can be confusion over the next step. So let’s look at potential issues within vacuum systems and what can be done to test and establish a long-term solution. The first thing to do is conduct a visual inspection of the vacuum system from the cups right back to the pump. Ensure that all fittings, tubing, and hose are connected securely. Airtight seals are very important in vacuum. Unlike compressed air, small leaks in vacuum can be significantly more detrimental to the system. See if anything could be potentially clogging or blocking the vacuum lines or components. This is much easier to do with clear hose and tubing, which should be used in vacuum systems if possible. Inspect the pump inlet filters to see if they are clean, and replace the element as needed. All these things could restrict vacuum flow or reduce the vacuum level, causing failure. If the visual inspection checks out, then the vacuum level and vacuum source should be investigated. First, measure the vacuum level at or near the cups and at the vacuum pump. In an ideal system a gauge in both locations is installed, as shown in figure 1. If the vacuum levels are significantly different, it gives an indication that something is creating a change within the system. If both gauges show similar high vacuum levels, it indicates something is going wrong near the cups or the fundamental design does not work. If both readings are similar, reading a low or zero vacuum level, it means the pump is not working correctly or there is too much leakage in the system to generate a higher vacuum level. 26

JULY 2021

Figure 1: The pump and suction-cup vacuum gauge locations.

Figure 2: Typical vacuum system components where problems may occur.

Regardless of the gauge readings, the maximum vacuum level of the vacuum source should be understood. This can be accomplished by deadheading the pump, which is done by blocking the vacuum inlet port of the pump after the vacuum gauge and checking its vacuum level. This provides test results of an ideal situation in which the vacuum system is perfectly sealed, and the point of measurement is right at the production source. The deadheaded vacuum level should match closely with the pump-manufacturer’s data sheet. If there is a significant difference, the pump may require inspection, maintenance, or replacement. Deadheading to measure the vacuum level should be done with any new system or vacuum source to confirm it operates as it should. Let's consider a situation in which both gauges read zero or low vacuum levels per the illustration in figure 1. After deadheading the pump and confirming it works as it should, we can rule out pump issues. That means the entire system is

experiencing a loss in vacuum. This usually means the loss is due to leakage, as the pump cannot remove air faster than the air bleeding back in to create a lower pressure (vacuum). In this case, it is easy to start at the pump and work down the line to the cups since we know the pump is performing as it should. Start by checking for any clear leaks, which can be done by using nondamaging smoke or water mist near any potential problem areas. Remember to have vacuum turned on! The deadhead test can also be pushed down the line, and see where vacuum drops off to identify the problem area. Perform the vacuum-level test in stages and push the vacuum cut off point one component at a time if necessary. Figure 2 shows sections of a vacuum system where problem areas can be identified. If testing shows that the vacuum level is maintained up to the cups, it means either there is too much leakage at the cup sealing face and therefore a larger pump is required, or that a different system design should be considered. WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


If we revisit figure 1 and the gauge at the pump has a high and adequate vacuum-level reading but the gauge near the cups is low or zero, it tells a different story. It means the pump is producing a vacuum level, but somewhere between the two gauges the flow is restricted or stopped and therefore not allowing comparable vacuum levels to be achieved down the line. For a new system it is imperative to size up each component within the vacuum system so that it can allow the pump to produce its maximum flow throughout. If everything is sized correctly, check for restrictions by looking for problem areas where debris collection could occur, such as sharp turns, smaller orifice areas, or mechanical moving components. The obvious component to check is the vacuum valves to make sure they are opening to their full extent and working well. Confirm with the manufacturer that the valves are indeed vacuum rated and offer vacuum-flow capacities to meet the performance of the pump. If a problem cannot be identified or fixed, it means there is a flow restriction or leakage somewhere that has not been identified, or there are too many natural losses within the system due to the turns, bends, and lengths of the hose and fittings. Starting with the deadhead test and working toward the cups is always helpful to best understand the next step. Lastly, in reference to figure 1 again, if the gauges at the pump and near the cups show adequate vacuum levels as required and anticipated, the problem lies at the cups themselves or with the vacuum design. Figure 3 shows a vacuum tool populated with numerous cups. In this example, the vacuum gauge in the tool shows 15 inches Hg, but the vacuum level inside the suction cup is only 3 inches Hg. That is due to the restriction of the flow from the tool to the cup. The cup is not creating a good enough seal on the surface, which causes air to leak into the cup. The leaked air into the cup is then being restricted from the cup orifice into the tool. To avoid a drop in vacuum level inside the cups, use a larger orifice to increase the flow to the cup. At this point it is also worth considering a different type of cup to offer a better seal on the product surface. Taking an actual measurement of vacuum within the cup can be difficult because there often is not a plausible way to connect a gauge. There is always a way to get a measurement regardless of how rudimentary, but it’s not always necessary if the issue can be identified based on observation. If there are multiple cups tied into one vacuum source, it is easier as you can sacrifice one cup in the application by connecting it to a gauge, after the restrictive orifice, of course. The highest gripping force of the cups can always be tested by covering them all with a flat smooth part such as a piece of steel plate. Doing this can always help put things into perspective. WWW.IFPS.ORG • WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM

This article provided suggestions on how to troubleshoot a vacuum system. The key takeaway is to start off with the right design, but also have gauges or other vacuum-level measurement devices to monitor performance. Being able to identify problematic areas can be a tremendous time saver. Although these are what would be described as universal rules, each application can create its own set of challenges. Seek assistance from an

Figure 3: A cross section of orifices within a vacuum tool.

experienced vacuum engineer to not only troubleshoot, but to provide a long-term solution. 

This article is the opinion of the author, Dane Spivak of Davasol Inc., an industrial brand management firm with many clients. One of Davasol’s clients, Vacuforce LLC, based in Indianapolis, partners with the author on this article. Contact Dane at dspivak@davasol.com.

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CAPACITY CROWD

MICROFILTRATION

CATCHES PARTICLES LARGE AND SMALL By Menno Krom, Managing Director, RMF Systems, a subsidiary of Des-Case; and Ivan N. Sheffield, Director of Filtration, Des-Case

IN

the hydraulic market, it is accepted that contamination causes 80% of all mechanical failures. The contamination can result from the presence of solid particles such as metal, sand, and rubber. It’s also true that 90% of that 80% would be eliminated by using proper filtration. Some filtration systems and elements are incapable of removing particles smaller than 2 μm, also called silt. Fluctuations in the supply and the resulting changing conditions mean that these filters cannot carry out fine filtration; most of the silt remains in the system and affects the chemical composition of the oil. Changes in temperature cause water vapor to condense, resulting in unwanted water in the oil, and the presence of this free water helps to accelerate the deterioration of the oil. All these problems lead to reduced oil usage life and increases in component wear, maintenance costs, and machine downtime. Removing silt and preventing the formation of free water can combat these problems. In the past, some filtration systems used pleated cellulose elements for their systems. These were normally βeta 2 at the given micron

size, meaning they were 50% efficient. Some engineers believe that all cellulose elements are in this category. There is a vast difference in pleated cellulose elements and RMF Systems radial cellulose elements. Radial filtration elements offer a big advantage.

Microfilter element At the heart of radial filtration systems is a unique microfilter element. This microfilter element works according to the radial throughflow principle, not axial flow (see illustration below). It has a filter fineness of 0.5 micron and is able to remove the smallest of contamination particles from the oil. The microfilter element has a βeta 4 micron ≥2000. The element material is composed primarily of cellulose, which is applied by a special wrapping method. The material is capable of retaining solid particles and absorbing water. This helps to prevent the chemical deterioration of the oil and the formation of various acids and sludge. Hydraulic cylinder extension, for example, can draw air including contamination particles and water vapor into the oil reservoir.

Fluid Path: Fluid Radial Path: Radial Flow vs. Flow Axial vs. Axial Flow Flow

FLUID PATH: RADIAL FLOW VS. AXIAL FLOW

RadialRadial Flow Flow

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Radial Flow

Axial Flow AxialAxial Flow Flow

The water vapor condenses due to temperature changes and causes oxidation of the oil, leading to serious mechanical wear in the system. There are other advantage to Des-Case’s RMF Systems radial microfiltration element. The tolerances between moving parts in servo and proportional valves are constantly reducing. The result is that even the smallest amounts of silt can cause damage to the system. Radial microfiltration elements remove this silt. Radial microfiltration elements applied in bypass or off-line configurations constantly clean oil from the reservoir. The oil that reaches the in-line filter is therefore cleaner and allows longer life for this expensive filter. The in-line filter then acts primarily as an emergency filter.

Fewer oil changes Increasingly strict environmental laws in the area of oil changes, oil storage, and disposal of used oil leads to corresponding cost increases. Radial microfiltration elements mean fewer oil changes and therefore less cost. Frequent oil changes are generally the result of chemical deterioration of the oil caused by the oil oxidation process, which is accelerated by the presence of water and heat. Radial microfiltration elements remove silt and water from the oil. RMF Systems radial microfiltration elements also offer a large particle collection capacity, a high filtration capacity due to depth effect, and a large water-absorption capacity. In addition, these elements do not adversely affect viscosity or additives, do not remove additives, reduce the oxidation process, and reduce the forming of acids.  WWW.FLUIDPOWERJOURNAL.COM • WWW.IFPS.ORG


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RAISING THE bar

a new column by Dan Helgerson, FPJ technical editor. A fluid power professional for more than forty years, Dan holds several certifications from the International Fluid Power Society. In Raising the bar, Dan addresses the fluid power community with an eye toward stirring conversation about the industry’s challenges in the 21st century.

Addressing assumptions … Encouraging innovation … Advocating efficiency … Raising the bar

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